WorldWideScience

Sample records for fields characteristic values

  1. Convolution equations on lattices: periodic solutions with values in a prime characteristic field

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidenberg, Mikhail

    2006-01-01

    These notes are inspired by the theory of cellular automata. A linear cellular automaton on a lattice of finite rank or on a toric grid is a discrete dinamical system generated by a convolution operator with kernel concentrated in the nearest neighborhood of the origin. In the present paper we deal with general convolution operators. We propose an approach via harmonic analysis which works over a field of positive characteristic. It occurs that a standard spectral problem for a convolution op...

  2. [Medical student perception of physician values in practice by individual characteristics and preferred medical specialty field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi Hwa; Yoo, Hyo Hyun; Yim, Jun

    2014-12-01

    Medical students' values figure prominently in their choice of medical specialty; yet, little research has been performed on this topic. The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in values according to medical students' individual characteristics (medical educational system, gender, and grade) and preferred medical specialty. A total of 905 medical students participated in the study; 426 were graduate-entry medical students (GEMS), and 479 were undergraduate medical students (UMS). Further, 561 were male and 316 were female; 356 were in year 1, 219 were in year 2, 230 were in year 3, and 100 were in year 4. Students completed the Physician Values in Practice Scale (PVIPS). The PVIPS comprises six dimensions: autonomy, management, prestige, service, lifestyle, and scholarly pursuits. The data were analyzed by t-test and analysis of variance. GEMS had higher scores for service, management, and scholarly pursuits than UMS. Males had higher scores for prestige, lifestyle, and management, whereas female scored higher on service and scholarly pursuits. Higher grade was associated with increased scores for prestige, lifestyle, and management. The differences in lifestyle and scholarly pursuits were significant between preferred specialties. Students in support specialties scored significantly higher on lifestyle. With regard to scholarly pursuits, basic science specialties scored significantly higher than other specialties. There were significant differences in PVIPS according to individual characteristics and preferred medical specialty. This result could be useful in developing a medical specialty choice program for medical students.

  3. Multi-valued fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ershov, Yuri L

    2001-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the author has studied the model-theoretic aspects of the theory of valued fields and multi-valued fields. Many of the key results included in this book were obtained by the author whilst preparing the manuscript. Thus the unique overview of the theory, as developed in the book, has been previously unavailable. The book deals with the theory of valued fields and mutli-valued fields. The theory of Prüfer rings is discussed from the `geometric' point of view. The author shows that by introducing the Zariski topology on families of valuation rings, it is possible to distinguish two important subfamilies of Prüfer rings that correspond to Boolean and near Boolean families of valuation rings. Also, algebraic and model-theoretic properties of multi-valued fields with near Boolean families of valuation rings satisfying the local-global principle are studied. It is important that this principle is elementary, i.e., it can be expressed in the language of predicate calculus. The most important...

  4. Characteristic of Rings. Prime Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of the characteristic of rings and its basic properties are formalized [14], [39], [20]. Classification of prime fields in terms of isomorphisms with appropriate fields (ℚ or ℤ/p are presented. To facilitate reasonings within the field of rational numbers, values of numerators and denominators of basic operations over rationals are computed.

  5. TECHNIQUE OF ESTIMATION OF ERROR IN THE REFERENCE VALUE OF THE DOSE DURING THE LINEAR ACCELERATOR RADIATION OUTPUT CALIBRATION PROCEDURE. Part 2. Dependence on the characteristics of collimator, optical sourse-distance indicator, treatment field, lasers and treatment couch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Tsitovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of radiation oncology patients needed to provide consistent functional characteristics of the medical linear accelerators, which affect the accuracy of dose delivery. To this end, their quality control procedures, which include the calibration of radiation output of the linac, the error in determining the dose reference value during which must not exceed 2 %, is provided. The aim is to develop a methodology for determining the error (difference between a measured value of quantity and its true value in determining this value, depending on the characteristics of the collimator, the source to surface distance pointer, lasers, radiation field and treatment table. To achieve the objectives have been carried out dosimetric measurements of Trilogy S/N 3567 linac dose distributions, on the basis of which dose errors depending on the accuracy setting the zero position of the collimator, the deviation of the collimator rotation isocenter, the sourcesurface distance pointer accuracy, field size accuracy, the accuracy of lasers and treatment table positioning were obtained. It was found that the greatest impact on the value of the error has the error in the optical SSD indication and the error in the lasers position in the plane perpendicular to the plane of incidence of the radiation beam (up to 3.64 % for the energy of 6 MV. Dose errors caused by error in the field size were different for two photon energies, and reached 2.54 % for 6 MeV and 1.33% for 18 MeV. Errors caused by the rest of the characteristic do not exceed 1 %. Thus, it is possible to express the results of periodic quality control of these devices integrated in linac in terms of dose and use them to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the possibility of clinical use of a linear accelerator for oncology patients irradiation on the basis of the calibration of radiation output in case of development of techniques that allow to analyze the influence dosimetric

  6. Vacuum expectation value of twist fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Twist fields emerge in a number of physical applications ranging from entanglement entropy to scattering amplitudes in four-dimensional gauge theories. In this work, their vacuum expectation values are studied in the path integral framework. By performing a gauge transformation, their correlation functions are reduced to field theory of matter fields in external Aharonov-Bohm vortices. The resulting functional determinants are then analyzed within the zeta-function regularization for the spectrum of Bessel zeros, and concise formulas are derived.

  7. Comparisons of fission track age-determination and radioactivation analysis among radiation fields. Characteristic values for pneumatic tube, JRR-3M PN2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Tatsuro [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Education; Tomura, Kenji

    1996-01-01

    It is necessary for Fission track age determination and radioactivation analysis to define the energy spectrum of a reactor neutron as the basis for calculating the nuclear reaction rate. This study was made aiming to define the spectrum for PN2 pneumatic tube of No. 3 plant of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Characteristics such as conventional flux, cross reaction, neutron temperature and integral fast flux were examined for 3 facilities; JRR-2, JRR-4 and JRR-3M. And the neutron spectrum for each facility was estimated based on the assumptions; Maxwell distribution for thermal neutrons, 1/E for intermediate neutrons and Watt`s formula for fast neutrons. The present results showed that the spectrum for JRR-3M, PN2 was discontinuous in the range from the intermediate to the fast neutron, whereas those for other facilities were found considerably improved. (M.N.)

  8. Effective field equations for expectation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    We discuss functional methods which allow calculation of expectation values, rather than the usual in-out amplitudes, from a path integral. The technique, based on Schwinger's idea of summing over paths which go from the past to the future and then back to the past, provides effective field equations satisfied by the expectation value of the field. These equations are shown to be real and causal for a general theory up to two-loop order, and unitarity is checked to this order. These methods are applied to a simple quantum-mechanical example to illustrate the differences between the new formalism and the standard theory. When applied to the gravitational field, the new effective field equations should be useful for studies of quantum cosmology

  9. Ethnic Characteristics of Students’ Value Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ju Chebotareva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the ethnic features of value orientations in students from different parts of the world. It is shown that the lives of the students from Latin America and Central Asia are more holistic and meaningful than the lives of the students from China, the Middle East and Russia. Latin American students are more focused on individuality, self-regulation, and the Central Asian — on collectivism, the controllability of life events. The gender specifics of the value orientations of students are described. The connection between the students’ value orientations personality components such as a basic trust in the world, social and emotional intelligence, ethnic identity and tolerance towards the people of other ethnic groups, stress-coping strategies are analyzed.

  10. Electron field emission characteristics of carbon nanotube on tungsten tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Ngoc Hong; Bui Hung Thang; Nguyen Tuan Hong; Phan Ngoc Minh; Lee, Soonil

    2009-01-01

    Electron field emission characteristic of carbon nanotubes on tungsten tip was investigated in 2x10 -6 Torr vacuum. The measurement results showed that the CNTs/W tip could emit electron at 0.7 V/μm (nearly 10 times lower than that of the W tip itself) and reach up to 26 μA at the electric field of 1 V/μm. The emission characteristic follows the Fowler-Nordheim mechanism. Analysis of the emission characteristic showed that the CNTs/W tip has a very high value of field enhancement factor (β = 4.1 x 10 4 cm -1 ) that is much higher than that of the tungsten tip itself. The results confirmed the excellent field emission behavior of the CNTs materials and the CNTs/W tip is a prospective candidate for advanced electron field emitter.

  11. The Educational Value of Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jay P.; Kisida, Brian; Bowen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    The school field trip has a long history in American public education. For decades, students have piled into yellow buses to visit a variety of cultural institutions, including art, natural history, and science museums, as well as theaters, zoos, and historical sites. Schools gladly endured the expense and disruption of providing field trips…

  12. Fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of low moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of low moisture silage made from mature bermudagrass ( C. dactylon ) and switchgrass ( P. virgatum ) in mixture with alfalfa ( M. sativa ) or treated with urea and plantain ( Musa AAB )

  13. 77 FR 41273 - Core Values and Characteristics of the Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... single worker plays a critical role in supporting the overall strategic vision and mission of the agency..., most importantly, become an enduring part of the VA culture. The ``I CARE'' logo will be prominently... all the time, the Core Values and Characteristics are meant to endure. There are no immediate plans to...

  14. Cultural Characteristics and Values in Sorsogueños’ Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan F. Astillero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the Filipino way of life, it is imperative to study the literature of the Philippines specifically the poetry of Sorsogon for it serves as a receptacle and a showcase of cultural characteristics, values, and traditions of Sorsogueños. The contemporary times showcase Sorsogueños’ literature proliferating trilingually in English, Filipino and the vernacular. The desire for self- expression in any language seems to describe that literature is the most effective way to identify what comprises a meaningful human life. This study analyzed and extracted the cultural characteristics and values manifested in Sorsogueños poems. This is a descriptive qualitative study using documentary and content analysis of the works of Sorsogueños’ poets in terms of the cultural characteristics and values manifested in them. The researchers collected 22 published poems in the 16 municipalities of Sorsogon. Analysis of the poems showed the following cultural characteristics viz: Sorsogueños are very religious; they are very sentimental and emotional; very passionate and lovable; optimistic and have positive viewpoint in the future. They are also risk-takers; have regards on the welfare of others, nationalistic have sense of brotherhood/comradeship and full of hope despite hardships in life. Values embodied in the analyzed poems consist of the elements of hospitality, comradeship, nationalism, unselfish love, confidence, ingenuity, courtesy, hopes, aspirations, dreams, culture, and traditions of Sorsogueños.

  15. Synthesis of magnetic systems producing field with maximal scalar characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevets, Nickolay I.

    2005-01-01

    A method of synthesis of the magnetic systems (MSs) consisting of uniformly magnetized blocks is proposed. This method allows to synthesize MSs providing maximum value of any magnetic field scalar characteristic. In particular, it is possible to synthesize the MSs providing the maximum of a field projection on a given vector, a gradient of a field modulus and a gradient of a field energy on a given directing vector, a field magnitude, a magnetic flux through a given surface, a scalar product of a field or a force by a directing function given in some area of space, etc. The synthesized MSs provide maximal efficiency of permanent magnets utilization. The usage of the proposed method of MSs synthesis allows to change a procedure of projecting in principal, namely, to execute it according to the following scheme: (a) to choose the sizes, a form and a number of blocks of a system proceeding from technological (economical) reasons; (b) using the proposed synthesis method, to find an orientation of site magnetization providing maximum possible effect of magnet utilization in a system obtained in (a). Such approach considerably reduces a time of MSs projecting and guarantees maximal possible efficiency of magnets utilization. Besides it provides absolute assurance in 'ideality' of a MS design and allows to obtain an exact estimate of the limit parameters of a field in a working area of a projected MS. The method is applicable to a system containing the components from soft magnetic material with linear magnetic properties

  16. The relation between crossover of the intergrain loss-peak temperature-field characteristics of the Ag-Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub x] screen-printed tapes and their J[sub C] values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noji, H [IRC in Superconductivity, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Glowacki, B A [IRC in Superconductivity, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom) Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Oota, A [Dept. of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi Univ. of Tech., (Japan)

    1993-05-10

    A study of the influence of the processing conditions of Ag-Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub x] screen-printed tapes on the temperature, field and frequency dependence of their a.c. susceptibility has been conducted. Samples have been prepared by melt-solidification and subsequent sintering on silver substrates under the same conditions but with different cooling procedures and reannealing. These procedures lead to different Tc values and field dependency of the loss peak temperature T[sub M], which cause the crossover in the T[sub M] versus applied field characteristics. It was established that the above crossover phenomenon is correlated to the crossover in the J[sub C] versus temperature characteristics. (orig.)

  17. Topological characteristics of multi-valued maps and Lipschitzian functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, V S

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the operator inclusion O element of F(x)+N Q (x), where F is a multi-valued map of monotonic type from a reflexive space V to its conjugate V * and N Q is the cone normal to the closed set Q, which, generally speaking, is not convex. To estimate the number of solutions of this inclusion we introduce topological characteristics of multi-valued maps and Lipschitzian functionals that have the properties of additivity and homotopy invariance. We prove some infinite-dimensional versions of the Poincare-Hopf theorem

  18. Variational multi-valued velocity field estimation for transparent sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez-Manzanares, Alonso; Rivera, Mariano; Kornprobst, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Motion estimation in sequences with transparencies is an important problem in robotics and medical imaging applications. In this work we propose a variational approach for estimating multi-valued velocity fields in transparent sequences. Starting from existing local motion estimators, we derive...... a variational model for integrating in space and time such a local information in order to obtain a robust estimation of the multi-valued velocity field. With this approach, we can indeed estimate multi-valued velocity fields which are not necessarily piecewise constant on a layer –each layer can evolve...

  19. Scalar field vacuum expectation value induced by gravitational wave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Preston; McDougall, Patrick; Ragsdale, Michael; Singleton, Douglas

    2018-06-01

    We show that a massless scalar field in a gravitational wave background can develop a non-zero vacuum expectation value. We draw comparisons to the generation of a non-zero vacuum expectation value for a scalar field in the Higgs mechanism and with the dynamical Casimir vacuum. We propose that this vacuum expectation value, generated by a gravitational wave, can be connected with particle production from gravitational waves and may have consequences for the early Universe where scalar fields are thought to play an important role.

  20. n-Characteristic Vector Fields of Contact Manifoldss

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanzadeh, Babak

    2017-01-01

    In present paper we define and study $n$-characteristic vector fields. We present definition of Tanaka-Webster connection, then use it for studying the behavior of $n$-characteristic vector fields. Also we show some results about of these vector fields by Tanaka-Webster connection.

  1. Propagation characteristics of resonance cone in a nonuniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Sanuki, H.

    1984-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of resonance cone field for frequencies below the electron cyclotron frequency are described in a mirror magnetic field on the basis of fluid equation. Theoretical results are compared qualitatively with those of experiment

  2. Measurement of gradient magnetic field temporal characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartusek, K.; Jflek, B.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a technique of measuring the time dependence and field distortions of magnetic fields due to eddy currents (EC) produced by time-dependent magnetic field gradients. The EC measuring technique makes use of a large volume sample and selective RF excitation pulses and free induction decay (FID) (or a spin or gradient echo) to measure the out-of-phase component of the FID, which is proportional to γδB, i.e. the amount the signal is off resonance. The measuring technique is sensitive, easy to implement and interpret, and used for determining pre-emphasis compensation parameters

  3. Characteristic gene selection via weighting principal components by singular values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Xing Liu

    Full Text Available Conventional gene selection methods based on principal component analysis (PCA use only the first principal component (PC of PCA or sparse PCA to select characteristic genes. These methods indeed assume that the first PC plays a dominant role in gene selection. However, in a number of cases this assumption is not satisfied, so the conventional PCA-based methods usually provide poor selection results. In order to improve the performance of the PCA-based gene selection method, we put forward the gene selection method via weighting PCs by singular values (WPCS. Because different PCs have different importance, the singular values are exploited as the weights to represent the influence on gene selection of different PCs. The ROC curves and AUC statistics on artificial data show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, experimental results on real gene expression data sets show that our method can extract more characteristic genes in response to abiotic stresses than conventional gene selection methods.

  4. The Forms of Value: Problems of Convertibility in Field Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Bolin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Media production in late capitalism is often measured in terms of economic value. If value is defined as the worth of a thing, a standard or measure, being the result of social praxis and negotiation between producers and consumers in various combinations, it follows that this worth can be of other kinds than the mere economic. This is, for example, the reasoning behind field theory (Bourdieu, where the generation of field-specific capital (value is deeply dependent on the belief shared by the competing agents within the field. The full extent of the consequences of such a theory of convertibility between fields of cultural production, centred on different forms of value, is, however yet to be explored. This is the task of this article. It especially focuses on how value is constructed differently depending on the relations of the valuing subject to the production process, something that becomes highly relevant in digital media environments, where users are increasingly drawn into the production process.

  5. Association between value-based purchasing score and hospital characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borah Bijan J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicare hospital Value-based purchasing (VBP program that links Medicare payments to quality of care will become effective from 2013. It is unclear whether specific hospital characteristics are associated with a hospital’s VBP score, and consequently incentive payments. The objective of the study was to assess the association of hospital characteristics with (i the mean VBP score, and (ii specific percentiles of the VBP score distribution. The secondary objective was to quantify the associations of hospital characteristics with the VBP score components: clinical process of care (CPC score and patient satisfaction score. Methods Observational analysis that used data from three sources: Medicare Hospital Compare Database, American Hospital Association 2010 Annual Survey and Medicare Impact File. The final study sample included 2,491 U.S. acute care hospitals eligible for the VBP program. The association of hospital characteristics with the mean VBP score and specific VBP score percentiles were assessed by ordinary least square (OLS regression and quantile regression (QR, respectively. Results VBP score had substantial variations, with mean score of 30 and 60 in the first and fourth quartiles of the VBP score distribution. For-profit status (vs. non-profit, smaller bed size (vs. 100–199 beds, East South Central region (vs. New England region and the report of specific CPC measures (discharge instructions, timely provision of antibiotics and beta blockers, and serum glucose controls in cardiac surgery patients were positively associated with mean VBP scores (p Conclusions Although hospitals serving the poor and the elderly are more likely to score lower under the VBP program, the correlation appears small. Profit status, geographic regions, number and type of CPC measures reported explain the most variation among scores.

  6. Valuing of research project in energy field with real options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Blasio, N.; Marzo, G.; Turatto, R.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an application of real options theory for valuing a research project in the field of stranded gas valorisation. After a presentation of the theory, the analysis addresses the use of real options evaluation for generating alternative pathways in order to add new value to the R D projects. It also shows how real option approach may be important for selecting among competitive projects, but also for providing a system for valorisation of decision-maker flexibility [it

  7. On Reggeon field theories and nonzero vacuum expectation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturi, G.

    1976-01-01

    In this note it is obtained a satisfactory ''nonrelativistic'' reggeon theory by starting from a ''relativistic'' one, examining its ''nonrelativistic'' limit and allowing a nonzero vacuum expectation value for the pomeron field. In such a context the introduction of secondary trajectories is also studied

  8. Characteristic features of the geomagnetic field of the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, G.N.

    1978-01-01

    The laws of the earth magnetism permitting to make a model of the earth magnetic field are popularly investigated. The modern methods of investigations used in the development of geomagnetism and determining the quantity and direction of the earth magnetic field from the moment of rock formation are described. Considered are the characteristic peculiarities of geomagnetic field: the inclination of the magnetic axis to the rotational axis of the Earth, the western drift of the geomagnetic field, the magnetic field asymmetry, its pole exchange and secular variations. The sources of the continuous magnetic field are investigated. The theory of hydromagnatic dinamo operating in the earth core is described. According to the invariance of the geomagnetic field characteristics it is possible to assume that the core has not significantly evolved for milliard years

  9. THE CURRENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE VALUE RELEVANCE RESEARCH FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen- Alexandra BALTARIU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the scientific literature referring to the value relevance of reported accounting information over a twelve year period starting from 2002. The approach of the paper is a theoretical (conceptual one. In order to complete the purpose of the paper we selected as research method the longitudinal qualitative analysis. The qualitative analysis carried out presents a deductive character. Our conclusions regarding the general characteristics of the research field pertaining to the value relevance of reported accounting information are drawn based on the main results and scientific contributions identified in the research field of interest.

  10. International Accounting Convergence in the Field of Fair Value Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cozma Ighian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The investors’ desire for high-quality, internationally comparable financial information that is useful for decision-making in increasingly global capital markets imposed an international convergence, the ultimate goal of which is a single set of international accounting standards that companies worldwide would use for both domestic and cross-border financial reporting. The guidance, set out in IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement and the update to Topic 820 (formerly referred to as SFAS 157, completes a major project of the boards’ joint work to improve IFRSs and US GAAP and to bring about their convergence. This article describes the controversial history of fair value measurement and the main novelties in the field of fair value measurement, arising from the international convergence process.

  11. Predictive value of ventilatory inflection points determined under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyde, Christian; Mahler, Hubert; Roecker, Kai; Gollhofer, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive potential provided by two ventilatory inflection points (VIP1 and VIP2) examined in field without using gas analysis systems and uncomfortable facemasks. A calibrated respiratory inductance plethysmograph (RIP) and a computerised routine were utilised, respectively, to derive ventilation and to detect VIP1 and VIP2 during a standardised field ramp test on a 400 m running track on 81 participants. In addition, average running speed of a competitive 1000 m run (S1k) was observed as criterion. The predictive value of running speed at VIP1 (SVIP1) and the speed range between VIP1 and VIP2 in relation to VIP2 (VIPSPAN) was analysed via regression analysis. VIPSPAN rather than running speed at VIP2 (SVIP2) was operationalised as a predictor to consider the covariance between SVIP1 and SVIP2. SVIP1 and VIPSPAN, respectively, provided 58.9% and 22.9% of explained variance in regard to S1k. Considering covariance, the timing of two ventilatory inflection points provides predictive value in regard to a competitive 1000 m run. This is the first study to apply computerised detection of ventilatory inflection points in a field setting independent on measurements of the respiratory gas exchange and without using any facemasks.

  12. Monetizing French Distance Education: A Field Enquiry on Higher Education Value(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Marty

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A field enquiry in French distance education allows us to analyze the evolution of a specific institution towards new public management: Parallel to a trend of free courseware and open education, there is a paradoxical reality of distance education monetization. Whereas history shows how traditional French education is a state controlled public good, a new policy is changing the organization’s culture towards a commercial and industrial activity. From inside the institution, we describe the cultural changes, with its human resources, accounting, and marketing dimensions. We relate debates about the institution’s business model within the economy of knowledge – selling either services or contents, focusing on the learner’s experience. Lastly, we analyze the notion of value underlying this monetization of a distance education institution: both the computing of a specific training’s value and the shared values of the workers binding up their collective identity.

  13. Characteristics of near-field earthquake ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. K.; Choi, I. G.; Jeon, Y. S.; Seo, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    The near-field ground motions exhibit special response characteristics that are different from those of ordinary ground motions in the velocity and displacement response. This study first examines the characteristics of near-field ground motion depending on fault directivity and fault normal and parallel component. And the response spectra of the near field ground motion are statistically processed, and are compared with the Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum that is present design spectrum of the nuclear power plant. The response spectrum of the near filed ground motions shows large spectral velocity and displacement in the low frequency range. The spectral accelerations of near field ground motion are greatly amplified in the high frequency range for the rock site motions, and in the low frequency range for the soil site motions. As a result, the near field ground motion effects should be considered in the seismic design and seismic safety evaluation of the nuclear power plant structures and equipment

  14. The value of flexibility in offshore oil field development projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Morten Wattengaard

    1997-12-31

    Offshore oil field development projects often face substantial uncertainties and the operator`s ability to take corrective actions is very important. The main objective of this thesis was to identify the value of flexibility in such projects. Estimates obtained from exploratory wells can be dependent through common information. The effect of stochastic dependence was illustrated by an analytical model, where the dependence was expressed in terms of correlation between estimate errors. It was found that a high degree of correlation might distort the benefit of additional exploration. A prototype that covered the major phases of the project was developed to study the value of flexibility. The prototype was a Markov decision process, solved by stochastic dynamic programming. Based on discussions with Norwegian oil companies, three uncertain variables were addressed: the reservoir volume, the well rate, and the oil price. Simple descriptions were used to mimic the uncertainty. The reservoir was thus depicted as a tank model, and the well rate and oil prices were assumed to follow Markov processes. Flexibility was restricted to managerial as opposed to financial flexibility. Application of the prototype to a case study, based on an ongoing field development, showed that flexibility might be of considerable value to the project. In particular, capacity flexibility and initiation flexibility were identified as important aspects of the development. The results also emphasized the importance of a joint assessment, as the values of different flexibility types are not additive. In conclusion, the proposed model motivates further development of the decision support system presently available. Future decision making should therefore be made within a framework that gives consideration to flexibility. 129 refs., 46 figs., 23 tabs.

  15. Microwave magnetoelectric fields: An analytical study of topological characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joffe, R., E-mail: ioffr1@gmail.com [Microwave Magnetic Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Shamoon College of Engineering, Beer Sheva (Israel); Shavit, R.; Kamenetskii, E.O. [Microwave Magnetic Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2015-10-15

    The near fields originated from a small quasi-two-dimensional ferrite disk with magnetic-dipolar-mode (MDM) oscillations are the fields with broken dual (electric-magnetic) symmetry. Numerical studies show that such fields – called the magnetoelectric (ME) fields – are distinguished by the power-flow vortices and helicity parameters (E.O. Kamenetskii, R. Joffe, R. Shavit, Phys. Rev. E 87 (2013) 023201). These numerical studies can well explain recent experimental results with MDM ferrite disks. In the present paper, we obtain analytically topological characteristics of the ME-field modes. For this purpose, we used a method of successive approximations. In the second approximation we take into account the influence of the edge regions of an open ferrite disk, which are excluded in the first-approximation solving of the magnetostatic (MS) spectral problem. Based on the analytical method, we obtain a “pure” structure of the electric and magnetic fields outside the MDM ferrite disk. The analytical studies can display some fundamental features that are non-observable in the numerical results. While in numerical investigations, one cannot separate the ME fields from the external electromagnetic (EM) radiation, the present theoretical analysis allows clearly distinguish the eigen topological structure of the ME fields. Importantly, this ME-field structure gives evidence for certain phenomena that can be related to the Tellegen and bianisotropic coupling effects. We discuss the question whether the MDM ferrite disk can exhibit properties of the cross magnetoelectric polarizabilities. - Highlights: • We obtain analytically topological characteristics of the ME-field modes. • We take into account the influence of the edge regions of an open ferrite disk. • We obtain a “pure” structure of the electromagnetic fields outside the ferrite disk. • Analytical studies show features that are non-observable in the numerical results. • ME-field gives evidence for

  16. Microwave magnetoelectric fields: An analytical study of topological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, R.; Shavit, R.; Kamenetskii, E.O.

    2015-01-01

    The near fields originated from a small quasi-two-dimensional ferrite disk with magnetic-dipolar-mode (MDM) oscillations are the fields with broken dual (electric-magnetic) symmetry. Numerical studies show that such fields – called the magnetoelectric (ME) fields – are distinguished by the power-flow vortices and helicity parameters (E.O. Kamenetskii, R. Joffe, R. Shavit, Phys. Rev. E 87 (2013) 023201). These numerical studies can well explain recent experimental results with MDM ferrite disks. In the present paper, we obtain analytically topological characteristics of the ME-field modes. For this purpose, we used a method of successive approximations. In the second approximation we take into account the influence of the edge regions of an open ferrite disk, which are excluded in the first-approximation solving of the magnetostatic (MS) spectral problem. Based on the analytical method, we obtain a “pure” structure of the electric and magnetic fields outside the MDM ferrite disk. The analytical studies can display some fundamental features that are non-observable in the numerical results. While in numerical investigations, one cannot separate the ME fields from the external electromagnetic (EM) radiation, the present theoretical analysis allows clearly distinguish the eigen topological structure of the ME fields. Importantly, this ME-field structure gives evidence for certain phenomena that can be related to the Tellegen and bianisotropic coupling effects. We discuss the question whether the MDM ferrite disk can exhibit properties of the cross magnetoelectric polarizabilities. - Highlights: • We obtain analytically topological characteristics of the ME-field modes. • We take into account the influence of the edge regions of an open ferrite disk. • We obtain a “pure” structure of the electromagnetic fields outside the ferrite disk. • Analytical studies show features that are non-observable in the numerical results. • ME-field gives evidence for

  17. QED fermi fields as operator-valued distributions and anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grange, P.; Werner, E.

    2005-01-01

    The treatment of fields as operator-valued distributions (OPVD) is recalled with the emphasis on the importance of causality following the work of Epstein and Glaser. Gauge-invariant theories demand the extension of the usual translation operation on OPVD, thereby leading to a generalized QED formulation. At D = 2 the solvability of the Schwinger model is totally preserved. At D = 4 the paracompactness property of the Euclidean manifold permits the use of test functions which are a decomposition of unity and thereby provides a natural justification and extension of the non-perturbative heat kernel method (Fujikawa) for Abelian anomalies. On the Minkowski manifold the specific role of causality in the restauration of gauge invariance (and mass generation for QED 2 is exemplified in a simple way. (author)

  18. Characteristic of slaughter value and meat quality of three synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pH value after 1, 3 and 24 h post mortem, natural drip loss, cooking yield and parameters of meat colour were measured. Furthermore, fat level and glycolytic potential (GP) of the muscle were determined. Intramuscular fat level was determined chemically, and marbling on the basis of sensory evaluation according to a ...

  19. Characteristics and value of the Thukela Banks crustacean and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the Thukela Banks crustacean and linefish fisheries and investigates the potential impacts of reduced flow from the Thukela River on the value of these fisheries. Data were obtained from published and unpublished material, key informants and government records. The crustacean fishery employs ...

  20. Edge pedestal characteristics in JET and JT-60U tokamaks under variable toroidal field ripple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urano, H.; Saibene, G.; Oyama, N.; Parail, V.; P. de Vries,; Sartori, R.; Kamada, Y.; Kamiya, K.; Loarte, A.; Lonnroth, J.; Sakamoto, Y.; Salmi, A.; Shinohara, K.; Takenaga, H.; Yoshida, M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of toroidal field (TF) ripple on the edge pedestal characteristics were examined in the TF ripple scan experiments at the plasma current I(p) of 1.1 MA in JET and JT-60U. The TF ripple amplitude delta(R) was defined as a value averaged over the existing ripple wells at the separatrix on

  1. Interplanetary Magnetic Field and Plasma Values Related to Hildcaas Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, A.; Serra, S. L.; Vieira, L. A.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we investigate the interplanetary conditions during the occurrence of 150 HILDCAAs/QUASI-HILDCAAs events occurred between 1998 and 2007. These events were chosen by following strictly the selection criteria for this kind of phenomena and with some criteria flexible. Among the criteria used to characterize events HILDCAAs, the criterion that considers "the AE values never dropped below 200 nT for more than 2 h at a time" was more restrictive, thus only this was modified by changing from 2 to 4 hours the period in which the AE value can't be below 200 nT. In the interplanetary medium, HILDCAAs are associated with high speed solar wind streams, which are frequently embedded with alfvénic fluctuations. At the Sun, these high speed streams are originated in coronal holes. The distribution of events HILDCAAs/quasi-HILDCAAs along the solar cycle shows a pattern of double peak, a less intense around the maximum of the sunspot cycle and other intense in the descending phase, similar to the distribution of low-latitude coronal holes. For each one of the selected events we have found the most probable value of interplanetary magnetic field and plasma. The average values of AE, AU, AL and Dst indices, the density and temperature of the solar wind protons, the solar wind speed, the Bz component of the IMF, the IMF intensity, dynamic pressure and factor beta, among all the 150 events HILDCAAs/quasi-HILDCAAs, were: AE (344.5 ± 65.0 nT), AU (131.0 ± 33.0 nT), AL (-213.7 ± 51.2 nT), Dst (-25.8 ± 12.2 nT), Density (5,0 ± 1,8 cm-3), Temperature (151269.5 ± 48907.7 K), |V| (538.2 ± 83.3 km/s) Bz (-0.71 ± 1.02 nT), |B| (6.7 ± 1.4 nT) pressure (2.6 ± 0.7 nPa) and Beta (0.66 ± 0.27).

  2. Characteristics of outage radiation fields around various reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verzilov, Y.; Husain, A.; Corbin, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Activity monitoring surveys, consisting of gamma spectroscopy and dose rate measurements, of various CANDU station components such as the reactor face, feeder cabinet, steam generators and moderator heat exchangers are often performed during shutdown in order to trend the transport of activity around the primary heat transport and moderator systems. Recently, the increased dose expenditure for work such as feeder inspection and replacement in the reactor vault has also spurred interest in improved characterization of the reactor face fields to facilitate better ALARA decision making and hence a reduction in future dose expenditures. At present, planning for reactor face work is hampered by insufficient understanding of the relative contribution of the various components to the overall dose. In addition to the increased dose expenditure for work at the reactor face, maintenance work associated with horizontal flux detectors and liquid injection systems has also resulted in elevated dose expenditures. For instance at Darlington, radiation fields in the vicinity of horizontal flux detectors (HFD) and Liquid Injection Shutdown System (LISS) nozzle bellows are trending upwards with present contact fields being in the range 16-70 rem/h and working distance fields being in the range 100-500 mrem/h. This paper presents findings based on work currently being funded by the CANDU Owners Group. Measurements were performed at Ontario Power Generation's Pickering and Darlington nuclear stations. Specifically, the following are addressed: Characteristics of Reactor Vault Fields; Characteristics of Steam Generator Fields; Characteristics of Moderator Heat Exchanger Fields. Measurements in the reactor vault were performed at the reactor face, along the length of end fittings, along the length of feeders, at the bleed condenser and at the HFD and LISS nozzle bellows. Steam generator fields were characterized at various elevations above the tube sheet, with and without the

  3. Characteristics of thermal neutron calibration fields using a graphite pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchita, Yoshiaki; Saegusa, Jun; Kajimoto, Yoichi; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Shimizu, Shigeru; Yoshizawa, Michio

    2005-03-01

    The Facility of Radiation Standards of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is equipped with thermal neutron fields for calibrating area and personal neutron dosemeters. The fields use moderated neutrons leaked from a graphite pile in which radionuclide sources are placed. In January 2003, we have renewed the pile with some modifications in its size. In accordance with the renewal, we measured and calculated thermal neutron fluence rates, neutron energy distributions and angular distributions of the fields. The thermal neutron fluence rates of the ''inside-pile fields'' and the outside-pile fields'' were determined by the gold foil activation method. The neutron energy distributions of the outside-pile fields were also measured with the Bonner multi-sphere spectrometer system. The contributions of epithermal and fast neutrons to the total dose-equivalents were 9% in the southern outside-pile field and 12% in the western outside-pile field. The personal dose-equivalents, H p,slab (10, α), in the outside-pile fields are evaluated by considering the calculated angular distributions of incoming neutrons. The H p,slab (10, α) was found to be about 40% higher than the value in assuming the unidirectional neutron between the pile and the test point. (author)

  4. IMPACTS OF SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES ON THE IMPLICIT VALUES OF BREAKFAST CEREAL CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Hongqi; Price, David W.

    1998-01-01

    The implicit values of nutrient and nonnutrient characteristics of breakfast cereal were estimated using the 1987-88 household portion of the USDAÂ’'s Nationwide Food Consumption Survey data. The effects of sociodemographic variables on cereal characteristic values were also estimated. The conceptual framework of the hedonic price model, used for food products, has traditionally focused on the nutritional characteristics of these products. This framework was extended to incorporate nonnutriti...

  5. Instrument for the measuring magnetic field characteristics of induction acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.M.; Romasheva, P.I.

    1976-01-01

    An instrument for the measuring instantaneous values of variable and pulsed magnetic fields with an amplitide of 0.005-2.0 and duration of 5x10 -6 -2x10 -2 sec is described. Time resolution is not less than 0.5 musec, measuring accuracy is about 1%. Induction coils are used as sensors. A digital voltmeter serves as a secondary recorder

  6. Expectation values of local fields for a two-parameter family of integrable models and related perturbed conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseilhac, P.; Fateev, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    We calculate the vacuum expectation values of local fields for the two-parameter family of integrable field theories introduced and studied by Fateev (1996). Using this result we propose an explicit expression for the vacuum expectation values of local operators in parafermionic sine-Gordon models and in integrable perturbed SU(2) coset conformal field theories. (orig.)

  7. Value Chain Analysis in Interfirm Relationships: A Field Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    Interfirm relationships introduce new challenges for management accounting. One such challenge is the provision of information for the coordination and optimization of activities across firms in a value chain. According to the literature, a value chain analysis (VCA) is a useful tool to meet this

  8. The Influence of Brittle Daniels System Characteristics on the Value of Load Monitoring Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Schneider, Ronald

    This paper addresses the influence of deteriorating brittle Daniels system characteristics on the value of structural health monitoring (SHM). The value of SHM is quantified as the difference between the life cycle benefits with and without SHM. A value of SHM analysis is performed within...

  9. Food consumption value: developing a consumer-centred concept of value in the field of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagevos, H.; Ophem, van J.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to argue that a new and broader definition of food value should be introduced that includes other factors than the traditional mantra of nutritional value, appearance, and the like. This paper introduces the concept of food consumption value (FCV).

  10. The characteristics on dose distribution of a large field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Rok; Jeong, Deok Yang; Lee, Btiung Koo; Kwon, Young Ho

    2003-01-01

    In special cases of Total Body Irradiation(TBI), Half Body Irradiation(HBI), Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, E-Wing's sarcoma, lymphosarcoma and neuroblastoma a large field can be used clinically. The dose distribution of a large field can use the measurement result which gets from dose distribution of a small field (standard SSD 100 cm, size of field under 40 x 40 cm 2 ) in the substitution which always measures in practice and it will be able to calibrate. With only the method of simple calculation, it is difficult to know the dose and its uniformity of actual body region by various factor of scatter radiation. In this study, using Multidata Water Phantom from standard SSD 100 cm according to the size change of field, it measures the basic parameter (PDD,TMR,Output,Sc,Sp) From SSD 180 cm (phantom is to the bottom vertically) according to increasing of a field, it measures a basic parameter. From SSD 350 cm (phantom is to the surface of a wall, using small water phantom. which includes mylar capable of horizontal beam's measurement) it measured with the same method and compared with each other. In comparison with the standard dose data, parameter which measures between SSD 180 cm and 350 cm, it turned out there was little difference. The error range is not up to extent of the experimental error. In order to get the accurate data, it dose measures from anthropomorphous phantom or for this objective the dose measurement which is the possibility of getting the absolute value which uses the unlimited phantom that is devised especially is demanded. Additionally, it needs to consider ionization chamber use of small volume and stem effect of cable by a large field.

  11. THE EFFECT OF ELECTRO MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY TO BIODIESEL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Nufus

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Various studies of diesel fuel optimization have been done, one of them by using a permanent magnet on the fuel line, the lack of magnetic field intensity decreases along with time increasing by using an electromagnetic field. The purpose of this study is to analyse the biodiesel fuel characteristics due to exposure of electromagnetic fields in terms of the viscosity and vibration of these fuel molecules. Electromagnetic field is generated from wire coil of 5000-9000 on galvanum pipe with diameter of 1.5 cm and length of 10 cm and connected to 12 V batteries. Here, biodiesel fuel is inserted in a galvanum tube, magnetized for 1200 s, and tested its viscosity of the falling ball system by viscometer. Fuel functional groups as well as vibrations between fuel molecules are tested with FTIR. The results show that the magnetized fuel changes. The viscosity of fuels from 2933 to 2478 and an increasing in the absorption of fuel molecules ranges from 13-58%. Therefore, the increasing of vibrating fuel molecules decreases its molecular attraction tug. These indicate that the magnetized fuel molecule causes a changing in the fuel molecule, cluster becomes de-clustered. It is a potential method to clarify the phenomenon of fuel magnetization due to its efficient combustion process.

  12. Economic Value of Agroecosystem Services within Wheat Fields in Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Koocheki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Due to its multifunctional nature agriculture play important roles in ecological processes such as carbon sequestration, flood control, groundwater recharge, nutrient cycling, and purifying water, soil and air in addition to providing food, feed and fiber. These cover almost all ecological services provided by natural ecosystems, including provisioning services, regulating services, supporting services and cultural services (MEA, 2005. Provisioning services are the products obtained from ecosystems, including food, fiber and fuel. Regulating services are the benefits arising from the regulation of ecosystem processes, such as climate regulation, water purification, pollination and the control of pests and diseases. Cultural services are the non-material benefits people obtain from ecosystems, as spiritual enrichment, recreation and aesthetic experiences. Supporting services are those services necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services, such as soil formation and nutrient cycling (Norris et al., 2010. However, most of these services are not recognized and their values are hidden to the society. On the other hand, unlike natural ecosystems that only produce positive ecological services, agro-ecosystems also contribute to some negative externalities e.g. emission of greenhouse gases, leaching of chemicals into soil and water resources and reduction of biodiversity that should be taken into account (Norris et al., 2010. Economic valuation of these services makes them attractive for the society and policymakers to pay more attention towards conservation of ecosystem services. In Iran, studies on ecosystem services are scared and in global scale researches are mainly focused on natural ecosystems. In this study the economic value of ecological services as well as negative environmental externalities of wheat fields were estimated in the Khorasan Razavi province. Materials and methods Information was extracted from

  13. The Value in Comparing Organizational Fields and Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinheiro, Rómulo; Ramirez, Francisco O.; Geschwind, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Following the spirit of an earlier volume in the series focusing on ‘Comparative Approaches to Organizational Research’, the mandate of the current volume is to provide a comparative account of dynamics across two organizational fields – health care and higher education – and, subsequently, two...... specific types of organizational forms – hospitals and universities. In so doing, we take a broader perspective encompassing various conceptual and theoretical points of departure emanating from, mostly, the institutional literature in the social sciences (and its various perspectives), but also from...... public policy and administration literatures – of relevance to scholars and the communities of practice working within either field. In this introductory paper to the volume, we provide a brief overview of developments across the two organizational fields and illuminate on the most important scholarly...

