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  1. Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF-EMF and childhood leukemia near transmission lines: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Kokate

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a systematic review of most cited studies from developed countries those shed light on the potential relation between childhood leukemia and extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF. All the findings of articles critically segregated as per some neglected parameters like number of samples, exposure duration, frequency range, distance from the radiation sources, and location during measurement of magnetic field density near power lines. Literature of major 50 studies are divided according to pooled analysis / meta-analysis, residential zone assessment and case-control studies.

  2. In vitro developmental neurotoxicity following chronic exposure to 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) in primary rat cortical cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Martje W G D M; van Kleef, Regina G D M; de Groot, Aart; Westerink, Remco H S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to 50-60 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) has increased considerably over the last decades. Several epidemiological studies suggested that ELF-EMF exposure is associated with adverse health effects, including neurotoxicity. However, these studies are debated as r

  3. Assessment of the neurotoxic potential of exposure to 50Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) in naïve and chemically stressed PC12 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Martje W G D M; Kock, Marjolijn D M; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-01-01

    Increasing exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF), generated by power lines and electric appliances, raises concern about potential adverse health effects of ELF-EMF. The central nervous system is expected to be particularly vulnerable to ELF-EMF as its function strongl

  4. Effects of whole body exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF on serum and liver lipid levels, in the rat

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    Elias-Viñas David

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgound The effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF on the blood serum and liver lipid concentrations of male Wistar rats were assessed. Methods Animals were exposed to a single stimulation (2 h of ELF-EMF (60 Hz, 2.4 mT or sham-stimulated and thereafter sacrificed at different times (24, 48 or 96 h after beginning the exposure. Results Blood lipids showed, at 48 h stimulated animals, a significant increase of cholesterol associated to high density lipoproteins (HDL-C than those observed at any other studied time. Free fatty acid serum presented at 24 h significant increases in comparison with control group. The other serum lipids, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol did not show differences between groups, at any time evaluated. No statistical differences were shown on total lipids of the liver but total cholesterol was elevated at 24 h with a significant decrease at 96 h (p = 0.026. The ELF-EMF stimulation increased the liver content of lipoperoxides at 24 h. Conclusion Single exposures to ELF-EMF increases the serum values of HDL-C, the liver content of lipoperoxides and decreases total cholesterol of the liver. The mechanisms for the effects of ELF-EMF on lipid metabolism are not well understand yet, but could be associated to the nitric oxide synthase EMF-stimulation.

  5. Assessment of the neurotoxic potential of exposure to 50Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) in naïve and chemically stressed PC12 cells.

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    de Groot, Martje W G D M; Kock, Marjolijn D M; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-09-01

    Increasing exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF), generated by power lines and electric appliances, raises concern about potential adverse health effects of ELF-EMF. The central nervous system is expected to be particularly vulnerable to ELF-EMF as its function strongly depends on electrical excitability. We therefore investigated effects of acute (30min) and sub-chronic (48h) exposure to 50Hz ELF-EMF on naïve and chemically stressed pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. The latter have higher levels of iron and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS) and display increased vulnerability to environmental insults. Effects of ELF-EMF on Ca(2+)-homeostasis, ROS production and membrane integrity were assessed using Fura-2 single cell fluorescence microscopy, H2-DCFDA and CFDA assays, respectively. Our data demonstrate that acute exposure of naïve PC12 cells to 50Hz ELF-EMF up to 1000μT fails to affect basal or depolarization-evoked [Ca(2+)]i. Moreover, sub-chronic ELF-EMF exposure up to 1000μT has no consistent effects on Ca(2+)-homeostasis in naïve PC12 cells and does not affect ROS production and membrane integrity. Notably, in chemically stressed PC12 cells both acute and sub-chronic ELF-EMF exposure also failed to exert consistent effects on Ca(2+)-homeostasis, ROS production and membrane integrity. Our combined findings thus indicate that exposure to 50Hz ELF-EMF up to 1000μT, i.e. 10,000 times above background exposure, does not induce neurotoxic effects in vitro, neither in naïve nor in chemically stressed PC12 cells. Though our data require confirmation, e.g. in developing neuronal cells in vitro or (developing) animals, it appears that the neurotoxic risk of ELF-EMF exposure is limited.

  6. Epinephrine, DNA integrity and oxidative stress in workers exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) at 132 kV substations.

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    Tiwari, Ravindra; Lakshmi, N K; Bhargava, S C; Ahuja, Y R

    2015-03-01

    There is apprehension about widespread use of electrical and electromagnetic gadgets which are supposed to emit electromagnetic radiations. Reports are controversy. These electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have considerable effect on endocrine system of exposed subjects. This study was focused to assess the possible bioeffects of extremely low-frequency (ELF)-EMFs on epinephrine level, DNA damage and oxidative stress in subjects occupationally exposed to 132 kV high-voltage substations. The blood sample of 142 exposed subjects and 151 non-exposed individuals was analyzed. Plasma epinephrine was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, DNA damage was studied by alkaline comet assay along with oxidative stress. Epinephrine levels of sub-groups showed mean concentration of 75.22  ±  1.46, 64.43  ±  8.26 and 48.47  ±  4.97 for high, medium and low exposed groups, respectively. DNA damage ranged between 1.69 µm and 9.91 µm. The oxidative stress levels showed significant increase. The individuals employed in the live-line procedures were found to be vulnerable for EM stress with altered epinephrine concentrations, DNA damage and increased oxidative stress.

  7. [FTIR spectra investigation of rat sensitive tissues exposure to ELF-EMF].

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    Li, Gun; Yan, Ya-jing; Huang, Yong; Zhou, Yan; Pang, Xiao-feng

    2012-05-01

    Nonthermal effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) are related to changes in the microstructure of biological tissues after exposure to electromagnetic radiation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis method can effectively study the mechanisms of biological effects of electromagnetic radiation. The present paper studies the characteristics of sensitive tissues of rat after ELF-EMF exposure. FTIR analysis of sensitive tissues of control group and experimental group showed that 50 Hz, 0.75 mT ELF-EMF exposure for 20 days can affect molecular level of the rat testis, blood and brain. Experimental results show that regular changes in absorption peak positions and intensity in the spectra of sensitive tissue may be caused by exposure to ELF-EMF, therefore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is an effective means to study mechanism of biological effects of electromagnetic fields.

  8. Use of C. Elegans as a model organism for sensing the effects of ELF-EMFs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacchini, A H; Everington, M L; Augousti, A T; Walker, A J [School of Life Sciences, Kingston University London (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    For the past two decades, there have been concerns and controversy about the effects on human health of the increased exposure to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) resulting from electrification, in both residential and industrial settings. Several epidemiological studies have implicated ELF-EMFs averaging 0.4 {mu}mUTesla (T) or more in increased risk of cancer, especially childhood leukaemia [1,2]; there have also been many reports demonstrating effects of power-frequency EMFs on cells [outlined in 1,3]. Unfortunately, however, the precise mechanisms by which ELF-EMFs exert biological effects have proven difficult to define and results of various studies have often been hard to reproduce [1]. We believe that C. elegans offers an exciting opportunity to elucidate the effects of power-frequency EMFs on cell signalling pathways within the whole organism and are therefore investigating the effects of ELF-EMF exposure on MAPK signalling in intact worms and fertilized embryos. Through taking a targeted approach to studying the effects of ELF-EMF's on MAPK signalling in C. elegans we aim to gather data that is physiologically relevant. Presently, this research is at a preliminary stage of preparation, and more detailed results on the exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans to ELF-EMF radiation will be presented at the conference itself.

  9. Use of C. Elegans as a model organism for sensing the effects of ELF-EMFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacchini, A. H.; Everington, M. L.; Augousti, A. T.; Walker, A. J.

    2007-07-01

    For the past two decades, there have been concerns and controversy about the effects on human health of the increased exposure to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) resulting from electrification, in both residential and industrial settings. Several epidemiological studies have implicated ELF-EMFs averaging 0.4 μmUTesla (T) or more in increased risk of cancer, especially childhood leukaemia [1,2]; there have also been many reports demonstrating effects of power-frequency EMFs on cells [outlined in 1,3]. Unfortunately, however, the precise mechanisms by which ELF-EMFs exert biological effects have proven difficult to define and results of various studies have often been hard to reproduce [1]. We believe that C. elegans offers an exciting opportunity to elucidate the effects of power-frequency EMFs on cell signalling pathways within the whole organism and are therefore investigating the effects of ELF-EMF exposure on MAPK signalling in intact worms and fertilized embryos. Through taking a targeted approach to studying the effects of ELF-EMF's on MAPK signalling in C. elegans we aim to gather data that is physiologically relevant. Presently, this research is at a preliminary stage of preparation, and more detailed results on the exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans to ELF-EMF radiation will be presented at the conference itself.

  10. Short-term exposure to 50 Hz ELF-EMF alters the cisplatin-induced oxidative response in AT478 murine squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bułdak, Rafał Jakub; Polaniak, Renata; Bułdak, Lukasz; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Skonieczna, Magdalena; Monsiol, Aleksandra; Kukla, Michał; Duława-Bułdak, Anna; Birkner, Ewa

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of cisplatin and an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on antioxidant enzyme activity and the lipid peroxidation ratio, as well as the level of DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in AT478 carcinoma cells. Cells were cultured for 24 and 72 h in culture medium with cisplatin. Additionally, the cells were irradiated with 50 Hz/1 mT ELF-EMF for 16 min using a solenoid as a source of the ELF-EMF. The amount of ROS, superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoenzyme activity, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, DNA damage, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed. Cells that were exposed to cisplatin exhibited a significant increase in ROS and antioxidant enzyme activity. The addition of ELF-EMF exposure to cisplatin treatment resulted in decreased ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activity. A significant reduction in MDA concentrations was observed in all of the study groups, with the greatest decrease associated with treatment by both cisplatin and ELF-EMF. Cisplatin induced the most severe DNA damage; however, when cells were also irradiated with ELF-EMF, less DNA damage occurred. Exposure to ELF-EMF alone resulted in an increase in DNA damage compared to control cells. ELF-EMF lessened the effects of oxidative stress and DNA damage that were induced by cisplatin; however, ELF-EMF alone was a mild oxidative stressor and DNA damage inducer. We speculate that ELF-EMF exerts differential effects depending on the exogenous conditions. This information may be of value for appraising the pathophysiologic consequences of exposure to ELF-EMF.

  11. Association between extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields occupations and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the relationship between exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS by a meta-analysis. METHODS: Through searching PubMed databases (or manual searching up to April 2012 using the following keywords: "occupational exposure", "electromagnetic fields" and "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis" or "motor neuron disease", seventeen studies were identified as eligible for this meta-analysis. The associations between ELF-EMF exposure and the ALS risk were estimated based on study design (case-control or cohort study, and ELF-EMF exposure level assessment (job title or job-exposure matrix. The heterogeneity across the studies was tested, as was publication bias. RESULTS: Occupational exposure to ELF-EMF was significantly associated with increased risk of ALS in pooled studies (RR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.02-1.62, and case-control studies (OR = 1.39, 95%CI = 1.05-1.84, but not cohort studies (RR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.80-1.69. In sub-analyses, similar significant associations were found when the exposure level was defined by the job title, but not the job-exposure matrix. In addition, significant associations between occupational exposure to ELF-EMF and increased risk of ALS were found in studies of subjects who were clinically diagnosed but not those based on the death certificate. Moderate heterogeneity was observed in all analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest a slight but significant ALS risk increase among those with job titles related to relatively high levels of ELF-EMF exposure. Since the magnitude of estimated RR was relatively small, we cannot deny the possibility of potential biases at work. Electrical shocks or other unidentified variables associated with electrical occupations, rather than magnetic-field exposure, may be responsible for the observed associations with ALS.

  12. Modulation of radical pairs dynamics immersed in an ELF-EMF: The effect on hepatocarcinogenesis

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    López-Riquelme, G. O.; López-Sandoval, E.; Vera-Aguilar, E.; Godina-Nava, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    The most suitable mechanism of action of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on biological systems is the effect on the radical pair (RP) recombination through the Zeeman effect and hyperfine interaction, which changes the rate of reactions or the product distribution. Enzyme reactions with RP intermediates can be altered by EMF, like those catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP450), a heme-thiolate family protein that detoxifies xenobiotics and involved in chemical carcinogenesis. CYP450 activate chemical carcinogens producing an enormous amount of free radicals, which damage the DNA resulting in the malignant transformation of cells. During the activation, CYP450 produce spin-correlated RP intermediates that can either go to recombination or to continue the catalytic process. As CYP450 are electron carrier proteins, it is possible that RP intermediates may be affected by EMF. It was previously found that periodic treatment with extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) inhibits more than 50% the number and area of preneoplastic lesions in rats with chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis through reduction of cell proliferation. In this work, we developed a quantum mechanical model based on RP mechanism in order to explain the experimental effects of ELF-EMF on the free radicals produced in the early stages of chemical carcinogenesis.

  13. Can cytogenetics explain the possible association between exposure to extreme low-frequency magnetic fields and Alzheimer's disease?

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    Maes, Annemarie; Verschaeve, Luc

    2012-02-01

    Recently, a number of epidemiological studies have suggested that occupational as well as residential exposure to extreme low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) may be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. This is not proven yet and there are no known biological mechanisms to explain this alleged association. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by a number of events that have, at least partially, a genetic origin. In particular, trisomy of chromosomes 17 and 21 seems to be involved. Overall ELF-EMFs have not been identified as genotoxic agents, but there are some papers in the scientific literature that indicate that they may enhance the effects of agents that are known to induce mutations or tumors. There are also some indications that ELF-EMFs may induce aneuploïdy. This opens some perspectives for investigating the alleged association between ELF-EMFs and Alzheimer's. This paper reviews the possibility of a cytogenetic association between the electromagnetic fields and Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Co-effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and temper-ature on hsp22 and hsp26 expression in Drosophila melanogaster%高温下极低频电磁场暴露对果蝇hsp22和hsp26基因影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶; 张紫燕; 杨传俊; 蔡澎

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the combined effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields ( ELF-EMF ) exposure (50 Hz and 3 mT) and high temperature exposure on hsp22 and hsp26 expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Methods Under the conditions of 50 Hz and 3 mT ELF-EMF,the male and female D.melanogaster was separately exposed for 2 h at 25℃, 27.5℃, 30℃, 32.5℃,and 35℃, respectively.The death rate, exercise capacity and the hsp22 and hsp26 expression levels of D.melanogaster were detected after exposure;or at 25℃and 35℃at 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h, respectively.The hsp22 and hsp26 expression levels of D.melanogaster were tested after exposure .Results After exposure for 2 h at 25℃, 27.5℃, 30℃, 32.5℃, and 35℃, temperature had a significant effect (P0.05).After exposure for 2 h at 25℃, 27.5℃, 30℃, 32.5℃, and 35℃, the hsp22 and hsp26 expression levels of D.melanogaster were significantly impacted(P<0.01) by gender, temperature, ELF-EMF and exposure time, and tem-perature was the most important factor .Gender, temperature, ELF-EMF and exposure time had some interaction with the results.Conclusion ELF-EMF can influence the expression levels of hsp22 and hsp26.ELF-EMF exposure contributes to heat tolerance in D.melanogaster through accelerated expression of hsp22 and hsp26.%目的:探讨在高温(35℃)条件下,极低频电磁场( extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields ,ELF-EMF)对雌雄黑腹果蝇hsp22和hsp26基因表达水平的影响。方法在25、27.5、30、32.5、35℃下,1日龄雌、雄黑腹果蝇在50 Hz、3 mT ELF-EMF暴露2 h,测定其死亡率、运动能力和hsp22、hsp26表达水平;在25和35℃下,1日龄雌、雄黑腹果蝇在50 Hz、3 mT ELF-EMF暴露2、4、8、24 h,测定其hsp22、hsp26表达水平。结果在25、27.5、30、32.5、35℃下暴露2 h,温度变化对果蝇的死亡率、运动能力和hsp22、hsp26表达水平有极显著影响(P<0.01

  15. Exposure of ELF-EMF and RF-EMF Increase the Rate of Glucose Transport and TCA Cycle in Budding Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kang-Wei; Yang, Chuan-Jun; Lian, Hui-Yong; Cai, Peng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the transcriptional response to 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and 2.0 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure by Illumina sequencing technology using budding yeast as the model organism. The transcription levels of 28 genes were upregulated and those of four genes were downregulated under ELF-EMF exposure, while the transcription levels of 29 genes were upregulated and those of 24 genes were downregulated under RF-EMF exposure. After validation by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a concordant direction of change both in differential gene expression (DGE) and RT-qPCR was demonstrated for nine genes under ELF-EMF exposure and for 10 genes under RF-EMF exposure. The RT-qPCR results revealed that ELF-EMF and RF-EMF exposure can upregulate the expression of genes involved in glucose transportation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, but not the glycolysis pathway. Energy metabolism is closely related with the cell response to environmental stress including EMF exposure. Our findings may throw light on the mechanism underlying the biological effects of EMF. PMID:27630630

  16. 50Hz磁场慢性暴露对雄性大鼠生殖系统和外周血细胞的影响%Effects of chronic exposure to 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field(ELF-EMF) on reproductive system and peripheral blood cells in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玲娟; 张涛; 高鹏; 府伟灵; 储芳; 李丽; 卢永辉; 张彦文

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究50 Hz磁场慢性暴露对雄性大鼠生殖系统和外周血细胞的影响.方法 将SD大鼠随机分为1个对照组和3个辐照组,分别全身暴露于0(对照组)、20、100及500 μT 50 Hz磁场中,每天2 h,连续4周,每周测其体质量变化,暴露结束后收集外周血和睾丸组织,检测大鼠血清睾酮水平和外周血细胞,测定睾丸脏器系数,光镜病理学分析大鼠睾丸组织形态结构.结果 暴露期间各组大鼠体质量无明显差异.20 μT和100 μT剂量的暴露对血清睾酮水平、睾丸脏器系数、外周血细胞均无明显影响.500 μT剂量暴露后大鼠血清睾酮水平较对照组差异有统计学意义(P0.05),外周血白细胞数量较对照组显著增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).HE染色发现,大鼠睾丸间质组织可见局灶性充血水肿现象,并随着暴露剂量的增加,充血水肿越明显,呈剂量-效应关系.结论 在该实验条件下,50 Hz(500 μT)磁场慢性暴露对雄性大鼠生长发育无明显影响,可引起大鼠睾丸结构和功能的变化以及外周血白细胞数量的增加.%Objective To evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EM F) on reproductive system and peripheral blood cells in rats .Methods SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups and exposed to ELF-EMF with 0 (control group), 20 , 100 and 500 μT for 2 hours every day . After 4 weeks , blood samples were collected for detecting serum testosterone and peripheral blood cell counts , testes were removed for weighting and histological analysis . Results The number of white blood cell and serum testosterone level were significantly increased in 500 μT group compared with control group(P<0 .05) . Moreover, there was focal hyperemia and edema in the interstitial tissue of the exposed testes . Other significant difference was not found .Conclusion Chronic exposure to ELF-EMF with 500 μT might not affect the growth and

  17. Design and fabrication of a microplatform for the proximity effect study of localized ELF-EMF on the growth of in vitro HeLa and PC-12 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. C.; Chen, C. C.; Tu, W.; Cheng, Y. T.; Tseng, F. G.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a platform technology with experimental results that show the scientists and biologists a way to rapidly investigate and analyze the biological effects of localized extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field (EMF) on living cells. The proximity effect of the localized ELF-EMF on living cells is revealed using the bio-compatible microplatform on which an on-glass inductive coil array, the source of the localized ELF-EMF in micro scale, is designed, fabricated and operated with a field strength of 1.2 ± 0.1 mT at 60 Hz for cell culturing study. After a 72 h ELF-EMF exposure, HeLa (human cervical cancer) and PC-12 (rat pheochromocytoma) cells exhibit about 18.4% and 12.9% cell proliferation rate reduction, respectively. Furthermore, according to the presented dynamic model, the reduction of the proliferation can be attributed to the interference of signal transduction processes due to the tangential currents induced around the cells.

  18. Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields inhibits T-type calcium channels via AA/LTE4 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yujie; Liu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Tingting; Mei, Yan-Ai; Hu, Changlong

    2014-01-01

    Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) causes various biological effects through altering intracellular calcium homeostasis. The role of high voltage-gated (HVA) calcium channels in ELF-EMF induced effects has been extensively studied. However, the effect of ELF-EMF on low-voltage-gated (LVA) T-type calcium channels has not been reported. In this study, we test the effect of ELF-EMF (50Hz) on human T-type calcium channels transfected in HEK293 cells. Conversely to its stimulant effects on HVA channels, ELF-EMF exposure inhibited all T-type (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3) channels. Neither the protein expression nor the steady-state activation and inactivation kinetics of Cav3.2 channels were altered by ELF-EMF (50Hz, 0.2mT) exposure. Exposure to ELF-EMF increased both arachidonic acid (AA) and leukotriene E4 (LTE4) levels in HEK293 cells. CAY10502 and bestatin, which block the increase of AA and LTE4 respectively, abrogated the ELF-EMF inhibitory effect on Cav3.2 channels. Exogenous LTE4 mimicked the ELF-EMF inhibition of T-type calcium channels. ELF-EMF (50Hz) inhibits native T-type calcium channels in primary cultured mouse cortical neurons via LTE4. We conclude that 50Hz ELF-EMF inhibits T-type calcium channels through AA/LTE4 signaling pathway.

  19. FTIR Spectra Investigation of Rat Sensitive Tissues Exposure to ELF-EMF%极低频电磁场曝露对于大鼠敏感组织红外光谱特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李滚; 严雅静; 黄勇; 周艳; 庞小峰

    2012-01-01

    极低频电磁场非热生物效应的发生与生物组织接受电磁辐射后微观结构的改变有关,利用红外光谱学分析方法可以有效的研究电磁辐射生物效应发生的微观机制.研究了极低频电磁场曝露对于大鼠电磁敏感组织红外光谱特征的影响,对曝露于50 Hz,0.75 mT极低频电磁场作用20天的大鼠的血液、脑和睾丸组织的红外光谱与正常大鼠组织的红外光谱进行比较分析,从分子水平阐述了极低频电磁场曝露作用生物效应的发生机制.实验结果表明极低频电磁场曝露可导致大鼠敏感组织某些特征吸收峰峰位和峰强产生了规律性的变化,说明傅里叶变换红外光谱方法是研究电磁场不同生物效应的发生机制的一种有效手段.%Nonthermal effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) are related to changes in the micro-structure of biological tissues after exposure to electromagnetic radiation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis method can effectively study the mechanisms of biological effects of electromagnetic radiation. The present paper studies the characteristics of sensitive tissues of rat after ELF-EMF exposure. FTIR analysis of sensitive tissues of control group and experimental group showed that 50 Hz, 0. 75 mT ELF-EMF exposure for 20 days can affect molecular level of the rat testis, blood and brain. Experimental results show that regular changes in absorption peak positions and intensity in the spectra of sensitive tissue may be caused by exposure to ELF-EMF, therefore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is an effective means to study mechanism of biological effects of electromagnetic fields.

  20. Distinct epidermal keratinocytes respond to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-Ying; Chuang, Chun-Yu; Shu, Wun-Yi; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Chaang-Ray; Fan, Tai-Ching; Hsu, Ian C

    2014-01-01

    Following an increase in the use of electric appliances that can generate 50 or 60 Hz electromagnetic fields, concerns have intensified regarding the biological effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) on human health. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested the carcinogenic potential of environmental exposure to ELF-EMFs, specifically at 50 or 60 Hz. However, the biological mechanism facilitating the effects of ELF-EMFs remains unclear. Cellular studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the biological effects of ELF-EMFs. The inconsistent results might have been due to diverse cell types. In our previous study, we indicated that 1.5 mT, 60 Hz ELF-EMFs will cause G1 arrest through the activation of the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether ELF-EMFs cause similar effects in a distinct epidermal keratinocyte, primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK), by using the same ELF-EMF exposure system and experimental design. We observed that ELF-EMFs exerted no effects on cell growth, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and the activation of ATM signaling pathway in NHEK cells. We demonstrated that the 2 epidermal keratinocytes responded to ELF-EMFs differently. To further validate this finding, we simultaneously exposed the NHEK and HaCaT cells to ELF-EMFs in the same incubator for 168 h and observed the cell growths. The simultaneous exposure of the two cell types results showed that the NHEK and HaCaT cells exhibited distinct responses to ELF-EMFs. Thus, we confirmed that the biological effects of ELF-EMFs in epidermal keratinocytes are cell type specific. Our findings may partially explain the inconsistent results of previous studies when comparing results across various experimental models.

  1. Distinct epidermal keratinocytes respond to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields differently.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Ying Huang

    Full Text Available Following an increase in the use of electric appliances that can generate 50 or 60 Hz electromagnetic fields, concerns have intensified regarding the biological effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs on human health. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested the carcinogenic potential of environmental exposure to ELF-EMFs, specifically at 50 or 60 Hz. However, the biological mechanism facilitating the effects of ELF-EMFs remains unclear. Cellular studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the biological effects of ELF-EMFs. The inconsistent results might have been due to diverse cell types. In our previous study, we indicated that 1.5 mT, 60 Hz ELF-EMFs will cause G1 arrest through the activation of the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether ELF-EMFs cause similar effects in a distinct epidermal keratinocyte, primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK, by using the same ELF-EMF exposure system and experimental design. We observed that ELF-EMFs exerted no effects on cell growth, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and the activation of ATM signaling pathway in NHEK cells. We demonstrated that the 2 epidermal keratinocytes responded to ELF-EMFs differently. To further validate this finding, we simultaneously exposed the NHEK and HaCaT cells to ELF-EMFs in the same incubator for 168 h and observed the cell growths. The simultaneous exposure of the two cell types results showed that the NHEK and HaCaT cells exhibited distinct responses to ELF-EMFs. Thus, we confirmed that the biological effects of ELF-EMFs in epidermal keratinocytes are cell type specific. Our findings may partially explain the inconsistent results of previous studies when comparing results across various experimental models.

  2. Anti-proliferative effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on preneoplastic lesions formation in the rat liver

    OpenAIRE

    Villa-Treviño Saúl; Rodríguez-Segura Miguel; Aparicio-Bautista Diana; Arellanes-Robledo Jaime; Jiménez-García Mónica; Godina-Nava Juan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Recently, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) have been studied with great interest due to their possible effects on human health. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF on the development of preneoplastic lesions in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. Methods Male Fischer-344 rats were subjected to the modified resistant hepatocyte model and were exposed to 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF. The effects of the ELF-EMF on hepatocarcinog...

  3. Effects of 100-μT extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields exposure on hematograms and blood chemistry in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jinsheng; Zhang, Yemao; Zhang, Jiangong; Liu, Xingfa; Ruan, Guoran; Chaugai, Sandip; Tang, Jiarong; Wang, Hong; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao Wen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMFs) affect health or not. Here, we constructed a 100-μT/50 Hz electromagnetic field atmosphere. A total of 128 rats were randomly assigned into two groups: the ELF EMF group and the sham group. The ELF EMF group was exposed to 100-μT/50-Hz ELF EMF for 20 h per day for three months; at the same time the other group was exposed to a sham device without ELF EMF. During the three months, the weight was recorded every 2 weeks, and the water intake and food intake of the animals were recorded weekly. The hematologic parameters were detected before and after the exposure, whereas blood chemistry analysis was performed every 4 weeks. The general condition of the exposed rats was not affected by ELF EMF. Compared with the sham group, the hematograms were not significantly altered in the ELF EMF group. Similarly, the blood chemistry (including lipid profile, blood glucose, liver function and renal function of rats) from the ELF EMF group showed no difference compared with rats from the control group during the three months exposure. The present study indicated that short-term exposure of 100-μT/50-Hz ELF EMF may not affect hematograms and blood chemistry in rats.

  4. Effects of exposure to an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on hippocampal long-term potentiation in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki, Alireza; Khalili, Afshin; Salehi, Iraj; Shahidi, Siamak; Sarihi, Abdolrahman

    2014-05-20

    Modern lifestyle exposes nearly all humans to electromagnetic fields, particularly to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs). Prolonged exposure to ELF-EMFs induces persistent changes in neuronal activity. However, the modulation of synaptic efficiency by ELF-EMFs in vivo is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether ELF-EMFs can change induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse ratio (PPR) in the rat hippocampal area. Twenty-nine adult male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (ELF-EMF exposed, sham and control groups). The ELF-EMF group was exposed to a magnetic field for 90 consecutive days (2h/day). ELF-EMFs were produced by a circular coil (50Hz, 100 micro Tesla). The sham-exposed controls were placed in an identical chamber with no electromagnetic field. After this period, rats were deeply anesthetized with urethane (2.0mg/kg) and then a bipolar stimulating and recording electrode was implanted into the perforant pathway (PP) and dentate gyrus (DG), respectively. LTP in hippocampal area was induced by high-frequency stimulation (HFS). Prolonged exposure to ELF-EMFs increased LTP induction. There was a significant difference in the slope of EPSP and amplitude of PS between the ELF-EMF group and other groups. In conclusion, our data suggest that exposure to ELF-EMFs produces a marked change in the synaptic plasticity generated in synapses of the PP-DG. No significant difference in PPR of ELF-EMF group before and after HFS suggests a postsynaptic expression site of LTP.

  5. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cause G1 phase arrest through the activation of the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Ying Huang

    Full Text Available In daily life, humans are exposed to the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs generated by electric appliances, and public concern is increasing regarding the biological effects of such exposure. Numerous studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the biological effects of ELF-EMF exposure. Here we show that ELF-EMFs activate the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in HaCaT cells, inhibiting cell proliferation. To present well-founded results, we comprehensively evaluated the biological effects of ELF-EMFs at the transcriptional, protein, and cellular levels. Human HaCaT cells from an immortalized epidermal keratinocyte cell line were exposed to a 1.5 mT, 60 Hz ELF-EMF for 144 h. The ELF-EMF could cause G1 arrest and decrease colony formation. Protein expression experiments revealed that ELF-EMFs induced the activation of the ATM/Chk2 signaling cascades. In addition, the p21 protein, a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1 and G2/M, exhibited a higher level of expression in exposed HaCaT cells compared with the expression of sham-exposed cells. The ELF-EMF-induced G1 arrest was diminished when the CHK2 gene expression (which encodes checkpoint kinase 2; Chk2 was suppressed by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA. These findings indicate that ELF-EMFs activate the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in HaCaT cells, resulting in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Based on the precise control of the ELF-EMF exposure and rigorous sham-exposure experiments, all transcriptional, protein, and cellular level experiments consistently supported the conclusion. This is the first study to confirm that a specific pathway is triggered by ELF-EMF exposure.

  6. The preventive effect of lotus seedpod procyanidins on cognitive impairment and oxidative damage induced by extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yuqing; Wang, Zhigao; Zhang, Haihui; He, Yuanqing; Lu, Rongzhu; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the effects of lotus seedpod procyanidins (LSPCs) administered by oral gavage on the cognitive deficits and oxidative damage of mice at extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure (50 Hz, 8 mT, 28 days). The results showed that 90 mg kg⁻¹ LSPCs treatment significantly increased body weight compared with the ELF-EMF group at ELF-EMF exposure and effectively maintained liver index, thymus index, kidney index and spleen index close to normal. A water maze test indicated that learning and memory abilities of the ELF-EMF group deteriorated significantly with ELF-EMF exposure when compared with the control group, but the ELF-EMF + LSPCs90 group had remarkably improved learning and memory abilities compared with the ELF-EMF group. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) mostly exhibited significant increases, while the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased significantly under ELF-EMF exposure in the ELF-EMF group. LSPCs (especially 60, 90 mg kg⁻¹) administration decreased MDA, ROS, NO content and lowered NOS activity in LSPCs treatment groups. Furthermore, LSPCs (60, 90 mg kg⁻¹) treatment significantly augmented GPx, CAT, SOD activity in the hippocampus and serum. Pathological observation showed that number of pyramidal cells of the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus of the LSPCs treatment groups was significantly greater than the ELF-EMF group. All the data suggested that the LSPCs can effectively prevent learning and memory damage and oxidative damage caused by the ELF-EMF, most likely through the ability of LSPCs to scavenge oxygen free radicals and to stimulate antioxidant enzyme activity.

  7. Quantum Mechanics Action of ELF Electromagnetic Fields on Living Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godina-Nava, J. J.

    2010-10-01

    There is presently an intense discussion if extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure has consequences for human health. This include exposure to structures and appliances from this range of frequency in the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. Biological effects of such exposures have been noted frequently, although the implications for specific health effects is not that clear. The basic interactions mechanisms between such fields and living matter is unknown. Numerous hypotheses have been suggested, although none is convincingly supported by experimental data. Various cellular components, processes, and systems can be affected by EMF exposure. Since it is unlikely that EMF can induce DNA damage directly, most studies have examined EMF effects on the cell membrane level, general and specific gene expression, and signal transduction pathways. Even more, a large number of studies have been performed regarding cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation, metabolism, and various physiological characteristics of cells. The aim of this letter is present the hypothesis of a possible quantum mechanic effect generated by the exposure of ELF EMF, an event which is compatible with the multitude of effects observed after exposure. Based on an extensive literature review, we suggest that ELF EMF exposure is able to perform such activation restructuring the electronic level of occupancy of free radicals in molecules interacting with DNA structures.

  8. A short-term extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure increases circulating leukocyte numbers and affects HPA-axis signaling in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, de Stan; Ferwerda, Gerben; Wiese, Michelle; Trentelman, Jos; Cuppen, Jan; Kozicz, Tamas; Jager, de Linda; Hermans, Peter W.M.; Kemenade, van Lidy

    2016-01-01

    There is still uncertainty whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) can induce health effects like immunomodulation. Despite evidence obtained in vitro, an unambiguous association has not yet been established in vivo. Here, mice were exposed to ELF-EMF for 1, 4, and 24 h/d

  9. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on the health of workers in automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhao, Longyu; Yu, Duo; Ma, Shumei; Liu, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    To observe the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) in automotive industry on occupational workers. A total of 704 workers were investigated, and 374 workers were chosen and divided into two groups (control group and exposure group) according to the inclusive criteria, namely male with age 20-40 years old and ≥ 2 years of exposure. The intensities of ELF-EMFs and noise were detected with EFA-300 Field Analyzer (Narda company, Pfullingen, Germany) and AWA5610D integrating sound level meter (Hangzhou Aihua Instruments Co., Ltd, Hangzhou, China), respectively. Survey data were collected by questionnaire, and the physical check-up was done in hospital. All the data were input into SPSS17.0 software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA), and the appropriate statistic analyses were carried out. The intensity of EMFs in exposure group was significantly higher than that in control group (p 0.05). The survey data collected by questionnaires showed that the symptoms of loss of hair in exposure group were significantly different as compared with that in control group (p < 0.05). The check-up parameters of cardiovascular, liver and hematology system showed significant differences between the two groups (p < 0.05). Survey and check-up data suggest that exposure to ELF-EMFs might have effects on the nervous, cardiovascular, liver, and hematology system of workers.

  10. Melatonin protects rat cerebellar granule cells against electromagnetic field-induced increases in Na(+) currents through intracellular Ca(2+) release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Dong; Ren, Zhen; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Qian-Ru; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2014-06-01

    Although melatonin (MT) has been reported to protect cells against oxidative damage induced by electromagnetic radiation, few reports have addressed whether there are other protective mechanisms. Here, we investigated the effects of MT on extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF)-induced Nav activity in rat cerebellar granule cells (GCs). Exposing cerebellar GCs to ELF-EMF for 60 min. significantly increased the Nav current (INa ) densities by 62.5%. MT (5 μM) inhibited the ELF-EMF-induced INa increase. This inhibitory effect of MT is mimicked by an MT2 receptor agonist and was eliminated by an MT2 receptor antagonist. The Nav channel steady-state activation curve was significantly shifted towards hyperpolarization by ELF-EMF stimulation but remained unchanged by MT in cerebellar GC that were either exposed or not exposed to ELF-EMF. ELF-EMF exposure significantly increased the intracellular levels of phosphorylated PKA in cerebellar GCs, and both MT and IIK-7 did not reduce the ELF-EMF-induced increase in phosphorylated PKA. The inhibitory effects of MT on ELF-EMF-induced Nav activity was greatly reduced by the calmodulin inhibitor KN93. Calcium imaging showed that MT did not increase the basal intracellular Ca(2+) level, but it significantly elevated the intracellular Ca(2+) level evoked by the high K(+) stimulation in cerebellar GC that were either exposed or not exposed to ELF-EMF. In the presence of ruthenium red, a ryanodine-sensitive receptor blocker, the MT-induced increase in intracellular calcium levels was reduced. Our data show for the first time that MT protects against neuronal INa that result from ELF-EMF exposure through Ca(2+) influx-induced Ca(2+) release.

  11. Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field from Convective Air Warming System on Temperature Selection and Distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Rae Cho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia generates potentially severe complications in operating or recovery room. Forced air warmer is effective to maintain body temperature. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF is harmful to human body and mainly produced by electronic equipment including convective air warming system. We investigated ELF-EMF from convective air warming device on various temperature selection and distance for guideline to protect medical personnel and patients.The intensity of ELF-EMF was measured as two-second interval for five minutes on various distance (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1meter and temperature selection (high, medium, low and ambient. All of electrical devices were off including lamp, computer and air conditioner. Groups were compared using one-way ANOVA. P<0.05 was considered significant.Mean values of ELF-EMF on the distance of 30 cm were 18.63, 18.44, 18.23 and 17.92 milligauss (mG respectively (high, medium, low and ambient temperature set. ELF-EMF of high temperature set was higher than data of medium, low and ambient set in all the distances.ELF-EMF from convective air warming system is higher in condition of more close location and higher temperature. ELF-EMF within thirty centimeters exceeds 2mG recommended by Swedish TCO guideline.

  12. Chemoprotective action of lotus seedpod procyanidins on oxidative stress in mice induced by extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoping; Chen, Meng; Duan, Yuqing; Duan, Wenyi; Zhang, Haihui; He, Yuanqing; Yin, Chunchun; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    With the increasing use of electromagnetic technology, the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on biological systems, central neurotransmitter systems, and human health have attracted extensive attention worldwide. In this study, lotus seedpod procyanidins (LSPCs) were evaluated for their protective effects on ELF-EMF induced oxidative stress injury in mice. Sixty male ICR mice were used for the experiment. The mice were randomly divided into five equal groups. The control group did not receive LSPCs or ELF-EMF but orally received normal saline. The ELF-EMF group received ELF-EMF exposure plus normal saline orally. The other three groups received ELF-EMF exposure plus LSPCs orally (60, 90, or 120mg kg(-1).bw, respectively). Each group exposed to ELF-EMF at 8 mT, 4h day(-1) for 28 consecutive days after administration daily of LSPCs or normal saline to mice for 15 consecutive days with the exception of the control group. Thereafter, blood and cerebral cortex of the mice were analyzed for antioxidant indices, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and malondialdehyde (MDA). LSPCs administration at different doses significantly inhibited oxidative stress damage of mice induced by ELF-EMF. LSPCs treatment augmented SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GR and GST activity. Furthermore, administration significantly lowered MDA level in LSPCs treatment groups LSPCs. All results indicated LSPCs can effectively prevent oxidative stress injury induced by ELF-EMF exposure, which may be related to its ability of scavenging free radicals and stimulating antioxidant enzyme activity.

  13. Protective effect of procyanidins extracted from the lotus seedpod on immune function injury induced by extremely low frequency electromagnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihui; Cheng, Yanxiang; Luo, Xiaoping; Duan, Yuqing

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Lotus seedpod procyanidins (LSPCs) from extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure (50Hz, 8mT, 28 days) and their protective mechanism against radiation damage. The results showed that LSPCs increased the organ index of mice and made the damaged blood-producing function and cytokine(INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in spleen) levels by ELF-EMF-irradiation recovered to normal appearance. And experimental results proved that dosing LSPCs inhibit more stagnation of splenocytes in G0/G1 phase caused by ELF-EMF, thus the spleen cells from G0/G1 phase to S phase shift, restore normal cell metabolism, promote the splenocytes proliferation, reduced the apoptosis of spleen cells, effective protect the damage induced by the ELF-EMF radiation. In addition, LSPCs prevented the decline of DNA content caused by ELF-EMF. Western blot determinated the levels of apoptosis genes including Bcl-2, Bax, Bcl-cl, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9. The results revealed that a significant suppression in Bcl-2 expression and increase in Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 expression in splenic cells in ELF-EMF group. However, LSPCs restored these changes. Taking these results together, it may be summarized that LSPCs could protect hematopoietic tissues and the immune system from ELF-EMF. And it may be hypothesized that ELF-EMF-induced apoptosis in splenocytes might occur via triggers the trans-activation of Bax and activates caspases-3 and -9, which then cleaves the death substrates, leading to apoptosis in splenocytes of mice treated with ELF-EMF.

  14. Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Vascular Permeability of Circumventricular Organs in the Adult Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y. K.; Cañedo-Dorantes, L.; Bañuelos-Pineda, J.; Serrano-Luna, G.; Feria-Velasco, A.

    2008-08-01

    The present work deals with the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on blood vessels permeability to non liposoluble substances of the circumventricular organs (CVO) of adult rats. Male Wistar adult rats were exposed to ELF-EMF and vascular permeability to colloidal carbon was investigated with the use of histological techniques. Results were compared to corresponding data from sham-exposed and control groups of animals. Exposure to ELF-EMF increased the CVO vascular permeability to colloidal carbon intravascularly injected, particularly in the subfornical organ, the median eminence, the pineal gland and the area postrema.

  15. Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields modulates Na+ currents in rat cerebellar granule cells through increase of AA/PGE2 and EP receptor-mediated cAMP/PKA pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin He

    Full Text Available Although the modulation of Ca(2+ channel activity by extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF has been studied previously, few reports have addressed the effects of such fields on the activity of voltage-activated Na(+ channels (Na(v. Here, we investigated the effects of ELF-EMF on Na(v activity in rat cerebellar granule cells (GCs. Our results reveal that exposing cerebellar GCs to ELF-EMF for 10-60 min significantly increased Na(v currents (I(Na by 30-125% in a time- and intensity-dependent manner. The Na(v channel steady-state activation curve, but not the steady-state inactivation curve, was significantly shifted (by 5.2 mV towards hyperpolarization by ELF-EMF stimulation. This phenomenon is similar to the effect of intracellular application of arachidonic acid (AA and prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2 on I(Na in cerebellar GCs. Increases in intracellular AA, PGE(2 and phosphorylated PKA levels in cerebellar GCs were observed following ELF-EMF exposure. Western blottings indicated that the Na(V 1.2 protein on the cerebellar GCs membrane was increased, the total expression levels of Na(V 1.2 protein were not affected after exposure to ELF-EMF. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and PGE(2 receptor (EP antagonists were able to eliminate this ELF-EMF-induced increase in phosphorylated PKA and I(Na. In addition, ELF-EMF exposure significantly enhanced the activity of PLA(2 in cerebellar GCs but did not affect COX-1 or COX-2 activity. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time that neuronal I(Na is significantly increased by ELF-EMF exposure via a cPLA2 AA PGE(2 EP receptors PKA signaling pathway.

  16. Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields modulates Na+ currents in rat cerebellar granule cells through increase of AA/PGE2 and EP receptor-mediated cAMP/PKA pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan-Lin; Liu, Dong-Dong; Fang, Yan-Jia; Zhan, Xiao-Qin; Yao, Jin-Jing; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2013-01-01

    Although the modulation of Ca(2+) channel activity by extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) has been studied previously, few reports have addressed the effects of such fields on the activity of voltage-activated Na(+) channels (Na(v)). Here, we investigated the effects of ELF-EMF on Na(v) activity in rat cerebellar granule cells (GCs). Our results reveal that exposing cerebellar GCs to ELF-EMF for 10-60 min significantly increased Na(v) currents (I(Na)) by 30-125% in a time- and intensity-dependent manner. The Na(v) channel steady-state activation curve, but not the steady-state inactivation curve, was significantly shifted (by 5.2 mV) towards hyperpolarization by ELF-EMF stimulation. This phenomenon is similar to the effect of intracellular application of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) on I(Na) in cerebellar GCs. Increases in intracellular AA, PGE(2) and phosphorylated PKA levels in cerebellar GCs were observed following ELF-EMF exposure. Western blottings indicated that the Na(V) 1.2 protein on the cerebellar GCs membrane was increased, the total expression levels of Na(V) 1.2 protein were not affected after exposure to ELF-EMF. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and PGE(2) receptor (EP) antagonists were able to eliminate this ELF-EMF-induced increase in phosphorylated PKA and I(Na). In addition, ELF-EMF exposure significantly enhanced the activity of PLA(2) in cerebellar GCs but did not affect COX-1 or COX-2 activity. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time that neuronal I(Na) is significantly increased by ELF-EMF exposure via a cPLA2 AA PGE(2) EP receptors PKA signaling pathway.

  17. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields of uninterruptible power supply industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teşneli, N Berna; Teşneli, Ahmet Y

    2014-12-01

    There is an increasing concern that exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may cause or contribute to adverse health effects. To assess exposure to ELF EMFs, electric and magnetic field spot measurements were performed extensively at the workplace of a worldwide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) factory. The measurements were carried out in order to get the electric and magnetic field exposure results in real working situations in test areas, production lines and power substations. The electric and magnetic fields reached up to 992.0 V m(-1) and 215.6 μT in the test areas, respectively. The fields existed up to 26.7 V m(-1) and 7.6 μT in the production lines. The field levels in the vicinity of the power substations did not exceed 165.5 V m(-1) and 65 μT. The data presented are useful in determining the occupational exposure levels of UPS industry workers. The measurements are below the reference levels recommended by the guideline published in 2010 by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and action levels of the directive adopted in 2013 by European Parliament and Council.

  18. Resource Letter BELFEF-1: Biological effects of low-frequency electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafemeister, David

    1996-08-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the interaction of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF/EMF) interactions with biological matter, and on the possibility that such interactions could have a harmful effect on human health. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: ELF/EMF theoretical interactions with biological cells, organs and organisms, magnetic dipole interactions, sensing by animals, biomedical-biophysical experiments, epidemiology, and litigation-mitigation risk issues.

  19. Exposure to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field only slightly modifies the proteome of Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472

    OpenAIRE

    Baraúna, Rafael A.; Santos, Agenor V; Graças, Diego A.; Daniel M. Santos; Rubens Ghilardi Júnior; Adriano M. C. Pimenta; Marta S.P. Carepo; Maria P.C. Schneider; Artur Silva

    2015-01-01

    Several studies of the physiological responses of different organisms exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) have been described. In this work, we report the minimal effects of in situ exposure to ELF-EMF on the global protein expression of Chromobacterium violaceum using a gel-based proteomic approach. The protein expression profile was only slightly altered, with five differentially expressed proteins detected in the exposed cultures; two of these proteins (DNA-...

  20. No effects of power line frequency extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on selected neurobehavior tests of workers inspecting transformers and distribution line stations versus controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xiong, De-fu; Liu, Jia-wen; Li, Zi-xin; Zeng, Guang-cheng; Li, Hua-liang

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the interference of 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) occupational exposure on the neurobehavior tests of workers performing tour-inspection close to transformers and distribution power lines. Occupational short-term "spot" measurements were carried out. 310 inspection workers and 300 logistics staff were selected as exposure and control. The neurobehavior tests were performed through computer-based neurobehavior evaluation system, including mental arithmetic, curve coincide, simple visual reaction time, visual retention, auditory digit span and pursuit aiming. In 500 kV areas electric field intensity at 71.98% of total measured 590 spots were above 5 kV/m (national occupational standard), while in 220 kV areas electric field intensity at 15.69% of total 701 spots were above 5 kV/m. Magnetic field flux density at all the spots was below 1,000 μT (ICNIRP occupational standard). The neurobehavior score changes showed no statistical significance. Results of neurobehavior tests among different age, seniority groups showed no significant changes. Neurobehavior changes caused by daily repeated ELF-EMF exposure were not observed in the current study.

  1. Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields alters the calcium dynamics of cultured entorhinal cortex neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fen-Lan; Yang, Nian; He, Chao; Li, Hong-Li; Li, Chao; Chen, Fang; Xiong, Jia-Xiang; Hu, Zhi-An; Zhang, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies have revealed that extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure affects neuronal dendritic spine density and NMDAR and AMPAR subunit expressions in the entorhinal cortex (EC). Although calcium signaling has a critical role in control of EC neuronal functions, however, it is still unclear whether the ELF-EMF exposure affects the EC neuronal calcium homeostasis. In the present study, using whole-cell recording and calcium imaging, we record the whole-cell inward currents that contain the voltage-gated calcium currents and show that ELF-EMF (50Hz, 1mT or 3mT, lasting 24h) exposure does not influence these currents. Next, we specifically isolate the high-voltage activated (HVA) and low-voltage activated (LVA) calcium channels-induced currents. Similarly, the activation and inactivation characteristics of these membrane calcium channels are also not influenced by ELF-EMF. Importantly, ELF-EMF exposure reduces the maximum amplitude of the high-K(+)-evoked calcium elevation in EC neurons, which is abolished by thapsigargin, a Ca(2+) ATPase inhibitor, to empty the intracellular calcium stores of EC neurons. Together, these findings indicate that ELF-EMF exposure specifically influences the intracellular calcium dynamics of cultural EC neurons via a calcium channel-independent mechanism.

  2. Coupling Mechanism of Electromagnetic Field and Thermal Stress on Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Jun; Lian, Hui-Yong; Yu, Hui; Huang, Xiao-Mei; Cai, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is an important factor in research on the biological effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF), but interactions between ELF-EMF and temperature remain unknown. The effects of ELF-EMF (50 Hz, 3 mT) on the lifespan, locomotion, heat shock response (HSR), and oxidative stress (OS) of Canton-Special (CS) and mutant w1118 flies were investigated at 25°C and 35°C (thermal stress). Results showed that thermal stress accelerated the death rates of CS and w1118 flies, shortened their lifespan, and influenced their locomotion rhythm and activity. The upregulated expression levels of heat shock protein (HSP) 22, HSP26, and HSP70 indicated that HSR was enhanced. Thermal stress-induced OS response increased malondialdehyde content, enhanced superoxide dismutase activity, and decreased reactive oxygen species level. The effects of thermal stress on the death rates, lifespan, locomotion, and HSP gene expression of flies, especially w1118 line, were also enhanced by ELF-EMF. In conclusion, thermal stress weakened the physiological function and promoted the HSR and OS of flies. ELF-EMF aggravated damages and enhanced thermal stress-induced HSP and OS response. Therefore, thermal stress and ELF-EMF elicited a synergistic effect. PMID:27611438

  3. Effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on antioxidant activity in the human keratinocyte cell line NCTC 2544.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcabrini, Cinzia; Mancini, Umberto; De Bellis, Roberta; Diaz, Anna Rita; Martinelli, Maddalena; Cucchiarini, Luigi; Sestili, Piero; Stocchi, Vilberto; Potenza, Lucia

    2016-03-22

    Some epidemiological studies have suggested possible associations between exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) and various diseases. Recently, ELF-EMF has been considered as a therapeutic agent. To support ELF-EMF use in regenerative medicine, in particular in the treatment of skin injuries, we investigated whether significant cell damage occurs after ELF-EMF exposure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated in the human keratinocyte exposed for 1 H to 50 Hz ELF-EMF in a range of field strengths from 0.25 to 2 G. Significant ROS increases resulted at 0.5 and 1 G and under these flux densities ROS production, glutathione content, antioxidant defense activity, and lipid peroxidation markers were assessed for different lengths of time. Analyzed parameters of antioxidant defense and membrane integrity showed a different trend at two selected magnetic fluxes, with a greater sensitivity of the cells exposed to 0.5 G, especially after 1 H. All significant alterations observed in the first 4 H of exposure reverted to controls 24 H after suggesting that under these conditions, ELF-EMF induces a slight oxidative stress that does not overwhelm the metabolic capacity of the cells or have a cytotoxic effect.

  4. Overexpression of miR-26b-5p regulates the cell cycle by targeting CCND2 in GC-2 cells under exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Liu, Wen-Bin; Liu, Kai-Jun; Ao, Lin; Cao, Jia; Zhong, Julia Li; Liu, Jin-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) exposure has raised considerable public concern regarding the potential hazardous effects of ELF-EMFs on male reproductive function. Increasing evidence indicates that miRNAs are necessary for spermatogenesis and male fertility. However, the regulation of miRNA expression and the roles of miRNAs in response to ELF-EMFs remain unclear. In our study, mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cells were intermittently exposed to a 50 Hz ELF-EMF for 72 h (5 min on/10 min off) at magnetic field intensities of 1 mT, 2 mT and 3 mT. MiR-26b-5p was differentially expressed in response to different magnetic field intensities of ELF-EMFs. The host gene CTDSP1 showed an unmethylation status in GC-2 cells at different magnetic field intensities of ELF-EMF exposure. MiR-26b-5p had no significant, obvious influence on the cell viability, apoptosis or cell cycle of GC-2 cells. However, the overexpression of miR-26b-5p significantly decreased the percentage of G0/G1 phase cells and slightly increased the percentage of S phase cells compared to the sham group that was exposed to a 50 Hz ELF-EMF. Computational algorithms identified Cyclin D2 (CCND2) as a direct target of miR-26b-5p. MiR-26b-5p and a 50 Hz ELF-EMF altered the expression of CCND2 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Overexpressed miR-26b-5p in GC-2 cells can change the mRNA expression of CCND2 following 50 Hz ELF-EMF at 3 mT. These findings demonstrate that miR-26b-5p could serve as a potential biomarker following 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure, and miR-26b-5p-CCND2-mediated cell cycle regulation might play a pivotal role in the biological effects of ELF-EMFs.

  5. In Vitro Developmental Neurotoxicity Following Chronic Exposure to 50 Hz Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in Primary Rat Cortical Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Martje W G D M; van Kleef, Regina G D M; de Groot, Aart; Westerink, Remco H S

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to 50-60 Hz extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) has increased considerably over the last decades. Several epidemiological studies suggested that ELF-EMF exposure is associated with adverse health effects, including neurotoxicity. However, these studies are debated as results are often contradictory and the possible underlying mechanisms are unknown. Since the developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to insults, we investigate effects of chronic, developmental ELF-EMF exposure in vitro. Primary rat cortical neurons received 7 days developmental exposure to 50 Hz block-pulsed ELF-EMF (0-1000 μT) to assess effects on cell viability (Alamar Blue/CFDA assay), calcium homeostasis (single cell fluorescence microscopy), neurite outgrowth (β(III)-Tubulin immunofluorescent staining), and spontaneous neuronal activity (multi-electrode arrays). Our data demonstrate that cell viability is not affected by developmental ELF-EMF (0-1000 μT) exposure. Depolarization- and glutamate-evoked increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) are slightly increased at 1 μT, whereas both basal and stimulation-evoked [Ca(2+)]i show a modest inhibition at 1000 μT. Subsequent morphological analysis indicated that neurite length is unaffected up to 100 μT, but increased at 1000 μT. However, neuronal activity appeared largely unaltered following chronic ELF-EMF exposure up to 1000 μT. The effects of ELF-EMF exposure were small and largely restricted to the highest field strength (1000 μT), ie, 10 000 times above background exposure and well above current residential exposure limits. Our combined data therefore indicate that chronic ELF-EMF exposure has only limited (developmental) neurotoxic potential in vitro.

  6. Anti-proliferative effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on preneoplastic lesions formation in the rat liver

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    Villa-Treviño Saúl

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF have been studied with great interest due to their possible effects on human health. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF on the development of preneoplastic lesions in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. Methods Male Fischer-344 rats were subjected to the modified resistant hepatocyte model and were exposed to 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF. The effects of the ELF-EMF on hepatocarcinogenesis, apoptosis, proliferation and cell cycle progression were evaluated by histochemical, TUNEL assay, caspase 3 levels, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. Results The application of the ELF-EMF resulted in a decrease of more than 50% of the number and the area of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive preneoplastic lesions (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively and glutathione S-transferase placental expression (P = 0.01. The number of TUNEL-positive cells and the cleaved caspase 3 levels were unaffected; however, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Ki-67, and cyclin D1 expression decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.03, as compared to the sham-exposure group. Conclusion The application of 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF inhibits preneoplastic lesions chemically induced in the rat liver through the reduction of cell proliferation, without altering the apoptosis process.

  7. Bidirectional frequency-dependent effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field on E. coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Varsik; Baghdasaryan, Naira; Ayrapetyan, Sinerik

    2013-09-01

    In the present work, the frequency-dependent effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) on Escherichia coli K-12 growth have been studied. The frequency-dependent effects of ELF EMF have shown that it can either stimulate or inhibit the growth of microbes. However, the mechanism by which the ELF EMF affects the bacterial cells is not clear yet. It was suggested that the aqua medium can serve as a target through which the biological effect of ELF EMF on microbes may be realized. To check this hypothesis, the frequency-dependent effects (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 Hz, B = 0.4 mT, 30 min) of ELF EMF on the bacterial growth were studied in both cases where the microbes were in the culture media during the exposure and where culture media was preliminarily exposed to the ELF EMF before the addition of bacteria. For investigating the cell proliferation, the radioactive [(3)H]-thymidine assay was carried out. It has been shown that EMF at 4 Hz exposure has pronounced stimulation while at 8 Hz it has inhibited cell proliferation.

  8. The effects of different intensities, frequencies and exposure times of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayır, Ece; Bilgi, Eyüp; Şendemir-Ürkmez, Aylin; Hameş-Kocabaş, E Esin

    2015-03-01

    The impact of different types of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7 was investigated. The cultures of bacteria in broth media were exposed to sinusoidal homogenous ELF-EMF with 2 and 4 mT magnetic intensities. Each intensity for each bacteria was combined with three different frequencies (20, 40 and 50 Hz), and four different exposure times (1, 2, 4 and 6 h). A cell suspension of each experiment was diluted for the appropriate range and inoculated to Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA) plates after exposure to ELF-EMF. The number of colony forming units (CFU) of both strains was obtained after incubation at 37 °C for 24 h. Data were statistically evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), statistical significance was described at p exposure time of ELF-EMFs changed the characteristic responses for both microorganisms. Samples exposed to ELF-EMF showed a statistically significant decrease compared to their controls in colony forming capability, especially at long exposure times. An exposure to 4 mT-20 Hz ELF-EMF of 6 h produced maximum inhibition of CFU compared to their controls for both microorganisms (95.2% for S. aureus and 85% for E. coli).

  9. Comparison of the genotoxic effects induced by 50 Hz extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in GC-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Weixia; Liu, Chuan; Zhang, Lei; He, Mindi; Xu, Shangcheng; Chen, Chunhai; Pi, Huifeng; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhong, Min; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have been considered to be possibly carcinogenic to humans. However, their genotoxic effects remain controversial. To make experiments controllable and results comparable, we standardized exposure conditions and explored the potential genotoxicity of 50 Hz ELF-EMF and 1800 MHz RF-EMF. A mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line was intermittently (5 min on and 10 min off) exposed to 50 Hz ELF-EMF at an intensity of 1, 2 or 3 mT or to RF-EMF in GSM-Talk mode at the specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1, 2 or 4 W/kg. After exposure for 24 h, we found that neither ELF-EMF nor RF-EMF affected cell viability using Cell Counting Kit-8. Through the use of an alkaline comet assay and immunofluorescence against γ-H2AX foci, we found that ELF-EMF exposure resulted in a significant increase of DNA strand breaks at 3 mT, whereas RF-EMF exposure had insufficient energy to induce such effects. Using a formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-modified alkaline comet assay, we observed that RF-EMF exposure significantly induced oxidative DNA base damage at a SAR value of 4 W/kg, whereas ELF-EMF exposure did not. Our results suggest that both ELF-EMF and RF-EMF under the same experimental conditions may produce genotoxicity at relative high intensities, but they create different patterns of DNA damage. Therefore, the potential mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity of different frequency electromagnetic fields may be different.

  10. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields affect transcript levels of neuronal differentiation-related genes in embryonic neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinlong Ma

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF can affect the processes of brain development, but the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. The proliferation and differentiation of embryonic neural stem cells (eNSCs is essential for brain development during the gestation period. To date, there is no report about the effects of ELF-EMF on eNSCs. In this paper, we studied the effects of ELF-EMF on the proliferation and differentiation of eNSCs. Primary cultured eNSCs were treated with 50 Hz ELF-EMF; various magnetic intensities and exposure times were applied. Our data showed that there was no significant change in cell proliferation, which was evaluated by cell viability (CCK-8 assay, DNA synthesis (Edu incorporation, average diameter of neurospheres, cell cycle distribution (flow cytometry and transcript levels of cell cycle related genes (P53, P21 and GADD45 detected by real-time PCR. When eNSCs were induced to differentiation, real-time PCR results showed a down-regulation of Sox2 and up-regulation of Math1, Math3, Ngn1 and Tuj1 mRNA levels after 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure (2 mT for 3 days, but the percentages of neurons (Tuj1 positive cells and astrocytes (GFAP positive cells were not altered when detected by immunofluorescence assay. Although cell proliferation and the percentages of neurons and astrocytes differentiated from eNSCs were not affected by 50 Hz ELF-EMF, the expression of genes regulating neuronal differentiation was altered. In conclusion, our results support that 50 Hz ELF-EMF induce molecular changes during eNSCs differentiation, which might be compensated by post-transcriptional mechanisms to support cellular homeostasis.

  11. The Energy Metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans under The Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenhua; Yu, Hui; Sun, Yongyan; Yang, Chuanjun; Lian, Huiyong; Cai, Peng

    2015-02-01

    A literal mountain of documentation generated in the past five decades showing unmistakable health hazards associated with extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) exposure. However, the relation between energy mechanism and ELF-EMF exposure is poorly understood. In this study, Caenorhabditis elegans was exposed to 50 Hz ELF-EMF at intensities of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mT, respectively. Their metabolite variations were analyzed by GC-TOF/MS-based metabolomics. Although minimal metabolic variations and no regular pattern were observed, the contents of energy metabolism-related metabolites such as pyruvic acid, fumaric acid, and L-malic acid were elevated in all the treatments. The expressions of nineteen related genes that encode glycolytic enzymes were analyzed by using quantitative real-time PCR. Only genes encoding GAPDH were significantly upregulated (P elegans exposed to ELF-EMF have enhanced energy metabolism and restricted dietary, which might contribute to the resistance against exogenous ELF-EMF stress.

  12. Improvement of spatial memory disorder and hippocampal damage by exposure to electromagnetic fields in an Alzheimer's disease rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Zuo, Hongyan; Wang, Dewen; Peng, Ruiyun; Song, Tao; Wang, Shuiming; Xu, Xinping; Gao, Yabing; Li, Yang; Wang, Shaoxia; Wang, Lifeng; Zhao, Li

    2015-01-01

    Although some epidemiological investigations showed a potential association between long-term exposure of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), no reasonable mechanism can explain this association, and the related animal experiments are rare. In this study, ELF-EMF exposure (50 Hz 400 µT 60 d) combined with D-galactose intraperitoneal (50 mg/kg, q.d., 42 d) and Aβ25-35 hippocampal (5 μl/unilateral, bilateral, single-dose) injection was implemented to establish a complex rat model. Then the effects of ELF-EMF exposure on AD development was studied by using the Morris water maze, pathological analysis, and comparative proteomics. The results showed that ELF-EMF exposure delayed the weight gain of rats, and partially improved cognitive and clinicopathologic symptoms of AD rats. The differential proteomic analysis results suggest that synaptic transmission, oxidative stress, protein degradation, energy metabolism, Tau aggregation, and inflammation involved in the effects mentioned above. Therefore, our findings indicate that certain conditions of ELF-EMF exposure could delay the development of AD in rats.

  13. 极低频电磁场暴露对大鼠学习记忆功能影响的研究%Effect of Exposure to ELF-EMFs on Learning and Memory Ability of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 郭键锋; 孔令丰; 郭兴明

    2012-01-01

    为了模拟职业工作场所极低频电磁场暴露对大鼠学习记忆和海马神经元的影响,设计50 Hz电磁场暴露系统,将实验组1(电场强度5 kV/m,磁感应强度78μT,50 Hz)和实验组2(电场强度5 kV/m,磁感应强度100μT,50 Hz)大鼠各20只,每天暴露8 h,每周5 d,持续8周。进行大鼠的学习记忆神经行为与海马脑区组织病理形态学变化研究,海马神经元细胞凋亡情况检测。结果表明,一定强度和时间的极低频电磁场暴露,具有明显的记忆功能损伤效应,对照组大鼠学习记忆能力明显强于实验组(p〈0.05),神经行为功能损伤早于组织病理损伤和神经元细胞损伤,且磁场的影响较大。%To explore the effect of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields(ELFEMFs) of working environment on learning and memory of rats and changes of their hippocampus neurons,an 50 Hz EMFs exposure system was developed.40 Wistar rats equally divided into two groups(Group 1 and Group 2) were exposed to electromagnetic fields of 5 kV/m,78 μT 50 Hz and of 5 kV/ m,100 μT 50 Hz respectively for 8 consecutive weeks 8 hours per day and 5 days per week.Then their learning and memory ability and hippocampus pathological changes were studied as well as the neuron apoptosis in hippocampus.Results showed that exposure to ELF-EMFs of certain intensity for a period can cause notable injure to rat’s memory;the learning and memory ability of the sham exposed rats is significantly better than the exposed rats(p〈0.05);the neurobehavioral dysfunction was prior to histopathological damage and hippocampus neuron cell injury;and the magnetic field in particular had great impact on the above findings.

  14. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields stimulation modulates autoimmunity and immune responses: a possible immuno-modulatory therapeutic effect in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Guerriero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs stimulation is able to exert a certain action on autoimmunity and immune cells. In the past, the efficacy of pulsed ELF-EMFs in alleviating the symptoms and the progression of multiple sclerosis has been supported through their action on neurotransmission and on the autoimmune mechanisms responsible for demyelination. Regarding the immune system, ELF-EMF exposure contributes to a general activation of macrophages, resulting in changes of autoimmunity and several immunological reactions, such as increased reactive oxygen species-formation, enhanced phagocytic activity and increased production of chemokines. Transcranial electromagnetic brain stimulation is a non-invasive novel technique used recently to treat different neurodegenerative disorders, in particular Alzheimer's disease. Despite its proven value, the mechanisms through which EMF brain-stimulation exerts its beneficial action on neuronal function remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that its beneficial effects may be due to a neuroprotective effect on oxidative cell damage. On the basis of in vitro and clinical studies on brain activity, modulation by ELF-EMFs could possibly counteract the aberrant pro-inflammatory responses present in neurodegenerative disorders reducing their severity and their onset. The objective of this review is to provide a systematic overview of the published literature on EMFs and outline the most promising effects of ELF-EMFs in developing treatments of neurodegenerative disorders. In this regard, we review data supporting the role of ELF-EMF in generating immune-modulatory responses, neuromodulation, and potential neuroprotective benefits. Nonetheless, we reckon that the underlying mechanisms of interaction between EMF and the immune system are still to be completely understood and need further studies at a molecular level.

  15. What Message Should Health Educators Give regarding Electromagnetic Fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khamees, Nedaa A.

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF) causing a number of medical conditions and common symptoms remains a concern and presents somewhat of a quandary to health educators in view of conflicting results. This study investigated the relationship of a number of EMF sources to reported symptoms in an attempt to,…

  16. Assessment of biological changes of continuous whole body exposure to static magnetic field and extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashish, A H; El-Missiry, M A; Abdelkader, H I; Abou-Saleh, R H

    2008-11-01

    The question whether static magnetic fields (SMFs) and extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) cause biological effects is of special interest. We investigated the effects of continuous whole body exposure to both fields for 30 days on some liver and blood parameters in mice. Two exposure systems were designed; the first produced a gradient SMF while the second generated uniform 50 Hz ELF-EMF. The results showed a gradual body weight loss when mice were exposed to either field. This is coupled with a significant decrease (Pglutathione-S-transferase activity and lipid peroxidation level in the liver were significantly increased while a significant decrease in hepatic gluthathione content was recorded. A significant decrease in the counts of monocytes, platelets, peripheral lymphocytes as well as splenic total, T and B lymphocytes levels was observed for SMF and ELF-EMF exposed groups. The granulocytes percentage was significantly increased. The results indicate that there is a relation between the exposure to SMF or ELF-EMF and the oxidative stress through distressing redox balance leading to physiological disturbances.

  17. Nighttime exposure to electromagnetic fields and childhood leukemia: an extended pooled analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Svendsen, Anne Louise; Linet, Martha S

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that nighttime bedroom measurements of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF) may represent a more accurate reflection of exposure and have greater biologic relevance than previously used 24-/48-hour measurements. Accordingly, the authors extended a pooled...

  18. Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers through Systemic Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Núñez, A. D.; Pérez-Chávez, F.; García-Sánchez, C.; Serrano-Luna, G.; Cañendo-Dorantes, L.

    2008-08-01

    This study was designed to, investigate the healing effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on diabetic foot ulcers and test two different exposure systems aimed at reducing the ELF-EMF exposure time of patients. In the first system the ELF-EMF were applied to the arm where only 3% of the total blood volume/min circulates at any given time. In the second system the ELF-EMF were applied to the thorax where more than 100% of the total blood volume/minute circulates at any given time. Twenty-six diabetic patients, with superficial neuropathic ulcers unresponsive to medical treatment were included in this preliminary report. In the first group (17 patients), the arm was exposed two hours twice a week to a extremely low frequency electromagnetic field of 0.45-0.9 mTrms, 120 Hz generated inside a solenoid coil of 10.1 cm by 20.5 cm long. In the second group the thorax of 7 patients was exposed 25 minutes twice a week to an electromagnetic field of 0.4-0.85 mTrms, 120 Hz generated in the center of a squared quasi-Helmholtz coil 52 cm by side. One patient was assigned to a placebo configuration of each exposure system with identical appearance as the active equipment but without magnetic field. Patients with deep ulcers, infected ulcers, cancer, or auto-immune disease were excluded. These preliminary results showed that the two exposure systems accelerate the healing process of neuropathic ulcers. Complete healing of the ulcer had a median duration of 90 days in both exposure systems. Therefore thorax exposure where more blood is exposed to ELF-EMF per unit of time was able to reduce 4.8 times the patient treatment time. In those patients assigned to the placebo equipment no healing effects were observed. This study will continue with a parallel, double blind placebo controlled protocol.

  19. Neuronal cellular responses to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure: implications regarding oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Marcella; Kamal, Mohammad A; Patruno, Antonia; Costantini, Erica; D'Angelo, Chiara; Pesce, Miko; Greig, Nigel H

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases comprise both hereditary and sporadic conditions characterized by an identifying progressive nervous system dysfunction and distinctive neuopathophysiology. The majority are of non-familial etiology and hence environmental factors and lifestyle play key roles in their pathogenesis. The extensive use of and ever increasing worldwide demand for electricity has stimulated societal and scientific interest on the environmental exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human health. Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between 50/60-Hz power transmission fields and leukemia or lymphoma development. Consequent to the association between EMFs and induction of oxidative stress, concerns relating to development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), have been voiced as the brain consumes the greatest fraction of oxygen and is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMFs are reported to alter animal behavior and modulate biological variables, including gene expression, regulation of cell survival, promotion of cellular differentiation, and changes in cerebral blood flow in aged AD transgenic mice. Alterations in inflammatory responses have also been reported, but how these actions impact human health remains unknown. We hence evaluated the effects of an electromagnetic wave (magnetic field intensity 1 mT; frequency, 50-Hz) on a well-characterized immortalized neuronal cell model, human SH-SY5Y cells. ELF-EMF exposure elevated the expession of NOS and O2(-), which were countered by compensatory changes in antioxidant catylase (CAT) activity and enzymatic kinetic parameters related to CYP-450 and CAT activity. Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a decline in CAT

  20. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure affects fertilization outcome in swine animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabò, N; Tettamanti, E; Russo, V; Martelli, A; Turriani, M; Mattoli, M; Barboni, B

    2010-06-01

    Modern society continuously exposes the population to electromagnetic radiation, the effects of which on human health, in particular reproduction, are still unknown. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of acute (1h) exposure of boar spermatozoa to a 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on early fertility outcome. The effect of intensities ranging from 0 to 2 mT on morpho-functional integrity of capacitated spermatozoa was examined in vitro. The oviducts containing or without spermatozoa were then exposed to the minimum in vivo, TD(50,) and maximum intensities determined in vitro, 4h before ovulation. The effects of ELF-EMF on spermatozoa in terms of early embryo development were evaluated after 12h and 6 days. It was found that in vitro ELF-EMF > 0.5 mT induced a progressive acrosome damage, thus compromising the ability of spermatozoa to undergo acrosomal reaction after zona pellucida stimulation and reducing the in vitro fertilization outcome. These effects became evident at 0.75 mT and reached the plateau at 1 mT. Under in vivo conditions, the ELF-EMF intensity of 1 mT was able to compromise sperm function, significantly reducing the fertilization rate. In addition, the exposure of oviducts to fields > or = 0.75 mT in the absence of spermatozoa was able to negatively affect early embryo development. In fact, it was found to cause a slowdown in the embryo cleavage. In conclusion, it was demonstrated how and at which intensities ELF-EMF negatively affect early fertility outcome in a highly predictive animal model.

  1. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field exposure during chronic morphine treatment strengthens downregulation of dopamine D2 receptors in rat dorsal hippocampus after morphine withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiusong; Liu, Yadong; Lei, Yanlin; Zhou, Dongming; Fu, Yu; Che, Yi; Xu, Ruchang; Yu, Hualin; Hu, Xintian; Ma, Yuanye

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure during morphine treatment on dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) density in the rat dorsal hippocampus following withdrawal. Rats were exposed to ELF-EMF (20 Hz, 14 mT) or sham exposed for 1h per day before injection of morphine (10mg/kg, i.p.) once daily for 12 days. The saline control group was sham exposed for the same period. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the density of D2Rs on the 1st, 3rd and 5th morphine withdrawal days. The results showed that the density of D2Rs in sham-exposed morphine-treated rats on the 1st and 3rd days of morphine withdrawal was significantly lower than that of the saline control group. The ELF-EMF-exposed morphine group also exhibited a significantly lower density of D2Rs on the 1st and 3rd withdrawal days relative to the sham-exposed morphine group. However, the D2R density in both groups tended to recover as morphine withdrawal days increased. The results suggest that dorsal hippocampal D2Rs are sensitive to morphine withdrawal and that this is potentiated by ELF-EMF pre-exposure during morphine treatment.

  2. Occupational exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields does not alter responses of inflammatory genes and activation of splenic lymphocytes in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Luo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the present study was to observe the effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields (MFs on the immune function of splenic lymphocytes in mice. Material and Methods: Twenty male Kunming mice (6 weeks old, weighing 18– 25 g, were randomly divided into sham exposure (N = 10 and 500 μT MFs (N = 10 groups. The mice in the MFs group were exposed to 500 μT MFs for 8 h daily (5 days/week for up to 60 days. In vitro study was carried out to examine the effects of 50 Hz MFs on the expression of inflammatory factor genes and a cluster of differentiation 69 (CD69 in mouse prime splenic lymphocytes activated by para-Methoxyamphetamine (PMA and ionomycin. In the in vitro experiments, lymphocytes were isolated from the spleen of 10 healthy Kunming mice, the cells were cultured in the Roswell Park Memorial Institute 1640 medium (RPMI-1640 and exposed to 0 μT, 250 μT, 500 μT, or 1 mT MFs in an incubator under 5% carbon dioxide (CO2 at 37°C for 6 h. The levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2, IL-4, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, GATA binding protein 3 (GATA-3 and T cell-specific T-box transcription factor (T-bet were assessed by the real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, respectively. The expression of CD69 was checked using the flow cytometry. Results: Under our experimental conditions, body weight of the mice exposed to occupational, extremely low frequency- electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs significantly decreased on day 20 and day 30. There were no significant changes observed in vivo in spleen weight, splenic coefficient, splenic histology profile and cytokine production in spleen tissues. Our in vitro experiments showed that 50 Hz MFs had no effect on the expression of these genes and CD69 to primary splenic cells. Conclusions: In conclusion, under the applied experimental conditions, occupational exposure to 50 Hz magnetic field did not alter responses of inflammatory genes and activation of splenic

  3. Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Affect the miRNA-Mediated Regulation of Signaling Pathways in the GC-2 Cell Line.

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    Yong Liu

    Full Text Available Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs can affect male reproductive function, but the underlying mechanism of this effect remains unknown. miRNA-mediated regulation has been implicated as an important epigenetic mechanism for regulatory pathways. Herein, we profiled miRNA expression in response to ELF-EMFs in vitro. Mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cells were intermittently exposed to a 50 Hz ELF-EMF for 72 h (5 min on/10 min off at magnetic field intensities of 1 mT, 2 mT and 3 mT. Cell viability was assessed using the CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis and the cell cycle were analyzed with flow cytometry. miRNA expression was profiled using Affymetrix Mouse Genechip miRNA 3.0 arrays. Our data showed that the growth, apoptosis or cell cycle arrest of GC-2 cells exposed to the 50 Hz ELF-EMF did not significantly change. However, we identified a total of 55 miRNAs whose expression significantly changed compared with the sham group, including 19 differentially expressed miRNAs (7 miRNAs were upregulated, and 12 were downregulated in the 1 mT exposure group and 36 (9 miRNAs were upregulated, and 27 were downregulated in the 3 mT exposure group. The changes in the expression of 15 selected miRNAs measured by real-time PCR were consistent with the microarray results. A network analysis was used to predict core miRNAs and target genes, including miR-30e-5p, miR-210-5p, miR-196b-5p, miR-504-3p, miR-669c-5p and miR-455-3p. We found that these miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to different magnetic field intensities of ELF-EMFs. GO term and KEGG pathway annotation based on the miRNA expression profiling results showed that miRNAs may regulate circadian rhythms, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions and the p53 signaling pathway. These results suggested that miRNAs could serve as potential biomarkers, and the miRNA-mediated regulation of signaling pathways might play significant roles in the biological effects of ELF-EMFs.

  4. Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Affect the miRNA-Mediated Regulation of Signaling Pathways in the GC-2 Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Liu, Wen-Bin; Liu, Kai-Jun; Ao, Lin; Cao, Jia; Zhong, Julia Li; Liu, Jin-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) can affect male reproductive function, but the underlying mechanism of this effect remains unknown. miRNA-mediated regulation has been implicated as an important epigenetic mechanism for regulatory pathways. Herein, we profiled miRNA expression in response to ELF-EMFs in vitro. Mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cells were intermittently exposed to a 50 Hz ELF-EMF for 72 h (5 min on/10 min off) at magnetic field intensities of 1 mT, 2 mT and 3 mT. Cell viability was assessed using the CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis and the cell cycle were analyzed with flow cytometry. miRNA expression was profiled using Affymetrix Mouse Genechip miRNA 3.0 arrays. Our data showed that the growth, apoptosis or cell cycle arrest of GC-2 cells exposed to the 50 Hz ELF-EMF did not significantly change. However, we identified a total of 55 miRNAs whose expression significantly changed compared with the sham group, including 19 differentially expressed miRNAs (7 miRNAs were upregulated, and 12 were downregulated) in the 1 mT exposure group and 36 (9 miRNAs were upregulated, and 27 were downregulated) in the 3 mT exposure group. The changes in the expression of 15 selected miRNAs measured by real-time PCR were consistent with the microarray results. A network analysis was used to predict core miRNAs and target genes, including miR-30e-5p, miR-210-5p, miR-196b-5p, miR-504-3p, miR-669c-5p and miR-455-3p. We found that these miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to different magnetic field intensities of ELF-EMFs. GO term and KEGG pathway annotation based on the miRNA expression profiling results showed that miRNAs may regulate circadian rhythms, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions and the p53 signaling pathway. These results suggested that miRNAs could serve as potential biomarkers, and the miRNA-mediated regulation of signaling pathways might play significant roles in the biological effects of ELF-EMFs.

  5. Exposure to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field only slightly modifies the proteome of Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472

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    Rafael A. Baraúna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies of the physiological responses of different organisms exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF have been described. In this work, we report the minimal effects of in situ exposure to ELF-EMF on the global protein expression of Chromobacterium violaceum using a gel-based proteomic approach. The protein expression profile was only slightly altered, with five differentially expressed proteins detected in the exposed cultures; two of these proteins (DNA-binding stress protein, Dps, and alcohol dehydrogenase were identified by MS/MS. The enhanced expression of Dps possibly helped to prevent physical damage to DNA. Although small, the changes in protein expression observed here were probably beneficial in helping the bacteria to adapt to the stress generated by the electromagnetic field.

  6. Exposure to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field only slightly modifies the proteome of Chromobacterium violaceumATCC 12472.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraúna, Rafael A; Santos, Agenor V; Graças, Diego A; Santos, Daniel M; Ghilardi, Rubens; Pimenta, Adriano M C; Carepo, Marta S P; Schneider, Maria P C; Silva, Artur

    2015-05-01

    Several studies of the physiological responses of different organisms exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) have been described. In this work, we report the minimal effects of in situ exposure to ELF-EMF on the global protein expression of Chromobacterium violaceum using a gel-based proteomic approach. The protein expression profile was only slightly altered, with five differentially expressed proteins detected in the exposed cultures; two of these proteins (DNA-binding stress protein, Dps, and alcohol dehydrogenase) were identified by MS/MS. The enhanced expression of Dps possibly helped to prevent physical damage to DNA. Although small, the changes in protein expression observed here were probably beneficial in helping the bacteria to adapt to the stress generated by the electromagnetic field.

  7. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields affect lipid-linked carbonic anhydrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Silvia; Pepe, Isidoro Mario; Calzia, Daniela; Morelli, Alessandro; Panfoli, Isabella

    2011-06-01

    In the last years, the effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on the activity of different enzymes were investigated. Only the membrane-anchored enzymes did decrease their activity, up to 50%. In this work, the effect of ELF-EMF on bovine lung membrane carbonic anhydrase (CA) were studied. Carbonic anhydrases are a family of 14 zinc-containing isozymes catalyzing the reversible reaction: CO(2)+H(2)O = HCO(3)(- )+H(+). CA differ in catalytic activity and subcellular localization. CA IV, IX, XII, XIV, and XV are membrane bound. In particular, CA IV, which is expressed in the lung, is glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol-linked to the membrane, therefore it was a candidate to inhibition by ELF-EMF. Exposure to the membranes to a field of 75 Hz frequency and different amplitudes caused CA activity to a reproducible decrease in enzymatic activity by 17% with a threshold of about 0.74 mT. The decrease in enzymatic activity was independent of the time of permanence in the field and was completely reversible. When the source of enzyme was solubilized with Triton, the field lost its effect on CA enzymatic activity, suggesting a crucial role of the membrane, as well as of the particular linkage of the enzyme to it, in determining the conditions for CA inactivation. Results are discussed in terms of the possible physiologic effects of CA inhibition in target organs.

  8. Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields alters the behaviour, physiology and stress protein levels of desert locusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszkowska, Joanna; Shepherd, Sebastian; Sharkh, Suleiman; Jackson, Christopher W; Newland, Philip L

    2016-11-03

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are present throughout the modern world and are derived from many man-made sources including overhead transmission lines. The risks of extremely-low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields are particularly poorly understood especially at high field strengths as they are rarely encountered at ground level. Flying insects, however, can approach close to high field strength transmission lines prompting the question as to how these high levels of exposure affect behaviour and physiology. Here we utilise the accessible nervous system of the locust to ask how exposure to high levels of ELF EMF impact at multiple levels. We show that exposure to ELF EMFs above 4 mT leads to reduced walking. Moreover, intracellular recordings from an identified motor neuron, the fast extensor tibiae motor neuron, show increased spike latency and a broadening of its spike in exposed animals. In addition, hind leg kick force, produced by stimulating the extensor tibiae muscle, was reduced following exposure, while stress-protein levels (Hsp70) increased. Together these results suggest that ELF EMF exposure has the capacity to cause dramatic effects from behaviour to physiology and protein expression, and this study lays the foundation to explore the ecological significance of these effects in other flying insects.

  9. DNA fragmentation in human fibroblasts under extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke, Frauke; Schuermann, David; Kuster, Niels; Schär, Primo

    2010-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) were reported to affect DNA integrity in human cells with evidence based on the Comet assay. These findings were heavily debated for two main reasons; the lack of reproducibility, and the absence of a plausible scientific rationale for how EMFs could damage DNA. Starting out from a replication of the relevant experiments, we performed this study to clarify the existence and explore origin and nature of ELF-EMF induced DNA effects. Our data confirm that intermittent (but not continuous) exposure of human primary fibroblasts to a 50 Hz EMF at a flux density of 1 mT induces a slight but significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the Comet assay, and we provide first evidence for this to be caused by the magnetic rather than the electric field. Moreover, we show that EMF-induced responses in the Comet assay are dependent on cell proliferation, suggesting that processes of DNA replication rather than the DNA itself may be affected. Consistently, the Comet effects correlated with a reduction of actively replicating cells and a concomitant increase of apoptotic cells in exposed cultures, whereas a combined Fpg-Comet test failed to produce evidence for a notable contribution of oxidative DNA base damage. Hence, ELF-EMF induced effects in the Comet assay are reproducible under specific conditions and can be explained by minor disturbances in S-phase processes and occasional triggering of apoptosis rather than by the generation of DNA damage.

  10. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on human fetal scleral fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huang; Wang, Jie; Cui, Jiefeng; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) on human fetal scleral fibroblasts (HFSFs). HFSFs were subjected to 50 Hz artificial ELF-EMFs generated by Helmholtz coils with 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mT field intensities for 6 to 48 h. The viability and factors involved in scleral structuring of HFSFs were determined. The growth rate of HFSFs significantly decreased after only 24 h of exposure to ELF-EMFs (0.2 mT). The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of collagen type I (COL1A1) decreased and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) increased significantly. There was a decrease in tissue inhibitor of MMP-2 mRNA levels between treated and control cells only at the 1.0 mT intensity level. Transforming growth factor beta-2 mRNA increased in exposed cells, and, simultaneously, fibroblast growth factor-2 mRNA levels decreased. The protein expressions of COL1A1 and MMP-2 were also significantly altered subsequent to exposure (p effects on HFSFs and could cause abnormality in scleral collagen.

  11. DNA fragmentation in human fibroblasts under extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, Frauke; Schuermann, David [Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Mattenstrasse 28, CH-4058 Basel (Switzerland); Kuster, Niels [IT' IS Foundation, Zeughausstrasse 43, CH-8004 Zurich (Switzerland); Schaer, Primo, E-mail: primo.schaer@unibas.ch [Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Mattenstrasse 28, CH-4058 Basel (Switzerland)

    2010-01-05

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) were reported to affect DNA integrity in human cells with evidence based on the Comet assay. These findings were heavily debated for two main reasons; the lack of reproducibility, and the absence of a plausible scientific rationale for how EMFs could damage DNA. Starting out from a replication of the relevant experiments, we performed this study to clarify the existence and explore origin and nature of ELF-EMF induced DNA effects. Our data confirm that intermittent (but not continuous) exposure of human primary fibroblasts to a 50 Hz EMF at a flux density of 1 mT induces a slight but significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the Comet assay, and we provide first evidence for this to be caused by the magnetic rather than the electric field. Moreover, we show that EMF-induced responses in the Comet assay are dependent on cell proliferation, suggesting that processes of DNA replication rather than the DNA itself may be affected. Consistently, the Comet effects correlated with a reduction of actively replicating cells and a concomitant increase of apoptotic cells in exposed cultures, whereas a combined Fpg-Comet test failed to produce evidence for a notable contribution of oxidative DNA base damage. Hence, ELF-EMF induced effects in the Comet assay are reproducible under specific conditions and can be explained by minor disturbances in S-phase processes and occasional triggering of apoptosis rather than by the generation of DNA damage.

  12. Common behaviors alterations after extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field exposure in rat animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Najafi Abedi, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Naturally, the presence of electromagnetic waves in our living environment affects all components of organisms, particularly humans and animals, as the large part of their body consists of water. In the present study, we tried to investigate the relation between exposure to the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and common behaviors such as body weight, food and water intake, anorexia (poor appetite), plasma glucose concentration, movement, rearing and sniffing in rats. For this purpose, rats were exposed to 40  Hz ELF-EMF once a day for 21 days, then at days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 after exposure, any changes in the above-mentioned items were assessed in the exposed rats and compared to the non-exposed group as control. Body weight of irradiated rats significantly increased only a week after exposure and decreased after that. No significant change was observed in food and water intake of irradiated rats compared to the control, and the anorexia parameter in the group exposed to ELF-EMF was significantly decreased at one and two weeks after irradiation. A week after exposure, the level of glucose was significantly increased but at other days these changes were not significant. Movements, rearing and sniffing of rats at day 1 after exposure were significantly decreased and other days these changes did not follow any particular pattern. However, the result of this study demonstrated that exposure to ELF-EMF can alter the normal condition of animals and may represent a harmful impact on behavior.

  13. Calcium ion cyclotron resonance (ICR), 7.0 Hz, 9.2 microT magnetic field exposure initiates differentiation of pituitary corticotrope-derived AtT20 D16V cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foletti, Alberto; Ledda, Mario; De Carlo, Flavia; Grimaldi, Settimio; Lisi, Antonella

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this work is the study of the effect of electromagnetic radiations (ELF-EMF) tuned to the calcium cyclotron resonance condition of 7.0 Hz, 9.2 microT on the differentiation process of pituitary corticotrope-derived AtT20 D16V cells. These cells respond to nerve growth factor by extending neurite-like processes. To establish whether exposure to the field could influence the molecular biology of the pituitary gland, a corticotrope-derived cells line (AtT20 D16V) was exposed to ELF-EMF at a frequency of 7.0 Hz, 9.2 microT electromagnetic field by a Vega Select 719 power supply. Significant evidence was obtained to conclude that as little as 36 h exposure to the Ca(2+) ICR condition results in enhanced neurite outgrowth, with early expression and aggregation of the neuronal differentiation protein NF-200 into neurite structures.

  14. Quantum mechanical model for the anticarcinogenic effect of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields on early chemical hepatocarcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godina-Nava, Juan José; Torres-Vega, Gabino; López-Riquelme, Germán Octavio; López-Sandoval, Eduardo; Samana, Arturo Rodolfo; García Velasco, Fermín; Hernández-Aguilar, Claudia; Domínguez-Pacheco, Arturo

    2017-02-01

    Using the conventional Haberkorn approach, it is evaluated the recombination of the radical pair (RP) singlet spin state to study theoretically the cytoprotective effect of an extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on early stages of hepatic cancer chemically induced in rats. The proposal is that ELF-EMF modulates the interconversion rate of singlet and triplet spin states of the RP populations modifying the products from the metabolization of carcinogens. Previously, we found that the daily treatment with ELF-EMF 120 Hz inhibited the number and area of preneoplastic lesions in chemical carcinogenesis. The singlet spin population is evaluated diagonalizing the spin density matrix through the Lanczos method in a radical pair mechanism (RPM). Using four values of the interchange energy, we have studied the variations over the singlet population. The low magnetic field effect as a test of the influence over the enzymatic chemical reaction is evaluated calculating the quantum yield. Through a bootstrap technique the range is found for the singlet decay rate for the process. Applying the quantum measurements concept, we addressed the impact toward hepatic cells. The result contributes to improving our understanding of the chemical carcinogenesis process affected by charged particles that damage the DNA.

  15. A short-term extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure increases circulating leukocyte numbers and affects HPA-axis signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kleijn, Stan; Ferwerda, Gerben; Wiese, Michelle; Trentelman, Jos; Cuppen, Jan; Kozicz, Tamas; de Jager, Linda; Hermans, Peter W M; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy

    2016-10-01

    There is still uncertainty whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) can induce health effects like immunomodulation. Despite evidence obtained in vitro, an unambiguous association has not yet been established in vivo. Here, mice were exposed to ELF-EMF for 1, 4, and 24 h/day in a short-term (1 week) and long-term (15 weeks) set-up to investigate whole body effects on the level of stress regulation and immune response. ELF-EMF signal contained multiple frequencies (20-5000 Hz) and a magnetic flux density of 10 μT. After exposure, blood was analyzed for leukocyte numbers (short-term and long-term) and adrenocorticotropic hormone concentration (short-term only). Furthermore, in the short-term experiment, stress-related parameters, corticotropin-releasing hormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and CYP11A1 gene-expression, respectively, were determined in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, pituitary, and adrenal glands. In the short-term but not long-term experiment, leukocyte counts were significantly higher in the 24 h-exposed group compared with controls, mainly represented by increased neutrophils and CD4 ± lymphocytes. POMC expression and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone were significantly lower compared with unexposed control mice. In conclusion, short-term ELF-EMF exposure may affect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation in mice. Changes in stress hormone release may explain changes in circulating leukocyte numbers and composition. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:433-443, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. 极低频电磁场职业接触限值研究概况%Review on occupational exposure limits of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈青松; 李涛; 黄汉林; 张敏; 李朝林

    2011-01-01

    @@ 极低频电磁场(Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields,ELF-EMF)指频率在100 kHz以下的电磁场.随着电力的广泛应用,ELF-EMF在生活中广泛存在.自WERTHEIMER等[1]报道接触低频电磁场与儿童白血病显著相关以来,ELF-EMF的非致热效应受到了国内外学者的广泛关注.WHO确认了短期、高水平接触ELF-EMF的健康影响,但也指出仍没有明确的证据证明ELF-EMF与致癌性有因果关联[2].

  17. Neuronal cellular responses to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure: implications regarding oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

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    Marcella Reale

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases comprise both hereditary and sporadic conditions characterized by an identifying progressive nervous system dysfunction and distinctive neuopathophysiology. The majority are of non-familial etiology and hence environmental factors and lifestyle play key roles in their pathogenesis. The extensive use of and ever increasing worldwide demand for electricity has stimulated societal and scientific interest on the environmental exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs on human health. Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between 50/60-Hz power transmission fields and leukemia or lymphoma development. Consequent to the association between EMFs and induction of oxidative stress, concerns relating to development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD, have been voiced as the brain consumes the greatest fraction of oxygen and is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF-EMFs are reported to alter animal behavior and modulate biological variables, including gene expression, regulation of cell survival, promotion of cellular differentiation, and changes in cerebral blood flow in aged AD transgenic mice. Alterations in inflammatory responses have also been reported, but how these actions impact human health remains unknown. We hence evaluated the effects of an electromagnetic wave (magnetic field intensity 1 mT; frequency, 50-Hz on a well-characterized immortalized neuronal cell model, human SH-SY5Y cells. ELF-EMF exposure elevated the expession of NOS and O2(-, which were countered by compensatory changes in antioxidant catylase (CAT activity and enzymatic kinetic parameters related to CYP-450 and CAT activity. Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a

  18. Exposure to extremely low frequency (50 Hz electromagnetic field changes the survival rate and morphometric characteristics of neurosecretory neurons of the earthworm Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta under illumination stress

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    Banovački Zorana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo model was set up to establish the behavioral stress response (rate of survival and morphometric characteristics of A1 protocerebral neurosecretory neurons (cell size of Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta as a result of the synergetic effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF - 50 Hz, 50 μT, 17 V/m and 50 Hz, 150 μT, 17 V/m, respectively and constant illumination (420-450 lux. If combined, these two stressors significantly (p<0.05 increased the survival rate of E. foetida in the 150 μT-exposed animals, because of delayed caudal autotomy reflex, an indicator of stress response. In addition, morphometric analysis indicated that there were changes in the protocerebral neurosecretory cells after exposure to the ELF-EMF. The present data support the view that short-term ELF-EMF exposure in “windows” of intensity is likely to stimulate the immune and neuroendocrine response of E. foetida.

  19. Oxidative stress, melatonin level, and sleep insufficiency among electronic equipment repairers

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    El-Helaly Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF, especially among electronic equipment repairers may induce oxidative stress and affect sleep quality. Aims: This study was carried out to (a investigate the effect of exposure to ELF-EMF on the malondialdehyde (MDA levels among electronic equipment repairers as an indicator of oxidative stress; and melatonin hormone levels; and (b to study the prevalence of sleep insufficiency among electronic equipment repairers exposed to ELF-EMF. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 50 electronic equipment repairers at high risk of exposure to ELF-EMF, and a matched control group at lower risk of exposure to ELF-EMF. All the participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about medical and occupational histories; and sleep sufficiency. The plasma melatonin and MDA levels of the study subjects were assessed. Results: The mean level of serum melatonin in the electronic equipment repairers was lower than that of the controls (P < 0.01. Moreover, serum MDA mean level of the electronic equipment repairers was higher than that of the controls (P < 0.01. Sleep insufficiency was more frequent among electronic equipment repairers (18.00% in comparison with the controls (8.70% (P > 0.05. Conclusion: The electronic equipment repairers, exposed to ELF-EMF, are at a risk of oxidative stress and sleep insufficiency, which could be explained by lower plasma melatonin levels and higher MDA levels. Health education about the hazards of ELF-EMF, shortening of exposure time per day, and taking antioxidant vitamins should be done to ameliorate the oxidative effect of EMF on those workers.

  20. Safety Problems of Electric and Magnetic Fields and Experimental Magnetic Fusion Facilities 5.Electromagnetic Fields in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonai, Hiroshi; Villanueva, Maria Beatriz G.

    The review addresses the concerns related to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF/EMF) in workplaces. The exposure levels and epidemiological studies on cancer, the health effects of working with VDTs (visual display terminals), and the malfunction of cardiac pacemakers are described. The association of EMF exposure and cancer or disorders from VDT work cannot be considered conclusive. The information on the exposure level and effect of EMF on cardiac pacemakers should be disseminated in workplaces. Risk communication program on EMF is urgent for countermeasures against worker anxiety.

  1. Stress-related endocrinological and psychopathological effects of short- and long-term 50Hz electromagnetic field exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szemerszky, Renáta; Zelena, Dóra; Barna, István; Bárdos, György

    2010-01-15

    It is believed that different electromagnetic fields do have beneficial and harmful biological effects. The aim of the present work was to study the long-term consequences of 50 Hz electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure with special focus on the development of chronic stress and stress-induced psychopathology. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to ELF-EMF (50 Hz, 0.5 mT) for 5 days, 8h daily (short) or for 4-6 weeks, 24h daily (long). Anxiety was studied in elevated plus maze test, whereas depression-like behavior of the long-treated group was examined in the forced swim test. Some days after behavioral examination, the animals were decapitated among resting conditions and organ weights, blood hormone levels as well as proopiomelanocortin mRNA level from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland were measured. Both treatments were ineffective on somatic parameters, namely none of the changes characteristic to chronic stress (body weight reduction, thymus involution and adrenal gland hypertrophy) were present. An enhanced blood glucose level was found after prolonged ELF-EMF exposure (p=0.013). The hormonal stress reaction was similar in control and short-term exposed rats, but significant proopiomelanocortin elevation (pexposure. Taken together, long and continuous exposure to relatively high intensity electromagnetic field may count as a mild stress situation and could be a factor in the development of depressive state or metabolic disturbances. Although we should stress that the average intensity of the human exposure is normally much smaller than in the present experiment.

  2. Effects of time-variant extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) on cholinesterase activity in Dictyostelium discoideum (Protista).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaroli, Andrea; Trielli, Francesca; Bianco, Bruno; Giordano, Stefano; Moggia, Elsa; Corrado, Maria U Delmonte

    2005-12-15

    Recently, we detected propionylcholinesterase (PrChE) activity in single-cell amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum using cytochemical, electrophoretic, and spectrophotometric methods. The involvement of this enzyme activity in cell-cell and cell-environment interactions was suggested. In this work, we found that exposure of single-cell amoebae to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) of 300 microT, 50 Hz, from 1 h up to 48 h at 21 +/- 1 degrees C affected PrChE activity.

  3. Bacterial growth rates are influenced by cellular characteristics of individual species when immersed in electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessaro, Lucas W E; Murugan, Nirosha J; Persinger, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) have negative effects on the rate of growth of bacteria. In the present study, two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative species were exposed to six magnetic field conditions in broth cultures. Three variations of the 'Thomas' pulsed frequency-modulated pattern; a strong-static "puck" magnet upwards of 5000G in intensity; a pair of these magnets rotating opposite one another at ∼30rpm; and finally a strong dynamic magnetic field generator termed the 'Resonator' with an average intensity of 250μT were used. Growth rate was discerned by optical density (OD) measurements every hour at 600nm. ELF-EMF conditions significantly affected the rates of growth of the bacterial cultures, while the two static magnetic field conditions were not statistically significant. Most interestingly, the 'Resonator' dynamic magnetic field increased the rates of growth of three species (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), while slowing the growth of one (Serratia marcescens). We suggest that these effects are due to individual biophysical characteristics of the bacterial species.

  4. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on brain histopathology of Caspian Sea Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiee, Farzaneh; Samiee, Keivandokht

    2017-01-01

    There is limited research on the effect of electromagnetic field on aquatic organisms, especially freshwater fish species. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (50 Hz) exposure on brain histopathology of Cyprinus carpio, one of the important species of Caspian Sea with significant economic value. A total of 200 healthy fish were used in this study. They were classified randomly in two groups: sham-exposed group and experimental group, which were exposed to five different magnetic field intensities (0.1, 1, 3, 5, and 7 mT) at two different exposure times (0.5 and 1 h). Histologic results indicate that exposure of C. carpio to artificial ELF-EMF caused severe histopathological changes in the brain at field intensities ≥3 mT leading to brain necrosis. Field intensity and duration of exposure were key parameters in induction of lesion in the brain. Further studies are needed to elucidate exact mechanism of EMF exposure on the brain.

  5. Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Induce Spermatogenic Germ Cell Apoptosis: Possible Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Kon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy generated by an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF is too weak to directly induce genotoxicity. However, it is reported that an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF is related to DNA strand breakage and apoptosis. The testes that conduct spermatogenesis through a dynamic cellular process involving meiosis and mitosis seem vulnerable to external stress such as heat, MF exposure, and chemical or physical agents. Nevertheless the results regarding adverse effects of ELF-EMF on human or animal reproductive functions are inconclusive. According to the guideline of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP; 2010 for limiting exposure to time-varying MF (1 Hz to 100 kHz, overall conclusion of epidemiologic studies has not consistently shown an association between human adverse reproductive outcomes and maternal or paternal exposure to low frequency fields. In animal studies there is no compelling evidence of causal relationship between prenatal development and ELF-MF exposure. However there is increasing evidence that EL-EMF exposure is involved with germ cell apoptosis in testes. Biophysical mechanism by which ELF-MF induces germ cell apoptosis has not been established. This review proposes the possible mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in testes induced by ELF-MF.