  14. Characteristics of radiation field in living environment, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Saito, Kimiaki; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1990-01-01

    A series of environmental radiation survey was carried out on train lines within Tokyo metropolitan area to clarify the characteristics of radiation field in living environment. Eleven JR, 18 private and 10 subway lines were surveyed, which cover 97% of whole train lines in Tokyo district in terms of annual number of passengers. The characteristics of environmental radiation field on train lines were discussed. The mean absorbed dose rate in air due to γ-rays on the subway lines was higher than those on the JR and private lines. It is due to the difference in the radioactivity concentration and the distribution of surrounding materials as the γ-ray sources. On the other hand, the mean dose rate due to cosmic-rays on the subway lines was lower than those on the JR and private lines. It is due to the shielding effect of the upper materials such as soil or building materials of tunnels. The mean dose rates for the JR, private and subway lines were calculated using these obtained data. Though the ratio of mean dose rate of γ-rays to that of cosmic-rays for the subway lines was different from those for the JR and private lines, the sum of γ- and cosmic-ray dose rates for the JR, private and subway lines were comparable, 40∼50 nGy/h for any of them. These data will be useful for a precise and realistic evaluation of collective dose, considering the life style of the public and the variation characteristics of environmental radiation. (author)

  15. The Characteristics of Electromagnetic Fields Induced by Different Type Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Q.; Fu, C.; Wang, R.; Xu, C.; An, Z.

    2011-12-01

    method is reliable and effective for modeling models including ionosphere, atmosphere and earth media. In order to discuss EM fields' characters for complicate earth-ionosphere media excited by long bipole, "L" shape bipole and circle current sources in the far-field and wave-guide zones, we modeled the frequency responses and decay characters of EM fields for three layers earth-ionosphere model. Because of the effect of ionosphere, the earth-ionosphere electromagnetic fields' decay curves with given frequency show that the fields of Ex and Hy , excited by a long bipole and "L" shape bipole, can be divided into an extra wave-guide field with slower attenuation and strong amplititude than that in half space, but the EM fields of circle current source does not show the same characteristics, ionosphere makes the amplitude of the EM field weaker for the circle current source. For this reason, it is better to use long bipole source while working in the wave-guide field with a fixed large power source.

  16. Stochastic description of supersymmetric fields with values in a manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoba, Z.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the mathematical problem of the imaginary time quantum mechanics of a particle moving in Euclidean space as considered from the theory of diffusion processes. The diffusion process is defined by a stochastic equation; the equation describes the diffusion process as a time evolution of a Brownian particle in a force field. The paper considers a Brownian particle on a Riemannian manifold

  17. Safety limiting values. Low frequent electromagnetic fields - knowledge, hypotheses, speculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosemann, G.

    1993-01-01

    Electric and magnetic fields influence in any way any vegetable, animal or human cells, cell structures, enzymes and control functions not other than temperature, air pressure and humidity. With the present state of knowledge, noxious effects cannot be derived by no means. (orig.) [de

  18. Efficient Closed Form Cut-Off Planes and Propagation Planes Characteristics for Dielectric Slab Loaded Boundary Value Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar, Junaid

    2012-01-01

    The geometrical relationship between the cut-off and propagating planes of any waveguide system is a prerequisite for any design process. The characterization of cut-off planes and optimisation are challenging for numerical methods, closed-form solutions are always preferred. In this paper Maxwells coupled field equations are used to characterise twin E-plane and H-plane slab loaded boundary value problems. The single mode bandwidths and dispersion characteristics of these structures are pres...

  19. Spread of status value: Rewards and the creation of status characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Sarah K

    2017-01-01

    Rewards have social significance and are highly esteemed objects, but what does their ownership signify to others? Prior work has demonstrated it may be possible for these rewards to spread their status to those who possess them, such that individuals gain or lose status and influence by virtue of the rewards they display. Yet, is this spread enough to produce entirely new status characteristics by virtue of their association with rewards? I propose a theoretical extension of the spread of status value theory and offer an experimental test considering whether the status value conveyed by rewards spreads to a new, nominal characteristic of those who come to possess these objects. The results indicate that states of a nominal characteristic do gain or lose status value and behavioral influence through their association with differentially valued rewards. Thus, rewards can create new status characteristics with resulting behavioral expectations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression characteristics and diagnostic value of annexin A2 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hai-Jian; Yao, Deng-Fu; Yao, Min; Huang, Hua; Wu, Wei; Yan, Mei-Juan; Yan, Xiao-Di; Chen, Jie

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the characteristics and diagnostic value of annexin A2 (ANXA2) expression in cancerous tissues and sera of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

  1. Influence of feedback characteristics on perceived learning value of feedback in clerkships : does culture matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhoyo, Yoyo; Van Hell, Elisabeth A.; Kerdijk, Wouter; Emilia, Ova; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-01-01

    Background: Various feedback characteristics have been suggested to positively influence student learning. It is not clear how these feedback characteristics contribute to students' perceived learning value of feedback in cultures classified low on the cultural dimension of individualism and high on

  2. Influence of feedback characteristics on perceived learning value of feedback in clerkships : does culture matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhoyo, Yoyo; Van Hell, Elisabeth A; Kerdijk, Wouter; Emilia, Ova; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Kuks, Jan B M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Various feedback characteristics have been suggested to positively influence student learning. It is not clear how these feedback characteristics contribute to students' perceived learning value of feedback in cultures classified low on the cultural dimension of individualism and high on

  3. The Dynamics of Real Estate Field of Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuryj-Wysocka Oksana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Property is worth only as much as market participants are willing to pay for it - that is as much as the potential of the property. Determining the potential of real estate is an extremely difficult task, because certain properties can be viewed in different ways. A person’s attitude towards a given real estate finds reflection in the value of the property.

  4. Temperature rising characteristics of ammonium diurante in microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bingguo; Peng JinHui; Huang Daifu; Zhang Libo; Hu Jinming; Zhuang Zebiao; Kong Dongcheng; Guo Shenghui; Li Chunxiang

    2010-01-01

    The temperature rising characteristics of ammonium diurante, triuranium octaoxide (U 3 O 8 ), and their mixture were investigated under microwave irradiation, aiming at exploring newly theoretical foundation for advanced metallurgical methods. The temperature rising curves showed that ammonium diurante had weak capability to absorb microwave energy, while triuranium octaoxide had the very strong absorption capability. The temperature of mixture containing 20% of U 3 O 8 could rise from room temperature to 1171 K within 280 s. The ability to absorb microwave energy for the mixture with different ratios increased with the increase in the amount of U 3 O 8 . These are in good agreement with the results of Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory. It is feasible to calcine ammonium diurante by adding of small amounts of U 3 O 8 in microwave fields.

  5. Field Experiment on Soaking Characteristics of Collapsible Loess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In collapsible loess area, migration of soil moisture often causes the temporal discontinuity and spatial nonuniformity of collapsibility, which leads to great damage for infrastructures. Therefore, the research on water infiltration is the key to solving the problem of collapsibility. The aim of this paper is to investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of infiltration characteristics of collapsible loess. A field soaking experiment was conducted on collapsible loess in western China, in which a soaking pool with diameter of 15 m was built. Time-Domain-Reflectometry (TDR system and soil sampling were employed to measure the water content within the depth of 12 m. Then the saturation isograms were drawn for visualization of the process of infiltration. Also, a pilot tunnel was excavated to investigate how the free face can affect the infiltration behaviors. The experimental results revealed the characteristics of infiltration in both horizontal and vertical directions. Moreover, the response of free face on infiltration behaviors was also found. These findings of research could provide the data for the infiltration laws of unsaturated loess and thereby provide the basis for integrated treatment of collapsible loess.

  6. Extreme Value Analysis of Induced Geoelectric Field in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, S. I.; Danskin, D. W.

    2017-10-01

    Extreme geomagnetic disturbances occur rarely but can have great impact on technological systems such as power supply networks. Long-term planning for extreme events requires the estimation of event impact for occurrence periods greater than the length of observed data. With this in mind an analysis of extreme geomagnetic events observed in South Africa (middle geomagnetic latitude) is performed over four solar cycles (1974-2015). An algorithm to identify active periods with minimum SYM-H ≤-100 nT is demonstrated. The sum of induced electric field over the course of each event is used to characterize the severity of each active period. It is found that the severity index (accumulated electric field magnitude ΣE) shares a highly linear relationship with accumulated SYM-H over each event. The index ΣE is lognormal distributed, with tail deviating greater than lognormal, confirming heavy-tailed occurrence. A general Pareto distribution is fitted to the tail of the distribution and extrapolated to calculate the return levels of extreme events. Return levels of once in 100 and once in 200 year events are estimated to be 9.4 × 104 mV/km min and 1.09 × 105 mV/km min, respectively. The top three events, in ascending order of severity, are the March 1989 storm, the events of late October 2003, and the April 1994 event—a long interval of coronal-hole driven disturbances, bookended by two intense geomagnetic storms.

  7. A behavioral characterization of the positive real and bounded real characteristic values in balancing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, H.L.

    In passivity preserving and bounded realness preserving model reduction by balanced truncation, an important role is played by the so-called positive real (PR) and bounded real (BR) characteristic values. Both for the positive real as well as the bounded real case, these values are defined in terms

  8. Monetizing French Distance Education: A Field Enquiry on Higher Education Value(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Marty

    2014-01-01

    A field enquiry in French distance education allows us to analyze the evolution of a specific institution towards new public management: Parallel to a trend of free courseware and open education, there is a paradoxical reality of distance education monetization. Whereas history shows how traditional French education is a state controlled public…

  9. Interpolation of the discrete logarithm in a finite field of characteristic two by Boolean functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandstaetter, Nina; Lange, Tanja; Winterhof, Arne

    2005-01-01

    We obtain bounds on degree, weight, and the maximal Fourier coefficient of Boolean functions interpolating the discrete logarithm in finite fields of characteristic two. These bounds complement earlier results for finite fields of odd characteristic....

  10. Characteristics valued by the pharmacy practice community when hiring a recently graduated pharmacist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David C; Nuffer, Wesley; Brown, Kristen

    2012-11-12

    To determine those characteristics that are most valued by members of the pharmacy practice community when hiring a new pharmacist. A survey instrument describing 20 characteristics that a pharmacy graduate may possess was created and sent to pharmacists licensed in Colorado. Respondents were asked to select and prioritize the top 5 characteristics considered most important in hiring a new graduate pharmacist. Responses were segregated by practice (retail vs. institutional) and/or by pharmacist role (manager vs. staff). Three hundred eighteen survey instruments were received. Having good/strong communication skills was the characteristic ranked highest by all groups. Professional behavior and being adaptable were also ranked highly. The characteristics of using the literature and punctuality ranked low overall. Differences were identified in how the groups valued some characteristics. Characteristics preferred in a new pharmacist varied depending on practice site and the managerial responsibilities of the potential employer. Some characteristics, such as communication skills and professional behavior, were considered of high value by all pharmacist groups.

  11. Initial-boundary-value problem of the self-gravitating scalar field in the Bondi-Sachs gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frittelli, Simonetta; Gomez, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that, in the Bondi-Sachs gauge that fixes the speed of incoming light rays to the value 1, the Einstein equations coupled to a scalar field in spherical symmetry are cast into a symmetric-hyperbolic system of equations for the scalar field, lapse and shift as fundamental variables. In this system of equations, the lapse and shift are incoming characteristic fields, and the scalar field has three components: incoming, outgoing and static. A constraint-preserving boundary condition is prescribed by imposing the projection of the Einstein equation normal to the boundary at the outer value of the radial coordinate. The boundary condition specifies one of the two incoming metric fields. The remaining incoming metric field and the incoming scalar field component need to be specified arbitrarily. Numerical simulations of the scattering of the scalar field by a black hole in the nonlinear regime are presented that illustrate interesting facts about black-hole physics and the behavior of the characteristic variables of the problem

  12. Correlation functions of σ fields with values in a hyperbolic space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haba, Z.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the functional integral for a σ field with values in the Poincare upper half-plane (and some other hyperbolic spaces) can be performed explicitly resulting in a conformal invariant noncanonical field theory in two dimensions

  13. Correlation Functions of σ Fields with Values in a Hyperbolic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Z.

    It is shown that the functional integral for a σ field with values in the Poincare upper half-plane (and some other hyperbolic spaces) can be performed explicitly resulting in a conformal invariant noncanonical field theory in two dimensions.

  14. Quantification frameworks and their application for evaluating the software quality factor using quality characteristic value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.; Chung, C.H.; Won-Ahn, K.

    2004-01-01

    Many problems, related with safety, frequently occur because Digital Instrument and Control Systems are widely used and expanding their ranges to many applications in Nuclear Power Plants. It, however, does not hold a general position to estimate an appropriate software quality. Thus, the Quality Characteristic Value, a software quality factor through each software life cycle, is suggested in this paper. The Quality Characteristic Value is obtained as following procedure: 1) Scoring Quality Characteristic Factors (especially correctness, traceability, completeness, and understandability) onto Software Verification and Validation results, 2) Deriving the diamond-shaped graphs by setting values of Factors at each axis and lining every points, and lastly 3) Measuring the area of the graph for Quality Characteristic Value. In this paper, this methodology is applied to Plant Control System. In addition, the series of quantification frameworks exhibit some good characteristics in the view of software quality factor. More than any thing else, it is believed that introduced framework may be applicable to regulatory guide, software approval procedures, due to its soundness and simple characteristics. (authors)

  15. Assessment of respiratory symptoms and lung function values among the brick field workers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Banibrata

    2016-07-03

    Brick manufacturing process releases large amounts of silica dust into the work environment due to the use of silica-containing materials. The main aim of the study was to investigate the impairment of lung function and prevalence of respiratory symptoms among the different groups of brick field workers in comparison with control subjects. A total of 250 brick field workers and 130 unexposed control subjects were randomly selected in which demographic characteristics, respiratory symptoms, and lung function values were recorded. The result showed significantly lower p value (workers when compared with control group. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was dyspnea (46.8%), phlegm (39.2%), and chest tightness (27.6%). Dust exposure in working environment affected the lung function values and increased the respiratory symptoms among the brick field workers.

  16. Reflow Process Parameters Analysis and Reliability Prediction Considering Multiple Characteristic Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a major step surface mount technology, reflow process is the key factor affecting the quality of the final product. The setting parameters and characteristic value of temperature curve shows a nonlinear relationship. So parameter impacts on characteristic values are analyzed and the parameters adjustment process based on orthogonal experiment is proposed in the paper. First, setting parameters are determined and the orthogonal test is designed according to production conditions. Then each characteristic value for temperature profile is calculated. Further, multi-index orthogonal experiment is analyzed for acquiring the setting parameters which impacts the PCBA product quality greater. Finally, reliability prediction is carried out considering the main influencing parameters for providing a theoretical basis of parameters adjustment and product quality evaluation in engineering process.

  17. Consumption Values, Personal Characteristics and Behavioral Intentions in Mobile Shopping Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujipun Assarut

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Past literature has indicated that consumption value is an important factor in consumer decision making on whether to adopt online shopping. However, most studies have focused only on a single product or service type and, therefore, generalization of the results has been limited. Moreover, previous studies of the indirect effects of personal characteristics on the adoption of online shopping have emphasized solely the importance of utilitarian values. None have investigated the indirect effects of consumption values that include both utilitarian and hedonic aspects. This study examines the relationships between consumption values, personal characteristics and behavioral intentions in the adoption of mobile shopping from the perspectives of different product and service types. The results reveal convenience, security and emotional values as the common values which consumers of fashion goods and accommodations consider when deciding whether to purchase via a mobile device. Apart from the most common values, travelers also consider conditional and epistemic values when assessing whether to reserve accommodation using a mobile device. Moreover, innovativeness and self-efficacy were both shown to exert significant indirect effects, via consumption values, on consumers’ intentions to adopt mobile shopping. Managerial implications and suggestions are further discussed.

  18. Electron field emission characteristics of graphene/carbon nanotubes hybrid field emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Leifeng; He, Hong; Yu, Hua; Cao, Yiqi; Lei, Da; Menggen, QiQiGe; Wu, Chaoxing; Hu, Liqin

    2014-01-01

    The graphene (GP) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) hybrid nanostructure emitter was constructed by a larger scale electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. The field emission (FE) performance of the hybrid emitter is greatly improved compared with that of only GP or MCNTs emitter. The low turn-on electric field (EF), the low threshold EF and the reliability FE properties are obtained from the hybrid emitter. The better FE properties result from the improved electrical properties. For further enhancement FE of hybrids, Ag Nanoparticles (NPs) were decorated on the hybrids and FE characteristics were also studied. These studies indicate that we can use the hybrid nanostructure to improve conductivity and contact resistance, which results in enhancement of the FE properties

  19. h-Adaptive Mesh Generation using Electric Field Intensity Value as a Criterion (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Toyonaga, Kiyomi; Cingoski, Vlatko; Kaneda, Kazufumi; Yamashita, Hideo

    1994-01-01

    Finite mesh divisions are essential to obtain accurate solution of two dimensional electric field analysis. It requires the technical knowledge to generate a suitable fine mesh divisions. In electric field problem, analysts are usually interested in the electric field intensity and its distribution. In order to obtain electric field intensity with high-accuracy, we have developed and adaptive mesh generator using electric field intensity value as a criterion.

  20. Investigation of Nursery Rhymes According to the Classification of Semantic Fields and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçel, Betül Keray

    2017-01-01

    Nursery rhymes are quite important in terms of developing children's language skills. It was observed that there is a paucity of research looking at semantic fields and value regarding nursery rhymes; therefore, this study was intended to fill that gap in the literature by investigating nursery rhymes in terms of semantic fields and value. In this…

  1. Reference values for basic human anatomical and physiological characteristics for use in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    A new publication prepared by the ICRP Task Group on Reference Man. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values, is focused on those human characteristics that are important for dosimetric calculations. Moving from the past emphasis on a Reference Man. the new report presents a series of reference values for both male and female subjects of six different ages - newborn, 1, 5, 10, 15 y, and adult. In selecting reference values, the task group has used data on Western Europeans and North Americans because these populations have been well studied with respect to anatomy, body composition and physiology. When appropriate, comparisons are made between the chosen reference values and data from several Asian populations. The reference values for height and body mass are higher than those reported for various Asian populations. However, the reported masses of individual organs and tissues, particularly for China and Japan, are similar to the reference values. (author)

  2. Connections of contemporary adolescents value orientations with psychological characteristics of their teachers and parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey I. Podolskiy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a large-scale study of value-motivational orientation identity of adolescents living in various regions of the Russian Federation in connection with the characteristics of the social situation of development (family, school. The data obtained in the study allows to identify the most appropriate formation procedures aimed at development of adolescent orientation in value aspects of social relations. Such concepts as morality, value orientations are increasingly used in describing the development trends in society, forming the worldview of the younger generation; the relevant questions are: how is the process of formation of human moral values going; what factors determine the direction and dynamics of this process? The study involved 2731 teenager (46.1% male, 53.9% female from different regions of the Russian Federation (total 6 sites; 937 parents of adolescents; 125 teachers. Every site included 2 cities, distinguished by population and by status (one of the city is a regional capital. The identified connections of value orientations of students with various psychological characteristics of teachers and parents tell about the adverse trends in the formation of value-moral spheres of adolescents and bring to the fore the problem of working with these characteristics.

  3. Free-field correction values for Interacoustics DD 45 supra-aural audiometric earphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    This paper report free-field correction values for the Interacoustics DD 45 audiometric earphones. The free-field correction values for earphones provide the loudness based equivalence to loudspeaker presentation. Correction values are especially used for the calibration of audiometric equipment...... for the acoustic coupler IEC 60318-3 (NBS 9-A) and for the ear simulator IEC 60318-1. The results are in good agreement with the results of another independent investigation. The reported free-field correction values may be used as part of the basis for future standardization of the DD 45 earphone....

  4. Characteristics of plant concentration ratios assessed in a 64-site field survey of 23 elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the statistical characteristics of plant concentration ratios (CRs) and translocation factors (TFs) have not been critically assessed, especially in field surveys. The statistical characteristics, particularly the measures of variation, are important for stochastic modelling of plant uptake. The CR and TF values for 23 naturally occurring elements throughout the geographic range of one plant species, blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium), in Canada were surveyed. Although the ratios imply linear relationships, the numerator concentrations were not closely correlated with the denominator concentrations. The variation in the ratios was not clearly related to the means or to characteristics of the elements. The overall geometric standard deviation for CRs was 2.5 and for TFs was 1.6. The values of CR were intercorrelated for certain groups of elements and these groups reflected the periodic classification of elements. Thus, correlation between elements in stochastic models, which may reduce overall variability, is valid. Site variables such as soil pH, soil bulk density, soil fertility and plant growth condition were only slightly useful in statistically explaining some of the variation in CR values. (author)

  5. [Relationships amongst work values, job characteristics and job involvement in "net generation" nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sue-Hui; Chiou, Chii-Jun

    2010-04-01

    Children of the so-called "net generation" began joining the nurse workforce from the mid-1990s. Studies on the characteristics of this generation have been done primarily outside of Taiwan, and results may not adequately reflect conditions in Taiwan due to cultural differences. This study aimed to investigate the relationships amongst work values, job characteristics and job involvement in "net generation" nurses. This study employed a cross-sectional design. A randomized sample of 370 nurses born between 1977 and 1985 working in a medical center or a community hospital in Southern Taiwan accepted our invitation to join this study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. (1) Variables including work values, job characteristics, head nurse leadership qualities, job structure and opportunities for in-service education all correlated significantly with job involvement. (2) Regression analysis showed work values, job characteristics, head nurse leadership and religious belief to be significant predictors of job involvement, explaining 22.6% of the variance. This study provides insights that may be of potential value to nursing administrators. We suggest that administrators adopt democratic management practices, build diverse learning methods, strengthen autonomy, completeness, and feedback, and provide appropriate work guidance for nurses to increase job involvement.

  6. PRODUCT OPTIMIZATION METHOD BASED ON ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL VALUES OF THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin D. STANESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an original method of optimizing products based on the analysis of optimal values of their characteristics . Optimization method comprises statistical model and analytical model . With this original method can easily and quickly obtain optimal product or material .

  7. Influence of feedback characteristics on perceived learning value of feedback in clerkships: does culture matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhoyo, Yoyo; Van Hell, Elisabeth A; Kerdijk, Wouter; Emilia, Ova; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Kuks, Jan B M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-04-05

    Various feedback characteristics have been suggested to positively influence student learning. It is not clear how these feedback characteristics contribute to students' perceived learning value of feedback in cultures classified low on the cultural dimension of individualism and high on power distance. This study was conducted to validate the influence of five feedback characteristics on students' perceived learning value of feedback in an Indonesian clerkship context. We asked clerks in Neurology (n = 169) and Internal Medicine (n = 132) to assess on a 5-point Likert scale the learning value of the feedback they received. We asked them to record whether the feedback provider (1) informed the student what went well, (2) mentioned which aspects of performance needed improvement, (3) compared the student's performance to a standard, (4) further explained or demonstrated the correct performance, and (5) prepared an action plan with the student to improve performance. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression. A total of 250 students participated in this study, 131 from Internal Medicine (response rate 99%) and 119 from Neurology (response rate 70%). Of these participants, 225 respondents (44% males, 56% females) completed the form and reported 889 feedback moments. Students perceived feedback as more valuable when the feedback provider mentioned their weaknesses (β = 0.153, p learning value of feedback. No gender differences were found for perceived learning value. In Indonesia, we could validate four out of the five characteristics for effective feedback. We argue that our findings relate to culture, in particular to the levels of individualism and power distance. The recognized characteristics of what constitutes effective feedback should be validated across cultures.

  8. Magnetic-field-aligned characteristics of plasma bubbles in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of both incoherent-scatter (IS) and backscatter from field-aligned irregularities (FAI) were made in 1978 with ALTAIR, a fully-steerable high-power radar, to investigate the magnetic-field-aligned characteristics of equatorial plasma bubbles. By operating the radar in a latitude-scan IS mode it was possible to map the location and percentage depletion of plasma bubbles as a function of altitude. By showing that backscatter from FAI is spatially collocated with the upper wall of plasma bubbles it was possible to use the spatial displacement of a field aligned backscatter region to estimate the upward bubble velocity. Besides showing that plasma bubbles are indeed aligned along magnetic field lines, this data set is used to show that a plasma bubble with a percentage depletion of as much as 90% does not have as large an upward velocity as predicted by two-dimensional models. Instead, the inferred bubble velocity is shown to be in better agreement with the bubble velocity predicted by theoretical models using flux-integrated values of electron density and Pedersen conductivity. The need to use flux-tube-integrated values when comparing theory and observation is further stressed by the presence of a non-uniform latitudinal distribution of electron density (i.e. the equatorial anomaly) that was found in the latitude-scan data. (author)

  9. WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] horizon free field fluid transport characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, E.W.; Lagus, P.L.; Lie, K.

    1987-12-01

    This report describes the first attempt to measure the free field brine transport characteristics of the host rock. The data, which have been used to estimate the brine permeability, also suggest free field pore pressure values. One borehole was located in a competent predominantly halite bed with the test region positioned approximately nine meters from the rib. A second borehole intersected Marker Bed 139, which is a one meter thick fractured predominantly anhydrite layer. For this second borehole, the test region was positioned approximately 12 meters from the invert/rib intersection. A description of the tests provided in Section 2. Data obtained during these tests are described in Section 3. Analysis of these data and the associated uncertainties inherent in the data interpretation are presented in Section 4. Test results are given in Section 5. Conclusions are provided in Section 6. 13 refs., 65 figs

  10. Residential characteristics and radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposures from bedroom measurements in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breckenkamp, J; Blettner, M; Schüz, J

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess total exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in bedrooms and the contribution of different radioservices (FM radio, analogue TV and DVB-T, TETRA, GSM900 downlink, GSM1800 downlink, UMTS downlink, DECT, and wireless LAN and blue tooth......) to the total exposure. Additional aims were to describe the proportion of measuring values above the detection limit of the dosimeters and to characterize the differences in exposure patterns associated with self-reported residential characteristics. Exposure to RF sources in bedrooms was measured using...... Antennessa(®) EME Spy 120 dosimeters in 1,348 households in Germany; 280 measures were available for each frequency band per household. Mean electrical field strengths and power flux densities were calculated. Power flux densities allow the calculation of proportions of different radioservices on total...

  11. Analysis of the profile characteristics of corn and soybeans using field reflectance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, E. P.

    1982-01-01

    The typical patterns of spectral development (profiles) for corn and soybeans are presented, based on field-collected reflectance data transformed to correspond to LANDSAT-MSS Tasseled Cap coordinates. Reasonable variations in field conditions and cultural practices are shown to significantly influence profile features. The separability of the two crops is determined to be primarily related to the maximum value of the reflectance equivalent of Greenness, and to the plateau effect seen in corn Greenness profiles. The impact of changes in conditions on separability is described. In addition, association is made between profile features and stages of development for corn and soybeans. Corn is shown to peak at a stage well before tasseling or maximum LAI, while the characteristics of the soybean profile are shown to be unrelated to any particular stage of development.

  12. String-coupling constant and dilaton vacuum expectation value in string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneya, Tamiaki

    1987-01-01

    In the first quantized approaches to strings, it is well known that the string-coupling constant is determined by the vacuum expectation value of the dilaton field. This property, however, has never been demonstrated within the framework of string field theory. An explicit reparametrization of the string field associated with the shifts of the dilaton vacuum expectation value and the string-coupling constant is constructed exhibiting the above property in the light-cone field theory of the closed bosonic string. (orig.)

  13. Noise characteristics and flow field of an impinging jet on a conical obstacle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin; Xie, Junlong; Shu, Shuiming; Zhang, Yi, E-mail: hustxjl@163.com [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2017-12-15

    The noise characteristics and flow field of a low-speed impinging jet on a conical obstacle have been numerically simulated using the kinetic energy transport subgrid-scale model of the large-eddy simulation method. Noise measurement is carried out to validate the proposed simulation method. The effects of the impinging distance on the development, separation and diffusion of vortices on the back of the conical obstacle are investigated. The jet structure is better preserved and the vorticity value becomes larger as the impinging distance increases. Simulation results of the noise spectrums and overall sound pressure level (OASPL) agree well with the experimental data. The noise spectrums are analyzed and combined with simulation results for the flow field. When the impinging distance is small, the main acoustic sources with the broadband characteristic consist of the dipole source produced by pressure fluctuation on the surface of the obstacle, and the quadrupole source produced by vortices. As the impinging distance increases, the quadrupole source becomes the major acoustic source with low-frequency characteristics. In addition, the OASPL of the impinging jet is obtained at different impinging distances. (paper)

  14. Cathode fall model and current-voltage characteristics of field emission driven direct current microplasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy [Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2013-11-15

    The post-breakdown characteristics of field emission driven microplasma are studied theoretically and numerically. A cathode fall model assuming a linearly varying electric field is used to obtain equations governing the operation of steady state field emission driven microplasmas. The results obtained from the model by solving these equations are compared with particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulation results for parameters including the plasma potential, cathode fall thickness, ion number density in the cathode fall, and current density vs voltage curves. The model shows good overall agreement with the simulations but results in slightly overpredicted values for the plasma potential and the cathode fall thickness attributed to the assumed electric field profile. The current density vs voltage curves obtained show an arc region characterized by negative slope as well as an abnormal glow discharge characterized by a positive slope in gaps as small as 10 μm operating at atmospheric pressure. The model also retrieves the traditional macroscale current vs voltage theory in the absence of field emission.

  15. Cathode fall model and current-voltage characteristics of field emission driven direct current microplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2013-01-01

    The post-breakdown characteristics of field emission driven microplasma are studied theoretically and numerically. A cathode fall model assuming a linearly varying electric field is used to obtain equations governing the operation of steady state field emission driven microplasmas. The results obtained from the model by solving these equations are compared with particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulation results for parameters including the plasma potential, cathode fall thickness, ion number density in the cathode fall, and current density vs voltage curves. The model shows good overall agreement with the simulations but results in slightly overpredicted values for the plasma potential and the cathode fall thickness attributed to the assumed electric field profile. The current density vs voltage curves obtained show an arc region characterized by negative slope as well as an abnormal glow discharge characterized by a positive slope in gaps as small as 10 μm operating at atmospheric pressure. The model also retrieves the traditional macroscale current vs voltage theory in the absence of field emission

  16. Characteristics of forming of synonymic rows within lexical phraseological field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Валерьевна Волнакова

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the characteristics of forming of phraseological synonymic rows with a lexical identifier as a dominant of a row. Revealed synonymic rows mirror the deepness of systematic language relationships between lexis and phraseology.

  17. Expectation values of local fields in the Bullough-Dodd model and integrable perturbed conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fateev, V.; Lukyanov, S.; Zamolodchikov, A.; Zamolodchikov, A.

    1998-01-01

    Exact expectation values of the fields e aφ in the Bullough-Dodd model are derived by adopting the ''''reflection relations'''' which involve the reflection S-matrix of the Liouville theory, as well as a special analyticity assumption. Using this result we propose explicit expressions for expectation values of all primary operators in the c 1,2 or Φ 2,1 . Some results concerning the Φ 1,5 perturbed minimal models are also presented. (orig.)

  18. Expectation values of descendent fields in the Bullough-Dodd model and related perturbed conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseilhac, P.; Stanishkov, M.

    2001-01-01

    The exact vacuum expectation values of the second level descendent fields 2 (∂-barφ 2 e aφ in the Bullough-Dodd model are calculated. By performing quantum group restrictions, we obtain -2 L-bar -2 PHI lk > in the PHI 12 , PHI 21 and PHI 15 perturbed minimal CFTs. In particular, the exact expectation value is found to be proportional to the square of the bulk free energy

  19. Characteristic Value Method of Well Test Analysis for Horizontal Gas Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of characteristic value method of well test analysis for horizontal gas well. Owing to the complicated seepage flow mechanism in horizontal gas well and the difficulty in the analysis of transient pressure test data, this paper establishes the mathematical models of well test analysis for horizontal gas well with different inner and outer boundary conditions. On the basis of obtaining the solutions of the mathematical models, several type curves are plotted with Stehfest inversion algorithm. For gas reservoir with closed outer boundary in vertical direction and infinite outer boundary in horizontal direction, while considering the effect of wellbore storage and skin effect, the pseudopressure behavior of the horizontal gas well can manifest four characteristic periods: pure wellbore storage period, early vertical radial flow period, early linear flow period, and late horizontal pseudoradial flow period. For gas reservoir with closed outer boundary both in vertical and horizontal directions, the pseudopressure behavior of the horizontal gas well adds the pseudosteady state flow period which appears after the boundary response. For gas reservoir with closed outer boundary in vertical direction and constant pressure outer boundary in horizontal direction, the pseudopressure behavior of the horizontal gas well adds the steady state flow period which appears after the boundary response. According to the characteristic lines which are manifested by pseudopressure derivative curve of each flow period, formulas are developed to obtain horizontal permeability, vertical permeability, skin factor, reservoir pressure, and pore volume of the gas reservoir, and thus the characteristic value method of well test analysis for horizontal gas well is established. Finally, the example study verifies that the new method is reliable. Characteristic value method of well test analysis for horizontal gas well makes the well test analysis

  20. Effect of plastic viscosity and yield value on spray characteristics of magnesium-slurry fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prok, George M

    1957-01-01

    Magnesium slurries were sprayed onto a sheet of paper from an air-atomizing injector. Drop sizes and distributions were then determined from photomicrographs. Four different surface-active additives were used in preparing the slurries to give plastic viscosities between 0.22 and 0.51 poise and yield values between 150 and 810 dynes-cm(exp 2). It was found that there was no significant variation in the spray characteristics of these slurries when tested under the same conditions.

  1. Effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on storage characteristics, nutritive value, and energy content for alfalfa hays packaged in large, round bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2009 and 2010, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hays from two cuttings that were harvested from the same field site were used to evaluate the effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on the storage characteristics and nutritive value of hays stored as large, round bales. A total of 87 large...

  2. Immission protection law aspects of the determination of limiting values for electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebentisch, M.

    1994-01-01

    The discussion on the effects of electromagnetic fields on human beings is mostly concentrated on the question of how low the binding limiting values for this should be set. This does not nearly cover the multi-layer legal problems which arise in determining the limiting value. The article tackles the width of the problems. (orig.) [de

  3. Characteristics of vertical seismic motions and qp-values in sedimentary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohdo, Masanobu; Hatori, Toshiaki; Chiba, Osamu; Takahashi, Katsuya; Takemura, Masayuki; Tanaka, Hideo.

    1995-01-01

    Using seismic records observed in 4 borehole arrays, characteristics of vertical seismic motions in sedimentary layers are investigated. The results are as follows. 1) P-waves having intensive effect to vertical component are propagating within sedimentary layers even after the S-wave onset time (S-wave part). 2) Frequency dependent Q-values for P-waves (Qp) in Tertiary sediment layers obtained from the optimal analyses to spectral ratios have the tendency to be identical with Q-values for S-waves (Qs) with the same wavelength. 3) Observed vertical motions in upper ground can be simulated by the multiple reflection theory of P-waves based on the optimized velocities and Q-values. (author)

  4. Characteristic Rain Events: A Methodology for Improving the Amenity Value of Stormwater Control Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit Andersen, Jonas; Lerer, Sara Maria; Backhaus, Antje

    2017-01-01

    of achieving amenity value is to stage the rainwater and thus bring it to the attention of the public. We present here a methodology for creating a selection of rain events that can help bridge between engineering and landscape architecture when dealing with staging of rainwater. The methodology uses......Local management of rainwater using stormwater control measures (SCMs) is gaining increased attention as a sustainable alternative and supplement to traditional sewer systems. Besides offering added utility values, many SCMs also offer a great potential for added amenity values. One way...... quantitative and statistical methods to select Characteristic Rain Events (CREs) for a range of frequent return periods: weekly, bi-weekly, monthly, bi-monthly, and a single rarer event occurring only every 1–10 years. The methodology for selecting CREs is flexible and can be adjusted to any climatic settings...

  5. Napping Characteristics and Restricted Participation in Valued Activities Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Jocelynn T; Ramsey, Christine M; Tzuang, Marian; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Parisi, Jeanine M; Spira, Adam P

    2018-03-02

    Napping is associated with both positive and negative health outcomes among older adults. However, the association between particular napping characteristics (eg, frequency, duration, and whether naps were intentional) and daytime function is unclear. Participants were 2,739 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years from the nationally representative National Health and Aging Trends Study. Participants reported napping frequency, duration, and whether naps were intentional versus unintentional. Restricted participation in valued activities was measured by self-report. After adjusting for potential confounders and nighttime sleep duration, those who took intentional and unintentional naps had a greater odds of any valued activity restriction (ie, ≥1 valued activity restriction), compared to those who rarely/never napped (unintentional odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01, 1.79, intentional OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.09, 2.04). There was no difference between unintentional napping and intentional napping with respect to any valued activity restriction after adjustment for demographics. Compared to participants napping "some days," those napping most days/every day had a greater odds of any valued activity restriction (OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.30, 2.16). Moreover, each 30-minute increase in average nap duration was associated with a 25% greater odds of any valued activity restriction (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.10, 1.43). Older adults who took more frequent or longer naps were more likely to report activity restrictions, as were those who took intentional or unintentional naps. Additional longitudinal studies with objective measures of sleep are needed to further our understanding of associations between napping characteristics and daytime dysfunction. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Discharge characteristics in inhomogeneous fields under air flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Holbøll, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    the frequency and magnitude of partial discharges in the vicinity of the electrode due to an increased rate of space charge removal around the tip of the needle and in the gap. The positive polarity shows higher dependency on air flow compared to the negative polarity. It is shown that positive breakdown......This research investigates the impact of high velocity air flow on Partial Discharge (PD) patterns generated in strongly inhomogeneous fields. In the laboratory, a needle plane electrode configuration was exposed to a high electrical DC-field and a laminar air flow up to 22 ms. The needle...

  7. Vortex and characteristics of prestrained type-II deformable superconductors under magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Zeling; Wang, Xingzhe; Zhou, Youhe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical investigation of magnetic vortex dynamics of a deformable superconductor with prestrains is presented. • The prestrain has a remarkable influence on the magnetic vortex distribution and dynamics. • The different prestrains, i.e., pre-given compression and tension strains, result in dissimilar characteristics. • The energy density and spectrum in the deformable superconductor are demonstrated. - Abstract: Based on the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau (TDGL) theory and the linear deformation theory, we present a numerical investigation of magnetic vortex characteristics of a type-II deformable superconductor with prestrain. The effect of prestrain on the wave function, vortex dynamics and energy density of a superconducting film is analyzed by solving the nonlinear TDGL equations in the presence of magnetic field. The results show that the prestrain has a remarkable influence on the magnetic vortex distribution and the vortex dynamics, as well as value of wave function of the superconductor. The different prestrains, i.e., pre-given compression and tension strains, result in dissimilar characteristics on a half-plane of deformable superconductor in an applied magnetic field, and the vortex distribution and entrance in a two dimensional superconducting film. The studies demonstrated that the compression prestrain may speed up the vortexes entering into the region of the superconducting film and increases the vortex number in comparison with those of free-prestrain case, while the tension prestrain shows the reversal features. The energy density and spectrum in the superconductor are further demonstrated numerically and discussed. The present investigation is an attempt to give insight into the superconductivity and electromagnetic characteristics taking into account the elastic deformation in superconductors.

  8. EXAMINE THE PAST FOR GOING FURTHER: A LITERATURE REVIEW IN THE FIELD OF FAIR VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreicovici Ionela - Irina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study is part of the scientific approach being assumed at the beginning of the Ph.D. as the theme 'New valence of evaluation in accounting' under the guidance of prof. univ. dr. Dumitru Matis. This article aims to realize a more comprehensive study of relevant literature in accounting with fair value as the main subject. We have built our study attempting to answer the following research questions: How much fair value activity has there been since 2008? What research topics are being addressed? Who is leading fair value research? What are the limitations of current research? To achieve our proposed objectives we analyzed two databases (Science Direct and Business Source Premier during 2008-2011, analyzing in detail a total of 22 articles divided into five specific research directions: international regulations on fair value accounting, fair Value Accounting and Financial Crisis, financial reporting at fair value, the relevance of fair value and fair value versus historical cost. With this research we try to see 'what is known' in the field of fair value so far . In addition to qualitative analysis which we performed to discover the interest of researchers in this field, we conducted a quantitative analysis concerning the reported studies , being divided into research themes, research methodology and year of the article publication. Quantitative research results are those anticipated, that the most 'fair value activity ' took place in 2008 and 2009, surveys having as main research theme international regulations on fair value accounting.

  9. Unstable plasma characteristics in mirror field electron cyclotron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    left hand polarized (LHP) wave. Shufflbotham and ... of a Maxwellian distribution and also the non-effectiveness of a magnetic field on plasma ... Plot of microwave input power versus reflected power and ion current density at pressure 0.4 ...

  10. Industrial--hydrogeological characteristics of water in the Orenburg Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortsenshtein, V N; Zhabrev, I P; Uchastkin, Yu V; Alekseeva, I V

    1977-06-01

    An examination is made of the industrial hydrogeological conditions of the Orenburg Field in connection with the beginning of its development. Features of pay dirt water manifestation are demonstrated, genetic types of water brought out by gas flow are described, and methods are suggested for processing hydrogeological information. 3 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  11. Renormalization of the scalar field theory with spontaneously broken discrete symmetry without shifting the field vacuum expectation value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solin, J.