  6. Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Exposture on Cognitive Function and Hippocampal Morphology of Rats%极低频电磁场曝露对大鼠认知功能和海马形态结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘肖; 左红艳; 王德文; 彭瑞云; 王水明; 徐新萍

    2013-01-01

    为明确极低频电磁场(ELF-EMFs)的神经生物效应,研究了ELF-EMFs曝露对大鼠认知功能和海马形态结构的影响.首先将雄性Wistar大鼠放在ELF-EMFs(50 Hz、400 μT、<1 V/m)中连续曝露60 d,实验期间,每周记录大鼠的体质量.终止曝露后,采用Morris水迷宫实验检测大鼠的认知功能.最后采用光镜和电镜观察海马组织结构,并通过甲苯胺蓝染色和图像分析检测尼氏体含量.结果表明:大鼠体质量的增长速度于曝露期间显著延缓,终止曝露2周后恢复;大鼠的平均逃避潜伏期于终止曝露后即刻显著延长(P<0.01),7d后恢复.终止曝露后即刻可观察到部分海马神经元发生变性、早期凋亡、突触结构破坏,尼氏体含量减少(P<0.05);终止曝露后15 d,上述病变改善,30 d后恢复.以上结果表明,极低频电磁场曝露(50 Hz,400 μT,60 d)会导致大鼠体质量增长速度延缓、认知功能障碍、海马结构损伤及尼氏体含量减少;以上影响主要发生于终止曝露后早期,并具有持续时间较短暂且可恢复的特点.%In order to define the neurobiological effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs), the cognitive function and hippocampal morphology of rats exposed to ELF-EMFs were experimentally investigated. Some male Wistar rats were exposed to ELF-EMFs (50 Hz, 400 μT, <1 V/m) for 60 d firstly, meanwhile these body weights were recorded weekly. After the exposure, the cognitive function, hippocampal morphology and content of Nissl bodies were measured by Morris water maze test, light/electronic microscopy and toluidine blue staining image analysis, respectively. The results showed that, during the exposure, the growth rate of rat body weight significantly decreased, but it restored after stopping exposure for 2 weeks. Immediately after the exposure being stopped, the average escape latency was significantly prolonged (P<0. 01), but it restored 7 d later. Part of

  7. Distributions of Personalities Within Occupations and Fields of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.; Holland, Joan E.

    1977-01-01

    Self Directed Search (SDS) and Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) results occupations and fields of study were organized to show the distributions of personalities within an occupation or field of study. The results show that single fields tolerate several types, but some types occur only infrequently. (Author)

  8. Evaluation of hormonal change, biochemical parameters, and histopathological status of uterus in rats exposed to 50-Hz electromagnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, M; Cevik, A; Kandemir, F M; Yuksel, M; Apaydin, A M

    2009-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of the electromagnetic field (EMF) resulting from the 170 kV high-voltage power lines on hormonal status, on progesterone and 17-beta estradiol levels, and on morphology of the uterus and ovaries associated with biochemical parameters of adult Wistar female rats. The rats were assigned to experimental (21) and control groups (7). The rats in the experimental group were housed in a wooden barn with 7.5 m vertical distance to the power line. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were exposed continuously (24 h) to electric-electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) (48.21 +/- 1.58 mG) for 1, 2, and 3 months, respectively. The rats of group 4 served as the control and were placed in laboratory conditions (The average value of the ELF was 0.75 +/- 0.05 V/m. The value of the EMF was calculated to be 0.48 +/- 0.05 mG.). Significant (P glutathione and malondialdehyde levels. It is concluded that exposure to the ELF-EMFs for different time periods produced significant decreases in plasma catalase activities in the 3-month exposure groups but no effects on progesterone level, on 17-beta estradiol level, or on the morphology and weight of uterus and ovaries.

  9. Effects of an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field on stress factors: a study in Dictyostelium discoideum cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaroli, Andrea; Chessa, Maria Giovanna; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Bianco, Bruno

    2013-08-01

    The development of technologies that generate environmental electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has led public opinion and the scientific community to debate upon the existence of possible effects caused by man-made EMFs on the human population and, more generally, on terrestrial ecosystems. Protozoa are known to be excellent bioassay systems in bioelectromagnetic studies because of their features that combine the reliability of in vivo results with the practicality of in vitro ones. For this reason, we examined the possible stressful effects of a 50-Hz, 300-μT extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on the protozoan Dictyostelium discoideum, which was used as it is included in the eight bioassay alternatives to vertebrate models for the study of human disease by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. Our results show how a 24-h exposure of D. discoideum cells to ELF-EMF can affect the net fission rate, the activity and presence of the pseudocholinesterase as well as the presence of the heat shock protein-70, while no change in the catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities was observed. However, this effect seems to be transient and all the altered parameters returned to their respective control value after a 24-h stay under dummy exposure conditions.

  10. Effect of exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on liver function of workers%极低频电磁场暴露对从业人员肝脏功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣; 赵龙宇; 陈慧玲; 刘聪; 刘晓冬; 马淑梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMFs) on the liver function of workers.Methods The workers in a factory were selected as subjects,and the recent physical examination data of these workers were collected.The workers aged 20~40years and with more than 2 years' working experience were included for analysis; considering the intensity of electromagnetic field,the workers exposed to less electromagnetic radiation were assigned to exposure Ⅰ group (n=123),those exposed to more electromagnetic radiation to exposure Ⅱ group (n=229),and those not exposed to electromagnetic radiation to control group (n=212).There were no significant differences in sex,age,height,and body weight between the three groups (P>0.05).Physical examination,including measurements of direct bilirubin (DBil),alanine aminotransferase (ALT),alkaline phosphatase (ALP),aspartate aminotransferase (AST),γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT),and albumin,was performed in a health examination center.The intensity of electromagnetic field was measured by EFA-300 power frequency electromagnetic field analyzer,and the intensity of noise by AWA5610D integrating sound level meter.Results The intensities of electric field and the magnetic field in exposure Ⅱ group were significantly higher than those in the exposure Ⅰ group.The levels of ALT,ALP,AST,GGT and albumin in exposure Ⅱ group were significantly higher than those in exposure Ⅰ group and control group.However,the level of direct bilirubin in exposure Ⅱ group was significantly lower than that in exposure Ⅰ group and control group.Conclusion Occupational exposure to ELF EMFs may affect human liver function.%目的 探讨极低频电磁场暴露对从业人员肝脏功能的影响.方法 选择某厂作业人员作为职业人群研究对象.收集两组暴露组和一组对照组的近期体检资料.将年龄20~40岁、工龄2年以上的工人体检资料进行分析,根据接

  11. The Use of Signal-Transduction and Metabolic Pathways to Predict Human Disease Targets from Electric and Magnetic Fields Using in vitro Data in Human Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Fred; Portier, Christopher J.; Chang, Xiaoqing; Mevissen, Meike

    2016-01-01

    Using in vitro data in human cell lines, several research groups have investigated changes in gene expression in cellular systems following exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) and radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). For ELF EMF, we obtained five studies with complete microarray data and three studies with only lists of significantly altered genes. Likewise, for RF EMF, we obtained 13 complete microarray datasets and 5 limited datasets. Plausible linkages between exposure to ELF and RF EMF and human diseases were identified using a three-step process: (a) linking genes associated with classes of human diseases to molecular pathways, (b) linking pathways to ELF and RF EMF microarray data, and (c) identifying associations between human disease and EMF exposures where the pathways are significantly similar. A total of 60 pathways were associated with human diseases, mostly focused on basic cellular functions like JAK–STAT signaling or metabolic functions like xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes. ELF EMF datasets were sporadically linked to human diseases, but no clear pattern emerged. Individual datasets showed some linkage to cancer, chemical dependency, metabolic disorders, and neurological disorders. RF EMF datasets were not strongly linked to any disorders but strongly linked to changes in several pathways. Based on these analyses, the most promising area for further research would be to focus on EMF and neurological function and disorders. PMID:27656641

  12. The Use of Signal-Transduction and Metabolic 1 Pathways to Predict Human Disease Targets from Electric and Magnetic Fields using Literature-Based In Vitro Microarray Data from 2002 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Parham

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using in-vitro data in human cell lines, several research groups have investigated changes in gene expression in cellular systems following exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF and radiofrequency (RF electromagnetic fields (EMF. For ELF EMF, we obtained 5 studies with complete microarray data and 3 studies with only lists of significantly altered genes. Likewise, for RF EMF we obtained 13 complete microarray data sets and 5 limited datasets. Plausible linkages between exposure to ELF and RF EMF and human diseases were identified using a three-step process: a linking genes associated with classes of human diseases to molecular pathways; b linking pathways to ELF and RF EMF microarray data; and c identifying associations between human disease and EMF exposures where the pathways are significantly similar. A total of 60 pathways were associated with human diseases, mostly focused on basic cellular functions like JAK-STAT signaling or metabolic functions like xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes. ELF EMF datasets were sporadically linked to human diseases but no clear pattern emerged. Individual data sets showed some linkage to cancer, chemical dependency, metabolic disorders and neurological disorders. RF EMF datasets were not strongly linked to any disorders. Based on these analyses, the most promising area for further research would be to focus on EMF and neurological function and disorders.

  13. Post-occupancy evaluation and field studies of thermal comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, F.; Roaf, S.

    2005-08-01

    The similarities and differences are explored in both the aims and the methods between post-occupancy evaluations and field studies of thermal comfort in buildings. The interpretations of the field study results are explored, especially the ways the results differ from laboratory experiments. Particular attention is drawn to the dynamic nature of the interaction between buildings and their occupants. Answers to questions of the type used in post-occupancy evaluations are compared with results from field studies of thermal comfort, and the implications of these findings for the evaluation of buildings and the conduct of post-occupancy evaluation are explored. Field studies of thermal comfort have shown that the way in which occupants evaluate the indoor thermal environment is context-dependent and varies with time. In using occupants as part of the means of measuring buildings, post-occupancy evaluations should be understood as reflecting the changing nature of the relationship between people, the climate and buildings. Surveys are therefore measuring a moving target, and close comparison based on such surveys need to take this in to account. (author)

  14. The influence of educational field, occupation, and occupational sex segregation on fertility in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begall, K.; Mills, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Women have made considerable gains in educational attainment and increased their labour market participation, which has in turn impacted childbearing behaviour. The current study contributes to the growing literature on the impact of educational fields and occupation on fertility. We examine how wom

  15. The influence of educational field, occupation, and occupational sex segregation on fertility in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begall, K.; Mills, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Women have made considerable gains in educational attainment and increased their labour market participation, which has in turn impacted childbearing behaviour. The current study contributes to the growing literature on the impact of educational fields and occupation on fertility. We examine how

  16. Molecular pathological changes of human fetal scleral fibroblasts following exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field%极低频电磁场作用下人胚胎眼巩膜成纤维细胞的分子病理改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁; 崔杰锋; 朱煌; 赵立全; 冯婕妤; 叶胜龙

    2012-01-01

    背景 极低频电磁辐射产生的热效应与人类癌症的关系及其对眼表的影响已有较多研究.但眼球暴露于极低频电磁场(ELF-EMFs)下是否会导致巩膜的病理改变,从而影响近视的发生、发展目前鲜见报道. 目的 研究ELF-EMFs作用下人胚胎眼巩膜成纤维细胞(HFSFs)的分子病理改变及其在近视发生发展中的可能机制.方法 对HFSFs进行体外培养和传代,根据细胞是否暴露于50 Hz电磁场分为暴露组和对照组,应用实时定量聚合酶链反应( real-time PCR)法检测不同磁场强度(0、0.1、0.2、0.5、1.0 mT)、不同暴露时间(0、6、12、24、36、48 h)下HFSFs中Ⅰ型胶原蛋白(COL1A1)、基质金属蛋白酶2(MMP-2)的基因表达水平变化,同时应用CCK-8法检测两组HFSFs的细胞增生情况,并以细胞免疫荧光法对HFSFs中COL1A1和MMP-2蛋白的表达进行确认.结果 与对照组相比,暴露组在磁场强度0.2 mT下作用6h可见HFSFs中COL1A1 mRNA的表达下调,差异有统计学意义(对照组:0.099±0.008,暴露组:0.050±0.004;P=0.009),且表达量随着磁场强度的增加而减少;在磁场强度0.1 mT下暴露24 h,HFSFs细胞中的MMP-2 mRNA表达上调,差异有统计学意义(对照组:0.009±0.001,暴露组:0.018±0.003:P=0.038),并随着暴露时间的延长表达增强.磁场强度0.2 mT下暴露24 h,HFSFs细胞增牛的吸光度(A450)值明显下降,差异有统计学意义(P=0.009);免疫荧光分析也显示暴露组HFSFs细胞中COL1A1表达下调,MMP-2表达上调.结论 ELF-EMFs暴露可在一定范围内影响体外培养的HFSFs的增生及COL1 A1的合成,可能是诱导巩膜发生病理性重塑进而导致近视发生、发展的危险因素之一.%Background The effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) on public health have attracted wide attentions.The association of the thermal effect of ELF-EMFs with cancer and ocular tissue damage has been of concern.However,the pathological

  17. Genotoxicity and ELF-magnetic fields: a review through the micronucleus assay; Genotoxicidad y campos magneticos-ELF: una revision a traves del ensayo de micronucleos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, M.; Andreu-Galvez, M.; Sanchez-Villalobos, J. M.; Achel, D. G.; Olmos, E.; Martinez-Hernandez, C. M.

    2012-07-01

    Thirty for (34) published studies, conducted from 1994 to the present to evaluate the genotoxic effect of magnetic fields using ELF-EMF and diagnostic resonance on humans by the micronucleus assay have been reviewed. some characteristics of the assay methods, their significance to genotoxicity and basic interpretations of the results of these assays are discussed. of the studies analysed 70.5% implicated genotoxic effects induced by these magnetic fields: 52.9% were due to exposure to magnetic fields only and 17,6% by exposure to magnetic fields in combination with some treatment types, resulting in additive or synergistic effect. Evidence exist to support the notion that exposure of humans to magnetic fields stimulates genotoxic effects, although the actual mechanisms of action or even the true human health consequences resulting from these exposure still remain unclear. (Author) 80 refs.

  18. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davanipour, Z.; Sobel, E.; Bowman, J.D.; Qian, Z. [Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Will, A.D.

    1997-03-01

    In an hypothesis-generating case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lifetime occupational histories were obtained. The patients (n = 28) were clinic based. The occupational exposure of interest in this report is electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This is the first and so far the only exposure analyzed in this study. Occupational exposure up to 2 years prior to estimated disease symptom onset was used for construction of exposure indices for cases. Controls (n = 32) were blood and nonblood relatives of cases. Occupational exposure for controls was through the same age as exposure for the corresponding cases. Twenty (71%) cases and 28 (88%) controls had at least 20 years of work experience covering the exposure period. The occupational history and task data were used to classify blindly each occupation for each subject as having high, medium/high, medium, medium/low, or low EMF exposure, based primarily on data from an earlier and unrelated study designed to obtain occupational EMF exposure information on workers in ``electrical`` and ``nonelectrical`` jobs. By using the length of time each subject spent in each occupation through the exposure period, two indices of exposure were constructed: total occupational exposure (E{sub 1}) and average occupational exposure (E{sub 2}). For cases and controls with at least 20 years of work experience, the odds ratio (OR) for exposure at the 75th percentile of the E{sub 1} case exposure data relative to minimum exposure was 7.5 (P < 0.02; 95% CI, 1.4--38.1) and the corresponding OR for E{sub 2} was 5.5 (P < 0.02; 95% CI, 1.3--22.5). For all cases and controls, the ORs were 2.5 (P < 0.1; 95% CI, 0.9--8.1) for E{sub 1} and 2.3 (P = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.8--6.6) for E{sub 2}. This study should be considered an hypothesis-generating study. Larger studies, using incident cases and improved exposure assessment, should be undertaken.

  19. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in physiotherapy departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccà, I; Scapellato, M L; Carrieri, M; Pasqua di Bisceglie, A; Saia, B; Bartolucci, G B

    2008-01-01

    To assess occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields, 11 microwave (MW), 4 short-wave diathermy and 15 magneto therapy devices were analysed in eight physiotherapy departments. Measurements taken at consoles and environmental mapping showed values above European Directive 2004/40/EC and ACGIH exposure limits at approximately 50 cm from MW applicators (2.45 GHz) and above the Directive magnetic field limit near the diathermy unit (27.12 MHz). Levels in front of MW therapy applicators decreased rapidly with distance and reduction in power; this may not always occur in work environments where nearby metal structures (chairs, couches, etc.) may reflect or perturb electromagnetic fields. Large differences in stray field intensities were found for various MW applicators. Measurements of power density strength around MW electrodes confirmed radiation fields between 30 degrees and 150 degrees , with a peak at 90 degrees , in front of the cylindrical applicator and maximum values between 30 degrees and 150 degrees over the whole range of 180 degrees for the rectangular parabolic applicator. Our results reveal that although most areas show substantially low levels of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in physiotherapy units, certain cases of over-occupational exposure limits do exist.

  20. Field survey of occupants thermal comfort in rooms with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitchurov, G.; Naidenov, K.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    Field survey of occupants´ response to the thermal environment in eight office buildings with displacement ventilation was performed. The response of 227 occupants (94 males and 133 females) was collected and analysed. A neutral thermal sensation was reported by 37% of the occupants, and between...... is that in rooms with displacement ventilation draught is a major local discomfort factor for the occupants. The effect of vertical temperature difference on occupants´ local discomfort was not evidenced....

  1. Occupational Exposure to Electric Shocks and Magnetic Fields and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Heidi; Kheifets, Leeka; Huss, Anke; Peters, Tracy L; Vermeulen, Roel; Ye, Weimin; Fang, Fang; Wiebert, Pernilla; Vergara, Ximena P; Feychting, Maria

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been consistently related to "electric occupations," but associations with magnetic field levels were generally weaker than those with electrical occupations. Exposure to electric shock has been suggested as a possible explanation. Furthermore, stu

  2. Occupational Exposure to Electric Shocks and Magnetic Fields and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Heidi; Kheifets, Leeka; Huss, Anke; Peters, Tracy L; Vermeulen, Roel; Ye, Weimin; Fang, Fang; Wiebert, Pernilla; Vergara, Ximena P; Feychting, Maria

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been consistently related to "electric occupations," but associations with magnetic field levels were generally weaker than those with electrical occupations. Exposure to electric shock has been suggested as a possible explanation. Furthermore, stu

  3. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure promotes differentiation of pituitary corticotrope-derived AtT20 D16V cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, Antonella; Ledda, Mario; Rosola, Emanuela; Pozzi, Deleana; D'Emilia, Enrico; Giuliani, Livio; Foletti, Alberto; Modesti, Andrea; Morris, Stephen J; Grimaldi, Settimio

    2006-12-01

    The pituitary corticotrope-derived AtT20 D16V cell line responds to nerve growth factor (NGF) by extending neurite-like processes and differentiating into neurosecretory-like cells. The aim of this work is the study of the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) at a frequency of 50 Hz on these differentiation activities. To establish whether exposure to the field could influence the molecular biology of the cells, they were exposed to a magnetic flux density of 2 milli-Tesla (mT). Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and intracellular pH (pHi) were monitored in single exposed AtT20 D16V cells using fluorophores Indo-1 and SNARF for [Ca2+]i and pHi, respectively. Single-cell fluorescence microscopy showed a statistically significant increase in [Ca2+]i followed by a drop in pHi in exposed cells. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission microscopy of exposed AtT20 D16V cells show morphological changes in plasma membrane compared to non-exposed cells; this modification was accompanied by a rearrangement in actin filament distribution and the emergence of properties typical of peptidergic neuronal cells-the appearance of secretory-like granules in the cytosol and the increase of synaptophysin in synaptic vesicles, changes typical of neurosecretory-like cells. Using a monoclonal antibody toward the neurofilament protein NF-200 gave additional evidence that exposed cells were in an early stage of differentiation compared to control. Pre-treatment with 0.3 microM nifedipine, which specifically blocks L-type Ca2+ channels, prevented NF-200 expression in AtT20 D16V exposed cells. The above findings demonstrate that exposure to 50 Hz ELF-EMF is responsible for the premature differentiation in AtT20 D 16 V cells.

  4. Evaluation of occupational cold environments: field measurements and subjective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A Virgílio M; Gaspar, Adélio R; Raimundo, António M; Quintela, Divo A

    2014-01-01

    The present work is dedicated to the study of occupational cold environments in food distribution industrial units. Field measurements and a subjective assessment based on an individual questionnaire were considered. The survey was carried out in 5 Portuguese companies. The field measurements include 26 workplaces, while a sample of 160 responses was considered for the subjective assessment. In order to characterize the level of cold exposure, the Required Clothing Insulation Index (IREQ) was adopted. The IREQ index highlights that in the majority of the workplaces the clothing ensembles worn are inadequate, namely in the freezing chambers where the protection provided by clothing is always insufficient. The questionnaires results show that the food distribution sector is characterized by a female population (70.6%), by a young work force (60.7% are less than 35 yr old) and by a population with a medium-length professional career (80.1% in this occupation for less than 10 yr). The incidence of health effects which is higher among women, the distribution of protective clothing (50.0% of the workers indicate one garment) and the significant percentage of workers (>75%) that has more difficulties in performing the activity during the winter represent other important results of the present study.

  5. Collaborative field research and training in occupational health and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    1998-01-01

    Networking collaborative research and training in Asian developing countries includes three types of joint activities: field studies of workplace potentials for better safety and health, intensive action training for improvement of working conditions in small enterprises, and action-oriented workshops on low-cost improvements for managers, workers, and farmers. These activities were aimed at identifying workable strategies for making locally adjusted improvements in occupational health and ergonomics. Many improvements have resulted as direct outcomes. Most these improvements were multifaceted, low-cost, and practicable using local skills. Three common features of these interactive processes seem important in facilitating realistic improvements: 1) voluntary approaches building on local achievements; 2) the use of practical methods for identifying multiple improvements; and 3) participatory steps for achieving low-cost results first. The effective use of group work tools is crucial. Stepwise training packages have thus proven useful for promoting local problem-solving interventions based on voluntary initiatives.

  6. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field induces apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells via oxidative stress%极低频电磁场诱导人骨肉瘤细胞凋亡及其机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏丽; 叶招明

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索极低频电磁场对人骨肉瘤细胞增殖凋亡的影响及其分子机制。方法:采用50 Hz、1 mT 的极低频电磁场作用于人骨肉瘤细胞MG-63,通过MTT法检测MG-63细胞的存活率,通过流式细胞术检测MG-63细胞的凋亡率及活性氧水平,并检测 MG-63细胞给予活性氧抑制剂 N-乙酰半胱氨酸( NAC )及p38 MAPK抑制剂SB203580作用后细胞凋亡率的变化;通过蛋白质印迹法检测极低频电磁场处理及NAC干预后MG-63细胞p38 MAPK蛋白水平。结果:极低频电磁场能够显著抑制MG-63细胞的存活率,诱导MG-63细胞凋亡及活性氧生成;给予2.5 mmol/L NAC或SB203580干预后MG-63细胞凋亡率显著下降;极低频电磁场处理MG-63细胞后胞内p38 MAPK表达增多,而NAC干预后磷酸化p38 MAPK减少。结论:极低频电磁场可诱导人骨肉瘤细胞MG-63凋亡,其机制可能与活性氧生成增加、p38 MAPK激活有关。%Objective: To investigate the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field ( ELF-EMF ) on human osteosarcoma cells and its mechanisms . Methods:Human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells were exposed to 50 Hz,1 mT ELF-EMF for 1, 2 and 3 h in vitro, with or without pretreatment by reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor N acetylcysteine ( NAC) or p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580.The proliferation of MG-63 cells was determined by MTT method; the apoptosis rate and ROS level in MG-63 cells were detected by flow cytometry .The expression of p38MAPK in MG-63 cells was determined by Western blotting .Results: ELF-EMF decreased the viability of MG-63 cells, inhibited cell growth , induced cell apoptosis and increased the level of ROS significantly .The apoptosis rate declined significantly after treatment with ROS inhibitor NAC or p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 .After exposure to ELF-EMF, p38 MAPK in MG-63 cells was activated , and the phosphorylation level was also inhibited after treatment with NAC

  7. Electromagnetic field occupational exposure: non-thermal vs. thermal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, M; Zaryabova, V; Ivanova, M

    2013-06-01

    There are a variety of definitions for "non-thermal effects" included in different international standards. They start by the simple description that they are "effects of electromagnetic energy on a body that are not heat-related effects", passing through the very general definition related to low-level effects: "biological effects ascribed to exposure to low-level electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields, i.e. at or below the corresponding dosimetric reference levels in the frequency range covered in this standard (0 Hz-300 GHz)", and going to the concrete definition of "the stimulation of muscles, nerves, or sensory organs, vertigo or phosfenes". Here, we discuss what kind of effect does the non-thermal one has on human body and give data of measurements in different occupations with low-frequency sources of electromagnetic field such as electric power distribution systems, transformers, MRI systems and : video display units (VDUs), whereas thermal effects should not be expected. In some of these workplaces, values above the exposure limits could be found, nevertheless that they are in the term "non-thermal effects" on human body. Examples are workplaces in MRI, also in some power plants. Here, we will not comment on non-thermal effects as a result of RF or microwave exposure because there are not proven evidence about the existance of such effects and mechanisms for them are not clear.

  8. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and sex-differential risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas Flensted; Lynge, Elsebeth; Cree, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of uveal melanoma was investigated in a case-control study in nine European countries.......The association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of uveal melanoma was investigated in a case-control study in nine European countries....

  9. Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields modulates Na+ currents in rat cerebellar granule cells through increase of AA/PGE2 and EP receptor-mediated cAMP/PKA pathway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Yan-Lin; Liu, Dong-Dong; Fang, Yan-Jia; Zhan, Xiao-Qin; Yao, Jin-Jing; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2013-01-01

    ...) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on INa in cerebellar GCs. Increases in intracellular AA, PGE2 and phosphorylated PKA levels in cerebellar GCs were observed following ELF-EMF exposure. Western blottin...

  10. Assessment of occupational exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Aniołczyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: European Union Directive 2013/35/UE provides for the implementation of EU regulations into national legislation. Our aim is to assess actual health hazards from radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF (range: 100 kHz – 300 GHz and indicate workplaces with the highest risk to employee health. Material and Methods: Data from measurements of RF EMF performed by the Laboratory of Electromagnetic Hazards in Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Łódź, Poland were analyzed. The analysis covered the results of electric field intensity (E for over 450 selected items. The ranges of protection zones and the extent to which maximum admissible intensity (MAI values were also analyzed. The determinations and measurements of EMF in the work environment met the requirements of Polish Standard, while Polish regulations on the MAI values were used as the criterion for the assessment of the exposure. Results: The highest values of E field intensity at workplaces were measured for: electrosurgery, to 400 V/m, and short-wave diathermy units, to 220 V/m, dielectric welders to 240 V/m, within the FM radio antenna systems, to 180 V/m. The widest protection zones were noted for prototype research instruments, short-wave diathermy units, and dielectric welders. The most excessive (up to 12-fold MAI values were recorded for dielectric welders, short-wave diathermy units (up to 11-fold and microwave diathermy units (up to 8-fold. Conclusions: Our results have confirmed the high RF EMF values for physiotherapists, operators of dielectric welders, and mast maintenance workers in radio communication facilities (especially radio and TV broadcasting stations. Med Pr 2015;66(2:199–212

  11. Electromagnetic fields: risk assessment and occupational diseases in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filosa, L.; Frusteri, L. [Risk Assessment and Prevention, Technical Advisory Dept., Italian Workers Compensation Authority, Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Every year about 8000 occupational diseases are accepted in Italy by I.N.A.I.L., the Italian Workers' Compensation Authority. The occupational diseases are caused by different agents (chemical, biological, physical) but only a very little percentage resulted to be caused by non ionizing radiations. In this paper the Authors report an analysis of occupational diseases caused by non ionising radiations denounced to I.N.A.I.L. and compensated. It is discussed the Italian situation in light of the controversial studies related to the link between exposure and health effects. Because of the uncertainty about an E.M.F. - health link, the main effort is to determine the probability and seriousness of E.M.F. hazard and to realize an accurate risk assessment at workplace, which is one of the main objectives pursued by I.N.A.I.L. Technical Advisory Department for Risk Assessment and Prevention. Moreover, in this paper it is also reported the state of advancement of Italian legislation on health protection against non ionizing radiations at workplace in view of the new European Directive (2004/40/C.E.). (authors)

  12. Occupation of quasi-bound states by electrons in a Schwarzschild field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galtsov, D.V.; Pomerantseva, G.V.; Chizhov, G.A.

    1983-08-01

    It is noted that quasi-steady states at energies omega less than mu exist near a Schwarzschild black hole. The occupation of these states by massive spinor particles is examined in the Pauli approximation for small black holes (mu)(M) much less than 1. It is shown that, as in the case of a scalar field, the occupation process is a thermal one. 7 references.

  13. Evaluations of Occupational Exposure and Magnetic Field Levels at Hospital Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Şükrü Özen; Selçuk Helhel; Gizem Kahya; Mehmet Çakır; Samet Yalçın

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic field levels at the typical hospital environments analyzed with this study. Typical center laboratory has been selected for the research. There are a lot of devices at this center such as Centrifugal, biochemistry auto-analyzer, Hemogram units etc. Electromagnetic fields at the laboratory environment are the Extremely Low Frequency field. Therefore, occupants that they may be exposed to the electromagnetic field levels were measured, and the results are evaluated in the light ...

  14. Assessment of Foetal Exposure to the Homogeneous Magnetic Field Harmonic Spectrum Generated by Electricity Transmission and Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Fiocchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades studies addressing the effects of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (ELF-EMF have pointed out a possible link between those fields emitted by power lines and childhood leukaemia. They have also stressed the importance of also including in the assessment the contribution of frequency components, namely harmonics, other than the fundamental one. Based on the spectrum of supply voltage networks allowed by the European standard for electricity quality assessment, in this study the exposure of high-resolution three-dimensional models of foetuses to the whole harmonic content of a uniform magnetic field with a fundamental frequency of 50 Hz, was assessed. The results show that the main contribution in terms of induced electric fields to the foetal exposure is given by the fundamental frequency component. The harmonic components add some contributions to the overall level of electric fields, however, due to the extremely low permitted amplitude of the harmonic components with respect to the fundamental, their amplitudes are low. The level of the induced electric field is also much lower than the limits suggested by the guidelines for general public exposure, when the amplitude of the incident magnetic field is set at the maximum permitted level.

  15. Assessment of foetal exposure to the homogeneous magnetic field harmonic spectrum generated by electricity transmission and distribution networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Serena; Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades studies addressing the effects of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (ELF-EMF) have pointed out a possible link between those fields emitted by power lines and childhood leukaemia. They have also stressed the importance of also including in the assessment the contribution of frequency components, namely harmonics, other than the fundamental one. Based on the spectrum of supply voltage networks allowed by the European standard for electricity quality assessment, in this study the exposure of high-resolution three-dimensional models of foetuses to the whole harmonic content of a uniform magnetic field with a fundamental frequency of 50 Hz, was assessed. The results show that the main contribution in terms of induced electric fields to the foetal exposure is given by the fundamental frequency component. The harmonic components add some contributions to the overall level of electric fields, however, due to the extremely low permitted amplitude of the harmonic components with respect to the fundamental, their amplitudes are low. The level of the induced electric field is also much lower than the limits suggested by the guidelines for general public exposure, when the amplitude of the incident magnetic field is set at the maximum permitted level.

  16. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Agricultural Laboratory and Field Technician Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These Illinois skill standards for the agricultural laboratory and field technician cluster are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for…

  17. Setting occupational exposure limits in humans: contributions from the field of experimental psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, M.A.M.; Kroeze, J.H.A.; Dalton, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Psychophysical methods from the field of experimental psychology are evaluated for their utility in the derivation of occupational exposure limits (OELs) for volatile chemicals based on acute sensory irritation in humans. The lateralization threshold method, which involves the localization of trigem

  18. Occupational exposure to magnetic fields and electric shocks and risk of ALS : the Swiss National Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huss, Anke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/331385880; Spoerri, Adrian; Egger, Matthias; Kromhout, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been associated with exposures in so-called 'electrical occupations'. It is unclear if this possible link may be explained by exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) or by electrical shocks. We evaluated ALS mortality in 2000-2008 and expo

  19. Measuring Occupational Exposure to Extremely Low-Frequency Electric Fields at 220 kV Substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkkalainen, Herkko; Heiskanen, Timo; Tonteri, Juhani; Elovaara, Jarmo; Mika, Penttilä; Korpinen, Leena

    2017-03-03

    Earlier studies conducted at 400 and 110 kV substations in Finland have shown that the occupational exposure to electric fields can exceed the action levels (ALs) set by Directive 2013/35/EU. This is a case study investigating the level of occupational exposure experienced by workers at 220 kV substations in order to determine if the actions levels are being exceeded. The measurements were conducted at two old 220 kV substations in Finland. The higher AL of 20 kV m-1 was exceeded at both substations.

  20. Occupational Exposure Assessment of Tehran Metro Drivers to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad reza Monazzam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELF-MFs in train drivers is an integral part of the driving task and creates concern about driving jobs. The present study was designed to investigate the occupational exposure of Tehran train drivers to extremely low frequency magnetic fields. Methods: In order to measure the driver’s exposure, from each line, a random sample in AC and DC type trains was selected and measurements were done according to the IEEE std 644-1994 using a triple axis TES-394 device. Train drivers were then compared with national occupational exposure limit guidelines. Results: The maximum and minimum mean exposure was found in AC external city trains (1.2±1.5 μT and DC internal city trains (0.31±0.2 μT, respectively. The maximum and minimum exposure was 9 μT and 0.08 μT in AC trains of line 5, respectively. In the internal train line, maximum and minimum values were 5.4 μT and 0.08 μT in AC trains. Conclusions: In none of the exposure scenarios in different trains, the exposure exceeded the national or international occupational exposure limit guidelines. However, this should not be the basis of safety in these fields

  1. Effect of incubating egg exposure to magnetic field on the biophysical blood properties of newly-hatched chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ghannam Magdy; Mohamed, Shafey Tarek; Abd-Alaah, Aly Amany; Kassem, Abdelhalim Mohamed Anwar; Suliman, Al-Ayed Mohammed

    2015-09-01

    Due to widespread of human exposure to electromagnetic fields, there has been increasing public concern about the potential health risks from low-frequency electromagnetic fields; ELF-EMF. The magnetic fields (MFs) affects functions of the living organisms, such as DNA synthesis and ion transportation through the cell membranes. In the present work, the effects of short-term exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) prior to incubation were investigated on the biophysical blood properties of chicks hatched from layer-type breeder eggs. The eggs were exposed to a MF of 0.75 mT at 50 Hz for 20, 40 and 60 min before incubation. This study was performed by measuring the dielectric relaxation of hemoglobin (Hb) molecules and the membrane solubility of red blood cells (RBCs) using the non-ionic detergent octylglucoside. Exposure of the eggs to a MF increased the conductivity of the Hb molecules. The pronounced increase in the conductivity of the exposed eggs might be attributed to an increase in the surface charge of the Hb macromolecules, resulted from the formation of highly active molecular species. This speculation can be supported by the increase in the relaxation time of the exposed groups. The solubilization process of the RBC membrane indicates a loss in the mobility of RBCs in the blood of hatching chicks.

  2. Expression and effect of matrix metalloproteinase 2 in human fetal scleral fibroblasts treated with an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field%极低频电磁辐射下HFSF中MMP-2的表达及作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜; 朱煌

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity and protein expression in human fetal scleral fibroblasts (HFSFs) exposed to an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and its impact on collagen Ⅰ synthesis.Methods This was an experimental study.HFSFs were cultured and divided into a control group,radiation group and inhibitor group according to their exposure to 50 Hz,0.2 mT electromagnetic field or joint MMP-2 specific inhibitors (sc-204092).MMP-2 activity was measured by gelatin enzymography.MMP-2 and collagen Ⅰ protein expression were detected by Western Blot.A single factor analysis of variance was used to determine whether there was a difference among these groups.Results There were significant differences between the three groups (F=14.96,139.88,63.46,P<0.01).Compared to the control group,MMP-2 activity and protein expression increased in the radiation group (P<0.05) and collagen Ⅰ protein expression decreased (P<0.01).Compared to the radiation group,MMP-2 activity and protein expression decreased in the inhibitor group (P<0.01) and collagen Ⅰ protein expression increased (P<0.05).Conclusion ELF-EMF may regulate the synthesis of collagen Ⅰ by affecting the activity and protein expression of MMP-2.%目的 研究极低频电磁场(ELF-EMF)作用下人胚胎眼巩膜成纤维细胞(HFSF)中基质金属蛋白酶-2(MMP-2)活性与蛋白表达的变化以及ELF-EMF对Ⅰ型胶原(Collagen Ⅰ)合成的影响.方法 实验研究.根据是否暴露于50 Hz、0.2 mT电磁场或加入MMP-2特异性抑制剂(sc-204092),将实验细胞分为对照组、辐照组和抑制剂组.明胶酶谱法检测各组HFSF中MMP-2酶活性的变化;Western Blot法检测各组HFSF中MMP-2、Collagen Ⅰ蛋白水平的变化.采用单因素方差分析进行数据分析.结果 3组HFSF细胞中MMP-2酶活性、MMP-2、Collagen Ⅰ蛋白表达比较差异均具有统计学意义(F=14.96、139.88、63.46,P均<0.01);

  3. Occupational electromagnetic field exposures associated with sleep quality: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    Full Text Available Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF emitted by mobile phone and other machineries concerns half the world's population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. The present study aims to explore the effects of electromagnetic field exposures on sleep quality and sleep duration among workers from electric power plant.A cross-sectional study was conducted in an electric power plant of Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 854 participants were included in the final analysis. The detailed information of participants was obtained by trained investigators using a structured questionnaire, which including socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle variables, sleep variables and electromagnetic exposures. Physical examination and venous blood collection were also carried out for every study subject.After grouping daily occupational electromagnetic exposure into three categories, subjects with long daily exposure time had a significantly higher risk of poor sleep quality in comparison to those with short daily exposure time. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.39 and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.10, 2.24 across tertiles. Additionally, among the subjects with long-term occupational exposure, the longer daily occupational exposure time apparently increased the risk of poor sleep quality (OR (95%CI: 2.12 (1.23∼3.66 in the second tertile; 1.83 (1.07∼3.15 in the third tertile. There was no significant association of long-term occupational exposure duration, monthly electric fee or years of mobile-phone use with sleep quality or sleep duration.The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration.

  4. Effects of a 50 Hz magnetic field on Dictyostelium discoideum (Protista).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaroli, Andrea; Trielli, Francesca; Bianco, Bruno; Giordano, Stefano; Moggia, Elsa; Corrado, Maria Umberta Delmonte

    2006-10-01

    Some studies have demonstrated that a few biological systems are affected by weak, extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs), lower than 10 mT. However, to date there is scanty evidence of this effect on Protists in the literature. Due to their peculiarity as single-cell eukaryotic organisms, Protists respond directly to environmental stimuli, thus appearing as very suitable experimental systems. Recently, we showed the presence of propionylcholinesterase (PrChE) activity in single-cell amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum. This enzyme activity was assumed to be involved in cell-cell and cell-environment interactions, as its inhibition affects cell aggregation and differentiation. In this work, we have exposed single-cell amoebae of D. discoideum to an ELF-EMF of about 200 microT, 50 Hz, for 3 h or 24 h at 21 degrees C. A delay in the early phase of the differentiation was observed in 3 h exposed cells, and a significant decrease in the fission rate appeared in 24 h exposed cells. The PrChE activity was significantly lower in 3 h exposed cells than in the controls, whereas 24 h exposed cells exhibited an increase in this enzyme activity. However, such effects appeared to be transient, as the fission rate and PrChE activity values returned to the respective control values after a 24 h stay under standard conditions.

  5. Effects of short-term exposure to powerline-frequency electromagnetic field on the electrical activity of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmas, Onur; Comlekci, Selcuk; Koylu, Halis

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The heart is a contractile organ that can generate its own rhythm. The contraction, or the rhythm, of the heart may be influenced by electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure, because of the heart's excitability characteristic. In previous studies, different methods have been used to study the possible effects of an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on the heart. But the studies' designs were not similar, and the results were also different. Recent studies have shown some evidence that short-term EMF exposure can influence the heart more than long-term exposure. This study investigated how the heart is affected in the first EMF exposure. In a simulation of the daily exposure of humans to a power frequency, Wistar albino rats were used. By utilizing the Helmholtz-coil set, we obtained a 50-Hz, 1-μT EMF and examined rat heart activity during short-term EMF exposure. No effect was observed under this exposure condition. The results obtained do not confirm a possible mechanism in the electrical activity of the rat heart model.

  6. On the modulation effect of pulsing and static magnetic fields and mechanical vibrations on barley seed hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyan, Armine; Ayrapetyan, Sinerik

    2004-01-01

    The changes of wet and dry weights of barley seed in different periods of swelling were studied in seeds treated with Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (ELF EMF), Static Magnetic Fields (SMF) and Mechanical Vibrations (MV) in cold (4 degrees C) and warm (20 degrees C) distilled water as well as in seeds non-treated (control). The metabolic dependent seed hydration, dry weight loss and water binding in seed were modulated by preliminary EMF, SMF and MV-induced treatment of distilled water. The specific electrical conductivity (SEC) of control and treated distilled water was measured before the seed incubation. Frequency and intensity "windows" (i.e. range of frequency or intensity) for the effect of EMF, MV and SMF (correspondingly) on seed hydration, solubility and water binding in seed were studied. These "windows" were different in various phases of seed swelling. It is suggested that water structure modification is the result of valence angle changes (SMF and EMF) and dipole molecules vibration (EMF and MV) has different effects on the process of hydration, solubility and water binding in seed. These results are important from the point of understanding the mechanisms of the biological effect of EMF, as well as from the point of agriculture.

  7. Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahrendorf Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF in Germany. Methods A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study. The criteria aimed at conditions of exposure and exposure assessment (level, duration, preferably on an individual basis, the possibility to assemble a cohort and the feasibility of ascertaining various disease endpoints. Results Twenty occupational settings with workers potentially exposed to RF-EMF and, in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio operators, and workers on dielectric heat sealers. After further analyses, the cohort of workers on dielectric heat sealers seems not to be feasible due to the small number of exposed workers available and to the difficulty of assessing exposure (exposure depends heavily on the respective working process and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours, although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality of retrospective exposure assessment. However, in the cohort of amateur radio operators the exposure assessment was limited, and the cohort of technicians was hampered by the small number of persons working in this profession. Conclusion The majority of occupational groups exposed to RF-EMF are not practicable for setting up an occupational cohort study due to the small numbers of exposed subjects or due to exposure levels being only marginally higher

  8. Occupational exposure measurements of static and pulsed gradient magnetic fields in the vicinity of MRI scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kännälä, Sami; Toivo, Tim; Alanko, Tommi; Jokela, Kari

    2009-04-07

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have increased occupational exposure to magnetic fields. In this study, we examined the assessment of occupational exposure to gradient magnetic fields and time-varying magnetic fields generated by motion in non-homogeneous static magnetic fields of MRI scanners. These magnetic field components can be measured simultaneously with an induction coil setup that detects the time rate of change of magnetic flux density (dB/dt). The setup developed was used to measure the field components around two MRI units (1 T open and 3 T conventional). The measured values can be compared with dB/dt reference levels derived from magnetic flux density reference levels given by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The measured motion-induced dB/dt values were above the dB/dt reference levels for both MRI units. The measured values for the gradient fields (echo planar imaging (EPI) and fast field echo (FFE) sequences) also exceeded the dB/dt reference levels in positions where the medical staff may have access during interventional procedures. The highest motion-induced dB/dt values were 0.7 T s(-1) for the 1 T scanner and 3 T s(-1) for the 3 T scanner when only the static field was present. Even higher values (6.5 T s(-1)) were measured for simultaneous exposure to motion-induced and gradient fields in the vicinity of the 3 T scanner.

  9. Health and Wellbeing of Occupants in Highly Energy Efficient Buildings: A Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wallner

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Passive houses and other highly energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, ventilation systems in such houses are regarded with a certain degree of skepticism by parts of the public due to alleged negative health effects. Within a quasi-experimental field study, we investigated if occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation experience different health, wellbeing and housing satisfaction outcomes and if associations with indoor air quality exist. We investigated 123 modern homes (test group: with mechanical ventilation; control group: naturally ventilated built in the years 2010 to 2012 in the same geographic area and price range. Interviews of occupants based on standardized questionnaires and measurements of indoor air quality parameters were conducted twice (three months after moving in and one year later. In total, 575 interviews were performed (respondents’ mean age 37.9 ± 9 years in the test group, 37.7 ± 9 years in the control group. Occupants of the test group rated their overall health status and that of their children not significantly higher than occupants of the control group at both time points. Adult occupants of the test group reported dry eyes statistically significantly more frequently compared to the control group (19.4% vs. 12.5%. Inhabitants of energy-efficient, mechanically ventilated homes rated the quality of indoor air and climate significantly higher. Self-reported health improved more frequently in the mechanically ventilated new homes (p = 0.005. Almost no other significant differences between housing types and measuring time points were observed concerning health and wellbeing or housing satisfaction. Associations between vegetative symptoms (dizziness, nausea, headaches and formaldehyde concentrations as well as between CO2 levels and perceived stale air were observed. However, both associations were independent of the type of ventilation. In summary, occupants of

  10. Occupational exposure levels of static magnetic field during routine MRI examination in 3T MR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Nakai, Toshiharu; Imai, Shinya; Izawa, Shuhei; Okuno, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Occupational exposure to the high static magnetic fields (SMFs) during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations raises concerns of adverse health effects. In this study, personal exposure monitoring of the magnetic fields during routine examinations in two 3 T MRI systems was carried out. A three-axis Hall magnetometer was attached to a subject's chest during monitoring. Data acquisition started every time the subject entered the scanner room and ended when the subject exited the room. Four radiologic technologists from two different institutes participated in this study. The maximum exposed field ranged from 0 to 1250 mT and the average peak magnetic field (B) was 428 ± 231 mT (mean ± standard deviation (SD): number of samples (N) = 103). Then, the relationship between exposure levels and work duties was analyzed. The MRI examination of the head or neck showed the highest average peak B among four work categories. These results provide information of real exposure levels for 3 T MRI system operators and can also improve the current practical training advice for preventing extra occupational field exposure.

  11. Occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields in the context of the ICNIRP guidelines

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, T G

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposures to electric and magnetic fields at sub-optical frequencies are reviewed and measurements of exposure are compared with the reference levels advised in guidelines published by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Compliance with the reference levels ensures compliance with the underlying basic restrictions that have been advised to provide protection against the established adverse health effects of exposure. The review draws on material published in 1994 and on data obtained in more recent exposure assessments carried out by NRPB. Many of the exposure measurements that are reported complied with the relevant reference levels, however a number of devices and applications have been identified where the reference levels or basic restrictions may be approached or exceeded. Further work may be required in some areas to determine whether occupational exposures exceeding the reference levels are likely to result in non-compliance with the basic restrictio...

  12. Considerations on occupational therapy in a custody and psychiatric treatment hospital: The psychosocial field versus the forensic psychiatry field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Santos de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Custody and Psychiatric Treatment Hospital (CPTH is ambivalent and ambiguous in its essence, because it gathers not only the characteristics of a mental institution, but also those of a prison – epitomized by the security system. By analyzing this context, one can perceive the importance of implementing some knowhow able to attend the real needs of the individuals hospitalized in this type of institution. This interpretation of their needs must be done in association with a work in mental health based on the principles of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and Psychosocial Field Practice. The objective of this study is to reflect on the real possibilities of implementing mental health work based on the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform, inserted in the Psychosocial Field, in institutions such as CPTHs. This reflection occurs from the conflicts arisen in the beginning of Occupational Therapy service in a CPTH located in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, as well as through the analysis of the reality in which this Custody Hospital is inserted. When studying the Psychiatric Reform Law, ordinance 28.195/1988, which deliberates on the functions of Occupational Therapy in the CPTHs of the state of Sao Paulo, and the Penal Execution Law, the reality was analyzed from its dimensions, to conclude that the institutional forces ruled the work process of occupational therapists. Therefore, the structural, particular, singular dimensions that rule the CPTH were understood and, after that, the “nodes” that hinder the implementation of mental health work in the Psychosocial Field in this type of institution were revealed.

  13. Systematic review study on the use of the concept of daily life in the field of occupational therapy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Simões Matsukura

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the concept of daily life has increased in the field of occupational therapy, with studies referring to daily life as a tool that is both theoretic-conceptual and practical, providing support for both research and care. In this study, we aimed to identify and systematize the knowledge production about the daily life concept in occupational therapy in Brazil. A systematic review of the Brazilian literature of the past ten years on the concept of daily life in occupational therapy was used as our methodological approach. Twelve articles were selected to compose this research. The concept of daily life as considered in studies of occupational therapists, is established in the relationship between what is singular to the individual and what is collective and social. This concept defines a theoretical position in occupational therapy, departing from a medical and positivist interpretation of health care, giving attention to the subjectivity of individuals, their day-to-day activities and their social inclusion. The concept of daily life was also used in the reflection about how illnesses change people’s daily lives, to support the description and analysis of the daily lives of the studied subjects and to discuss the concept of daily life in occupational therapy practice. There is a wide range of possibilities for the use of the concept of daily life in the research and practice of occupational therapy. The present study shows that this concept adds to the basis of contemporary occupational therapy knowledge produced in Brazil.

  14. Induction of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A activity in human skin fibroblasts and rat osteoblasts by extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thumm, S.; Glock, S.; Haemmerle, H. [Natural and Medical Sciences Institute Reutlingen, University of Tuebingen (NMI), Markwiesenstrasse 55, D-72770 Reutlingen (Germany); Loeschinger, M.; Rodemann, H.P. [Section of Radiobiology and Molecular Environmental Research, University of Tuebingen, Roentgenweg 11, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    Sinusoidal extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF; 7-8 mT, 20 Hz) have already been shown to inhibit proliferation and to accelerate terminal differentiation of human skin fibroblasts in vitro. In order to elucidate the underlying processes of signal transduction, we analysed the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). EMF exposure for 60 min resulted in an increased PKA activity in human skin fibroblasts (2-fold) and rat embryonic osteoblasts (1.7-fold). Long-term exposure for up to 7 days with a constant 1 h-on/1 h-off EMF exposure rhythm indicated a transient stimulation of PKA activity during the first two exposure rhythms followed by a decrease to the baseline levels of sham-exposed controls. Based on these results, we postulate that a modulation of proliferation and differentiation processes in cells of mesenchymal origin is triggered by an immediate and transient EMF-induced increase in PKA activity. (orig.)

  15. Human health effects of EMFs: The cost of doing nothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter MD, David O.

    2010-04-01

    Everyone is exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from electricity (extremely low frequency, ELF), communication frequencies and wireless devices (radiofrequency, RF), as well as naturally occurring EMFs. Concern of health hazards from EMFs has increased as the use of mobile phones and other wireless devices has grown in all segments of the population, especially children. While there has been strong evidence for an association between leukemia and residential or occupational exposure to ELF EMFs for many years, the standards in existence are not sufficiently stringent to protect from an increased risk of cancer. ELF EMFs also increase risk of at least two types of neurodegenerative diseases. For RF EMFs, standards are set at levels designed to avoid tissue heating, in spite of many reports of biological effects at intensities too low to cause significant heating. Recent evidence demonstrates elevations in risk of brain cancer and acoustic neuroma only on the side of the head where individuals used their mobile phone. Individuals who begin exposure at younger ages are more vulnerable. These data indicate that the existing standards for radiofrequency exposure are not adequate. While there are many unanswered questions, the cost of doing nothing may result in an increasing number of people, many of them young, developing these diseases.