    1988-01-01

    The one-loop renormalization of the λφ 4 theory with a spontaneous breaking of its discrete (reflection) symmetry is analyzed. It is explicitly shown that it is not necessary to forcefully eliminate the linear counterterm in the shifted field (accomplished usually by shifting the vacuum expectation value of the field) in order to have the renormalized Lagrangian still formally invariant under the original discrete symmetry. It is further shown, using the normal-ordering procedure, that the renormalization carried out in the customary form completely wipes out the tadpole diagram contributions from the original Lagrangian. As a consequence, the same renormalized Lagrangian can be also obtained from the original bare Lagrangian which, however, has been normal-ordered and as such cannot cause the linear counterterm in the shifted field since now the tadpole diagrams are absent altogether. These analyses should support the view that the vacuum expectation value of the field is of a group-theoretical origin rather than a field-theoretical origin, and as such should not change independently of the shifted field in the course of renormalization

  12. Value-centric design architecture based on analysis of space system characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Hollingsworth, P.; Smith, K.

    2018-03-01

    Emerging design concepts such as miniaturisation, modularity, and standardisation, have contributed to the rapid development of small and inexpensive platforms, particularly cubesats. This has been stimulating an upcoming revolution in space design and development, leading satellites into the era of "smaller, faster, and cheaper". However, the current requirement-centric design philosophy, focused on bespoke monolithic systems, along with the associated development and production process does not inherently fit with the innovative modular, standardised, and mass-produced technologies. This paper presents a new categorisation, characterisation, and value-centric design architecture to address this need for both traditional and novel system designs. Based on the categorisation of system configurations, a characterisation of space systems, comprised of duplication, fractionation, and derivation, is proposed to capture the overall system configuration characteristics and promote potential hybrid designs. Complying with the definitions of the system characterisation, mathematical mapping relations between the system characterisation and the system properties are described to establish the mathematical foundation of the proposed value-centric design methodology. To illustrate the methodology, subsystem reliability relationships are therefore analysed to explore potential system configurations in the design space. The results of the applications of system characteristic analysis clearly show that the effects of different configuration characteristics on the system properties can be effectively analysed and evaluated, enabling the optimization of system configurations.

  13. Optimal Value of Series Capacitors for Uniform Field Distribution in Transmission Line MRI Coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Transmission lines are often used as coils in high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Due to the distributed nature of transmission lines, coils based on them produce inhomogeneous field. This work investigates application of series capacitors to improve field homogeneity along the coil....... The equations for optimal values of evenly distributed capacitors are derived and expressed in terms of the implemented transmission line parameters.The achieved magnetic field homogeneity is estimated under quasistatic approximation and compared to the regular transmission line resonator. Finally, a more...... practical case of a microstrip line coil with two series capacitors is considered....

  14. Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Performance: Do Organizational and Market Characteristics Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Aaron; Edwardson, Nick; Zhao, Mei

    The hospital value-based purchasing (HVBP) program of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services challenges hospitals to deliver high-quality care or face a reduction in Medicare payments. How do different organizational structures and market characteristics enable or inhibit successful transition to this new model of value-based care? To address that question, this study employs an institutional theory lens to test whether certain organizational structures and market characteristics mediate hospitals' ability to perform across HVBP domains.Data from the 2014 American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database, Area Health Resource File, the Medicare Hospital Compare Database, and the association between external environment and hospital performance are assessed through multiple regression analysis. Results indicate that hospitals that belong to a system are more likely than independent hospitals to score highly on the domains associated with the HVBP incentive arrangement. However, varying and sometimes counterintuitive market influences bring different dimensions to the HVBP program. A hospital's ability to score well in this new value arrangement may be heavily based on the organization's ability to learn from others, implement change, and apply the appropriate amount of control in various markets.

  15. Time characteristics of photon fields at a nuclear medicine clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimak, J.; Hermanska, J.; Sabol, J.

    1998-01-01

    The radiation fields were measured at the Nuclear Medicine Clinic of the Faculty Hospital in Prague-Motol. Gamma photons from iodine 131 administered to the patients is the main contributor to the fields. The dose rates at short distances from the patients can be as high as 20 mSv/h, whereby the cumulated doses to the health care personnel can exceed the annual limits for professional exposures. It is very important that unnecessary close contact with the patients be avoided unless emergency of other urgent procedures are required. Administration of high activities to several patients sharing a room in the ward should also be taken into account when handling the patients (including food service, housekeeping, changing linen, etc.). In normal circumstances, the radiation level in corridors and at other places accessible to cancer patients within the clinic are usually below 5 μSv/h averaged for 1 min intervals. (P.A.)

  16. SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF THE "KONGORA" - TOMISLAVGRAD COAL FIELD (WEST HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Živković

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available According to it's energy potential »Kongora« coal field is very important source of energy. Coal strech, spreading and laying and proportion between coal and barren give good presumption for a rentabile surface exploitation. The coal analyses, specially analysis of sulphur content showed, that content of harm component on the update technology level is in permissible limits, and exploitation in thermal power plants will not destroy environment (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. Mathematical model of voltage-current characteristics of Bi(2223)/Ag magnets under an external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Pitel, J; Lehtonen, J; Kovács, P

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a mathematical model, which enables us to predict the voltage-current V(I) characteristics of a solenoidal high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet subjected to an external magnetic field parallel to the magnet axis. The model takes into account the anisotropy in the critical current-magnetic field (I sub c (B)) characteristic and the n-value of Bi(2223)Ag multifilamentary tape at 20 K. From the power law between the electric field and the ratio of the operating and critical currents, the voltage on the magnet terminals is calculated by integrating the contributions of individual turns. The critical current of each turn, at given values of operating current and external magnetic field, is obtained by simple linear interpolation between the two suitable points of the I sub c (B) characteristic, which corresponds to the angle alpha between the vector of the resulting magnetic flux density and the broad tape face. In fact, the model is valid for any value and orientation of external magneti...

  18. Gauge-invariant expectation values of the energy of a molecule in an electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Anirban; Hunt, Katharine L. C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the full Hamiltonian for a molecule in an electromagnetic field can be separated into a molecular Hamiltonian and a field Hamiltonian, both with gauge-invariant expectation values. The expectation value of the molecular Hamiltonian gives physically meaningful results for the energy of a molecule in a time-dependent applied field. In contrast, the usual partitioning of the full Hamiltonian into molecular and field terms introduces an arbitrary gauge-dependent potential into the molecular Hamiltonian and leaves a gauge-dependent form of the Hamiltonian for the field. With the usual partitioning of the Hamiltonian, this same problem of gauge dependence arises even in the absence of an applied field, as we show explicitly by considering a gauge transformation from zero applied field and zero external potentials to zero applied field, but non-zero external vector and scalar potentials. We resolve this problem and also remove the gauge dependence from the Hamiltonian for a molecule in a non-zero applied field and from the field Hamiltonian, by repartitioning the full Hamiltonian. It is possible to remove the gauge dependence because the interaction of the molecular charges with the gauge potential cancels identically with a gauge-dependent term in the usual form of the field Hamiltonian. We treat the electromagnetic field classically and treat the molecule quantum mechanically, but nonrelativistically. Our derivation starts from the Lagrangian for a set of charged particles and an electromagnetic field, with the particle coordinates, the vector potential, the scalar potential, and their time derivatives treated as the variables in the Lagrangian. We construct the full Hamiltonian using a Lagrange multiplier method originally suggested by Dirac, partition this Hamiltonian into a molecular term H m and a field term H f , and show that both H m and H f have gauge-independent expectation values. Any gauge may be chosen for the calculations; but

  19. Characteristics and values of a British military nurse. International implications of War Zone qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Alan; Finnegan, Sara; McKenna, Hugh; McGhee, Stephen; Ricketts, Lynda; McCourt, Kath; Warren, Jem; Thomas, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Between 2001 and 2014, British military nurses served in Afghanistan caring for both Service personnel and local nationals of all ages. However, there have been few research studies assessing the effectiveness of the military nurses' operational role and no papers naming the core values and characteristics. This paper is from the only qualitative nursing study completed during this period where data was collected in the War Zone. To explore the characteristics and values that are intrinsic to military nurses in undertaking their operational role. A constructivist grounded theory was utilised. The authors designed the interview schedule, and then following a pilot study, conducted and transcribed the discussions. Informed consent and UK Ministry of Defence Research Ethical Committee approval was obtained. Camp Bastion Hospital, Afghanistan, in 2013. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 British Armed Forces nurses. A theoretical model was developed that identifies the intrinsic characteristics and values required to be a military nurse. Nursing care delivered within the operational environment was perceived as outstanding. Nurses consciously detached themselves from any legal processes and treated each casualty as a vulnerable patient, resulting in care, compassion and dignity being provided for all patients, irrespective of their background, beliefs or affiliations. The study findings provide military nurses with a framework for a realistic personal development plan that will allow them to build upon their strengths as well as to identify and ameliorate potential areas of weakness. Placing nurses first, with a model that focusses on the requirements of a good nurse has the potential to lead to better patient care, and improve the quality of the tour for defence nurses. These findings have international implications and have the potential for transferability to any level of military or civilian nursing practice. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by

  20. The Characteristics Of Malay House Spatial Layout Of Pekanbaru In Accordance With Islamic Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Boby

    2017-12-01

    House is not only is a place to get rest and do activities bu also treated as a pride for the Malay community. The values contained in the spatial layout of the house have specific meaning to the owners. This makes the Malay house becomes the symbol of pride to uphold the “tuah” and dignity of the owner. This research is conducted using qualitative approach through management and data management available through several methods such as observation, interview, documentation and group discussion. This is expected to provide understanding of the perception of Islam dealing with the characteristics of the spatial layout of the Malay house of Pekanbaru.

  1. Study on CNPEC's nuclear AE organization, its characteristics and industrial value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianguang; Kuang Wei

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies and analyzes CNPEC's AE organizational operation model and its characteristics in details to explore its value and contribution to the reform of Chinese state-owned enterprises. By building the design and construction integration platform, CNPEC integrates the resources of the nuclear industry chain to effectively ensure the whole performance, the safety and high quality of nuclear power plants under construction; by establishing the total quality partnership which focuses on the cross-border quality management and control, CNPEC enhances the quality management level of enterprises in the nuclear industry chain; by promoting the technology development cooperation, CNPEC improves the technological advancement of the whole nuclear industry chain. (authors)

  2. A characteristic scale in radiation fields of fractal clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiscombe, W.; Cahalan, R.; Davis, A.; Marshak, A. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The wavenumber spectrum of Landsat imagery for marine stratocumulus cloud shows a scale break when plotted on a double log plot. We offer an explanation of this scale break in terms of smoothing by horizontal radiative fluxes, which is parameterized and incorporated into an improved pixel approximation. We compute the radiation fields emerging from cloud models with horizontally variable optical depth fractal models. We use comparative spectral and multifractal analysis to qualify the validity of the independent pixel approximation at the largest scales and demonstrate it`s shortcomings on the smallest scales.

  3. Heating value characteristics of sewage sludge: a comparative study of different sludge types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-JU.; Kang, Hae-Ok.; Qureshi, T.I.

    2005-01-01

    Heating value characteristics of three different types of sludge, i.e. domestic sewage sludge, industrial sludge, and industrial + domestic sewage sludge were investigated. Industrial + domestic sewage sludge (thickened) showed the highest heating value (5040 kcal/kg) than other sludge types. This may be due to increased amount of organic matter presents in thickened sludge than de-watered sludge. A gradual increase in organic matter of the sludge was observed with the increase of the moisture contents. Heating value of the sludge having 60% moisture contents was found in the range between 924-1656 kcal/kg and this amount was higher than the minimum heating value (800 kcal/kg) required sustaining auto thermal combustion in sludge incineration process. Energy consumption requirement for pre drying sludge operations revealed that industrial sludge (de-watered) required the minimum cost (13 $/ton of sludge) to make it a sludge of fuel grade (60% W), while mixed sludge cost the highest amount for its pre-drying operations. (author)

  4. Organoleptic characteristics and nutritive value estimation of baked food products from Manonjaya variety salacca flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarto; Aprianty, D.; Bachtiar, R. A.; Kristiana, L.

    2018-01-01

    Manonjaya salacca (snake fruit) is one of the original varieties of Indonesia which is currently declining due to the quality of taste less favoured than the snake fruit on the market. This variety in the future is feared to be lost, so it is necessary to revitalize the utilization of this snake fruit by diversifying processed products, one of them is baked food products from Manonjaya salacca flour. The purpose of this research was to know the acceptance level of baked food products from Manonjaya salacca flour organoleptically and the nutritional value estimation. This research method was observational with a descriptive explanation. Panellists in this study were consumers with a total of 61 people. Organoleptically, respondents tend to value cake, muffin, cookies, and flakes in every color, flavor, taste, and texture parameters. Nutritional value per 100 g of baked food products from Salacca flour (cake, muffin, cookies, flakes) were energy 287.5-479.0 kcal, water 0.8-3.8 g, protein 6.0-6.7 g, fat 0.8-31.0 g, carbohydrates 45.0-98.8 g, and fiber 1.1-4.6 g. Panellists were accepted the organoleptic characteristics and the estimated nutritional values on baked food products from Manonjaya variety salacca flour were varied.

  5. HEATING CHARACTERISTICS OF SOFTWOODS IN A HIGH FREQUENCY FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian LĂZĂRESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to establish whetherdielectric heating at radio frequencies might be afeasible option for phytosanitation of green softwoodboards. Results are presented for two softwoodspecies, namely, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta andwestern red cedar (Thujaplicata Donn., and forsingle-specimen testing configurations with a crosssection of 40x90mm surrounded on three sides bysimilar cross-section kiln dried boards. In terms ofdielectric properties, red cedar is nature "designed" toabsorb more easily the dielectric fields. Heating rateswere not correlated with moisture content for neitherspecies investigated thus underlining the versatility ofRF-heating that allows simultaneous rise oftemperature within dry and wet areas. Convectionlosses through air contact may reduce the averageheating rate of the shell by about 40%.

  6. Coupling coefficient between the Pc3 frequency and the value of the interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul'el'mi, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Mean value and spread of coupling coefficient g between geomagnetic pulsation Ps3 frequency and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) value are evaluated according to a set of all measurements described in literature and to additional measurements at Borok observatory (50 hour intervals in January, 1973). Attention is paid to a relatively small spread of g and to a weak g dependence on IMF orientation. The both facts are out of scope of the elementary Ps3 theory

  7. Cloud microphysical characteristics versus temperature for three Canadian field projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Gultepe

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to better understand how cloud microphysical characteristics such as liquid water content (LWC and droplet number concentration (Nd change with temperature (T. The in situ observations were collected during three research projects including: the Radiation, Aerosol, and Cloud Experiment (RACE which took place over the Bay of Fundy and Central Ontario during August 1995, the First International Regional Arctic Cloud Experiment (FIRE.ACE which took place in the Arctic Ocean during April 1998, and the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS which took place in the Ontario region during the winter of 1999–2000. The RACE, FIRE.ACE, and AIRS projects represent summer mid-latitude clouds, Arctic clouds, and mid-latitude winter clouds, respectively. A LWC threshold of 0.005 g m-3 was used for this study. Similar to other studies, LWC was observed to decrease with decreasing T. The LWC-T relationship was similar for all projects, although the range of T conditions for each project was substantially different, and the variability of LWC within each project was considerable. Nd also decreased with decreasing T, and a parameterization for Nd versus T is suggested that may be useful for modeling studies.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; general circulation

  8. Characteristics of eye-position gain field populations determine geometry of visual space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney R Lehky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated differences in eye-position spatial maps for anterior inferotemporal cortex (AIT in the ventral stream and lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP in the dorsal stream, based on population decoding of gaze angle modulations of neural visual responses (i.e., eye-position gain fields. Here we explore the basis of such spatial encoding differences through modeling of gain field characteristics. We created a population of model neurons, each having a different eye-position gain field. This population was used to reconstruct eye-position visual space using multidimensional scaling. As gain field shapes have never been well established experimentally, we examined different functions, including planar, sigmoidal, elliptical, hyperbolic, and mixtures of those functions. All functions successfully recovered positions, indicating weak constraints on allowable gain field shapes. We then used a genetic algorithm to modify the characteristics of model gain field populations until the recovered spatial maps closely matched those derived from monkey neurophysiological data in AIT and LIP. The primary differences found between model AIT and LIP gain fields were that AIT gain fields were more foveally dominated. That is, gain fields in AIT operated on smaller spatial scales and smaller dispersions than in LIP. Thus we show that the geometry of eye-position visual space depends on the population characteristics of gain fields, and that differences in gain field characteristics for different cortical areas may underlie differences in the representation of space.

  9. Unsteady characteristics of a slat-cove flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascioni, Kyle A.; Cattafesta, Louis N.

    2018-03-01

    The leading-edge slat of a multielement wing is a significant contributor to the acoustic signature of an aircraft during the approach phase of the flight path. An experimental study of the two-dimensional 30P30N geometry is undertaken to further understand the flow physics and specific noise source mechanisms. The mean statistics from particle image velocimetry (PIV) shows the differences in the flow field with angle of attack, including the interaction between the cove and trailing-edge flow. Phase-locked PIV successfully links narrow-band peaks found in the surface pressure spectrum to shear layer instabilities and also reveals that a bulk cove oscillation at a Strouhal number based on a slat chord of 0.15 exists, indicative of shear layer flapping. Unsteady surface pressure measurements are documented and used to estimate spanwise coherence length scales. A narrow-band frequency prediction scheme is also tested and found to agree well with the data. Furthermore, higher-order spectral analysis suggests that nonlinear effects cause additional peaks to arise in the power spectrum, particularly at low angles of attack.

  10. Field type, trap type and field-edge characteristics affect Rhagoletis mendax captures in lowbush blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, Justin M; Cutler, G Christopher; Gaul, Sonia O

    2014-11-01

    Blueberry maggot, Rhagoletis mendax Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of blueberries in eastern North America. Insecticide use in fruit-bearing lowbush blueberry fields could be reduced with management strategies focused on vegetative fields. Fly distribution and fruit infestation levels were assessed where fruit-bearing and vegetative fields adjoin and along forested edges of vegetative fields. Along adjoining edges, immature female flies were captured in fruiting fields and mature females in vegetative fields throughout the season. Male fly captures and fruit infestation levels were greater at 5 m than at 30 m from the edge. Along forested edges, fly captures were best predicted by densities of ripe lowbush blueberries and large coniferous trees. Maggot infestation level in lowbush blueberries was best predicted by blueberry density and small deciduous trees. Bunchberry, Cornus canadensis L., was the only non-crop host in which blueberry maggot was found. We have shown that relatively high numbers of flies occur in vegetative fields and at edges of fruiting fields. Ripe blueberries and certain vegetation in forested edges affect fly distribution and probably maintain populations. These results may help to predict where controls for blueberry maggot should be targeted and suggest that management strategies focused on vegetative fields and field edges may be worthwhile. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Characteristic Rain Events: A Methodology for Improving the Amenity Value of Stormwater Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Smit Andersen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Local management of rainwater using stormwater control measures (SCMs is gaining increased attention as a sustainable alternative and supplement to traditional sewer systems. Besides offering added utility values, many SCMs also offer a great potential for added amenity values. One way of achieving amenity value is to stage the rainwater and thus bring it to the attention of the public. We present here a methodology for creating a selection of rain events that can help bridge between engineering and landscape architecture when dealing with staging of rainwater. The methodology uses quantitative and statistical methods to select Characteristic Rain Events (CREs for a range of frequent return periods: weekly, bi-weekly, monthly, bi-monthly, and a single rarer event occurring only every 1–10 years. The methodology for selecting CREs is flexible and can be adjusted to any climatic settings; here we show its use for Danish conditions. We illustrate with a case study how CREs can be used in combination with a simple hydrological model to visualize where, how deep and for how long water is visible in a landscape designed to manage rainwater.

  12. Structures, values, and interaction in field-level partnerships: the case of UNHCR and NGOs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommers, C.; Wessel, van M.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the process of transforming partnership from a conceptual framework into a practical, operational framework for field-level interaction among humanitarian organisations. The authors approach this transformation from the perspective of the core values of the partnership concept

  13. Value creation by knowledge-based ecosystems : evidence from a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgh, van der W.; Cloodt, M.M.A.H.; Romme, A.G.L.

    2012-01-01

    Agrowing number of research and development-driven companies are located in knowledgebased ecosystems. Value creation by these ecosystems draws on the dynamics of single firms (interacting and partnering) as well as the ecosystem at large. Drawing on a field study of a Dutch high-tech campus, two

  14. Force Characteristics Analysis for Linear Machine with DC Field Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A/L Krishna Preshant

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In urban regions and particularly in developing countries such as Malaysia with its ever-growing transport sector, there is the need for energy efficient systems. In urban railway systems there is a requirement of frequent braking and start/stop motion, and energy is lost during these processes. To improve the issues of the conventional braking systems, particularly in Japan, they have introduced linear induction motor techniques. The drawbacks of this method, however, is the use of permanent magnets, which not only increase the weight of the entire system but also increases magnetic cogging. Hence an alternative is required which uses the same principles as Magnetic-Levitation but using a magnet-less system. Therefore, the objective of this research is to propose an electromagnetic rail brake system and to analyze the effect of replacing permanent magnets with a magnet-less braking systems to produce a significant amount of brake thrust as compared with the permanent magnet system. The modeling and performance analysis of the model is done using Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The mechanical aspects of the model are designed on Solidworks and then imported to JMAG Software to proceed with the electro-magnetic analysis of the model. There are 3 models developed: Base Model (steel, Permanent Magnet (PM Model and DC Coil Model. The performance of the proposed 2D models developed is evaluated in terms of average force produced and motor constant square density. By comparing the values for the 3 models for the same case of 9A current supplied for a 0.1mm/s moving velocity, the base model, permanent magnet model and DC coil model produced an average force of 7.78 N, 7.55 N, and 8.34 N respectively, however, with increase in DC current supplied to the DC coil model, the average force produced is increased to 13.32 N. Thus, the advantage of the DC coil (magnet-less model, is, that the force produced can be controlled by varying the number of turns in the

  15. Amplitude-phase characteristics of electromagnetic fields diffracted by a hole in a thin film with realistic optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeyev, Illarion

    2009-03-01

    Characteristics of a quasi-spherical wave front of an electromagnetic field diffracted by a subwavelength hole in a thin film with real optical properties are studied. Related diffraction problem is solved in general by use of the scalar and vector Green's theorems and related Green's function of a boundary-value problem. Local phase deviations of a diffracted wave front from an ideal spherical front are calculated. Diffracted patterns are calculated for the coherent incident fields in case of holes array in a screen of perfect conductivity.

  16. Water activities in Forsmark. Ecological field inventory and classification of biodiversity values and description of forest production land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per

    2010-12-01

    In 2009, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) chose Forsmark in the Municipality of Oesthammar as site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report describes nature values and forestry areas in Forsmark, and provides part of the background material for description of consequences due to groundwater diversion during construction and operation of the repository. The report describes results of map studies and comprehensive field investigations, in terms of geographical delineations, descriptions of characteristics and classifications of nature values for groundwater dependent or groundwater favoured nature objects in Forsmark. The nature objects are located in an investigation area, which contains the area that according to numerical flow modelling could be affected by groundwater-table drawdown due to groundwater diversion

  17. Influence of magnetic field on the electrical breakdown characteristics in cylindrical diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shouzhe; Uhm, Han S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of magnetic field on the electrical breakdown properties is investigated by applying a magnetic field along the longitudinal direction in a cylindrical diode for two electrical polarities. Breakdown characteristics in a crossed magnetic field are analyzed with the equivalentreduced-electric-field concept and Townsend criterion. The discharge experiment at reduced pressure is carried out in the moderate magnetic field. Experimental investigation is concentrated on the magnetic dependent behavior of the electrical breakdown in the lower pressure side of Paschen's minimum. It is found that the electrical breakdown characteristics with respect to the magnetic field depend on electrical polarity of the cylindrical diode, which is interpreted by taking the gyromotion of the individual electrons in the diode into accounts under the moderate magnetic field in the lower pressure side of Paschen's minimum

  18. Predicting the calorific value of refuse derived fuel from the characteristics of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivapalan Kathiravale; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Mohamad Puad Abu; Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa; Mohd Fairus Abdul Farid; Norasalwa Zakaria; Khaironie Mohd Takip; Rohyiza Ba'an

    2006-01-01

    The Imposing need to manage the municipal solid waste generated by society in a proper manner has urged municipalities to look into new management methods, which are not only environmentally friendly but also economically profitable. One such way is by converting this waste material into fuel. Currently, Kajang in the State of Selangor, Malaysia, generates about 700 tons of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) a day. Due to rapid development, lack of land area for new landfill and the environmental impact of raw landfills, the local municipal council has collaborated with a local company in the management of this waste. The company has proposed to convert the MSW to Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF). In view of this, a pilot plant to convert MSW to RDF was erected by the company and begun operation in January 2002. This pilot plant has the capability of converting 15 tons of MSW to 5 tons of RDF. At the same time studies, have been carried out to assess the plant performance, the flue gas analysis, and also the MSW and RDF characteristic. This paper will highlight the findings of the MSW and RDF characterization work carried out over the past year. Sampling and analysis was carried in accordance with ASTM standards. Results of the waste analysis showed that the calorific value of the resulting RDF could be predicted from the physical characteristics as well as the moisture content. Regression analysis on the available data has been used to create equations relating the proximate composition and moisture content of the incoming municipal solid waste to the calorific value of the RDF

  19. Multidimensional performance characteristics and standard of performance in talented youth field hockey players : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Mulder, Theo

    2007-01-01

    To identify performance characteristics that could help predict future elite field hockey players, we measured the anthropometric, physiological, technical, tactical, and psychological characteristics of 30 elite and 35 sub-elite youth players at the end of three consecutive seasons. The mean age of

  20. THE CURRENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE VALUE RELEVANCE RESEARCH FIELD

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen- Alexandra BALTARIU

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the scientific literature referring to the value relevance of reported accounting information over a twelve year period starting from 2002. The approach of the paper is a theoretical (conceptual) one. In order to complete the purpose of the paper we selected as research method the longitudinal qualitative analysis. The qualitative analysis carried out presents a deductive character. Our conclusions regarding the general characteristics of the research fi...

  1. Determination of Component Contents of Blend Oil Based on Characteristics Peak Value Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Pei-guo; Wang, Yu-tian; Pan, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Edible blend oil market is confused at present. It has some problems such as confusing concepts, randomly named, shoddy and especially the fuzzy standard of compositions and ratios in blend oil. The national standard fails to come on time after eight years. The basic reason is the lack of qualitative and quantitative detection of vegetable oils in blend oil. Edible blend oil is mixed by different vegetable oils according to a certain proportion. Its nutrition is rich. Blend oil is eaten frequently in daily life. Different vegetable oil contains a certain components. The mixed vegetable oil can make full use of their nutrients and make the nutrients more balanced in blend oil. It is conducive to people's health. It is an effectively way to monitor blend oil market by the accurate determination of single vegetable oil content in blend oil. The types of blend oil are known, so we only need for accurate determination of its content. Three dimensional fluorescence spectra are used for the contents in blend oil. A new method of data processing is proposed with calculation of characteristics peak value integration in chosen characteristic area based on Quasi-Monte Carlo method, combined with Neural network method to solve nonlinear equations to obtain single vegetable oil content in blend oil. Peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil are used as research object to reconcile into edible blend oil, with single oil regarded whole, not considered each oil's components. Recovery rates of 10 configurations of edible harmonic oil is measured to verify the validity of the method of characteristics peak value integration. An effective method is provided to detect components content of complex mixture in high sensitivity. Accuracy of recovery rats is increased, compared the common method of solution of linear equations used to detect components content of mixture. It can be used in the testing of kinds and content of edible vegetable oil in blend oil for the food quality detection

  2. CONCEPT OF "GENERIC ORIGIN" AND CHRISTIAN VALUES AS THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF PAVEL VASILYEV'S ARTISTIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Viktorovna Popova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article contemplates the system of moral and aesthetic values which predetermined the main characteristics of Pavel Vasilyev’s artistic system, and traces the main stages of his creative biography. The main attention is paid to his key works – poems The Song about Death of Cossack Army, Salt Revolt, Khristolyubovskiye Printed Cottons, Summer, and August, as well as the poems written during the period of 1930–1937 (Farewell to Friends, Stonemason, Old Moscow, Serafi m Dagaev’s Town, Horse, Camel, Injured Song, Oath on Chalice. The article raises the question about the most important role of the concept of “generic origin”, Christian values and Christian symbolism in Vasilyev’s poetics and studies the problem of using various forms of verbal folk art in the art structure of his poems for the reflection of Russian orthodox traditions. The axiological approach and methods of historical typological and structural semiotic methods for studying art texts are used.

  3. MODEL OF INTEGRATED VALUE OF PROJECTS IN THE FIELD OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Ігорівна БОРИСОВА

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of alternative energy sources requires the implementation of complex problems, the solution of which is necessary to apply the project approach. The uniqueness of alternative energy projects (AEP necessitates individual approach to evaluating the effectiveness of each. The paper contains the results of the project management features's analysis in the field of alternative energy, determining the values and developing of the value management integrated conceptual model of AEP. In assessing the effectiveness of AEP considered the socio-economic and commercial aspects. Value management integrated conceptual model of AEP was obtained by combining the classical model of the project management goals with the project values model "Five "E" and two "A". The classical model of the project management goals have been complemented with risk parameters.

  4. Determination of Soil Moisture Content using Laboratory Experimental and Field Electrical Resistivity Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Rosli, S.; Fauziah, A.; Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Ashraf, M. I. M.; Faizal, T. B. M.; Kamarudin, A. F.; Rais, Y.; Dan, M. F. Md; Azhar, A. T. S.; Hafiz, Z. M.

    2018-04-01

    The efficiency of civil engineering structure require comprehensive geotechnical data obtained from site investigation. In the past, conventional site investigation was heavily related to drilling techniques thus suffer from several limitations such as time consuming, expensive and limited data collection. Consequently, this study presents determination of soil moisture content using laboratory experimental and field electrical resistivity values (ERV). Field and laboratory electrical resistivity (ER) test were performed using ABEM SAS4000 and Nilsson400 soil resistance meter. Soil sample used for resistivity test was tested for characterization test specifically on particle size distribution and moisture content test according to BS1377 (1990). Field ER data was processed using RES2DINV software while laboratory ER data was analyzed using SPSS and Excel software. Correlation of ERV and moisture content shows some medium relationship due to its r = 0.506. Moreover, coefficient of determination, R2 analyzed has demonstrate that the statistical correlation obtain was very good due to its R2 value of 0.9382. In order to determine soil moisture content based on statistical correlation (w = 110.68ρ-0.347), correction factor, C was established through laboratory and field ERV given as 19.27. Finally, this study has shown that soil basic geotechnical properties with particular reference to water content was applicably determined using integration of laboratory and field ERV data analysis thus able to compliment conventional approach due to its economic, fast and wider data coverage.

  5. Fretting friction and wear characteristics of magnetorheological fluid under different magnetic field strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, C.H.

    2017-01-01

    A magnetorheological fluid (MRF) performs differently under different magnetic field strength. This study examined the fretting friction and wear characteristics of MRFs under a range of magnetic field strengths and oscillation frequencies. The fretting friction and wear behaviors of MRF are investigated using a fretting friction and wear tester. The surfaces of specimen are examined by optical microscopy and 3D surface profilometer before and after the tests and wear surface profiles, the wear volume loss and wear coefficient for each magnetic field strength are evaluated. The results show that the friction and wear properties of MRF change according to the magnetic field strength and oscillation frequency. - Highlights: • Fretting friction and wear characteristics of MRF is examined. • The friction coefficients increased with increasing magnetic field strength. • The coefficient of friction decreased with increasing oscillation frequency. • Wear volume and coefficient become worse with increasing magnetic field strength.

  6. Evaluation for dinitrogen fixation of alfalfa in field based on δ15N value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yunyin; Chen Ming; Zhang Xizhong

    1992-12-01

    The dinitrogen fixation rate of alfalfa was estimated grown in pot and field experiments. β values (isotope fraction factor) of 7 cultivars of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) grown in N-free liquid culture medium were examined. Variations in the δ 15 N values of varieties of alfalfa at growing seasons and forage grasses grown under various conditions were measured. %Ndfa of alfalfa was estimated using the natural 15 N abundance method, 15 N isotope dilution method and total N difference, and their accuracy was compared

  7. Assessing the Value of Regulation Resources Based on Their Time Response Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Lu, Shuai; Ma, Jian; Nguyen, Tony B.

    2008-06-01

    Fast responsive regulation resources are potentially more valuable as a power system regulation resource (more efficient) because they allow applying controls at the exact moment and in the exact amount as needed. Faster control is desirable because it facilitates more reliable compliance with the NERC Control Performance Standards at relatively lesser regulation capacity procurements. The current California ISO practices and markets do not provide a differentiation among the regulation resources based on their speed of response (with the exception of some minimum ramping capabilities). Some demand response technologies, including some generation and energy storage resources, can provide quicker control actions. California ISO practices and markets could be updated to welcome more fast regulation resources into the California ISO service area. The project work reported in this work was pursuing the following objectives: • Develop methodology to assess the relative value of generation resources used for regulation and load following California ISO functions • This assessment should be done based on physical characteristics including the ability to quickly change their output following California ISO signals • Evaluate what power is worth on different time scales • Analyze the benefits of new regulation resources to provide effective compliance with the mandatory NERC Control Performance Standards • Evaluate impacts of the newly proposed BAAL and FRR standards on the potential value of fast regulation and distributed regulation resources • Develop a scope for the follow-up projects to pave a road for the new efficient types of balancing resources in California. The work included the following studies: • Analysis of California ISO regulating units characteristics • California ISO automatic generation system (AGC) analysis • California ISO regulation procurement and market analysis • Fast regulation efficiency analysis • Projection of the

  8. Numerical Solutions of the Mean-Value Theorem: New Methods for Downward Continuation of Potential Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Lü, Qingtian; Yan, Jiayong; Qi, Guang

    2018-04-01

    Downward continuation can enhance small-scale sources and improve resolution. Nevertheless, the common methods have disadvantages in obtaining optimal results because of divergence and instability. We derive the mean-value theorem for potential fields, which could be the theoretical basis of some data processing and interpretation. Based on numerical solutions of the mean-value theorem, we present the convergent and stable downward continuation methods by using the first-order vertical derivatives and their upward continuation. By applying one of our methods to both the synthetic and real cases, we show that our method is stable, convergent and accurate. Meanwhile, compared with the fast Fourier transform Taylor series method and the integrated second vertical derivative Taylor series method, our process has very little boundary effect and is still stable in noise. We find that the characters of the fading anomalies emerge properly in our downward continuation with respect to the original fields at the lower heights.

  9. Vacuum Expectation Value Profiles of the Bulk Scalar Field in the Generalized Randall-Sundrum Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazzen, M.; Tofighi, A.; Farokhtabar, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the generalized Randall-Sundrum warped brane-world model the cosmological constant induced on the visible brane can be positive or negative. In this paper we investigate profiles of vacuum expectation value of the bulk scalar field under general Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions in the generalized warped brane-world model. We show that the VEV profiles generally depend on the value of the brane cosmological constant. We find that the VEV profiles of the bulk scalar field for a visible brane with negative cosmological constant and positive tension are quite distinct from those of Randall-Sundrum model. In addition we show that the VEV profiles for a visible brane with large positive cosmological constant are also different from those of the Randall-Sundrum model. We also verify that Goldberger and Wise mechanism can work under nonzero Dirichlet boundary conditions in the generalized Randall-Sundrum model.

  10. Field-aligned current density versus electric potential characteristics for magnetospheric flux tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, J.; Scherer, M.

    1983-01-01

    The field-aligned current density (Jsub(tot)) is a non-linear function of the applied potential difference (phi) between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere. This nonlinear function has been calculated for plasma boundary conditions typical in a dayside cusp magnetic flux tube. The J-characteristic of such a flux tube changes when the temperatures of the warm magnetospheric electrons and of the cold ionospheric electrons are modified; it changes also when the relative density of the warm plasma is modified; the presence of trapped secondary electrons changes also the J-characteristic. The partial currents contributed by the warm and cold electrons, and by warm and cold ions are illustrated. The dynamic characteristic of an electric circuit depends on the static characteristic of each component of the sytem: i.e. the resistive ionosphere, the return current region, and the region of particle precipitation whose field-aligned current/voltage characteristics have been studied in this article

  11. Calculating infrared contributions to vacuum expectation values of gluonic and quark fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.; Boos, E.E.; Turashvili, K.Sh.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the infrared asymptotics of the lower QCD Green's functions obtained before, we propose a definition and elaborate a technique for calculating non-perturbative vacuum expectations of gluon and quark fields. In our calculations, we use only the known QCD parameters: constituent quark masses, the confining potential slope and the QCD parameter Λ. The values obtained for the vacuum expectations agree well with experiment. (orig.)

  12. Exact expectation values of local fields in the quantum sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukyanov, S.; Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Chernogolovka; Zamolodchikov, A.; Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Chernogolovka

    1997-01-01

    We propose an explicit expression for vacuum expectation values left angle e iaφ right angle of the exponential fields in the sine-Gordon model. Our expression agrees both with semi-classical results in the sine-Gordon theory and with perturbative calculations in the massive Thirring model. We use this expression to make new predictions about the large-distance asymptotic form of the two-point correlation function in the XXZ spin chain. (orig.)

  13. Enhanced field emission characteristics of boron doped diamond films grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koinkar, Pankaj M. [Center for International Cooperation in Engineering Education (CICEE), University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima-cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Patil, Sandip S. [Center for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Kim, Tae-Gyu [Department of Nano System and Process Engineering, Pusan National University, 50 Cheonghak-ri, Samrangjin-eup, Miryang, Gyeongnam, Pusan 627-706 (Korea, Republic of); Yonekura, Daisuke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima-cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); More, Mahendra A., E-mail: mam@physics.unipune.ac.in [Center for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Joag, Dilip S. [Center for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Murakami, Ri-ichi, E-mail: murakami@me.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima-cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    Boron doped diamond films were synthesized on silicon substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) technique. The effect of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration varied from 1000 to 5000 ppm on the field emission characteristics was examined. The surface morphology and quality of films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology obtained by SEM showed variation from facetted microcrystal covered with nanometric grains to cauliflower of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) particles with increasing B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration. The Raman spectra confirm the formation of NCD films. The field emission properties of NCD films were observed to improve upon increasing boron concentration. The values of the onset field and threshold field are observed to be as low as 0.36 and 0.08 V/{mu}m, respectively. The field emission current stability investigated at the preset value of {approx}1 {mu}A is observed to be good, in each case. The enhanced field emission properties are attributed to the better electrical conductivity coupled with the nanometric features of the diamond films.

  14. Field trials of a novel toolkit for evaluating 'intangible' values-related dimensions of projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Gemma; Velasco, Ismael; Janoušková, Svatava; Zahradnik, Martin; Hak, Tomas; Podger, Dimity; Piggot, Georgia; Harder, Marie K

    2013-02-01

    A novel toolkit has been developed, using an original approach to develop its components, for the purpose of evaluating 'soft' outcomes and processes that have previously been generally considered 'intangible': those which are specifically values based. This represents a step-wise, significant, change in provision for the assessment of values-based achievements that are of absolutely key importance to most civil society organisations (CSOs) and values-based businesses, and fills a known gap in evaluation practice. In this paper, we demonstrate the significance and rigour of the toolkit by presenting an evaluation of it in three diverse scenarios where different CSOs use it to co-evaluate locally relevant outcomes and processes to obtain results which are both meaningful to them and potentially comparable across organisations. A key strength of the toolkit is its original use of a prior generated, peer-elicited 'menu' of values-based indicators which provides a framework for user CSOs to localise. Principles of participatory, process-based and utilisation-focused evaluation are embedded in this toolkit and shown to be critical to its success, achieving high face-validity and wide applicability. The emerging contribution of this next-generation evaluation tool to other fields, such as environmental values, development and environmental sustainable development, shared values, business, education and organisational change is outlined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Baseline cerebral oximetry values depend on non-modifiable patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Lucía; Rodríguez-Pérez, Aurelio; Ojeda, Nazario; Santana, Romen Yone; Morales, Laura; Padrón, Oto

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate baseline regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) values and identify factors influencing preoperative rSO2 in elective minor surgery. Observational analysis post-hoc. Observational post-hoc analysis of data for the patient sample (n=50) of a previously conducted clinical trial in patients undergoing tumourectomy for breast cancer or inguinal hernia repair. Exclusion criteria included pre-existing cerebrovascular diseases, anaemia, baseline pulse oximetry values were recorded while the patient breathed room air, using the INVOS 5100C monitor™ (Covidien, Dublin, Ireland). Thirty-seven women (72%) and 13 men (28%) 48 ± 13 years of age were enrolled in this study. Baseline rSO2 was 62.01 ± 10.38%. Baseline rSO2 was significantly different between men (67.6 ± 11.2%) and women (60 ± 9.4%), (P=0.023). There were also differences between baseline rSO2 and ASA physical status (ASA I: 67.6 ± 10.7%, ASA II: 61.6 ± 8.4%, ASA III: 55.8 ± 13.9%, P=0.045). Baseline rSO2 had a positive correlation with body weight (r=0.347, P=0.014) and height (r=0.345, P=0.014). We also found significant differences in baseline rSO2 among patients with and without chronic renal failure (P=0.005). No differences were found in any other studied variables. Non-modifiable patient characteristics (ASA physical status, sex, chronic renal failure, body weight and height) influence baseline rSO2. Copyright © 2015 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Does there exist a sensible quantum theory of an ''algebra-valued'' scalar field?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anco, S.C.; Wald, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Consider a scalar field phi in Minkowski spacetime, but let phi be valued in an associative, commutative algebra openA rather than openR. One may view the resulting theory as describing a collection of coupled real scalar fields. At the classical level, theories of this type are completely well behaved and have a global symmetry group which is a nontrivial enlargement of the Poincare group. (They are analogs of the new class of gauge theories for massless spin-2 fields found recently by one of us, whose gauge group is a nontrivial enlargement of the usual diffeomorphism group.) We investigate the quantization of such scalar field theories here by studying the case of a λphi 4 field, with phi valued in the two-dimensional algebra generated by an identity element e and a nilpotent element v satisfying v 2 = 0. The Coleman-Mandula theorem, which states that the symmetry group of a nontrivial quantum field theory cannot be a nontrivial enlargement of the Poincare group, is evaded here because the finite ''extra'' symmetries of the classical theory fail to be implemented in the quantum theory by unitary operators and the infinitesimal symmetries (which can be represented in the quantum theory by quadratic forms) connect the one-particle Hilbert space to multiparticle states. Nevertheless, we find that the conventional Feynman rules for this theory lead to vacuum decay at the tree level and fail to yield a well-defined S matrix. Some alternative approaches are investigated, but these also appear to fail

  17. Characteristic-Based, Task-Based, and Results-Based: Three Value Systems for Assessing Professionally Produced Technical Communication Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carliner, Saul

    2003-01-01

    Notes that technical communicators have developed different methodologies for evaluating the effectiveness of their work, such as editing, usability testing, and determining the value added. Explains that at least three broad value systems underlie the assessment practices: characteristic-based, task-based, and results-based. Concludes that the…

  18. Characteristic values for the forming of the magnesium alloy AZ31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doege, E.; Janssen, S.; Wieser, J.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of investigation and development at the institute for metal forming and metal forming machine tools (IFUM) at the University of Hanover, Germany is to advance magnesium forming scientifically which has so far been based on experience and empirically determined process data only. Optimized process parameter with a sound material scientific and process control base have to be determined for the deformation of magnesium wrought alloys in order to broaden the technical use of such alloys. Aim of the investigations introduced in this paper is the determination of characteristic values as well-founded basis for the forming technological processing of magnesium wrought alloys in massive forming processes. The basic data for the description of the deformation ability in the form of friction factor and flow curve is to be detected, especially in connection with the integration into an FEM-simulation. In order to achieve such data for the magnesium wrought alloy AZ31 the flow curve at temperatures between 250 and 300 C and the deformation ratio 1, 10, 20 and 30 are presented. On the other hand a ring upsetting test for the determination of the friction factor at altitude reductions of 30, 50, 70%, a tool temperature of 200 C, a work piece temperature between 300 and 400 C and different lubricants are shown for the said alloy. (orig.)

  19. Characteristics of magnetospheric convective electric fields as mapped onto the polar caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    A study is made of the open connected magnetosphere using two numerical computer models: the Hones-Taylor (1965), with image and internal dipoles being the only sources, and the Mead-Williams (1965) with a current sheet added. The objectives of the study are to demonstrate that steady state field line connection across the magnetopause is a possible mechanism for producing the polar cap electric fields detected there, and to show the interesting characteristics of such fields. A review of the literature pertinent to the polar cap electric fields is included

  20. Gender and family influences on Spanish students' aspirations and values in stem fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáinz, Milagros; Müller, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on expectancy-value theory, this study examines gender and family influences on students' career aspirations and attached values. 796 secondary Spanish students (M age = 16 years old, S.D. = 0.81) participated. 53% were boys. The results show that boys and students with mothers who have completed intermediate level education were more interested in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) architecture and technology. Girls and students with highly educated mothers born in Spain were more likely to aspire to STEM health and experimental studies. Furthermore, boys and students planning to pursue STEM-technology studies attached higher extrinsic values to these studies. On the contrary, girls and participants with interest in experimental and health studies attached less extrinsic values to these studies. Moreover, students with highly educated mothers and interested in STEM architecture and technology reported higher extrinsic values. Understanding the interaction of gender and family factors shaping adolescents' career aspirations in STEM fields seems to be crucial to designing significant and effective school and family grounded interventions.

  1. Imaging and measurement of T1 value by NMR of low magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Hideaki; Izawa, Akira; Furuse, Kazuhiro; Saoi, Katsuyoshi; Nagai, Masahiko.

    1983-01-01

    FONAR QED-80α having two operating mode: the anatomy mode to obtain an image of proton densities and the chemistry mode to measure T 1 value at a region of intenst, was used clinically. The strength of static magnetic field is 0.041T. 32 cases, 18 healthy volunteers and 14 patients were studied. In proton density imaging, high proton density organs such as skin were imaged bright, and low proton density organs such as bones and flowing blood were imaged dark. The merits of NMR imaging are no artifacts caused by bones and air. However, NMR image is required long time for measurement and the image of NMR is unsharp than that of X-ray CT. Concerning with T 1 value, cerebral and cerebellar gray matter had longer T 1 's than that of white matter. Pathological lesions, such as tumor and/or infarct, had also longer T 1 values than these of normal tissue. The value of T 1 was thought to be applicable clinically except for some problems, such as measuring T 1 value of large extent. No side effects were found during and after examinations. (author)

  2. Sensing Responses Based on Transfer Characteristics of InAs Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Igor; Blumin, Marina; Wang, Shiliang; Ruda, Harry E.

    2017-01-01

    Nanowire-based field-effect transistors (FETs) have demonstrated considerable promise for a new generation of chemical and biological sensors. Indium arsenide (InAs), by virtue of its high electron mobility and intrinsic surface accumulation layer of electrons, holds properties beneficial for creating high performance sensors that can be used in applications such as point-of-care testing for patients diagnosed with chronic diseases. Here, we propose devices based on a parallel configuration of InAs nanowires and investigate sensor responses from measurements of conductance over time and FET characteristics. The devices were tested in controlled concentrations of vapour containing acetic acid, 2-butanone and methanol. After adsorption of analyte molecules, trends in the transient current and transfer curves are correlated with the nature of the surface interaction. Specifically, we observed proportionality between acetic acid concentration and relative conductance change, off current and surface charge density extracted from subthreshold behaviour. We suggest the origin of the sensing response to acetic acid as a two-part, reversible acid-base and redox reaction between acetic acid, InAs and its native oxide that forms slow, donor-like states at the nanowire surface. We further describe a simple model that is able to distinguish the occurrence of physical versus chemical adsorption by comparing the values of the extracted surface charge density. These studies demonstrate that InAs nanowires can produce a multitude of sensor responses for the purpose of developing next generation, multi-dimensional sensor applications. PMID:28714903

  3. On identities of free finitely generated alternative algebras over a field of characteristic 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pchelintsev, S V

    2001-01-01

    In 1981 Filippov solved in the affirmative Shestakov's problem on the strictness of the inclusions in the chains of varieties generated by free alternative and Mal'cev algebras of finite rank over a field of characteristic distinct from 2 and 3. In the present paper an analogous result is proved for alternative algebras over a field of characteristic 3. The proof is based on the construction of three families of identities that hold on the algebras of the corresponding rank. A disproof of the identities on algebras of larger rank is carried out with the help of a prime commutative alternative algebra. It is also proved that in varieties of alternative algebras of finite basis rank over a field of characteristic 3 every soluble algebra is nilpotent

  4. Comparison between ISO 5008 and field whole body vibration tractor values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Deboli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to whole body vibration (WBV of tractor drivers during field operations is a problem that has never been solved. WBV values are quite difficult to predict because of the high number of variables, such as mass and geometry of the vehicle, forward speed, tire pressure, type of ground, operation cycle, and environmental factors. The use of an artificial track is useful to limit the variability of some field parameters, such as the path followed, fluctuations in speed, weather, temperature, and soil conditions. For comparative purposes, these variables need to be maintained as constant as possible in order to obtain the most useful data. An analysis of the literature provoked the question: Is there a lower forward speed on artificial track that can generate the same vibration response on tractors working in the same field? In this paper, we analyze the available literature and provide some WBV values and frequency analysis of acceleration measured on agricultural tractors traveling on an artificial test track and on different types of ground.

  5. VALUE CHARACTERISTICS OF LAND RESOURCES AND WAYS OF THEIR IMPLEMENTATION IN THE ECONOMAC TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetsyuk Myhajlo

    2017-05-01

    regions with high rates. Many unique properties of Ukrainian land are simply ignored. The analysis of evaluation indicators nominal payments for the land in the Consolidated budget for the period 1999-2015. points to existing growing trend (with the exception of individual points the change of trend. In General, the existence of such processes shows positive trends, however, given the existing capacity, payments for the use of land resources could be much greater. The question is as to the formation of such payments and low current rates that are charged to users of land resources. It is not worth that a significant portion of the profits, which is formed in the APK, is generated by the export of grain. So there is the potential of raising fees for use of the resource. One of the tools for solving this problem can be considered in view of the potential signs of value are activated under the influence of new processes, namely: capitalization, corporatization, securitization, and the like. Land holds a special place in the structure of natural resource potential of the state. Identifying high cost performance, they are attractive for Ukrainian and foreign investors. In addition to ordinary usage, cost characteristics (especially those that are based on new processes form favorable conditions for active use of the resource as environment to attract capital.

  6. Holistic oil field value management: using system dynamics for 'intermediate level' and 'value-based' modelling in the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corben, D.; Stevenson, R.; Wolstenholme, E.F.

    1999-01-01

    System dynamics has been seen primarily as a strategic tool, most effectively used at the highest level of strategy to identify robust policy interventions under a wide range of scenarios. However, an alternative, complementary and powerful role is emerging. This is at an 'intermediate level' in organisations to coordinate and integrate policies across the value chain. It is at this level where business value, as defined by the discounted value of future free cash flow, is both created and destroyed. This paper introduces the need for 'intermediate-level' and 'value-based' modelling and emphasises the natural role of system dynamics in supporting a methodology to fulfil the need. It describes the development of an approach and its application in the oil industry to coordinate the response of people and tools within operational, financial and commercial functions across the value chain to address a variety of problems and issues. (author)

  7. Current-voltage characteristics of carbon nanostructured field emitters in different power supply modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, E. O.; Kolosko, A. G.; Filippov, S. V.; Romanov, P. A.; Terukov, E. I.; Shchegolkov, A. V.; Tkachev, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    We received and compared the current-voltage characteristics of large-area field emitters based on nanocomposites with graphene and nanotubes. The characteristics were measured in two high voltage scanning modes: the "slow" and the "fast". Correlation between two types of hysteresis observed in these regimes was determined. Conditions for transition from "reverse" hysteresis to the "direct" one were experimentally defined. Analysis of the eight-shaped hysteresis was provided with calculation of the effective emission parameters. The phenomenological model of adsorption-desorption processes in the field emission system was proposed.

  8. Electrical insulation characteristics of liquid helium under high speed rotating field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, I.; Fuchino, S.; Okano, M.; Tamada, N.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical breakdown behavior of liquid helium was investigated under high speed rotating field. In the development of superconducting turbine generator it is essential to get the knowledge of electrical insulation characteristics of liquid helium under high speed rotating field. When the current of the field magnet of a superconducting generator is changed, changing magnetic field generates heat in the conductor and it causes bubbles in the liquid helium around the conductor. The behavior of the bubbles is affected largely by the buoyancy which is generated by the centrifugal force. Electrical breakdown behavior of the liquid helium is strongly dependent on the gas bubbles in the liquid. Electrical breakdown voltage between electrodes was measured in a rotating cryostat with and without heater input for bubble formation. Decrease of the breakdown voltage by the heater power was smaller in the rotating field than that in the non rotating field

  9. Quantum correlations and dynamics from classical random fields valued in complex Hilbert spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    One of the crucial differences between mathematical models of classical and quantum mechanics (QM) is the use of the tensor product of the state spaces of subsystems as the state space of the corresponding composite system. (To describe an ensemble of classical composite systems, one uses random variables taking values in the Cartesian product of the state spaces of subsystems.) We show that, nevertheless, it is possible to establish a natural correspondence between the classical and the quantum probabilistic descriptions of composite systems. Quantum averages for composite systems (including entangled) can be represented as averages with respect to classical random fields. It is essentially what Albert Einstein dreamed of. QM is represented as classical statistical mechanics with infinite-dimensional phase space. While the mathematical construction is completely rigorous, its physical interpretation is a complicated problem. We present the basic physical interpretation of prequantum classical statistical field theory in Sec. II. However, this is only the first step toward real physical theory.

  10. Features of working in fields with high values of exposure dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlenko, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    Features of working in fields with the exposure dose rate (EDR) ∼ 1000-7000 R/h are described. Data on the performed operations concerning initial decontamination of the Chernobyl-3 reactor roof during 10.07.86-03.10.86 are presented. It is marked that the methodical recommendations on working in fields with high values of EDR are absent in our country and abroad and it is necessary to develop them on the basis of obtained experience. Moreover, there are no protective means (protective clotting). Main principles of its creation are the protection of critical organ groups and comfort in working. Personnel should be specially trained and get phychologically ready. 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Diagnostic value of low-field MRI for acute poisoning brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Lianrong; He Qinyi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of low-field MIR in diagnosis of acute CO poisoning brain injury. Methods: The brain MIR and clinical data of 110 patients with acute CO poisoning brain injury confirmed by clinical examination were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Long T1 and T2 signal intensity was showed on MRI in cerebral hemispheres and globus pallidus symmetrically. There were three basic types of MIR manifestations, white matter of brain type, globus pallidus type and brain mixed type. Conclusions: MRI could be used for confirming the degree and range of acute CO poisoning brain injury. It has important clinical value in the diagnosis, staging and prognosis of patients with acute CO poisoning brain injury. (authors)

  12. Maximizing the value of gate capacitance in field-effect devices using an organic interface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, H. L.

    2015-12-01

    Past research has confirmed the existence of negative capacitance in organics such as tris (8-Hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum (Alq3). This work explored using such an organic interface layer to enhance the channel voltage in the field-effect transistor (FET) thereby lowering the sub-threshold swing. In particular, if the values of the positive and negative gate capacitances are approximately equal, the composite negative capacitance will increase by orders of magnitude. One concern is the upper frequency limit (∼100 Hz) over which negative capacitance has been observed. Nonetheless, this frequency limit can be raised to kHz when the organic layer is subjected to a DC bias.

  13. Field programmable gate array-assigned complex-valued computation and its limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard-Schwarz, Maria, E-mail: maria.bernardschwarz@ni.com [National Instruments, Ganghoferstrasse 70b, 80339 Munich (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, 1040 Wien (Austria); Zwick, Wolfgang; Klier, Jochen [National Instruments, Ganghoferstrasse 70b, 80339 Munich (Germany); Wenzel, Lothar [National Instruments, 11500 N MOPac Expy, Austin, Texas 78759 (United States); Gröschl, Martin [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, 1040 Wien (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    We discuss how leveraging Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology as part of a high performance computing platform reduces latency to meet the demanding real time constraints of a quantum optics simulation. Implementations of complex-valued operations using fixed point numeric on a Virtex-5 FPGA compare favorably to more conventional solutions on a central processing unit. Our investigation explores the performance of multiple fixed point options along with a traditional 64 bits floating point version. With this information, the lowest execution times can be estimated. Relative error is examined to ensure simulation accuracy is maintained.

  14. STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELD ON SOME BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ZEA MAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A ALADJADJIYAN

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the static magnetic field of 0,15 Т induction on the maize seeds was studied. The germinating energy and seed germination were detected. The fresh weight and the shoot length were measured. The absorption spectra and the specific electroconductivity of the water extract from seeds were registered. It was detected that the magnetic field stimulated the shoot development and led to the increase of the germinating energy, germination, fresh weight and shoot length. The extinction of the samples treated with a magnetic field increased by about 20 %. The highest values of the treated sample parameters were obtained after 10-min exposure in the magnetic field.

  15. The dust characteristics in the collisional plasma sheath at the presence of external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shourkaei, Hossein Akbarian [AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Plasma Physics Research Group

    2015-05-15

    The characteristics of dust in a plasma sheath are investigated in the presence of an external magnetic field and taking into account neutral collision forces. By using the fluid model, the continuity and momentum equations of ions and dusts are solved numerically with various magnitudes of collision force. In various magnitude and directions of the magnetic field, the electron and ion density distribution, ion flow velocity, electron potential have been calculated. It is shown that magnetic field has obvious effect on the plasma sheath and the collision force reduces the dust kinetic energy.

  16. Investigation of Vacuum Arc Voltage Characteristics Under Different Axial Magnetic Field Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Shenli; Song Xiaochuan; Huo Xintao; Shi Zongqian; Wang Lijun

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of the arc voltage under different profiles of axial magnetic field were investigated experimentally in a detachable vacuum chamber with five pairs of specially designed electrodes generating both bell-shaped and saddle-shaped magnetic field profile. The arc column and cathode spot images were photographed by a high speed digital camera. The dependence of the arc voltage on arcing evolution is analyzed. It is indicated that the axial magnetic field profile could affect the arc behaviors significantly, and the arc voltage is closely related to the arc light intensity.

  17. Saturne II: characteristics of the proton beam, field qualities and corrections, acceleration of the polarized protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laclare, J.-L.

    1978-01-01

    Indicated specifications of Saturne II are summed up: performance of the injection system, quality of the guidance field (magnetic measurements and multipolar corrections), transverse and longitudinal instabilities, characteristics of the beam stored in the machine and of the extracted beam. The problem of depolarization along the acceleration cycle is briefly discussed (1 or 2% between injection and 3 GeV) [fr

  18. Mineralogical characteristics of andradite and grossular of te Sasa Ore Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shijakova-Ivanova, Tena; Zajkova-Paneva, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the mineralogical characteristics of garnets (andradite and grossular) of the Sasa ore field, Investigations were carried out in the Institute for Crystallography and Petrography in Zurich, Switzerland and in the laboratory of the Faculty of Mining and Geology, Shtip. (Original)

  19. Scalar field cosmology: I. Asymptotic freedom and the initial-value problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Kerson; Low, Hwee-Boon; Tung, Roh-Suan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to use a renormalized quantum scalar field to investigate very early cosmology, in the Planck era immediately following the big bang. Renormalization effects make the field potential dependent on length scale, and are important during the big bang era. We use the asymptotically free Halpern-Huang scalar field, which is derived from renormalization-group analysis, and solve Einstein's equation with Robertson-Walker metric as an initial-value problem. The main prediction is that the Hubble parameter follows a power law: H≡ a-dot /a∼t -p , and the universe expands at an accelerated rate: a ∼ expt 1-p . This gives 'dark energy', with an equivalent cosmological constant that decays in time like t -2p , which avoids the 'fine-tuning' problem. The power law predicts a simple relation for the galactic redshift. Comparison with data leads to the speculation that the universe experienced a crossover transition, which was completed about seven billion years ago. (paper)

  20. Experimental study of flow field characteristics on bed configurations in the pebble bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Xinlong; Gui, Nan; Yang, Xingtuan; Tu, Jiyuan; Jia, Haijun; Jiang, Shengyao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • PTV study of flow fields of pebble bed reactor with different configurations are carried out. • Some criteria are proposed to quantify vertical velocity field and flow uniformity. • The effect of different pebble bed configurations is also compared by the proposed criteria. • The displacement thickness is used analogically to analyze flow field characteristics. • The effect of mass flow variation in the stagnated region of the funnel flow is measured. - Abstract: The flow field characteristics are of fundamental importance in the design work of the pebble bed high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). The different effects of bed configurations on the flow characteristics of pebble bed are studied through the PTV (Particle Tracking Velocimetry) experiment. Some criteria, e.g. flow uniformity (σ) and mass flow level (α), are proposed to estimate vertical velocity field and compare the bed configurations. The distribution of the Δθ (angle difference between the individual particle velocity and the velocity vector sum of all particles) is also used to estimate the resultant motion consistency level. Moreover, for each bed configuration, the thickness of displacement is analyzed to measure the effect of the funnel flow zone based on the boundary layer theory. Detailed information shows the quantified characteristics of bed configuration effects on flow uniformity and other characteristics; and the sequence of levels of each estimation criterion is obtained for all bed configurations. In addition, a good design of the pebble bed configuration is suggested and these estimation criteria can be also applied and adopted in testing other geometry designs of pebble bed.

  1. Study of deposition characteristics of multi-nozzle near-field electrospinning in electric field crossover interference conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Han

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured components have been receiving considerable attention in recent years. One advantage is the use of near-field electrospinning (NFES in microdevice manufacture. Multi-nozzle NFES is offered as a technique to increase the high-precision production rate of components. The deposition characteristics of the multi-nozzles were observed and analyzed based on the mutual influence of the jets under varied conditions. It was discovered that the mutual distance of deposition becomes larger with increases in working distance and nozzle spacing, but the influence of voltage is not particularly apparent. This paper discusses the results and conclusions of the experimental investigation and theoretical derivation.

  2. Field synergy characteristics in condensation heat transfer with non-condensable gas over a horizontal tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Field synergy characteristics in condensation heat transfer with non-condensable gas (NCG over a horizontal tube were numerically simulated. Consequently, synergy angles between velocity and pressure or temperature gradient fields, gas film layer thickness, and induced velocity and shear stress on gas–liquid interface were obtained. Results show that synergy angles between velocity and temperature gradient fields are within 73.2°–88.7° and ascend slightly with the increment in mainstream velocity and that the synergy is poor. However, the synergy angle between velocity and pressure gradient fields decreases intensively with the increase in mainstream velocity at θ ≤ 30°, thereby improving the pressure loss. As NCG mass fraction increases, the gas film layer thickness enlarges and the induced velocity and shear stress on gas–liquid interface decreases. The synergy angles between velocity and temperature gradient fields increase, and the synergy angles between velocity and pressure gradient fields change at θ = 70°, decrease at θ 70°. When the horizontal tube circumference angle increases, the synergy angles between velocity and temperature or pressure gradient fields decrease, the synergy between velocity and pressure fields enhances, and the synergy between velocity and temperature fields degrades.

  3. Incremental prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography high-risk plaque characteristics in newly symptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Baber, Usman; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Nishizaki, Yuji; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Matsumori, Rie; Hiki, Makoto; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Hecht, Harvey; Stone, Gregg W; Narula, Jagat

    2016-06-01

    The incremental prognostic value of the plaque features in coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) has not been well assessed. This study was designed to determine whether CTA high-risk plaques have prognostic value incremental to the Framingham risk score (FRS) and the severity of luminal obstruction. A total of 628 newly symptomatic patients without known coronary artery disease underwent CTA. They were followed for a median of 677 days during which there were 26 cardiac events, including cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, and hospitalization for unstable angina. Incremental prognostic value of adding plaque characteristics to the number of diseased vessels and the FRS was evaluated using 3 Cox models and net reclassification indexes. The discrimination index was significantly increased by adding the number of diseased vessels to the FRS (change in c-statistic from 65.8% to 78.6%, p=0.028) but not significantly by further adding plaque characteristics (change in c-statistic from 78.6% to 80.0%, p=0.812). However, improved model-fitting by adding plaque characteristics into the linear combination with risk score and the number of diseased vessels (p=0.007 from likelihood ratio test) and the lowest value of Akaike's information criteria of that model indicated that plaque characteristics improved both predictive accuracy and discrimination perspective. More subjects reclassified by plaque characteristics were moved to directions consistent with their subsequent cardiac event status than in an inconsistent direction. Evaluation of CTA plaque characteristics may provide incremental prognostic value to the number of diseased vessels and the FRS. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduction of ambipolar characteristics of vertical channel tunneling field-effect transistor by using dielectric sidewall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chun Woong; Cho, Il Hwan; Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Ambipolar characteristics of tunneling FETs have been improved by introducing a novel structure which contains dielectric sidewall in the gate region. In the ambipolar operation mode, gate field effect on intrinsic-drain junction region can be reduced with dielectric sidewall. As a result, ambipolar state tunneling probability is decreased at the intrinsic-drain junction. Since the sidewall region is located near the drain region, tunneling probability of source-intrinsic region is not affected by dielectric sidewall. This asymmetric characteristics means only ambipolar current of tunneling FETs can be prohibited by dielectric sidewall. Reduction of ambipolar characteristic of proposed structure has been evaluated with dimension and location of dielectric sidewall. Quantitative analysis of ambipolar characteristics is also investigated with tunneling. (paper)

  5. The System of Values of Chinese and Russian University Students: Comparative Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Zheng Veydun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia and China today are going through the period of transformations. The students in both states live in transitional societies which interfere with their lifestyles and systems of values. That is why the research into the system of values of both Chinese and Russian students is of vital importance today - it does not only help to understand the modern youth, their motivation and culture better; but also enables us to define their world-view, main trends of their development; help them deal with their problems. Youth values give an idea of present and upcoming values of a nation as a whole.

  6. The seasonal role of field characteristics on seed-eating bird abundances in agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codesido, Mariano; Abba, Agustín M.; Bilenca, David

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In temperate agroecosystems, avian responses in abundance and distribution to landscape attributes may be exacerbated by the coupling of natural seasons and farming practices. We assessed the seasonal roles of field type, field use in the surroundings, and distance from a field to the nearest woodlot on the abundance of seed-eating birds in a 225,000 km2 study area in the Pampas of central Argentina. During spring-summer and autumn of 2011–2013, we randomly selected 392 fields and used transect samples to collect data on abundance and presence of seed-eating bird species. We recorded a total of 11,579 individuals belonging to 15 seed-eating bird species. We used generalized lineal mixed models to relate bird abundance to field type, field use in the surroundings, and distance to the nearest woodlot. In spring-summer (breeding season) most bird responses were associated with their nesting requirements. Species that build their nests in trees, such as eared doves Zenaida auriculata, picazuro pigeons Patagioenas picazuro, and monk parakeets Myiopsitta monachus, were more abundant in fields closer to woodlots, whereas grassland yellow-finches Sicalis luteola, which nest at areas with tall grasses, were more abundant in fields with livestock use patches in the field surroundings. In autumn (non-breeding season), most bird responses were associated with foraging and refuge needs. The high abundance of eared doves in crop stubbles and the association of pigeons at field surroundings dominated by croplands or at crop stubbles surrounded by livestock use fields revealed the intimate association of these species to sites with high availability of food resources. In addition, both picazuro pigeons and spot-winged pigeons Patagioenas maculosa were associated with woodlots, which provide suitable roosting sites. Our results show that in temperate agroecosystems, the relationships between field characteristics and seed-eating bird abundances vary with season. PMID

  7. Analysis of local ionospheric time varying characteristics with singular value decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Anders; Knudsen, Per; Jensen, Anna B. O.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a time series from 1999 to 2007 of absolute total electron content (TEC) values has been computed and analyzed using singular value decomposition (SVD). The data set has been computed using a Kalman Filter and is based on dual frequency GPS data from three reference stations in Den...

  8. Fundamental Value Trajectories and Trader Characteristics in an Asset Market Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breaban, A.G.; Noussair, C.N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: We report results from an asset market experiment, in which we investigate how the time path of the fundamental value trajectory affects the level of adherence to fundamentals. In contrast to previous experiments with long-lived assets, there is a phase in which fundamental values are

  9. Perceptions of Value: A Study of Worker Characteristics and Performance Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Corey M.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the need of human performance technology (HPT) practitioners to make the most cost-effective performance intervention decisions, introducing a new instrument, the Intervention Value Survey, as a possible tool to provide a clearer profile of an audience's perceptions of what provides them value. Using a mixed methods…

  10. Characteristics and Dietary Patterns of Adolescents Who Value Eating Locally Grown, Organic, Nongenetically Engineered, and Nonprocessed Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Stat, Peter Hannan M.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics of adolescents who value eating locally grown, organic, nongenetically engineered, and/or nonprocessed food and whether they are more likely than their peers to meet Healthy People 2010 dietary objectives. Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT:…

  11. The Field Emission Characteristics of Titanium-Doped Nano-Diamonds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan-Ning; ZHANG Zhi-Yong; ZHANG Fu-Chun; DONG Jun-Tang; ZHAO Wu; ZHAI Chun-Xue; ZHANG Wei-Hu

    2012-01-01

    An electrophoresis solution,prepared in a specific ratio of titanium (Ti)-doped nano-diamond,is dispersed by ultrasound and the nano-diamond coating is then deposited on a polished Ti substrate by electrophoresis.After high-temperature vacuum annealing,the appearance of the surface and the microstructures of the coating are observed by a metallomicroscope,scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.The field emission characteristics and luminescence features are also tested,and the mechanism of the field emission characteristics of the Ti-doped nano-diamond is analyzed.The experimental results show that under the same conditions,the diamond-coated surface (by deposition) is more uniform after doping with 5 mg of Ti powder.Compared with the undoped nano-diamond cathode,the turn-on fields decline from 6.95 to 5.95 V/μm.When the electric field strength is 13.80 V/μm,the field emission current density increases to 130.00 μA/cm2.Under the applied fields,the emission current is stable and the luminescence is at its best,while the field emission characteristics of the 10 mg Ti-doped coating become worse,as does the luminescence.The reason for this could be that an excessive amount of TiC is generated on the surface of the coating.%An electrophoresis solution, prepared in a speciGc ratio of titanium (Ti)-doped nano-diamond, is dispersed by ultrasound and the nano-diamond coating is then deposited on a polished Ti substrate by electrophoresis. After high-temperature vacuum annealing, the appearance of the surface and the microstructures of the coating are observed by a metallomicroscope, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The field emission characteristics and luminescence features are also tested, and the mechanism of the field emission characteristics of the Ti-doped nano-diamond is analyzed. The experimental results show that under the same conditions, the diamond-coated surface (by deposition) is more uniform after doping with 5 mg of Ti

  12. Effect of electric and magnetic fields on current-voltage characteristics of a lyotropic liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minasyants, M.Kh.; Badalyan, G. G.; Shahinian, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of electric and magnetic fields on current-voltage characteristics is studied for the lamellar phase in the lyotropic liquid-crystal sodium pentadecylsulfonate (SPDS)-water and lecithin-water systems. It has been found that the current-voltage characteristics of both systems have hysteresis. In the case of ionogenic SPDS, the hysteresis is formed due to ion current caused by the spatial reorientation of domains consisting of parallel lamellar fragments; in the case of lecithin, whose molecules contain dipoles, the hysteresis is formed due to the spatial reorientation of domains caused by the interaction of the resultant dipole moment of the domains with the electric field. It is shown that the introduction into lamellae of cetylpyridine bromide, which has an intrinsic magnetic moment, changes the resultant magnetic moment of domains and, thus, also the hysteresis loop of the current-voltage characteristic. The systems studied show the 'memory' effect with respect to both the electric and magnetic fields. Field-induced processes of domain reorientation were recorded by the method of small-angle x-ray scattering

  13. Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of LOX/Kerosene Engine Exhaust Plume Flow Field Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-hua Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at calculating and studying the flow field characteristics of engine exhaust plume and comparative analyzing the effects of different chemical reaction mechanisms on the engine exhaust plume flow field characteristics, a method considering fully the combustion state influence is put forward, which is applied to exhaust plume flow field calculation of multinozzle engine. On this basis, a three-dimensional numerical analysis of the effects of different chemical reaction mechanisms on LOX/kerosene engine exhaust plume flow field characteristics was carried out. It is found that multistep chemical reaction can accurately describe the combustion process in the LOX/kerosene engine, the average chamber pressure from the calculation is 4.63% greater than that of the test, and the average chamber temperature from the calculation is 3.34% greater than that from the thermodynamic calculation. The exhaust plumes of single nozzle and double nozzle calculated using the global chemical reaction are longer than those using the multistep chemical reaction; the highest temperature and the highest velocity on the plume axis calculated using the former are greater than that using the latter. The important influence of chemical reaction mechanism must be considered in the study of the fixing structure of double nozzle engine on the rocket body.

  14. Computation of Charged-Particle Transfer Maps for General Fields and Geometries Using Electromagnetic Boundary-Value Data

    OpenAIRE

    Dragt, A. J.; Roberts, P.; Stasevich, T. J.; Dragt, A. Bodoh-Creed A. J.; Roberts, P.; Stasevich, T. J.; Bodoh-Creed, A.; Walstrom, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional field distributions from realistic beamline elements can be obtained only by measurement or by numerical solution of a boundary-value problem. In numerical charged-particle map generation, fields along a reference trajectory are differentiated multiple times. Any attempt to differentiate directly such field data multiple times is soon dominated by "noise" due to finite meshing and/or measurement errors. This problem can be overcome by the use of field data on a surface outsi...

  15. Graphene field effect transistors with niobium contacts and asymmetric transfer characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolomeo, Antonio Di; Romeo, Francesco; Sabatino, Paolo; Carapella, Giovanni; Iemmo, Laura; Giubileo, Filippo; Schroeder, Thomas; Lupina, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    We fabricate back-gated field effect transistors using niobium electrodes on mechanically exfoliated monolayer graphene and perform electrical characterization in the pressure range from atmospheric down to 10 −4 mbar. We study the effect of room temperature vacuum degassing and report asymmetric transfer characteristics with a resistance plateau in the n-branch. We show that weakly chemisorbed Nb acts as p-dopant on graphene and explain the transistor characteristics by Nb/graphene interaction with unpinned Fermi level at the interface. (paper)

  16. Flow field and load characteristics of the whole MEXICO wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Haoran; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chao

    2017-01-01

    CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) method was used to perform steady numerical simulation investigation on the flow field and load characteristics of MEXICO(Model EXperiment In Controlled cOnditions) wind turbine under non-yawed condition. Circumferentially-Averaged method was used to extract...... characteristics around the blade was analyzed and the points of flow separation were found along the blade, the results show that the points of flow separation move towards trailing edge with the increase of radius. The distribution of vorticity in the wake of MEXICO rotor was also analyzed. The distribution...

  17. Knowledge Value Creation Characteristics of Virtual Teams: A Case Study in the Construction Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorakulpipat, Chalee; Rezgui, Yacine

    Any knowledge environment aimed at virtual teams should promote identification, access, capture and retrieval of relevant knowledge anytime / anywhere, while nurturing the social activities that underpin the knowledge sharing and creation process. In fact, socio-cultural issues play a critical role in the successful implementation of Knowledge Management (KM), and constitute a milestone towards value creation. The findings indicate that Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) promote value creation when they embed and nurture the social conditions that bind and bond team members together. Furthermore, technology assets, human networks, social capital, intellectual capital, and change management are identified as essential ingredients that have the potential to ensure effective knowledge value creation.

  18. Reproductive characteristics of citrus rootstocks grown under greenhouse and field environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanilde Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible effect of environmental factors on meiosis, meiotic index, pollenviability and in vitro germination of pollen from stock plants of the rootstocks Trifoliate, ‘Swingle’, ‘Troyer’, ‘Fepagro C13’, ‘FepagroC37’ and ‘Fepagro C41’ grown in a protected environment in comparison with stock plants grown in the field. The results showed thatvalues for the characteristics analyzed in 2008, 2009 and 2010 were always higher in the field than in the greenhouse conditions. Inthe field, the average of normal meiotic cells was 60.05%, 44.44% and 60.12%, respectively, and in the greenhouse, 52.75%, 30.95%and 52.82%, respectively. Mean pollen viability in the field was 90.28%, 56.23% and 74.74%, and, in the greenhouse, 64.25%, 41.41%and 66.71%, respectively. As temperature oscillations were higher in the greenhouse than in the field, we suggest that this negativelyaffects the reproductive characteristics analyzed.

  19. Observed Characteristics and Teacher Quality: Impacts of Sample Selection on a Value Added Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Marcus A.; Dixon, Bruce L.; Greene, Jay P.

    2012-01-01

    We measure the impact of observed teacher characteristics on student math and reading proficiency using a rich dataset from Florida. We expand upon prior work by accounting directly for nonrandom attrition of teachers from the classroom in a sample selection framework. We find evidence that sample selection is present in the estimation of the…

  20. Influence of gate dielectric on the ambipolar characteristics of solution-processed organic field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribierre, J C; Ghosh, S; Takaishi, K; Muto, T; Aoyama, T, E-mail: jcribierre@ewha.ac.kr, E-mail: taoyama@riken.jp [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-05-25

    Solution-processed ambipolar organic field-effect transistors based on dicyanomethylene-substituted quinoidal quaterthiophene derivative [QQT(CN)4] are fabricated using various gate dielectric materials including cross-linked polyimide and poly-4-vinylphenol. Devices with spin-coated polymeric gate dielectric layers show a reduced hysteresis in their transfer characteristics. Among the insulating polymers examined in this study, a new fluorinated polymer with a low dielectric constant of 2.8 significantly improves both hole and electron field-effect mobilities of QQT(CN)4 thin films to values as high as 0.04 and 0.002 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. These values are close to the best mobilities obtained in QQT(CN)4 devices fabricated on SiO{sub 2} treated with octadecyltrichlorosilane. The influence of the metal used for source/drain metal electrodes on the device performance is also investigated. Whereas best device performances are achieved with gold electrodes, more balanced electron and hole field-effect mobilities could be obtained using chromium.

  1. Electrical characteristics of silicon percolating nanonet-based field effect transistors in the presence of dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazimajou, T.; Legallais, M.; Mouis, M.; Ternon, C.; Salem, B.; Ghibaudo, G.

    2018-05-01

    We studied the current-voltage characteristics of percolating networks of silicon nanowires (nanonets), operated in back-gated transistor mode, for future use as gas or biosensors. These devices featured P-type field-effect characteristics. It was found that a Lambert W function-based compact model could be used for parameter extraction of electrical parameters such as apparent low field mobility, threshold voltage and subthreshold slope ideality factor. Their variation with channel length and nanowire density was related to the change of conduction regime from direct source/drain connection by parallel nanowires to percolating channels. Experimental results could be related in part to an influence of the threshold voltage dispersion of individual nanowires.

  2. Surface flux density distribution characteristics of bulk high-T c superconductor in external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, H.; Torii, S.; Yuasa, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the measured results of the two-dimensional flux density distribution of a YBCO bulk under applied AC magnetic fields with various frequency. Melt-processed oxide superconductors have been developed in order to obtain strong pinning forces. Various electric mechanical systems or magnetic levitation systems use those superconductors. The major problem is that cracks occur because the bulk superconductors are brittle. The bulk may break in magnetizing process after cracks make superconducting state instable. The trapped flux density and the permanent current characteristics of bulk superconductors have been analyzed, so as to examine the magnetizing processes or superconducting states of the bulk. In those studies, the two-dimensional surface flux density distributions of the bulk in static fields are discussed. On the other hand, the distributions in dynamic fields are little discussed. We attempted to examine the states of the bulk in the dynamic fields, and made a unique experimental device which has movable sensors synchronized with AC applied fields. As a result, the two-dimensional distributions in the dynamic fields are acquired by recombining the one-dimensional distributions. The dynamic states of the flux of the bulk and the influences of directions of cracks are observed from the distributions. In addition, a new method for measuring two-dimensional flux density distribution under dynamic magnetic fields is suggested

  3. Current-voltage characteristics of a superconducting slab under a superimposed small AC magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Teruo; Yamafuji, Kaoru; Sakamoto, Nobuyoshi.

    1977-01-01

    In case of applying superconductors to electric machinery or high intensity field magnets for fusion reactors, the superconductors are generally expected to be sensible to small field fluctuation besides DC magnetic field. The behavior of superconductors in DC magnetic field superimposed with small AC magnetic field has been investigated often experimentally, and the result has been obtained that the critical current at which DC flow voltage begins to appear extremely decreased or disappeared. Some theoretical investigations have been carried out on this phenomenon so far, however, their application has been limited to the region where frequency is sufficiently low or which is close to the critical magnetic field. Purpose of this report is to deal with the phenomenon in more unified way by analyzing the behavior of magnetic flux lines in a superconductor under a superimposed small AC field using the criticalstate model including viscous force. In order to solve the fundamental equation in this report, first the solution has been obtained in the quasi-static state neglecting viscous force, then about the cases that current density J is not more than Jc and J is larger than Jc, concerning the deviation from the quasi-static limit by employing successive approximation. Current-voltage characteristics have been determined by utilizing the above results. This method seems to be most promising at present except the case of extremely high frequency. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  4. Chemical Composition, Physicochemical Characteristics, and Nutritional Value of Lannea kerstingii Seeds and Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judicaël Thomas Ouilly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, main physicochemical properties, and nutritional value of seed flour and seed oil of Lannea kerstingii were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 3.61% moisture, 57.85% fat, 26.39% protein, 10.07% carbohydrates, and 2.08% ash. Potassium was the predominant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The essential amino acids were at higher levels than the estimated amino acid requirements of FAO/WHO/UNU except for lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids. Physicochemical properties of the seed oil were melting point, 19.67°C; refractive index (25°C, 1.47; iodine value, 60.72/100 g of oil; peroxide value, 0.99 meq. O2/kg of oil; p-anisidine value, 0.08; total oxidation (TOTOX value, 2.06; oxidative stability index (120°C, 52.53 h; free fatty acids, 0.39%; acid value, 0.64 mg of KOH/g of oil; saponification value, 189.73. Total amount of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols was 578.60, 4.60, and 929.50 mg/kg of oil, respectively. γ-Tocopherol (82%, lutein (80%, and β-sitosterol (93% were the most abundant forms of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols, respectively. Seeds of L. kerstingii constitute an alternative source of stable vegetable oil and protein for nutritional and industrial applications.

  5. Characteristic values of energy consumption in buildings. Guideline VDI 3807; Bewertung des Verbrauchsverhaltens von Gebaeuden mit Hilfe von Kennwerten. Die Richtlinie VDI 3807

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muegge, G. [Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (VDI), Essen (Germany).

    2000-07-01

    Characteristic values of energy consumptions are used since several years for a first analysis of the energy consumption in buildings. The application is regulated in the Guideline VDI 3807 'Characteristic values of energy consumption in buildings' which is presented in this lecture. Part 1 of the guideline deals with the fundamentals of the characteristic values of energy consumption, Parts 2 and 3 give empirical values of the heating energy and electricity consumption resp. water consumption. (orig.)

  6. The use of probe characteristics in plasma in the presence of a magnetic field (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, A.; Geller, R.; Leroy, J.