  16. Human health effects of EMFs: The cost of doing nothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, David O, E-mail: carpent@uamail.albany.ed [Institute for Health and the Environment, University at Albany, Rensselaer, NY 12144-3456 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Everyone is exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from electricity (extremely low frequency, ELF), communication frequencies and wireless devices (radiofrequency, RF), as well as naturally occurring EMFs. Concern of health hazards from EMFs has increased as the use of mobile phones and other wireless devices has grown in all segments of the population, especially children. While there has been strong evidence for an association between leukemia and residential or occupational exposure to ELF EMFs for many years, the standards in existence are not sufficiently stringent to protect from an increased risk of cancer. ELF EMFs also increase risk of at least two types of neurodegenerative diseases. For RF EMFs, standards are set at levels designed to avoid tissue heating, in spite of many reports of biological effects at intensities too low to cause significant heating. Recent evidence demonstrates elevations in risk of brain cancer and acoustic neuroma only on the side of the head where individuals used their mobile phone. Individuals who begin exposure at younger ages are more vulnerable. These data indicate that the existing standards for radiofrequency exposure are not adequate. While there are many unanswered questions, the cost of doing nothing may result in an increasing number of people, many of them young, developing these diseases.

  17. Occupational exposure to magnetic fields and electric shocks and risk of ALS: the Swiss National Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Anke; Spoerri, Adrian; Egger, Matthias; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been associated with exposures in so-called 'electrical occupations'. It is unclear if this possible link may be explained by exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) or by electrical shocks. We evaluated ALS mortality in 2000-2008 and exposure to ELF-MF and electrical shocks in the Swiss National Cohort, using job exposure matrices for occupations at censuses 1990 and 2000. We compared 2.2 million workers with high or medium vs. low exposure to ELF-MF and electrical shocks using Cox proportional hazard models. Results showed that mortality from ALS was higher in people who had medium or high ELF-MF exposure in both censuses (HR 1.55 (95% CI 1.11-2.15)), but closer to unity for electrical shocks (HR 1.17 (95% CI 0.83-1.65)). When both exposures were included in the same model, the HR for ELF-MF changed little (HR 1.56), but the HR for electric shocks was attenuated to 0.97. In conclusion, there was an association between exposure to ELF-MF and mortality from ALS among workers with a higher likelihood of long-term exposure.

  18. Accuracy and repeatability of an inertial measurement unit system for field-based occupational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Mark C; Fethke, Nathan B; Chen, Howard; Oyama, Sakiko; Douphrate, David I

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy and repeatability of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) system for directly measuring trunk angular displacement and upper arm elevation were evaluated over eight hours (i) in comparison to a gold standard, optical motion capture (OMC) system in a laboratory setting, and (ii) during a field-based assessment of dairy parlour work. Sample-to-sample root mean square differences between the IMU and OMC system ranged from 4.1° to 6.6° for the trunk and 7.2°-12.1° for the upper arm depending on the processing method. Estimates of mean angular displacement and angular displacement variation (difference between the 90th and 10th percentiles of angular displacement) were observed to change IMU system may serve as an acceptable instrument for directly measuring trunk and upper arm postures in field-based occupational exposure assessment studies with long sampling durations. Practitioner Summary: Few studies have evaluated inertial measurement unit (IMU) systems in the field or over long sampling durations. Results of this study indicate that the IMU system evaluated has reasonably good accuracy and repeatability for use in a field setting over a long sampling duration.

  19. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on human retinal pigment epithelium cells%极低频电磁场对体外培养人视网膜色素上皮细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁; 朱煌; 杜尔罡

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate pathological changes in the molecules of human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE) exposed to an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF),and study its possible significance in the occurrence and development of myopia.Methods In this experimental study,the experimental group was composed of hRPE exposed to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields; the untreated group was composed of hRPE without exposure.The changes in hRPE cell morphology were observed and cell proliferation in hRPE was measured by a CCK8 assay.The expressions of matrix metallo-proteinase-2 (MMP-2),tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2),transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) mRNA in hRPE were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).The concentrations of TGF-β2 and FGF-2 in the culture medium of hRPE were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The difference between the two group using independent t test.Results hRPE cell morphology changed,and the proliferation of hRPE was inhibited (t=-7.069,-3.652,-6.974,P< 0.05).The mRNA expressions of MMP-2,TIMP-2 and TGF-β2 were up-regulated significantly (t=10.562,6.277,4.940,P<0.01).However,the mRNA expression of FGF-2 was down-regulated significantly (t=-6.905,P<0.01).The results of ELISA indicated that after exposure to ELF-EMF,the expression of TGF-β2 in hRPE supernatant medium was up-regulated significantly (t=-4.079,P< 0.05).However,the expression of FGF-2 in hRPE supernatant medium was down-regulated (t=4.441,P<0.05).Conclusion ELF-EMF changed the proliferation of hRPE,and also changed the expressions of MMP-2,TIMP-2,TGF-β2 and FGF-2 mRNA in hRPE,which might induce the occurrence of myopia through pathological changes in the molecules of hRPE.%目的 研究极低频电磁场(ELF-EMF)作用下体外培养的人视网膜色素上皮细胞(hRPE)的分子病理改变,探讨其在近视发生发展

  20. Assessment of physiotherapists' occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from shortwave and microwave diathermy devices: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Ghulam Sarwar; Farrow, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed studies reporting the strength of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) in physiotherapists' occupational environment. Studies from academic journals published from January 1990 to June 2010 were identified in nine online bibliographic databases. EMF strength was compared with occupational exposure limits (OELs) recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In the reviewed studies, EMFs were measured at different distances (range 0.2 m to 6 m) from the console of diathermy devices, electrodes, and cables. For continuous shortwave diathermy (CSWD) (27.12 megahertz, MHz), measurements of EMFs at field strength as 8197%, 1639%, 295%, and 69%, respectively, and the maximum H field strength as 6250%, 681%, 213%, and 56%, respectively, of the ICNIRP limits for E and H fields for occupational exposure. For pulsed shortwave diathermy (PSWD) (27.12 MHz), EMF measurements at field intensity as 1639%, 175%, and 32%, and the maximum H field strength as 1175%, 968%, and 28%, respectively, of the ICNIRP limits for E and H fields for occupational exposure. For microwave diathermy (MWD) (2.45 gigahertz, GHz), the maximum power density measured at exposure. RF EMF emissions measured from continuous and pulsed electrotherapeutic diathermy devices may well be higher than OELs at specific distances, i.e., at 1 m, which is currently designated to be a safe distance for physiotherapists. The minimum safe distance for physiotherapists should be revised to at least 2 m for CSWD and 1.5 m for PSWD. The reviewed studies did not provide evidence of exceeding the ICNIRP's reference levels for occupational exposure at 1 m from MWD devices.

  1. Occupational extremely low-frequency magnetic field exposure and selected cancer outcomes in a prospective Dutch cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, T.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Slottje, P.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kromhout, H.; Vermeulen, R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association between exposure to occupational extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and the risk of a priori selected cancer outcomes within the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study. Methods: 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years at time of enrollment in 1986

  2. Occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and cardiovascular disease mortality in a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slottje, Pauline; Kromhout, Hans; Schouten, Leo J.; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Koeman, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although a study among utility workers found an increased risk for acute myocardial infarction and arrhythmia-related deaths associated with occupational extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) exposure, later studies largely failed to replicate these findings. This study investi

  3. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzani, Claudio

    This report provides an initial analysis of the occupational and qualification structures in the field of environmental protection in the Italian metal and chemical industries. The first two chapters review the legislative background, situation in industry, and provision of environmental education and training. The third chapter presents results…

  4. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    A study analyzed the occupational structure and qualifications associated with the field of environmental protection in the metal and chemical industries in the United Kingdom. The analysis included nine case studies based on interviews with firms in the chemicals and metals sectors. Information was gathered within an analytical framework that…

  5. Occupational exposure in MR facilities due to movements in the static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreuccetti, Daniele; Biagi, Laura; Burriesci, Giancarlo; Cannatà, Vittorio; Contessa, Gian Marco; Falsaperla, Rosaria; Genovese, Elisabetta; Lodato, Rossella; Lopresto, Vanni; Merla, Caterina; Napolitano, Antonio; Pinto, Rosanna; Tiberi, Gianluigi; Tosetti, Michela; Zoppetti, Nicola

    2017-08-30

    The exposure of operators moving in the static field of magnetic resonance (MR) facilities was assessed through measurements of the magnetic flux density, which is experienced as variable in time because of the movement. Collected data were processed to allow the comparison with most recent and authoritative safety standards. Measurements of the experienced magnetic flux density B were performed using a probe worn by volunteers moving in MR environments. A total of 55 datasets were acquired nearby a 1.5T, 3T and 7T whole body scanners. Three different metrics were applied: the maximum intensity of B, to be compared with 2013/35/EU Directive exposure limit values for static fields; the maximum variation of the vector B on every 3s-interval, for comparison with the ICNIRP-2014 basic restriction aimed at preventing vertigo effects; two weighted peak indices (for "sensory" and "health" effects: SENS-WP, HLTH-WP), assessing compliance with ICNIRP-2014 and EU Directive recommendations intended to prevent stimulation effects. Peak values of |B| were greater than 2T in 9 of the 55 datasets. All the datasets at 1.5T and 3T were compliant with the limit for vertigo effects, whereas 6 datasets at 7T turned out to be non-compliant. At 7T, all 36 datasets were non-compliant for the SENS-WP index and 26 datasets even for the HLTH-WP one. Results demonstrate that compliance with EU Directive limits for static fields does not guarantee compliance with ICNIRP-2014 reference levels and clearly show that movements in the static field could be the key component of the occupational exposure to EMF in MR facilities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupational exposure to electric fields and currents associated with 110 kV substation tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena H; Kuisti, Harri A; Tarao, Hiroo; Elovaara, Jarmo A

    2012-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate occupational exposure to electric fields, and current densities and contact currents associated with tasks at air-insulated 110 kV substations and analyze if the action value of EU Directive 2004/40/EC was exceeded. Four workers volunteered to simulate the following tasks: Task (A) maintenance of an operating device of a disconnector at ground or floor level, Task (B) maintenance of an operating device of a circuit breaker at ground or floor level, Task (C) breaker head maintenance from a man hoist, and Task (D) maintenance of an operating device of a circuit breaker from a service platform. The highest maximum average current density in the neck was 1.8 mA/m(2) (calculated internal electric field 9.0-18.0 mV/m) and the highest contact current was 79.4 µA. All measured values at substations were lower than the limit value (10 mA/m(2)) of the EU Directive 2004/40/EC and the 2010 basic restrictions (0.1 and 0.8 V/m for central nervous system tissues of the head, and all tissues of the head and body, respectively) of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries--Study on the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Christoph; And Others

    A study focused on new occupational and qualification structures in the field of environmental protection in the metal and chemical industries in the Federal Republic of Germany. A total of 22 interviews were conducted with representatives of 11 firms. The public debate on occupational requirements in the field of environmental protection and on…

  8. Long-term occupational exposure to organic solvents affects color vision, contrast sensitivity and visual fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Leiros Costa

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcome of chronic occupational exposure to a mixture of organic solvents by measuring color discrimination, achromatic contrast sensitivity and visual fields in a group of gas station workers. We tested 25 workers (20 males and 25 controls with no history of chronic exposure to solvents (10 males. All participants had normal ophthalmologic exams. Subjects had worked in gas stations on an average of 9.6 ± 6.2 years. Color vision was evaluated with the Lanthony D15d and Cambridge Colour Test (CCT. Visual field assessment consisted of white-on-white 24-2 automatic perimetry (Humphrey II-750i. Contrast sensitivity was measured for sinusoidal gratings of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 cycles per degree (cpd. Results from both groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The number of errors in the D15d was higher for workers relative to controls (p<0.01. Their CCT color discrimination thresholds were elevated compared to the control group along the protan, deutan and tritan confusion axes (p<0.01, and their ellipse area and ellipticity were higher (p<0.01. Genetic analysis of subjects with very elevated color discrimination thresholds excluded congenital causes for the visual losses. Automated perimetry thresholds showed elevation in the 9°, 15° and 21° of eccentricity (p<0.01 and in MD and PSD indexes (p<0.01. Contrast sensitivity losses were found for all spatial frequencies measured (p<0.01 except for 0.5 cpd. Significant correlation was found between previous working years and deutan axis thresholds (rho = 0.59; p<0.05, indexes of the Lanthony D15d (rho=0.52; p<0.05, perimetry results in the fovea (rho= -0.51; p<0.05 and at 3, 9 and 15 degrees of eccentricity (rho= -0.46; p<0.05. Extensive and diffuse visual changes were found, suggesting that specific occupational limits should be created.

  9. Growth rates of dynamic dermal model exposed to laminar flow and magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Martinez

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ongoing research in the use of electromagnetic stimulation as coadjuvant in fracture healing has led the authors to begin generating computer models in order to predict cellular growth changes when cells are electromagnetically stimulated. By generating these models, scientists will be able to better understand how electromagnetic fields affect cellular development. The experimental design integrated a cellular culture bioreactor along with an external magnetic stimulation system, which allowed for dermal models to be exposed to controlled magnetic fields. Methods Initially, it was necessary to analyze the static growth of Normal Human Skin Fibroblast (NHSF cells when they were exposed to Extremely Low Frequency – Electromagnetic Fields (ELF-EMFs. Using optimal conditions for the NHSF culture, from stimulation signal to scaffolding material, we were able to perform the dynamic flow stimulation experiments. Results The following systems were developed: (1 a bioreactor aimed at cellular tissue culture, and (2 Helmholtz coils capable of generating stimulation signals for the cultured tissue. The authors were able to appreciate the quantified values of cellular density diluted in all the experiment samples that were taken and overall, the irradiated samples displayed an average increase of 53% higher cellular density for the same amount of initial cellular seeding when the cells were exposed to a 1 mT, 60 Hz magnetic field signal. Conclusion ELF-EMF’s indeed alter NHSF cell growth rates and it is the challenge of the authors to continue investigating what cellular mechanisms are altered when cells are exposed to ELF-EMF’s.

  10. Occupational health and safety committees in European Union countries and in Turkey: A field study on effectiveness of the committees in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Yılmaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Occupational Health and Safety Committees are modernized in order to improve the democracy and cooperation in the enterprises by incorporating the employees into the management of occupational health and safety, strengthening occupational health and safety supervision and reducing the number of work-related accidents. Most studies state that the effectiveness of the occupational health and safety committees must be best shown by the reduction in work-related accidents. But at the same time, they emphasize the importance of the support of top management, regular meetings, the participation levels of participants as well as member training as being important with regard to the effectiveness. A field study was carried out with 367 Occupational Health and Safety Specialists as part of this paper. In the study, the effectiveness of the Occupational Health and Safety Committees in Turkey was analyzed to see whether the obligations in the Labor Act and Occupational Health and Safety Committees Regulations are being realized; what’s more, the personal observations of the occupational health and safety specialists working in the organizations were considered. Nearly all occupational health and safety specialists stated that the Occupational Health and Safety Committees, in conjunction with other precautions, has had a positive effect in decreasing the number of occupational accidents. As a result it has been determined that the interlocution and cooperation function of the committees is as crucial.

  11. Time-dependent multiconfiguration self-consistent-field method based on occupation restricted multiple active space model for multielectron dynamics in intense laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    The time-dependent multiconfiguration self-consistent-field method based on the occupation-restricted multiple active space model is proposed (TD-ORMAS) for multielectron dynamics in intense laser fields. Extending the previously proposed time-dependent complete-active-space self-consistent-field method [TD-CASSCF; Phys. Rev. A, {\\bf 88}, 023402 (2013)], which divides the occupied orbitals into core and active orbitals, the TD-ORMAS method {\\it further} subdivides the active orbitals into an arbitrary number of subgroups, and poses the {\\it occupation restriction} by giving the minimum and maximum number of electrons distributed in each subgroup. This enables highly flexible construction of the configuration interaction (CI) space, allowing a large-active-space simulation of dynamics, e.g., the core excitation or ionization. The equations of motion both for CI coefficients and spatial orbitals are derived based on the time-dependent variational principle, and an efficient algorithm is proposed to solve for th...

  12. Inhibition of angiogenesis mediated by extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Delle Monache

    Full Text Available The formation of new blood vessels is an essential therapeutic target in many diseases such as cancer, ischemic diseases, and chronic inflammation. In this regard, extremely low-frequency (ELF electromagnetic fields (EMFs seem able to inhibit vessel growth when used in a specific window of amplitude. To investigate the mechanism of anti-angiogenic action of ELF-EMFs we tested the effect of a sinusoidal magnetic field (MF of 2 mT intensity and frequency of 50 Hz on endothelial cell models HUVEC and MS-1 measuring cell status and proliferation, motility and tubule formation ability. MS-1 cells when injected in mice determined a rapid tumor-like growth that was significantly reduced in mice inoculated with MF-exposed cells. In particular, histological analysis of tumors derived from mice inoculated with MF-exposed MS-1 cells indicated a reduction of hemangioma size, of blood-filled spaces, and in hemorrhage. In parallel, in vitro proliferation of MS-1 treated with MF was significantly inhibited. We also found that the MF-exposure down-regulated the process of proliferation, migration and formation of tubule-like structures in HUVECs. Using western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis, we collected data about the possible influence of MF on the signalling pathway activated by the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. In particular, MF exposure significantly reduced the expression and activation levels of VEGFR2, suggesting a direct or indirect influence of MF on VEGF receptors placed on cellular membrane. In conclusion MF reduced, in vitro and in vivo, the ability of endothelial cells to form new vessels, most probably affecting VEGF signal transduction pathway that was less responsive to activation. These findings could not only explain the mechanism of anti-angiogenic action exerted by MFs, but also promote the possible development of new therapeutic applications for treatment of those diseases where excessive angiogenesis is involved.

  13. Inhibition of Angiogenesis Mediated by Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELF-MFs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Monache, Simona; Angelucci, Adriano; Sanità, Patrizia; Iorio, Roberto; Bennato, Francesca; Mancini, Fabrizio; Gualtieri, Giancaterino; Colonna, Rosella Cardigno

    2013-01-01

    The formation of new blood vessels is an essential therapeutic target in many diseases such as cancer, ischemic diseases, and chronic inflammation. In this regard, extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) seem able to inhibit vessel growth when used in a specific window of amplitude. To investigate the mechanism of anti-angiogenic action of ELF-EMFs we tested the effect of a sinusoidal magnetic field (MF) of 2 mT intensity and frequency of 50 Hz on endothelial cell models HUVEC and MS-1 measuring cell status and proliferation, motility and tubule formation ability. MS-1 cells when injected in mice determined a rapid tumor-like growth that was significantly reduced in mice inoculated with MF-exposed cells. In particular, histological analysis of tumors derived from mice inoculated with MF-exposed MS-1 cells indicated a reduction of hemangioma size, of blood-filled spaces, and in hemorrhage. In parallel, in vitro proliferation of MS-1 treated with MF was significantly inhibited. We also found that the MF-exposure down-regulated the process of proliferation, migration and formation of tubule-like structures in HUVECs. Using western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis, we collected data about the possible influence of MF on the signalling pathway activated by the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In particular, MF exposure significantly reduced the expression and activation levels of VEGFR2, suggesting a direct or indirect influence of MF on VEGF receptors placed on cellular membrane. In conclusion MF reduced, in vitro and in vivo, the ability of endothelial cells to form new vessels, most probably affecting VEGF signal transduction pathway that was less responsive to activation. These findings could not only explain the mechanism of anti-angiogenic action exerted by MFs, but also promote the possible development of new therapeutic applications for treatment of those diseases where excessive angiogenesis is involved. PMID:24244477

  14. Field Test Analysis and Reliability of the Fieldwork Evaluation for the Occupational Therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard G.; Crist, Patricia A. Hickerson

    1988-01-01

    The Fieldwork Evaluation was designed to measure the performance judgment and attitude of occupational therapy students on tasks related to the profession. This article discusses the history and reliability of the Fieldwork Evaluation. (JOW)

  15. Occupational exposure to intermediate frequency and extremely low frequency magnetic fields among personnel working near electronic article surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roivainen, Päivi; Eskelinen, Tuomo; Jokela, Kari; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2014-05-01

    Cashiers are potentially exposed to intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic fields at their workplaces because of the electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems used in stores to protect merchandise against theft. This study aimed at investigating occupational exposure of cashiers to IF magnetic fields in Finnish stores. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields was also evaluated because cashiers work near various devices operating with 50 Hz electric power. The peak magnetic flux density was measured for IF magnetic fields, and was found to vary from 0.2 to 4 µT at the cashier's seat. ELF magnetic fields from 0.03 to 4.5 µT were found at the cashier's seat. These values are much lower than exposure limits. However, according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) occupational reference levels for IF magnetic fields (141 µT for the peak field) were exceeded in some cases (maximum 189 µT) for short periods of time when cashiers walked through the EAS gates. As the ICNIRP reference levels do not define any minimum time for exposure, additional investigations are recommended to determine compliance with basic restrictions. Even if the basic restrictions are not exceeded, persons working near EAS devices represent an exceptional group of workers with respect to exposure to electromagnetic fields. This group could serve as a basis for epidemiological studies addressing possible health effects of IF magnetic fields. Compliance with the reference levels for IF fields was evaluated using both broadband measurement of peak fields and the ICNIRP summation rule for multiple frequencies. The latter was generally more conservative, and the difference between the two methods was large (>10-fold) for EAS systems using a 58 kHz signal with complex waveform. This indicates that the ICNIRP multiple frequency rule can be unnecessarily conservative when measuring complex waveforms.

  16. Health-Economics Analyses Applied to ELF Electric and Magnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Shaiela; Swanson, John; Kheifets, Leeka

    2016-06-01

    Extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields (ELF EMFs) are a common exposure for modern populations. The prevailing public-health protection paradigm is that quantitative exposure limits are based on the established acute effects, whereas the possible chronic effects are considered too uncertain for quantitative limits, but might justify precautionary measures. The choice of precautionary measures can be informed by a health-economics analysis (HEA). We consider four such analyses of precautionary measures that have been conducted at a national or state level in California, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Israel. We describe the context of each analysis, examine how they deal with some of the more significant issues that arise, and present a comparison of the input parameters and assumptions used. The four HEAs are methodologically similar. The most significant qualitative choices that have to be made are what dose-response relationship to assume, what allowance if any to make for uncertainty, and, for a CBA only, what diseases to consider, and all four analyses made similar choices. These analyses suggest that, on the assumptions made, there are some low-cost measures, such as rephasing, that can be applied to transmission in some circumstances and that can be justifiable in cost-benefit terms, but that higher cost measures, such as undergrounding, become unjustifiable. Of the four HEAs, those in the United Kingdom and Israel were influential in determining the country's EMF policy. In California and Netherlands, the HEA may well have informed the debate, but the policy chosen did not stem directly from the HEA.

  17. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic field exposure on testicular germ cell apoptosis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinSangLee; SangSeokAhn; KyeongCheonJung; Yoon-WonKim; SangKonLee

    2004-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the effects of 60 Hz extremely low frequency (ELF) elelctromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on germ cell apoptosis in the testis of mice.Methods:Adult male BALB/c mice (7 weeks of age) were exposed to a 60 Hz EMF of 0.1 mT or 0.5 mT for 24 h/day.A sham-exposed group served as the control.After 8 weeks of exposure,the mice were sacrificed.Germ cell apoptosis in the testis was assessed by histopathological examination,the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay (TUNEL) and flow cytometric examination of isolated spermatogenic cells stained with 7 aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD).Results:EMF exposure did not significantly affect the body and testis weights,but significantly increased the incidence of germ cell death.The distinguishing morphological feature of EMF exposure was a decrement in the number of well organized seminiferous tubules.Quantitative analysis of TUNEL-positive germ cells showed a significantly higher apoptotic rate in the 0.5 mT exposed mice than that in the sham controls (P<0.05),while the difference between the two exposed groups was insignificant.The TUNEL-positive cells were mainly spermatogonia.In flow cytometryanalysis,the percentage of live cells [forward scatter count (FSC)hgh7-AAD-] was lower in the exposed groups than that in the controls (Figure 5A),but the decrease in viability was not statistically significant.Conclusion:Continuousexposure to ELF EMF may induce testicular germ cell apoptosis in mice.(Asian J Androl 2004 Mar;6:29-34)

  18. Scientific Production of occupational therapy in the school inclusion: interface with the Special Education and contributions to the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cirelli Coppede

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A strategy, which has been proved productive to inclusive education, was put into practice, in an effective way, by the education and health professionals partnership. The occupational therapist (OT presents, in its formation, characteristics which enable them to frame as important elements in the process of improvement in the school inclusion. It aims to characterize the national scientific production about occupational therapy contributions for school inclusion process, through an exploratory and descriptive search, with a bibliometric approach. The search was performed in the databases BVS, Scielo, Redalyc and periodics Cadernos de Terapia Ocupacional da UFSCar, Revista de Terapia Ocupacional da USP, Revista Brasileira de Educação Especial e Revista Educação Especial da UFSM, using the search expressions “occupational therapy”, “school inclusion”, “especial education”, “inclusive education” “school context”, “assistive technology” and “school”. With the aid of software VantagePoint®, the analysis produced indicators: year of publication, major journals when these papers were published, authors who participated in more publications, main topics discuted. Results pointed some characteristics of the literature of the field, highlighting the growing number of publishing in the last two years; publication predominance in occupational therapy journals; small group of authors responsible for the majority of publications, most studies are original, review, exploratory and descriptive, being the most common theme regarding questions about the role of OT in school inclusion processes, these data that characterize the scientific and reveal important contributions of occupational therapy in the context of inclusive education.

  19. Gender Integration of a Traditionally Male Field: A Definition of the Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Images embodied in legendary figures. such as Florence Nightingale . Clarence Drrow, and Vince Lombardi, or media heroes, such as Marcus Welby, Lou Grant... Florence Nightingale : Functions of the Heroine Legend in an Occupational Sub-Culture," Human Orqanizatlon XXIII, No. 2 (1964), 123-130. Becker, Howard S

  20. Impact of mitochondrial electric field on modal occupancy in the Fröhlich model of cellular electromagnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šrobár, Fedor

    2013-09-01

    Fröhlich model describes emission of electromagnetic field in the interior of biological cells by oscillating polar units, now mostly identified with microtubule filaments. Central element of this theory is the system of rate equations for the quantum occupancy numbers n i of collective oscillation modes. These equations describe both linear and nonlinear properties of the system; presence of the latter can lead to condensation of the incoming energy into the lowest frequency mode - a phenomenon deemed to be of major importance for cell's biochemistry, because the excited mode can engage in chemical reactions while the major part of the system remains near the equilibrium, not exposed to energetic stress. This paper explores, using a simple model, the influence of strong static electric field created by mitochondria flanking the microtubules on nonlinear interactions and, in turn, on occupancy numbers. The computed results show that simultaneous presence of both sufficient metabolic pumping and adequately elevated static electric field is necessary for the full unfolding of the hallmark properties of the Fröhlich model. It is suggested that cancer-related mitochondrial dysfunction leading to metabolic transformation has additional adverse effect mediated by diminution of static fields which in turn reduces the nonlinear processes in the Fröhlich systems, essential for energy condensation in the fundamental mode.

  1. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational ...

  2. A bibliometric analysis in the fields of preventive medicine, occupational and environmental medicine, epidemiology, and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soteriades Elpidoforos S

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in the fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational/Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health play an important role in the advancement of knowledge. In order to map the research production around the world we performed a bibliometric analysis in the above fields. Methods All articles published by different world regions in the above mentioned scientific fields and cited in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI during the period 1995 and 2003, were evaluated. The research production of different world regions was adjusted for: a the gross domestic product in 1995 US dollars, and b the population size of each region. Results A total of 48,861 articles were retrieved and categorized. The USA led the research production in all three subcategories. The percentage of articles published by USA researchers was 43%, 44% and 61% in the Preventive Medicine, Epidemiology, and Public Health subcategories, respectively. Canada and Western Europe shared the second position in the first two subcategories, while Oceania researchers ranked second in the field of Public Health. Conclusion USA researchers maintain a leadership position in the production of scientific articles in the fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational/Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, at a level similar to other scientific disciplines, while USA contribution to science in the field of Public Health is by all means outstanding. Less developed regions would need to support their researchers in the above fields in order to improve scientific production and advancement of knowledge in their countries.

  3. Manipulation of magnetic phase separation and orbital occupancy in manganites by strain engineering and electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bin; Song, Cheng; Pan, Feng; Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE) Team

    2015-03-01

    The modification of electronic phases in correlated oxides is one of the core issues of condensed matter. We report the reversible control of ferromagnetic phase transition in manganite films by ionic liquid gating, replicating the La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) phase diagram. The formation and annihilation of an insulating and magnetically hard phase in the soft magnetic matrix, which randomly nucleates and grows across the film, is directly observed under different gate voltages (VG) . The realization of reversible metal-insulator transition in colossal magnetoresistance materials can lead to the development of four-state memories. The orbital occupancy and magnetic anisotropy of LSMO films are manipulated by VG in a reversible and quantitative manner. Positive and negative VG increases and reduces the occupancy of the orbital and magnetic anisotropy that were initially favored by strain (irrespective of tensile and compressive), respectively. This finding fills in the blank of electrical manipulation of four degrees of freedom in correlated system.

  4. Human State Computing – Employing different feature sources of non-intrusive biosignals for pattern recognition based automatic state recognition within occupational fields of application

    OpenAIRE

    Schoss, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis is to outline, how psychology in general and occupational psychology in particular can benefit from automatic biosignal analysis. Progress in this field within the last decade bears chances to widen the horizon of commonly employed statistics and use an interdisciplinary approach to gain new insights of typical occupational issues with the help of human state computing. Advances within psychological methodology are necessary, because recent approaches are neit...

  5. A randomized controlled trial comparing 2 interventions for visual field loss with standard occupational therapy during inpatient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mödden, Claudia; Behrens, Marion; Damke, Iris; Eilers, Norbert; Kastrup, Andreas; Hildebrandt, Helmut

    2012-06-01

    Compensatory and restorative treatments have been developed to improve visual field defects after stroke. However, no controlled trials have compared these interventions with standard occupational therapy (OT). A total of 45 stroke participants with visual field defect admitted for inpatient rehabilitation were randomized to restorative computerized training (RT) using computer-based stimulation of border areas of their visual field defects or to a computer-based compensatory therapy (CT) teaching a visual search strategy. OT, in which different compensation strategies were used to train for activities of daily living, served as standard treatment for the active control group. Each treatment group received 15 single sessions of 30 minutes distributed over 3 weeks. The primary outcome measures were visual field expansion for RT, visual search performance for CT, and reading performance for both treatments. Visual conjunction search, alertness, and the Barthel Index were secondary outcomes. Compared with OT, CT resulted in a better visual search performance, and RT did not result in a larger expansion of the visual field. Intragroup pre-post comparisons demonstrated that CT improved all defined outcome parameters and RT several, whereas OT only improved one. CT improved functional deficits after visual field loss compared with standard OT and may be the intervention of choice during inpatient rehabilitation. A larger trial that includes lesion location in the analysis is recommended.

  6. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). Seventh annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, A.L.

    1991-06-30

    In 1990--91 CIRRPC`s program included efforts to improve interagency coordination on ionizing radiation risk assessments, a review of the reported health risks to humans from exposure to extremely low- frequency electric and magnetic fields (ELF/EMF), and increased coordination with national and international organizations such as NCRP and ICRP.

  7. Possible quantum mechanical mechanism for hepatocarcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vega, G.; Godina-Nava, J. J.; Morales-Peñaloza, A.; Jiménez-García, M. N.

    2012-10-01

    We describe a method to study the effects of an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on the development of preneoplastic lesions in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. The method uses the dual Lanczos transformation theory to diagonalize the Liouville superoperator that describe the evolution of a radical pair. We illustrate this procedure with a simple two level system.

  8. Difficulties in applying numerical simulations to an evaluation of occupational hazards caused by electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zradziński, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    Due to the various physical mechanisms of interaction between a worker's body and the electromagnetic field at various frequencies, the principles of numerical simulations have been discussed for three areas of worker exposure: to low frequency magnetic field, to low and intermediate frequency electric field and to radiofrequency electromagnetic field. This paper presents the identified difficulties in applying numerical simulations to evaluate physical estimators of direct and indirect effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields at various frequencies. Exposure of workers operating a plastic sealer have been taken as an example scenario of electromagnetic field exposure at the workplace for discussion of those difficulties in applying numerical simulations. The following difficulties in reliable numerical simulations of workers' exposure to the electromagnetic field have been considered: workers' body models (posture, dimensions, shape and grounding conditions), working environment models (objects most influencing electromagnetic field distribution) and an analysis of parameters for which exposure limitations are specified in international guidelines and standards.

  9. Difficulties in applying numerical simulations to an evaluation of occupational hazards caused by electromagnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Zradziński, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    Due to the various physical mechanisms of interaction between a worker's body and the electromagnetic field at various frequencies, the principles of numerical simulations have been discussed for three areas of worker exposure: to low frequency magnetic field, to low and intermediate frequency electric field and to radiofrequency electromagnetic field. This paper presents the identified difficulties in applying numerical simulations to evaluate physical estimators of direct and indirect effec...

  10. Occupational therapy students’ perspectives on the core competencies of graduates to practise in the field of neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Jacobs-Nzuzi Khuabi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The South African (SA health system is characterised by limited resources, high bed turnover rates and a high therapist-to-patient ratio. Patients with neurological dysfunction form a large majority of the caseload of occupational therapists. Feedback from stakeholders alluded to some discrepancies between the content taught in the Stellenbosch University undergraduate curriculum and what is expected within the clinical setting. This raises questions regarding the relevance and applicability of what undergraduate occupational therapists are taught, given the nature and demands of the SA public health system. Objective. To explore the perspectives of final-year occupational therapy students with regard to the core competencies required for optimal preparation of students for practice in the field of neurology. Methods. This explorative study used three focus groups to obtain the perspectives of 18 final-year students who had experienced clinical placements in neurology. Information from the focus groups was transcribed and analysed thematically to determine the findings. Results. Analysis of the data revealed four themes, i.e. core knowledge and skills; attitude; resource and time constraints in clinical areas; and factors influencing optimal learning experiences. Conclusion. The curriculum should prepare students to be well equipped for the current climate of the profession. While the current neurology curriculum may be viewed as having some positive features, there are some aspects that need to be updated and revised. Key considerations to optimise learning include a more regular interface between clinical areas and the university, scheduling of teaching blocks, and applying relevant teaching methods.

  11. Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Münster, Eva

    2009-01-01

    . The criteria aimed at conditions of exposure and exposure assessment (level, duration, preferably on an individual basis), the possibility to assemble a cohort and the feasibility of ascertaining various disease endpoints. RESULTS: Twenty occupational settings with workers potentially exposed to RF-EMF and......, in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians) of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio...... operators, and workers on dielectric heat sealers. After further analyses, the cohort of workers on dielectric heat sealers seems not to be feasible due to the small number of exposed workers available and to the difficulty of assessing exposure (exposure depends heavily on the respective working process...

  12. Alternative Magnetic Field Exposure Metrics: Occupational Measurements in Trolley Workers (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, M

    1999-07-01

    Epidemiological studies on extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields have widely used personal or area sampling to evaluate exposures based on the time-weighted averaged flux density magnitude (TWA field). Relatively few studies have evaluated 'alternative' exposure metrics related to field characteristics such as temporal variability, frequency harmonics, vector polarisation, spatial orientation, static fields, high frequency transients, or induced electric fields. These field attributes fall into three major categories: (1) temporal characteristics of exposure intensity and timing, (2) frequency-domain characteristics, (3) spatial characteristics. The first category describes the magnitude and time history of exposure, including the TWA field metric, which most often is the focus of MF exposure assessment. The second category depicts the waveform characteristic (harmonic content), which has been relatively poorly described in most studies. The third category describes the field vector's time-space orientation and relation to static fields. Some examples of 'alternative metrics' that have been proposed based on biological mechanisms and potential measurement techniques are examined. The limited correlation of some alternative metrics with the TWA field metric in available data suggests that substantial exposure misclassification could occur if measurement protocols only focus on average field levels. (author)

  13. Microscopic phase-field simulation of atomic site occupation in ordering process of NiAl9Fe6 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Min-jie; CHEN Zheng; ZHANG Ji-xiang; WANG Yong-xin

    2008-01-01

    The process of γ(fcc)→γ(fcc)+γ'(L12) phase transformation was simulated by using microscopic phase-field method for the low supersaturation NiAl9Fe6 alloy. It is found that in the γ' phase, the ordering degree of Al atoms is obviously higher than that of Fe atoms, and the ordering of Al atoms precedes their clustering, while the case of Fe atoms is opposite. The α site is mainly occupied by Ni atoms, while the β site is occupied in common by Al, Fe and Ni atoms. At order-disorder interphase boundary, the ordering degree of Al atoms is higher than that of Fe atoms, and at the β site, the Fe atomic site occupation probabilities vary from high to low during ordering; the Al atomic site occupation probabilities are similar to those of Fe atoms, but their values are much higher than those of Fe atoms; Ni atoms are opposite to both of them. Meanwhile, during the ordering transformation, γ' phase is always a complex Ni3(AlFeNi) single-phase, and it is precipitated by the non-classical nucleation and growth style. Finally, in the alloy system, the volume of γ' ordered phase is less than that of γ phase, and the volume ratio of order to disorder is about 77%.

  14. Occupational medicine and electromagnetic fields; Medecine du travail et champs electromagnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seze, R. de [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (INERIS) (France)

    2001-07-01

    Numerous industrial areas are concerned by electromagnetic fields exposures. The most intense sources are constituted by high frequencies. The most known are the relay antenna for cellular radio communications (type GSM). The principal sources of electromagnetic fields are given and the levels fields susceptible to be encountered at working posts. The interaction mechanisms of fields are given in function of frequencies, then the biological effects are studied. The results of epidemiological studies are synthesised. The recommendations in France and in Europe are presented as well the standardisation organisms. (N.C.)

  15. Working with MRI: An investigation of occupational exposure to strong static magnetic fields and associated symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, K.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) makes use of electromagnetic fields in the non-ionizing radiation frequency ranges. One of them is a continuously present strong static magnetic field (SMF), which extends up to several meters around the scanner. Each time an MRI worker performs tasks near the scanne

  16. Work-related factors associated with occupational exposure to static magnetic stray fields from MRI scanners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Kristel; Christopher-De Vries, Yvette; Cambron-Goulet, Évelyne; Kromhout, Hans

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aims to identify work-related and personal factors associated with workers' exposure to static magnetic fields (SMF) and motion-induced time-varying magnetic fields (TVMF) from MRI scanners. METHODS: Measurements of personal exposure to SMF and TVMF were performed among MRI staff

  17. Occupational exposure assessment of magnetic fields generated by induction heating equipment-the role of spatial averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Bor; Valič, Blaž; Kotnik, Tadej; Gajšek, Peter

    2012-10-07

    Induction heating equipment is a source of strong and nonhomogeneous magnetic fields, which can exceed occupational reference levels. We investigated a case of an induction tempering tunnel furnace. Measurements of the emitted magnetic flux density (B) were performed during its operation and used to validate a numerical model of the furnace. This model was used to compute the values of B and the induced in situ electric field (E) for 15 different body positions relative to the source. For each body position, the computed B values were used to determine their maximum and average values, using six spatial averaging schemes (9-285 averaging points) and two averaging algorithms (arithmetic mean and quadratic mean). Maximum and average B values were compared to the ICNIRP reference level, and E values to the ICNIRP basic restriction. Our results show that in nonhomogeneous fields, the maximum B is an overly conservative predictor of overexposure, as it yields many false positives. The average B yielded fewer false positives, but as the number of averaging points increased, false negatives emerged. The most reliable averaging schemes were obtained for averaging over the torso with quadratic averaging, with no false negatives even for the maximum number of averaging points investigated.

  18. Case-control study of occupational exposure to electric shocks and magnetic fields and mortality from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the US, 1991-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Ximena; Mezei, Gabor; Kheifets, Leeka

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between occupational exposure to electric shocks (ES) and magnetic fields (MF) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using 1991-1999 US mortality data. For each of the 5886 included ALS deaths, 10 controls-matched on sex-, age-, year- and region-were selected from among other deaths. Usual occupation as reported on death certificates was linked to job-exposure matrices for ES and MF. Education and electric occupations were associated with moderately increased ALS risks (odds ratio (OR)=1.85, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.67, 2.04; OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.04, 1.47, respectively). For ES, ALS mortality OR were 0.73 (95% CI=0.67, 0.79) for high and 0.90 (95% CI=0.84, 0.97) for medium exposure compared with low exposure. For MF, ALS ORs were 1.09 (95% CI=1.00, 1.19) for high and 1.09 (95% CI=0.96, 1.23) for medium exposure as compared with low exposure. For electric occupations, ALS ORs were insensitive to adjustments for ES, MF or both. Consistent with previous publications, an association between electric occupations and ALS was observed. Findings do not support occupational exposure to ES or MF as an explanation.

  19. Development of a source-exposure matrix for occupational exposure assessment of electromagnetic fields in the INTEROCC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Javier; Bowman, Joseph D; Figuerola, Jordi; Moriña, David; Kincl, Laurel; Richardson, Lesley; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2016-11-09

    To estimate occupational exposures to electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the INTEROCC study, a database of source-based measurements extracted from published and unpublished literature resources had been previously constructed. The aim of the current work was to summarize these measurements into a source-exposure matrix (SEM), accounting for their quality and relevance. A novel methodology for combining available measurements was developed, based on order statistics and log-normal distribution characteristics. Arithmetic and geometric means, and estimates of variability and maximum exposure were calculated by EMF source, frequency band and dosimetry type. The mean estimates were weighted by our confidence in the pooled measurements. The SEM contains confidence-weighted mean and maximum estimates for 312 EMF exposure sources (from 0 Hz to 300 GHz). Operator position geometric mean electric field levels for radiofrequency (RF) sources ranged between 0.8 V/m (plasma etcher) and 320 V/m (RF sealer), while magnetic fields ranged from 0.02 A/m (speed radar) to 0.6 A/m (microwave heating). For extremely low frequency sources, electric fields ranged between 0.2 V/m (electric forklift) and 11,700 V/m (high-voltage transmission line-hotsticks), whereas magnetic fields ranged between 0.14 μT (visual display terminals) and 17 μT (tungsten inert gas welding). The methodology developed allowed the construction of the first EMF-SEM and may be used to summarize similar exposure data for other physical or chemical agents.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 9 November 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.60.

  20. Occupational exposure of healthcare and research staff to static magnetic stray fields from 1.5-7 Tesla MRI scanners is associated with reporting of transient symptoms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Kristel; Christopher-de Vries, Yvette; Mason, Catherine K; de Vocht, Frank; Portengen, Lützen; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Limited data is available about incidence of acute transient symptoms associated with occupational exposure to static magnetic stray fields from MRI scanners. We aimed to assess the incidence of these symptoms among healthcare and research staff working with MRI scanners, and their assoc

  1. Occupational and residential exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of brain tumors in adults: a case-control study in Gironde, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Isabelle; Coureau, Gaëlle; Jaffré, Anne; Gruber, Anne; Ducamp, Stéphane; Provost, Dorothée; Lebailly, Pierre; Vital, Anne; Loiseau, Hugues; Salamon, Roger

    2011-09-15

    The etiology of brain tumors remains largely unknown. Among potential risk factors, exposure to electromagnetic fields is suspected. We analyzed the relationship between residential and occupational exposure to electromagnetic field and brain tumors in adults. A case-control study was carried out in southwestern France between May 1999 and April 2001. A total of 221 central nervous system tumors (105 gliomas, 67 meningiomas, 33 neurinomas and 16 others) and 442 individually age- and sex-matched controls selected from general population were included. Electromagnetic field exposure [extremely low frequency (ELF) and radiofrequency separately was assessed in occupational settings through expert judgement based on complete job calendar, and at home by assessing the distance to power lines with the help of a geographical information system. Confounders such as education, use of home pesticide, residency in a rural area and occupational exposure to chemicals were taken into account. Separate analyses were performed for gliomas, meningiomas and acoustic neurinomas. A nonsignificant increase in risk was found for occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields  [odds ratio (OR = 1.52, 0.92-2.51)]. This increase became significant for meningiomas, especially when considering ELF separately [OR = 3.02; 95 percent confidence interval (95% CI) =1.10-8.25]. The risk of meningioma was also higher in subjects living in the vicinity of power lines (exposure to ELF may play a role in the occurrence of meningioma.

  2. Assessment of levels of occupational exposure to workers in radiofrequency fields of two television stations in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, S; Amoako, J K; Fletcher, J J

    2016-03-01

    A survey of the radiofrequency (RF) radiation was undertaken within the premises of two television (TV) stations, TVA and TVB, in Accra, Ghana. The primary objective of this study was to determine the level of RF exposure to workers in the TV stations. A spectrum analyser, a bi-conical antenna (30-300 MHz) and a log-periodic antenna (200 MHz-2.0 GHz) were used. Results obtained indicated that the wideband electric field strength levels recorded in this work vary between 0.006 and 58.5 V m(-1) at TVA and between 0.007 and 28.5 V m(-1) at TVB. Compared with the results from TVB, TVA recorded relatively higher values in the 30-400 MHz range, whereas TVB produced relatively higher values in the 400 MHz-1.7 GHz range. Generally, results obtained were found to be below the occupational reference levels of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, but at some locations, the field intensity was 4.3 times higher than the reference levels for the general public.

  3. Occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and risk for central nervous system disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Camilla; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence of whether exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) is related to central nervous system diseases is inconsistent. This study updates a previous study of the incidence of such diseases in a large cohort of Danish utility workers by almost doubling the period...... of exposure (≥1.0 µT), IRRs of 1.44, 1.78, 1.40 and 1.34 were observed for dementia, motor neurone disease, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy, respectively. Conclusions: We observed elevated risks of dementia, motor neurone disease, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy and lower risks of Parkinson disease...

  4. Effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field on fertility and heights of epithelial cells in pre-implantation stage endometrium and fallopian tube in mice%极低频率电磁场对小鼠生育能力及着床前期子宫内膜和输卵管上皮细胞高度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farzad RAJAEI; Nasim BORHANI; Fatemeh SABBAGH-ZIARANI; Farhad MASHAYEKHI

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨极低频率电磁场(extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field,ELF-EMF)对小鼠生育力和着床前期子宫与输卵管上皮细胞高度的影响.方法:80只雌性NMRI小鼠随机分为对照组和EMF组.对照组小鼠不接受EMF,EMF组小鼠接受50 Hz、0.5 mT EMF,每次4 h,每周6次,连续2周.雌小鼠注射孕马血清促性腺激素和人绒毛膜促性腺激素促其排卵,与雄鼠交配.通过观察阴道栓形成确定小鼠妊娠后,冲洗子宫腔获得胚泡,取子宫角和输卵管组织用于光学显微镜检查.结果:EMF组小鼠平均胚泡数比对照组明显减少(P<0.03).光学显微镜下观察发现,EMF组小鼠输卵管上皮细胞高度较对照组明显增加,而子宫内膜上皮细胞高度与对照组比较差异无统计学意义.结论:ELF-EMF可能通过减少胚泡数目,增加输卵管上皮细胞高度而损伤雌性小鼠生育能力.

  5. [Experimental evaluation of the occupational exposure to static magnetic fields on a 3 T magnetic resonance scanner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Luca; Alabiso, Francesco; Parisoli, Francesco; Frigerio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The recent postponement until 31 October 2013 of the deadline for transposition of the EU Directive 2004/40/EC, concerning the minimum health requirementsfor the exposure of workers to the risks arising from electromagnetic fields between 0 and 300 GHz, keeps on suspending the Italian law which was aimed to implement the EU regulations on the occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields, including those generated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) units. Waiting for the revision of the exposure limits proposed by the EU Directive taking into account results from new studies and evolution of knowledge, the time-weighted values of static magnetic field proposed by the Italian Ministry of Health (D.M 02/08/91) still survive as limits for worker's exposure. The comparison between the proposed thresholds and the time required to position patients allows to calculate how long the MRI staff can stay at different values of static magnetic field, i.e. the maximum workload of each worker. In order to evaluate more accurately how many time the members of MRI staff are near the magnet bore and the real value of worker's exposure to the static magnetic field during the handling of patients, a teslameter Metrolab THM1176-PDA was used. Personal exposure measurements on the radiologists and the radiographers who worked on a 3 T GE Healthcare Discovery 750 MR were carried out during the positioning of self-sufficient and collaborative patients. The sensor was worn at the chest level on the side that was nearest to the magnet bore. Results show wide variations occurring between individual working procedures concerning the handling of patients, especially during the initial position phase. The mean values of the time spent by radiographers inside the magnet room (B > 0.5 mT) to place the patient and to take him outside at the end of the exam were respectively 220 and 127 seconds. The mean value of the time spent by radiologists was 162 seconds when they had to insert a peripheral

  6. A comparison of instrumentation methods to estimate thoracolumbar motion in field-based occupational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Mark C; Fethke, Nathan B; Chen, Howard; Gerr, Fred

    2015-05-01

    The performance of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) system for directly measuring thoracolumbar trunk motion was compared to that of the Lumbar Motion Monitor (LMM). Thirty-six male participants completed a simulated material handling task with both systems deployed simultaneously. Estimates of thoracolumbar trunk motion obtained with the IMU system were processed using five common methods for estimating trunk motion characteristics. Results of measurements obtained from IMUs secured to the sternum and pelvis had smaller root-mean-square differences and mean bias estimates in comparison to results obtained with the LMM than results of measurements obtained solely from a sternum mounted IMU. Fusion of IMU accelerometer measurements with IMU gyroscope and/or magnetometer measurements was observed to increase comparability to the LMM. Results suggest investigators should consider computing thoracolumbar trunk motion as a function of estimates from multiple IMUs using fusion algorithms rather than using a single accelerometer secured to the sternum in field-based studies.

  7. Occupational exposure of apprentices in radiology in the field of professional training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, R. F., E-mail: rogercosta1@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Goias, Unidade Universitaria de Morrinhos, Rua 14, 625, Jardim das Americas, Cep 75650-000, Morrinhos, Goias (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The good economic moment of our country has been providing an increase of courses in technical and technological area mainly in the field of radiology, which has raised the number of apprentices in the field of stage in clinics and hospitals. However, the shortage of placements and the fact that many of these students are workers, has forced the institutions of technical education to seek alternatives for the students to meet the workload of the stage in a time as short as possible. For this reason, often the students are obliged to comply with up to 10 hours of internship in a single day, in companies that often are not in accordance with the standards of radiological protection. What has worried the authorities of Goiania, because they believe that this exposure can raise the dose received. It is known that every person who works with X-ray diagnostics should use, during their work day and while stay in controlled area, individual dosimeter reading indirect, changed monthly. However, in practice these apprentices do not use the meter for monitoring of doses in probationary period. In This way, we measure the doses received us trainees using monitors TLDs in the thoracic region with and without plumbiferous apron on stage with total workload of 150 hours, performed daily from Monday to Friday for 6 hours per day during 5 weeks and performed to Saturday and Sunday for 10 hours daily in 7.5 weekends, with X-ray equipment conventional. The results reveal that in none of the cases the dose reached the value of 0.2 mSv, which is the minimum limit of reading dosimeter. We conclude then that the stages of weekends, taken the preventive measures of radiological protection are safe and can be performed without any prejudice with regard to the dose received, when compared to those of lower daily hourly load. (Author)

  8. Zoonoses as occupational diseases

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Zoonoses are discussed as occupational diseases, with special reference to animal husbandry and related activities. After quoting some historical references, occupational zoonoses are examined in relation to the evolution of the concept of occupational zoonosis, the involvement of the World Health Organization in this field, their socio-economic significance, the principal working activities, zoonoses of greatest importance (with special reference to the Mediterranean region), the evaluation ...