    1960-01-01

    In this article we recall the principal methods of interpretation of probe characteristics in plasma in the presence of magnetic fields. Our purpose is to resume and to present the methods in such a form as to be immediately applicable in a particular case. This article is therefore principally useful to experimenters. Finally we expose our practical view points by comparing of experimental methods. (author) [fr

  7. Subthreshold characteristics of pentacene field-effect transistors influenced by grain boundaries.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, J.; Jeong, Y-S.; Park, K-S.; Do, L-M.; Bae, J-H.; Choi, J.S.; Pearson, C.; Petty, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Grain boundaries in polycrystalline pentacene films significantly affect the electrical characteristics of pentacene field-effect transistors (FETs). Upon reversal of the gate voltage sweep direction, pentacene FETs exhibited hysteretic behaviours in the subthreshold region, which was more pronounced for the FET having smaller pentacene grains. No shift in the flat-band voltage of the metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor elucidates that the observed hysteresis was mainly caused by the infl...

  8. Flow Field Characteristics and Lift Changing Mechanism for Half-Rotating Wing in Hovering Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Wang, X. Y.; Qiu, H.; Li, C. M.; Qiu, Z. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Half-rotating wing (HRW) is a new similar-flapping wing system based on half-rotating mechanism which could perform rotating-type flapping instead of oscillating-type flapping. The characteristics of flow field and lift changing mechanism for HRW in hovering flight are important theoretical basis to improve the flight capability of HRW aircraft. The driving mechanism and work process of HRW were firstly introduced in this paper. Aerodynamic simulation model of HRW in hovering flight was established and solved using XFlow software, by which lift changing rule of HRW was drawn from the simulation solution. On the other hand, the development and shedding of the distal vortex throughout one stroke would lead to the changes of the lift force. Based on analyzing distribution characteristics of vorticity, velocity and pressure around wing blade, the main features of the flow field for HRW were further given. The distal attached vortex led to the increase of the lift force, which would gradually shed into the wake with a decline of lift in the later downstroke. The wake ring directed by the distal end of the blade would generate the downward accelerating airflow which produced the upward anti-impulse to HRW. The research results mentioned above illustrated that the behavior characteristics of vortex formed in flow field were main cause of lift changing for HRW.

  9. Computing interval-valued statistical characteristics: What is the stumbling block for reliability applications?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.G.

    2009-01-01

    The application of interval-valued statistical models is often hindered by the rapid growth in imprecision that occurs when intervals are propagated through models. Is this deficiency inherent in the models? If so, what is the underlying cause of imprecision in mathematical terms? What kind...... of additional information can be incorporated to make the bounds tighter? The present paper gives an account of the source of this imprecision that prevents interval-valued statistical models from being widely applied. Firstly, the mathematical approach to building interval-valued models (discrete...... and continuous) is delineated. Secondly, a degree of imprecision is demonstrated on some simple reliability models. Thirdly, the root mathematical cause of sizeable imprecision is elucidated and, finally, a method of making the intervals tighter is described. A number of examples are given throughout the paper....

  10. Quality characteristics of fried lamb nuggets from low-value meat cuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Milagros; Antequera, Teresa; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    This study revealed the possibility of manufacturing prefried lamb nuggets from low-value cuts (flank) and evaluated the effect of formulation (50:50 vs. 20:80 of leg/flank cuts) and freezing (−20 ℃ for two months) on different quality parameters. Frying process produced a decrease of water content...... storage and subsequent final frying. Nuggets with a higher proportion of flank also showed lower shear force values. However, nuggets with both formulations showed similar sensory acceptance. Freezing storage of lamb meat nuggets for two months increased the levels of lipid oxidation indicators, but again...... not to a level high enough to influence the sensory perception by consumers. So that, frozen nuggets from both formulations showed similar consumer acceptance to freshly produced ones with quite good scores (3.46–3.86 out of 5). Thus, low-value lamb cuts are suitable for being processed into highly acceptable...

  11. Characteristic Rain Events: A Methodology for Improving the Amenity Value of Stormwater Control Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit Andersen, Jonas; Lerer, Sara Maria; Backhaus, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Local management of rainwater using stormwater control measures (SCMs) is gaining increased attention as a sustainable alternative and supplement to traditional sewer systems. Besides offering added utility values, many SCMs also offer a great potential for added amenity values. One way...... of achieving amenity value is to stage the rainwater and thus bring it to the attention of the public. We present here a methodology for creating a selection of rain events that can help bridge between engineering and landscape architecture when dealing with staging of rainwater. The methodology uses......; here we show its use for Danish conditions. We illustrate with a case study how CREs can be used in combination with a simple hydrological model to visualize where, how deep and for how long water is visible in a landscape designed to manage rainwater....

  12. The Spirit of OMERACT: Q Methodology Analysis of Conference Characteristics Valued by Delegates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flurey, Caroline A; Kirwan, John R; Hadridge, Phillip; Richards, Pamela; Grosskleg, Shawna; Tugwell, Peter S

    2015-10-01

    To identify the major features of OMERACT meetings as valued by frequent participants and to explore whether there are groups of participants with different opinions. Using Q methodology (a qualitative and quantitative approach to grouping people according to subjective opinion), participants (who attended more than 1 OMERACT conference) sorted 66 statements relating to the "spirit of OMERACT" according to level of agreement across a normal distribution grid. Data were examined using Q factor analysis. Of 226 potential participants, 105 responded (46%). All participants highly ranked the focus on global standardization of methods, outcome measures, data-driven research, methodological discussion, and international collaboration. Four factors describing the "spirit of OMERACT" were identified: "Evidence not eminence" (n = 31) valued the data- and evidence-driven research above personality and status; "Collaboration and collegiality" (n = 19) valued the international and cross-stakeholder collaboration, interaction, and collegiality; "Equal voices, equal votes, common goals" (n = 12) valued equality in discussion and voting, with everyone striving toward the same goal; "principles and product, not process" (n = 8) valued the principles of focusing on outcome measures and the product of guiding clinical trials, but were unsure whether the process is necessary to reach this. The factors did not segregate different stakeholder groups. Delegates value different elements of OMERACT, and thus the "spirit of OMERACT" encompasses evidence-based research, collaboration, and equality, although a small group are unsure whether the process is necessary to achieve the end result. Q methodology may prove useful for conference organizers to identify their delegates' different needs to tailor conference content.

  13. Characteristic Rain Events – A tool to enhance amenity values in SUDS-design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit Andersen, Jonas; Lerer, Sara Maria; Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen

    2016-01-01

    To overcome the challenge of designing good-looking open detention/retention areas in the urban landscape that can manage stormwater runoff from both the large, rare events and the frequent smaller events without looking empty and oversized a new approach referred to as Characteristic Rain Events...... (CRE) is proposed. The idea of the CRE is to demonstrate the water dynamics of a detention/retention area in a number of characteristic situations, in this way allowing the designer to work in a more tangible way with the design.Based on historical rain series single events are selected, representing...... the day-to-day domain, the design domain and the extreme domain as defined in the Three Point Approach (3PA). In this paper the ability of CRE to unfold the water dynamics of a detention/retention area is investigated by applying four CRE to a fictive rain garden including frequent, short event...

  14. Variation of b and p values from aftershocks sequences along the Mexican subduction zone and their relation to plate characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Barrientos, L.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Rodríguez-Pérez, Q.; Guzmán-Speziale, M.

    2015-11-01

    Aftershock sequences along the Mexican subduction margin (between coordinates 110ºW and 91ºW) were analyzed by means of the p value from the Omori-Utsu relation and the b value from the Gutenberg-Richter relation. We focused on recent medium to large (Mw > 5.6) events considered susceptible of generating aftershock sequences suitable for analysis. The main goal was to try to find a possible correlation between aftershock parameters and plate characteristics, such as displacement rate, age and segmentation. The subduction regime of Mexico is one of the most active regions of the world with a high frequency of occurrence of medium to large events and plate characteristics change along the subduction margin. Previous studies have observed differences in seismic source characteristics at the subduction regime, which may indicate a difference in rheology and possible segmentation. The results of the analysis of the aftershock sequences indicate a slight tendency for p values to decrease from west to east with increasing of plate age although a statistical significance is undermined by the small number of aftershocks in the sequences, a particular feature distinctive of the region as compared to other world subduction regimes. The b values show an opposite, increasing trend towards the east even though the statistical significance is not enough to warrant the validation of such a trend. A linear regression between both parameters provides additional support for the inverse relation. Moreover, we calculated the seismic coupling coefficient, showing a direct relation with the p and b values. While we cannot undoubtedly confirm the hypothesis that aftershock generation depends on certain tectonic characteristics (age, thickness, temperature), our results do not reject it thus encouraging further study into this question.

  15. Water activities in Laxemar-Simpevarp. Organic field inventory, nature values classification and description of production land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per

    2010-10-01

    This report describes nature values, agricultural areas and forestry areas in Laxemar, for which there could be negative consequences due to groundwater diversion during construction and operation of a repository for spent nuclear fuel in the rock. In 2009, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) chose Forsmark as site for the repository. This report hence concerns the non-chosen Laxemar site. The report describes results from map studies and comprehensive field investigations, in terms of geographical delineations, descriptions of characteristics and classifications of nature values for groundwater dependent of -favoured nature objects. The nature objects are located in an investigation area, which according to numerical flow modelling could be affected by groundwater-table drawdown due to groundwater diversion. The investigation area contains a number of valuable nature habitats, but no protected areas in the form of nature reserves or Natura 2000 areas. In the investigation area 67 nature objects have been identified, geographically delineated and classified according to their nature values. Of these nature objects, 32 consist of forest objects (including moist forests), 26 consist of wetland objects, and nine consist of surface waters (streams, lakes and ponds). The nature-value classifications of objects are primarily based on habitat rareness and worth of protection on a national scale, and their importance as habitats for rare and threatened species. None of the identified nature objects is judged to be of national value (class 1). 15 nature objects (forest objects) are judged to be of regional value (class 2), 18 objects of municipal value (class 3) and 34 objects are judged to be of local value (class 4). Most of the nature objects contain nature values that are associated to factors other than the level of the groundwater table, primarily previous land uses in the form of grazing and hay cutting. There are also values associated to valuable

  16. Functional Values and Characteristics of Food Brand Name Based on the Relation between Language and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Haitao Lu

    2015-01-01

    For commodities, labeling is a mark enabling food producers or manufacturers to differ their goods from others in a same classification. As a kind of labeling, food brand is various in form and its name is the focus of this study. With market economic system, Chinese food industry is facing much severer market competitions, so studying on languages of food brand name has significant guidance to the sustainable development of food brand. This study investigates characteristics of food brand na...

  17. Prediction for driving behaviour in connection with socio – demographic characteristics and individual value system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazdins K.J.

    2018-01-01

    The results can serve as the basis to create new driving behavior interventions and also applicable to psychologist's professional work, when counseling individuals of this group, as well as can be used in the future development of the field, science and research.

  18. STUDYING THE EFFECT OF AN ADDITIONAL ACTIVE RESISTANCE IN THE FIELD WINDING CIRCUIT ON STARTING CHARACTERISTICS OF SALIENT-POLE SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Malyar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the developed method for calculating steady-state asynchronous operation modes of salient-pole synchronous motors, a procedure of mathematical modelling of the starting characteristics is proposed. The problem of calculating the steady-state asynchronous mode is solved as a boundary value one for differential equations of motor circuit electrical equilibrium. Algebraization of the system of differential equations is carried out by approximating the equations of state using cubic spline functions on a grid of period nodes, taking into account the periodic law of variation of the coordinates. This results in the changeover from continual values to nodal ones. The starting static characteristics are calculated using the parameter continuation method. The study of the effect of the starting resistance value on the asynchronous characteristics of the motor relied on a mathematical model of the motor taking into consideration real field circuits, saturation and asymmetry of the magnetic path.

  19. Diagnostic value of patient characteristics, history, and six clinical tests for traumatic anterior shoulder instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, D.A.; van den Berg, T.; van der Woude, H.J.; Castelein, R.M.; Terwee, C.B.; Willems, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is unknown which combination of patient information and clinical tests might beoptimal for the diagnosis of traumatic anterior shoulder instability. This study aimed to determinethe diagnostic value of individual clinical tests and to develop a prediction model that combined patient

  20. International Christian Schoolteachers' Traits, Characteristics, and Qualities Valued by Third Culture Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Dale B.

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative grounded theory study, 24 participants, referred to as "third culture kids" (or TCKs), ages 18-30 years, who had previously attended international Christian schools were interviewed to determine the dispositions they valued in their teachers. Incorporating principles of grounded theory, a series of rigorous steps were…

  1. The modeling of attraction characteristics regarding passenger flow in urban rail transit network based on field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Wang, Yanhui; Jia, Limin

    2017-01-01

    Aimed at the complicated problems of attraction characteristics regarding passenger flow in urban rail transit network, the concept of the gravity field of passenger flow is proposed in this paper. We establish the computation methods of field strength and potential energy to reveal the potential attraction relationship among stations from the perspective of the collection and distribution of passenger flow and the topology of network. As for the computation methods of field strength, an optimum path concept is proposed to define betweenness centrality parameter. Regarding the computation of potential energy, Compound Simpson's Rule Formula is applied to get a solution to the function. Taking No. 10 Beijing Subway as a practical example, an analysis of simulation and verification is conducted, and the results shows in the following ways. Firstly, the bigger field strength value between two stations is, the stronger passenger flow attraction is, and the greater probability of the formation of the largest passenger flow of section is. Secondly, there is the greatest passenger flow volume and circulation capacity between two zones of high potential energy.

  2. The modeling of attraction characteristics regarding passenger flow in urban rail transit network based on field theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Li

    Full Text Available Aimed at the complicated problems of attraction characteristics regarding passenger flow in urban rail transit network, the concept of the gravity field of passenger flow is proposed in this paper. We establish the computation methods of field strength and potential energy to reveal the potential attraction relationship among stations from the perspective of the collection and distribution of passenger flow and the topology of network. As for the computation methods of field strength, an optimum path concept is proposed to define betweenness centrality parameter. Regarding the computation of potential energy, Compound Simpson's Rule Formula is applied to get a solution to the function. Taking No. 10 Beijing Subway as a practical example, an analysis of simulation and verification is conducted, and the results shows in the following ways. Firstly, the bigger field strength value between two stations is, the stronger passenger flow attraction is, and the greater probability of the formation of the largest passenger flow of section is. Secondly, there is the greatest passenger flow volume and circulation capacity between two zones of high potential energy.

  3. Field emission characteristics of a small number of carbon fiber emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkin W. Tang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an experiment that studies the emission characteristics of small number of field emitters. The experiment consists of nine carbon fibers in a square configuration. Experimental results show that the emission characteristics depend strongly on the separation between each emitter, providing evidence of the electric field screening effects. Our results indicate that as the separation between the emitters decreases, the emission current for a given voltage also decreases. The authors compare the experimental results to four carbon fiber emitters in a linear and square configurations as well as to two carbon fiber emitters in a paired array. Voltage-current traces show that the turn-on voltage is always larger for the nine carbon fiber emitters as compared to the two and four emitters in linear configurations, and approximately identical to the four emitters in a square configuration. The observations and analysis reported here, based on Fowler-Nordheim field emission theory, suggest the electric field screening effect depends critically on the number of emitters, the separation between them, and their overall geometric configuration.

  4. Characteristics of gravity and magnetic field and their relationship with uranium mineralization in northern Guangxi area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Xiaojing; Yin Zhongfan; Hao Yuhua; guan Nansheng; Li Xuexun

    1993-08-01

    The characteristics of gravity and magnetic field, deep-seated structures and their relationship with uranium mineralization in Northern Guangxi are investigated. Especially, based on geophysical investigation, the distinguishing features of uranium ore-forming are discussed, involved with the uranium source body, the heating force and mechanical force of granite magma acted on uranium mineralization, the deep-seated geological process, the hydrothermal activity, the formation environments of granite-type uranium deposit, the source of pyrite and its influence on uranium mineralization, the uranium ore-forming of Sinian-Cambrian periods and devonian period formations, and the simple model of uranium ore-forming. On the basis of the relationship of uranium mineralization with geophysical field, as well as the ore-forming geological environments inferred by gravity and magnetic field investigation, the physical-geological model is established in order to predicate uranium prospect

  5. Unique Characteristics of Vertical Carbon Nanotube Field-effect Transistors on Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi; Yue, Weisheng; Guo, Zaibing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Xianbin; Syed, Ahad A.; Zhang, Yafei

    2014-01-01

    A vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) based on silicon (Si) substrate has been proposed and simulated using a semi-classical theory. A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and an n-type Si nanowire in series construct the channel of the transistor. The CNTFET presents ambipolar characteristics at positive drain voltage (Vd) and n-type characteristics at negative Vd. The current is significantly influenced by the doping level of n-Si and the SWNT band gap. The n-branch current of the ambipolar characteristics increases with increasing doping level of the n-Si while the p-branch current decreases. The SWNT band gap has the same influence on the p-branch current at a positive Vd and n-type characteristics at negative Vd. The lower the SWNT band gap, the higher the current. However, it has no impact on the n-branch current in the ambipolar characteristics. Thick oxide is found to significantly degrade the current and the subthreshold slope of the CNTFETs.

  6. Unique Characteristics of Vertical Carbon Nanotube Field-effect Transistors on Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi

    2014-07-01

    A vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) based on silicon (Si) substrate has been proposed and simulated using a semi-classical theory. A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and an n-type Si nanowire in series construct the channel of the transistor. The CNTFET presents ambipolar characteristics at positive drain voltage (Vd) and n-type characteristics at negative Vd. The current is significantly influenced by the doping level of n-Si and the SWNT band gap. The n-branch current of the ambipolar characteristics increases with increasing doping level of the n-Si while the p-branch current decreases. The SWNT band gap has the same influence on the p-branch current at a positive Vd and n-type characteristics at negative Vd. The lower the SWNT band gap, the higher the current. However, it has no impact on the n-branch current in the ambipolar characteristics. Thick oxide is found to significantly degrade the current and the subthreshold slope of the CNTFETs.

  7. Auroral streamers: characteristics of associated precipitation,convection and field-aligned currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sergeev

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available During the long-duration steady convection activity on 11 December 1998, the development of a few dozen auroral streamers was monitored by Polar UVI instrument in the dark northern nightside ionosphere. On many occasions the DMSP spacecraft crossed the streamer-conjugate regions over the sunlit southern auroral oval, permitting the investigation of the characteristics of ion and electron precipitation, ionospheric convection and field-aligned currents associated with the streamers. We confirm the conjugacy of streamer-associated precipitation, as well as their association with ionospheric plasma streams having a substantial equatorward convection component. The observations display two basic types of streamer-associated precipitation. In its polewardmost half, the streamer-associated (field-aligned accelerated electron precipitation coincides with the strong (≥2–7μA/m2 upward field-aligned currents on the westward flank of the convection stream, sometimes accompanied by enhanced proton precipitation in the adjacent region. In the equatorward portion of the streamer, the enhanced precipitation includes both electrons and protons, often without indication of field-aligned acceleration. Most of these characteristics are consistent with the model describing the generation of the streamer by the narrow plasma bubbles (bursty bulk flows which are contained on dipolarized field lines in the plasma sheet, although the mapping is strongly distorted which makes it difficult to quantitatively interprete the ionospheric image. The convective streams in the ionosphere, when well-resolved, had the maximal convection speeds ∼0.5–1km/s, total field-aligned currents of a few tenths of MA, thicknesses of a few hundreds km and a potential drop of a few kV across the stream. However, this might represent only a small part of the associated flux transport in the equatorial plasma sheet.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fiels and

  8. [Prognostic values of the clinical, morphological and molecular biological characteristics of colon adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, G A; Pozharissky, K M; Orlova, R V; Petrov, S V

    2015-01-01

    to estimate the predictive and prognostic factors using morphological studies in patients with colon cancer to increase survival rates. Immunohistochemical examination was made in 582 patients with colon adenocarcinoma, by determining 11 different indicators relating to the development of the tumor and its treatment. The simultaneous determination of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and proliferative activity (Ki-67 expression) can define disease prognosis in view of relapse-survival rates in patients with Stage II colon cancer after radical surgical treatment. Thymidylate synthase and thymidine phosphorylase are of predictive value. The immunohistochemical examination of other markers, such as ALDH1, CCR10, ERCC-1, DYPD, topoisomerase II alpha, and class III beta-tubulin for the choice of treatment policy for patients with colon cancer has indicated that they are of no value.

  9. Network Characteristics and the Value of Collaborative User-Generated Content

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Ransbotham; Gerald C. Kane; Nicholas H. Lurie

    2012-01-01

    User-generated content is increasingly created through the collaborative efforts of multiple individuals. In this paper, we argue that the value of collaborative user-generated content is a function both of the direct efforts of its contributors and of its embeddedness in the content-contributor network that creates it. An analysis of Wikipedia's WikiProject Medicine reveals a curvilinear relationship between the number of distinct contributors to user-generated content and viewership. A two-...

  10. Exploring the online music market:consumer characteristics and value perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Styvén, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The advent of the Internet and the digitization of music has resulted in a multitude of new challenges and opportunities for the recording industry. So far, sales of digital downloadable music have not compensated for the decrease in CD sales throughout the twentyfirst century. To attract new customers and successfully compete with file-sharing networks, commercial online music services need to meet customer expectations by delivering what they value. Therefore, to increase the understanding ...

  11. Emotion rendering in music: range and characteristic values of seven musical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresin, Roberto; Friberg, Anders

    2011-10-01

    Many studies on the synthesis of emotional expression in music performance have focused on the effect of individual performance variables on perceived emotional quality by making a systematical variation of variables. However, most of the studies have used a predetermined small number of levels for each variable, and the selection of these levels has often been done arbitrarily. The main aim of this research work is to improve upon existing methodologies by taking a synthesis approach. In a production experiment, 20 performers were asked to manipulate values of 7 musical variables simultaneously (tempo, sound level, articulation, phrasing, register, timbre, and attack speed) for communicating 5 different emotional expressions (neutral, happy, scary, peaceful, sad) for each of 4 scores. The scores were compositions communicating four different emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, calmness). Emotional expressions and music scores were presented in combination and in random order for each performer for a total of 5 × 4 stimuli. The experiment allowed for a systematic investigation of the interaction between emotion of each score and intended expressed emotions by performers. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), repeated measures, with factors emotion and score was conducted on the participants' values separately for each of the seven musical factors. There are two main results. The first one is that musical variables were manipulated in the same direction as reported in previous research on emotional expressive music performance. The second one is the identification for each of the five emotions the mean values and ranges of the five musical variables tempo, sound level, articulation, register, and instrument. These values resulted to be independent from the particular score and its emotion. The results presented in this study therefore allow for both the design and control of emotionally expressive computerized musical stimuli that are more ecologically valid than

  12. A study on characteristics of values in migration to the countryside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Sachiko; Yuhara, Asako; Kaminaga, Nozomi; Takamori, Shuji

    National land policy should be examined in consideration of diversification of values and life-style today. Therefore, in order to implement infrastructure management with great satisfaction, we carried out a survey and analyses of the values of people who prefer the countryside. The survey was carried out in Ono-machi, Fukushima, Nichinan-cho, Tottori and Tarumizu-shi, Kagoshima. The results reveal values of people who moved into the countryside. When they consider the move, they make much of quality of the work and spare time. When they choose where they move into, they consider living environment and local communities in particular. After moving into the countryside, a family, living environment and human relations with neighbors become important to them. Therefore, the high-quality workplace in their neighborhood, superior living environment and good human relations with neighbors are important. In addition, providing information on living environment and local communities of towns in the countryside helps people to move into those towns.

  13. The characteristics of geothermal field of Qiabuqia town in Gonghe basin, northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Shi, Y.; Jiang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Located in the northeastern margin of Gonghe basin, Qiabuqia town displays the most potential of hot dry rock geothermal resources exploration and development in China so far. Although large quantities of geophysical exploration work have been down since 2013, the study of present geothermal field is almost empty, which is seriously restricting the evaluation and utilization of geothermal resources in Qiabuqia town. This study is to revel the geothermal characteristics of four hot dry rock boreholes (DR4, DR3, GR1 and GR2) though continuous steady temperature logging and thermal conductivity measurements of core samples. The main stratum of study area are Indosinian granitic rocks (below 1400 m) which is overlain by thick Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary lacustrine strata (0 1400 m). Continuous temperature logs display that the bottom hole temperature of DR3 borehole is up to 180 oC at the depth of 3000 m and it is the first successfully verification of the existence of hot dry rock geothermal resources in China. The temperature gradients of these for boreholes are obtained by the linear least squares regression method and it turns out that the temperature gradient varies from 38 to 45.2 oC • km-1 with an average of 40.4 oC • km-1. Average thermal conductivity of bedrocks ranges from 2.07 to 3.10 W/(m • K) with an mean of 2.52 W/(m • K). Heat flow values are calculated as the product of least-square thermal gradients and corresponding thermal conductivity. By the result of the calculation, the heat flow are 98.9 mW • m-2, 114.7 mW • m-2, 96.2 mW • m-2, 97.8 mW • m-2 for DR4, DR3, GR1 and GR2 borehole, respectively. Compared to the adjacent Qaidam basin, Sichuan basin and Ordos basin, the study area appear to be a thermal abnormal area with high temperature gradient and high heat flow.

  14. Current-voltage characteristics of a gas field ion source with a supertip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerret, R.; Boehringer, K.; Kalbitzer, S.

    1990-01-01

    The field ionisation properties of a supertip, a fine protrusion on top of a regular emitter, have been studied for hydrogen and the lighter rare gases. The parameter set included tip temperature, tip radius, gas temperature and gas pressure. Due to the local field enhancement at the supertip site, angular current intensities of 35 μA sr -1 and values of brightness up to 10 10 A cm -2 sr -1 have been obtained near the optimum temperature of the gas-tip system. At temperatures below this, the gas density reaches values typical for a condensed phase. In geometrical proportion, the regular tip area appears to serve as a gas supply for the supertip current. (author)

  15. The seasonal role of field characteristics on seed-eating bird abundances in agricultural landscapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel ZUFIAURRE; Mariano CODESIDO; Agustín M.ABBA; David BILENCA

    2017-01-01

    In temperate agroecosystems,avian responses in abundance and distribution to landscape attributes may be exacerbated by the coupling of natural seasons and farming practices.We assessed the seasonal roles of field WPe,field use in the surroundings,and distance from a field to the nearest woodlot on the abundance of seed-eating birds in a 225,000 km2 study area in the Pampas of central Argentina.During spring-summer and autumn of 2011-2013,we randomly selected 392 fields and used transect samples to collect data on abundance and presence of seed-eating bird species.We recorded a total of 11,579 individuals belonging to 15 seed-eating bird species.We used generalized lineal mixed models to relate bird abundance to field type,field use in the surroundings,and distance to the nearest woodlot.In spring-summer (breeding season) most bird responses were associated with their nesting requirements.Species that build their nests in trees,such as eared doves Zenaida auriculata,picazuro pigeons Patagioenas picazuro,and monk parakeets Myiopsitta monachus,were more abundant in fields closer to woodlots,whereas grassland yellow-finches Sicalis luteola,which nest at areas with tall grasses,were more abundant in fields with livestock use patches in the field surroundings.In autumn (non-breeding season),most bird responses were associated with foraging and refuge needs.The high abundance of eared doves in crop stubbles and the association of pigeons at field surroundings dominated by croplands or at crop stubbles surrounded by livestock use fields revealed the intimate association of these species to sites with high availability of food resources.In addition,both picazuro pigeons and spot-winged pigeons Patagioenas maculosa were associated with woodlots,which provide suitable roosting sites.Our results show that in temperate agroecosystems,the relationships between field characteristics and seed-eating bird abundances vary with season.

  16. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound and pulsed electric fields on milk composition and characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Jeličić; Katarina Lisak; Rajka Božanić

    2012-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure, ultrasonication and pulsed eletrcic fields (PEF) belong to novel food processing methods which are mostly implemented in combination with moderate temperatures and/ or in combination with each other in order to provide adequate microbiological quality with minimal losses of nutritional value. All of three mentioned methods have been intensively investigated for the purpose of inactivation and reduction of foodborne microorganisms present in milk and dairy products. ...

  17. A Comprehensive Analysis of Multiscale Field-Aligned Currents: Characteristics, Controlling Parameters, and Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranaghan, Ryan M.; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Forsyth, Colin

    2017-12-01

    We explore the characteristics, controlling parameters, and relationships of multiscale field-aligned currents (FACs) using a rigorous, comprehensive, and cross-platform analysis. Our unique approach combines FAC data from the Swarm satellites and the Advanced Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) to create a database of small-scale (˜10-150 km, 250 km) FACs. We examine these data for the repeatable behavior of FACs across scales (i.e., the characteristics), the dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field orientation, and the degree to which each scale "departs" from nominal large-scale specification. We retrieve new information by utilizing magnetic latitude and local time dependence, correlation analyses, and quantification of the departure of smaller from larger scales. We find that (1) FACs characteristics and dependence on controlling parameters do not map between scales in a straight forward manner, (2) relationships between FAC scales exhibit local time dependence, and (3) the dayside high-latitude region is characterized by remarkably distinct FAC behavior when analyzed at different scales, and the locations of distinction correspond to "anomalous" ionosphere-thermosphere behavior. Comparing with nominal large-scale FACs, we find that differences are characterized by a horseshoe shape, maximizing across dayside local times, and that difference magnitudes increase when smaller-scale observed FACs are considered. We suggest that both new physics and increased resolution of models are required to address the multiscale complexities. We include a summary table of our findings to provide a quick reference for differences between multiscale FACs.

  18. Low temperature synthesis and field emission characteristics of single to few layered graphene grown using PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Avshish; Khan, Sunny; Zulfequar, M.; Harsh; Husain, Mushahid, E-mail: mush_reslab@rediffmail.com

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Graphene was synthesized by PECVD system at a low temperature of 600 °C. • From different characterization techniques, the presence of single and few layered graphene was confirmed. • X-ray diffraction pattern of the graphene showed single crystalline nature of the film. • The as-grown graphene films were observed extremely good field emitters with long term emission current stability. - Abstract: In this work, high-quality graphene has successfully been synthesized on copper (Cu) coated Silicon (Si) substrate at very large-area by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. This method is low cost and highly effective for synthesizing graphene relatively at low temperature of 600 °C. Electron microscopy images have shown that surface morphology of the grown samples is quite uniform consisting of single layered graphene (SLG) to few layered graphene (FLG). Raman spectra reveal that graphene has been grown with high-quality having negligible defects and the observation of G and G' peaks is also an indicative of stokes phonon energy shift caused due to laser excitation. Scanning probe microscopy image also depicts the synthesis of single to few layered graphene. The field emission characteristics of as-grown graphene samples were studied in a planar diode configuration at room temperature. The graphene samples were observed to be a good field emitter having low turn-on field, higher field amplification factor and long term emission current stability.

  19. Characteristics of X ray calibration fields for performance test of radiation measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shigeru; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sawahata, Tadahiro; Tohnami, Kohichi; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Murayama, Takashi

    1999-02-01

    Performance test and calibration of the radiation measuring instruments for low energy photons are made using the X ray calibration fields which are monochromatically characterized by filtration of continuous X ray spectrum. The X ray calibration field needs to be characterized by some quality conditions such as quality index and homogeneity coefficient. The present report describes quality conditions, spectrum and some characteristics of X ray irradiation fields in the Facility of Radiation Standard of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (FRS-JAERI). Fifty nine X ray qualities with the quality index of 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 were set for the tube voltages between 10 kV and 350 kV. Estimation of X ray spectrum measured with a Ge detector was made in terms of exposure, ambient dose equivalent and fluence for all the obtained qualities. Practical irradiation field was determined as the dose distribution uniformity is within ±3%. The obtained results improve the quality of X ray calibration fields and calibration accuracy. (author)

  20. High voltage electric field effects on structure and biological characteristics of barley seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazaei, J. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Agrotechnology, Univ. College of Abouraihan; Aliabadi, E. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Crop Production Horticulture, Univ. College of Aburaihan; Shayegani, A.A. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Univ. College of Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Electric biostimulation of seeds is a pre-sowing treatment in which an electric field is applied to seeds to increase germination of non standard seeds. This paper reported on a study that examined the effects of AC electric field and exposure time on the structure and biological characteristics of barley seeds. The objective was to determine the potential to accelerate seed germination, plant growth and root development by the electric field strength and exposure time. Makooei cultivar barley seeds were used in this study. The effect of electric field strength (at 2, 4, 9, and 14 kV/m) and exposure time (at 15, 45, 80, and 150 min) on seed germination was studied along with height of seedling, length or root, height of stem, length of leaves, earliness, dry weight and wet weight of seedling. The treated seeds were stored for a month in a refrigerator at 5 degrees C prior to the germination experiments. The initial germination percent of the seed was 81 per cent. The treatment of barley seeds in an AC electric field had a positive effect on all investigated parameters. The germination percent of the treated seed increased to 94.5 per cent . The seeds exposed for long periods of time (45 to 150 min) showed better germination than the seeds exposed to lower exposure times. Dry and wet weights of seedling increased 143.4 per cent and 45.7 per cent, respectively.

  1. Fermentative characteristics and nutritional value of elephant grass silage added with dehydrated banana peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maria Santos Brant

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentative losses and nutritional value of elephant grass silages with the increasing of inclusion levels of dehydrated banana peel. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and four replications, being the silage exclusively from elephant grass, and five levels of inclusion of banana peel to the elephant grass silage, as the following - 5; 10; 15; 20 and 25%, being added based on natural matter. The addition of the banana peel in the silage reduced linearly (p < 0.05 the pH, the ammoniacal nitrogen and the losses of the fermentative process. In addition, the inclusion of banana peel increased linearly (p < 0.05 the dry matter and non-fibrous carbohydrates. On the other hand, the neutral detergent fiber and the acid detergent fiber were linearly reduced with the inclusion of the banana peel (p < 0.05, but there was no change in the dry matter digestibility in situ. The inclusion of dehydrated banana peel in elephant grass silage reduces the losses of the fermentation process with more consistent results at the 25% inclusion level, however, it reduces the silage nutritional value due to fibrous and protein quality.

  2. Dynamical characteristics of an electromagnetic field under conditions of total reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekshaev, Aleksandr Ya

    2018-04-01

    The dynamical characteristics of electromagnetic fields include energy, momentum, angular momentum (spin) and helicity. We analyze their spatial distributions near the planar interface between two transparent and non-dispersive media, when the incident monochromatic plane wave with arbitrary polarization is totally reflected, and an evanescent wave is formed in the medium with lower optical density. Based on the recent arguments in favor of the Minkowski definition of the electromagnetic momentum in a material medium (Philbin 2011 Phys. Rev. A 83 013823; Philbin and Allanson 2012 86 055802; Bliokh et al 2017 Phys. Rev. Lett. 119 073901), we derive the explicit expressions for the dynamical characteristics in both media, with special attention to their behavior at the interface. In particular, the ‘extraordinary’ spin and momentum components orthogonal to the plane of incidence are described, and a canonical (spin-orbital) momentum decomposition is performed that contains no singular terms. The field energy, helicity, the spin momentum and orbital momentum components are everywhere regular but experience discontinuities at the interface; the spin components parallel to the interface appear to be continuous, which testifies to the consistency of the adopted Minkowski picture. The results supply a meaningful example of the electromagnetic momentum decomposition, with separation of spatial and polarization degrees of freedom, in inhomogeneous media, and can be used in engineering the structured fields designed for optical sorting, dispatching and micromanipulation.

  3. Influence of heat treatment on field emission characteristics of boron nitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weiqing; Gu Guangrui; Li Yingai; He Zhi; Feng Wei; Liu Lihua; Zhao Chunhong; Zhao Yongnian

    2005-01-01

    Boron nitride (BN) nanometer thin films are synthesized on Si (1 0 0) substrates by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. Then the film surfaces are treated in the case of the base pressure below 5 x 10 -4 Pa and the temperature of 800 and 1000 deg. C, respectively. And the films are studied by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), atomic force microscopic (AFM) and field emission characteristics at different annealing temperature. The results show that the surface heat treatment makes no apparent influence on the surface morphology of the BN films. The transformations of the sample emission characteristics have to do with the surface negative electron affinity (NEA) of the films possibly. The threshold electric fields are lower for BN samples without heat-treating than the treated films, which possibly ascribed to the surface negative electron affinity effect. A threshold field of 8 V/μm and the emission current of 80 μA are obtained. The surface NEA is still presence at the heat treatment temperature of 800 deg. C and disappeared at temperature of 1000 deg. C

  4. HYDROGEOLOGICAL AND HYDROGEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A WIDER AREA OF THE REGIONAL WELL FIELD EASTERN SLAVONIA – SIKIREVCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Kopić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characteristics of a wider area of the regional well field Eastern Slavonia - Sikirevci. The research was conducted based on data gathered from the area of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Croatia. The aquifer Velika Kopanica is situated at the territory of the Republic of Croatia in the triangular region formed between Kopanica, Gundinci and Kruševica. The River Sava partially flows through it and the aquifer extends beneath the river to the territory of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina from Donji Svilaj in the West to Domaljevac in the East where its yield is the highest. The thickness of the aquifer decreases towards the water body Odžak. It was determined that the groundwater which is extracted from wells of the wider area of the regional well field contains iron, manganese, natural ammonia and arsenic in values exceeding the maximum allowable concentration for drinking water. The increased values of these parameters are a result of mineral composition and reductive conditions in the aquifer environment. By means of a multivariate statistic cluster analysis, an overview of groups of elements is provided based on geochemical affinity and/or origin.

  5. Investigation of the response characteristics of OSL albedo neutron dosimeters in a 241AmBe reference neutron field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamsuwan, T.; Wonglee, S.; Channuie, J.; Esoa, J.; Monthonwattana, S.

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this work was to systematically investigate the response characteristics of optically stimulated luminescence Albedo neutron (OSLN) dosimeters to ensure reliable personal dosimetry service provided by Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT). Several batches of InLight® OSLN dosimeters were irradiated in a reference neutron field generated by the in-house 241AmBe neutron irradiator. The OSL signals were typically measured 24 hours after irradiation using the InLight® Auto 200 Reader. Based on known values of delivered neutron dose equivalent, the reading correction factor to be used by the reader was evaluated. Subsequently, batch homogeneity, dose linearity, lower limit of detection and fading of the OSLN dosimeters were examined. Batch homogeneity was evaluated to be 0.12 ± 0.05. The neutron dose response exhibited a linear relationship (R2=0.9974) within the detectable neutron dose equivalent range under test (0.4-3 mSv). For this neutron field, the lower limit of detection was between 0.2 and 0.4 mSv. Over different post-irradiation storage times of up to 180 days, the readings fluctuated within ±5%. Personal dosimetry based on the investigated OSLN dosimeter is considered to be reliable under similar neutron exposure conditions, i.e. similar neutron energy spectra and dose equivalent values.

  6. Nitrogen plasma-treated multilayer graphene-based field effect transistor fabrication and electronic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Jhih; Chang, Hsuan-Chen; Honda, Shin-ichi; Lin, Pao-Hung; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Lee, Kuei-Yi

    2017-08-01

    Chemical doping with hetero-atoms is an effective method used to change the characteristics of materials. Nitrogen doping technology plays a critical role in regulating the electronic properties of graphene. Nitrogen plasma treatment was used in this work to dope nitrogen atoms to modulate multilayer graphene electrical properties. The measured I-V multilayer graphene-base field-effect transistor characteristics (GFETs) showed a V-shaped transfer curve with the hole and electron region separated from the measured current-voltage (I-V) minimum. GFETs fabricated with multilayer graphene from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) exhibited p-type behavior because of oxygen adsorption. After using different nitrogen plasma treatment times, the minimum in I-V characteristic shifted into the negative gate voltage region with increased nitrogen concentration and the GFET channel became an n-type semiconductor. GFETs could be easily fabricated using this method with potential for various applications. The GFET transfer characteristics could be tuned precisely by adjusting the nitrogen plasma treatment time.

  7. Study on Effects of The Shape of Cavitator on Supercavitation Flow Field Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Dang, Jianjun; Yao, Zhong

    2018-03-01

    The cavitator is the key part of the nose of the vehicle to induce the formation of supercavity, which has an important influence in the cavity formation rate, cavity shape and cavity stability. To study the influence of the shape on the supercavitation flew field characteristics, the cavity characteristics and the resistance characteristics of different shapes of cavitator under different working conditions are obtained by combining technical methods of numerical simulation and experimental research in water tunnel. The simulation results are contrast and analyzed with the test results. The analysis results show that : in terms of the cavity size, the inverted-conic cavitator can form the biggest cavity size, followed by the disk cavitator, and the truncated-conic cavitator is the least; in terms of the cavity formation speed, the inverted-conic cavitator has the fastest cavity formation speed, then is the truncated-conic cavitator, and the disk cavitator is the least; in terms of the drag characteristic, the truncated-conic cavitator has the maximum coefficient, disk cavitator is the next, the inverted-conic cavitator is the minimal. The research conclusion can provide reference and basis for the head shape design of supercavitating underwater ordnance and the design of hydrodynamic layout.