  9. Occupational asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Asthma - occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease Images Spirometry Respiratory system References Lemiere C, Vandenplas O. Occupational allergy and asthma. In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner ...

  10. The use of new field methods of semen analysis in the study of occupational hazards to reproduction: the example of ethylene dibromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, S M; Ratcliffe, J M; Turner, T W; Hornung, R W

    1987-12-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to the use of semen analysis as an indicator of exposure to potential mutagenic and reproductive hazards. In the infertility clinic setting, semen evaluations include the measurement of sperm concentration, volume, pH, motility, velocity and morphology, the analysis of seminal plasma to evaluate accessory sex gland function and, in some cases, the in vitro evaluation of fertilization capacity and sperm-cervical mucus interaction (Ann Intern Med 1985;103:906-919). To date, however, the study of semen characteristics of occupationally exposed populations has been confined principally to the measurement of sperm concentration and sperm morphology. This has been largely due to the unavailability of portable equipment suitable for the measurement of other semen characteristics and the difficulty of obtaining fresh semen samples in the field setting. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health researchers have developed mobile laboratory facilities which enable us to evaluate fresh samples, in the field, for semen characteristics in addition to concentration and morphology. This paper describes the application of these methods using the example of our recent cross-sectional study of workers occupationally exposed to ethylene dibromide in the papaya fumigation industry. We discuss our findings in the context of the usefulness of semen analysis as an indicator of occupational hazards to male reproduction.

  11. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  12. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational and environmental health. The complexity of modern industrial processes has dramatically changed over the past years and today's areas include effects of atmospheric pollution, carcinogenesis, biological monitoring, ergonomics, epidemiology, product safety and health promotion. We hope that the launch of the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology will aid in the advance of these important areas of research bringing together multi-disciplinary research findings.

  13. Occupational Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Morris M. Kleiner

    2000-01-01

    The study of the regulation of occupations has a long and distinguished tradition in economics. In this paper, I present the central arguments and unresolved issues involving the costs and benefits of occupational licensing. The main benefits that are suggested for occupational licensing involve improving quality for those persons receiving the service. In contrast, the costs attributed to this labor market institution are that it restricts the supply of labor to the occupation and thereby dr...

  14. The use of upper limb orthoses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a literature review in the field of occupational therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Silvério de Souza Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic disease that most often affects smaller joints such as hands and wrists. It may cause deformities that jeopardize hand function, thus impacting the subject occupational performance. In order to assist the hand function restoration, occupational therapists often use orthosis to improve autonomy and/or independence to perform daily activities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Objective: This study aimed to identify the upper limb’s orthoses used in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, who were assisted by the Occupational Therapy, featuring the population, the type of research and the outcomes obtained. Method: This study is literature review and its selection criteria consists of publications in English, Spanish and Portuguese published within the last ten years, divided between experimental, observational and case studies, all with diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and assisted by an occupational therapist. Twelve articles were selected for review. Findings: The literature review points out the benefits achieved through the use of the orthosis to manual dexterity, grip strength, pain relief and aspects related to comfort and patient satisfaction. Conclusion: In this context, the orthosis appears as an important assistive technology resource to keep function and restore compromised activities.

  15. Occupational mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper aims to present the methods and main results from the Danish occupational mortality studies, and to set the Danish studies into the international context of occupational mortality studies. RESEARCH TOPICS: The first Danish occupational mortality study from 1970...

  16. Occupational Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L

    2015-10-02

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country's ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives - notably work by Biko and Fanon - and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term 'consciousness' in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation.

  17. Measurement of the weighted peak level for occupational exposure to gradient magnetic fields for 1.5 and 3 Tesla MRI body scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonutti, F; Tecchio, M; Maieron, M; Trevisan, D; Negro, C; Calligaris, F

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to give a contribution to the construction of a comprehensive knowledge of the exposure levels to gradient magnetic fields (GMF) in terms of the weighed peak (WP), especially for 3 Tesla scanners for which there are still few works available in the literature. A new generation probe for the measurement of electromagnetic fields in the range of 1 Hz-400 kHz was used to assess the occupational exposure levels to the GMF for 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla MRI body scanners, using the method of the WP according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) approach. The probe was placed at a height of 1.1 m, close to the MRI scanners, where operators could stay during some medical procedures with particular issues. The measurements were performed for a set of typical acquisition sequences for body (liver) and head exams. The measured values of WP were in compliance with ICNIRP 2010 reference levels for occupational exposures.

  18. Occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during tasks at ground or floor level at 110 kV substations in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during tasks at ground or floor level at 110 kV substations in Finland and to compare the measured values to Directive 2013/35/EU. Altogether, 347 electric field measurements and 100 magnetic field measurements were performed. The average value of all electric fields was 2.3 kV/m (maximum 6.4 kV/m) and that of magnetic fields was 5.8 µT (maximum 51.0 µT). It can be concluded that the electric and magnetic field exposure at ground or floor level is typically below the low action levels of Directive 2013/35/EU. The transposition of the directive will not create new needs to modify the work practice of the evaluated tasks, which can continue to be performed as before. However, for workers with medical implants, the exposure may be high enough to cause interference. PMID:27075421

  19. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields, leukemia and brain cancer: update of two meta-analysis; Exposition professionnelle aux champs electromagnetiques, leucemie et cancer du cerveau: mise a jour de deux meta-analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-11-15

    This new meta-analysis found a slight increase in the risk of brain cancer and of leukemia in populations occupationally exposed to electromagnetic fields. it does not, however, support the hypothesis that electromagnetic fields have an effect on these cancers. (author)

  20. Occupational Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  1. Occupational health

    CERN Document Server

    Fingret, Dr Ann

    2013-01-01

    Offers a comprehensive view of health and safety issues at work. An invaluable resource for managers, personnel professionals and occupational health practitioners. Recommended by the Institute of Personnel Management.

  2. Teaching Occupational Therapy on the Addiction Field - An experience in a multidisciplinary context with undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bianco Perrone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to discuss the teaching of Occupational Therapy (OT in the context of substance abuse to undergraduate students. Aiming to debate the experience of multidisciplinary supervised practice during the course of academic studies, it presents the Academic League on Drug Dependence - LFD as a space for understanding the phenomenon of addiction and the construction of practice in this area. A qualitative observational study was carried out on the analysis of discussion between tutors and 25 undergraduate students from different courses (OT, psychology, nursing, and medicine that comprise the LFD, which is associated with the Program of Treatment and Guidance to Drug Addicts - PROAD of the Federal University of São Paulo - UNIFESP. We observed articulations about the construction of clinical reasoning in the OT area and the constitution of the students’ perceptions while professionals participating in a multidisciplinary team. It was possible to observe that the experience of the specificity of OT and collective supervision, which, in turn, enables the articulation, favored the construction of an expended comprehension of the subjects treated in the LFD. In this sense, the collective discussion of cases allowed ultidisciplinary dialogue that will constitute the identity of students as health professionals who position themselves in a coherent team. It was perceived that the teaching of OT, in the context of a multiprofessional league, inserted in a program of care for people with problems related to substance use, abuse and/or ependence, has been an experience of a continuous construction of a space that supports and dialogues on issues of the specificity of profession, and its inclusion in this team.

  3. Occupational exposure of welders to ultraviolet and "blue light" radiation emitted during TIG and MMA welding based on field measuremants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wolska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to present the results of welders' occupational exposure to "blue light" and UV radiation carried out at industrial workstations during TIG and MMA welding. Materials and methods: Measurements were performed at 13 workstations (TIG welding: 6; MMA welding: 7, at which different welding parameters and materials were used. The radiation level was measured using a wide-range radiometer and a set of detectors, whose spectral responses were adequately fit to particular hazard under study. The measurement points corresponded with the location of eye and hand. Results: The highest values of eye irradiance were found for aluminum TIG welding. Effective irradiance of actinic UV was within the range Es = 7.79-37.6 W/m2; UVA total irradiance, EUVA = 18-53.1 W/m2 and effective blue-light irradiance EB = 35-67 W/m2. The maximum allowance time ranged from 1.7 to 75 s, which means that in some cases even unintentional very short eye exposure can exceed MPE. Conclusions: The influence of welded material and the type of electrode coating on the measured radiation level were evidenced. The exceeded value of MPE for photochemical hazard arising for the eyes and skin was found at all measured workstations. Welders should use appropriately the eye and face protective equipment and avoid direct staring at welding arc when starting an arcwelding operation. Besides, the lack of head and neck skin protection can induce acute and chronic harmful health effects. Therefore, an appropriate wear of personal protective equipment is essential for welders' health. Med Pr 2013;64(1:69–82

  4. Effects of extremely low-frequency magnetotherapy on proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasi, Francesca; Sanna, Samuele; Paolini, Alessandro; Alquati, Marco; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Corti, Maurizio Enrico; Liberto, Riccardo Di; Cialdai, Francesca; Monici, Monica; Nano, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) applied in magnetotherapy have frequency lower than 100 Hz and magnetic field intensity ranging from 0.1 to 20 mT. For many years, the use of magnetotherapy in clinics has been increasing because of its beneficial effects in many processes, e.g., skin diseases, inflammation and bone disorders. However, the understanding of the microscopic mechanisms governing such processes is still lacking and the results of the studies on the effects of ELF-EMFs are controversial because effects derive from different conditions and from intrinsic responsiveness of different cell types.In the present study, we studied the biological effects of 1.5 h exposure of human dermal fibroblasts to EMFs with frequencies of 5 and 50 Hz and intensity between 0.25 and 1.6 mT. Our data showed that the magnetic treatment did not produce changes in cell viability, but gave evidence of a sizeable decrease in proliferation at 24 h after treatment. In addition, immunofluorescence experiments displayed an increase in tubulin expression that could foreshadow changes in cell motility or morphology. The decrease in proliferation with unchanged viability and increase in tubulin expression could be consistent with the triggering of a transdifferentiation process after the exposure to ELF-EMFs.

  5. Occupational Outlook Handbook: Healthcare Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov Disability.gov Freedom of Information Act | Privacy & Security Statement | Disclaimers | Customer Survey | Important Web Site Notices U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics | Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections, PSB ...

  6. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (Emf) of extremely low frequency and Alzheimer disease; Exposition professionnelle aux champs electromagnetiques (CEM) d'extremement basse frequence et maladie d'Alzheimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mir, L

    2008-09-15

    Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (between 3 and 3000 hz) is one potential risk factor for Alzheimer disease. this critical meta-analysis of the published epidemiologic work suggests the existence of an association in a very heterogeneous dataset. It looks for potential sources of error, examines the areas of uncertainty, and calls for the pursuit of further research. (author)

  7. Zoonoses as occupational diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Battelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses are discussed as occupational diseases, with special reference to animal husbandry and related activities. After quoting some historical references, occupational zoonoses are examined in relation to the evolution of the concept of occupational zoonosis, the involvement of the World Health Organization in this field, their socio-economic significance, the principal working activities, zoonoses of greatest importance (with special reference to the Mediterranean region, the evaluation of damage and risks. An outline is made of the transmission of zoonoses from farm workers to animals and the biological hazards from the environment. The present situation of occupational zoonoses and related risks in industrialised and traditional farming activities are presented and the importance of some emerging and re-emerging zoonoses for the health of workers is highlighted. The author concludes by stressing that the prevention of occupational zoonoses must be implemented jointly by both veterinary and medical services through preventive measures and epidemiological surveillance of human and animal health, risk evaluation, diagnosis of infections and prompt reporting. It is hoped that the future will offer better inter-disciplinary collaboration and that legislation will be timely and better tailored to safeguard working health and safety.

  8. Occupational exposure to electric fields and induced currents associated with 400 kV substation tasks from different service platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena H; Elovaara, Jarmo A; Kuisti, Harri A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the occupational exposure to electric fields, average current densities, and average total contact currents at 400 kV substation tasks from different service platforms (main transformer inspection, maintenance of operating device of disconnector, maintenance of operating device of circuit breaker). The average values are calculated over measured periods (about 2.5 min). In many work tasks, the maximum electric field strengths exceeded the action values proposed in the EU Directive 2004/40/EC, but the average electric fields (0.2-24.5 kV/m) were at least 40% lower than the maximum values. The average current densities were 0.1-2.3 mA/m² and the average total contact currents 2.0-143.2 µA, that is, clearly less than the limit values of the EU Directive. The average values of the currents in head and contact currents were 16-68% lower than the maximum values when we compared the average value from all cases in the same substation. In the future it is important to pay attention to the fact that the action and limit values of the EU Directive differ significantly. It is also important to take into account that generally, the workers' exposure to the electric fields, current densities, and total contact currents are obviously lower if we use the average values from a certain measured time period (e.g., 2.5 min) than in the case where exposure is defined with only the help of the maximum values. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Occupational exposure of healthcare and research staff to static magnetic stray fields from 1.5–7 Tesla MRI scanners is associated with reporting of transient symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Kristel; Christopher-de Vries, Yvette; Mason, Catherine K; de Vocht, Frank; Portengen, Lützen; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Limited data is available about incidence of acute transient symptoms associated with occupational exposure to static magnetic stray fields from MRI scanners. We aimed to assess the incidence of these symptoms among healthcare and research staff working with MRI scanners, and their association with static magnetic field exposure. Methods We performed an observational study among 361 employees of 14 clinical and research MRI facilities in The Netherlands. Each participant completed a diary during one or more work shifts inside and/or outside the MRI facility, reporting work activities and symptoms (from a list of potentially MRI-related symptoms, complemented with unrelated symptoms) experienced during a working day. We analysed 633 diaries. Exposure categories were defined by strength and type of MRI scanner, using non-MRI shifts as the reference category for statistical analysis. Non-MRI shifts originated from MRI staff who also participated on MRI days, as well as CT radiographers who never worked with MRI. Results Varying per exposure category, symptoms were reported during 16–39% of the MRI work shifts. We observed a positive association between scanner strength and reported symptoms among healthcare and research staff working with closed-bore MRI scanners of 1.5 Tesla (T) and higher (1.5 T OR=1.88; 3.0 T OR=2.14; 7.0 T OR=4.17). This finding was mainly driven by reporting of vertigo and metallic taste. Conclusions The results suggest an exposure-response association between exposure to strong static magnetic fields (and associated motion-induced time-varying magnetic fields) and reporting of transient symptoms on the same day of exposure. Trial registration number 11-032/C PMID:24714654

  10. Occupational Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how to get dressed Demonstrate exercises—for example, stretching the joints for arthritis relief—that can help ... as follows: Hospitals; state, local, and private 27% Offices of physical, occupational and speech therapists, and audiologists ...

  11. Window opening behaviour: simulations of occupant behaviour in residential buildings using models based on a field survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentina, Fabi; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Window opening behaviour has been shown to have a significant impact on airflow rates and hence energy consumption. Nevertheless, the inhabitant behaviour related to window opening in residential buildings is currently poorly investigated through both field surveys and building energy simulations....... In particular, reliable information regarding user behaviour in residential buildings is crucial for suitable prediction of building performance (energy consumption, indoor environmental quality, etc.). To face this issue, measurements of indoor climate and outdoor environmental parameters and window “opening...... and closing” actions were performed in 15 dwellings from January to August 2008 in Denmark. Probabilistic models of inhabitants’ window “opening and closing” behaviour were developed and implemented in the energy simulation software IDA ICE to improve window opening and closing strategies in simulations...

  12. Discussion on occupational health safety management in engineering project construction field%论工程项目施工现场职业健康安全管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宝芳

    2015-01-01

    介绍了建筑工程项目职业健康安全管理的概念,分析了影响施工现场职业健康的因素,确立了职业健康安全管理目标,并对工程项目安全管理的防治措施进行了论述,为工程建设的顺利进行提供保障。%The paper introduces the concept of occupational health safety management of building engineering project. Through analyzing factors influencing occupational health in construction field,it establishes occupational health safety management targets,and discusses preventive meas-ures of engineering project safety management,which has provided some guarantee for engineering construction smooth.

  13. About Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if}} {{{tweet}}} About Occupational Therapy What Is Occupational Therapy? Occupational therapy practitioners ask, "What matters to you?" not, " ... about our science-driven and evidence-based profession. Occupational Therapy: Improving Function While Controlling Costs 4 4 The ...

  14. Investigations on DNA damage and frequency of micronuclei in occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs emitted from video display terminals (VDTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NK Lakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs emitted from video display terminals (VDTs to elicit biological response is a major concern for the public. The software professionals are subjected to cumulative EMFs in their occupational environments. This study was undertaken to evaluate DNA damage and incidences of micronuclei in such professionals. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first attempt to carry out cytogenetic investigations on assessing bioeffects in personal computer users. The study subjects (n = 138 included software professionals using VDTs for more than 2 years with age, gender, socioeconomic status matched controls (n = 151. DNA damage and frequency of micronuclei were evaluated using alkaline comet assay and cytochalasin blocked micronucleus assay respectively. Overall DNA damage and incidence of micronuclei showed no significant differences between the exposed and control subjects. With exposure characteristics, such as total duration (years and frequency of use (minutes/day sub-groups were assessed for such parameters. Although cumulative frequency of use showed no significant changes in the DNA integrity of the classified sub-groups, the long-term users (> 10 years showed higher induction of DNA damage and increased frequency of micronuclei and micro nucleated cells.

  15. Occupational Safety and Health Curriculum Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Frank A., Jr., Comp.

    With the enactment of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, the need for manpower development in the field of industrial safety and hygiene has resulted in the development of a broad based program in Occupational Safety and Health. The manual provides information to administrators and instructors on a program of study in this field for…

  16. Occupation: nurse; occupational hazard: radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickson, K.

    1984-03-01

    The work of the occupational health nurses at the Pickering Generating Station is described. A staff of two nurses teach first aid and safety, practice an emergency plan, and monitor personnel for minimum health standards for radiation workers. Special attention is paid to problems which might be aggravated by radiation, such as skin complaints, respiratory diseases, emotional stability, or phobias regarding heights, plastic suits, or radiation itself. Procedures used in treating contaminated personnel are outlined.

  17. When theory and observation collide: Can non-ionizing radiation cause cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Magda

    2017-02-01

    This paper attempts to resolve the debate about whether non-ionizing radiation (NIR) can cause cancer-a debate that has been ongoing for decades. The rationale, put forward mostly by physicists and accepted by many health agencies, is that, "since NIR does not have enough energy to dislodge electrons, it is unable to cause cancer." This argument is based on a flawed assumption and uses the model of ionizing radiation (IR) to explain NIR, which is inappropriate. Evidence of free-radical damage has been repeatedly documented among humans, animals, plants and microorganisms for both extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and for radio frequency (RF) radiation, neither of which is ionizing. While IR directly damages DNA, NIR interferes with the oxidative repair mechanisms resulting in oxidative stress, damage to cellular components including DNA, and damage to cellular processes leading to cancer. Furthermore, free-radical damage explains the increased cancer risks associated with mobile phone use, occupational exposure to NIR (ELF EMF and RFR), and residential exposure to power lines and RF transmitters including mobile phones, cell phone base stations, broadcast antennas, and radar installations.

  18. Participation and occupation in occupational therapy models of practice: A discussion of possibilities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson-Lund, Maria; Nyman, Anneli

    2017-11-01

    Occupation has been the focus in occupational therapy practice to greater or lesser degrees from a historical viewpoint. This evokes a need to discuss whether concepts that are added to our field will enhance or blur our focus on occupation. To explore how the concept of participation in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is related to the concept of occupation by reviewing and comparing its use in three models of practice within occupational therapy. The aim was also to generate discussion on possibilities and challenges concerning the relationship of participation and occupation. The models reviewed were The Model of Human Occupation (MOHO), the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement (CMOP-E) and the Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM). The concept of participation was related to occupation in different ways in these models. Based on the review some challenges and considerations for occupational therapy were generated. Relating the concept of participation from the ICF to the concept of occupation in models of practice can be challenging. At the same time, relating the concepts can be a resource to develop occupational therapy and the understanding of occupational issues in society.

  19. The Portrayal of Occupational Therapy and Occupational Science in Canadian Newspapers: A Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsing-Yee (Emily Chai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of occupational therapy is to enable people to participate in the activities of everyday life. The demand for occupational therapists in Canada is expected to grow sharply at an annual growth rate of 3.2%, compared to 0.7% for all occupations. At the same time, it is believed by occupational therapists in Canada that the Canadian public does not understand the role of occupational therapy. Occupational science is an emerging basic science field that supports the practice of occupational therapy. Given that newspapers are one source the public uses to obtain information and that newspapers are seen to shape public opinions, the purpose of this study is to investigate how “occupational therapy” is covered in Canadian newspapers from the term’s first appearance in 1917 until 2016 and how “occupational science” is covered from the term’s first appearance in 1989 to 2016. We interrogated the findings through the lens of three non-newspaper sources—two academic journals: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy (CJOT and Journal of Occupational Science (JOS; and one Canadian magazine: Occupational Therapy Now (OTN. We found that medical terms were prevalent in the newspaper articles covering occupational therapy similar to the presence of medical terms in the CJOT and OTN. However, the newspapers missed contemporary shifts in occupational therapy as evident in the CJOT, OTN and JOS—such as the increased engagement with enablement, occupational justice and other occupational concepts. The newspapers also failed to portray the societal issues that occupational therapy engages with on behalf of and with their clients, and the newspapers did not cover many of the client groups of occupational therapy. Occupational science was only mentioned in n = 26 articles of the nearly 300 Canadian newspapers covered with no concrete content linked to occupational science. The scope of occupational therapy presented in Canadian

  20. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Occupational Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Occupational Therapy Print A A ... for some kids. continue Kids Who Might Need Occupational Therapy According to the AOTA, kids with these medical ...

  1. Occupational RF Exposures (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Puranen, L

    1999-07-01

    Potentially adverse levels of RF electromagnetic fields, exceeding the present limits for occupational exposure, arise near industrial high frequency (HF) heaters, high power broadcast antennas, and high power radar antennas. Other significant emitters of RF fields in the occupational environment are radiotelephones, induction heaters, short-wave and microwave therapy devices, base station antennas, magnetic resonance imaging devices, microwave ovens, and industrial microwave heaters. In terms of the intensity and duration of the exposure as well as the number of exposed workers, the HF sealers, particularly plastic sealers, constitute the most significant RF radiation safety problem in the working environment. (author)

  2. Image processing occupancy sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2016-09-27

    A system and method of detecting occupants in a building automation system environment using image based occupancy detection and position determinations. In one example, the system includes an image processing occupancy sensor that detects the number and position of occupants within a space that has controllable building elements such as lighting and ventilation diffusers. Based on the position and location of the occupants, the system can finely control the elements to optimize conditions for the occupants, optimize energy usage, among other advantages.

  3. Occupational exposure and urological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Wiese, Andreas; Assennato, Giorgio; Bolt, Hermann M

    2004-02-01

    Occupational exposure is definitely a major cause of cancer. In the field of urology, the urinary bladder is the most important target. A classical cause of bladder cancer is exposure to carcinogenic aromatic amines, especially benzidine and beta-naphthylamine. Such exposures were related to work places in the chemical industry, implying production and processing of classical aromatic amines, and in the rubber industry. Occupational bladder cancer has also been observed in dyers, painters and hairdressers. Even some occupations with much lower exposures to carcinogenic aromatic amines, like coke oven workers or workers in the rubber industry after the ban on beta-naphthylamine, are at risk. In these occupations, exposure to complex mixtures of substances containing combustion products (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) or nitrosamines is common. Renal cell cancer has been observed as an occupational disease in cases of very high exposure to trichloroethylene having led to narcotic or prenarcotic symptoms. Occupationally related cancers of the prostate or the testes appear currently not relevant.

  4. Principal Approaches to Understanding Occupation and Occupational Science Found in the Chilean Journal of Occupational Therapy (2001–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Silvia; Tapia, María Jesús; Rueda, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Background The progression of occupational science in Chile is documented in the main scientific publication of the field, the Chilean Journal of Occupational Therapy (RChTO). Objective Identify approaches to understanding and applying occupation and occupational science as elucidated in the RChTO. Methodology A systematic qualitative review of the journal (2001–2012) identified articles elucidating an approach to understanding and application operationally defined as references to specific authors, theories, models/paradigms, definitions, and other fields that support approaches to O/OS. Results The study identified two main approaches. The first considers occupation/occupational science from a practical perspective or as a means to explain human behavior; the second considers occupation/occupational science as an object of study. Each approach is further divided into categories. Conclusion This study provides a novel perspective on regional use of occupational science concepts. These findings contribute to our understanding of this science in context and to recognition of the cultural relevance of these scientific concepts.

  5. Guide for Occupational Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Intended for use with or without counseling help, this occupational exploration guide is organized around 12 interest areas, 66 work groups, and 348 subgroups of occupational titles. The interest areas (an expansion of John Holland's six occupational categories) represent the broad interest requirements of occupations as well as the vocational…

  6. 极低频电磁场对星形胶质细胞生长促进作用%Stimulative effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on growth of astrocytes in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海晖; 段玉清; 张瑞; 武妍; 施岚晨; 杨玲; 陆荣柱

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨极低频电磁场(ELF-EMF)对大鼠星形胶质细胞(AST)生长的作用及其可能机制.方法 以AST为模型,在不同磁场强度(2、4、6、8、10 mT)下辐射一定时间(15、30、45 min),检测细胞生存率、细胞形态、细胞内活性氧(ROS)含量等.结果 实验中各辐射强度和时间对AST生长均有促进作用,10 mT辐射30 min组促进作用最明显(P<0.01),其细胞生存率为127.31%,细胞内ROS含量随磁场强度增大而增加,10 mT辐射30 min组最高,其荧光强度为237.67,高于正常对照组(P<0.01).结论 短期暴露于ELF-EMF,会导致AST内ROS含量增加,这可能是诱导细胞增殖的机制之一.

  7. Compensation for Occupational Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Inah; Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Jae Young

    2014-01-01

    The legal scope and criteria for occupational cancer in Korea was out of date. The aim of this study was to review the current criteria for occupational cancer and amend the existent criteria on the basis of recent scientific evidence. The scientific evidence and the legal list of occupational cancer were analyzed to identify the causes of occupational cancer on a global scale. The relationship between compensated occupational cancer cases and carcinogen exposure in Korea was examined. The fa...

  8. Development and Field-Testing of a Study Protocol, including a Web-Based Occupant Survey Tool, for Use in Intervention Studies of Indoor Environmental Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Spears, Michael; Fisk, William J.

    2009-06-01

    We developed and pilot-tested an overall protocol for intervention studies to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental changes in office buildings on the health symptoms and comfort of occupants. The protocol includes a web-based survey to assess the occupant's responses, as well as specific features of study design and analysis. The pilot study, carried out on two similar floors in a single building, compared two types of ventilation system filter media. With support from the building's Facilities staff, the implementation of the filter change intervention went well. While the web-based survey tool worked well also, low overall response rates (21-34percent among the three work groups included) limited our ability to evaluate the filter intervention., The total number of questionnaires returned was low even though we extended the study from eight to ten weeks. Because another simultaneous study we conducted elsewhere using the same survey had a high response rate (>70percent), we conclude that the low response here resulted from issues specific to this pilot, including unexpected restrictions by some employing agencies on communication with occupants.

  9. Development and Field-Testing of a Study Protocol, including a Web-Based Occupant Survey Tool, for Use in Intervention Studies of Indoor Environmental Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Spears, Michael; Fisk, William J.

    2009-06-01

    We developed and pilot-tested an overall protocol for intervention studies to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental changes in office buildings on the health symptoms and comfort of occupants. The protocol includes a web-based survey to assess the occupant's responses, as well as specific features of study design and analysis. The pilot study, carried out on two similar floors in a single building, compared two types of ventilation system filter media. With support from the building's Facilities staff, the implementation of the filter change intervention went well. While the web-based survey tool worked well also, low overall response rates (21-34percent among the three work groups included) limited our ability to evaluate the filter intervention., The total number of questionnaires returned was low even though we extended the study from eight to ten weeks. Because another simultaneous study we conducted elsewhere using the same survey had a high response rate (>70percent), we conclude that the low response here resulted from issues specific to this pilot, including unexpected restrictions by some employing agencies on communication with occupants.

  10. Chondrogenic potential of rat mesenchymal stem cells in vitro under the influence of electromagnetic fields%低频电磁场干预大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞体外成软骨分化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞冀哲; 杨勇; 刘朝旭; 宋明宇; 刘阳; 吴华

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨在体外条件下低频电磁场诱导大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞向软骨细胞分化的可行性.方法 大鼠骨髓间充质于细胞传代至第5代后,采用微团培养法在含成纤维生长因子-2和转化生长因子-β3的培养基中生长,并给予正弦波电磁场(1.0 mT,50 Hz)干预.3周后进行阿利新蓝染色以检测软骨基质生成量,采用荧光定量聚合酶链反应(FQ-PCR)技术检测软骨特异性蛋白的基因表达水平,并使用二甲基-亚甲蓝(DMMB)染料结合法评估细胞微团中糖胺多糖水平.结果 在电磁场和生长因子的协同作用下,大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞(BMSCs)细胞微团向软骨分化,细胞微团中Ⅱ型、X型胶原及蛋白多糖基因表达水平显著增加,而性别决定区Y框蛋白9(SOX9)的表达没有明显变化.与非暴磁组比较,暴磁组细胞糖胺多糖(GAG)/DNA比例较高(3.108±0.341).结论 电磁场促进大鼠BMSCs成软骨分化可能与细胞表达Ⅱ、X型胶原及糖胺多糖增多有关.电磁场在生长因子的协同作用下可诱导及维持间充质干细胞成软骨分化,但单因素电磁场刺激不能诱导大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞成软骨分化.%Objective To determine the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) under exposure of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) and discuss the application prospect of EMF in cartilage tissue engineering.Methods Cell pellets of rat bone marrow-derived BMSCs were cultured in vitro under the addition of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3).Pellet cultures were exposed to sinusoidal ELF-EMF (1.0 mT,50 Hz).After 3 weeks of inductive differentiation culture,chondrogenesis was detected by alcian blue staining,and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) was used for detection of chondrogenesis related proteins.Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) contents of pellet cultures were determined using the

  11. Occupational and environmental lung disease: occupational asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenton, S C

    2010-01-01

    Occupational exposures cause 10-15% of new-onset asthma in adults, and that represents a considerable health and economic burden. Exposure to many causative agents is now well controlled but workplace practices are constantly evolving and new hazards being introduced. Overall, there is no good evidence that the incidence of occupational asthma is decreasing. Evidence-based guidelines such as those published by the British Occupational Health research Foundation and Standards of Care documents should help raise awareness of the problem and improve management. Key targets include the control of occupational exposures, a high index of suspicion in any adult with new onset asthma, and early detailed investigation.

  12. Multi-scale occupancy approach to estimate Toxoplasma gondii prevalence and detection probability in tissues: an application and guide for field sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Stacey A; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Bailey, Larissa L; Iqbal, Asma; Su, Chunlei; Dixon, Brent R; Alisauskas, Ray T; Gajadhar, Alvin A; Jenkins, Emily J

    2016-08-01

    Increasingly, birds are recognised as important hosts for the ubiquitous parasite Toxoplasma gondii, although little experimental evidence exists to determine which tissues should be tested to maximise the detection probability of T. gondii. Also, Arctic-nesting geese are suspected to be important sources of T. gondii in terrestrial Arctic ecosystems, but the parasite has not previously been reported in the tissues of these geese. Using a domestic goose model, we applied a multi-scale occupancy framework to demonstrate that the probability of detection of T. gondii was highest in the brain (0.689, 95% confidence interval=0.486, 0.839) and the heart (0.809, 95% confidence interval=0.693, 0.888). Inoculated geese had an estimated T. gondii infection probability of 0.849, (95% confidence interval=0.643, 0.946), highlighting uncertainty in the system, even under experimental conditions. Guided by these results, we tested the brains and hearts of wild Ross's Geese (Chen rossii, n=50) and Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens, n=50) from Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. We detected 51 suspected positive tissue samples from 33 wild geese using real-time PCR with melt-curve analysis. The wild goose prevalence estimates generated by our multi-scale occupancy analysis were higher than the naïve estimates of prevalence, indicating that multiple PCR repetitions on the same organs and testing more than one organ could improve T. gondii detection. Genetic characterisation revealed Type III T. gondii alleles in six wild geese and Sarcocystis spp. in 25 samples. Our study demonstrates that Arctic nesting geese are capable of harbouring T. gondii in their tissues and could transport the parasite from their southern overwintering grounds into the Arctic region. We demonstrate how a multi-scale occupancy framework can be used in a domestic animal model to guide resource-limited sample collection and tissue analysis in wildlife. Secondly, we confirm the value of traditional occupancy in

  13. Occupational exposure to 0 - 300 GHz electromagnetic fields to understand and apply the European directive; Expositions professionnelles aux champs electromagnetiques 0-300 ghz pour comprendre et appliquer la directive europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengon, A.; Lombard, J. [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Seze, R. de [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (INERIS) (France); Souques, M.; Lambrozo, J. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Louit, L. [Ministere du Travail, 75 - Paris (France); Lagroye, I. [EPHE - ENSCPB - Laboratoire PIOM, 33 - Pessac (France)

    2005-07-01

    The section of non ionizing radiation of the French society of radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) has organised this day whom principal objectives were to present the new European directive on the occupational exposures to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields as well as its practical entailments for work physicians, safety engineers and any person involved in the surveillance of working risks. The different contribution are as follow: Electromagnetic fields and health, evolution of ideas from 1960 to the directive of 2004; the landscape of occupational exposures; the physiological and biological bases of the directive (the induced currents); the physiological and biological bases of the directive (D.A.S. and the thermal effects of radio frequencies); the actual data on the biological effects of radio frequencies; from the recommendations of I.C.N.I.R.P. to the European Directive; dosimetry and measurement precision (metrology and uncertainties in low frequencies; dosimetry and measurement precision (metrology and uncertainties in radio frequencies); the European directive, text explanation (entailments for low frequencies); the European directive, text explanation (entailment for radio frequencies); transposition in French law; some questions answers with the group of stake holders. (N.C.)

  14. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Occupational Therapy Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in jobs in occupational therapy. Agency partners involved in this project include: the Illinois State board of Education, Illinois Community College…

  15. Occupational therapy evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM) serves to guide occupational therapists in their professional reasoning. The OTIPM prescribes evaluation of task performance based on both self-report and observation. Although this approach seems ideal, many clinicians raise...

  16. American Occupational Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manage Your Practice Evidence-Based Practice & Research Ethics Occupational Therapy Assistants Advocacy & Policy New Evaluation Codes Learn how ... Reimbursement Education & Careers OT is a Top Job Occupational therapy consistently ranks high as one of the top ...

  17. Occupational cancer in Britain. Preventing occupational cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqun; Osman, John

    2012-06-19

    Although only a relatively small proportion of cancer is attributable to occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents, the estimated number of deaths due to occupational cancer is high when compared to other deaths due to work-related ill health and injury. However, risk from occupational exposure to carcinogens can be minimised through proportionate but effective risk management. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the regulator of workplace health and safety in Great Britain. As part of its aim to reduce ill health arising from failures to control properly exposure to hazards at work, HSE commissioned the research presented elsewhere in this supplement to enable it to identify priorities for preventing occupational cancer. The research has shown that occupational cancer remains a key health issue and that low-level exposure of a large number of workers to carcinogens is important. The finding that a small number of carcinogens have been responsible for the majority of the burden of occupational cancer provides key evidence in the development of priorities for significant reduction of occupational cancer. Although the research presented in this supplement reflects the consequences of past exposures to carcinogens, occupational cancer remains a problem. The potential for exposure to the agents considered in this research is still present in the workplace and the findings are relevant to prevention of future disease. In this article, the principle approaches for risk reduction are described. It provides supporting information on some of the initiatives already being undertaken, or those being put in place, to reduce occupational cancer in Great Britain. The need also for systematic collection of exposure information and the importance of raising awareness and changing behaviours are discussed.

  18. Ethical principles in occupational therapy intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellido Mainar, J R

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available For 2,500 years, the medical profession has created a body of ethical principles. Adapting to differeft historical and sociological circumstances, it has driven the practice of health professionals and constitutes a compilation of the rights and duties of doctors and patients.These principles represent the embryo of an emergening human science known as Bioethics. From the impulse of the scientific paradigm, a set of tasks and cares that were included in what was called charity started to be classified in a group of new proffesions devoted to the "methodical" care of patients and the underprivileged. Several new professions sprung up, including Occupational Therapy. From then on, the practice of the occupational therapist has remained protected by ethical principles that have traditionally monitored and driven the medical practice.This article first summarizes the historical evolution of the different ethical codes used by health professionals, emphasizing those aspects with a greater influence in the configuration of the ethical codes connected with occupational therapy.Secondly, we analyse the way occupational therapy has integrated the ethical principles of the medical practice in its own intervention. The main ethical guidelines used in the field are the ones proposed by the American Association of Occupational Therapy (AOTA, the World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT, and the Council of Occupational Therapists for the European Countries (COTEC.Finally, we point out some of the difficulties and bioethcal challenges faced by occupational therapists

  19. 油田生活污水处理系统职业病危害控制效果评价%Effect Evaluation of Hazard Control on Occupation Disease of Sewage Treatment System of Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the hazard factors of occupation disease produced in the process of wastewater treatment and to evaluate the protective measures of occupation disease harm and their effect . Method labor hygiene on-site investigation , site detection of occupational hazard factors and laboratory tests and other means were applied .Results Anaerobic ammonia ( 3 .76 mg/m3 ) produced by the de-composition of organic wastewater , hydrogen sulfide (8.2mg/m3 ), nitrogen dioxide (0.02 mg/m3 );chlorine dioxidedisinfection for wastewater (0.19 mg/m3 ), hydrogen chloride and hydrochloric acid (3.2 mg/m3), chlorine(0.09mg/m3) produced in the reaction process of chlorine dioxide generator , the highest value of 450 ( V/m) of the power frequency electric field generated by the high voltage power distribution room , all did not exceed the limiting value of occupation contact of provisions of the state;the 40 H noise equivalent sound level in the upgrading of sewage , sludge dewatering operation of machinery and equipment produced in the process of sewage treatment is 81.9 dB (A);40h noise equivalent sound level of sludge dewatering engineering is 80.6 dB (40H A), both did not exceed the limits specified for occupation contact .Conclusion the existence of noise intensity projects in production line of ammonia , hydrogen sulfide , chlorine belong to the factors of serious occupation disease harm and can be prevented by the related protection measures .%目的:分析、污水处理过程中产生的职业病危害因素,评价职业病危害防护措施及其效果。方法采用劳动卫生学现场调查、现场检测职业病危害因素及实验室检验等手段。结果污水中有机物厌氧分解产生的氨气(3.76mg/m3)、硫化氢(8.2mg/m3)、二氧化氮(0.02 mg/m3);污水消毒用二氧化氯(0.19 mg/m3)、二氧化氯发生器反应过程中产生的氯化氢及盐酸(3.2 mg/m3)、氯气(0.09 mg/m3)、高

  20. History of ergonomics and occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainer, Rochelle D

    2008-01-01

    Ergonomics is commonly known as "the scientific study of human work" [14, p. 3] and "the application of scientific information concerning human beings to the design of objects, systems, and environments" (p. 4). The American Occupational Therapy Association defines occupational therapy as "skilled treatment that helps individuals achieve independence in all facets of their lives. It gives people the 'skills for the job of living' necessary for independent and satisfying lives [1]." Both professions share common backgrounds. Occupational therapy has been involved in health care and ergonomics is looking for its place in the health care field.

  1. A university's contribution to occupational health.

    OpenAIRE

    Schilling, R S

    1993-01-01

    The first Chair of Occupational Health in the United Kingdom was established by Manchester University in 1945 and held by Ronald Lane, a consultant physician and experienced factor doctor. In his department, occupational medicine was taught as a clinical discipline to both undergraduates and postgraduates. Research was based mostly on clinical observation of workpeople in the field or as hospital outpatients. Although work has become less hazardous, with major risks like pneumoconiosis and le...

  2. [OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT IN WORKERS IN IMPROVEMENT OF NATIONAL POLICY IN OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENE AND SAFETY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, P Z; Zaĭtseva, N V; Alekseev, V B; Shliapnikov, D M

    2015-01-01

    In accordance with the international documents in the field of occupational safety and hygiene, the assessment and minimization of occupational risks is a key instrument for the health maintenance of workers. One of the main ways to achieve it is the minimization of occupational risks. Correspondingly, the instrument for the implementation of this method is the methodology of analysis of occupational risks. In Russian Federation there were the preconditions for the formation of the system for the assessment and management of occupational risks. As the target of the national (state) policy in the field of occupational safety in accordance with ILO Conventions it can be offered the prevention of accidents and injuries to health arising from work or related with it, minimizing the causes of hazards inherent in the working environment, as far as it is reasonably and practically feasible. Global trend ofusing the methodology of the assessment and management of occupational risks to life and health of citizens requires the improvement of national policies in the field of occupational hygiene and safety. Achieving an acceptable level of occupational risk in the formation of national policy in the field of occupational hygiene and safety can be considered as one of the main tasks.

  3. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE AND COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Else Toft

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common disease. The main risk factor is smoking although 15% of the COPD cases are expected to be preventable if the occupational exposures from vapour, gas, dust, and fume were eliminated; the population attributable fraction (PAF). The thesis...... addresses the association between occupational exposure and COPD in a population-based cohort of Danes aged 45-84-years. 4717 participants were included at baseline and 2624 at the four year follow-up. COPD was defined by spirometry and the occupational exposure was based on specialist defined jobs...... and questionnaires. The main occupational exposure was organic dust and 49% reported no lifetime occupational exposure. The results suggest occupational exposures to be associated to COPD also in never smokers and women. We found an exposure-response relation in the cross sectional analyses. The results...

  4. Occupant Controlled Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadóttir, Ásta

    2011-01-01

    of adjustment. Firstly, there was preliminary laboratory study exploring the influence of daylight on occupant controlled dynamic lighting in a laboratory office environment. Secondly, there was non-daylit laboratory study on occupant preferences for illuminance, and thirdly a scale model study on occupant......The studies presented in this thesis explore opportunities and limitations of using the method of adjustment for occupant controlled lighting. The method of adjustment is studied with respect to occupant preferences and energy efficiency. The work presents three types of studies using the method...... preferences for correlated colour temperature (CCT). The results suggest that the method of adjustment, previously used in the lighting literature, is not adequate to generalize about occupant preferences for illuminance or CCT. Factors that influence occupants’ lighting preference when applying the method...

  5. Inference for occupancy and occupancy dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Bailey, Larissa L.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the estimation of occupancy as a state variable to assess the status of, and track changes in, species distributions when sampling with camera traps. Much of the recent interest in occupancy estimation and modeling originated from the models developed by MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2003), although similar methods were developed independently (Azuma et al. 1990; Bayley and Petersen 2001; Nichols and Karanth, 2002; Tyre et al. 2003), all of which deal with species occurrence information and imperfect detection. Less than a decade after these publications, the modeling and estimation of species occurrence and occupancy dynamics have increased significantly. Special features of scientific journals have explored innovative uses of detection–nondetection data with occupancy models (Vojta 2005), and an entire volume has synthesized the use and application of occupancy estimation methods (MacKenzie et al. 2006). Reviews of the topical concepts, philosophical considerations, and various sampling designs that can be used for occupancy estimation are now readily available for a range of audiences (MacKenzie and Royle 2005; MacKenzie et al. 2006; Bailey et al. 2007; Royle and Dorazio 2008; Conroy and Carroll 2009; Kendall and White 2009; Hines et al. 2010; Link and Barker 2010). As a result, it would be pointless here to recast all that these publications have so eloquently articulated, but that said, a review of any scientific topic requires sufficient context and relevant background information, especially when relatively new methodologies and techniques such as occupancy estimation and camera traps are involved. This is especially critical in a digital age where new information is published at warp speed, making it increasingly difficult to stay abreast of theoretical advances and research developments.

  6. Estimation of an Occupational Choice Model when Occupations Are Misclassified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical occupational choice model that corrects for misclassification in occupational choices and measurement error in occupation-specific work experience. The model is used to estimate the extent of measurement error in occupation data and quantify the bias that results from ignoring measurement error in occupation codes…

  7. Evolución de la terapia ocupacional en el campo de la oncología = Occupational therapy evolution in oncology field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarrete Salas, E

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El objetivo de lasiguiente revisión bibliográfica fue conocer la trayectoria de la Terapia Ocupacional (T.O. en el área oncológica durante las últimas 4 décadas. Para ello se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINALH y AMED, con los descriptores Terapia Ocupacional, oncología y cáncer, tanto en el título como en el abstract; se excluyeron los artículos que no estuviesen en idioma inglés o español.Los resultados arrojaron un total de 68 publicaciones de T.O. y cáncer, con una curva sostenida de crecimiento en el número de trabajos publicados. En cuanto a tipo de cáncer predominan las publicaciones que aluden a cáncer en general, aunque destaca el interés por estudiar pacientes con cáncer mamario. La metodología predominante es descriptiva aunque en las últimas 2 décadas los trabajos publicados con metodología cualitativa alcanzaron un 30% del total. Destaca el foco puesto en los pacientes (86% de las publicaciones, aunque también hay trabajos referidos al equipo de salud oncológica (14%. Se comprueba además que la gran mayoría de las publicaciones corresponde a intervenciones de T.O. (80%. En conclusión, pese a que el número total de publicaciones de T.O. en oncología es reducido, nuestra revisión bibliográfica permite afirmar que existe un creciente y sostenido interés por explorar este tipo de patologías e integrar activamente los equipos de salud oncológica Abstract:The aim of following bibliographical review was to know which path of the Occupational Therapy (O.T. has been in the oncology area during the last 4 decades. A research was carried out in the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINALH and AMED, with key words Occupational Therapy, oncology and cancer, as much in the title as in the abstract; only articles in English or Spanishwere included. Results threw a total of 68 publications of O.T. and cancer, with a sustained curve of growth in the number of published papers

  8. Occupational lead poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Augusto V; Médico del Trabajo. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

    2013-01-01

    Lead, a ubiquitous heavy metal, has been found in places as unlikely as Greenland’s fossil ice. Egyptians and Hebrews used it. In Spain, Phoenicians c. 2000 BC worked ores of lead. At the end of the XX century, occupational lead’s poisoning became a public health problem in developed countries. In non-developed countries occupational lead poisoning is still frequent. Diagnosis is directed to recognize lead existence at the labor environment and good clinical and occupational documentation. Di...

  9. Occupational burnout and health

    OpenAIRE

    Ahola, Kirsi

    2007-01-01

    Occupational burnout and heath Occupational burnout is assumed to be a negative consequence of chronic work stress. In this study, it was explored in the framework of occupational health psychology, which focusses on psychologically mediated processes between work and health. The objectives were to examine the overlap between burnout and ill health in relation to mental disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases, which are the three commonest disease groups causing...

  10. Occupational therapy intervention with children survivors of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó-Algado, Salvador; Mehta, Nina; Kronenberg, Franciscus; Cockburn, Lynn; Kirsh, Bonnie

    2002-10-01

    A preventive occupational therapy program with children surviving the Kosovo conflict is examined. The objective of the program was to facilitate the emotional expression of traumatic experiences in order to prevent the development of future psychological problems. The intervention was based on a community-centred approach with spirituality as a central focus of the intervention. The Model of Human Occupational and the Occupational Performance Process Model were utilized to guide the identification and intervention of occupational performance issues. The children's return from a land of war to a land of children demonstrates the potential of occupational therapy intervention in this field. With increasing awareness of populations facing social and political challenges, there is a growing importance of the concept of occupational justice and the need to work against occupational apartheid.

  11. Teacher's Guide to Occupational Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This guide is specifically designed to accompany materials developed for occupational orientation (particularly in Illinois) in the following five cluster areas: Applied biological and agricultural occupations; personal and public service occupations; health occupations; business, marketing, and management occupations; and industrial oriented…

  12. Mexico, maquiladoras, and occupational medicine training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, D H; Rea, D F; Schwartz, I; Rea, J

    1989-01-01

    Industrialization and its concomitant social and environmental effects in developing countries are considered in this paper. Mexico offers one example of economic progress achieved through the promotion of industrial growth. Recognising the need for trained experts with global experience in occupational health, the University of Arizona (UA) has begun a programme to train occupational and preventive medicine residents in international aspects of occupational health in the nearby industrialized border regions of Mexico. By using the maquiladora (assembly plant) industries and the resources of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social with the State of Sonora, residents observe existing problems in occupational safety and health in addition to adding to their understanding of the need for worldwide cooperation for research and reform in this field.

  13. The Heath Occupational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Career development programs must identify occupational needs of adults. A model based on Maslow's hierarchy develops occupational questions related to individual motivations (physiology, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization). Individual needs are then compared with characteristics and benefits of proposed jobs, companies, or careers. (SK)

  14. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KINGMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of occupational injuries (N = 2,365) were investigated. Accidents with machinery and hand tools were the two main causes (49.9%). 89% of the patients with occupational injuries were male. The highest risk group were in the age category of 19 years or less (51.9%). This age group also show

  15. Marketing occupational health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, M J; Harris, J C

    1981-01-01

    A very basic part of marketing success is determining areas of your business in which you have a competitive advantage. In drafting a marketing plan for the Denver Clinic, the competitive advantages group practices have in the area of occupational health were quickly realized. This competitive edge is presented along with the Denver Clinic's marketing strategies and plans to capitalize on occupational healthcare advantages.

  16. Occupational Mortality, Background on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    The study of occupational mortality involves the systematic tabulation of mortality by occupational or socioeconomic groups. Three main methods are used to conduct these studies: cross-sectional studies, death certificate studies, and follow-up studies. Cross-sectional studies were undertaken in ...... the mortality rates of blue- and white-collar workers....

  17. Occupations, U. S. A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

    The booklet divides job titles, selected from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, into 15 career clusters: agribusiness and natural resources, business and office education, communication and media, construction, consumer and home economics, fine arts and humanities, health occupations, hospitality and recreation, manufacturing, marine science,…

  18. Leadership and Occupational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  19. Occupational Information Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Richard S.

    This three-part book provides an overview of 500 occupations. The book is organized into three parts. Part I introduces the following seven occupational classification systems, along with their manuals and dictionaries: an observational classification system, Roe's Classification System, Holland's Classification System, the Standard Occupational…

  20. Occupational stress among dentists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    2011-01-01

    of this occupational stress. The literature on consequences includes effects on dentists' physical health, personal and occupational performance, including "burnout" phenomena, as well as topics of alcohol or substance abuse and reports of suicidal behaviour among dentists. One specific and less conventionally......Dentists report a high degree of occupational stress.(Cooper, Mallinger, and Kahn, 1978;Coster, Carstens, and Harris, 1987;DiMatteo, Shugars, and Hays, 1993;Hakeberg et al., 1992;Möller and Spangenberg, 1996;Moore, 2000;Myers and Myers, 2004;O'Shea, Corah, and Ayer, 1984) This chapter reviews...... the literature of studies that elaborate on the circumstances of occupational stress of dentists. These will include the frequency of occurrence of occupational stress among dentists in several countries, frequency and intensity of identified stressors specific to dentistry, as well as the consequences...