  8. Friction characteristics of submicrometre-structured surfaces fabricated by particle-assisted near-field enhancement with femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Tetsuo; Nedyalkov, Nikolay; Obara, Minoru

    2007-01-01

    We present friction characteristics of sliding textured silicon surfaces at the submicrometre scale. A two-dimensional submicrometre dimple array on the Si surface is fabricated by femtosecond laser processing. Direct femtosecond laser nano-structuring of the Si (1 0 0) substrate by polystyrene particle-assisted near-field enhancement is used. In the investigated hole diameter domain from 229 to 548 nm, an increase in the friction coefficient with the decrease in the hole size is found experimentally. The fabricated submicrometre dimples act evidently as lubricant reservoirs to supply lubricants and traps to capture wear debris. The fluctuation of the friction coefficient is also increased by reducing the dimple size. The lowest friction coefficient of 1.41 x 10 -2 is achieved with the dimple array having a diameter of about 550 nm. This value is 2.6 times lower than that of non-structured substrates

  9. Transfer characteristics and contact resistance in Ni- and Ti-contacted graphene-based field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Bartolomeo, A; Giubileo, F; Iemmo, L; Romeo, F; Santandrea, S; Gambardella, U

    2013-01-01

    We produced graphene-based field-effect transistors by contacting mono- and bi-layer graphene by sputtering Ni or Ti as metal electrodes. We performed electrical characterization of the devices by measuring their transfer and output characteristics. We clearly observed the presence of a double-dip feature in the conductance curve for Ni-contacted transistors, and we explain it in terms of charge transfer and graphene doping under the metal contacts. We also studied the contact resistance between the graphene and the metal electrodes with larger values of ∼30 kΩμm 2 recorded for Ti contacts. Importantly, we prove that the contact resistance is modulated by the back-gate voltage. (paper)

  10. Diagnosing and mapping pulmonary emphysema on X-ray projection images: incremental value of grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, Felix G; Schwab, Felix; Schleede, Simone; Bech, Martin; Herzen, Julia; Achterhold, Klaus; Auweter, Sigrid; Bamberg, Fabian; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Bohla, Alexander; Eickelberg, Oliver; Loewen, Rod; Gifford, Martin; Ruth, Ronald; Reiser, Maximilian F; Pfeiffer, Franz; Nikolaou, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging can increase the sensitivity of X-ray projection images in the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema and allow for a more accurate assessment of emphysema distribution. Lungs from three mice with pulmonary emphysema and three healthy mice were imaged ex vivo using a laser-driven compact synchrotron X-ray source. Median signal intensities of transmission (T), dark-field (V) and a combined parameter (normalized scatter) were compared between emphysema and control group. To determine the diagnostic value of each parameter in differentiating between healthy and emphysematous lung tissue, a receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed both on a per-pixel and a per-individual basis. Parametric maps of emphysema distribution were generated using transmission, dark-field and normalized scatter signal and correlated with histopathology. Transmission values relative to water were higher for emphysematous lungs than for control lungs (1.11 vs. 1.06, pemphysema provides color-coded parametric maps, which show the best correlation with histopathology. In a murine model, the complementary information provided by X-ray transmission and dark-field images adds incremental diagnostic value in detecting pulmonary emphysema and visualizing its regional distribution as compared to conventional X-ray projections.

  11. Personal and socio-demographic characteristics as correlates of value orientations and interests of students in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Olivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Social transition and changes in the cultural context inevitably impose the need of redefining the value systems which are particularly reflected through the differences of the multicultural framework such as, for example, Vojvodina. The paper presents the results of a theoretical and empirical study of students’ interests and value orientations. The results are viewed through the prism of influence of respondents’ individual and socio-demographic characteristics. Non-experimental causal method was used to study the correlation between variable groups. Interviewing was the research technique. The instrument for data collection was the questionnaire constructed for the purposes of the research. The study was conducted during the school year 2007/08 in Novi Sad, on the sample of 480 respondents - students of the University of Novi Sad, aged 19 to 24. Gender was studied in the group of personal (individual, constitutional features and it proved out to be a significant correlate of certain interests: sport, cultural and creative, as well as relational values (nourishing harmonious family relations, marriage, parenthood, partnership, feeling of belonging et al.. In the group of socio-demographic characteristics (structural forms of the family, financial status, social background, socio-cultural space: rural-urban it was established that social background correlates with interest in sport activities, educational and artistic interests, while variables social background and place of residence correlate with social life and social relations as dominant value orientations. Research results provide pedagogical implications for educational work with youth aimed at developing the values connected with constructive activities and encouragement of proactive orientation with respect to one’s own surroundings and existence, as well as the guidelines for introducing new contents into the existing curricula, in accordance with the expressed values and

  12. Emission characteristics in solution-processed asymmetric white alternating current field-induced polymer electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghua; Xia, Yingdong; Smith, Gregory M.; Gu, Yu; Yang, Chuluo; Carroll, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the emission characteristics of a blue fluorophor poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) combined with a red emitting dye: Bis(2-methyl-dibenzo[f,h]quinoxaline)(acetylacetonate)iridium (III) [Ir(MDQ)2(acac)], are examined in two different asymmetric white alternating current field-induced polymer electroluminescent (FIPEL) device structures. The first is a top-contact device in which the triplet transfer is observed resulting in the concentration-dependence of the emission similar to the standard organic light-emitting diode (OLED) structure. The second is a bottom-contact device which, however, exhibits concentration-independence of emission. Specifically, both dye emission and polymer emission are found for the concentrations as high as 10% by weight of the dye in the emitter. We attribute this to the significant different carrier injection characteristics of the two FIPEL devices. Our results suggest a simple and easy way to realize high-quality white emission.

  13. Valuing travel time variability: Characteristics of the travel time distribution on an urban road

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Fukuda, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed empirical investigation of the distribution of travel times on an urban road for valuation of travel time variability. Our investigation is premised on the use of a theoretical model with a number of desirable properties. The definition of the value of travel time...... variability depends on certain properties of the distribution of random travel times that require empirical verification. Applying a range of nonparametric statistical techniques to data giving minute-by-minute travel times for a congested urban road over a period of five months, we show that the standardized...... travel time is roughly independent of the time of day as required by the theory. Except for the extreme right tail, a stable distribution seems to fit the data well. The travel time distributions on consecutive links seem to share a common stability parameter such that the travel time distribution...

  14. Median nerve cross-sectional area and MRI diffusion characteristics: normative values at the carpal tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Lawrence; Gai, Neville

    2009-01-01

    Enlargement of the median nerve is an objective potential imaging sign of carpal tunnel syndrome. Diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) may provide additional structural information that may prove useful in characterizing median neuropathy. This study further examines normal values for median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA). Twenty-three wrists in 17 healthy volunteers underwent MRI of the wrist at 3 T. In 13 subjects, DTI was performed at a B value of 600 mm 2 /s. Median nerve CSA, ADC, and FA were analyzed at standardized anatomic levels. Mean (SD) median nerve CSA within the proximal carpal tunnel was 10.0 (3.4) mm 2 . The mean (SD) FA of the median nerve was 0.71 (0.06) and 0.70 (0.13) proximal to and within the carpal tunnel, respectively. There was a significant difference between nerve CSA and ADC, but not FA, at the distal forearm and proximal carpal tunnel. Nerve CSA, ADC, and FA did not differ between men and women or between dominant and non-dominant wrists. Nerve CSA at the proximal carpal tunnel was positively correlated with subject age and body mass index. Our results suggest a 90% upper confidence limit for normal median nerve CSA of 14.4 mm 2 at the proximal carpal tunnel, higher than normal limits reported by many ultrasound studies. We observed a difference between the CSA and ADC, but not the FA, of the median nerve at the distal forearm and proximal carpal tunnel levels. (orig.)

  15. Characteristics of a large reversed field pinch machine, TPE-RX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Y.; Shimada, T.; Hirano, Y.; Sekine, S.; Sakakita, H.; Koguchi, H.; Kiyama, S.; Maejima, Y.; Hirota, I.; Hayase, K.; Sato, Y.; Sugisaki, K.; Oyabu, I.; Hasegawa, M.; Yamane, M.; Sato, F.; Kuno, K.; Minato, T.; Kiryu, A.; Takagi, S.; Sako, K.; Kudough, F.; Urata, K.; Orita, J.; Kaguchi, H.; Sago, H.; Ue, K.

    1998-01-01

    Construction of a new, large reversed field pinch (RFP) machine called TPE-RX was complete at the end of 1997 as a successor of the previous TPE-1RM20 machine at the Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL). RFP configuration has been successfully obtained in March 1998. The optimization of the operating condition and discharge cleaning of the wall are presently undergoing with the first physics experiments. This paper is the first report of TPE-RX especially on the goals, overall machine characteristics and the present status. Other papers accompanying with this one will present specific topics on the magnetic coil system and the vacuum vessel system. (author)

  16. Characteristics of a large reversed field pinch machine, TPE-RX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Y.; Shimada, T.; Hirano, Y.; Sekine, S.; Sakakita, H.; Koguchi, H.; Kiyama, S.; Maejima, Y.; Hirota, I.; Hayase, K.; Sato, Y.; Sugisaki, K. [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki (Japan); Oyabu, I.; Hasegawa, M.; Yamane, M.; Sato, F.; Kuno, K.; Minato, T.; Kiryu, A.; Takagi, S.; Sako, K. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp. (Japan); Kudough, F.; Urata, K.; Orita, J.; Kaguchi, H.; Sago, H.; Ue, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Construction of a new, large reversed field pinch (RFP) machine called TPE-RX was complete at the end of 1997 as a successor of the previous TPE-1RM20 machine at the Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL). RFP configuration has been successfully obtained in March 1998. The optimization of the operating condition and discharge cleaning of the wall are presently undergoing with the first physics experiments. This paper is the first report of TPE-RX especially on the goals, overall machine characteristics and the present status. Other papers accompanying with this one will present specific topics on the magnetic coil system and the vacuum vessel system. (author)

  17. Study of the characteristics of crust stress field in East China by inversion of stress tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huilan, Z.; Rugang, D.

    1991-12-01

    This paper combines the search procedure with the optimization procedure to inverse the average stress tensor, and applies this method to study the crustal stress field using data of the solution of P wave first motion. By dealing with the data of Haicheng, Tangshan, Xingtai, Anyang, Liyang, Taiwan, Fujian and Guangdong areas, we obtain the characteristics of crust stress field of East China. The directions of the principal pressure stress always possess a small dip angle, but the azimuths vary from NEE (in north part of East China) to SEE (in the south part). This frame probably is related to the push-extrusive effects of the northwestern Pacific plate from NEE and the Philippine plate from SEE. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs

  18. An Exploratory Analysis of Sound Field Characteristics using the Impulse Response in a Car Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiharu Soeta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sound environments in cars are becoming quieter and receiving attention because of the prevalence of low-noise engines such as hybrid and electric engines and the manifestation of automated driving. Although the car cabin has potential as a listening space, its acoustic quality has not been examined in detail. The present study investigated sound field characteristics in the car cabin using acoustic parameters obtained by impulse response analysis. In particular, effects of the passenger position, open windows and the use of an air conditioner on acoustic parameters were investigated. The passenger position affected the sound strength at low frequencies. Rear seats, except for the rear central seat, had lower interaural correlation than the front seats, suggesting that rear seats have more diffused sound fields. The opening of windows and use of air conditioners attenuated the ratio of early- and late-arriving energy at high frequencies, suggesting a loss of clarity for music.

  19. Dyslipidemia in rural areas of North China: prevalence, characteristics, and predictive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nannan; Yu, Yong; Zhang, Bingchang; Yuan, Zhongshang; Zhang, Haiqing; Song, Yongfeng; Zhao, Meng; Ji, Jiadong; Liu, Lu; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Jiajun

    2016-09-13

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease has been increasing worldwide. As a common pathogenic risk factor, dyslipidemia played a great role in the incidence and progress of these diseases. We investigated to achieve accurate and up-to-date information on the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its associations with other lipid-related diseases in rural North China. Using a complex, multistage, probability sampling design, we conducted a large-scale cross-sectional study of 8528 rural participants aged over 18 years in Shandong Province. Prevalence and characteristics of dyslipidemia were demonstrated. The odds ratios between dyslipidemia types and lipid-related diseases were further analyzed by logistic regression. Among the overall population, 45.8 % suffered from dyslipidemia. The prevalence of lipid abnormality (including high and very high levels) was 18.6, 12.7, 9.8 and 12.7 % for total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides (TG), respectively. Among all participants with dyslipidemia, 23.9 % were aware, only 11.5 % were treated, 10.0 % were controlled. For subjects with dyslipidemia, the risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was highest with a 3.3-fold over that of non-dyslipidmia (OR = 3.30, P Dyslipidemia has become a serious public health issue in rural North China. The rapid increase of high TC and incremental risk of high TG may contribute to the epidemic of AS, NAFLD and DM. It is imperative to develop individualized prevention and treatment guidelines according to dyslipidemia phenotypes.

  20. Analysis of the emission characteristics of ion sources for high-value optical counting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beermann, Nils

    2009-01-01

    The production of complex high-quality thin film systems requires a detailed understanding of all partial processes. One of the most relevant partial processes is the condensation of the coating material on the substrate surface. The optical and mechanical material properties can be adjusted by the well-defined impingement of energetic ions during deposition. Thus, in the past, a variety of different ion sources were developed. With respect to the present and future challenges in the production of precisely fabricated high performance optical coatings, the ion emission of the sources has commonly not been characterized sufficiently so far. This question is addressed in the frame of this work which itself is thematically integrated in the field of process-development and -control of ion assisted deposition processes. In a first step, a Faraday cup measurement system was developed which allows the spatially resolved determination of the ion energy distribution as well as the ion current distribution. Subsequently, the ion emission profiles of six ion sources were determined depending on the relevant operating parameters. Consequently, a data pool for process planning and supplementary process analysis is made available. On the basis of the acquired results, the basic correlations between the operating parameters and the ion emission are demonstrated. The specific properties of the individual sources as well as the respective control strategies are pointed out with regard to the thin film properties and production yield. Finally, a synthesis of the results and perspectives for future activities are given. (orig.)

  1. Bilateral comparison for determining the dynamic characteristic values of contact thermometers in fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Augustin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In applicable standards and sets of rules (VDI/VDE, 2014; DIN, 2010, 2017, recommendations are made concerning the types of experiments for determining the dynamic parameters in fluids (flowing water and flowing air under well-defined conditions. In the data sheets of the thermometer manufacturers, quite different specifications can be found, such as time percentage values or time constants. Only a few thermometer manufacturers specify the medium and flow conditions under which these parameters have been determined. Above all, it is not common practice to indicate a measurement uncertainty for the dynamic parameters found. In Augustin et al. (2017, a first model for the indication of the measurement uncertainty of dynamic parameters in flowing air was presented.The present paper describes the results of a bilateral comparison made for the first time for determining dynamic parameters in the laboratories of the JUMO GmbH & Co. KG Fulda company and at the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology of the TU Ilmenau. In doing so, two type-N thermocouples with different diameters were investigated in experimental facilities with flowing water and flowing air. Subsequently, the dynamic parameters found were compared with each other. The differences revealed mainly resulted from plant-specific parameters.

  2. Characteristics and nutritional value of whole wheat cracker fortified with tuna bone bio-calcium powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Karnjanapratum, Supatra

    2018-09-01

    Whole wheat cracker fortified with tuna bone bio-calcium (Bio-Ca) powder was developed as health-promoting food rich in calcium. Fortification with different levels of Bi-Ca, over the range of 0-50% of whole wheat flour (w/w) on quality and sensory properties of crackers, were determined. Color, thickness, weight and textural properties of crackers varied with the different levels of Bio-Ca powder added, but it was found that up to 30% could be added without detrimental effect on sensory properties. Scanning electron microscopic images showed that the developed crackers were less porous and had a denser structure, compared to the control. Based on scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (SEM-EDX), the cracker containing Bio-Ca powder had calcium and phosphorous distribution with higher intensity, compared to the control. The fortified crackers were rich in calcium and phosphorous with higher protein content but lower fat, carbohydrate, cholesterol and energy value, compared to the control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of nutritional value, characteristics, functional properties of Cymodocea nodosa and its benefits on health diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolsi, Rihab Ben Abdallah; Salah, Hichem Ben; Saidi, Saber Abdelkader; Allouche, Noureddine; Belghith, Hafedh; Belghith, Karima

    2017-12-08

    Nutritional fact study has prime importance to make the species edible and commercially viable to the food consumers. This is the first report that indicates the chemical characterization, functional, antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of Cymodocea nodosa to evaluate its nutritional status. Physico-chemical determination was determined by colorimetric and spectroscopic analysis. The functional and texture properties were evaluated since a desirable texture should be retained. Bioactive substances were determined by liquid chromatography-high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS2 analysis. Health benefit of this plant was highlighting by the antioxidant and antihypertensive potentials. Results showed that the seagrass powder was characterized by a high content of fibers (56.4%), the fatty acids profile was dominated by the oleic acid, which represents about 62.0% of the total fatty acids and the functional properties proved important values of swelling capacity (6.71 ± 0.2) and water holding capacity (12.26 ± 0.25), that were comparable to those of some foodstuffs. Finally, the physico-chemical analysis shows the wealth in phenolic compounds, that could be explained by the high antioxidant and antihypertensive ability which was concentration dependent. The results from this study suggested that this marine plant could be utilized as a healthy food item for human consumption.

  4. Characteristics of episodes with extremely low ozone values in the northern middle latitudes 1957−2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Balis

    Full Text Available A number of episodes are observed when the total ozone for 2 to 3 days has fallen below 220 matm-cm in the northern mid- and polar latitudes in autumn. The occurrences of such episodes represent ozone deviations of about one-third from the pre-1976 Oct-Nov-Dec monthly mean! By using primarily quality checked Dobson data, a clear identification was made of more than three dozen short spells with extremely low ozone in the 1957–1978 period. In the following twenty-two years (1979–2000, using mainly TOMS data, one can identify ~ 46 cases with ozone values falling below 220 matm-cm for longer than 1 day, with each time over an area greater than 500,000 km2 . The Ozone Mass Deficiency (O3MD from the pre-1976 average ozone values over the affected area was ~2.8 Mt per day, i.e. four to seven times greater than it would be, assuming only a long-term trend in the Oct-Nov-Dec period. The Extremely Low Ozone (ELO3 events on the day of their appearance over the N. Atlantic/European region contribute to the O3MD by representing 16% of the deficiency due to the Oct-Nov trend in the entire 40–65° N latitudinal belt. The O3MD of the greater pool with low ozone (here taken as <260 matm-cm surrounding the area of the lowest events could contribute on the day of their appearance in Oct-Nov up to 60% and in December, ~30% to the deficiency due to the trend over the entire 40–65° N belt. Analysis of synoptic charts, supported by a backward trajectory on the isentropic surfaces 350 and 380 K, shows that in most of the events, subtropical air masses with low ozone content were transported from the Atlantic toward the UK, Scandinavia, and in many cases, further to the western sub-polar regions of Russia. This transport was sometimes combined with upward motions above a tropospheric anticyclone which lifted low ozone mixing ratios to higher altitudes. The ELO3 events cause a significant deficiency above the tropopause where, in general, the subtropical air is

  5. Characteristics of general practice care: What do senior citizens value? A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaak Peter FM

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the increasing number of senior citizens in our society who are likely to consult their GP with age-related health problems, it is important to identify and understand the preferences of this group in relation to the non-medical attributes of GP care. The aim of this study is to improve our understanding about preferences of this group of patients in relation to non-medical attributes of primary health care. This may help to develop strategies to improve the quality of care that senior citizens receive from their GP. Methods Semi-structured interviews (N = 13 with senior citizens (65-91 years in a judgement sample were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The analysis was conducted according to qualitative research methodology and the frame work method. Results Continuity of care providers, i.e. GP and practice nurses, GPs' expertise, trust, free choice of GP and a kind open attitude were highly valued. Accessibility by phone did not meet the expectations of the interviewees. The interviewees had difficulties with the GP out-of-office hours services. Spontaneous home visits were appreciated by some, but rejected by others. They preferred to receive verbal information rather than collecting information from leaflets. Distance to the practice and continuity of caregiver seemed to conflict for respondents. Conclusions Preferences change in the process of ageing and growing health problems. GPs and their co-workers should be also aware of the changing needs of the elderly regarding non-medical attributes of GP care. Meeting their needs regarding non-medical attributes of primary health care is important to improve the quality of care.

  6. Bale Location Effects on Nutritive Value and Fermentation Characteristics of Annual Ryegrass Bale Stored in In-line Wrapping Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Han

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In southeastern regions of the US, herbage systems are primarily based on grazing or hay feeding with low nutritive value warm-season perennial grasses. Nutritious herbage such as annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. may be more suitable for preserving as baleage for winter feeding even with more intensive production inputs. Emerging in-line wrapped baleage storage systems featuring rapid wrapping and low polyethylene film requirements need to be tested for consistency of storing nutritive value of a range of annual ryegrass herbage. A ryegrass storage trial was conducted with 24-h wilted ‘Marshall’ annual ryegrass harvested at booting, heading and anthesis stages using three replicated in-line wrapped tubes containing ten round bales per tube. After a six-month storage period, nutritive value changes and fermentation end products differed significantly by harvest stage but not by bale location. Although wilted annual ryegrass exhibited a restricted fermentation across harvest stages characterized by high pH and low fermentation end product concentrations, butyric acid concentrations were less than 1 g/kg dry matter, and lactic acid was the major organic acid in the bales. Mold coverage and bale aroma did not differ substantially with harvest stage or bale location. Booting and heading stage-harvested ryegrass baleage were superior in nutritive value to anthesis stage-harvested herbage. Based on the investigated nutritive value and fermentation characteristics, individual bale location within in-line tubes did not significantly affect preservation quality of ryegrass round bale silages.

  7. Marginal zone in femoral head avascular necrosis: scintigraphic characteristics and clinical prognostic value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milcinski, M.; Sedonja, I.; Dolinar, D.; Jevtic, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Marginal zone, seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in femoral head avascular necrosis, consists of granulation tissue and sclerosis at the junction of necrotic and normal bone. Prognostic value of this finding is not clear. Aim of our study was to evaluate osteoblastic activity of marginal zone with bone scintigraphy and to assess prognostic importance of marginal zone for further evolution of femoral head necrosis. Material and methods: MRI was performed in 37 hips in 26 patients (17 m, 9 f, 20-64 y, mean 42,9 y) with Ficat 0-II avascular necrosis (SE T1W, STIR and SE T1W FAT.SAT after Gd DTPA in the coronal plane and GE FLASH in the sagittal plane). In 26 hips of 17 patients planar and pinhole scintigraphy with 99mTc-DPD was performed. Results: On MRI, marginal zone divided necrotic and normal bone in 26/37 (70,3%) hips, in 14/26 it was thin (2% of femoral head diameter or less), but in 12/26 it was wide (more than 2% of femoral head diameter). In 11/37 (29,7%) hips marginal zone was not seen. Pinhole scintigraphy was performed in 26 hips; in all 10/10 (100%) hips with wide marginal zone, seen on MRI, increased osteoblastic activity was detected, while only in 1/9 (11,1%) hips with thin marginal zone on MRI osteoblastic activity was increased. Patients were followed 1 to 5 years (mean 2,2 y). In hips without marginal zone no collapse of femoral head was seen until now, in 2/11 (18,2%) femoral heads MRI and clinical regression was observed. Ten of 12 lesions with wide marginal zone (83,3 %) collapsed 0,25 to 2,5 (mean 1) years after onset of pain. Two of 12 lesions with wide marginal zone (16,7%) have not collapsed until now. From lesions with thin marginal zone, 4/14 (28,6 %) collapsed 0,7 to 3 (mean 1,9) years after onset of pain, 10/14 (71,4%) did not collapse until now. Conclusion: Increased osteoblastic activity in wide marginal zone between necrotic and vital bone in hip avascular necrosis is bad prognostic factor for femoral head collapse

  8. SU-C-304-07: Are Small Field Detector Correction Factors Strongly Dependent On Machine-Specific Characteristics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, D; Tanny, S; Parsai, E; Sperling, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The current small field dosimetry formalism utilizes quality correction factors to compensate for the difference in detector response relative to dose deposited in water. The correction factors are defined on a machine-specific basis for each beam quality and detector combination. Some research has suggested that the correction factors may only be weakly dependent on machine-to-machine variations, allowing for determinations of class-specific correction factors for various accelerator models. This research examines the differences in small field correction factors for three detectors across two Varian Truebeam accelerators to determine the correction factor dependence on machine-specific characteristics. Methods: Output factors were measured on two Varian Truebeam accelerators for equivalently tuned 6 MV and 6 FFF beams. Measurements were obtained using a commercial plastic scintillation detector (PSD), two ion chambers, and a diode detector. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm with an SSD of 100 cm for jaw-defined field sizes ranging from 3×3 cm 2 to 0.6×0.6 cm 2 , normalized to values at 5×5cm 2 . Correction factors for each field on each machine were calculated as the ratio of the detector response to the PSD response. Percent change of correction factors for the chambers are presented relative to the primary machine. Results: The Exradin A26 demonstrates a difference of 9% for 6×6mm 2 fields in both the 6FFF and 6MV beams. The A16 chamber demonstrates a 5%, and 3% difference in 6FFF and 6MV fields at the same field size respectively. The Edge diode exhibits less than 1.5% difference across both evaluated energies. Field sizes larger than 1.4×1.4cm2 demonstrated less than 1% difference for all detectors. Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest that class-specific correction may not be appropriate for micro-ionization chamber. For diode systems, the correction factor was substantially similar and may be useful for class-specific reference

  9. SU-C-304-07: Are Small Field Detector Correction Factors Strongly Dependent On Machine-Specific Characteristics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, D; Tanny, S; Parsai, E; Sperling, N [University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The current small field dosimetry formalism utilizes quality correction factors to compensate for the difference in detector response relative to dose deposited in water. The correction factors are defined on a machine-specific basis for each beam quality and detector combination. Some research has suggested that the correction factors may only be weakly dependent on machine-to-machine variations, allowing for determinations of class-specific correction factors for various accelerator models. This research examines the differences in small field correction factors for three detectors across two Varian Truebeam accelerators to determine the correction factor dependence on machine-specific characteristics. Methods: Output factors were measured on two Varian Truebeam accelerators for equivalently tuned 6 MV and 6 FFF beams. Measurements were obtained using a commercial plastic scintillation detector (PSD), two ion chambers, and a diode detector. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm with an SSD of 100 cm for jaw-defined field sizes ranging from 3×3 cm{sup 2} to 0.6×0.6 cm{sup 2}, normalized to values at 5×5cm{sup 2}. Correction factors for each field on each machine were calculated as the ratio of the detector response to the PSD response. Percent change of correction factors for the chambers are presented relative to the primary machine. Results: The Exradin A26 demonstrates a difference of 9% for 6×6mm{sup 2} fields in both the 6FFF and 6MV beams. The A16 chamber demonstrates a 5%, and 3% difference in 6FFF and 6MV fields at the same field size respectively. The Edge diode exhibits less than 1.5% difference across both evaluated energies. Field sizes larger than 1.4×1.4cm2 demonstrated less than 1% difference for all detectors. Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest that class-specific correction may not be appropriate for micro-ionization chamber. For diode systems, the correction factor was substantially similar and may be useful for class

  10. Assessment of the feeding value of South Dakota-grown field peas (Pisum sativum l.) for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H H; Benzoni, G; Bohlke, R A; Peters, D N

    2004-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the feeding value of South Dakota-grown field peas (Pisum sativum L.) for growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 96 pigs (initial BW = 22 +/- 3.35 kg) were allotted to four treatment groups (four pigs per pen, six replicate pens per treatment) and fed growing (0.95% Lys) and finishing (0.68% Lys) diets containing 0, 12, 24, or 36% field peas (as-fed basis). There were no differences among the treatment groups in ADG, ADFI, or G:F. Likewise, there were no differences in backfat thickness or lean meat percent among treatment groups, but pigs fed diets containing 12, 24, or 36% field peas had greater (P feed ingredients. Experiment 4 was an energy balance experiment conducted to measure the DE and ME concentrations in field peas and corn. Six growing pigs (initial BW = 85.5 +/- 6.5 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and fed diets based on field peas or corn and arranged in a two-period switch-back design. The DE values for field peas and corn (3,864 and 3,879 kcal/kg DM, respectively) were similar, but the ME of corn was higher (P Dakota-grown field peas are highly digestible by growing pigs. Therefore, such field peas may be included in diets for nursery pigs and growing-finishing pigs in amounts of at least 18 and 36%, respectively, without negatively affecting pig performance.

  11. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound and pulsed electric fields on milk composition and characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jeličić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure, ultrasonication and pulsed eletrcic fields (PEF belong to novel food processing methods which are mostly implemented in combination with moderate temperatures and/ or in combination with each other in order to provide adequate microbiological quality with minimal losses of nutritional value. All of three mentioned methods have been intensively investigated for the purpose of inactivation and reduction of foodborne microorganisms present in milk and dairy products. However, a large number of scientific researches have been dedicated to investigation of impact of these methods on changes in constituents like milk fat, milk proteins and lactose as well as changes in mechanisms like renneting properties and coagulation of milk. The aim of this research was to give an overview of changes in milk constituents induced by high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasonification and pulsed electric field treatments as well as to suggest how these changes could improve conventional processes in the dairy industry.

  12. A Review of Research on School Field Trips and Their Value in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Marc; Franklin, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of science field trips as educational tools to connect students to classroom concepts. Experiential learning at formal and informal field trip venues increases student interest, knowledge, and motivation. The teacher's role in preplanning, implementation, and reflection often dictates the…

  13. Effect of nonlinearity of spin interaction with electromagnetic resonance field on characteristics of polarized nuclear target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertij, A.A.; Gavrilov, S.P.; Shestopalov, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    Interaction of incident nuclear particle beam with J = 1/2 (neutrons) spin and (J = 1/2) protons with the target substance is considered. It is shown that neutron polarization at the target exit and neutron transparency (G) of the target depend significantly on incident wave amplitude level and physical parameter values which characterize the target, such as target temperature, resonator mirror reflection factor, number of spins interacting with the field, etc. Under interaction of neutrons with a target resonator which features a high mirror reflection factor and low losses for absorption which is not related to magnetic dipole absorption, a bistable response of neutron polarization and G manifests itself. 1 ref

  14. Sq field characteristics at Phu Thuy, Vietnam, during solar cycle 23: comparisons with Sq field in other longitude sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham Thi Thu, H.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Le Huy, M.

    2011-01-01

    Quiet days variations in the Earth's magnetic field (the Sq current system) are compared and contrasted for the Asian, African and American sectors using a new dataset from Vietnam. This is the first presentation of the variation of the Earth's magnetic field (Sq), during the solar cycle 23, at Phu Thuy, Vietnam (geographic latitudes 21.03° N and longitude: 105.95° E). Phu Thuy observatory is located below the crest of the equatorial fountain in the Asian longitude sector of the Northern Hemisphere. The morphology of the Sq daily variation is presented as a function of solar cycle and seasons. The diurnal variation of Phu Thuy is compared to those obtained in different magnetic observatories over the world to highlight the characteristics of the Phu Thuy observations. In other longitude sectors we find different patterns. At Phu Thuy the solar cycle variation of the amplitude of the daily variation of the X component is correlated to the F.10.7 cm solar radiation (~0.74). This correlation factor is greater than the correlation factor obtained in two observatories located at the same magnetic latitudes in other longitude sectors: at Tamanrasset in the African sector (~0.42, geographic latitude ~22.79) and San Juan in the American sector (~0.03, geographic latitude ~18.38). At Phu Thuy, the Sq field exhibits an equinoctial and a diurnal asymmetry: - The seasonal variation of the monthly mean of X component exhibits the well known semiannual pattern with 2 equinox maxima, but the X component is larger in spring than in autumn. Depending of the phase of the sunspot cycle, the maximum amplitude of the X component varies in spring from 30 nT to 75 nT and in autumn from 20 nT to 60 nT. The maximum amplitude of the X component exhibits roughly the same variation in both solstices, varying from about ~20 nT to 50 nT, depending on the position into the solar cycle. - In all seasons, the mean equinoctial diurnal Y component has a morning maximum Larger than the afternoon

  15. Sq field characteristics at Phu Thuy, Vietnam, during solar cycle 23: comparisons with Sq field in other longitude sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pham Thi Thu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quiet days variations in the Earth's magnetic field (the Sq current system are compared and contrasted for the Asian, African and American sectors using a new dataset from Vietnam. This is the first presentation of the variation of the Earth's magnetic field (Sq, during the solar cycle 23, at Phu Thuy, Vietnam (geographic latitudes 21.03° N and longitude: 105.95° E. Phu Thuy observatory is located below the crest of the equatorial fountain in the Asian longitude sector of the Northern Hemisphere. The morphology of the Sq daily variation is presented as a function of solar cycle and seasons. The diurnal variation of Phu Thuy is compared to those obtained in different magnetic observatories over the world to highlight the characteristics of the Phu Thuy observations. In other longitude sectors we find different patterns. At Phu Thuy the solar cycle variation of the amplitude of the daily variation of the X component is correlated to the F.10.7 cm solar radiation (~0.74. This correlation factor is greater than the correlation factor obtained in two observatories located at the same magnetic latitudes in other longitude sectors: at Tamanrasset in the African sector (~0.42, geographic latitude ~22.79 and San Juan in the American sector (~0.03, geographic latitude ~18.38. At Phu Thuy, the Sq field exhibits an equinoctial and a diurnal asymmetry: – The seasonal variation of the monthly mean of X component exhibits the well known semiannual pattern with 2 equinox maxima, but the X component is larger in spring than in autumn. Depending of the phase of the sunspot cycle, the maximum amplitude of the X component varies in spring from 30 nT to 75 nT and in autumn from 20 nT to 60 nT. The maximum amplitude of the X component exhibits roughly the same variation in both solstices, varying from about ~20 nT to 50 nT, depending on the position into the solar cycle. – In all seasons, the mean equinoctial diurnal Y component has a morning maximum Larger

  16. Gender and Family Influences on Spanish Students' Aspirations and Values in STEM Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáinz, Milagros; Müller, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on expectancy-value theory, this study examines gender and family influences on students' career aspirations and attached values. 796 secondary Spanish students (M age = 16 years old, S.D. = 0.81) participated. 53% were boys. The results show that boys and students with mothers who have completed intermediate level education were more…

  17. Elasticity and tumorigenic characteristics of cells in a monolayer after nanosecond pulsed electric field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, A; Wende, K; Babica, P; Kolb, J F

    2017-09-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) applied to cells can induce different biological effects depending on pulse duration and field strength. One known process is the induction of apoptosis whereby nsPEFs are currently investigated as a novel cancer therapy. Another and probably related change is the breakdown of the cytoskeleton. We investigated the elasticity of rat liver epithelial cells WB-F344 in a monolayer using atomic force microscopy (AFM) with respect to the potential of cells to undergo malignant transformation or to develop a potential to metastasize. We found that the elastic modulus of the cells decreased significantly within the first 8 min after treatment with 20 pulses of 100 ns and with a field strength of 20 kV/cm but was still higher than the elasticity of their tumorigenic counterpart WB-ras. AFM measurements and immunofluorescent staining showed that the cellular actin cytoskeleton became reorganized within 5 min. However, both a colony formation assay and a cell migration assay revealed no significant changes after nsPEF treatment, implying that cells seem not to adopt malignant characteristics associated with metastasis formation despite the induced transient changes to elasticity and cytoskeleton that can be observed for up to 1 h.

  18. Analyses of the radiation-caused characteristics change in SOI MOSFETs using field shield isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Yuuichi; Maeda, Shigeru; Fernandez, Warren; Iwamatsu, Toshiaki; Yamaguchi, Yasuo; Maegawa, Shigeto; Nishimura, Tadashi

    1999-01-01

    Reliability against radiation ia an important issue in silicon on insulator metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (SOI MOSFETs) used in satellites and nuclear power plants and so forth which are severely exposed to radiation. Radiation-caused characteristic change related to the isolation-edge in an irradiated environment was analyzed on SOI MOSFETs. Moreover short channel effects for an irradiated environment were investigated by simulations. It was revealed that the leakage current which was observed in local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) isolated SOI MOSFETs was successfully suppressed by using field shield isolation. Simulated potential indicated that the potential rise at the LOCOS edge can not be seen in the case of field shield isolation edge which does not have physical isolation. Also it was found that the threshold voltage shift caused by radiation in short channel regime is severer than that in long regime channel. In transistors with a channel length of 0.18μm, a potential rise of the body region by radiation-induced trapped holes can be seen in comparison with that of 1.0μm. As a result, we must consider these effects for designing deep submicron devices used in an irradiated environment. (author)

  19. Statistical characteristics of trajectories of diamagnetic unicellular organisms in a magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorobets, Yu I; Gorobets, O Yu

    2015-01-01

    The statistical model is proposed in this paper for description of orientation of trajectories of unicellular diamagnetic organisms in a magnetic field. The statistical parameter such as the effective energy is calculated on basis of this model. The resulting effective energy is the statistical characteristics of trajectories of diamagnetic microorganisms in a magnetic field connected with their metabolism. The statistical model is applicable for the case when the energy of the thermal motion of bacteria is negligible in comparison with their energy in a magnetic field and the bacteria manifest the significant "active random movement", i.e. there is the randomizing motion of the bacteria of non thermal nature, for example, movement of bacteria by means of flagellum. The energy of the randomizing active self-motion of bacteria is characterized by the new statistical parameter for biological objects. The parameter replaces the energy of the randomizing thermal motion in calculation of the statistical distribution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship among performance, carcass, and feed efficiency characteristics, and their ability to predict economic value in the feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallick, K M; Faulkner, D B; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Nkrumah, J D; Shike, D W

    2013-12-01

    A 4-yr study was conducted using 736 steers of known Angus, Simmental, or Simmental × Angus genetics to determine performance, carcass, and feed efficiency factors that explained variation in economic performance. Steers were pen fed and individual DMI was recorded using a GrowSafe automated feeding system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, Alberta, Canada). Steers consumed a similar diet and received similar management each year. The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine current economic value of feed efficiency and 2) identify performance, carcass, and feed efficiency characteristics that predict: carcass value, profit, cost of gain, and feed costs. Economic data used were from 2011 values. Feed efficiency values investigated were: feed conversion ratio (FCR; feed to gain), residual feed intake (RFI), residual BW gain (RG), and residual intake and BW gain (RIG). Dependent variables were carcass value ($/steer), profit ($/steer), feed costs ($/steer • d(-1)), and cost of gain ($/kg). Independent variables were year, DMI, ADG, HCW, LM area, marbling, yield grade, dam breed, and sire breed. A 10% improvement in RG (P Profit increased with a 10% improvement in feed efficiency (P profit. Eighty-five percent of the variation in cost of gain was explained by ADG, DMI, HCW, and year. Prediction equations were developed that excluded ADG and DMI, and included feed efficiency values. Using these equations, cost of gain was explained primarily by FCR (R(2) = 0.71). Seventy-three percent of profitability was explained, with 55% being accounted for by RG and marbling. These prediction equations represent the relative importance of factors contributing to economic success in feedlot cattle based on current prices.

  1. Dose characteristics of total-skin electron-beam irradiation with six-dual electron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Tae Jin; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Ok Bae

    1998-01-01

    To obtain the uniform dose at limited depth to entire surface of the body, the dose characteristics of degraded electron beam of the large target-skin distance and the dose distribution of the six-dual electron fields were investigated. The experimental dose distributions included the depth dose curve, spatial dose and attenuated electron beam were determined with 300 cm of Target-Skin Distance (TSD) and full collimator size (35x35 cm 2 on TSD 100 cm) in 4 MeV electron beam energy. Actual collimated field size of 105 cmx105 cm at the distance of 300 cm could include entire hemibody. A patient was standing on step board with hands up and holding the pole to stabilize his/her positions for the six-dual fields technique. As a scatter-degrader, 0.5 cm of acrylic plate was inserted at 20 cm from the body surface on the electron beam path to induce ray scattering and to increase the skin dose. The Full Width at Half Maximum(FWHM) of dose profile was 130 cm in large field of 105x105 cm 2 . The width of 100±10% of the resultant dose from two adjacent fields which were separated at 25 cm from field edge for obtaining the dose uniformity was extended to 186 cm. The depth of maximum dose lies at 5 mm and the 80% depth dose lies between 7 and 8 mm for the degraded electron beam by using the 0.5 cm thickness of acrylic absorber. Total skin electron beam irradiation (TSEBI) was carried out using the six dual fields has been developed at Stanford University. The dose distribution in TSEBI showed relatively uniform around the flat region of skin except the protruding and deeply curvatured portion of the body, which showed excess of dose at the former and less dose at the latter. The percent depth dose, profile curves and superimposed dose distribution were investigated using the degraded using the degraded electron beam through the beam absorber. The dose distribution obtained by experiments of TSEBI showed within±10% difference excepts the protruding area of skin which needs a

  2. Methodology to define biological reference values in the environmental and occupational fields: the contribution of the Italian Society for Reference Values (SIVR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Maria Cristina; Scapellato, Maria Luisa; Valsania, Maria Carmen; Perico, Andrea; Perbellini, Luigi; Ricossa, Maria Cristina; Pradella, Marco; Negri, Sara; Iavicoli, Ivo; Lovreglio, Piero; Salamon, Fabiola; Bettinelli, Maurizio; Apostoli, Pietro

    2017-04-21

    Biological reference values (RVs) explore the relationships between humans and their environment and habits. RVs are fundamental in the environmental field for assessing illnesses possibly associated with environmental pollution, and also in the occupational field, especially in the absence of established biological or environmental limits. The Italian Society for Reference Values (SIVR) determined to test criteria and procedures for the definition of RVs to be used in the environmental and occupational fields. The paper describes the SIVR methodology for defining RVs of xenobiotics and their metabolites. Aspects regarding the choice of population sample, the quality of analytical data, statistical analysis and control of variability factors are considered. The simultaneous interlaboratory circuits involved can be expected to increasingly improve the quality of the analytical data. Examples of RVs produced by SIVR are presented. In particular, levels of chromium, mercury, ethylenethiourea, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 2,5-hexanedione, 1-hydroxypyrene and t,t-muconic acid measured in urine and expressed in micrograms/g creatinine (μg/g creat) or micrograms/L (μg/L) are reported. With the proposed procedure, SIVR intends to make its activities known to the scientific community in order to increase the number of laboratories involved in the definition of RVs for the Italian population. More research is needed to obtain further RVs in different biological matrices, such as hair, nails and exhaled breath. It is also necessary to update and improve the present reference values and broaden the portfolio of chemicals for which RVs are available. In the near future, SIVR intends to expand its scientific activity by using a multivariate approach for xenobiotics that may have a common origin, and to define RVs separately for children who may be exposed more than adults and be more vulnerable.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and variability in nutritional value of varieties and breeding lines of dry field beans and peas for chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with day-old broiler type chicks to study the effect of a cobalt-60 source of gamma irradiation and autoclaving on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The variability in nutritional value of varieties and breeding lines of dry field beans and peas was also studied. Total protein (N x 6.25) was not changed appreciably by gamma irradiation (21 Mrad cobalt-60) and autoclaving but solubility in water was decreased. In vitro enzymic digestibility of irradiated bean protein was increased by pepsin alone and with a mixture of trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase. The nutritional value of all varieties of beans, based on chick growth, was significantly improved by gamma irradiation. The irradiated treatment of beans increased nitrogen retention by chicks and decreased uric acid nitrogen excretion in relation to nitrogen intake

  4. On Corestriction Principle in non-abelian Galois cohomology over local and global fields. II: Characteristic p > 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Quoc Thang

    2004-08-01

    We show the validity of te Corestriction Principle for non-abelian cohomology of connected reductive groups over local ad global fields of characteristic p > 0 , by extending some results by Kneser and Douai. (author)

  5. Effects of piezoelectric potential on the transport characteristics of metal-ZnO nanowire-metal field effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Jun; Gu, Yudong; Fei, Peng; Hao, Yue; Bao, Gang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of piezoelectric potential in a ZnO nanowire on the transport characteristics of the nanowire based field effect transistor through numerical calculations and experimental observations. Under different straining

  6. Analysis of mechanical characteristics of superconducting field coil for 17 MW class high temperature superconducting synchronous motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. H.; Park, S. I.; Im, S. H.; Kim, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Superconducting field coils using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires with high current density generate high magnetic field of 2 to 5 [T] and electromagnetic force (Lorentz force) acting on the superconducting field coils also become a very strong from the point of view of a mechanical characteristics. Because mechanical stress caused by these powerful electromagnetic force is one of the factors which worsens the critical current performance and structural characteristics of HTS wire, the mechanical stress analysis should be performed when designing the superconducting field coils. In this paper, as part of structural design of superconducting field coils for 17 MW class superconducting ship propulsion motor, mechanical stress acting on the superconducting field coils was analyzed and structural safety was also determined by the coupling analysis system that is consists of commercial electromagnetic field analysis program and structural analysis program.