  1. Occupational stress among dentists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    2011-01-01

    of this occupational stress. The literature on consequences includes effects on dentists' physical health, personal and occupational performance, including "burnout" phenomena, as well as topics of alcohol or substance abuse and reports of suicidal behaviour among dentists. One specific and less conventionally......Dentists report a high degree of occupational stress.(Cooper, Mallinger, and Kahn, 1978;Coster, Carstens, and Harris, 1987;DiMatteo, Shugars, and Hays, 1993;Hakeberg et al., 1992;Möller and Spangenberg, 1996;Moore, 2000;Myers and Myers, 2004;O'Shea, Corah, and Ayer, 1984) This chapter reviews...... the literature of studies that elaborate on the circumstances of occupational stress of dentists. These will include the frequency of occurrence of occupational stress among dentists in several countries, frequency and intensity of identified stressors specific to dentistry, as well as the consequences...

  2. Occupational skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, Vera; Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Alfonso, Jose Hernan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal...... diseases, neurologic diseases, lung diseases, diseases of the sensory organs, skin diseases) in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To retrieve information and compare the current state of national frameworks and pathways to manage patients with occupational skin disease with regard to prevention, diagnosis, treatment...... in Science and Technology (COST) Action TD 1206 (StanDerm) (www.standerm.eu). RESULTS: Besides a national health service or a statutory health insurance, most European member states implemented a second insurance scheme specifically geared at occupational diseases [insurance against occupational risks...

  3. [Need for occupational and environmental allergology in occupational health - the 45th Japanese society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy Annual Meeting 2014 in Fukuoka].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Reiko; Oshikawa, Chie

    2014-12-01

    The 45th Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy (OEA) Annual Meeting 2014 was held in Fukuoka city in conjunction with a technical course for occupational health physicians to learn occupational and environmental diseases more deeply. Allergic reaction due to low concentrations of chemical and biological materials is important in toxicological diseases due to highly concentrated chemical materials in the field of occupational and environmental medicine. In this paper we describe the activities of the OEA, which was established in 1970 and has completely cured patients with severe occupational asthma, such as the regional Konjac asthma in Gunma prefecture and Sea Squirt asthma in Hiroshima prefecture. Regard for the occupational environment will prevent the onset and/or exacerbation of allergic occupational disease in individual employees with allergy. Occupational cancer of the bile duct and asbestosis are also current, serious issues that should be resolved as soon as possible. It is desirable for the occupational health physician to have a large stock of knowledge about toxicological and allergic diseases in various occupational settings to maintain the health and safety of workers.

  4. The Occupations of Literacy: Occupational Therapy's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolek Clark, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Nationally, student proficiency in reading and writing is very low and requires ongoing focus from state and local agencies. With almost 25% of occupational therapists working in early intervention and school settings (AOTA, 2015), their role of facilitating literacy (e.g., reading, writing, speaking and listening) is critical. Occupational…

  5. 供电企业工频电磁场职业暴露现况%Investigation of occupational exposure to power frequency electromagnetic fields in workers of power grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈青松; 杨晓瑛; 李润琴; 朱宝余; 张骁; 高阳; 黄汉林; 李涛

    2012-01-01

    目的 检测和评估某供电企业工频电磁场职业暴露现况.方法 采用德国PMM8053电磁场测量系统(EHP-50工频电磁场测量探头)对作业环境进行测量,使用美国EMDEX LITE个体磁场剂量仪对作业岗位进行抽样测量,运用GBZ 2.2 2007《工作声所物理因素测量第3部分:工频电场》以及ICNIRP的限值标准对结果进行评估.结果 超高压变电站500 kV电压区90%以上测点工频电场强度超过5 kV/m,电抗器和电容器附近磁场强度常超过100μT,可达几百微特斯拉.供电作业工人日暴露平均水平在0.04~5.0 μT之间,70%作业工人高于0.4 μT.结论 500 kV及以上超高压变电站高压区、各级变电站电抗器和电容器为供电企业工频电磁场关键控制点,存在急性健康影响风险.供电企业作业工人累计磁场暴露水平较高.%Objective To measure and assess the levels of occupational exposure to power frequency electromagnetic fields in workers of power grid.Methods PMM8053 electromagnetic fields measuring system with EHP-50 probe was used to measure the levels of electromagnetic fields at working place.Personal dosimeters (EMDEX LITE) were utilized to measure the individual exposure levels of power frequency magnetic field.The results were evaluated with the limitation criteria of GBZ2.2 and ICNIRP.Results In the 500 kV ultra high voltage substation,the intensity at 90% measure points of power electric field was more than 5 kV/m.The magnetic field intensity in the areas nearby reactors and capacitors was often higher than 100 μT,even several hundreds μT.The mean daily exposure levels of workers in power grid were between 0.04 and 5.0 μT,and the exposure levels of 70% workers were higher than 0.4 μT.Conclusion In the areas of ultra high voltage and nearby the reactors and capacitors are the key control points for occupational health in power grid.There is acute health risk of workers exposed to high accumulative exposure levels.

  6. Burnout in occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J C; Dodson, S C

    1988-12-01

    Burnout is a job-related condition involving feelings of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1981a) is the instrument most widely used to measure job-related stress in human service professions, such as occupational therapy. This study explored the application of the Maslach Burnout Inventory for use with occupational therapists. The subjects were 99 registered occupational therapists residing in the southeastern United States. Mean scores lower than the aggregate occupational norms provided by the test's authors on the Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization subscales supported the need to develop specific norms for occupational therapists. Results of this study indicate that use of the aggregate norms would underestimate the level of experienced burnout. Correlational analyses delineated significant relationships between age and Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization, education and Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization, years of work as an occupational therapist and Depersonalization and Personal Accomplishment, years in the present position and Personal Accomplishment (intensity only), hours of direct patient contact and Emotional Exhaustion (intensity only), and hours of direct patient contact and Depersonalization (frequency only). These correlates of burnout furnish clues for understanding the development of work-related stress in occupational therapists.

  7. [Occupational asthma in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endre, László

    2015-05-10

    Occupational asthma belongs to communicable diseases, which should be reported in Hungary. During a 24-year period between January 1990 and December 2013, 180 occupational asthma cases were reported in Hungary (52 cases between 1990 and 1995, 83 cases between 1996 and 2000, 40 cases between 2001 and 2006, and 5 cases between 2007 and 2013). These data are unusual, because according to the official report of the National Korányi Pulmonology Institute in Budapest, at least 14,000 new adult asthma cases were reported in every year between 2000 and 2012 in Hungary. Also, international data indicate that at least 2% of adult patients with asthma have occupational asthma and at least 50 out of 1 million employees develop occupational asthma in each year. In 2003, 631 new occupational asthma patients were reported in the United Kingdom, but only 7 cases in Hungary. Because it is unlikely that the occupational environment in Hungary is much better than anywhere else in the world, it seems that not all new occupational asthma cases are reported in Hungary. Of the 180 reported cases in Hungary, 55 were bakers or other workers in flour mills. There were 11 metal-workers, 10 health care assistants, 9 workers dealing with textiles (tailors, dressmakers, workers in textile industry) and 9 employees worked upon leather and animal fur. According to international data, the most unsafe profession is the animal keeper in scientific laboratories, but only 4 of them were reported as having occupational asthma during the studied 24 years in Hungary. Interestingly, 3 museologists with newly-diagnosed occupational asthma were reported in 2003, but not such cases occurred before or after that year. In this paper the Hungarian literature of occupational asthma is summarized, followed by a review on the classification, pathomechanism, clinical presentation, predisposing factors, diagnostics and therapeutic aspects of the disease. Epidemiological data of adult asthma in Hungary and data from

  8. Occupational health in Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstev, Srmena; Perunicic, Bogoljub; Vidakovic, Aleksandar

    2002-01-01

    Occupational health in Yugoslavia was once well organized in accordance with WHO declarations and ILO conventions and recommendations. Since the 1990s, the system has been disrupted by destruction of the former Yugoslavia, wars, refugees, changes in the economy, and NATO bombardment. Economic trends, main industries, and employment and unemployment conditions in Yugoslavia are presented. The organization of occupational health services, their tasks, and prevailing problems are discussed. Occupational diseases and relevant research and educational opportunities are described. The authors conclude by suggesting approaches to improving worker's health in the future.

  9. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  10. Marital Status and Occupational Success Among Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, John H.; Spray, S. Lee

    1970-01-01

    Concludes that personal relations, professional experiences and occupational success form a network of relationships which integrate the occupational and nonoccupational roles of highly specialized practitioners. Part of a Study of Careers in the Mental Health Field, supported by National Institute of Mental Health Grant MH-09192 and directed by…

  11. Dispositional Resistance to Change and Occupational Interests and Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreg, Shaul; Nevo, Ofra; Metzer, Hila; Leder, Naftali; Castro, Dotan

    2009-01-01

    Through two field studies, we examine the role that individuals' orientation toward change has in determining their occupational choices and interests. In Study 1, 139 job applicants' dispositional resistance to change (RTC) scores were associated with occupational choice, such that individuals applying for investigative and enterprising jobs…

  12. Dispositional Resistance to Change and Occupational Interests and Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreg, Shaul; Nevo, Ofra; Metzer, Hila; Leder, Naftali; Castro, Dotan

    2009-01-01

    Through two field studies, we examine the role that individuals' orientation toward change has in determining their occupational choices and interests. In Study 1, 139 job applicants' dispositional resistance to change (RTC) scores were associated with occupational choice, such that individuals applying for investigative and enterprising jobs…

  13. Risk factors for occupational brucellosis among veterinary personnel in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Murat; Ergonul, Onder; Sayin-Kutlu, Selda; Guven, Tumer; Ustun, Cemal; Alp-Cavus, Sema; Ozturk, Serife Barcın; Acicbe, Ozlem; Akalin, Serife; Tekin, Recep; Tekin-Koruk, Suda; Demiroglu, Yusuf Ziya; Keskiner, Ramazan; Gönen, Ibak; Sapmaz-Karabag, Sevil; Bosnak, Vuslat; Kazak, Esra

    2014-11-01

    Veterinarians and veterinary technicians are at risk for occupational brucellosis. We described the risk factors of occupational brucellosis among veterinary personnel in Turkey. A multicenter retrospective survey was performed among veterinary personnel who were actively working in the field. Of 712 veterinary personnel, 84 (11.8%) had occupational brucellosis. The median number of years since graduation was 7 (interquartile ranges [IQR], 4-11) years in the occupational brucellosis group, whereas this number was 9 (IQR, 4-16) years in the non-brucellosis group (pbrucellosis. We suggest that all veterinary personnel should be trained on brucellosis and the importance of using personal protective equipment in order to avoid this infection.

  14. Re-examining concepts of occupation and occupation-based models: occupational therapy and community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclair, Leanne L

    2010-02-01

    A growing body of literature supports the role of occupational therapists in community development. Using a community development approach, occupational therapists respond to community-identified occupational needs. They work to build local resources and capacities and self-sustaining programs that foster change within the community and potentially beyond. The purpose of this paper is to highlight some key issues related to occupational therapy practice in community development. The definitions and classifications of occupation focus primarily on the individual and fail to elaborate on the shared occupations of a community. As well, occupation-based models of practice are not easily applied to occupational therapy practice in community development. In order for occupational therapy to articulate its role in community development, greater heed needs to be given to the definition and categorization of occupation, occupation-based models of practice, and their application to communities.

  15. Paternal occupation and anencephaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brender, J.D.; Suarez, L. (Texas Department of Health, Austin (USA))

    1990-03-01

    It has been suggested that paternal occupational exposures to pesticides and solvents increase the risk of neural tube defects in offspring. With the use of Texas livebirth, fetal death, and linked livebirth-death records, the authors conducted a population-based case-control study among 1981-1986 Texas births to examine the association between paternal occupation and anencephalic births. Fathers employed in occupations associated with solvent exposure were more likely to have offspring with anencephaly (odds ratio (OR) = 2.53), with painters having the highest risk (OR = 3.43). A lesser association was found for fathers employed in occupations involving pesticide exposure (OR = 1.28). Further studies are indicated to clarify these associations.

  16. Occupational Noise Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... length away. You experience temporary hearing loss when leaving work. x How loud is too loud? A ... Writing Act Recovery Act No Fear Act U.S. Office of Special Counsel OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Frequently ...

  17. Measuring site occupancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Williamson, James

    2014-01-01

    Site occupancy is an extremely important aspect of quantification of protein modifications. Knowing the degree of modification of each oxidised cysteine residue is critical to understanding the biological role of these modifications. Yet modification site occupancy is very often overlooked, in part...... occupancy of the modification site. We show that, on one hand, heavily modified cysteines are not necessarily involved in the response to oxidative stress. On the other hand residues with low modification level can be dramatically affected by mild oxidative imbalance. We make use of high resolution mass...... peptides corresponding to 90 proteins. Only 6 modified peptides changed significantly under mild oxidative stress. Quantitative information allowed us to determine relative modification site occupancy of each identified modified residue and pin point heavily modified ones. The method proved to be precise...

  18. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...... systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...

  19. Occupational asthma in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Dobashi, Kunio

    2012-01-01

    Research into occupational asthma (OA) in Japan has been led by the Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy. The first report about allergic OA identified konjac asthma. After that, many kinds of OA have been reported. Cases of some types of OA, such as konjac asthma and sea squirt asthma, have been dramatically reduced by the efforts of medical personnel. Recently, with the development of new technologies, chemical antigen-induced asthma has increased in Japan. Due to adva...

  20. "Homosexual occupations" in Mesoamerica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S O

    1991-01-01

    Data gathered among self-identified homosexual men in Guatemala City and Mexico City call into question the intrinsic connection between homosexuality and occupational choice posited by Whitam and Mathy (1986). Concentrations of homosexual men in some occupations can be explained as effects of discrimination and of the normal transmission through personal networks of information about job opportunities, and does not require recourse to any innate drive for homosexual men to be actors, hairdressers or interior decorators.

  1. Occupational mobility in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Due, Jonas Røer

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates how yearly occupational mobility has developed in Norway between the years 1972 and 2015. It also analyses the characteristics of workers that experienced the most occupational switches, and control for demographic changes in the workforce of the population. To investigate this topic, this thesis uses quarterly panel data from the Norwegian Labor Force Survey, where several cleaning procedures have been conducted through the computer program STATA with additional calc...

  2. Occupational cancer epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Occupational cancer epidemiology has led to the identification of more than 40 agents, groups of agents, and exposure circumstances which cause cancer in humans. This evidence has been followed by preventive and control measures. There are four areas where occupational cancer epidemiology may contribute important results in the future: surveillance of workers exposed to carcinogens, identification of new carcinogens and target organs, study of interactions, and research on special exposure circumstances.

  3. Occupational allergies and asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarlo, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review aspects of occupational allergies and asthma for primary care physicians recognizing, diagnosing, and managing patients with these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Studies in the medical literature mainly provide level 2 evidence, that is, from at least one well-designed clinical trial without randomization, from cohort or case-control analytical studies, from multiple time series, or from dramatic results in uncontrolled experiments. MAIN MESSAGE: Occupational allergies ...

  4. My view on occupation guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Occupation instruction needs to the support of theories,in the case of the occupation guidance theory is not very developed in our country,It has very important sense that absorbing and drawing lessons from the advanced occupation guidance theory,and targeting guidance to occupation guidance work,.

  5. [The Netherlands Expertise Center for Occupational and Respiratory Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooyackers, J M

    2006-06-01

    In 2000 the Netherlands Expertise Centre for Occupational Respiratory Disorders (NECORD) was started as a centre of expertise in occupational health. The centre received a grant from the ministry of Health Welfare and Sport for a period of 5 years. Their mission was to collect, develop and implement knowledge in the fields of diagnosis, treatment, reintegration and prevention of work-related health- and occupational disorders. In cooperation with two other institutes for health, NECORD has become a multidisciplinary clinical occupational respiratory health service. Occupational hygienists, occupational health physicians and chest physicians are working on three programmes: research projects on the prevalence and monitoring of respiratory health effects resulting from exposure to substances in the work place; patient care (out-patient clinic); and support of professionals (website, helpdesk, development and implementation of guidelines, education and postgraduate training).

  6. Occupant thermal comfort evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiardi, Gena L.

    1999-03-01

    Throughout the automotive industry there has been an increasing concern and focus on the thermal comfort of occupants. Manufacturers are continuously striving to improve heating and air conditioning performance to comply with expanding customer needs. To optimize these systems, the technology to acquire data must also be enhanced. In this evaluation, the standard use of isolated thermocouple location technology is compared to utilizing infrared thermal vision in an air conditioning performance assessment. Infrared data on an actual occupant is correlated to breath and air conditioning output temperatures measured by positioned thermocouples. The use of infrared thermal vision highlights various areas of comfort and discomfort experienced by the occupant. The evaluation involves utilizing an infrared thermal vision camera to film an occupant in the vehicle as the following test procedure is run. The vehicle is soaked in full sun load until the interior temperature reaches a minimum of 150 degrees F (65.6 degrees Celsius). The occupant enters the vehicle and takes an initial temperature reading. The air conditioning is turned on to full cold, full fan speed, and recirculation mode. While being filmed, the driver drives for sixty minutes at 30 miles per hour (48.3 kph). The thermocouples acquire data in one minute intervals while the infrared camera films the cooling process of the occupant.

  7. Occupational therapists' perception of the concept of occupational balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Farzaneh; Harb, Alia; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Nobakht, Laya; Yazdani, Nastaran

    2017-05-10

    Occupational balance is one of the concepts used by occupational therapists with no consensus on its definition. Literature demonstrates different perspectives when this concept is applied in practice and in its link to other concepts such as health and well-being. This study aims to explore how the concept of occupational balance is perceived and practised by occupational therapy practitioners. A qualitative methodology was employed. Fourteen occupational therapists volunteered for the study. Nine occupational therapy practitioners were interviewed individually and five attended a focus group. Thematic analysis was applied to analyze the data. Six themes were identified as follows: (1) occupational balance: what it is; (2) how occupational balance is formed; (3) occupational balance and well-being (4); subjective and objective representations of occupational balance (5); what disrupts/affects occupational balance; and (6) occupational balance/imbalance and occupational therapy practice. Both objective and subjective experiences of occupational balance need to be considered in order to make an informed decision in practice. The right occupational balance for each individual should be based on his/her values but with consideration of the principal of no harm to others.

  8. Aspects of control measures in occupational hygiene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumens, M.E.G.L.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis focuses on two aspects which are of major importance in the broad field of control measures in occupational hygiene: the selection of control measures in a structured way and the impact of factors modifying the effectiveness of these control measures.The main objectives of the thesis are

  9. Careers Canada. Volume 3, Mechanical Repair Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This pamphlet, published by the Canadian Department of Manpower and Immigration, is the third of a Careers-Canada series and describes careers in mechanical repair occupations. The pamphlet is divided into eight major sections: (1) history and importance; (2) fields of work; (3) nature of work (this section is subdivided into automotive repair…

  10. Racial Discrimination in Occupations; Perceived and Actual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Castellano B.; Turner, Barbara F.

    1981-01-01

    A study of perceived discrimination by race and by sex for each of 21 occupations was compared with actual percentages of Blacks in each field. The study suggested that: (1) perception of opportunity corresponded to actual structure of opportunity; and (2) both a change in the social structure and individual belief systems is needed to further…

  11. Occupational Experience, Mobility, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Fane

    In this paper we present how occupational tenure relates to wage growth and occupational mobility in Danish data. We show that the Danish data produces qualitatively similar results as found in U.S. data with respect to an increase in average wages when experience in an occupation increases....... In a sample of full time private employed, the first five years of experience in an occupation increases average wages with 8% to 15%, conditional on rm and industry tenure. We further show that the probability of switching occupation declines with experience in the occupation and that the declining hazard...... also is true for workers switching occupation and rm. After ve years of experience in an occupation the average probability of switching any type of occupation, including occupation and rm switches, has fallen from 25% to 12%....

  12. Population Health and Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in improving the health of populations through the development of occupational therapy interventions at the population level and through advocacy to address occupational participation and the multiple determinants of health. This article defines and explores population health as a concept and describes the appropriateness of occupational therapy practice in population health. Support of population health practice as evidenced in the official documents of the American Occupational Therapy Association and the relevance of population health for occupational therapy as a profession are reviewed. Recommendations and directions for the future are included related to celebration of the achievements of occupational therapy practitioners in the area of population health, changes to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and educational accreditation standards, and the importance of supporting, recognizing, rewarding, and valuing occupational therapy practitioners who assume roles in which direct care is not their primary function. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  13. A tool to enhance occupational therapy reasoning from ICF perspective: The Hasselt Occupational Performance Profile (H-OPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghysels, R; Vanroye, E; Westhovens, M; Spooren, A

    2017-03-01

    In order to enhance occupational therapy reasoning in clinical practice, different elements such as client-centred approach, evidence-based care and interdisciplinary work should be taken into account, but is a challenge. To describe the development of the digital Hasselt Occupational Performance Profile (H-OPP(©)) that enhances occupational therapy reasoning from ICF perspective. A participative qualitative design was used to create the H-OPP(©) in an iterative way in which occupational therapy lectures, ICF experts, students and occupational therapists in the field were involved. After linking occupational therapy terminology to the ICF, different stages of the H-OPP were identified and elaborated with main features: generating an occupational performance profile based on inventarization of problems and possibilities, formulating an occupational performance diagnosis and enabling to create an intervention plan. In all stages, both the perspectives of the client and the occupational therapist were taken into account. To increase practical use, the tool was further elaborated and digitalized. The H-OPP(©) is a digital coach that guides and facilitates professional reasoning in (novice) occupational therapists. It augments involvement of the client system. Furthermore, it enhances interdisciplinary communication and evidence-based care.

  14. [Hodgkin's disease and occupation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, G; Fonte, R

    1984-01-01

    In order to discuss the hypothesized existence of occupational risk factors in the etiology of Hodgkin's disease (HD), the available literature data are reviewed. The occupations most often considered to be at increased risk of the disease are woodworking, school teaching, hospital occupations and occupations entailing exposure to chemicals. The association between HD and employment in wood industry suggest that exposure to unknown occupational factors may play a role as etiologic agent in this disease. A number of chemical substances that are regularly used may be suspected as causative factors. There are many discrepancies among the results of the studies on the association between school teaching and HD. To date no certain conclusion may be drawn from the presented data. However it has been suggested that the reported excess risk for HD among teachers may be explicable by social class gradient for the disease. The existence of risk factors other than viral may explain the excess risk among physicians and nurses. Because of the characteristics of some highly reactive chemicals their etiologic role may not be underestimated. An association between HD and occupations entailing exposure to various chemicals (organic solvents, benzene, phenoxy acids, chlorophenols) was shown; however no definitive conclusion may be drawn. There are increasing findings that point out the importance of the association between some occupations and development of HD. In spite of the evidence of a link between exposure to various chemicals and HD, there is a clear need to evaluate dose-response relationship between specific type and amount of chemicals and the disease, in order to provide some of the answer we need about the etiology of HD.

  15. Perspectives of Occupational Therapists on the Challenges of Early Intervention Practice: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Patricia; Moore, Cary C.; Tiongco, Cynthia G.; Tkach, Melanie M.; Thom, Carly

    2017-01-01

    Occupational therapists in the field of early intervention (EI) are challenged with limited opportunities for communication and collaboration with colleagues and other EI team members. One hundred and two occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants with early intervention experience completed a descriptive survey. Questions on the…

  16. Perceptions and Attitudes of Occupational Therapy Faculty towards the Scholarship of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordinetz, Sue Ann

    2009-01-01

    Occupational therapy educators have been encouraged to engage in the scholarship of teaching as a form of best practice in education. Despite professional documents and encouragement by leaders in the field of occupational therapy, there is very little known about occupational therapy educators' perceptions, attitudes, and engagement in the…

  17. Perceptions and Attitudes of Occupational Therapy Faculty towards the Scholarship of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordinetz, Sue Ann

    2009-01-01

    Occupational therapy educators have been encouraged to engage in the scholarship of teaching as a form of best practice in education. Despite professional documents and encouragement by leaders in the field of occupational therapy, there is very little known about occupational therapy educators' perceptions, attitudes, and engagement in the…

  18. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  19. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felinto de Brito, Maria Edileuza; Andrade, Maria Sandra; de Almeida, Éricka Lima; Medeiros, Ângela Cristina Rapela; Werkhäuser, Roberto Pereira; de Araújo, Ana Isabele Freitas; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Paiva de Almeida, Alzira Maria; Gomes Rodrigues, Eduardo Henrique

    2012-01-01

    We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL): one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples) and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis. PMID:23227369

  20. [Somnology and occupational safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, V B

    2013-01-01

    Somnology has saved up enough great volume of objective knowledge of negative effects of a lack of the sleep, the raised drowsiness and sleep pathologies for health of people and occupational safety to formulate this knowledge in the accessible form for a society and acceptance by the state of acts and the organizational actions preventing these negative effects. The necessity of the salvation of these problems has led to occurrence of a new area of occupational sleep medicine, which problem is the analysis of influence of physiological mechanisms ofa sleep and functioning circadian systems on efficiency of professional activity and health of people. For a designation of the various items causing infringements of professional work use the term fatique. It is believed that fatigue development is connected with three major factors: deficiency of a sleep - defined by duration of previous wakefulness and a sleep, time-of-day and at last, task-related factors. Within the limits of approaches developed the occupational sleep medicine had been formulated the Fatigue Risk Management System. In the Russian literature there is a lack of the information on influence of mechanisms of a sleep on occupational safety, therefore the review will be interesting to a wide range of the experts dealing with the analysis of the human factor, health and an occupational safety

  1. An Empirical Study to Determine The Relationship between Occupational Self-Efficacy and Organizational Silence

    OpenAIRE

    Cem KAHYA

    2015-01-01

    The concept of occupational self-efficacy means the efficacy perceptions of employees in their occupational fields, and the concept of organizational silence means the employees avoid to voice their ideas and suggestions about organizational issues. The main aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the concepts of occupational self-efficacy and organizational silence by revealing employees’ perceptions of occupational self-efficacy and organizational silence level. With this a...

  2. Education and Occupational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnes, Geraint; Freguglia, Ricardo; Spricigo, Gisele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamic relationship between policies related to educational provision and both educational participation and occupational outcomes in Brazil, using PNAD and RAIS-Migra data. Design/methodology/approach: Outcomes are examined using: static...... that the individual will be in formal sector work or still in education, and reduces the probability of the other outcomes. Transition into non-manual formal sector work following education may, however, occur via a spell of manual work. Originality/value: This is the first study of occupational destination...... to be conducted in a rapidly developing country using high-quality panel data and appropriate dynamic methods, and as such makes an important contribution in confirming that increased supply of highly skilled workers enhances occupational attainment in this context....

  3. Marketing occupational therapy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautzmann, L N

    1985-01-01

    The ability to understand and appropriately apply business skills is a key component in the development of a successful private practice. Marketing is one of the business skills occupational therapists need to have in order to take full advantage of the opportunities available to entrepeneurs in the health care industry. The purpose of this article is to present a structured approach to marketing occupational therapy services through the use of a marketing plan. The four components of a marketing plan, a situation analysis, the identification of problems, opportunities, and target markets, the development of a marketing strategy for each targeted market, and a method to monitor the plan, are discussed. Applications to occupational therapy practice are suggested. The use of a marketing plan as a method for organizing and focusing marketing efforts is an effective means of supporting and enhancing the development of a private practice.

  4. [Investigation and analysis on occupational hazards in a carbon enterprise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C D; Ding, Q F; Wang, Z X; Shao, H; Sun, X C; Zhang, F

    2017-04-20

    Objective: To explore occupational-disease-inductive in a carbon enterprise workplace and personnel occupational health examination, providing the basis for occupational disease prevention and control of the industry. Methods: Field occupational health survey and inspection law were used to study the the situation and degree of occupational disease hazards in carbon enterprise from 2013 to 2015.Occupational health monitoring was used for workers, physical examination, detection of occupational hazard factors and physical examination results were analyzed comprehensive. Results: Dust, coal tar pitch volatiles, and noise in carbon enterprise were more serious than others. Among them, the over standard rate of coal tar pitch volatiles was 76.67%, the maximum point detection was 1.06 mg/m(3), and the maximum of the individual detection was 0.67 mg/m(3). There was no statistical difference among the 3 years (P>0.05) . There were no significant differences in the incidence of occupation health examination, chest X-ray, skin audiometry, blood routine, blood pressure, electrocardiogram between 3 years (P>0.05) , in which the skin and audiometry abnormal rate was higher than 10% per year. Conclusion: Dust, coal tar, and noise are the main occupational hazard factors of carbon enterprise, should strengthen the corresponding protection.

  5. Miscarriage and occupational activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Bonzini, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    . METHODS: A search in Medline and EMBASE 1966-2012 identified 30 primary papers reporting the relative risk (RR) of miscarriage according to ≥1 of 5 occupational activities of interest. Following an assessment of completeness of reporting, confounding, and bias, each risk estimate was characterized as more......, N=10). RR for working hours and standing became smaller when analyses were restricted to higher quality studies. CONCLUSIONS: These largely reassuring findings do not provide a strong case for mandatory restrictions in relation to shift work, long working hours, occupational lifting, standing...

  6. [Occupational allergies to bromelain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, V; Merget, R; Brüning, T

    2007-03-01

    The protease bromelain originating from the pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) finds frequent use in industry. Exposure to enzyme dusts has long been known to cause occupational allergies. The present paper reviews the results of the evaluation of literature data concerning occupational airway sensitization due to bromelain. Cases of specific airway sensitization caused by bromelain could be shown clearly by the presented studies. Since the symptoms, results of skin prick tests, detection of specific IgE antibodies and results of specific bronchoprovocation tests are consistent, an immunological mechanism can be assumed.

  7. Noninvasive assessment of cytokines in occupational respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Yucesoy, Berran; Elci, Omur Cinar; Weissman, David N

    2007-06-01

    A major goal in studying occupational respiratory diseases is to show relationships between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Due to the nature of these diseases, accurate, practical, and objective measurement techniques are needed in field investigations. Pulmonary function tests, such as spirometry, are important objective health outcome measures. However, they reflect the functional changes of the lung, often in relatively late stages, which may be irreversible. Direct monitoring of airways inflammations, in response to occupational exposures, are receiving an increasing attention since they may pick up inflammatory changes before the injury becomes irreversible. Invasive approaches such as bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchial biopsies have been used to assess airways inflammation: but these methods are not practical for use in occupational field investigations. Thus, much work has focused on the development of noninvasive methods for monitoring inflammation in occupational respiratory diseases. The three recent most commonly used noninvasive techniques in occupational respiratory diseases investigations are induced sputum, exhaled breath condensate, and nasal lavage. In this review, we discuss the practical application of these techniques, patents and cytokines measured with them. Since variation of cytokine genes contribute to the inflammatory processes, we briefly discuss the genetic polymorphisms on the expression of occupational respiratory diseases. Details of genetic polymorphism were beyond the focus of this review. Our primary focus was cytokines measured with these three noninvasive techniques in occupational respiratory investigations.

  8. Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on stress-related behaviors and stress hormones in male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure.

  9. Research on Surveillance and Intervention of Occupational Exposure to High Frequency Field in Battery Workers%电池厂高频感应加热机辐射水平监测及干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙焱; 香映平; 谢子煌; 杨震宇; 何家禧

    2011-01-01

    目的 监测电池厂高频感应加热机电磁辐射水平,评估干预措施的效果.方法 用PMM8053B电场强度测量系统对4个电池厂高频加热机岗位进行检测.结果 在无屏蔽状况下,所有岗位的电场强度均超过国家职业卫生标准(25V/m).屏蔽后分别在干预后3d、干预后3个月、干预后6个月对相关岗位进行电场强度检测.干预后所有岗位的电场强度均未超过国家职业卫生标准.结论 电池厂高频感应加热机作业员工的电场辐射暴露不容忽视,有效防护措施对于控制高频感应加热机的高频污染十分关键.%Objective To monitor the level and characteristics of electromagnetic radiation in battery plants, and to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention. Methods The levels of electric field at different worksites in 4 battery factories were tested by PMM 8053B measurement system. Totally 4 times measurement were made before and after the protection facility were used. Results 100% of the worksites were exceeded the limits of national occupational (25 V/m). We made three times measured on three days, 3 months and 6 months after the intervention. The average electric field intensity did not exceed the limits under the intervention. Conclusions The electromagnetic radiation exposure of high frequency plastic welders in battery plants is a serious problem. Electrical conductor shield is an effective way to control the high frequency pollution.

  10. Occupational contact dermatitis in hairdressers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Veien, Niels K

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational contact dermatitis among hairdressers is frequent, owing to daily exposure to irritants and allergens. OBJECTIVES: To identify sensitization to the most common allergens associated with the occupation of hairdressing. METHODS: Patch test results of 399 hairdressers and 19...

  11. Occupational causes of male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens P E

    2013-01-01

    To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function.......To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function....

  12. Occupational Choice and Student Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    Article attempts to set out a way of measuring determination, the element capable of making students' occupational choice' a reality not just an ideal, by exploration of the part played by the value system in relation to occupational choice. (Author)

  13. Mission Critical Occupation (MCO) Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Agencies report resource data and targets for government-wide mission critical occupations and agency specific mission critical and/or high risk occupations. These...

  14. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  15. Occupational Neutrophilic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Leigh

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational asthma is typically associated with an eosinophilic bronchitis. The case of a 41-year-old woman who developed symptoms of asthma after occupational exposure to metal working fluids is reported. The diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by an forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 of 1.7 (59% predicted, with 11% reversibility after inhaled bronchodilator and a provocation concentration of methacholine to cause a fall in FEV1 of 20% (PC20 of 0.4 mg/mL. Induced sputum examination showed a marked neutrophilia. Over the next six months, serial sputum analyses confirmed the presence of a marked sterile neutrophilic bronchitis during periods of occupational exposure to metal working fluids, which resolved when the patient was away from work and recurred when she returned to work. The sputum findings were mirrored by corresponding changes in spirometry and PC20 methacholine. The findings indicate the occurrence of occupational asthma associated with an intense, sterile neutrophilic bronchitis after exposure to metal working fluids.

  16. Occupational Burnout among Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Mary; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Outlines stages of occupational burnout (enthusiasm, stagnation, frustration, apathy) and begins empirical assessment of burnout syndrome among librarians and other information professionals. Results of pilot survey conducted at one-day conference on reference service using two measures (Staff Burnout Scale for Health Professionals, projective…

  17. EAMJ Occupational 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... Background: Occupational noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) occurs among workers exposed ... times higher relative risk than those aged 20 to 29 years. ... operated are of several types and sizes ranging from ... working for 262 companies at JKIA. ... threshold value at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 kHz had.

  18. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Børvig

    2014-01-01

    Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures.......Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures....

  19. Occupational protein contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals.

  20. A Psychological Classification of Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.; And Others

    This occupational classification for practical and theoretical use in vocational guidance, occupational research, vocational education, and social science rests upon a theory of personality types and includes 431 common occupations which comprise about 95 percent of the United States labor force. Each of the classification's six main classes…

  1. Occupational health nursing practice through the Human Caring lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Dianne L

    2010-01-01

    Many health care and academic centers have adopted Watson's Theory of Human Caring as their guiding principle; the theory is also used in other disciplines, such as library science. Human caring theory offers occupational health nurses as structure that not only defines a focus for practice, but also provides a basis for moral and philosophical practice analyses. In particular, nurses may find this theory useful in confirming the definition of "caring" and reconsidering what nursing is all about. More importantly, consideration and application of this theory may lead to research on its applicability to the field of occupational health nursing. This article presents the science and philosophy of human caring, specifically Watson's Theory of Human Caring. Two case studies are presented that demonstrate how the theory could be used to evaluate occupational health nursing practice. To demonstrate its possible relevance as an occupational health nursing framework, an analysis of and comparison to existing occupational health nursing guidelines are detailed and discussed.

  2. Clarifying the Construct of Occupational Engagement for Occupational Therapy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jennifer; Davis, Jane A

    2017-01-01

    Occupational engagement (OE) has been presented as a core construct in occupational therapy; however, its broad conceptualization and confounding definitions are problematic. Clarifying the construct of OE would help occupational therapists to explicate the nature of their practice. The purpose of this study was to explore occupational therapists' perspectives of the construct of OE. Qualitative descriptive methodology was used to collect data using semistructured interviews with nine practicing occupational therapists in the Greater Toronto Area. Qualitative content analysis, using an inductive approach, was employed to uncover emerging categories. Participants spoke about transitioning from therapeutic engagement to OE with a client by following a client's path of choice. The essential elements and influencers of OE were highlighted, and the relationship between OE and occupational performance was discussed. The findings provide an initial understanding of essential elements necessary to enable clients to initiate engagement in therapy and then, subsequently, in occupations of their choice.

  3. Health Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.

    The duties and tasks found in these task lists form the basis of instructional content for secondary, postsecondary, and adult occupational training programs for health occupations. The health occupations are divided into five clusters. The clusters and occupations are: health occupations, nursing occupations (home health aide, geriatric aide,…

  4. Enabling occupation: occupation-based and client centred practice in Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Barcelos Pontes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational therapists have always been dedicated to the human occupation study, however the client hasn’t always been seen as an occupational being, with needs, interests and individual goals. The concern for our clients’ engagement in occupation, rather than the acquisition or restoration of performance components, together with the gradual modification of the concept of occupation from work-related activities to purposeful human activity, requires a broadening of our scope of practice. The most current theories related to occupational therapy practice have highlightes the use of client centered and occupational based practices. In occupation-based, client-centred practice the client participates actively in negotiating goals, and client occupational goals are given priority and are placed at the centre of assessment, intervention and outcomes. There are numerous evidences in the literature with significantly positive results supporting these approaches. These approaches are based on the premises that goals and objectives of interventions should be focused in occupation and significant activities to the client and reflect the occupational therapy core values: an occupational-centred perspective that respects client’s choices, goals and values, promoting and supporting the engagement on meaningful activities.

  5. Occupational cancer in France: epidemiology, toxicology, prevention, and compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrun, J C; Binet, S; Bozec, C; Brochard, P; Dimerman, S; Fontaine, B; Guénel, P; Luce, D; Martinet, Y; Moulin, J J; Mur, J M; Pietruszynski, M; Vallayer, C

    1999-01-01

    This article is a description of the current situation in France with regard to occupational cancer: research, prevention, and occupation. Toxicologic experiments are carried out using (italic)in vitro(/italic) and (italic)in vivo(/italic) tests, particularly using transgenic mice. Several epidemiologic studies have been conducted over the last decades: population-based case-control studies; mortality studies and cancer incidence studies carried out in historical cohorts of workers employed in the industry; and case-control studies nested in occupational cohorts. French ethical aspects of toxicologic and epidemiologic studies are described. The results thus obtained are used to establish regulations for the prevention and the compensation of cancers attributable to occupational exposure. This French regulation for prevention of occupational cancer involves several partners: (italic)a(/italic)) the states authorities, including labor inspectors, responsible for preparing and implementing the labor legislation and for supervising its application, particularly in the fields of occupational health and safety and working conditions; (italic)b(/italic)) the Social Security Organisation for the analysis of present or potential occupational risks based on tests, visits in plants, complaints or requests from various sources, and statistics. These activities are performed within the framework of the general French policy for the prevention of occupational cancer. This organization includes the National Institute for Research and Safety, particularly involved in research in the various fields of occupational risks--animal toxicology, biologic monitoring, exposure measurements epidemiology, psychology, ergonomy, electronic systems and machineries, exposure to chemicals, noise, heat, vibration, and lighting; and (italic)c(/italic)) companies where the regulation defines the role of the plant manager, the occupational physician, and the Health, Safety and Working Conditions

  6. [Positive occupational health psychology: an introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo

    2012-02-01

    This article introduces the monographic section on Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP), presenting eight theoretical and empirical papers about diverse topics. Traditionally, research on occupational health has mainly been focused on causes of diseases and on identifying and preventing work factors related to worker's impaired health. However, this biased view may not provide a complete understanding of the mechanisms that lead to employee well-being and performance. We discuss the differences of POHP with similar constructs, and review reasons for its importance in the development of this field. Overall, the studies included in the monographic section show the usefulness of focusing on positive constructs, and present ideas and questions that we hope may help to further our progress in the field of POHP.

  7. Prefer Parameters of Occupational Health Surveillance System (OSS in Expert Opinions of Occupational Staffs: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Bahrami-Ahmadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Occupational Health Surveillance System (OHSS provides a critical opportunity to monitor and evaluate occupational disorders and injuries over the time. Among more than 21 million employees in Iran, 62.08% and 38.03% had been worked in the industrial and private sections respectively. Present qualitative study was designed for collection of expert opinion of staffs in this field and determined proper characters of suitable Iranian OHSS. Present qualitative study was performed on an interview based on data from occupational medicine staffs. Some questions about OHSS definition, temporary accompaniment of occupational diseases and injuries surveillance system, OHSS promoters and consumers, type of requested data for OHSS and rewarding and controlling systems to prepare qualitative and valid OHSS data. Interview answers were read, summarized and presented. Most of study participants’ staff believed that OHSS in the scientific base must cover all of essentially its parts including disorders, hazards and accidents together. They believed that this combination was made by a team working with occupational medicine staffs and other specialties such as occupational hygienist and information technologists. They emphasized that the Iranian ministry of health had the capacity to promote OHSS and organizing executive committee with all of OHSS involved as team working in this field. Occupational staff had been focused on this fact that OHSS data must cover all of needed data of Iranian working population and their relatives. Iranian occupational registry system must be change and develop as Occupational Health Surveillance system according the main parameters which were found in occupational staff interview.

  8. Embracing Creativity in Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen, MOT, OTR/L

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jen Gash, an occupational therapist and creativity coach living in the UK, provided the cover art for the winter 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. The picture is titled “Over the Exe.” Jen uses her inspiration of the Kawa River model in this painting. The painting is of her husband and daughter standing where the river meets the sea. This is a metaphoric representation of rejoining the greater collective. In addition, Jen has a passion for occupational therapists to encompass creativity. A core aspect of occupational therapy is the multi-dimensional concept of occupations; it allows for occupational therapists to incorporate creativity into daily practice. Jen’s goal is for occupational therapy to embrace its creative theoretical roots.

  9. Occupational noise management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-06-15

    Occupational noise is a frequently encountered on-the-job health hazard. This guide presented the responsibilities and regulatory requirements related to business activities where noise above 80 decibels is present. The guide provided a definition of noise and discussed noise hazards, types of noise, and on-the-job noise exposure. A risk assessment to noise in the work environment was also discussed. A guide to a hearing conservation program was also included. The main purpose of a hearing conservation program is the prevention of noise induced hearing loss for employees exposed to occupational noise. The components of such a program were outlined, with particular reference to noise monitoring; noise exposure control; worker education and training; hearing (audiometric) testing; and annual program review and record keeping. It was concluded that in terms of record keeping, it can be very helpful to file noise exposure assessments, particularly personal exposure measurements, with hearing test records to facilitate for future reference. refs., appendices.

  10. Occupational safety motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete

    2010-01-01

    . At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated......Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally...

  11. Education and Occupational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnes, Geraint; Freguglia, Ricardo; Spricigo, Gisele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamic relationship between policies related to educational provision and both educational participation and occupational outcomes in Brazil, using PNAD and RAIS-Migra data. Design/methodology/approach: Outcomes are examined using: static...... multinomial logit analysis, and structural dynamic discrete choice modelling. The latter approach, coupled with the quality of the RAIS-Migra data source, allows the authors to evaluate the education policy impacts over time. Findings: The main results show that the education level raises the propensity...... that the individual will be in formal sector work or still in education, and reduces the probability of the other outcomes. Transition into non-manual formal sector work following education may, however, occur via a spell of manual work. Originality/value: This is the first study of occupational destination...

  12. Occupational safety motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete

    2010-01-01

    . At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated......Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally...

  13. [Occupational allergies to phytase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, V; Merget, R; Brüning, T

    2008-12-01

    Phytases are phosphatases that can break down the undigestible phytic acid (phytate). They are frequently used as an animal feed supplement - often in poultry and swine - to enhance the nutritive value of plant material by liberation of inorganic phosphate from phytate. Exposure to enzyme dusts has long been known to cause occupational allergies. The present paper reviews the results of the evaluation of literature data concerning occupational airway sensitization due to phytases. Cases of specific airway sensitization caused by phytases could be shown clearly by the presented studies. As symptoms, results of skin prick tests, detection of specific IgE-antibodies and results of specific challenge tests are consistent, an immunologic mechanism can be assumed.

  14. [Occupational allergies to xylanases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, V; Merget, R; Brüning, T

    2004-02-01

    The exposure against enzyme dusts have long been known to cause occupational allergies. In the 1960s an increasing number of occupational allergies in the detergent industry were observed. In this context the high sensitization potential of enzyme dusts attracted attention. The present evaluation of literature data confirms that this is also true for xylanases. These frequently used industrial enzymes belong to the hemicellulases and are mostly of fungal origin. Several cases of specific airway sensitization caused by xylanases or other hemicellulases are verified by a number of case reports and cross sectional studies. As symptoms, results of skin prick tests, detection of specific IgE-antibodies and results of specific bronchoprovocation tests are consistent, an immunologic mechanism can be assumed.

  15. MANIFESTATIONS OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Craiovan, Petru; Ciocoiu, Marinela

    2011-01-01

    Occupational stress is the stress generated by activities at work with high responsibility, which results in a strain of employee skills and availability. The present study is a comparative study aims to identify experiential stress levels of employees in public relations departments and those without direct contact with the public in local government and the coping methods they use to reduce stress levels. Working hypotheses are: 1. Employees of public relations departments live a much highe...

  16. Occupational Science in a Nordic perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Tove; Bendixen, HJ; Frydendal, E

    The book is anthology and the first of its kind to be publiched in the Nordic countries. It comprices contributions from Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The authors write from respective fields of interest, research perspectives and personal experiences. The overall goal is to present a vision and im...... and importance of Occupational Science in a Nordic perspective, in responce to the American understanding. The anthology comprise 14 articles and adresses all with an interest in research in human activity and social participation....

  17. IEQ and the impact on building occupants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Satish; Fisk, William J.

    2002-08-01

    Research into indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and its effects on health, comfort and performance of occupants is becoming increasingly essential. Facility managers are interested in IEQ's close relationship to energy use. Employers hope to enhance employee comfort and productivity, reduce absenteeism and health-care costs, and reduce risk of litigation. The rising interest in this field has placed additional pressure on the research community for practical guidelines on creating a safe, healthy and comfortable indoor environment.

  18. [The emergence of positive occupational health psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Derks, Daantje

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the emerging concept of Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP). We discuss the usefulness of focusing on positive constructs in order to understand the path to health and well-being at work. We describe research findings on several POHP topics, including engagement, psychological capital, and job crafting. Additionally, we review the first positive interventions in this field and conclude by identifying some specific questions for future research.

  19. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Jovanovic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

  20. Occupational trajectories and occupational cost among Senegalese immigrants in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Obucina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Immigration from Africa to Europe has increased substantially in recent decades. The main goal of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of contemporary international migration processes by analyzing the occupational trajectories and occupational costs of Senegalese immigrants in three major European destination countries (France, Italy, and Spain. OBJECTIVE The first objective is to compare the occupational attainment of the Senegalese immigrants before and after migration to Europe, as well as to establish the determinants of the immigrants' occupational attainment and occupational mobility levels after migration. Another major goal is to estimate the occupational cost of migration from Senegal to Europe. The central question this study intends to answer is how much, in terms of occupational status, Senegalese immigrants renounce by migrating to Europe, in both the short and the long term. METHODS The data stem from the Senegalese sample of the MAFE dataset. The standard OLS techniques are used in the analysis of occupational attainment, while discrete-time multinomial logit is used in the section on occupational mobility. The principal techniques for the estimation of occupational cost of migration are random effects with Mundlak correction and nearest-neighbor matching. RESULTS There is a U-shaped pattern of occupational mobility among Senegalese immigrants in Europe: the average occupational status of this group drops just after arrival in Europe, and then slowly improves with the duration of stay. The multivariate analysis reveals that education acquired in Europe plays an especially important role in the successful participation of this immigrant group in the labor market. The results show that there is a statistically significant occupational cost of migration from Senegal to Europe, but that the cost decreases with the duration of stay in Europe.

  1. Promoting Translational Research Among Movement Science, Occupational Science, and Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainburg, Robert L; Liew, Sook-Lei; Frey, Scott H; Clark, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Integration of research in the fields of neural control of movement and biomechanics (collectively referred to as movement science) with the field of human occupation directly benefits both areas of study. Specifically, incorporating many of the quantitative scientific methods and analyses employed in movement science can help accelerate the development of rehabilitation-relevant research in occupational therapy (OT) and occupational science (OS). Reciprocally, OT and OS, which focus on the performance of everyday activities (occupations) to promote health and well-being, provide theoretical frameworks to guide research on the performance of actions in the context of social, psychological, and environmental factors. Given both fields' mutual interest in the study of movement as it relates to health and disease, the authors posit that combining OS and OT theories and principles with the theories and methods in movement science may lead to new, impactful, and clinically relevant knowledge. The first step is to ensure that individuals with OS or OT backgrounds are academically prepared to pursue advanced study in movement science. In this article, the authors propose 2 strategies to address this need.

  2. Reflections on clinical reasoning in mental health occupational therapy: the case of the occupational therapy dynamic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Quevedo Marcolino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Clinical Reasoning Study supported by the American Occupational Therapy Association/AOTA and the American Occupational Therapy Foundation/AOTF in the United States in the late 1980s, had inaugurated the scientific production in the field and offered an initial framework on clinical reasoning for understanding and conducting clinical cases in Occupational Therapy. Most of the researches in this field have focused on reasoning processes, and point out the need to understand the contents of clinical thoughts, or how occupational therapists act and elaborate hypotheses, based on their background knowledge, in order to produce an explanatory theory. In this direction, this article presents the results of two studies from the author focused on understanding aspects of clinical reasoning of occupational therapists who work sustained by Occupational Therapy Dynamic Method/ MTOD, highlighting similarities and differences on diagnostic and procedural reasoning. The discussion points out need to expand the production of this type of research, in particular with Brazilian professionals, as well as the dissemination and study of this subject in the initial and continuing training of occupational therapists.

  3. Health Track System—An Automated Occupational Medical System

    OpenAIRE

    Compton, Jack E.; Hartridge, Anne D.; Maluish, Andrew G.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an automated occupational health and hazards system is being undertaken at the Department of Energy by Electronic Data Systems. This system, called the Health Track System (HTS), involves the integration and collection of data from the fields of occupational medicine, industrial hygiene, health physics, safety and personnel. This in itself is an exciting prospect, however, the scope of the system calls for it to be installed throughout DOE and contractor organizations acros...

  4. Epistemic reflections on Occupational Therapy in Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapy, along with other professions, is provoked to think its performance in the area of mental health in light of the new perspectives of assistance to people with mental distress. Considering the psychiatric reform as a backdrop, the aim of this paper is to discuss the theoretical conceptions that supported the interventions of occupational therapy in this field, and the new demands presented to professionals.To this end, a study of narrative review, whose search ...

  5. [Certified occupational physician system of Japan Society for Occupational Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogami, Akira; Higashi, Toshiaki

    2013-10-01

    Certified Occupational Physician System (COPS) of Japan Society for Occupational Health has been in existence for 21 years, since 1992. UOEH has supported this system as a secretary general. In this report, we review the 2012 revision of COPS. With the new title of Certified Associate Occupational Physician (CAOP), this revision was established to produce well-educated and experienced occupational physicians. The title of COP is not competitive but independent to other titles such as occupational physician, medical advisor in industrial health or industrial health consultant. In addition, the aim of COPS is not the replacement to these existing systems. Furthermore, the COP should be active in industrial and occupational health, and should cooperate with existing systems through the sharing of experience and knowledge.

  6. Facilitating Participation of Students with Severe Disabilities: Aligning School-Based Occupational Therapy Practice with Best Practices in Severe Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Keli; Royeen, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    School-based occupational therapy is the largest employer of occupational therapists. School-based occupational therapists work extensively with students with severe disabilities. Over the past decade, one significant change in the field of severe disabilities has been the advocacy of best practices. This paper discusses the implications of best…

  7. Daily Occupations among asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le

    2014-01-01

    which might even influence their identity. Such deprivation can eventually lead to dissatisfaction with everyday life and to occupational dysfunction, i.e. a decline in ADL ability. Asylum seekers are a group who are more likely to suffer from health problems than the background population. Especially...... occupations on three levels – the experience of occupational deprivation, satisfaction with daily occupations and performance of ADL tasks – and whether occupational satisfaction and performance changed over a ten-month period. As there are often torture survivors among asylum seekers, another aim...... was to assess whether torture had an influence on the occupational satisfaction and performance, and whether this had changed after ten-months. Forty-three asylum seekers from Afghanistan, Iran and Syria participated at baseline and ten months later 17 were available for inclusion in follow-up studies. Study I...

  8. Kanerva's Occupational Dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp

    Nanoparticles are ultra small particles less than 100 nm in diameter. Nanoparticles may have altered physical and chemical properties compared to their larger-scale counterparts due to increased surface area. Nanoparticles are used in various industrial products including cosmetics, pharmaceutica......, electronics, paint, and sports equipment. No harmful effects of occupational skin exposure to nanoparticles have been published. Risk assessment must be done on a case-by-case basis for each workplace scenario and for each individual nanoparticle because of lack of knowledge....

  9. [Traumatic and occupational deafness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, J L; Kossowski, M; Verdaille, P

    2000-01-15

    The frequency of accidental, traumatic hearing loss is increasing due to a sometimes violently noisy environment and to the development of sports as leisure activities. The diagnosis is based on knowledge of the circumstances of the trauma and on otoscopic examination. Total audiometry localises the damage. Occupational hearing loss forms a special subset of traumatic deafness. This trauma is usually due to intense noise occurring at the work-place. It is of insidious onset, irreversibly progressive and without treatment once under way; Prevention is based on knowledge of the deleterious effects of noise and on the individual factors of the subject at risk.

  10. Asma ocupacional Occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cebollero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Asma ocupacional es aquella entidad que se desarrolla por causas o condiciones derivadas de un determinado medio laboral y no por estímulos que se encuentran fuera del trabajo. El asma ocupacional constituye hoy en día la enfermedad respiratoria ocupacional más frecuente en la mayoría de los países industrializados y se calcula que la proporción de nuevos casos de asma atribuibles a la exposición laboral se sitúa en torno al 10-15%. Puede desarrollarse tanto por un mecanismo inmunológico como no inmunológico. En su desarrollo influyen el tipo de agente al que se está expuesto, el nivel y modo de exposición y factores genéticos de susceptibilidad. En el proceso diagnóstico concurre la confirmación de que el paciente tiene asma bronquial y la confirmación de que ésta se produce por causa laboral. Como demuestra la historia natural de la enfermedad, un diagnóstico precoz y las consiguientes acciones posteriores redundan en un mejor pronóstico de la misma.Occupational asthma is an entity caused by conditions deriving from a certain work milieu and not from stimuli found outside the workplace. Nowadays, occupational asthma is the most frequent respiratory occupational disease in the majority of the industrialised countries and it is estimated that the proportion of new cases of asthma that can be attributed to exposure at work is around 10-15%. It can be developed due to an immunological mechanism or to a non-immunological mechanism. Influential in its development are the type of agent exposed to, the level and form of exposure and genetic factors of susceptibility. In the diagnostic process there is a concurrent confirmation that the patient has bronchial asthma and that this has been caused by occupational reasons. As shown by the natural history of the disease, an early diagnosis and the consequent posterior actions result in an improved prognosis.

  11. [Occupational allergies to papain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, V; Merget, R; Brüning, T

    2005-06-01

    Occupational exposure against dusts of plant, bacterial, mould, and animal enzymes is long known to be associated with a high risk of specific sensitization. The present evaluation of literature data confirms that this is also true for papain. This frequently used industrial protease is derived from papaya (Carica papaya). Several cases of specific airway sensitization caused by papain are verified by a number of case reports and cross sectional studies. As symptoms, results of skin prick tests, detection of specific IgE-antibodies and results of specific bronchoprovocation tests are consistent, an immunologic mechanism can be assumed.

  12. The occupational health audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R L

    1976-02-01

    The final report contains no magic or proprietary secrets. It is simply a logical review of what exists with an orderly recommendation of what should be done. To repeat -- many times the hardest part of any job is getting started. The purpose of this exercise is to provide a plan and a way to get started. This may seem like something so obvious that it is not needed. But a review of existing occupational health programs dispels that view. Five years after the enactment of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, hundreds of thousands of physical examinations are still being performed in a total vacuum; examinations whose contents bear little relationship to the hazards encountered. Countless laboratory determinations are being provided to personnel officers and plant managers who have absolutely no background in interpreting the meaning of those results. Millions of records are being meticulously kept with no goal in mind as to what purpose they should serve nor consideration for the privacy of individuals. In short, untold millions of dollars are being wasted while the things that should be done are left undone because, to quote, "the cost is too high." Often health professionals are employed by an organization because health crises have developed which force expert handling. The health professional enters chaos and is kept so busy answering fire-calls that there is no time for the orderly evaluation of needs and the development of operating routines required to prevent new crises from developing. Today's crises are being addressed while tomorrow's crises are developing out of routine situations. The health professional is not at fault; rather, executive management has failed to provide the necessary systems to meet its responsibilities. So long as this situation prevails, there is a need for someone to take the time to develop an orderly approach to occupational health surveillance. When such a condition exists, it is time to call in an independent auditor

  13. Evolution, Appearance, and Occupational Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Little, Anthony C; Roberts, S. Craig

    2012-01-01

    .... In this article, we review evidence linking physical appearance to occupational success and evaluate the hypothesis that appearance based biases are consistent with predictions based on evolutionary...

  14. Reflections on a trajectory in Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Lancmam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This text is part of the memorial presented as a requirement of the contest for full professor positionin Occupational Therapy at the School of Medicine from the University of Sao Paulo. The reflections presentedaim to trace the trajectory contextualized in different periods and institutions where the writer has worked, andhow they have blended with the academic development of Occupational Therapy itself. The text also seeks todiscuss the solidification process of the writer’s training as a researcher and the results arisen thereof. Thesecourses were built on research and culminated in the Mental Health and Work search line and its interfaces withOccupational Therapy. Across the text, the academic and scientific development in the field of occupationaltherapy is reflected and, finally, discussions are pointed out on the necessary consolidation of the area in researchand graduate studies and, therefore, in the dissemination of knowledge by publications indexed and relevant tothe field. The text is both a personal account and a true representation of the profession development in Brazilin the past thirty years.

  15. High occupational stress and low career satisfaction of Korean surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang Hee; Boo, Yoon Jung; Lee, Ji Sung; Han, Hyung Joon; Jung, Cheol Woong; Kim, Chong Suk

    2015-02-01

    Surgery is a demanding and stressful field in Korea. Occupational stress can adversely affect the quality of care, decrease job satisfaction, and potentially increase medical errors. The aim of this study was to investigate the occupational stress and career satisfaction of Korean surgeons. We have conducted an electronic survey of 621 Korean surgeons for the occupational stress. Sixty-five questions were used to assess practical and personal characteristics and occupational stress using the Korean occupational stress scale (KOSS). The mean KOSS score was 49.31, which was higher than the average of Korean occupational stress (45.86) or that of other specialized professions (46.03). Young age, female gender, long working hours, and frequent night duties were significantly related to the higher KOSS score. Having spouse, having hobby and regular exercise decreased the KOSS score. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that long working hours and regular exercise were the independent factors associated with the KOSS score. Less than 50% of surgeons answered that they would become a surgeon again. Most surgeons (82.5%) did not want to recommend their child follow their career. Korean Surgeons have high occupational stress and low level of career satisfaction.

  16. [Occupational skin diseases in medical personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Occupational skin diseases develop mostly in certain occupational groups at risk. The authors studied features of occupational skin diseases in medical personnel examined over 2003-2007. During this time, occupational skin disease was diagnosed in 118 individuals out of which 24 (20.3%) were medical staffers. All 24 examinees suffered from occupational allergic skin conditions. Most common causes of these were medicines, latex, desinfectants. Nurses are most prone to skin conditions (91.67%). Special risk group covers surgeons, psychiatrists and dentists. As medical staffers are occupational risk group for occupational skin conditions, diagnosed allergic dermatoses in them should be considered as having possible occupational occupational origin.

  17. Asma ocupacional Occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lusia Godoy Fernandes

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A asma relacionada ao trabalho é uma das principais doenças respiratórias ocupacionais em termos de prevalência. Inúmeras substâncias químicas utilizadas nas mais diversas atividades produtivas podem desencadear ou agravar essa doença. A definição e a classificação da asma relacionada ao trabalho são descritas, bem como, suas repercussões epidemiológicas, história natural, critérios diagnósticos, evolução, prognóstico e seus aspectos legais, de forma resumida, objetivando alertar sobre essa doença e suas implicações trabalhistas.Work-related asthma is one of the principal occupational respiratory diseases in terms of prevalence. Innumerable chemical substances used in various production processes can cause or aggravate occupational asthma. This chapter contains a brief description of the definition and classification of work-related asthma, as well as the epidemiological repercussions, natural course, diagnostic criteria, progression and legal aspects of the disease, with the objective of raising an alert regarding this disease and its implications for workers.

  18. Environmental and occupational allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, David; Reed, Charles E

    2010-02-01

    Airborne allergens are the major cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Daily exposure comes from indoor sources, chiefly at home but occasionally at schools or offices. Seasonal exposure to outdoor allergens, pollens, and molds is another important source. Exposure to unusual substances at work causes occupational asthma, accounting for about 5% of asthma in adults. Indoor and outdoor air pollutants trigger airway inflammation and increase the severity of asthma. Diesel exhaust particles increase the production of IgE antibodies. Identification and reduction of exposure to allergens is a very important part of the management of respiratory allergic diseases. The first section of this chapter discusses domestic allergens, arthropods (mites and cockroaches), molds, and mammals (pets and mice). Indoor humidity and water damage are important factors in the production of mite and mold allergens, and discarded human food items are important sources of proliferation of cockroaches and mice. Means of identifying and reducing exposure are presented. The second section discusses outdoor allergens: pollens and molds. The particular plants or molds and the amount of exposure to these allergens is determined by the local climate, and local pollen and mold counts are available to determine the time and amount of exposure. Climate change is already having an important effect on the distribution and amount of outdoor allergens. The third section discusses indoor and outdoor air pollution and methods that individuals can take to reduce indoor pollution in addition to eliminating cigarette smoking. The fourth section discusses the diagnosis and management of occupational asthma.

  19. Bernardino Ramazzini: the father of occupational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Malcolm H

    2004-10-15

    Bernardino Ramazzini was born on October 4, 1633, in the small town of Capri located in the duchy of Modula, Italy. He is credited with establishing the field of occupational medicine during his lifetime. His major contributions came after 1682, when Duke Francesco II of Modena assigned him to establish a medical department at the University of Modena. He was installed in the title of professor "Medicinae Theoricae." In 1700, Ramazzini was appointed chair of practical medicine in Padua, Republic of Venice, the premier medical faculty in Italy. In 1700, he wrote the seminal book on occupational diseases and industrial hygiene, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (Diseases of Workers). Although Ramazzini is perhaps most well known for his work on exposure to toxic materials, he wrote extensively about diseases of the musculoskeletal system. In particular, he warned of the problems of inactivity and poor postures inherent in some jobs.

  20. Precision Machining Technologies. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of precision machinist. The…

  1. Integrating occupational health services and occupational prevention services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, L; Deitchman, S; Dervin, K

    2001-09-01

    Despite the human and monetary costs of occupational injury and illness, occupational health care has focused more on treatment than prevention, and prevention is not part of many clinical occupational health practices. This represents a failure of occupational health care to meet the health care needs of the working patients. MEDLINE searches were conducted for literature on occupational medical treatment and the prevention of occupational injury and illness were reviewed to for linkages between prevention and treatment. Policy discussions which identify examples of programs that integrated prevention and treatment were included. Although examples of the integration of clinical and preventive occupational health services exist, there are challenges and barriers to such integration. These include inaction by clinicians who do not recognize their potential role in prevention; the absence of a relationship between the clinician and an employer willing to participate in prevention; economic disincentives against prevention; and the absence of tools that evaluate clinicians on their performance in prevention. Research is needed to improve and promote clinical occupational health preventive services. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The effect of occupational meaningfulness on occupational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Ivtzan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Existing research lacks a scholarly consensus on how to define and validly measure ‘meaningful work’ (e.g., Rosso, Dekas & Wrzesniewski, 2010. The following correlational study highlights the value of investigating meaningfulness in the context of occupational commitment. The study hypothesizes that occupational commitment is positively correlated with occupational meaningfulness, where meaningfulness is defined as the extent to which people’s occupations contribute to personal meaning in life. One-hundred and fifty-six full-time office based UK workers completed an online questionnaire including 18 questions measuring levels of occupational commitment (Meyer, Allen & Smith, 1993, in addition to six novel items measuring occupational meaningfulness. The results supported the hypothesis and also showed that the affective sub-type of occupational commitment had the highest correlation with occupational meaningfulness. Such results exhibit the importance of finding meaning at work, as well as the relevance of this to one’s level of commitment to his or her job. This paper argues that individuals should consider OM before choosing to take a specific role, whereas organizations ought to consider the OM of their potential candidates before recruiting them into a role. Possible directions for future research directions are also discussed.

  3. The System of Occupations: Modeling Occupations in Sociodemographic Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotolo, Thomas; McPherson, J. Miller

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the age and education composition of occupations in Current Population Survey Annual Demographic Files, 1972-82, supports an ecological model in which occupations compete for members in a shifting niche space defined by members' sociodemographic characteristics. In contrast, the movement of professions in the education dimension…

  4. [Skin cancer as occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of epithelial skin neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma is significantly increasing worldwide. Leisure time solar UV exposure is causative in the overwhelming majority of cases in the general population; however, occupational exposure is responsible for a certain percentage of cases. Employees with a relevant exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances, to sunlight in outdoor occupations as well as to arsenic and ionizing radiation have a significantly increased risk to develop occupational skin cancer compared to the general population. In the official occupational disease list in the appendix of the German by-law on occupational diseases, the following occupational diseases concerning skin cancer are listed: BK 5102 "skin cancer and carcinoma in situ caused by soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances" (e.g. various solid paraffins, asphalt and mazut as well as mineral oils, grease, cylinder and drilling oils), BK 5103 "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis caused by natural UV radiation", BK 1108 "diseases caused by arsenic and its compounds" and BK 2402 "diseases caused by ionizing radiation". For further occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances and potential occupationally acquired skin tumors, no official lists are currently available. These cancers might be considered under a special opt out paragraph in the German Social Law (§ 9 para 2 SGB VII). Tumors in scars after occupational skin trauma or occupational burns are compensated as consequences of work accidents. The current official list of occupational skin cancers and new developments for expert opinions are described in this article.

  5. [A model of occupational, environmental and community medicine. History and evolution of the Hospital Unit of Occupational Medicine (UOOML) in Lombardia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirla, A M; Feltrin, G

    1998-01-01

    The authors describe the historical evolution of the prevention in Lombardia, and the role of the Hospital Units for Occupational Medicine, not only on the clinical oriented fields, but also on the areas of formation and training. Hospital Units for Occupational Medicine are today the best synthesis of "occupational-environmental-community health". There development is based on adequate standards of human and instrumental resources, as so as a real financial budget. At last, it's important that these Units are allocated in a so-called "bipolar department", open to the hospital and also open to the territorial structures for prevention and safety (department of occupational health).

  6. Occupational Therapy in Multidisciplinary Residency in Family and Community Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzianne Feijó Alexandre Paiva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report the experiences of occupational therapist during the Multidisciplinary Residency Program in Family and Community Health in Fortaleza, Ceará state, Brazil. With the creation of the Support Center for Family Health – NASF, occupational therapists began to participate more effectively in the Family Health Strategy of the Brazilian National Health System. Given this rocess, the category, which historically has trained its professionals following the biomedical model, is faced with the challenge to build a new field of knowledge. Objective: To analyze the inclusion of occupational therapy in the Family Health Strategy within the scope of Multidisciplinary Residency. Methodology: This is a descriptive study of qualitative approach, which was based on the experience of four occupational therapy resident students, performed through the documental analysis of field diaries, scientific papers, and case studies produced between 2009 and 2011. Results: The occupational therapists as well as the other NASF professionals operated the logic of Matrix Support to the Family Health teams, sharing their knowledge and assisting in resolving complex cases of the families, groups, and communities served. In this context, we found people with different relationships with their doings and a reduced repertoire of activities. The occupational therapists invested in the creation or consolidation of groups in the Family Health Centers and in the territory, which also stood as living and socializing spaces, focusing on prevention and health promotion.

  7. Towards servitization in the management of occupational safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Berbegal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article aims to examine the relationship between occupational accidents and the type of occupational safety resources that the company implements. Design/methodology/approach: Using a sample of 4750 firms gathered from the National Survey of Safety Management and Health Enterprises (ENGE for 2009, we first carried out a descriptive analysis of the data, and second we run an empirical analysis based on logistic and Tobit regressions. Findings and Originality/value: The results allow us to identify which companies and what kind of preventive activities are usually outsourced to an external firm specialized at providing occupational safety services. Second, the empirical analysis shows that outsourcing part of occupational safety activities also helps reduce the index of workplace accidents. Research limitations/implications: The present case focuses on Spanish companies and for a particular period (years 2007 and 2008. Because each country has specific regulations regarding the implementation of occupational safety services, the conclusions cannot be directly extrapolated to other countries. Practical implications: The results obtained are hoped to assist companies in choosing those prevention services that best suits their needs. Furthermore, this study is expected to contribute to the current debate on the design of prevention policies by public authorities, encouraging the outsourcing of occupational safety services as a way to take advantage of their expertise and reduce the number of accidents. Originality/value: Most of the academic literature on occupational safety has ignored the study of the impact that prevention services have on the firm’s performance, in terms of occupational accidents. This article contributes to filling this gap by demonstrating that the servitization trend is also impacting in the field of occupational safety.

  8. An Exploration of the Role of Occupation in School-Based Occupational Therapy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jeryl DiSanti

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of occupation in school-based occupational therapy practice. The research questions were (1) How do school-based occupational therapists describe the role of occupation during intervention? (2) Which theories of occupation do school-based occupational therapists associate with their own practice?…

  9. An Exploration of the Role of Occupation in School-Based Occupational Therapy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jeryl DiSanti

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of occupation in school-based occupational therapy practice. The research questions were (1) How do school-based occupational therapists describe the role of occupation during intervention? (2) Which theories of occupation do school-based occupational therapists associate with their own practice?…

  10. [granulomatous Diseases Of Occupational Etiology].

    OpenAIRE

    Bagatin, Ericson; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Costa; Afiune,Jorge Barros

    2006-01-01

    A variety of diseases are encompassed in the didactic denomination of granulomatous diseases of probable occupational etiology. As well as presenting similar clinical aspects, such diseases are characterized by certain common traits: formation of granulomas; systemic and respiratory manifestations; environmental or occupational exposure to organic or inorganic agents; and T lymphocyte involvement in the pathogenesis. Included in this category are hypersensitivity pneumonitis, mycobacteriosis ...

  11. Diagnostic guidlines for occupational epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Krawczyk-Szulc

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Making final decisions on the occupational etiology of musculoskeletal diseases is often difficult and problematic at every stage of the diagnostic procedure. Taking into account the need to facilitate decision-making about the causal relationship between the diagnosed disease entity and the working conditions guidelines for the recognition of work-related musculoskeletal diseases have been developed. This paper presents the guidelines for the diagnosis of occupational etiology of humeral epicondylitis, one of the most common occupational disease of the musculoskeletal system in Poland. The developed guidelines have been based on the literature data concerning occupational risk factors of humeral epicondylitis, workload classification, including repetitive movements, awkward postures, and force. Some criteria applied in ergonomic evaluation methods were also included. The presented diagnostic guidelines define approximate benchmarks for stating (after excluding non-occupational etiology that the identified humeral epicondylitis, is related to the way of working. Crucial work factors that should be analyzed include an operating time of movements overloading tendons connecting to the epicondyle, repetition and force used to perform occupational activities. The developed guidelines are aimed to facilitate occupational physicians diagnostic and certification procedures in case of humeral epicondylitis and determination whether there is a likelihood of its occupational etiology. Med Pr 2015;66(3:443–450

  12. [Diagnostic guidlines for occupational epicondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk-Szulc, Patrycja; Wągrowska-Koski, Ewa; Puzder, Anna; Markowski, Przemysław; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Making final decisions on the occupational etiology of musculoskeletal diseases is often difficult and problematic at every stage of the diagnostic procedure. Taking into account the need to facilitate decision-making about the causal relationship between the diagnosed disease entity and the working conditions guidelines for the recognition of work-related musculoskeletal diseases have been developed. This paper presents the guidelines for the diagnosis of occupational etiology of humeral epicondylitis, one of the most common occupational disease of the musculoskeletal system in Poland. The developed guidelines have been based on the literature data concerning occupational risk factors of humeral epicondylitis, workload classification, including repetitive movements, awkward postures, and force. Some criteria applied in ergonomic evaluation methods were also included. The presented diagnostic guidelines define approximate benchmarks for stating (after excluding non-occupational etiology) that the identified humeral epicondylitis, is related to the way of working. Crucial work factors that should be analyzed include an operating time of movements overloading tendons connecting to the epicondyle, repetition and force used to perform occupational activities. The developed guidelines are aimed to facilitate occupational physicians diagnostic and certification procedures in case of humeral epicondylitis and determination whether there is a likelihood of its occupational etiology.

  13. The linkage between patterns of daily occupations and occupational balance: Applications within occupational science and occupational therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Mona; Orban, Kristina; Argentzell, Elisabeth; Bejerholm, Ulrika; Tjörnstrand, Carina; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Håkansson, Carita

    2017-01-01

    Patterns of daily occupations (PDO) and occupational balance (OB) are recurring phenomena in the literature. Both are related with health and well-being, which makes them central in occupational therapy practice and occupational science. The aim was to review how PDO and OB are described in the literature, to propose a view of how the two constructs may be linked, and elaborate on how such a view may benefit occupational science and occupational therapy. The literature was analysed by latent and manifest content analysis and comparative analysis. The findings were summarized in a model, framing PDO as the more objective and OB as the more subjective result from an interaction between personal preferences and environmental influences. The proposed model does not assume a cause-effect relationship between the targeted constructs, rather a mutual influence and a joint reaction to influencing factors. Indicators of PDO and OB were identified, as well as tools for assessing PDO and OB. The authors propose that discerning PDO and OB as separate but interacting phenomena may be useful in developing a theoretical discourse in occupational science and enhancing occupational therapy practice. Although the scope of this study was limited, the proposed view may hopefully inspire further scrutiny of constructs.

  14. Performance Specifications for Occupational Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Div. of Career Technology and Adult Learning.

    This document lists and discusses the development of Maryland's performance specifications for occupational programs. The introduction explains the process used to develop performance standards and specifications for 10 career cluster majors that were identified by a task force of educators and employers as high-demand occupational areas in…

  15. CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, E.R.; WELCH, JOHN L.

    THIS PUBLICATION UPDATES THE "CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS" PUBLISHED IN 1959 AND PROVIDES COUNSELORS WITH INFORMATION ABOUT OCCUPATIONS IN DEMAND IN MANY AREAS WHICH REQUIRE PREEMPLOYMENT TRAINING. IT PRESENTS, IN COLUMN FORM, THE EDUCATION AND OTHER TRAINING USUALLY REQUIRED BY EMPLOYERS, HIGH SCHOOL SUBJECTS OF PARTICULAR PERTINENCE TO…

  16. Business Management Occupations: Skill Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This report organizes the information provided by 77 individuals in business management occupations in 12 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

  17. Business Financial Occupations: Skill Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This report organizes the information provided by 71 individuals in finance-related occupations in 11 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

  18. 75 FR 23834 - Occupational Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION Occupational Information System AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Request for... Recommendations for the Social Security Administration Occupational Information System, September 2009.'' The... to provide independent advice and recommendations on creating an occupational information system...

  19. Occupational Trends and Program Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Rosenthal

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Institutions of higher education that respond to the economic base in their region will remain competitive and be better positioned to obtain public funds and donor support. In addition to mandated program viability standards based on measures such as graduation rate, individual institutions and state coordinating boards can use ten-year occupational trend data to assess future program viability. We used an occupational demand model to determine whether academic programs can meet projected statewide needs for high demand and high growth occupations. For example, computer engineering, the highest growth rate occupation in Alabama, is projected to have 365 annual average job openings, with 93.6% total growth over ten years. But only 46 computer engineering majors graduate annually from all Alabama institutions of higher education. We recommend using an occupational demand model as a planning tool, decision-making tool, and catalyst for collaborative initiatives.

  20. Occupational therapy, culture and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Simó Algado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational behaviour is always an environmental behaviour because the occupation is the dialogue between human beings and their environment. Culture is key dimension in our profession. This article is based on previous research and a new review of the scientific literature on the various meanings associated with culture. In the contemporary context the globalization involves the imposition of the American way of life on a planetary scale. In front of ethnocentrism and racism a diatopical hermeneutics is proposed. A cosmopolitan citizenship can be constructed supporting diversity. The article concludes by reflecting on strategies that can be implemented from occupational therapy to develop a culturally safe occupational therapy. An archaeology of meaning must be developed in front of the Americanization. Occupational therapy needs to develop a powerful political activism in order to build an inclusive society based on human rights and sustainability. Culture and diversity are key elements in this process.

  1. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents......The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...

  2. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  3. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  4. Doubly reflexive ethnography: contributions to the construction of occupational therapy from an intercultural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Zango Martín

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of occupational therapy, as a result of the processes of globalization, there is a growing interest in aspects relating to culture and its relationship to health and well-being. The development of occupational therapy in multicultural contexts proposes to go beyond the terminological questions to deepen and refine new guidelines related to the construction and consolidation of knowledge. Thus, this paper raises a critical analysis of the main assumptions of occupational therapy, referring to the nature of the occupation and the link between occupation, health and well-being, as well as the praxis derived from them. The professional culture of occupational therapy is analyzed through doubly reflexive ethnography, a heuristic three-dimensional model consisting of syntactic, pragmatic and semantic dimensions. This study of the occupational therapy aims to raise the development of the discipline that may be conscious and responsible for the relations of power that are implicit and explicit in the theory and practice of occupational therapy. The co-reflexion with the different actors involved is determinant in the development of an intercultural perspective of occupational therapy that may be therapeutically effective. The concept of etnoccupation may be proposed as alternative to the ethnocentric concept of occupation, proposing a vision of the occupation on economic, social and political aspects which aims at social transformation

  5. Non-occupational contact sensitization to epoxy resin of bisphenol A among general dermatology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majasuo, Susanna; Liippo, Jussi; Lammintausta, Kaija

    2012-03-01

    Sensitization to epoxy resins often results from occupational exposure in various fields of construction and industry. Non-occupational sensitization sources and environments have remained overlooked. To analyse non-occupational and occupational contact sensitization to epoxy resin of bisphenol A among general dermatology patients. Special attention was paid to patients sensitized from non-occupational sources. During a 10-year period, 6042 general dermatology patients were patch tested with epoxy resin (bisphenol A) in the Dermatology Clinic of Turku University Hospital. The clinical data and the sources of occupational and non-occupational exposure to epoxy resin were analysed in sensitized patients. Epoxy resin sensitization was found in 59 patients. Non-occupational sensitization was found in 21 (35%) patients, whereas the number of occupational cases was 38 (65%). The most common sources of non-occupational epoxy resin sensitization were materials used in domestic renovation and construction projects and in boat repair. Non-occupational sensitization sources account for approximately one-third of epoxy resin sensitization cases, and therefore represent an important risk among hobbies and leisure activities. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Occupational ergonomics in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramler, J.

    1992-01-01

    Ergonomics is often defined simply as the study of work. Related or synonymous terms include human factors, human engineering, engineering psychology, and others. Occupational ergonomics is a term that has been proposed to describe the study of the working environment, including the physical consequences resulting from having an improperly designed workplace. The routine space working environment presents some problems not found in the typical Earthbound workplace. These include radiation, intravehicular contamination/pollution, temperature extremes, impact with other objects, limited psychosocial relationships, sensory deprivation, and reduced gravity. These are important workplace considerations, and may affect astronauts either directly at work or at some point during their life as a result of their work under these conditions. Some of the major issues associated with each of these hazards are presented.

  7. Occupational fluoride exposure. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, H.C. (Univ. of California, San Francisco); Smith, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of airborne fluoride on industrial health are discussed with regard to acute and chronic effects. Injuries to lungs and skin from acute exposures are described. Chronic effects are discussed with regard to industrial sources of fluoride and air concentrations vs. urinary concentrations of fluoride. An extensive literature review is presented in the form of a table showing responses in man exposed to industrial airborne fluorides. Osteosclerosis is discussed with regard to the fluoride air standard, bone fluoride, and air fluoride concentrations. Occupational exposures to fluoride are also discussed with regard to arthritis, shortness of breath, asthma, upper respiratory infections, chronic respiratory disease, effects on kidneys, effects on pregnancy, and indices of fluoride intoxication. A table is presented showing references to studies on responses in neighborhood residents exposed to fluoride emissions. (HLW)

  8. [Chronic occupational metallic mercurialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Marcília de Araújo Medrado

    2003-02-01

    This is a review on current knowledge of chronic occupational mercurialism syndrome. Major scientific studies and reviews on clinical manifestation and physiopathology of mercury poisoning were evaluated. The search was complemented using Medline and Lilacs data. Erethism or neuropsychological syndrome, characterized by irritability, personality change, loss of self-confidence, depression, delirium, insomnia, apathy, loss of memory, headaches, general pain, and tremors, is seen after exposure to metallic mercury. Hypertension, renal disturbances, allergies and immunological conditions are also common. Mercury is found in many different work processes: industries, gold mining, and dentistry. As prevention measures are not often adopted there is an increasing risk of mercury poisoning. The disease has been under diagnosed even though 16 clinical forms of mercury poisoning are described by Brazilian regulations. Clinical diagnosis is important, especially because abnormalities in the central nervous, renal and immunological systems can be detected using current medical technology, helping to develop the knowledge and control measures for mercurialism.

  9. Salud laboral y género: Apuntes para la incorporación de la perspectiva de género en el ámbito de la prevención de riesgos laborales Occupational health and gender: Notes to incorporate the gender mainstreaming in the occupational risks prevention field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Fernanda González Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el ámbito nacional e internacional existe un amplio marco normativo y programático que vincula las acciones de entidades públicas y privadas con la igualdad de oportunidades para mujeres y hombres; sin embargo, las condiciones en que se desenvuelven unas y otros siguen siendo extremadamente diferentes y desiguales. En el contexto de la salud laboral, como en otros, se añade a esto la incapacidad de las instituciones para conocer la situación real de las y los trabajadores y por tanto, la imposibilidad de emprender acciones que promuevan adecuadamente la salud de hombres y mujeres en dicho medio. La incorporación de la perspectiva de género en el actuar de los servicios de prevención contribuye a detectar y corregir los sesgos de género en las actividades preventivas y de vigilancia de la salud. El presente documento pretende apuntar algunas acciones específicas que sirvan de herramientas prácticas para la incorporación de la perspectiva de género en las actividades que se realizan desde los servicios de Salud Laboral.At national and international level, there is a wide legal frame enlacing public and private entities´ actions with the equal opportunities for men and women; nevertheless, the conditions in which they work are extremely different. In the occupational health context, like in others, the entities´ incapacity to know the real situation of men and women and the impossibility, as a result, to develop actions to improve accurately men and women´s health, are summed to the actual inequity. The gender mainstreaming in the occupational risks prevention world contribute to detect and correct the gender slant in the preventive activities and in the health surveillance. This paper aims to provide some simple tools to facilitate the incorporation of gender perspective in the activities developed by the Occupational Health Services.

  10. Occupation and cancer in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, L; Bagga, S; Bevan, R; Brown, T P; Cherrie, J W; Holmes, P; Fortunato, L; Slack, R; Van Tongeren, M; Young, C; Hutchings, S J

    2010-04-27

    Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer). This project is the first to quantify in detail the burden of cancer and mortality due to occupation specifically for Britain. It highlights the impact of occupational exposures, together with the occupational circumstances and industrial areas where exposures to carcinogenic agents

  11. Occupational asthma often goes unrecognised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, Paul; Cannon, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Occupational asthma is induced de novo by an airborne agent encountered in the workplace. The risk of occupational asthma is greater in those with a prior atopic history. Work-exacerbated asthma is the provocation of pre-existing, or coincidental, disease by one or more irritant exposures at work. Distinguishing occupational from work-exacerbated asthma can be difficult but it is important since the two have very different clinical, occupational and legal implications. Occupational asthma is underrecognised, the disease often develops in young people who are otherwise fit. They may not recognise their symptoms as anything out of the ordinary, or may confuse them with hay fever or a cold. It is sensible to consider occupational and work-exacerbated asthma in every working adult who has asthma or who presents with suggestive symptoms such as rhinitis. Occupational asthma almost always arises from an immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction to a respiratory sensitising agent in the workplace. The disease has a short latency with symptoms developing 6 to 36 months after employment in a new job. Rhinitis is common and in those working in an environment with airborne proteins the absence of rhinitis effectively rules out occupational asthma. In occupational asthma, symptoms (including nasal symptoms) improve away from work. Once the disease is established symptoms are provoked by even very small exposures at work and begin to be provoked by a wide variety of irritant exposures both at, and away from, work. It is good practice to enquire into the employment of every working-age adult with asthma, or rhinitis, and particularly in those presenting with new symptoms or symptoms that have become more difficult to manage. Patients should routinely be asked whether their symptoms improve when they are not at work.

  12. Occupational skin diseases in automotive industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakut, Yunus; Uçmak, Derya; Akkurt, Zeynep Meltem; Akdeniz, Sedat; Palanci, Yilmaz; Sula, Bilal

    2014-03-01

    Studies on occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry are few. To investigate the prevalence of occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry. Between September and December 2011, a total of 405 workers from the automotive repair industry in Diyarbakır were interviewed. They were active workers in the repair industry who had been employed for at least six months. Business owners, sellers of spare parts and accounting officers were not included. The employees were examined at their workplaces and the working conditions were observed. Detailed dermatological examination was performed. The mean age of the 405 workers who participated in the study was 27.7 ± 10.3. The mean working time of employees was 13.3 ± 10.4 years. All of the employees were male. Dermatological diseases were not detected in 144 out of 405 workers (35.6%) and at least one condition was diagnosed in 261 (64.4%). The most frequent diagnosis was callus, hyperkeratosis, clavus (27.7%), followed by nail changes (16.8%) and superficial mycoses (12.1%). Contact dermatitis was seen at a rate of 5.9%. Traumatic lesions such as hyperkeratotic lesions and nail changes were found most frequently. Traumatic lesions were common among individuals who did not use gloves. Most nail changes were localized leuconychia, a finding not reported in the studies on automotive industry workers. In accordance with the literature, irritant contact dermatitis was observed in patients with a history of atopy and who had been working for a long time. Occupational skin diseases comprise an important field in dermatology, deserving much attention. Further studies on occupational dermatology are necessary.

  13. Wanted: entrepreneurs in occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin M; Nelson, David L

    2011-01-01

    The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) has challenged occupational therapy practitioners to advance the profession so that we may become more "powerful" and "widely recognized" by the year 2017 (AOTA, 2007a). To fully achieve this vision, this article argues that the profession should encourage occupational therapy entrepreneurship. As Herz, Bondoc, Richmond, Richman, and Kroll (2005, p.2) stated, "Entrepreneurship may provide us with the means to achieve the outcomes we need to succeed in the current health care environment." This article also argues the urgency of seizing the many opportunities that entrepreneurship offers and recommends specific actions to be taken by AOTA and by therapists.

  14. Embracing Creativity in Occupational Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lydia Royeen, MOT, OTR/L

    2015-01-01

    Jen Gash, an occupational therapist and creativity coach living in the UK, provided the cover art for the winter 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. The picture is titled “Over the Exe.” Jen uses her inspiration of the Kawa River model in this painting. The painting is of her husband and daughter standing where the river meets the sea. This is a metaphoric representation of rejoining the greater collective. In addition, Jen has a passion for occupational therapists to enco...

  15. Occupational Lung Cancer Surveillance in South Korea, 2006-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Won, Jong Uk; Moon, Jai Dong; Kim, Young-Chul; Koh, Sang Baek; Yong, Suk Joong; Kim, Soo Geun; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Inah; Kim, Jung Il; Kim, Jung Won; Lee, Eui-cheol; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Dong Mug; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The lung cancer mortality in Korea has increased remarkably during the last 20 years, and has been the first leading cause of cancer-related deaths since 2000. The aim of the current study was to examine the time trends of occupational lung cancer and carcinogens exposure during the period 2006-2009 in South Korea, by assessing the proportion of occupational burden. Methods We defined occupational lung cancer for surveillance, and developed a reporting protocol and reporting website for the surveillance of occupational lung cancer. The study patients were chosen from 9 participating university hospitals in the following 7 areas: Seoul, Incheon, Wonju, Daejeon, Daegu, Busan, and Gwangju. Results The combined proportion of definite and probable occupational lung cancer among all lung cancers investigated in this study was 10.0%, 8.6%, 10.7%, and 15.8% in the years 2006 to 2009, respectively, with an average of 11.7% over the four-year study period. The main carcinogens were asbestos, crystalline silica, radon, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diesel exhaust particles, chromium, and nickel. Conclusion We estimated that about 11.7% of the incident lung cancer was preventable. This reveals the potential to considerably reduce lung cancer by intervention in occupational fields. PMID:22953173

  16. Epistemic reflections on Occupational Therapy in Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Assis Costa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Occupational therapy, along with other professions, is provoked to think its performance in the area of mental health in light of the new perspectives of assistance to people with mental distress. Considering the psychiatric reform as a backdrop, the aim of this paper is to discuss the theoretical conceptions that supported the interventions of occupational therapy in this field, and the new demands presented to professionals.To this end, a study of narrative review, whose search was conducted in the Lilacs, Medline and SciELO databases , with the descriptors ‘Occupational Therapy’, ‘Mental Health’ and ‘Health Care’, between 1990 and 2012. One hundred sixteen indexed articles were found: 109 in LILACS and seven in SciELO, and 25 articles were analyzed. The results reveal the approaches that have underpinned occupational therapy, from the asylum model to the care model in mental health, indicating the challenges to be faced by the profession in the transition process to the current model of mental health. We conclude that the occupational therapist should be the one responsible to mediate the reinvention of the mental health users’ interaction with their multifaceted everyday activities/actions in order to contribute to the process of mental health care transformation, producing new ways of thinking and practicing occupational therapy

  17. WORK ADJUSTMENT AS A FUNCTION OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY, STUDY COURSE V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JONES, MONA; KANDEL, DITHA

    RESULTING FROM ONE OF SIX 1-WEEK STUDY COURSES FOLLOWING THE THIRD INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE WORLD FEDERATION OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPISTS IN 1962, THIS MANUAL PRESENTS A BROAD REVIEW OF THE PHILOSOPHY, ROLE, AND TECHNIQUES OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY IN THE FIELD OF PREVOCATIONAL EVALUATION, VOCATIONAL TRAINING, AND SHELTERED WORKSHOPS. NINETEEN…

  18. Towards a new generation of breeding bird Atlases: annual Atlases based on site-occupancy models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, A.; van Turnhout, C.; Soldaat, L.

    2010-01-01

    Site-occupancy models which take into account detection probability of species have promising applications for Atlas work. These models enable to estimate the ‘true’ state of occupancy in sites even if sites differ in observation effort. Data collected with different field methods and opportunistic

  19. Occupational exposure to manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarić, M; Markićević, A; Hrustić, O

    1977-05-01

    The relationship between the degree of exposure and biological effects of manganese was studied in a group of 369 workers employed in the production of ferroalloys. Two other groups of workers, from an electrode plant and from an aluminium rolling mill, served as controls. Mean manganese concentrations at work places where ferroalloys were produced varied from 0-301 to 20-442 mg/m3. The exposure level of the two control groups was from 2 to 30 microgram/m3 and from 0-05 to 0-07 microgram/m3, in the electrode plant and rolling mill respectively. Sixty-two (16-8%) manganese alloy workers showed some signs of neurological impairment. These signs were noticeably less in the two control groups (5-8% and 0%) than in the occupationally exposed group. Subjective symptoms, which are nonspecific but may be symptoms of subclinical manganism, were not markedly different in the three groups. However, in the manganese alloy workers some of the subjective symptoms occurred more frequently in heavier smokers than in light smokers or nonsmokers. Heavier smokers engaged in manganese alloy production showed some of the subjective symptoms more often than heavier smokers from the control groups.

  20. Occupational health nursing in hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirdi, Henriett Éva; Hong, OiSaeng

    2014-10-01

    This article is the first about occupational health nursing in Hungary. The authors describe the Hungarian health care and occupational health care systems, including nursing education and professional organizations for occupational health nurses. The Fundamental Law of Hungary guarantees the right of every employee to healthy and safe working conditions, daily and weekly rest times and annual paid leave, and physical and mental health. Hungary promotes the exercise of these rights by managing industrial safety and health care, providing access to healthy food, supporting sports and regular physical exercise, and ensuring environmental protection. According to the law, the responsibility for regulation of the occupational health service lies with the Ministry of Human Resources. Safety regulations are under the aegis of the Ministry of National Economy.

  1. Occupational Therapy's Role with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Occupational Therapy’s Role with Autism Autism is a developmental disorder—typically diagnosed around age 3 years— that affects brain functions, specifically those areas that control social behaviors ...

  2. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  3. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  4. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  5. Spiritual Assessments in Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hemphill

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality is recognized as an important concept in the study and practice of medicine, including occupational therapy. This aligns with occupational therapy’s core value of treating people holistically—mind, body, and spirit. Currently, the Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Hospital Organizations ( JCAHO requires that a spiritual assessment be given to patients on admission. To conduct effective spiritual assessments, occupational therapists must distinguish between religion and spirituality. They also must be aware of their own spiritual beliefs and practices and how those might influence their clinical interactions. This article presents spiritual assessment tools that occupational therapists can use in clinical practice; they range from history taking, to questionnaires, to observation scales. Guidelines are presented for selecting among several spiritual assessments. A case study is presented in which a patient’s faith tradition is being challenged, which could affect the outcome of therapy. Finally, treatment and intervention planning and ethical considerations are discussed.

  6. Teaching Occupational Health to Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegman, David H.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive training program is described that prepares students to identify and prevent occupational disease, emphasizing public health. Content areas include epidemiology and biostatistics, toxicology, industrial hygiene, safety and ergonomics, policy issues, administration, and clinical aspects. (Author/LBH)

  7. Occupational Health and the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkamp, David L; McCann, Michael; Babin, Angela

    2017-09-01

    Work in the visual arts, performing arts, and writing can involve exposures to occupational hazards, including hazardous materials, equipment, and conditions, but few art workplaces have strong occupational health resources. Literature searches were conducted for articles that illustrate these concerns. Medical databases were searched for art-related health articles. Other sources were also reviewed, including, unindexed art-health publications, and popular press articles. Information was located that described some exposed populations, art-related hazards, and resulting disorders. Anecdotal reports were used when more complete data were not available. Health hazards in the arts are significant. Occupational health professionals are familiar with most of these concerns and understand their treatment and prevention. The occupational health approach can reduce the health hazards encountered by at-risk art workers. Additional research would benefit these efforts. Resources for further information are available.

  8. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-01-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases...

  9. Practical occupational medicine in "practice"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann Larsen, Anders; Schmidt, Jan; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, the practice of occupational medicine tends to be carried out by specialists in occupational medicine and less so by family physicians. The provision of health service to workers is therefore limited. This constraint may also apply in other developed countries and even more in countries...... with few occupational health resources. This Editorial argues that family physicians are indeed in a position where they can make a major positive difference for their working patients and for the enterprises where they work. Without specialist knowledge in occupational medicine, the family physician......’s empiric knowledge in combination with a narrative approach to the patient permits the contribution from family medicine not only with regard to diagnosis and treatment, but also relating to actions targeted to optimize the patient’s future accommodation at work as well as to protect other similarly...

  10. Sleep in High Stress Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin

    2014-01-01

    High stress occupations are associated with sleep restriction, circadian misalignment and demanding workload. This presentation will provide an overview of sleep duration, circadian misalignment and fatigue countermeasures and performance outcomes during spaceflight and commercial aviation.

  11. Coal gasification and occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R J; McKay, W J; Evans, J M

    1978-12-01

    Identification and prevention of health effects due to occupational exposures in coal gasification processes requires a basic knowledge of the technological process by which gasification proceeds. This paper presents an overview of the technology and a rational approach to health hazard identification based upon the concept of the unit operation specific micro environment. A final section is devoted to summarizing current research efforts being carried out under the aegis of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

  12. Occupational seafood allergy: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Jeebhay, M; Robins, T; Lehrer, S; Lopata, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent years have seen increased levels of production and consumption of seafood, leading to more frequent reporting of allergic reactions in occupational and domestic settings. This review focuses on occupational allergy in the fishing and seafood processing industry.
REVIEW—Workers involved in either manual or automated processing of crabs, prawns, mussels, fish, and fishmeal production are commonly exposed to various constituents of seafood. Aerosolisation of seafood and cooking...

  13. An Empirical Study to Determine The Relationship between Occupational Self-Efficacy and Organizational Silence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem KAHYA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of occupational self-efficacy means the efficacy perceptions of employees in their occupational fields, and the concept of organizational silence means the employees avoid to voice their ideas and suggestions about organizational issues. The main aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the concepts of occupational self-efficacy and organizational silence by revealing employees’ perceptions of occupational self-efficacy and organizational silence level. With this aim, the survey study was conducted on total 114 academicians who work in University of Bayburt. As a result of research, while the significant relationship was found between employees’ perceptions of occupational self-efficacy and organizational silence level, there was reached a result that this relationship incurred the negatively relationship between perceptions of occupational self-efficacy and negative silence.

  14. Occupational gender stereotypes: is the ratio of women to men a powerful determinant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Tomoko

    2013-04-01

    Gendered division of occupational choices still exists in contemporary Japanese society. Women are underrepresented in traditionally male-dominated fields, while few men occupy positions in traditionally female-dominated areas. The purpose of the present study was to examine occupational gender stereotypes and its relation to the female-to-male ratio of jobholders. Participants were 540 Japanese (262 women, 278 men) who participated in an Internet survey. The results showed that the female-to-male ratio of jobholders was a strong predictor of gender stereotyping. That is to say, contemporary Japanese recognized male-dominated occupations as typically masculine and female-dominated ones as typically feminine. Gender comparisons revealed that men rated female-dominated occupations as more feminine in nature than did women, while women rated male-dominated occupations as more masculine than did men. Future implications for career interventions focusing on occupational gender stereotypes were also discussed.

  15. Occupational Functionality: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Bryan; Heaton, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Occupational health nursing has evolved since the late 19th century and, with the inclusion of advanced practice nursing, has become essential to the health and safety of workers. A key component of the knowledge required of advanced practice occupational health nurses is an understanding of what it means for workers to be fit for duty The definition or concept of being fit for duty varies depending on the point-of-view of the health care provider. Health care providers across all professions must have a consistent understanding of what it means to be fit for duty Literature shows that professions and specialties that often collaborate have varying ideas about what it means to be fit for duty These differences highlight the need for a consistent concept that can be used across professions, is holistic, and incorporates other concepts critical to all points of view. To better understand fit for duty, a concept analysis, using the Walker and Avant framework, focused on the concept of occupational functionality (OF). Occupational functionality is best defined as the qualities of being suited to serve an occupational purpose efficiently and effectively within the physical, occupational, environmental, and psychological demands of a unique work setting. This concept analysis offers an initial step in understanding fit for duty and gives health care providers a concept that can be used across disciplines.

  16. Occupation and cancer in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushton, L.; Bagga, S.; Bevan, R.; Brown, T.P.; Cherrie, J.W.; Holmes, P.; Fortunato, L.; Slack, R.; Van Tongeren, M.; Young, C.; Hutchings, S.J. [University of London Imperial College of Science Technology & Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-27

    Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13, 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer).

  17. Occupational dermatoses: An Asian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riti Bhatia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational dermatoses contribute to a significant portion of work-related diseases, especially in Asia, where a major portion of the workforce is in the unorganized sector. This review article is focussed on the frequency and pattern of occupational skin diseases reported across Asian countries and type of allergens implicated in different occupations. The literature was searched systematically using key words 'occupational dermatoses,' 'occupational skin disease' and name of each Asian country. Ninty five full-text articles were considered relevant and evaluated. Some of the dermatoses seen in industrial workers in Asian countries are similar to those in Western countries, including dermatoses due to chromate in construction and electroplating workers, epoxy resin, and chromate in painters, wood dust in workers in the furniture industry, azo dyes in textile workers and formaldehyde and chromates in those working in the leather and dyeing industries, dermatoses in domestic workers, chefs and health-care workers. Dermatoses in workers engaged in agriculture, beedi (tiny cigars manufacture, agarbatti (incense sticks production, fish processing, carpet weaving, sanitation and those working in coffee plantations and coal mines appear to be unique to Asian countries. Recognition of clinical patterns and geographic variations in occupational skin diseases will provide an impetus to further strengthen future research in these areas, as well as improving their management.

  18. Females and Social Occupations: Forced or Free Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Gertrude

    1978-01-01

    This article suggests that many females select social occupations as a means of asylum from anxiety which is caused by competing in male-dominated fields. The attempt to reconcile societal expectations of woman as marriage partner with high achievement motivation denies her the full realization of her intellectual capabilities. (Author)

  19. The Impact of Action Learning on Analysis of Occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Technology and millennials have created a shift in the world and how it operates. This impact has been experienced in the field of occupational therapy education. As a result of this paradigm shift, an analysis of effective teaching methodologies was carried out to assess the most effective way to engage the millennials in an analysis of…

  20. Occupational therapy practice in emergency care: Occupational therapists' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, Lisa; Holmqvist, Kajsa

    2015-01-01

    Emergency care takes place in a complex work environment that is characterized by critically ill patients, short hospital stays, and a wide variety of different healthcare professionals. Studies of occupational therapists' (OTs) experiences of working within emergency care have shown that they often experience difficulties in explaining the essence of occupational therapy and have to justify their approaches. Much effort has been made in Sweden to help OTs dispel the notion that occupational therapy is difficult to explain, and the aim of this study was to describe how Swedish OTs perceive their work in emergency care. A qualitative descriptive approach was taken, and 14 interviews were conducted with OTs working in emergency care. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The overall theme that emerged was "Feeling established through deliberate occupation-based work". The underlying categories showed different strategies used by the OTs to provide occupational therapy in an emergency care context. Deliberate strategies were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of occupational therapy and its approaches to patients and other health care professionals, and this resulted in the OTs feeling both established and needed. Unlike the OTs in previous studies, the Swedish OTs experienced no difficulties in explaining occupational therapy and could make convincing arguments for their interventions. Parallel to their clinical work, the OTs worked with on-going development to find ways to improve their approaches. In summary, these Swedish OTs seem to have been provided with a professional language and the knowledge required to establish themselves in an emergency care setting.