  7. Simultaneous harvesting of straw and chaff for energy purposes : influence on bale density, yield, field drying process and combustion characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, G. [JTI Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden); Ronnback, M. [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boras (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    The potential to increase the productivity of fuel straw harvest and transportation was examined. When harvesting straw for energy purposes, only the long fraction is currently collected. However, technological improvements have now rendered it possible to harvest chaff, thus increasing the amount of harvest residues and bale density. The purpose of this study was to determine how harvest yield, bale density, field-drying behaviour and combustion characteristics are affected by the simultaneous harvest of straw and chaff. Field experiments were conducted in 2009 for long- and short-stalked winter wheat crops. Combine harvesting was carried out with 2 different types of combine harvesters. A high-density baler was used to bale the crop residues. Mixing chaff in with the straw swath by combine harvesting gave a lower initial moisture content compared with straw only. The density and the weight of each bale were not affected by the treatments. However, the added chaff increased the total yield of crop residues by 14 per cent, indicating that about half of the biologically available chaff was harvested. Although mixing in chaff increased the ash content by 1 percentage unit, there was no considerable change in net calorific value or ash melting behaviour.

  8. Experimentally obtained values of electric field of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet impinging on a dielectric surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobota, A.; Guaitella, O.; Garcia-Caurel, E.

    2013-01-01

    We report on experimentally obtained values of the electric field magnitude on a dielectric surface induced by an impinging atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The plasma plume was striking the dielectric surface at an angle of 45¿, at 5mm from the surface measured at the axis of the jet. The results

  9. Does location congruence matter? : a field study on the effects of location based advertising on perceived adintrusiveness, relevance and value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hühn, A.E.; Khan, J.V.; Ketelaar, P.; van t Riet, J.J.; Batalas, N.; König, R.; Rozendaal, E.; Markopoulos, P.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effect of location-congruent mobile messages on perceived intrusiveness, value, and relevance through a field experiment using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). We developed a mobile application for undergraduate students, featuring campus news and information concerning class

  10. Cucumber cultivars for container gardening and the value of field trials for predicting Cucumber performance in containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is one of the most popular vegetable crops grown in U.S. home and urban gardens. The objectives of this study were to identify cultivars and planting densities for high yield of container-grown cucumbers. Additional objectives were to determine the value of field trials...

  11. Assurance of Learning in an MBA Program: Exploration of the Value Added by the Graduate Major Field Test in Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Darrin; Grandzol, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The use of standardized tests as a piece of outcomes assessment has risen in recent years in order to satisfy external accrediting bodies such as the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International. The authors explore the value added by the Graduate Major Field Test in Business (GMFT-B) for assurance of learning in a master of…

  12. Characteristics Expected in Fields of Higher Education and Gender Stereotypical Traits Related to Academic Success: A Mirror Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verniers, Catherine; Martinot, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether the content of a gender stereotype concerning general academic achievement matched the characteristics deemed to predict success in the fields of higher education dominated by women and men respectively. A sample of 207 undergraduate students rated the extent to which characteristics ascribed to…

  13. Electrical characteristics of tunneling field-effect transistors with asymmetric channel thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsik; Oh, Hyeongwan; Kim, Jiwon; Meyyappan, M.; Lee, Jeong-Soo

    2017-02-01

    Effects of using asymmetric channel thickness in tunneling field-effect transistors (TFET) are investigated in sub-50 nm channel regime using two-dimensional (2D) simulations. As the thickness of the source side becomes narrower in narrow-source wide-drain (NSWD) TFETs, the threshold voltage (V th) and the subthreshold swing (SS) decrease due to enhanced gate controllability of the source side. The narrow source thickness can make the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) distance shorter and induce much higher electric field near the source junction at the on-state condition. In contrast, in a TFET with wide-source narrow-drain (WSND), the SS shows almost constant values and the V th slightly increases with narrowing thickness of the drain side. In addition, the ambipolar current can rapidly become larger with smaller thickness on the drain side because of the shorter BTBT distance and the higher electric-field at the drain junction. The on-current of the asymmetric channel TFET is lower than that of conventional TFETs due to the volume limitation of the NSWD TFET and high series resistance of the WSND TFET. The on-current is almost determined by the channel thickness of the source side.

  14. Signal Characteristics of Super-Resolution Near-Field Structure Disks with 100 GB Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jooho; Hwang, Inoh; Kim, Hyunki; Park, Insik; Tominaga, Junji

    2005-05-01

    We report the basic characteristics of super resolution near-field structure (Super-RENS) media at a blue laser optical system (laser wavelength 405 nm, numerical aperture 0.85). Using a novel write once read many (WORM) structure for a blue laser system, we obtained a carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) above 33 dB from the signal of the 37.5 nm mark length, which is equivalent to a 100 GB capacity with a 0.32 micrometer track pitch, and an eye pattern for 50 GB (2T: 75 nm) capacity using a patterned signal. Using a novel super-resolution material (tellurium, Te) with low super-resolution readout power, we also improved the read stability.

  15. Analysis of the thickness-dependent electrical characteristics in pentacene field-effect devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongwook; Shin, Hyunji; Choi, Jongsun; Zhang, Xue; Park, Jiho; Baang, Sungkeun; Park, Jaehoon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the important relationship among the capacitance-voltage (C - V) characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors, the output currents of pentacene based organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), and the semiconductor layer's thickness. The effect of the semiconductor layer's thickness on the effective channel capacitance, when the MIS capacitors are fully accumulated with sufficient negative bias, was observed to be directly correlated with the magnitude of the saturated output current. The variation in accumulation capacitance of MIS capacitors due to changes in layer thickness is shown to indicate the existence of a channel capacitance. This determines the output currents in the saturation region. Furthermore, the accumulation capacitance appears to decrease notably when the thickness of the pentacene layer is reduced below 20 nm.

  16. Some characteristics in operation of long exploited oil fields in Fergana depression. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordinskii, E V; Ovanesov, M G; Irmatov, E K

    1969-01-01

    A review of geological and oil production data from 3 Fergana fields is presented. The reservoirs are small, tectonically bounded, and are anticlines of Paleogenic carbonates. Reservoirs are heterogeneous with porosity ranging from 3 to 25% and permeability ranging from a few to 500 md. Some of the reservoirs have expanding gas caps, some are solution drive, and others have been waterflooded. All are now in the final stage of depletion. Production history and characteristics of each group are given. One way of increasing present production rate appears to be injection of gas or air into the reservoirs. This can be done inexpensively, since additional injection wells would not have to be drilled and some produced gas is available. Increased fluid withdrawal from present wells should also be beneficial.

  17. Analysis of the thickness-dependent electrical characteristics in pentacene field-effect devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongwook; Shin, Hyunji; Choi, Jongsun [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Xue; Park, Jiho; Baang, Sungkeun; Park, Jaehoon [Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    In this paper, we report on the important relationship among the capacitance-voltage (C - V) characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors, the output currents of pentacene based organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), and the semiconductor layer's thickness. The effect of the semiconductor layer's thickness on the effective channel capacitance, when the MIS capacitors are fully accumulated with sufficient negative bias, was observed to be directly correlated with the magnitude of the saturated output current. The variation in accumulation capacitance of MIS capacitors due to changes in layer thickness is shown to indicate the existence of a channel capacitance. This determines the output currents in the saturation region. Furthermore, the accumulation capacitance appears to decrease notably when the thickness of the pentacene layer is reduced below 20 nm.

  18. Pressure fluctuation characteristics of flow field of mixed flow nuclear primary pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunlin; Yang Xiaoyong; Li Changjun; Jia Fei; Zhao Binjuan

    2013-01-01

    In order to research the pressure fluctuation characteristics of flow field of mixed flow nuclear primary pump, this study used the technique of ANSYS-Workbench and CFX fluid solid heat coupling to do numerical simulation analysis for model pump. According to the situation of pressure fluctuation of time domain and frequency domain, the main cause of pressure fluctuation was discussed. For different flow, the pressure fluctuations were compared. This study shows it is feasible that large eddy simulation method is used for the research of pressure fluctuation. The pressure fluctuation amplitudes of four sections are increasing from wheel hub to wheel rim. The pressure fluctuation of inlet and outlet of impeller depends on the rotational frequency of impeller. Along with the fluid flowing away from the impeller, the effect of the impeller on the fluid pressure fluctuation weakens gradually. Comparing the different results of three flow conditions, the pressure fluctuation in design condition flow is superior to the others. (authors)

  19. Identification of characteristic frequencies of damaged railway tracks using field hammer test measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregui, M.; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of the Frequency Response Function (FRF)-based statistical method to identify the characteristic frequencies of railway track defects is studied. The method compares a damaged track state to a healthy state based on non-destructive field hammer test measurements. First, a study is carried out to investigate the repeatability of hammer tests in railway tracks. By changing the excitation and measurement locations it is shown that the variability introduced by the test process is negligible. Second, following the concepts of control charts employed in process monitoring, a method to define an approximate healthy state is introduced by using hammer test measurements at locations without visual damage. Then, the feasibility study includes an investigation into squats (i.e. a major type of rail surface defect) of varying severity. The identified frequency ranges related to squats agree with those found in an extensively validated vehicle-borne detection system. Therefore, the FRF-based statistical method in combination with the non-destructive hammer test measurements has the potential to be employed to identify the characteristic frequencies of damaged conditions in railway tracks in the frequency range of 300-3000 Hz.

  20. Advancing land-terminating ice margin in North Greenland - characteristics, evolution, and first field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J. F.; Prinz, R.; Abermann, J.

    2017-12-01

    More than 40% of the ice sheet in North Greenland terminate on land, however the characteristics of this ice margin and response to a changing climate have so far received little attention. While land-terminating ice cliffs are a feature commonly found and studied in other regions, detailed investigations in Greenland were only carried out more than six decades ago in the Thule area (Red Rock, Northwest Greenland). These studies showed a continuous advance at one location over multiple years, while the local mass balance was reported negative. The purpose of our study is to revisit the location previously studied and extend the analysis to the complete Northern ice margin employing newly available high-resolution digital terrain models (Arctic DEM). First results show that the advance at Red Rock is indeed long-term, continuing unabated today at rates of up to several meter per year. Similar magnitudes were found for large other stretches along the ice margin. With our study we aim to show (a) the main characteristics of the land-terminating ice margin in Northern Greenland, namely its slope and aspect distribution and comparison to spatial datasets of flow velocity and mass balance and (b) to provide further explanations of physical processes driving the advance. We have therefore mapped the complete ice margin and present the first results of this analysis. First field work provides new data on energy fluxes and ice temperatures at the Red Rock site as well as high resolution DEMs obtained with the use of UAVs.

  1. Confinement characteristics of the TPE reversed field pinch plasmas and effects of the boundary configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Y.; Maejima, Y.; Zollino, G.

    2001-01-01

    Confinement characteristics of the TPE series reversed field pinch (RFP) machines, TPE-1RM15, TPE-1RM20 and TPE-1RM20mod, at Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL) are summarized. Especially data are synthesized in respect to the effects of the different boundary structures of the machines, where shell proximity and overlapped poloidal shell gaps by the multi-layered shell structure are featured. Comparison of the experimental results is shown in terms of the characteristics of magnetic fluctuations, global confinement properties in general, operation capability of the improved confinement in high pinch parameter (Q) discharges and locked mode events. Linear growth rate of the unstable modes as a function of the shell distance is numerically simulated. Understandings of RFP plasma physics have also made progress by the most recent intensive experiments on correlation studies between fast electrons and dynamo activities and measurement of the plasma and mode rotation. TPE-1RM20mod was shutdown in December 1996 and new RFP experiment has started in TPE-RX from March 1998. The new machine also succeeds the concept of the shell configuration of the TPE-1RM20. (author)

  2. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF THE FIELD CRICKET (GRYLLUS TESTACEUS WALKER)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DunWang; Yao-yuBai; Jiang-hongLi; Chuan-xiZhang

    2004-01-01

    The chemical composition and the nutritional quality of protein, fatty acids and chitin of adult field cricket Gryllus testaceus Walker were investigated. The adult insect contalned: crude protein 58.3 %; fat 10.3 %, chitin 8.7 % and ash 2.96 % on dry matter basis respectively. The essential amino acid profile compared well with FAO/WHO recommended pattern except for cysteine and methionine. The fatty acid analysis showed unsaturated acid of the field cricket to be present in high quantities, and the total percentage of oleic acid, linolic acid and linolenic acid was 77.51%. The chitin content of the insect was 8.7 % with a better quality than the commercial chitin that was prepared from shells of shrimp and crab. Therefore the chemical composition of the field cricket indicates the insect to be a good supplement to nutrition for food and feed, even a raw material for medicine.

  3. Notes from the field: the economic value chain in disease management organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterolf, Donald

    2006-12-01

    The disease management (DM) "value chain" is composed of a linear series of steps that include operational milestones in the development of knowledge, each stage evolving from the preceding one. As an adaptation of Michael Porter's "value chain" model, the process flow in DM moves along the following path: (1) data/information technology, (2) information generation, (3) analysis, (4) assessment/recommendations, (5) actionable customer plan, and (6) program assessment/reassessment. Each of these stages is managed as a major line of product operations within a DM company or health plan. Metrics around each of the key production variables create benchmark milestones, ongoing management insight into program effectiveness, and potential drivers for activity-based cost accounting pricing models. The value chain process must remain robust from early entry of data and information into the system, through the final presentation and recommendations for our clients if the program is to be effective. For individuals involved in the evaluation or review of DM programs, this framework is an excellent method to visualize the key components and sequence in the process. The value chain model is an excellent way to establish the value of a formal DM program and to create a consultancy relationship with a client involved in purchasing these complex services.

  4. The effect of proportional v. value pricing on fountain drink purchases: results from a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Tang, Xuyang; Runge, Carlisle Ford; French, Simone A; Rothman, Alexander J

    2018-05-15

    Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is a public health priority, yet finding an effective and acceptable policy intervention is challenging. One strategy is to use proportional pricing (a consistent price per fluid ounce) instead of the typical value-priced approach where large beverages offer better value. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether proportional pricing affects the purchasing of fountain beverages at a university cinema concession stand. Four price strategies for beverages were evaluated over ten weekends of film screenings. We manipulated two factors: the price structure (value pricing v. proportional pricing) and the provision of information about the price per fluid ounce (labels v. no labels). The key outcomes were the number and size of beverages purchased. We analysed data using regression analyses, with standard errors clustered by film and controlling for the day and time of purchase. A university cinema concession stand in Minnesota, USA, in spring 2015. University students. Over the study period (360 beverages purchased) there were no significant effects of the proportional pricing treatment. Pairing a label with the standard value pricing increased the likelihood of purchasing large drinks but the label did not affect purchasing when paired with proportional pricing. Proportional prices did not significantly affect the size of beverages purchased by students at a university cinema, but adding a price-per-ounce label increased large drink purchases when drinks were value-priced. More work is needed to address whether pricing and labelling strategies might promote healthier beverage purchases.

  5. Statistical analysis of extreme values from insurance, finance, hydrology and other fields

    CERN Document Server

    Reiss, Rolf-Dieter

    1997-01-01

    The statistical analysis of extreme data is important for various disciplines, including hydrology, insurance, finance, engineering and environmental sciences. This book provides a self-contained introduction to the parametric modeling, exploratory analysis and statistical interference for extreme values. The entire text of this third edition has been thoroughly updated and rearranged to meet the new requirements. Additional sections and chapters, elaborated on more than 100 pages, are particularly concerned with topics like dependencies, the conditional analysis and the multivariate modeling of extreme data. Parts I–III about the basic extreme value methodology remain unchanged to some larger extent, yet notable are, e.g., the new sections about "An Overview of Reduced-Bias Estimation" (co-authored by M.I. Gomes), "The Spectral Decomposition Methodology", and "About Tail Independence" (co-authored by M. Frick), and the new chapter about "Extreme Value Statistics of Dependent Random Variables" (co-authored ...

  6. Characteristics of electron cyclotron waves creating field-aligned and transverse plasma-potential structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K; Kaneko, T; Hatakeyama, R; Fukuyama, A

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of electromagnetic waves of azimuthal mode number m = ±1 are investigated experimentally, analytically and numerically when the waves triggering the field-aligned and transverse plasma-potential structure modification near an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) point are injected into an inhomogeneously magnetized plasma with high-speed ion flow. The waves of m = +1 and -1 modes generate an electric double layer near the ECR point at the radially central and peripheral areas of the plasma column, respectively, and the transverse electric fields are consequently formed. At these areas the waves have a right-handed polarization and are absorbed through the ECR mechanism, where the experimental and analytical results do show the polarization reversal along the radial axis. The numerical results by plasma analysis by finite element method (FEM)/wave analysis by FEM (PAF/WF) code show that the wave-absorption area is localized at the radially central and peripheral areas for m = +1 and -1 mode waves, respectively, being consistent with the experimental and analytical ones.

  7. Effect of field-of-view size on gray values derived from cone-beam computed tomography compared with the Hounsfield unit values from multidetector computed tomography scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Abbas; Ramezani, Leila; Bidgoli, Mohsen; Akbarzadeh, Mahdi; Ghazikhanlu-Sani, Karim; Fallahi-Sichani, Hamed

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of field-of-view (FOV) size on the gray values derived from conebeam computed tomography (CBCT) compared with the Hounsfield unit values from multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scans as the gold standard. A radiographic phantom was designed with 4 acrylic cylinders. One cylinder was filled with distilled water, and the other 3 were filled with 3 types of bone substitute: namely, Nanobone, Cenobone, and Cerabone. The phantom was scanned with 2 CBCT systems using 2 different FOV sizes, and 1 MDCT system was used as the gold standard. The mean gray values (MGVs) of each cylinder were calculated in each imaging protocol. In both CBCT systems, significant differences were noted in the MGVs of all materials between the 2 FOV sizes ( P <.05) except for Cerabone in the Cranex3D system. Significant differences were found in the MGVs of each material compared with the others in both FOV sizes for each CBCT system. No significant difference was seen between the Cranex3D CBCT system and the MDCT system in the MGVs of bone substitutes on images obtained with a small FOV. The size of the FOV significantly changed the MGVs of all bone substitutes, except for Cerabone in the Cranex3D system. Both CBCT systems had the ability to distinguish the 3 types of bone substitutes based on a comparison of their MGVs. The Cranex3D CBCT system used with a small FOV had a significant correlation with MDCT results.

  8. Involutive distributions of operator-valued evolutionary vector fields and their affine geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiselev, A.V.; van de Leur, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the notion of a Lie algebroid over infinite jet bundle by replacing the variational anchor with an N-tuple of differential operators whose images in the Lie algebra of evolutionary vector fields of the jet space are subject to collective commutation closure. The linear space of such

  9. Perceived value of student participation in the field of aerospace engineering from a student's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Langen, Sven Kevin; Bentum, Marinus Jan; de Vries, Rowan; Grootjans, Robert; Grootjans, Roelof; Brethouwer, Martijn F.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of student participation in space projects is well known. New students are needed to supplement the future workforce and both experience and enthusiasm are important factors to join any industry. Students can also offer fresh perspectives to existing problems in any field of

  10. Kinetic approach to the initial value problem in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chi Yong; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.

    1989-06-01

    Time-dependente projection techniques developed to derive kinetic equations in the context of the quantum many-body problem are applied to φ 4 field theory. The approach is illustrated by working out the 0+1 dimensional case explicitly, including numerical solutions of the kinetic equations. Extension to higher dimensions is briefly discussed. (author) [pt

  11. The value of high-field MRI (3 T) in the assessment of sellar lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, K. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Ba-Ssalamah, A. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Wolfsberger, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Mlynarik, V. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Knosp, E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: siegfried.trattnig@univie.ac.at

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the normal sellar anatomy in vitro and in vivo with high-field MRI and its application in the diagnosis of sellar pathologies in comparison to standard MRI. All high-field MR images were obtained using a 3 T Bruker Medspec 30/80 Scanner with a head birdcage transmit/receive coil and an actively shielded gradient system with a maximum gradient strength of 45 mT/m. Firstly an in vitro study of the sella turcica was performed to depict normal pituitary and sellar anatomy at high field. After a pilot-study this sequence-protocol was established: A RARE sequence (TR/TE = 7790/19 ms; matrix size, 512 x 512; RARE factor = 8, FOV, 200 mm) was used for T2-weighted coronal, axial and sagittal images. A 3D gradient echo sequence with magnetization-preparation (MP-RAGE, TR/TE/TI 33.5/7.6/800 ms, matrix size, 512 x 512; FOV, 200 mm, effective slice thickness, 1.88 mm; 3 averages) was used for acquisition of T1-weighted pre- and post-contrast images. Between January 2002 and March 200458 patients were enrolled in this study. Seven patients were examined for suspected microadenoma and in 51 patients 3T MRI was used to obtain additional information about the sellar lesion already known to be present from standard MRI. In 21 cases the accuracy of the imaging findings was assessed afterwards by comparison with intraoperative findings. The infiltration of the medial cavernous sinus wall was suspected on standard MRI on 15 sides (47%), on high-field MRI on 9 sides (28%) and could be verified by intraoperative findings on 6 sides (19%). Accordingly, sensitivity to infiltration was 83% for 3 T and 67% for standard MRI. Specificity was 84% for 3 T and 58% for standard MRI. Moreover, high-field MRI revealed microadenomas in 7 patients with a median diameter of 4 mm (range 2-9 mm). The segments of the cranial nerves were seen as mean 4 hypointense spots (range 2-5 spots) on high-field MRI in contrast to 3 spots (range 0-4 spots) on standard MRI

  12. Metal Abundances, Radial Velocities, and Other Physical Characteristics for the RR Lyrae Stars in The Kepler Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, James M.; Cohen, Judith G.; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Derekas, Aliz; Moskalik, Pawel; Sesar, Branimir; Chadid, Merieme; Bruntt, Hans

    2013-08-01

    Spectroscopic iron-to-hydrogen ratios, radial velocities, atmospheric parameters, and new photometric analyses are presented for 41 RR Lyrae stars (and one probable high-amplitude δ Sct star) located in the field-of-view of the Kepler space telescope. Thirty-seven of the RR Lyrae stars are fundamental-mode pulsators (i.e., RRab stars) of which sixteen exhibit the Blazhko effect. Four of the stars are multiperiodic RRc pulsators oscillating primarily in the first-overtone mode. Spectroscopic [Fe/H] values for the 34 stars for which we were able to derive estimates range from -2.54 ± 0.13 (NR Lyr) to -0.05 ± 0.13 dex (V784 Cyg), and for the 19 Kepler-field non-Blazhko stars studied by Nemec et al. the abundances agree will with their photometric [Fe/H] values. Four non-Blazhko RR Lyrae stars that they identified as metal-rich (KIC 6100702, V2470 Cyg, V782 Cyg and V784 Cyg) are confirmed as such, and four additional stars (V839 Cyg, KIC 5520878, KIC 8832417, KIC 3868420) are also shown here to be metal-rich. Five of the non-Blazhko RRab stars are found to be more metal-rich than [Fe/H] ~-0.9 dex while all of the 16 Blazhko stars are more metal-poor than this value. New P-\\phi _31^s-[Fe/H] relationships are derived based on ~970 days of quasi-continuous high-precision Q0-Q11 long- and short-cadence Kepler photometry. With the exception of some Blazhko stars, the spectroscopic and photometric [Fe/H] values are in good agreement. Several stars with unique photometric characteristics are identified, including a Blazhko variable with the smallest known amplitude and frequency modulations (V838 Cyg). Based in part on observations made at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Keck Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. Also, based in part on

  13. The Psycho-Lexical Approach in Exploring the Field of Values : A reply to Schwartz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Raad, Boele; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Morales-Vives, Fabia; Renner, Walter; Barelds, Dick P.H.; Oudenhoven ,van Joannes

    2017-01-01

    We reply to each of the issues raised by Schwartz in a commentary on our article on a comparison of value taxonomies. We discuss two approaches, mentioned in that commentary, the lexical approach and the theory-driven approach, especially with respect to their capacities in covering the domain of

  14. Value-based design for the elderly : An application in the field of mobility aids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, Simone Theresa; van Velsen, Lex Stefan; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2016-01-01

    In the aging society, the need for the elderly to remain mobile and independent is higher than ever. However, many aids supporting mobility often fail to target real needs and lack acceptance. The aim of this study is to demonstrate how value-based design can contribute to the design of mobility

  15. Value-based design for the elderly: An application in the field of mobility aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerema, Simone T; van Velsen, Lex; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M R; Hermens, Hermie J

    2017-01-01

    In the aging society, the need for the elderly to remain mobile and independent is higher than ever. However, many aids supporting mobility often fail to target real needs and lack acceptance. The aim of this study is to demonstrate how value-based design can contribute to the design of mobility aids that address real needs and thus, lead to high acceptance. We elicited values, facilitators, and barriers of mobility of older adults via ten in-depth interviews. Next, we held co-creation sessions, resulting in several designs of innovative mobility aids, which were evaluated for acceptance via nine in-depth interviews. The interviews resulted in a myriad of key values, such as "independence from family" and "doing their own groceries." Design sessions resulted in three designs for a wheeled walker. Their acceptance was rather low. Current mobility device users were more eager to accept the designs than non-users. The value-based approach offers designers a close look into the lives of the elderly, thereby opening up a wide range of innovation possibilities that better fit their actual needs. Product service systems seem to be a promising focus for targeting human needs in mobility device design.

  16. Comparison of Flattening Filter (FF) and Flattening-Filter-Free (FFF) 6 MV photon beam characteristics for small field dosimetry using EGSnrc Monte Carlo code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, S.; Sureka, C. S.

    2017-06-01

    The present study is focused to compare the characteristics of Varian Clinac 600 C/D flattened and unflattened 6 MV photon beams for small field dosimetry using EGSnrc Monte Carlo Simulation since the small field dosimetry is considered to be the most crucial and provoking task in the field of radiation dosimetry. A 6 MV photon beam of a Varian Clinac 600 C/D medical linear accelerator operates with Flattening Filter (FF) and Flattening-Filter-Free (FFF) mode for small field dosimetry were performed using EGSnrc Monte Carlo user codes (BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc) in order to calculate the beam characteristics using Educated-trial and error method. These includes: Percentage depth dose, lateral beam profile, dose rate delivery, photon energy spectra, photon beam uniformity, out-of-field dose, surface dose, penumbral dose and output factor for small field dosimetry (0.5×0.5 cm2 to 4×4 cm2) and are compared with magna-field sizes (5×5 cm2 to 40×40 cm2) at various depths. The results obtained showed that the optimized beam energy and Full-width-half maximum value for small field dosimetry and magna-field dosimetry was found to be 5.7 MeV and 0.13 cm for both FF and FFF beams. The depth of dose maxima for small field size deviates minimally for both FF and FFF beams similar to magna-fields. The depths greater than dmax depicts a steeper dose fall off in the exponential region for FFF beams comparing FF beams where its deviations gets increased with the increase in field size. The shape of the lateral beam profiles of FF and FFF beams varies remains similar for the small field sizes less than 4×4 cm2 whereas it varies in the case of magna-fields. Dose rate delivery for FFF beams shows an eminent increase with a two-fold factor for both small field dosimetry and magna-field sizes. The surface dose measurements of FFF beams for small field size were found to be higher whereas it gets lower for magna-fields than FF beam. The amount of out-of-field dose reduction gets

  17. First field-based observations of δ2H and δ18O values of precipitation and other water bodies in the Mongolian Gobi desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Voigt, Christian C.; Kaczensky, Petra

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope values of water are widely used to track the global hydrological cycle and the global δ2H and δ18O patterns of precipitation are increasingly used in studies on animal migration, forensics, food authentication and traceability studies. However, δ2H and δ18O values of precipitation spanning one or more years are available for only a few 100 locations worldwide and for many remote areas such as Mongolia data are still scarce. We obtained the first field-based δ2H and δ18O isotope data of event-based precipitation, rivers and other water bodies in the extreme environment of the Dzungarian Gobi desert in SW Mongolia, covering a period of 16 months (1). Our study area is located over 450 km north-east from the nearest IAEA GNIP station (Fukang station, China) from which it is separated by a mountain range at the international border between China and Mongolia. Isotope values of the collected event-based precipitation showed and extreme range and a high seasonal variability with higher and more variable values in summer and lower in winter. The high variability could not be explained by different origin of air masses alone (i.e. NW polar winds over Russia or westerlies over Central Asia; analyzed using back-trajectory HYSPLIT model), but is likely a result of a combination of different processes affecting the isotope values of precipitation in this area. The calculated field-based local meteoric water line (LMWL, δ2H=(7.42±0.16)δ18O-(23.87±3.27)) showed isotopic characteristics of precipitation in an arid region. We observed a slight discrepancy between the filed based and modelled (Online Isotope in Precipitation Calculator, OIPC) LMWL which highlighted the difficulty of modelling the δ2H and δ18O values for areas with extreme climatic conditions and thus emphasized the importance of collecting long-term field-based data. The collected isotopic data of precipitation and other water bodies provide a basis for future

  18. Field-effect transistors with high mobility and small hysteresis of transfer characteristics based on CH3NH3PbBr3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshin, A. N.; Shcherbakov, I. P.; Trapeznikova, I. N.; Petrov, V. N.

    2017-12-01

    Field-effect transistor (FET) structures based on soluble organometallic perovskites, CH3NH3PbBr3, were obtained and their electrical properties were studied. FETs made of CH3NH3PbBr3 films possess current- voltage characteristics (IVs) typical for ambipolar FETs with saturation regime. The transfer characteristics of FETs based on CH3NH3PbBr3 have an insignificant hysteresis and slightly depend on voltage at the source-drain. Mobilities of charge carriers (holes) calculated from IVs of FETs based on CH3NH3PbBr3 at 300 K in saturation and weak field regimes were 5 and 2 cm2/V s, respectively, whereas electron mobility is 3 cm2/V s, which exceeds the mobility value 1 cm2/V s obtained earlier for FETs based on CH3NH3PbI3.

  19. Morphological characteristics, dry matter production, and nutritional value of winter forage and grains under grazing and split nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreno Egidio Taffarel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics, dry matter production, and nutritional values of winter forage and grains were evaluated. This study was conducted from April 24, 2012 to November 7, 2013 in the Western Paraná State University (UNIOESTE, Marechal Cândido Rondon, Brazil. Pastures under one grazing and non-grazing conditions were evaluated under 120 kg N ha-1 fertilization split into two 60 kg N ha-1 treatments. Two pastures received 40 kg N ha-1 three times. IPR 126 oat, BRS Tarumã wheat, and IPR 111 triticale were the test crops. Topdressing with 40 or 60 kg N ha-1 did not change morphological characteristics until 60 d after sowing. Pastures under non-grazing that received 120 kg N ha-1 treatments were taller than the controls, whereas those under grazing that received 80 or 120 kg N ha-1 presented with higher leaf production than did the controls. Total average dry matter (DM production in 2012 and 2013 was, respectively, 5,275 kg ha-1 and 6,270 kg ha-1 for oat, 3,166 kg ha-1 and 7,423 kg ha-1 for wheat, and 4,552 kg ha-1 and 7,603 kg ha-1 for triticale. Split N fertilization did not cause differences in the levels of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF in the forage. Nevertheless, increases in in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD were observed in oat and wheat receiving 60 kg N ha-1 during the first graze. IVDMD did not change in oat, wheat, and triticale forages receiving 80 or 120 kg N ha-1 during the second graze. Grazing did not affect the nutritional values of wheat and triticale grains, but reduced those of oat. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that grazing lengthens the crop cycles, and so allow the staggered sowing of summer crops.

  20. Visualization of 2-D and 3-D fields from its value in a finite number of points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dari, E.A.; Venere, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    This work describes a method for the visualization of two- and three-dimensional fields, given its value in a finite number of points. These data can be originated in experimental measurements, numerical results, or any other source. For the field interpolation, the space is divided into simplices (triangles or tetrahedrons), using the Watson algorithm to obtain the Delaunay triangulation. Inside each simplex, linear interpolation is assumed. The visualization is accomplished by means of Finite Elements post-processors, capable of handling unstructured meshes, which were also developed by the authors. (Author) [es

  1. Near-field characteristics of highly non-paraxial subwavelength optical fields with hybrid states of polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rui-Pin; Gao Teng-Yue; Chew Khian-Hooi; Dai Chao-Qing; Zhou Guo-Quan; He Sai-Ling

    2017-01-01

    The vectorial structure of an optical field with hybrid states of polarization (SoP) in the near-field is studied by using the angular spectrum method of an electromagnetic beam. Physical images of the longitudinal components of evanescent waves are illustrated and compared with those of the transverse components from the vectorial structure. Our results indicate that the relative weight integrated over the transverse plane of the evanescent wave depends strongly on the number of the polarization topological charges. The shapes of the intensity profiles of the longitudinal components are different from those of the transverse components, and it can be manipulated by changing the initial SoP of the field cross-section. The longitudinal component of evanescent wave dominates the near-field region. In addition, it also leads to three-dimensional shape variations of the optical field and the optical spin angular momentum flux density distributions. (paper)

  2. Characteristics of the regional human milk bank in Poland - donors, recipients and nutritional value of human milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarska, Olga; Zielińska, Monika; Pawlus, Beata; Wesołowska, Aleksandra

    In case of shortage of breast milk despite proper lactation care or the poor state of the mother’s health, breast milk from human milk bank is recommended for feeding preterm infants This study retrospectively evaluated the first year of the operation of the Regional Human Milk Bank Data concerning donors was collected in the human milk bank during the cooperation. The clinical characteristics of the recipients was made on the basis of medical documentation from the Holy Family Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. Analysis of nutritional value was performed with the human milk analyzer (MIRIS AB) In the first year of activity, 45 voluntary donors established cooperation, donating from 650 to 32030 ml of human milk. The content of nutrients in milk provided by donors was variable - protein 0.4-1.5 g / 100 ml, fat 1.1-7.4 g / 100 ml, carbohydrates 6.3-7.9 g / 100 ml. The average length of using donated human milk was 4 days and the average volume of milk for one infant was 282 ml The donor profiles have a significant impact on the milk composition form HMB. The nutritional value can be improved by recruitment donors from mothers that gave birth prematurely and by beginning donation at earlier stages of lactation as soon as lactation is stabilized. In case of shortage of mothers own milk the immediate implementation of donors milk as a short-term support can significantly reduce the food intolerance incidence in the group of prematurely born infants

  3. Modeling DNP3 Traffic Characteristics of Field Devices in SCADA Systems of the Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Cheng, Liang [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Chuah, Mooi Choo [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2017-03-08

    In the generation, transmission, and distribution sectors of the smart grid, intelligence of field devices is realized by programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Many smart-grid subsystems are essentially cyber-physical energy systems (CPES): For instance, the power system process (i.e., the physical part) within a substation is monitored and controlled by a SCADA network with hosts running miscellaneous applications (i.e., the cyber part). To study the interactions between the cyber and physical components of a CPES, several co-simulation platforms have been proposed. However, the network simulators/emulators of these platforms do not include a detailed traffic model that takes into account the impacts of the execution model of PLCs on traffic characteristics. As a result, network traces generated by co-simulation only reveal the impacts of the physical process on the contents of the traffic generated by SCADA hosts, whereas the distinction between PLCs and computing nodes (e.g., a hardened computer running a process visualization application) has been overlooked. To generate realistic network traces using co-simulation for the design and evaluation of applications relying on accurate traffic profiles, it is necessary to establish a traffic model for PLCs. In this work, we propose a parameterized model for PLCs that can be incorporated into existing co-simulation platforms. We focus on the DNP3 subsystem of slave PLCs, which automates the processing of packets from the DNP3 master. To validate our approach, we extract model parameters from both the configuration and network traces of real PLCs. Simulated network traces are generated and compared against those from PLCs. Our evaluation shows that our proposed model captures the essential traffic characteristics of DNP3 slave PLCs, which can be used to extend existing co-simulation platforms and gain further insights into the behaviors of CPES.

  4. Continuum and Discrete Initial-Boundary Value Problems and Einstein's Field Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Sarbach

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many evolution problems in physics are described by partial differential equations on an infinite domain; therefore, one is interested in the solutions to such problems for a given initial dataset. A prominent example is the binary black-hole problem within Einstein's theory of gravitation, in which one computes the gravitational radiation emitted from the inspiral of the two black holes, merger and ringdown. Powerful mathematical tools can be used to establish qualitative statements about the solutions, such as their existence, uniqueness, continuous dependence on the initial data, or their asymptotic behavior over large time scales. However, one is often interested in computing the solution itself, and unless the partial differential equation is very simple, or the initial data possesses a high degree of symmetry, this computation requires approximation by numerical discretization. When solving such discrete problems on a machine, one is faced with a finite limit to computational resources, which leads to the replacement of the infinite continuum domain with a finite computer grid. This, in turn, leads to a discrete initial-boundary value problem. The hope is to recover, with high accuracy, the exact solution in the limit where the grid spacing converges to zero with the boundary being pushed to infinity. The goal of this article is to review some of the theory necessary to understand the continuum and discrete initial boundary-value problems arising from hyperbolic partial differential equations and to discuss its applications to numerical relativity; in particular, we present well-posed initial and initial-boundary value formulations of Einstein's equations, and we discuss multi-domain high-order finite difference and spectral methods to solve them.

  5. Continuum and Discrete Initial-Boundary Value Problems and Einstein's Field Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbach, Olivier; Tiglio, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Many evolution problems in physics are described by partial differential equations on an infinite domain; therefore, one is interested in the solutions to such problems for a given initial dataset. A prominent example is the binary black-hole problem within Einstein's theory of gravitation, in which one computes the gravitational radiation emitted from the inspiral of the two black holes, merger and ringdown. Powerful mathematical tools can be used to establish qualitative statements about the solutions, such as their existence, uniqueness, continuous dependence on the initial data, or their asymptotic behavior over large time scales. However, one is often interested in computing the solution itself, and unless the partial differential equation is very simple, or the initial data possesses a high degree of symmetry, this computation requires approximation by numerical discretization. When solving such discrete problems on a machine, one is faced with a finite limit to computational resources, which leads to the replacement of the infinite continuum domain with a finite computer grid. This, in turn, leads to a discrete initial-boundary value problem. The hope is to recover, with high accuracy, the exact solution in the limit where the grid spacing converges to zero with the boundary being pushed to infinity. The goal of this article is to review some of the theory necessary to understand the continuum and discrete initial boundary-value problems arising from hyperbolic partial differential equations and to discuss its applications to numerical relativity; in particular, we present well-posed initial and initial-boundary value formulations of Einstein's equations, and we discuss multi-domain high-order finite difference and spectral methods to solve them.

  6. Characteristics of hot electron ring in a simple magnetic mirror field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, M.; Ikegami, H.