  1. Occupational deprivation in an asylum centre:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of three asylum-seeking men from Iran and Afghanistan. It aimed to explore how and if they experienced occupations as occupations in a Danish asylum centre and how their life experience shaped their choice and value of current occupations. In-depth narrative interviews...... explored the participants’ occupational history and its influence on their occupations in the asylum centre. A thematic analysis showed that the participants had been subjected to occupational disruption and deprivation by politically oppressive systems even before their flight. Their occupations...... in Denmark were to a certain extent influenced by their earlier occupations and the current occupational deprivation they all experienced was due to limited possibilities in the centre. Although they tried their best to fill their days and create structure, there was a loss of valued occupations...

  2. Carbon dioxide generation rates for building occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persily, A; de Jonge, L

    2017-09-01

    Indoor carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentrations have been used for decades to characterize building ventilation and indoor air quality. Many of these applications require rates of CO2 generation from the building occupants, which are currently based on approaches and data that are several decades old. However, CO2 generation rates can be derived from well-established concepts within the fields of human metabolism and exercise physiology, which relate these rates to body size and composition, diet, and level of physical activity. This paper reviews how CO2 generation rates have been estimated in the past and discusses how they can be characterized more accurately. Based on this information, a new approach to estimating CO2 generation rates is presented, which is based on the described concepts from the fields of human metabolism and exercise physiology. Using this approach and more recent data on body mass and physical activity, values of CO2 generation rates from building occupants are presented along with the variability that may occur based on body mass and activity data. © 2017 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Occupation-centred, occupation-based, occupation-focused: same, same or different? Previously published in Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy 2013; 20: 162-173.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Anne G

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the occupational therapy profession, engagement in occupation has been valued as the primary therapeutic agent as well as the goal of intervention. While there are few today who would not support this idea, occupational therapists continue to struggle with implementing their beliefs through "what we do" and "how we do it". Contributing to this problem is their failure to use terminology in a manner that clearly defines what and how occupational therapists do what they do in occupational therapy research, education, and practice. The author will, therefore, first discuss some key occupational therapy terms and propose that they represent an occupation-related taxonomy that can be used to more clearly define and describe for occupational therapists and others what they do and how they do what they do as occupational therapists. Then, with a goal of fostering critical self-reflection among occupational scientists and occupational therapy researchers, educators, and practitioners, the author will go through the stages of the occupational therapy process outlined in the Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM) and demonstrate how a more precise use of this occupation-related taxonomy can facilitate maximizing the power of occupation in practice.

  4. Occupational diseases in Poland, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Wilczyńska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the paper was to present basic statistical data on occupational diseases diagnosed in 2012. Material and Methods: The work was based on the data from "Occupational Disease Reporting Forms" received by the Central Register of Occupational Diseases in 2012. The data comprised information on nosologic units, gender and age of patients, duration of occupational exposure, sections of the national economy and voivodeships. The incidence was specified in terms of the number of cases in relation to paid employees or to employed people. Results: The number of occupational diseases accounted for 2402 cases. The incidence rate was 23 cases per 100 000 paid employees. In spite of the general decline in the number of cases, the incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases increased by 8.6%. The highest incidence was noted for infectious and parasitic diseases (6.8/100 000, pneumoconioses (5.5/100 000, hearing loss (2.1/100 000, diseases of: the peripheral nervous system (2/100 000, voice disorders (1.9/100 000 and the musculo-skeletal system pathologies (1.1/100 000. The pathologies specified above accounted in total for 84% of all occupational diseases. The industrial sectors of the national economy characterized by the highest incidence included mining and quarrying (288.3/100 000 and manufacturing (27.8/100 000. The highest incidence was recorded in the Silesian (46.2/100 000 and the lowest in the Opolskie (4.2/100 000 voivodeships. Conclusions: The downward trend in the incidence of occupational diseases continues. Different incidence of voice disorders among teachers in individual provinces suggests that uniform preventive, diagnostic and certification standards are missing. Med Pr 2013;64(3:317–326

  5. Historical perspectives of occupational cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovski, P

    1980-01-01

    Three topics are discussed in this review, which is not intended to give even a short description of the history of occupational cancer. First, the present state and possible future trends of occupational cancer are examined. Such factors as rapid industrialization, increasing amounts of chemical compounds in the environment, and discoveries of new occupational carcinogens such as asbestos and vinyl chloride indicate that occupational cancer is likely to become more frequent in the future. The controversial issue of the proportion of cancers related to occupation is briefly considered. The upward trend of estimates of various authors during a quarter of a century indicates a growing proportion of occupational cancers in the overall incidence of cancer. Second, some lessons from the past are considered. Careful observations and alertness of physicians and proper documentation of occupational cancer cases are pointed out. Interdisciplinary teamwork and international cooperation have been useful in the past and continue to be desirable. Some details of the studies of skin cancer caused by mineral oil are informative. Individual susceptibility, whether genetically determined or due to pathological conditions, needs further study. As an example of the predictive value of animal experiments, skin cancer related to the oil shale industry in Estonia is discussed. The third topic--input from experimental cancer research--deals mainly with the problem of modifying factors. Experimental data on such factors could facilitate investigations of life-style effects, using the proposed classification of modifying factors. The problem of nasal cancer in woodworkers may be easier to solve by taking into account some experimental data on tannin-containing material. Some possibilities for future action and suggestions for further research are outlined.

  6. Extending Beyond Qualitative Interviewing to Illuminate the Tacit Nature of Everyday Occupation: Occupational Mapping and Participatory Occupation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huot, Suzanne; Rudman, Debbie Laliberte

    2015-07-01

    The study of human occupation requires a variety of methods to fully elucidate its complex, multifaceted nature. Although qualitative approaches have commonly been used within occupational therapy and occupational science, we contend that such qualitative research must extend beyond the sole use of interviews. Drawing on qualitative methodological literature, we discuss the limits of interview methods and outline other methods, particularly visual methods, as productive means to enhance qualitative research. We then provide an overview of our critical ethnographic study that used narrative, visual, and observational methods to explore the occupational transitions experienced by immigrants to Canada. We describe our use of occupational mapping and participatory occupation methods and the contributions of these combined methods. We conclude that adopting a variety of methods can enable a deeper understanding of the tacit nature of everyday occupation, and is key to advancing knowledge regarding occupation and to informing occupational therapy practice.

  7. Utilizing the Exergy Concept to Address Environmental Challenges of Electric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen A. Bulucea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, the concepts of energy, entropy, exergy and embodied energy are founded in the fields of thermodynamics and physics. Yet, over decades these concepts have been applied in numerous fields of science and engineering, playing a key role in the analysis of processes, systems and devices in which energy transfers and energy transformations occur. The research reported here aims to demonstrate, in terms of sustainability, the usefulness of the embodied energy and exergy concepts for analyzing electric devices which convert energy, particularly the electromagnet. This study relies on a dualist view, incorporating technical and environmental dimensions. The information provided by energy assessments is shown to be less useful than that provided by exergy and prone to be misleading. The electromagnet force and torque (representing the driving force of output exergy, accepted as both environmental and technical quantities, are expressed as a function of the electric current and the magnetic field, supporting the view of the necessity of discerning interrelations between science and the environment. This research suggests that a useful step in assessing the viability of electric devices in concert with ecological systems might be to view the magnetic flux density B and the electric current intensity I as environmental parameters. In line with this idea the study encompasses an overview of potential human health risks and effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMFs caused by the operation of electric systems. It is concluded that exergy has a significant role to play in evaluating and increasing the efficiencies of electrical technologies and systems. This article also aims to demonstrate the need for joint efforts by researchers in electric and environmental engineering, and in medicine and health fields, for enhancing knowledge of the impacts of environmental ELF EMFs on humans and other life forms.

  8. [The occupational physician in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-10-01

    The French Labor law defines the role and its allocation criteria of the occupational physician (OP) the same as in Japan. In France, occupational medicine is one of the medical specialties. The OP resident must follow the 4 years clinical training before certification. After having finished their residency, they are entitled to work for the occupational health service office of a company or company association (in the case of small and medium sized companies). The most important characteristics of the French system is that they cover all workers regardless of company size. The main role of the OP is prevention of work related diseases and accidents. They are not allowed to do clinical services except for emergency cases. Their main activities are health examinations, health education, patrol and advice for better working condition. Formerly, it was rather difficult to attract the medical students for OP resident course because of its prevention oriented characteristics. A growing concern about the importance of health management at the work site, however, has changed the situation. Now, the number of candidates for OP resident course is increasing. Their task has expanded to cover mental health and other life style related diseases. The 2011 modification of law redefines the role of the OP as a director of an occupational health service office who has a total responsibility of multidisciplinary services. The French and Japanese occupational health systems have many of similarities. A comparative study by researchers of UOEH is expected to yield useful information.

  9. Occupational burnout among nursing personel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Wieder-Huszla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Occupational stress and the related burnout syndrome is undoubtedly one of the most important challenges for public health. Objectives . The objective of the study was identifying occupational burnout among nurses. Material and methods . The questionnaire was responded by 408 professionally active male and female nurses, working in the territory of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. In the evaluation of occupational burnout the standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was applied. Results . Mean values of the level of occupational burnout for the study group amounted to 39.3 ± 30.9 with regard to emotional exhaustion, 30.64 ± 27.89 with respect to the depersonalization subscale and 66.26 ± 27.94 – the lowered level of job satisfaction. Conclusions . 1. The studied nursing personnel showed symptoms of occupational burnout in all dimensions of the syndrome, i.e. high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization as well as low job satisfaction. 2. Individuals with higher education scored lower on the emotional exhaustion scale. 3. Emotional exhaustion is influenced by workplace and position.

  10. [Occupational stress and myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Silla M

    2015-01-01

    Besides the best-known role of depressed mood, occupational stress deserves to be taken as a coronary risk factor. There are two basic models to define occupational stress: Karasek's model (high job psychological demands associated with low decision latitude, or even low social support at work) and Siegrist's model (imbalance between efforts and rewards received). The combination of the two models better reflects the coronary risk than each model alone. Occupational stress appears both as a risk factor and a prognostic factor after the occurrence of myocardial infarction. The relevance of the models is best in men or in younger age subjects. In women, role conflicts (occupational/domestic), the existence of excessive "intrinsic" efforts (job over investment) and association with marital stress provide more specific information. Burnout, particularly among health professionals, and bullying at work are also linked to cardiovascular risk. Occupational stress is a collective indicator of health at work, valuable to the employer. At an individual level, it can lead to therapeutic preventive approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Occupational burnout among nursing personel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Wieder-Huszla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Occupational stress and the related burnout syndrome is undoubtedly one of the most important challenges for public health. Objectives . The objective of the study was identifying occupational burnout among nurses. Material and methods . The questionnaire was responded by 408 professionally active male and female nurses, working in the territory of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. In the evaluation of occupational burnout the standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was applied. Results . Mean values of the level of occupational burnout for the study group amounted to 39.3 ± 30.9 with regard to emotional exhaustion, 30.64 ± 27.89 with respect to the depersonalization subscale and 66.26 ± 27.94 – the lowered level of job satisfaction. Conclusions . 1. The studied nursing personnel showed symptoms of occupational burnout in all dimensions of the syndrome, i.e. high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization as well as low job satisfaction. 2. Individuals with higher education scored lower on the emotional exhaustion scale. 3. Emotional exhaustion is influenced by workplace and position.

  12. Occupational injury patterns of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Kaan; Yilmaz, Fevzi; Kavalci, Cemil; Ozlem, Miray; Demir, Ali; Durdu, Tamer; Sonmez, Bedriye Müge; Yilmaz, Muhittin Serkan; Karakilic, Muhammed Evvah; Arslan, Engin Deniz; Yel, Cihat

    2013-12-28

    Each year, a significant number of people die or become handicapped due to preventable occupational accidents or occupational diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate socio-demographic features, mechanism, causes, injury area, and sectoral features of occupational accidents in patients presented to our department. The study was carried out retrospectively after local ethics committee approval. Age and sex of the patients, mechanism of injury, type and exact location of injuries were all evaluated. The groups were compared using Chi-Square test, Student's T test and Kruskall-Wallis test. p value Sectoral distribution of accidents was statistically significant and mostly occurred in industrial and construction workers (p level and sector of the worker (p Distribution of occupational accidents according to injury type was statistically significant (p sectors with respect to cost. Seventy-one patients (10.9%) recovered with permanent sequel and two (0.3%) died in hospital. Occupational accidents are most commonly seen in young males, especially in primary school graduated workers, and during daytime period.

  13. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  14. Prevention of occupational Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan T Al-Otaibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews scientific research on occupational back pain and focuses on prevention of this problem. It discusses some of the challenges of translating the evidence of this multi-factorial condition into policy. Medical science is currently unable to clearly distinguish between back pain caused by work and that possibly due to other causes but which affects the individual′s capacity to work. Back pain affects the vast majority of people at some point in their lives and is very costly to both the health care system and the industry. Evidence suggests that heavy lifting, driving, and vibration of the whole body are linked to occupational back pain. Once the risk factors for occupational back pain are identified, an otherwise chronic and disabling condition can be prevented in the majority of patients. As explained in this article, three levels of prevention for occupational back pain have been reported as effective. Failure to implement preventive measures may lead to a high incidence of occupational back pain.

  15. Occupational asthma caused by palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daenen, M.; Rochette, F.; Demedts, M.; Nemery, B. [K.U. Leuven, Pneumology (Belgium); Rogiers, P. [A.Z. St-Lucas, Brugge (Belgium); Walle, C. Van de [Siemens, Oostkamp (Belgium)

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure to complex platinum salts is a well-known cause of occupational asthma. Although there is evidence that platinum refinery workers may also be sensitized to other precious metals, such as palladium or rhodium, no instances of occupational asthma due to an isolated sensitization to palladium have been reported. A case is reported of occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma in a previously healthy worker exposed to the fumes of an electroplating bath containing palladium. There was no exposure to platinum. Sensitization to palladium was documented by skin-prick tests. The skin-prick test was positive with Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}Cl{sub 2}, but not with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}PdCl{sub 4}. Corresponding salts of platinum were all negative. A bronchial provocation test with Pd(NH{sub 34})Cl{sub 2} (0.0001 % for a total of 315 s, followed by 0.001 % for a total of 210 s) led to an early decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (-35%). A similar exposure (0.001 % for a total of 16 min) in an unrelated asthmatic gave no reaction. This case shows that an isolated sensitization to palladium can occur and that respiratory exposure to palladium is a novel cause of metal-induced occupational asthma. (au) 24 refs.

  16. Do Gender Differences in Preferences for Competition Matter for Occupational Expectations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinjans, Kristin J.

    Occupational segregation by gender is prevalent and can explain some of the gender wage gap. I empirically investigate a possible explanation for this segregation: the gender difference in preferences for competition, which in recent experimental studies has been found to affect economic outcomes....... I find that women's greater distaste for competition decreases educational achievement. It can also explain part of the gender segregation in occupational fields. Specifically, accounting for distaste for competition reduces gender segregation in the fields of Law, Business & Management, Health...

  17. Occupations of SSI recipients who work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This article uses the 2007 American Community Survey to estimate the occupational distribution of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disability recipients aged 18-61 who work, and it compares their occupational distribution with that of working nonrecipients with and without disabilities. Based on models of occupational choice for working SSI recipients and nonrecipients, predicted occupational distributions are also estimated to understand what occupations are available to SSI recipients. Unlike the nonrecipient populations that are largely composed of sales- and office-based occupations (25 percent), the most common occupations of SSI recipients who work are in services (34 percent) and production, transportation, and material moving (30 percent), although sales- and office-based occupations are also common for SSI recipients (22 percent). The occupational distribution of working SSI recipients is also more concentrated than that of nonrecipient populations. Dissimilarity indices are used to compare the predicted and actual occupational distributions of the SSI recipient population and nonrecipient populations. More than one-half of the difference between the occupations of working SSI recipients and nonrecipients can be explained by demographic characteristics, human capital, and disability type. Additionally, nonemployed SSI recipients have similar predicted occupational distributions as currently employed SSI recipients. Given the estimated occupational distributions and the average earnings of individuals in the most common occupations of SSI recipients, the results suggest that more targeted vocational training may provide expanded opportunities for employment.

  18. [Are we underestimating occupational risks for neurodegenerative diseases?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddone, Enrico; Imbriani, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    In recent years a great number of studies suggests that occupational exposures could play a role in the onset of some neurodegenerative diseases. The literature data are more numerous for Parkinson's disease, Multiple Sclerosis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, although to date no specific occupational exposure was proved to be a definite causal factor. This lack of information is attributable both to the complex patogenesis of these diseases and to a delay regarding this field of research with respect to others pathologies. Nevertheless, available evidence oblige researchers to deepen the studies of occupational exposures as risk factors of neurodegenerative diseases, in order to provide a solid basis possible preventive measures for a class of pathologies with high social impact, both in terms of therapies and in terms of disability.

  19. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious...

  20. [Occupational contact dermatitis in hairdressers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krycisz, Beata; Chomiczewska, Dorota

    2009-01-01

    Numerous data from the medical literature show that working as a hairdresser is associated with the highest risk of occupational contact dermatitis. In Europe, hairdressers rank first of all occupation groups with the highest prevalence of occupational dermatitis. It is estimated that 10-20% and even 50% of hairdressers are affected with skin disorders. Skin problems occur soon after commencing hairdressing, in the first 2 years of work, sometimes during vocational training. The most common factors contributing to skin damage include water, shampoos, detergents, conditioners, hair dyes, bleaches, permanent wave solutions and components of gloves. Water and wet work are prime skin irritants - causal factors of irritant contact dermatitis while p-phenylenediamine, glyceryl monothioglycolate, ammonium persulfate and also fragrances, preservatives, disinfectants and metals are the most important allergens, which induce allergic contact dermatitis.

  1. Denominator effects on traumatic occupational fatality incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, E A; Kisner, S M

    1998-01-01

    Each year over 6,000 workers are killed while earning a living in the United States. From these deaths, how can researchers determine if employees in the manufacturing industry are at greater risk of a traumatic occupational fatality than those employed in agriculture or any other industry? Similarly, does the risk of traumatic occupational fatality differ among states? To answer such questions, two measurements are normally used: frequency of occurrence and incidence rate. These measures are used to identify worker groups at greatest risk of fatal injury, target research and prevention activities, and evaluate the impact of these activities. Developing the best methods to accurately identify worker groups at greatest risk of losing their life while at work is always important, but even more so in times of limited government resources. The accuracy of a traumatic occupational fatality incidence rate depends on how closely the denominator and numerator represent the same population. Selecting data from different employment programs for the denominator when calculating incidence rates using the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system for the numerator has shown dramatically different results. This analysis points out that researchers must carefully: choose the data they employ; evaluate the meaning of calculated incidence rates; and document the data sources to ensure proper interpretation by others. Additional research and evaluation are necessary to improve data sources, analytical methods and tools to ensure effective resource allocations for the occupational safety and health field.

  2. [Detection of occupational hazards in a large shipbuilding factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Weijia; Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Hai; Zhou, Liping; Huang, Minzhi; Liu, Yimin

    2014-03-01

    To provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of occupational diseases by the analysis of existing major occupational hazards and health conditions of workers in a large shipbuilding factory. Field investigation of occupational conditions was conducted to examine the existence of occupational hazards from 2009 to 2012 in a large shipbuilding factory, and then the results of physical examination among its workers were analyzed. Other than the metal dust (total dust), the levels of other dusts and manganese dioxide were beyond the national standard to various degrees, and through a sampling point detection, it was found that the levels of manganese dioxide exceeded the standard by 42.8%. The maximum time-weighted average concentration in individuals was 27.927 mg/m(3), much higher than the national standard limit. For harmful gas detection in individuals, xylene was 38.4%above the standard level (the highest concentration reached 1447.7 mg/m(3)); moreover, both toluene and ethylbenzene exceeded the national standard at different levels. Among the noise-exposed workers, 71%worked in the environment where the daily noise was above the limit of the national standard (85 dB). Physical examinations in 2010 and 2012 showed that the abnormal rate of audiometry in workers was higher than 15%. Dust (total dust), manganese dioxide, benzene, and noise are the main occupational hazards among the workers in the large shipbuilding factory, and strict protection and control for these hazards should be implemented for the workers in the factory.

  3. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-07-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases. We retrospectively studied all the cases of carbamate poisoning due to occupational exposure recorded in the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance system during 2005 to 2010. Demographic data, clinical manifestations and severity were analyzed statistically. During the study period, 3,183 cases were identified, of which 170 (5.3%) were deemed to be due to occupational exposure. Ninety-six cases (56.5%) and 35 cases (20.6%) were poisoned by carbofuran and methomyl, respectively. Carbofuran is sold as a 3% grain and applied by sowing; methomyl is sold as a liquid and is applied by spraying. The majority of poisoned patients did not wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while applying the carbamates. The clinical manifestations of occupational carbofuran poisoning recorded were nausea and vomiting (82.3%), headaches (56.3%) and miosis (19.8%). The clinical manifestations of methomyl poisoning were nausea and vomiting (74.3%), headaches (57.1%) and palpitations (11.4%). Most patients in both groups had mild symptoms. Only one case in each group required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation support. There were no deaths and the lengths of hospitalization ranged from 2 hours to 2 days. Occupational carbamate poisoning cases in our series were mostly mild and the patients recovered quickly. There were only rare cases of serious symptoms. Lack of knowledge and inadequate PPE were the major factors contributing to occupational poisoning. Educating agricultural workers about correct precautions and pesticide use could minimize this type of poisoning.

  4. Occupational asthma in maritime environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, David; Loddé, Brice; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2016-01-01

    In 2006 we published our first review based on the available literature on occupational asthma in maritime environments in the “International Maritime Health” journal. Since then, we have obtained a great deal of new knowledge on asthma in seafood workers and fishermen and on the impact...... of exposures from sulphites preservatives, container fumigants etc. in maritime workers. This review aims to provide an update of the current knowledge base about occupational asthma in a maritime context and to provide recommendations regarding medical surveillance of workers at risk....

  5. Occupational hazards of interventional cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilowitz, Nathaniel R.; Balter, Stephen; Weisz, Giora, E-mail: gw2128@columbia.edu

    2013-07-15

    Complex catheter-based interventions and rising case volumes confer occupational risks to interventional cardiologists. Despite advances in technology, modern interventional procedures are performed in a manner remarkably similar to the techniques pioneered decades ago. Percutaneous interventions are associated with operator orthopedic injuries, exposures to blood borne pathogens, and the effects of chronic radiation exposure from fluoroscopy. This review highlights the occupational hazards of interventional procedures and provides a glimpse at the technologies and techniques that may reduce risks to operators in the catheterization laboratory.

  6. Job-Occupation Misfit as an Occupational Stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from theory on met expectations, person-environment fit, and social information processing, misfit between the pressure and autonomy experienced by workers and that which would be expected given their occupational roles was examined as a predictor of job satisfaction, perceived support, and depression. Results from a nationally (U.S.)…

  7. Regional Occupational Program (ROP) Office Occupations Entry Standards Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgenbauch, Susan; Cooney, Joe

    The purpose of this skills assessment instrument is to determine if a student has the basic mathematics, reading, writing, and listening skills needed in training for office occupations. The instrument contains 29 items which test mathematical computation skills; reading comprehension; understanding of percentages and fractions; ability to read…

  8. Towards inclusive occupational therapy: Introducing the CORE approach for inclusive and occupation-focused practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Robert B

    2017-06-29

    Occupation is a human right and a social determinant of health. It is also taken for granted. Having access to, and participating in, occupation, is intricately linked to positive health and wellbeing. Despite theory and evidence to support the link between occupation, health and wellbeing, occupational therapists can struggle with applying an occupation focus in practice and knowing how to use occupational frameworks to enable occupation. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Capabilities, Opportunities, Resources and Environments (CORE) approach for inclusive and occupation-focused practice. It provides occupational therapists with a means of operationalising occupational enablement and facilitating social inclusion. The CORE approach is introduced by linking its main ideas to Economist and Nobel Prize Laureate Amartya Sen's capabilities approach, as well as findings from the author's doctoral research into entrenched disadvantage and social inclusion. Practical questions guided by the CORE approach's acronym are given to explore how the approach can be utilised alongside other occupational models and frameworks to encourage strategies for effective enablement through occupation for social inclusion. As experts in enabling occupation, occupational therapists can use the CORE approach to design occupation-focused interventions and promote inclusive occupational therapy. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  9. Occupational therapy internship in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreisi Carbone Anversa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The organization of Primary Health Care through the family health strategy calls for comprehensive and continuous attention of the residents on their area of expertise. Objective: To reflect on Occupational Therapy practice next to a Family Health Strategy (FHS, aiming to raise and expand the profession inclusion in this area and discuss the challenges and field potentials. Method: This is a report of professional and academic experiences that describes training and services activities. The practical activities were developed in partnership with FHS in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The group, composed by 10 interns, conducted household interventions, all accompanied by supervisors. On 27 cases assisted, each individual received the Occupational Therapy service once a week, during one hour. Results: It was exciting to know, in fact, the subjects reality, their social context, daily life, organizational mode - allowing a series of interventions which would not be appropriate in a clinical environment. In addition, the home care provided a closer relationship among health professionals with patients and their families. Conclusion: Through mistakes, successes, obstacles and learning, a process of maturation and experiences with unique subjects, various diseases, illness and care, resulted in a unique moment that made possible to suggest how important it is, for both trainees and society, to make real this link between academia and health facilities, seeking services qualification.

  10. Is there really a pot of gold at the end of the rainbow? Has the Occupational Specific Dispensation, as a mechanism to attract and retain health workers in South Africa, leveled the playing field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Gavin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is experiencing a critical shortage of human resources for health (HRH at a time when the population and the burden of ill-health, primarily due to HIV, AIDS and TB, are on the increase. This shortage is particularly severe within the nursing profession, which has witnessed significant emigration due to poor domestic working conditions and remuneration. Salaries and other benefits are an obvious pull factor towards foreign countries, given the often extreme international wage differentials. The introduction of the Occupation Specific Dispensation (OSD in 2007 sought to improve the public services’ ability to attract and retain employees thereby reducing incentives to emigrate. Methods Using a representative basket of commonly bought goods (including food, entertainment, fuel and utilities, a purchasing power parity (PPP ratio is an exchange rate between two currencies that equalises the international price of buying that basket. Our study makes comparisons, using such a PPP index, and allows the identification of real differences in salaries for our selected countries (South Africa, United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and Saudi Arabia for the same HRH professions. If PPP adjusted earnings are indeed different then this indicates an economic incentive to emigrate. Results Salaries of most South African HRH, particularly registered nurses, are dwarfed by their international counterparts (notably United States, Canada and Saudi Arabia, although the OSD has gone some way to reduce that disparity. All selected foreign countries generally offer higher salaries on a PPP adjusted basis. The United Kingdom ($43202 and Australia ($38622, in the category of Medical Officer, are the only two examples where the PPP adjustment brings the salary below what is being offered in South Africa ($50013 post OSD. The PPP adjusted salary differences between registered nurses is very slight for South Africa ($18884 post

  11. Is there really a pot of gold at the end of the rainbow? Has the Occupational Specific Dispensation, as a mechanism to attract and retain health workers in South Africa, leveled the playing field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Gavin; Rhodes, Bruce

    2012-08-06

    South Africa is experiencing a critical shortage of human resources for health (HRH) at a time when the population and the burden of ill-health, primarily due to HIV, AIDS and TB, are on the increase. This shortage is particularly severe within the nursing profession, which has witnessed significant emigration due to poor domestic working conditions and remuneration. Salaries and other benefits are an obvious pull factor towards foreign countries, given the often extreme international wage differentials. The introduction of the Occupation Specific Dispensation (OSD) in 2007 sought to improve the public services' ability to attract and retain employees thereby reducing incentives to emigrate. Using a representative basket of commonly bought goods (including food, entertainment, fuel and utilities), a purchasing power parity (PPP) ratio is an exchange rate between two currencies that equalises the international price of buying that basket. Our study makes comparisons, using such a PPP index, and allows the identification of real differences in salaries for our selected countries (South Africa, United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and Saudi Arabia) for the same HRH professions. If PPP adjusted earnings are indeed different then this indicates an economic incentive to emigrate. Salaries of most South African HRH, particularly registered nurses, are dwarfed by their international counterparts (notably United States, Canada and Saudi Arabia), although the OSD has gone some way to reduce that disparity. All selected foreign countries generally offer higher salaries on a PPP adjusted basis. The United Kingdom ($43202) and Australia ($38622), in the category of Medical Officer, are the only two examples where the PPP adjustment brings the salary below what is being offered in South Africa ($50013 post OSD). The PPP adjusted salary differences between registered nurses is very slight for South Africa ($18884 post OSD), Australia ($21784) and the United Kingdom

  12. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Information for Families and Caretakers from The Progeria Research Foundation Written ... accelerated aging in children. Children with Progeria need Physical Therapy (PT) and Occupational Therapy (OT) as often as ...

  13. The U-Shapes of Occupational Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Fane Naja; Kircher, Philipp; Manovskii, Iourii

    2015-01-01

    Using administrative panel data on the entire Danish population we document a new set of facts characterizing occupational mobility. For most occupations, mobility is U-shaped and directional: not only low but also high wage earners within an occupation have a particularly large probability...... of leaving their occupation, and the low (high) earners tend to switch to new occupations with lower (higher) average wages. Exceptions to this pattern of two-sided selection are occupations with steeply rising (declining) productivity, where mainly the lower (higher) paid workers within this occupation tend...... to leave. The facts conflict with several existing theories that are used to account for endogeneity in occupational choice, but it is shown analytically that the patterns are explained consistently within a theory of vertical sorting under absolute advantage that includes learning about workers' abilities....

  14. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and Events NIOSH Contact Information Related Federal Agencies Occupational Safety and Health Administration Mine Safety and Health Administration ...

  15. Canadian Thoracic Society Guidelines for Occupational Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Tarlo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide broad guidelines and principles to help primary care physicians, occupational physicians, allergists and respirologists with the recognition, diagnosis and management of patients with occupational asthma (OA.

  16. Occupational justice-bridging theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Ingeborg; Townsend, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The evolving theory of occupational justice links the concept to social justice and to concerns for a justice of difference: a justice that recognizes occupational rights to inclusive participation in everyday occupations for all persons in society, regardless of age, ability, gender, social class, or other differences. The purpose of this descriptive paper is to inspire and empower health professionals to build a theoretical bridge to practice with an occupational justice lens. Using illustrations from a study of leisure and the use of everyday technology in the lives of very old people in Northern Sweden, the authors argue that an occupational justice lens may inspire and empower health professionals to engage in critical dialogue on occupational justice; use global thinking about occupation, health, justice, and the environment; and combine population and individualized approaches. The authors propose that taking these initiatives to bridge theory and practice will energize health professionals to enable inclusive participation in everyday occupations in diverse contexts.

  17. The Danish Press during the German Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng-Jensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45......Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45...

  18. Post Occupancy Evaluation in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Chris; Thomson, Keith

    2004-01-01

    The Scottish Executive, the devolved government for Scotland, is engaging with stakeholders to achieve excellence in the school estate through Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE). Design of the school environment has a direct impact on teaching and learning, activities which can be supported or frustrated by many building elements. Through a…

  19. Employee occupational stress in banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidis, Maria; Georgiou, Yiota

    2005-01-01

    Occupational stress literature emphasizes the importance of assessment and management of work related stress. The recognition of the harmful physical and psychological effects of stress on both individuals and organizations is widely studied in many parts of the world. However, in other regions such research is only at the introductory stages. The present study examines occupational stress of employees in the banking sector. A sample of 60 bank employees at different organizational levels and educational backgrounds was used. Data collection utilized the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). Results of data analysis provided evidence that employees' educational levels affect the degree of stress they experience in various ways. Bank employees cannot afford the time to relax and "wind down" when they are faced with work variety, discrimination, favoritism, delegation and conflicting tasks. The study also shows the degree to which some employees tend to bring work-related problems home (and take family problems to work) depends on their educational background, the strength of the employees' family support, and the amount of time available for them to relax. Finally, the drinking habits (alcohol) of the employees were found to play a significant role in determining the levels of occupational stress.

  20. Occupational therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Schaardenburg, D.J. van; Kuyk, M.A.H. van; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2004-01-01

    Background: For persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) the physical, personal, familial, social and vocational consequences are extensive. Occupational therapy (OT), with the aim to facilitate task performance and to decrease the consequences of rheumatoid arthritis for daily life activities, is con

  1. Occupational therapy for multiple sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Cardol, M.; Nes, J.C.M. van de; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2003-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are referred to occupational therapy with complaints about fatigue, limb weakness, alteration of upper extremity fine motor coordination, loss of sensation and spasticity that causes limitations in performance of activities of daily living and social part

  2. [Occupational noise exposure and hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, V S; Barberino, J L

    1995-12-01

    The hypothesis that occupational noise exposure is positively associated with hypertension was examined in a cross-sectional study carried out on a group of patients who were enrolled at the Occupational Health Unit of the Unified Health System, situated in Salvador city, the capital of Bahia state, Brazil. Data were obtained from 276 medical records, corresponding to all patients newly registered during the first six months of 1992. Data on noise exposure come from both reported occupational exposure history and clinical diagnosis of occupational noise-induced hearing loss. Hypertension diagnosis complies with World Health Organization criteria, as well as with the history of antihypertensive treatment. Stratified analysis and unconditional logistic regression modeling show results that do not support the study hypothesis: there are no differences between systolic or diastolic blood pressure or between proportion of hypertension for exposed and non exposed groups. However, statiscally significant (alpha = 0.05) increment of the effect measured was reported among workers who reported low educational level (below elementary). This could be another evidence of socially related inequalities underlying exposure distribution among workers at the workplace, which should be addressed, at greater depth, in future studies.

  3. Instructional Analysis for Health Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This instructional analysis centers on identifying the skills, related knowledge, teacher activities, and student activities that are central to teaching various topics included in the core curriculum for health occupations courses. Addressed in the volume are the following instructional areas: first aid; medical terminology; medical asepsis;…

  4. Radiologic Technology Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide delineates the tasks and performance standards for radiologic technology occupations. It includes job seeking skills, work attitudes, energy conservation practices, and safety. The guide is centered around the three domains of learning: psychomotor, cognitive, and affective. For each duty, the following are provided: task, standard of…

  5. Reforming Dutch Occupational Pension Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; Gradus, R.H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Dutch occupational defined-benefit plans suffer from a number of serious weaknesses, including ambiguous ownership of the surplus, back-loading of benefits, and lack of tailor-made risk management. To address these weaknesses, we propose collective individual defined-contribution plans that are actu

  6. The Occupational Therapist as Counselor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, R. Edward

    1973-01-01

    This paper describes humanistic-existentialism as a philosophy which generates a theory of counseling and suggests how this theory can apply to the practice of an occupational therapist in the clinical setting of a community health center. (Editors/JA)

  7. Reforming Dutch Occupational Pension Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; Gradus, R.H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Dutch occupational defined-benefit plans suffer from a number of serious weaknesses, including ambiguous ownership of the surplus, back-loading of benefits, and lack of tailor-made risk management. To address these weaknesses, we propose collective individual defined-contribution plans that are actu

  8. Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hung Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization.

  9. The Occupational Therapist as Counselor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, R. Edward

    1973-01-01

    This paper describes humanistic-existentialism as a philosophy which generates a theory of counseling and suggests how this theory can apply to the practice of an occupational therapist in the clinical setting of a community health center. (Editors/JA)

  10. The U-Shapes of Occupational Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Fane; Kircher, Philipp; Manovskii, Iourii

    Using administrative panel data on the entire Danish population we document a new set of facts characterizing occupational mobility. For most occupations, mobility is U-shaped and directional: both low and high wage earners within an occupation have a particularly large probability of leaving thi...... theories that are used to account for endogeneity in occupational choice, but it is shown analytically that the patterns are explained consistently within a theory of sorting under absolute advantage that includes learning about workers’ abilities....

  11. Occupational rhinitis due to steel welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Roberto; Suarthana, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to welding fumes is a recognized respiratory hazard. Occupational asthma but not occupational rhinitis has been documented in workers exposed to steel welding fumes. We report a 26-year-old male with work-related rhinitis symptoms as well as lower airways symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma and metal fume fever associated with exposure to steel welding fumes. The diagnosis of occupational rhinitis was confirmed by specific inhalation challenge.

  12. Sexuality and occupational therapy: Exploring the link

    OpenAIRE

    Simó i Algado, Salvador; Sakellariou, Dikaios

    2006-01-01

    Holism is perceived to be one of the major tenets of occupational therapy. This article discusses the relevance of sexuality to holistic health care and contributes to the continuing discussion regarding the legitimacy of sexuality as an area of concern for occupational therapists. Sexuality is an important part of the human experience and is linked closely with spirituality. However, it is often neglected by occupational therapists. The article explores the occupational nat...

  13. Occupational skin cancer may be underreported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carøe, Tanja Korfitsen; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer may, in some cases, be caused by occupational exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and exposures leading to occupationally induced skin cancers in Denmark during a ten-year period.......Skin cancer may, in some cases, be caused by occupational exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and exposures leading to occupationally induced skin cancers in Denmark during a ten-year period....

  14. Occupational skin cancer may be underreported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carøe, Tanja Korfitsen; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer may, in some cases, be caused by occupational exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and exposures leading to occupationally induced skin cancers in Denmark during a ten-year period.......Skin cancer may, in some cases, be caused by occupational exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and exposures leading to occupationally induced skin cancers in Denmark during a ten-year period....

  15. [Contact allergies in medical occupations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustemeyer, T; Pilz, B; Frosch, P J

    1994-12-01

    Based on reports in the literature, data from the information network of German dermatology centres (Informationsverbund Dermatologischer Kliniken) and the authors own findings, a review is presented on prevalence, clinical picture and causative agents of contact allergic dermatoses in health care professions. In 1991 the proportion of suspected occupational diseases in the health care professions (including hairdressers) represented by cases of dermatitis, as reported to the responsible insurance institution, reached 72% of the total for the year (7287 out of 10127). Every 20th to 40th case was recognized as an occupational dermatosis according to German law. Accurate figures on incidence are scarce; for dentists an incidence of 0.11% has been calculated. The risk of developing occupational hand eczema has been shown to be at least three times higher for nurses than for other so-called dry professions. For persons engaged in the personal care of the ill and the elderly, relevant occupational allergens were found to be benzalkonium chloride and aldehydes in disinfectants, as well as rubber accelerators such as thiuram mix. Latex contact urticaria has increasing significance for medical personnel, with prevalence rates of sensitization between 4.5% and 10.7%. Among physicians, contact allergies to thiuram mix were found to be dominant (12.9%). For surgeons and orthopaedic surgeons, methyl methacrylate as a constituent of bone cement is of great importance. Various esters of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid are important sensitizers in the dental professions, particularly in heavily exposed dental laboratory technicians. Only a few gloves protect against these types of sensitizers. Sensitizations by medicaments can be avoided in most cases by reducing direct skin contact, as practiced with penicillin or ispaghula powder. Strategies of prevention include information of atopics regarding the increase in occupational dermatitis, the regular use of barrier creams

  16. Mathematics and Related Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on mathematics and related occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include accountants, actuaries,…

  17. DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES, 1965. VOLUME II, OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATION AND INDUSTRY INDEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    VOLUME 2 COMPLEMENTS VOLUME 1 (VT 003 654) BY PROVIDING A CLASSIFICATION STRUCTURE WHICH GROUPS JOBS HAVING THE SAME BASIC OCCUPATIONAL, INDUSTRIAL, OR WORKER CHARACTERISTICS. THE SECTIONS ARE (1) THE OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES, DIVISIONS, AND GROUPS, (2) AN ALPHABETIC ARRANGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL DIVISIONS AND GROUPS, (3) THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP…

  18. Engineering and Related Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on engineering and related occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include aerospace engineers, agricultural…

  19. The Person-Environment-Occupation Model: A Transactive Approach to Occupational Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Mary; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A Person-Environment-Occupation model of occupational performance enables occupational therapists to target interventions at different components and implement interventions at different levels and in context. A person's occupational preference is considered in multiple ways depending on environmental factors. (SK)

  20. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards. Beef Production Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the beef production cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

  1. 10 CFR 434.513 - Occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.513 Occupancy. 5131Occupancy schedules are default assumptions. The same assumptions shall be made in computing Design Energy Consumption as were... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Occupancy. 434.513 Section 434.513 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  2. 36 CFR 14.8 - Unauthorized occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unauthorized occupancy. 14.8 Section 14.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.8 Unauthorized occupancy. Any occupancy or use of the lands of the...

  3. Women's Occupational Mobility After Work Interruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Omori

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic tenents human capital theory suggest that women who leave occupations whith high atrophy rates will be those most likely to experience downward occupational mobility upon labor force renentry. The theory is confirmed. However, the impact on occupational mobility of an actual childbirth may opeerate indirectly through the length of time a woman is out of the labor force.

  4. The Promise of Middle-Skill Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James R., III; Blackman, Orville; Lewis, Morgan

    2010-01-01

    Labor market economists argue that it is difficult to fit occupations into a few skill categories, but most will agree that there are at least three. In this schema, high-skill occupations are those in the professional/technical and managerial categories. Low-skill occupations are in the traditional, in-person service and agricultural categories.…

  5. An interdisciplinary approach to occupational respiratory disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooy, G.B.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that worldwide about 50 million new cases of occupational respiratory diseases emerge every year. Without preventative action, the burden of occupational diseases is expected to increase. In this thesis an alternative approach to deliver occupational health ca

  6. Occupant modeling in the aerospace environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaklin, P.; Lim, T.; Marshall, R.

    1999-01-01

    Dynamic testing and occupant protection standards are a reality in the aerospace industry. Methods to model these situations are evolving. A method of modeling an occupant on a crew seat, in a drop test is presented. This method combines a rigid body occupant model with a finite element model of the

  7. An Analysis of the Automobile Sales Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohac, Robert D.; Vernon, Robert C.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the auto sales occupation. The analysis follows the salesperson through the essential everyday performance of the tasks in the occupation. The duties involve the process of obtaining the prospects and…

  8. Occupational Representativeness and Prestige Rating: Some Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Harry J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    College students (N=319) rated 100 occupations on Occupational Standing Scale. Comparison with prior sample and predicted prestige scores for 1950 census job titles revealed that college sample was similar in prestige ratings regardless of gender or ethnicity. Composition of occupational listings did not appear to affect ratings. (Author/NB)

  9. Aspects affecting occupational therapists' reasoning when implementing research-based evidence in stroke rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Kristensen, H. K.; Borg, T.

    2012-01-01

    within stroke rehabilitation. METHODS: The study was based on a phenomenological hermeneutical and an action research approach in collaboration with three occupational therapy settings including 25 occupational therapists. Data collection consisted of 41 field observations, 14 individual interviews......BACKGROUND: When implementing evidence-based practice in occupational therapy the investigation of clinical reasoning provides important information on research utilization. AIM: This study investigates aspects affecting occupational therapists' reasoning when implementing research-based evidence......, and six focus-group interviews. RESULTS: New knowledge concerning the substantial influence of professional values in the occupational therapists' local cultures was indicated. It was of importance that the therapists as a group are given the opportunity to explicit and critically appraise values...

  10. Occupational turnover intentions among substance abuse counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrauff, Tanja C; Abraham, Amanda J; Bride, Brian E; Roman, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of occupational turnover intention (OcTI) among substance abuse counselors. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 929 counselors working in 225 private substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs across the United States. Hierarchical multiple regression models were conducted to assess predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of OcTI. OcTI scores were relatively low on a 7-point scale, indicating that very few counselors definitely intended to leave the SAT field. Age, certification, positive perceptions of procedural and distributive justice, and hospital-based status negatively predicted OcTI. Counselors' substance use disorder-impacted history moderated the association between organizational commitment and OcTI. Organizational turnover intention partially mediated the link between organizational commitment and OcTI. Workforce stability might be achieved by promoting perceptions of advantages to working in a particular treatment program, having organizational commitment, showing appreciation for counselors' work, and valuing employees from diverse backgrounds.

  11. Gender issues on occupational safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Eugenio; Vona, Rosa; Monterosso, Davide; Giammarioli, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    The increasing proportion of women in the workforce raises a range of gender-related questions about the different effects of work-related risks on men and women. Few studies have characterized gender differences across occupations and industries, although at this time, the gender sensitive approach is starting to acquire relevance in the field of human preventive medicine. The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work has encouraged a policy of gender equality in all European member states. Italy has adopted European provisions with new specific legislation that integrates the previous laws and introduces the gender differences into the workplace. Despite the fact that gender equal legislation opportunities have been enacted in Italy, their application is delayed by some difficulties. This review examines some of these critical aspects.

  12. Developing Occupational Health Care Services For Better Customer Satisfaction : a case-study- Lohja Occupational Health

    OpenAIRE

    Pulliainen, Petra

    2015-01-01

    The renewal of Good Occupational Health Practice in Finland brings new challenges and triggers self-examination among occupational health care providers. Successful renewal of occupational health care practices emphasizes activity, commitment and trustworthiness from occupational health care providers but also from the customer companies. For this co-operation to work effectively, communication in a common language increases its’ importance furthermore. Since purchasing occupational health ca...

  13. [Information services in occupational medicine--comments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursidić-Radulović, A

    1998-09-01

    The recent social and public health policy changes have largely affected the functioning of occupational health units in two ways: the occupational physician has been reduced to an advisory function, while he has simultaneously been cut from the information sources such as community health centres, part of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, and scientific and professional publications. This has put the profession in an unfavourable position. The occupational physician requires fast, accurate, and comprehensive access to all relevant information. The author proposes establishing a single national information centre for occupational health that would collect, create, and distribute relevant and updated recommendations and information, legal regulations and updates, norms, and standards.

  14. Developmental stages of occupational therapy and the feminist movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, M B

    1976-10-01

    Developmental stages characterize the growth of both the feminist movement and the field of occupational therapy. The human development stages described by Erik Erikson are used to compare the growth stages of these two groups to the human sequence. It is hypothesized that both female-dominated groups began with an "infancy" period in the early 1900s characterized by the beginnings of identity and confidence in their respective groups. Both continued to develop through stages corresponding to the childhood stages characterized by Erikson and into the adolescent acting out stages as characterized by the demonstrations of the 1960s. Present and future trends are explored in relation to developmental stages, as well as to implications for the field of occupational therapy in education, theory, and practice.

  15. Does occupational health nursing exist in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnarayan R Tiwari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational health services are important to develop healthy and productive work forces, which should be delivered through occupational health team. Occupational health nurse (OHN is an important member of this team and is required to apply nursing principles in conserving the health of workers in occupational settings. Purpose: This article attempts to map the occupational health nursing courses in India and design competencies and curriculum for such a course. Materials and Methods: Information through the Internet, printed journals, and perspectives of the key stakeholders were the principal sources of data. Discussion: In India, there is a need to initiate a course on occupational health nursing to provide occupational health services for the organized and unorganized sector workforce. A certificate course for occupational health nursing for 3-4 months duration offered through contact session mode can be an opportune beginning. However, to cater employed nurses an online course can be another effective alternative. The theoretical part should essentially include modules on occupational diseases, industrial hygiene, and occupational health legislation, whereas the modules on practical aspects can include visits to industries. Taking into account the existing norms of Indian Factories Act for hazardous units of organized sector an estimated 1,34,640 OHNs are required. Conclusion: There is a need-supply gap in the number of occupational health nursing manpower in India, which can be attributed to the absence of any course to train such manpower.

  16. Occupational balance in health professionals in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagman, Petra; Lindmark, Ulrika; Rolander, Bo; Wåhlin, Charlotte; Håkansson, Carita

    2017-01-01

    Health care employees are often women, a group that has high degrees of sick leave and perhaps problems attaining occupational balance. However, people think differently about their everyday activities and it is therefore important to take their perceptions into account but occupational balance has not yet been measured in health professionals. The aim was to describe occupational balance in three different samples of health professionals in Sweden. A further aim was to investigate whether occupational therapists (OTs) rate their occupational balance differently from other health professionals. Four hundred and eighty-two health professionals, employees in public dentistry, mental health care and OTs, aged 21-70 years participated. The participants' occupational balance was measured using the occupational balance questionnaire (OBQ). The ratings of occupational balance were similar to earlier studies and did not differ significantly between the samples. The OTs' occupational balance was also similar to that of the other health professionals. The similarities in occupational balance indicate the same difficulties in attaining it. The result highlights the possibility that working people face similar difficulties in achieving occupational balance. Further research is warranted about how to attain it.

  17. Occupation and prostate cancer risk in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma-Wagner, S; Chokkalingam, A P; Malker, H S; Stone, B J; McLaughlin, J K; Hsing, A W

    2000-05-01

    To provide new leads regarding occupational prostate cancer risk factors, we linked 36,269 prostate cancer cases reported to the Swedish National Cancer Registry during 1961 to 1979 with employment information from the 1960 National Census. Standardized incidence ratios for prostate cancer, within major (1-digit), general (2-digit), and specific (3-digit) industries and occupations, were calculated. Significant excess risks were seen for agriculture-related industries, soap and perfume manufacture, and leather processing industries. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios were also seen for the following occupations: farmers, leather workers, and white-collar occupations. Our results suggest that farmers; certain occupations and industries with exposures to cadmium, herbicides, and fertilizers; and men with low occupational physical activity levels have elevated prostate cancer risks. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and identify specific exposures related to excess risk in these occupations and industries.

  18. Occupational health scenario of Indian informal sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Anjali; Vyas, Heer; Nag, Pranab

    2016-08-05

    Workers in the Indian informal sector are engaged with different occupations. These occupations involve varied work related hazards. These occupational hazards are a consequent risk to health. The study aimed to determine occupational health scenario in the Indian Informal sector. One thousand eleven hundred twenty two workers from five different occupations namely weaving (handloom and power loom), construction, transportation, tobacco processing and fish processing were assessed by interviewer administered health questionnaire. Workers suffered from musculo-skeletal complaints, respiratory health hazards, eye problems and skin related complaints. There was a high prevalence of self-reported occupational health problems in the selected sectors. The study finds that workers have occupational exposures to multiple hazards. The absence of protective guards aggrevate their health condition. The study attempts to draws an immediate attention on the existing health scenario of the Indian Informal sector.

  19. Factors influencing nurses' perceptions of occupational safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Menevse; Intepeler, Seyda Seren

    2017-01-02

    To determine nurses' perceptions of occupational safety and their work environment and examine the sociodemographic traits and job characteristics that influence their occupational safety, we studied a sample of 278 nurses. According to the nurses, the quality of their work environment is average, and occupational safety is insufficient. In the subdimensions of the work environment scale, it was determined that the nurses think "labor force and other resources" are insufficient. In the occupational safety subdimensions "occupational illnesses and complaints" and "administrative support and approaches," they considered occupational safety to be insufficient. "Doctor-nurse-colleague relationships," "exposure to violence," and "work unit" (eg, internal medicine, surgical, intensive care) are the main factors that affect occupational safety. This study determined that hospital administrations should develop and immediately implement plans to ameliorate communication and clinical precautions and to reduce exposure to violence.

  20. Occupational injuries due to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T; Seligman, P J; Newman, S C; Timbrook, C L

    1988-06-01

    Each year in the United States, an estimated 800 to 1,400 people are murdered at work, and an unknown number of nonfatal injuries due to workplace violence occur. Based on Ohio's workers' compensation claims from 1983 through 1985, police officers, gasoline service station employees, employees of the real estate industry, and hotel/motel employees were found to be at the highest risk for occupational violent crime (OVC) injury and death. Grocery store employees, specifically those working in convenience food stores, and employees of the real estate industry had the most reported rapes. Four previously unidentified industries at increased risk of employee victimization were described. Identification of industries and occupations at high risk for crime victimization provides the opportunity to focus preventive strategies to promote employee safety and security in the workplace.