    1980-12-01

    Characteristics of hot electron ring are studied in a simple magnetic mirror machine (mirror ratio 2 : 1) with a diameter of 30 cm at the midplane and with the distance of 80 cm between the mirrors. Maximum microwave input power is 5 kW at 6.4 GHz with the corresponding power density of approximately 0.3 W/cm 3 . With a background cold plasma of 4 x 10 11 cm -3 , hot electron rings are most effectively generated in two cases when the magnetic field on the axis of the midplane is set near the fundamental or the second harmonic electron cyclotron resonance to the applied microwave frequency. Density profile of the hot electrons is observed to take a so-called ring shape with a radius controllable by the magnetic field intensity and with an axial length of approximately 10 cm. The radial cut view of the ring, however, indicates an M shape density profile, and the density of the hot electrons on the axis is about one half of the density at the ring. Approximately 30 msec is needed before generating the hot electron ring at the density of 10 10 cm -3 with an average kinetic energy of 100 keV. The ultimate energy distribution function is observed to have a stepwise cut in the high energy tail and no energetic components above 1 MeV are detected. The hot electron ring is susceptible to a few instabilities which can be artificially triggered. One of the instabilities is observed to associate with a loss of lower energetic electrons and microwave bursts. At the instability, the ring shape is observed to transform into a filled cylinder in a few microseconds and disappear. (author)

  7. Germination characteristics of Rhinanthus minor influence field emergence, competitiveness and potential use in restoration projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, M; Laverack, G; Matthews, S; Powell, A A

    2018-02-10

    The facultative root hemi-parasite Rhinanthus minor is often used in grassland habitat restoration projects to regulate ecosystem structure and function. Its impact on community productivity and diversity as a function of resource supply, sward composition and management has been widely investigated. However, there is a lack of information about the possible influence of seed quality on the efficacy of the hemi-parasite. Ten seed lots from commercial sources were sown in the field and their germination characteristics were investigated in the laboratory. Seeds from four lots were also germinated and sown in pots alongside plants of two host species, Lotus corniculatus and Holcus lanatus. Plant establishment, height and flowering density were evaluated for the hemi-parasite, while plant biomass was measured for both R. minor and its host. Two aspects of seed quality influenced the field emergence of seed lots of R. minor, the radicle emergence (%) and the length of the lag period from the beginning of imbibition to germination (mean germination time), which indicates seed vigour. A longer lag period (lower vigour) was associated with higher levels of seedling mortality and lower plant vigour, in terms of plant height and biomass accumulation and was also reflected in the parasitic impact of the seed lots. Seed quality, specifically germination and vigour, can influence the establishment, survival, subsequent plant productivity and parasitic impact of R. minor in vegetation restoration projects. Seed quality is discussed as a key factor to consider when predicting the impact of the hemi-parasite on community productivity and diversity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Acoustic field characteristics and performance analysis of a looped travelling-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, T.; Yang, R.; Wang, Y.; Feng, Y.; Tang, K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Key issues for a highly efficient thermoacoustic conversion are analyzed. • A looped thermoacoustic refrigerator with one engine stage and one refrigerator stage is proposed. • Effective refrigeration powered by heat sources below 250 °C is demonstrated in the simulation. • Impact of cooling/heating temperatures on system performance is analyzed in view of acoustic field. - Abstract: This paper focuses on a looped travelling-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator powered by thermal energy. Based on a simplified model for the regenerator, key issues for a highly efficient thermoacoustic conversion, including both thermal-to-acoustic and heat-pumping processes, are summarized. A looped travelling-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator with one engine stage and one refrigerator stage is proposed, with emphasis on high normalized acoustic impedance, sufficient volumetric velocity and appropriate phase relation close to travelling wave in the regenerators of both engine and refrigerator. Simulation results indicate that for the ambient temperature of 30 °C, the looped travelling-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator can be powered by the heat at 210–250 °C to achieve the refrigeration at −3 °C with the overall coefficient of performance above 0.4 and the relative Carnot coefficient of performance over 13%. The characteristics of the acoustic field inside the loop configuration are analyzed in detail to reveal the operation mechanism of the looped travelling-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator. Additional analyses are conducted on the impact of the cooling and the heating temperatures, which are of great concern to the refrigeration applications and the utilization of low-grade thermal energy.

  9. A field assessment of the value of steady shape hydraulic tomography for characterization of aquifer heterogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohling, Geoffrey C.; Butler, James J.; Zhan, Xiaoyong; Knoll, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Hydraulic tomography is a promising approach for obtaining information on variations in hydraulic conductivity on the scale of relevance for contaminant transport investigations. This approach involves performing a series of pumping tests in a format similar to tomography. We present a field‐scale assessment of hydraulic tomography in a porous aquifer, with an emphasis on the steady shape analysis methodology. The hydraulic conductivity (K) estimates from steady shape and transient analyses of the tomographic data compare well with those from a tracer test and direct‐push permeameter tests, providing a field validation of the method. Zonations based on equal‐thickness layers and cross‐hole radar surveys are used to regularize the inverse problem. The results indicate that the radar surveys provide some useful information regarding the geometry of the K field. The steady shape analysis provides results similar to the transient analysis at a fraction of the computational burden. This study clearly demonstrates the advantages of hydraulic tomography over conventional pumping tests, which provide only large‐scale averages, and small‐scale hydraulic tests (e.g., slug tests), which cannot assess strata connectivity and may fail to sample the most important pathways or barriers to flow.

  10. Effects of field characteristics on abundance of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) and seed yield in red clover fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, Kirsten Haugaard; Dupont, Yoko L.

    2010-01-01

    Red clover is a key floral ressource for bumblebees (Bombus spp.).We here investigate variation within and among red clover fields in species richness and abundance of Bombus spp. in addition to Apis mellifera. Bumblebee individuals were grouped into the following functional groups, based on castes...... and tongue length: (1) all queens, (2) all workers, (3) short-tongued workers and (4) long-tongued workers. In 14 study fields, no spatial or diurnal within-field differences were found in abundances of bee groups. However, seasonal differences were detected. On average 6.3±0.6 Bombus spp. were observed...

  11. Perturbation theory in angular quantization approach and the expectation values of exponential fields in sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poghossian, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    In an angular quantization approach a perturbation theory for the Massive Thirring Model (MTM) is developed, which allows us to calculate vacuum expectation values of exponential fields in sine-Gordon theory near the free fermion point in first order of the MTM coupling constant g. The Hankel transforms play an important role when carrying out these calculations. The expression we have found coincides with that of the direct expansion over g of the exact formula conjectured by Lukyanov and Zamolodchikov

  12. A Systematic study of modular coil characteristics for 2-field periods quasi-axisymmetric stellarator QAS-LA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jinxing; Song, Yuntao; Breslau, Joshua; Neilson, George Hutch

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Systematic studies of modular coils characteristics for quasi-axisymmetric stellarator were carried out for the key design parameters. • We systematically analyzed the relationships between design parameters of modular coils and electromagnetic properties such as the maximum field. • The approximate formulae relating modular coil parameters to the maximum magnetic field were derived by the use of simple two coil systems. - Abstract: Modular coil characteristics of a 2-field periods quasi-axisymmetric stellarator QAS-LA configuration with an aspect ratio A p = 3, magnetic pressure ∼4% and rotational transform ι ∼ 0.15 per field period supplied by its own shaping have been detailed studied. In addition, the characteristics of modular coils for QAS-LA were compared with those of an intermediate QA configuration QAS-LAx and a tokamak based on the same center magnet field B 0 , aspect ratio and number of coils. As expected, the B max /B 0 , force F and overturning moment M, increase with the increased complexity of the coil shape. The relationships between the modular coils’ parameters (such as radius curvature ρ, distance from coil to coil Δ c–c and the cross-section of coils) and the electromagnetic characteristics have been systematically summarized. The approximate formula for the maximum magnetic field in the coil body as functions of modular coil parameters (Δ c–c , ρ) was derived for a simple two wire system which will be useful when optimizations of coil properties are called for

  13. Thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of the austenite-to-ferrite transformation under high magnetic field in medium carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yudong; He Changshu; Zhao Xiang; Zuo Liang; Esling, Claude

    2005-01-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of austenite-to-ferrite phase transformation in medium carbon steel in the high magnetic fields were investigated. Results showed that the magnetic field could obviously change the γ/α+γ phase equilibrium-by increasing the amount of ferrite obtained during cooling-and greatly accelerate the transformation. Thus the microstructure obtained under fast cooling with high magnetic field was still ferritic and pearlitic, while that obtained without the magnetic field under the same cooling conditions was bainitic. Exploration in this area contributes both to enriching the new theory on electromagnetic processing of materials (EPM) and in establishing new techniques for materials processing

  14. Comparative analysis of gradient-field-based orientation estimation methods and regularized singular-value decomposition for fringe pattern processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Fu, Shujun

    2017-09-20

    Fringe orientation is an important feature of fringe patterns and has a wide range of applications such as guiding fringe pattern filtering, phase unwrapping, and abstraction. Estimating fringe orientation is a basic task for subsequent processing of fringe patterns. However, various noise, singular and obscure points, and orientation data degeneration lead to inaccurate calculations of fringe orientation. Thus, to deepen the understanding of orientation estimation and to better guide orientation estimation in fringe pattern processing, some advanced gradient-field-based orientation estimation methods are compared and analyzed. At the same time, following the ideas of smoothing regularization and computing of bigger gradient fields, a regularized singular-value decomposition (RSVD) technique is proposed for fringe orientation estimation. To compare the performance of these gradient-field-based methods, quantitative results and visual effect maps of orientation estimation are given on simulated and real fringe patterns that demonstrate that the RSVD produces the best estimation results at a cost of relatively less time.

  15. Electrical discharge machining of carbon nanomaterials in air: machining characteristics and the advanced field emission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ok, Jong Girl; Kim, Bo Hyun; Chung, Do Kwan; Sung, Woo Yong; Lee, Seung Min; Lee, Se Won; Kim, Wal Jun; Park, Jin Woo; Chu, Chong Nam; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2008-01-01

    A reliable and precise machining process, electrical discharge machining (EDM), was investigated in depth as a novel method for the engineering of carbon nanomaterials. The machining characteristics of EDM applied to carbon nanomaterials 'in air' were systematically examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The EDM process turned out to 'melt' carbon nanomaterials with the thermal energy generated by electrical discharge, which makes both the materially and geometrically unrestricted machining of nanomaterials possible. Since the EDM process conducted in air requires neither direct contact nor chemical agents, it protects the carbon nanomaterial workpieces against physical damage and unnecessary contamination. From this EDM method, several advanced field emission applications including 'top-down' patterning and the creative lateral comb-type triode device were derived, while our previously reported study on emission uniformity enhancement by the EDM method was also referenced. The EDM method has great potential as a clean, effective and practical way to utilize carbon nanomaterials for various uses

  16. Mechanics Evolution Characteristics Analysis of Pressure-arch in Fully-mechanized Mining Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a practical engineering, the three-dimension computational model was built using FLAC3D under the fullymechanized mining condition. Considering four variation factors, such as the distance of mining advancing, the strength of the surrounding rock, the speed of mining advancing and the dip angle of the coal seam, the mechanics evolution characteristics of the pressure-arch were analyzed. The result showed that for the horizontal seam, the geometric shape of the pressure-arch varied from flat arch to round arch gradually and the height and thickness of the pressure-arch also increased; the maximum principal stress in the skewback also increased with the working face advancing. With the strength of the surrounding rock from soft to hard, the arch thickness reduced, and the arch loading decreased. To improve the mining speed can do some contributions to the stability of the pressure-arch in the mining field. With the increase of dip angle of the seam, the pressure-arch displayed an asymmetric shape, the vault was tilted and moved to the upward direction. At the same time, the thickness of the pressure-arch increased, and the stress concentration in the skewback tended to be further intensified.

  17. Characteristics of the TPE reversed-field pinch plasmas in conventional and improved confinement regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakita, H.; Asai, T.; Fiksel, G.; Yagi, Y.; Frassinetti, L.; Hayase, K.; Hirano, Y.; Kiyama, S.; Koguchi, H.; Shimada, T.; Innocente, P.; Spizzo, G.; Terranova, D.; Sato, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2005-01-01

    We present the characteristics and experimental scaling laws of reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas, which are obtained from the recently established toroidal pinch experiment (TPE) database. The database contains information for approximately 1500 discharges consistently selected from four TPE RFP devices, and covers two decades of RFP experiments under conventional operating conditions at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. We present the physics of the pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) discharges in the TPE-RX RFP device, and a comparison of the improved energy confinement time in PPCD, τ E P PCD , with τ E s caling as the reference scaling law (τ E s caling ∼ a 1.63 (I P 0.78 (I P /N) 0.33 Θ 2.97 ) in the TPE database, is attempted. The result shows that τ E P PCD agrees well with τ E s caling because of the strong pinch parameter dependence on the TPE scaling law. A potential improved confinement mode in the quasi-single-helicity (QSH) state is also investigated in TPE-RX, with respect to the operation conditions under which the QSH spontaneously appears in the core region, where a typical island structure is observed by means of soft Xray tomography. (author)

  18. Improvement of Swirl Chamber Structure of Swirl-Chamber Diesel Engine Based on Flow Field Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve combustion characteristic of swirl chamber diesel engine, a simulation model about a traditional cylindrical flat-bottom swirl chamber turbulent combustion diesel engine was established within the timeframe of the piston motion from the bottom dead centre (BDC to the top dead centre (TDC with the fluent dynamic mesh technique and flow field vector of gas in swirl chamber and cylinder; the pressure variation and temperature variation were obtained and a new type of swirl chamber structure was proposed. The results reveal that the piston will move from BDC; air in the cylinder is compressed into the swirl chamber by the piston to develop a swirl inside the chamber, with the ongoing of compression; the pressure and temperature are also rising gradually. Under this condition, the demand of diesel oil mixing and combusting will be better satisfied. Moreover, the new structure will no longer forma small fluid retention zone at the lower end outside the chamber and will be more beneficial to the mixing of fuel oil and air, which has presented a new idea and theoretical foundation for the design and optimization of swirl chamber structure and is thus of good significance of guiding in this regard.

  19. The Effect of Patient Characteristics and Sleep Quality on Visual Field Performance Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup S. Swaminathan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the association of automated visual field (VF reliability indices (false positive [FP], false negative [FN], and fixation loss [FL] and sleep quality, VF experience, and age. Methods. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Adult patients (age ≥ 18 years completing automated VF testing were invited to participate. Baseline participant characteristics were obtained, and all participants were asked to complete the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaire. Nonparametric Spearman correlations and logistical regression models were performed. Results. 63 patients were enrolled. Lower PSQI score was correlated with higher percentage (% FL in the right eye (p=0.03. Fewer prior VF was significantly correlated with higher %FP in the right eye (p=0.008. Older age was significantly correlated with higher %FN in the left eye (p=0.01. Greater mean deviation (MD and pattern standard deviation (PSD were strongly correlated with higher %FN in the right (p=0.02 and 0.002, resp. and left eyes (p=0.01 and 0.02, resp.. Conclusion. In this prospective, cross-sectional study, worse MD and PSD are strongly correlated with increased FN in both eyes. Increased FN in the left eye associated with older age might be attributable to test fatigue. Worse sleep quality is associated with decreased FL in the right eye.

  20. AN EVALUATION OF THE BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A PLASTIC SCINTILLATING FIBRE DETECTOR IN CT RADIATION FIELDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Kento; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Toyoda, Takatoshi; Yoshida, Yutaka; Akasaka, Tsutomu; Nohtomi, Akihiro; Morishita, Junji

    2016-12-01

    The ionisation chamber for computed tomography (CT) is an instrument that is most commonly used to measure the computed tomography dose index. However, it has been reported that the 10 cm effective detection length of the ionisation chamber is insufficient due to the extent of the dose distribution outside the chamber. The purpose of this study was to estimate the basic characteristics of a plastic scintillating fibre (PSF) detector with a long detection length of 50 cm in CT radiation fields. The authors investigated position dependence using diagnostic X-ray equipment and dependencies for energy, dose rate and slice thickness using an X-ray CT system. The PSF detector outputs piled up at a count rate of 10 000 counts ms -1 in dose rate dependence study. With calibration, this detector may be useful as a CT dosemeter with a long detection length except for the measurement at high dose rate. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Improvement of Soil Biology Characteristics at Paddy Field by System of Rice Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyatmani Sih Dewi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to test the System of Rice Intensification (SRI method in improving the biological properties of paddy soil. The indicators of improvement were measured by the number of earthworm feces (cast, and the population of some microbial and nutrient content in the cast. The experiments were performed by comparing the three methods, namely: (1 SRI, (2 semi-conventional, and (3 conventional, using Randomized Completely Block Design. Each treatment was repeated nine times. The experiments were performed in the paddy fields belonging to farmers in Sukoharjo, Central Java. The result showed that the SRI (application of 1 tons ha-1 of vermicompost + 50% of inorganic fertilizer dosage tends to increase the number of earthworms cast. It is an indicator of earthworm activity in soil. Earthworms cast contains more phosphate solubilizing bacteria (12.98 x 1010cfu and N content (1.23% compared to its surrounding soil. There is a close functional relation between earthworms cast with total tiller number. SRI method is better than the other two methods to improve the biological characteristics of paddy soil that has the potential to maintain the sustainability of soil productivity.

  2. Relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation value and progression of visual field defect in open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naito T

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomoko Naito,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Shiro Mizoue,3 Mami Nanno,4 Tairo Kimura,5 Hirotaka Suzumura,6 Ryuji Takeda,7 Fumio Shiraga1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama, 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, 4Kagurazaka Minamino Eye Clinic, 5Ueno Eye Clinic, 6Suzumura Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 7Department of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Japan Purpose: To analyze the relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation (MD value and glaucomatous visual field (VF progression in open-angle glaucoma (OAG, including primary OAG and normal tension glaucoma.Patients and methods: The subjects of the study were patients undergoing treatment for OAG who had performed VF tests at least 10 times with a Humphrey field analyzer (SITA standard, C30-2 program. The VF progression was defined by a significantly negative MD slope (MD slope worsening at the final VF test during the follow-up period. The relationship between the MD slope worsening and the consecutive deterioration of MD value were retrospectively analyzed.Results: A total of 165 eyes of 165 patients were included in the analysis. Significant progression of VF defects was observed in 72 eyes of 72 patients (43.6%, while no significant progression was evident in 93 eyes of 93 patients (56.4%. There was significant relationship between the frequency of consecutive deterioration of MD value and MD slope worsening (P<0.0001, Cochran–Armitage trend test. A significant association was observed for MD slope worsening in the eyes with three (odds ratio: 2.1, P=0.0224 and four (odds ratio: 3.6, P=0.0008 consecutive deterioration of MD value in multiple logistic regression analysis, but no significant association in the eyes with two consecutive deterioration (odds ratio: 1.1, P=0.8282. The eyes with VF progression had significantly lower intraocular pressure reduction rate (P<0

  3. The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance urography using a balanced turbo field echo sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifci, Egemen; Coban, Goekcen [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya (Turkey); Cicek, Tufan; Goenuelalan, Umut [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Urology, Konya (Turkey)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of the study was to compare the inter-observer variability and the accuracy of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) using a thin sectional balanced-turbo field echo (B-TFE) sequence for detecting ureteral calculi and to determine the effect of additional factors (size, density and location of the calculus) on the sensitivity and specificity of the MRU. MRU and CT images were evaluated independently by two radiologists according to presence, density and localization of calculi. The degrees of inter-rater agreement for categorical items were evaluated by the Kappa coefficient. According to the 1st and 2nd observers, the sensitivity of MRU was 65.9 %, 71.8 % and the specificity of MRU was 95.9 %, 100 %, respectively. Inter-observer agreement was 84.6 % for stone detection. The larger size had a better effect on detectability (p < 0.05). Also, the higher density had a better impact on detectability (p < 0.05). Our study has shown that B-TFE MRU was useful to detect ureteral calculi. However, B-TFE MRU has low sensitivity and high specificity in comparison with CT images. MRU is a reasonable alternative imaging technique for follow-up periods of selective groups like patients with large urinary stones, children or pregnant patients when ionizing radiation is undesirable. (orig.)

  4. Field trials show the fertilizer value of nitrogen in irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Cahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased regulatory activity designed to protect groundwater from degradation by nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N is focusing attention on the efficiency of agricultural use of nitrogen (N. One area drawing scrutiny is the way in which growers consider the NO3-N concentration of irrigation water when determining N fertilizer rates. Four drip-irrigated field studies were conducted in the Salinas Valley evaluating the impact of irrigation water NO3-N concentration and irrigation efficiency on the N uptake efficiency of lettuce and broccoli crops. Irrigation with water NO3-N concentrations from 2 to 45 milligrams per liter were compared with periodic fertigation of N fertilizer. The effect of irrigation efficiency was determined by comparing an efficient (110% to 120% of crop evapotranspiration, ETc and an inefficient (160% to 200% of ETc irrigation treatment. Across these trials, NO3-N from irrigation water was at least as efficiently used as fertilizer N; the uptake efficiency of irrigation water NO3-N averaged approximately 80%, and it was not affected by NO3-N concentration or irrigation efficiency.

  5. Spiral CT of the pancreas. The value of small field-of-view targeted reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiharu, T.; Yamashita, Y.; Ogata, I.; Sumi, S.; Mitsuzaki, K.; Takahashi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the value of a retrospective targeted high-resolution spiral CT to the standard reconstruction technique in the assessment of pancreatic diseases. Material and methods: Spiral CT pancreatic images of a standard-size reconstruction protocol were compared prospectively with those of a retrospective targeted high-spatial-resolution reconstruction protocol in 30 patients. Prior to clinical evaluation, a phantom study was performed to evaluate the spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of both protocols. Results: The high-resolution protocol achieved a good signal-to-noise ratio with acceptable spatial resolution. Phantom studies revealed increased image noise (+17%) with an increase in spatial resolution (+100%). In patients studied with the high-resolution protocol, the increase in noise was not significant but there was a marked improvement in the definition of small details. Conclusion: Images obtained with a targeted high-spatial-resolution reconstruction protocol showed superior lesion definition and vascular opacification compared with those obtained with a standard-size reconstruction protocol. This technique may have potential in the evaluation of small pancreatic abnormalities. (orig.)

  6. Evolution of solar magnetic fields - A new approach to MHD initial-boundary value problems by the method of nearcharacteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A method of analysis for the MHD initial-boundary problem is presented in which the model's formulation is based on the method of nearcharacteristics developed by Werner (1968) and modified by Shin and Kot (1978). With this method, the physical causality relationship can be traced from the perturbation to the response as in the method of characteristics, while achieving the advantage of a considerable reduction in mathematical procedures. The method offers the advantage of examining not only the evolution of nonforce free fields, but also the changes of physical conditions in the atmosphere accompanying the evolution of magnetic fields. The physical validity of the method is demonstrated with examples, and their significance in interpreting observations is discussed.

  7. PRIORITY VALUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GOVERNOR’S PERSONAL BRAND (on the example of the Smolensk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н Н Розанова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary model of social development presupposes a high level of public confi-dence to state institutions, which determines the need to address categories of reputation and brand. Power as a value implies a high level of recognition, acceptance and identification (“my power”, “our power”. The article presents the results of the sociological study of the personal brand of the Smolensk Region governor (in December 2016; the author’s definition of the personal brand of the governor based on his image and representing a specific aspect of reputation, its most significant and stable features; the value characteristics of real and ideal (desired personal brand of the governor; key features that determine the strength of the brand - integrity, distinctiveness and significance. The author comes to the conclusion about the predominantly positive real personal brand of the governor of the Smolensk Region despite its low degree of uniqueness and mosaic nature, which indicates ineffective steps of the government to form a personal brand of the governor. The desired personal brand of the governor, though more pronounced than the real one, also does not possess integrity or uniqueness. The significance, or identity of the governor’s brand, in the perception of the population is high enough in terms of its content, but its ‘directions’ (positive/negative differ. The relatively high level of identity of the personal brand of the governor to some extent compensates the weakness of its distinctiveness and integrity for they are not important for the population.

  8. Tunable field emission characteristics of ZnO nanowires coated with varied thickness of lanthanum boride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, C.X.; Li, Y.F.; Chen, Jun; Deng, S.Z.; Xu, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    Lanthanum boride (LaB x ) thin films with various thicknesses were deposited on ZnO nanowire arrays by electron beam evaporation. Field emission characteristics of ZnO nanowires show close dependence on LaB x coating thickness. The turn-on field increases with increasing LaB x coating thickness from 10 nm to 50 nm. The observed phenomena were explained by a model that the tunneling at ZnO/LaB x interface dominates the emission process. - Highlights: ► Coating thickness dependence of field emission characteristics of ZnO nanowires was observed from LaB x coated ZnO nanowires. ► More stable field emission was observed from ZnO nanowires with LaB x coating. ► A model was proposed that the tunneling at ZnO/LaB x interface dominates the emission process

  9. Equivalent flow rate concept used in near field transport model COMP23 - Proposed values for SR 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, L.

    1998-11-01

    SKB is using NUCTRAN to calculate transport of radionuclides from a possible defective canister into the far field. NUCTRAN is included in the Performance Assessment model chain that calculates the release from the canister into the biosphere. In the chain, NUCTRAN is denoted COMP23. In order to calculate the transport of radionuclides by diffusion into the flowing water in the rock, NUCTRAN uses the concept of equivalent flow rate, Q eq . To calculate the value of Q eq in the different paths, COMP23 needs information about the Darcy velocity, the geometry of the system, material properties and the flow porosity in the rock. At present, this information is supplied to COMP23 by means of three parameters. The aim of this note is to propose a method to calculate the flow equivalent within the SR 97 project. Estimated intervals of the factors to adopt HYDRASTAR results to COMP23 are presented. Since it is difficult to give general validity to the factors, solely proposed factor intervals are presented to obtain equivalent flow rate values for COMP23. To obtain accurate equivalent flow rate values, information about the hydraulic conditions at canister locations in the groundwater model should be available for the near field model or the Q eq values could be calculated directly in the groundwater flow model. One of the main tasks in the SR 97 project is to show the barrier performance of the rock using different alternative models for flow and transport. In addition, the Alternative Model Project (AMP) aims to show how robust the assessment model description is, in terms of relevant far field performance measures. In the AMP, three main approaches were used, namely, the Stochastic Continuum approach, the Channel Network model and the Discrete Feature Network model

  10. Strain Fields And Crystallographic Characteristics Of Interstitial Dislocation Loops of Various Geometry In BCC Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivak, Alexander B.; Chernov, Viatcheslav M.; Romanov, Vladimir A.

    2008-01-01

    The formation energy, the relaxation volume, the dipole-force tensor, the self strain tensor and strain fields of interstitial dislocation loops in bcc iron (clusters of self interstitial atoms) have been calculated by molecular statics. Hexagonal and square dislocation loops of different types with different Burgers vectors, directions of dislocation segments and habit planes containing up to ∼2500 self-interstitials have been considered. Analytical expressions describing size dependence of the formation energy, the relaxation volume and the self strain tensor for the loops stated have been obtained. The most energetically favorable loops are hexagonal loops with Burgers vector a/2 and habit plane {11x}, where x takes values in the range from 0 to 1 depending on the loop size. The formation energy of a loops with and dislocation segments is ∼14% and 23% greater than that of hexagonal a/2 loops at N>500, respectively. The analysis of the formation energies of a/2 and a loops demonstrated that the nucleation of an a loop by joining of two a/2 loops is possible when the total number of constituent self-interstitials in these loops is larger than 13

  11. Added value of ovarian reserve testing on patient characteristics in the prediction of ovarian response and ongoing pregnancy: an individual patient data approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, S.L.; Disseldorp, J. van; Broeze, K.A.; Dolleman, M.; Opmeer, B.C.; Bossuyt, P.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Mol, B.W.; Broekmans, F.J.; Anderson, R.A.; Ashrafi, M.; Bancsi, L.F.; Caroppo, E.; Copperman, A.; Ebner, T.; Eldar Geva, M.; Erdem, M.; Greenblatt, E.M.; Jayaprakasan, K.; Fenning, R.; Klinkert, E.R.; Kwee, J.; Lambalk, C.B.; La Marca, A.; McIlveen, M.; Merce, L.T.; Muttukrishna, S.; Nelson, S.M.; Ng, H.Y.; Popovic-Todorovic, B.; Smeenk, J.M.J.; Tomas, C.; Linden, P.J. van der; Rooij, I.A. van; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although ovarian reserve tests (ORTs) are frequently used prior to IVF treatment for outcome prediction, their added predictive value is unclear. We assessed the added value of ORTs to patient characteristics in the prediction of IVF outcome. METHODS An individual patient data (IPD)

  12. Effects of field characteristics on abundance of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) and seed yield in red clover fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, Kirsten Haugaard; Dupont, Yoko L.

    2010-01-01

    Red clover is a key floral ressource for bumblebees (Bombus spp.).We here investigate variation within and among red clover fields in species richness and abundance of Bombus spp. in addition to Apis mellifera. Bumblebee individuals were grouped into the following functional groups, based on castes...

  13. Effects of Streptococcus bovis Isolated from Bovine Rumen on the Fermentation Characteristics and Nutritive Value of Tanzania Grass Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Moura Zanine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Streptococcus bovis on the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of Tanzania grass silage. Tanzania grass was chopped and left untreated (U or treated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 at 1 × 106 colony-forming units per gram (cfu/g of fresh forage or Streptococcus bovis HC5 at 1 × 106 cfu/g of fresh forage and packed into sixtuplicate laboratory silos. The largest number of enterobacteria, molds and yeast (M&Y occurred in untreated silages and the smallest populations of enterobacteria and M&Y and the largest numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, at 9.81 and 9.87 log cfu/g, were observed in Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5, respectively (P<0.05. Silages treated with JB1 and HC5 had lower (P<0.05 silage pHs and concentrations of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N than untreated silages. The application of Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 resulted in fewer losses through gases and effluents (P<0.05, which resulted in greater dry matter recovery (DMR and crude protein recovery (CPR (P<0.05. Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 improved the fermentative profile and increased the concentration of crude protein and DMR and CPR in Tanzania grass silage.

  14. Relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation value and progression of visual field defect in open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Tomoko; Yoshikawa, Keiji; Mizoue, Shiro; Nanno, Mami; Kimura, Tairo; Suzumura, Hirotaka; Takeda, Ryuji; Shiraga, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation (MD) value and glaucomatous visual field (VF) progression in open-angle glaucoma (OAG), including primary OAG and normal tension glaucoma. The subjects of the study were patients undergoing treatment for OAG who had performed VF tests at least 10 times with a Humphrey field analyzer (SITA standard, C30-2 program). The VF progression was defined by a significantly negative MD slope (MD slope worsening) at the final VF test during the follow-up period. The relationship between the MD slope worsening and the consecutive deterioration of MD value were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 165 eyes of 165 patients were included in the analysis. Significant progression of VF defects was observed in 72 eyes of 72 patients (43.6%), while no significant progression was evident in 93 eyes of 93 patients (56.4%). There was significant relationship between the frequency of consecutive deterioration of MD value and MD slope worsening (P<0.0001, Cochran-Armitage trend test). A significant association was observed for MD slope worsening in the eyes with three (odds ratio: 2.1, P=0.0224) and four (odds ratio: 3.6, P=0.0008) consecutive deterioration of MD value in multiple logistic regression analysis, but no significant association in the eyes with two consecutive deterioration (odds ratio: 1.1, P=0.8282). The eyes with VF progression had significantly lower intraocular pressure reduction rate (P<0.01). This retrospective study has shown that three or more consecutive deterioration of MD value might be a predictor to future significant MD slope worsening in OAG.

  15. Influence of field and geometric configurations on the mode conversion characteristics of hybrid waves in a magnetoplasma slab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, MC 0407, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0407 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The mode conversion characteristics of hybrid surface waves are investigated in a magneto dusty plasma slab. • Upper- and lower-hybrid waves are found for the symmetric mode when the magnetic field is parallel to the slab surfaces. • The hybrid property of the surface waves disappears for the anti-symmetric mode. • The variations of the surface hybrid waves with the change of field and geometric configurations are also discussed. - Abstract: We explore the mode conversion characteristics of electrostatic hybrid surface waves due to the magnetic field orientation in a magnetoplasma slab. We obtain the dispersion relations for the symmetric and anti-symmetric modes of hybrid surface waves for two different magnetic field configurations: parallel and perpendicular. For the parallel magnetic field configuration, we have found that the symmetric mode propagates as upper- and lower-hybrid waves. However, the hybrid characteristics disappear and two non-hybrid waves are produced for the anti-symmetric mode. For the perpendicular magnetic field configuration, however, the anti-symmetric mode propagates as the upper- and lower-hybrid waves and the symmetric mode produces two non-hybrid branches of waves.

  16. Influence of field and geometric configurations on the mode conversion characteristics of hybrid waves in a magnetoplasma slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The mode conversion characteristics of hybrid surface waves are investigated in a magneto dusty plasma slab. • Upper- and lower-hybrid waves are found for the symmetric mode when the magnetic field is parallel to the slab surfaces. • The hybrid property of the surface waves disappears for the anti-symmetric mode. • The variations of the surface hybrid waves with the change of field and geometric configurations are also discussed. - Abstract: We explore the mode conversion characteristics of electrostatic hybrid surface waves due to the magnetic field orientation in a magnetoplasma slab. We obtain the dispersion relations for the symmetric and anti-symmetric modes of hybrid surface waves for two different magnetic field configurations: parallel and perpendicular. For the parallel magnetic field configuration, we have found that the symmetric mode propagates as upper- and lower-hybrid waves. However, the hybrid characteristics disappear and two non-hybrid waves are produced for the anti-symmetric mode. For the perpendicular magnetic field configuration, however, the anti-symmetric mode propagates as the upper- and lower-hybrid waves and the symmetric mode produces two non-hybrid branches of waves.

  17. Characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging with partial flip angle and gradient field echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tatsumi; Uto, Tatsurou; Okafuji, Tatsumasa; Ookusa, Akihiko; Oonishi, Takuya; Mabuchi, Nobuhisa; Fujii, Kouichi; Yoshioka, Hiroyasu; Ishida, Osamu

    1988-01-01

    Characteristics of a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging pulse sequence with short repetition time (Tr), short echo time (Te), partial flip angle and gradient field echo, at 0.5 T, were studied. A series of sagittal images of the cerebrospinal region was obtained with varied Tr, Te and flip angle, signal intensities were measured by means of a region of interest (ROI) function, and optimal parameters to achieve maximum tissue contrast were found. Of the parameters flip angle had the greatest effect on tissue contrast. Flip angles less than 20 or more than 60 degrees were necessary to discriminate between spinal cord and cerebrospinal fluid. So called MR myelography was obtained with the flip angle of 15 degrees. Opposed and inphase images were obtained at the Te levels of 21 and 28 ms, respectively. Likewise, a series of transverse images of the abdomen with short Tr, short Te and varied flip angles was obtained in a breath-holding interval, and signal intensities of ROIs were measured. Maximum intensities of the liver, the spleen and perirenal fat were obtained at the flip angles of 40, 30 and 60 degrees, respectively. Although maximum intensity was found at the flip angle of 30 degrees for both of the renal cortex and medulla, the maximum contrast between the two tissues was obtained at the flip angles of 50-60 degrees. The image contrast obtained by these pulse sequences was also theoretically predictable, and so it is thought possible that flip angle, Tr and Te are manipulated to yield a desired contrast. (author)

  18. Fractal Characteristics of Pores in Taiyuan Formation Shale from Hedong Coal Field, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunjie; Zeng, Fangui; Cai, Jianchao; Sheng, Guanglong; Xia, Peng; Zhang, Kun

    For the purpose of investigating the fractal characteristics of pores in Taiyuan formation shale, a series of qualitative and quantitative experiments were conducted on 17 shale samples from well HD-1 in Hedong coal field of North China. The results of geochemical experiments show that Total organic carbon (TOC) varies from 0.67% to 5.32% and the organic matters are in the high mature or over mature stage. The shale samples consist mainly of clay minerals and quartz with minor pyrite and carbonates. The FE-SEM images indicate that three types of pores, organic-related pores, inorganic-related pores and micro-fractures related pores, are developed well, and a certain number of intragranular pores are found inside quartz and carbonates formed by acid liquid corrosion. The pore size distributions (PSDs) broadly range from several to hundreds nanometers, but most pores are smaller than 10nm. As the result of different adsorption features at relative pressure (0-0.5) and (0.5-1) on the N2 adsorption isotherm, two fractal dimensions D1 and D2 were obtained with the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) model. D1 and D2 vary from 2.4227 to 2.6219 and from 2.6049 to 2.7877, respectively. Both TOC and brittle minerals have positive effect on D1 and D2, whereas clay minerals, have a negative influence on them. The fractal dimensions are also influenced by the pore structure parameters, such as the specific surface area, BJH pore volume, etc. Shale samples with higher D1 could provide more adsorption sites leading to a greater methane adsorption capacity, whereas shale samples with higher D2 have little influence on methane adsorption capacity.

  19. The value of smart artificial lift technology in mature field operations demonstrated in the Zistersdorf oilfield in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muessig, S.; Oberndorfer, M.; Rice, D. [Rohoelaufsuchungs-AG, Wien (Austria); Soliman, K. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    2013-08-01

    Currently, approximately 40% of world oil production comes from mature fields and the tendency is that this will increase with time. A significant portion of operational expenditures in mature oil fields is related to lifting costs including the cost of maintenance of the artificial lift equipment. In many cases additional, unnecessary, costs are incurred due to inadequate control of corrosion and sand production leading to premature failures of the equipment and thus to additional workover operations. In mature fields this can result in a significant loss of reserves when the production has to be abandoned prematurely because workover operations become uneconomic. In order to combat such losses of reserves RAG and its partners have developed fit-for-purpose technologies such as: continuous control of the liquid level in the annulus (i.e. bottom hole flowing pressure), innovative advanced sand control and longer lasting artificial lift equipment. On the basis of the 75 years old Zistersdorf oilfields the value of these developments in artificial lift technology is demonstrated. The Zistersdorf oilfields produce primarily from the compacted and fairly permeable 'Sarmat' sandstone formation which has many layers whereby the higher layers are poorly consolidated. The fields are currently producing from 33 producing wells some 6 900 m{sup 3} (Vn)/d gas and 48 t/d of oil at an average water cut of 97.1%. It will be shown that the implementation of the technologies described in combination with the in-house knowledge and the dedication of the field staff has extended considerably the mean time between failures of the equipment, reduced markedly the average yearly decline rate and thus extended the economic life expectancy of the fields and increased the ultimate recovery significantly.

  20. Effects of pulsed electric fields pretreatment and drying method on drying characteristics and nutritive quality of blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh blueberries were pretreated with pulsed electric fields (PEF) at 2 kV/cm and then dried at 45, 60 and 75 degrees C by conventional hot air or vacuum drying. Drying characteristics and changes in contents of moisture, anthocyanin, total phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant activity in the blu...

  1. The Association of Selected Conative Variables to Field-Dependence with Inferences for Reasoning Characteristics in Marketing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Robert L.

    A study examined the association between field-dependence and its related information processing characteristics, and educational cognitive style as a model of conative influence. Data were collected from 145 secondary marketing education students in nothern Georgia during spring 1991. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlations,…

  2. Influence of non-adherent yeast cells on electrical characteristics of diamond-based field-effect transistors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Václav; Cifra, Michal; Kulha, Pavel; Ižák, Tibor; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kromka, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 395, Feb (2017), s. 214-219 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985882 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * yeast cells * field-effect transistor * transfer characteristics pH sensitivity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  3. Distribution Map and Community Characteristics of Weeds in Barley Fields of Ardabil Province

    OpenAIRE

    B. Soheili; M. Minbashi; D. Hasanpanah; N. Razmi

    2013-01-01

    Surveying weeds of irrigated barley fields is one of the most important practices in weed management. Based on cultivated areas irrigated barley in all counties of Ardabil province during six years (2000-2005), 46 sample barley fields were selected and weed species were counted in each sampling point and population indices were calculated with Thomas method. By using specific furmula the density, frequency and uniformity of each weed species in fields were calculated. In each field longitude,...

  4. Contribution from the interaction Hamiltonian to the expectation value of particle number with the non-equilibrium quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Ryuuichi; Morozumi, Takuya; Takata, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    We develop the method analyzing particle number non-conserving phenomena with non-equilibrium quantum field-theory. In this study, we consider a CP violating model with interaction Hamiltonian that breaks particle number conservation. To derive the quantum Boltzmann equation for the particle number, we solve Schwinger-Dyson equation, which are obtained from two particle irreducible closed-time-path (2PI CTP) effective action. In this calculation, we show the contribution from interaction Hamiltonian to the time evolution of expectation value of particle number.

  5. Characteristics of Superjunction Lateral-Double-Diffusion Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor and Degradation after Electrical Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jyh‑Ling; Lin, Ming‑Jang; Lin, Li‑Jheng

    2006-04-01

    The superjunction lateral double diffusion metal oxide semiconductor field effect has recently received considerable attention. Introducing heavily doped p-type strips to the n-type drift region increases the horizontal depletion capability. Consequently, the doping concentration of the drift region is higher and the conduction resistance is lower than those of conventional lateral-double-diffusion metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (LDMOSFETs). These characteristics may increase breakdown voltage (\\mathit{BV}) and reduce specific on-resistance (Ron,sp). In this study, we focus on the electrical characteristics of conventional LDMOSFETs on silicon bulk, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) LDMOSFETs and superjunction LDMOSFETs after bias stress. Additionally, the \\mathit{BV} and Ron,sp of superjunction LDMOSFETs with different N/P drift region widths and different dosages are discussed. Simulation tools, including two-dimensional (2-D) TSPREM-4/MEDICI and three-dimensional (3-D) DAVINCI, were employed to determine the device characteristics.

  6. Surface properties and field emission characteristics of chemical vapor deposition diamond grown on Fe/Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakuri, Kenji; Yokoyama, Takahiro; Enomoto, Hirofumi; Mutsukura, Nobuki; Friedbacher, Gernot

    2001-01-01

    Electron field emission characteristics of diamond grains fabricated on iron dot-patterned silicon (Fe/Si) substrates at different methane concentrations have been investigated. The characteristics of the samples could be improved by control of the methane concentration during diamond fabrication. Etching treatment of the as-grown diamond has enhanced the emission properties both with respect to current and threshold voltage. In order to study the influence of etching effects on the field emission characteristics, the respective surfaces were studied by Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). ESCA revealed intensive graphite and FeO x peaks on the sample surface grown at high methane concentration. For the etched samples, the peaks of diamond and silicon carbide were observed, and the peaks of nondiamond carbon disappeared. The experimental results show that the etching process removes graphitic and nondiamond carbon components. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  7. Nutritive value, fermentation characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of ensiled warm-season legumes and bahiagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J L; Carter, J N; Sollenberger, L E; Blount, A R; Myer, R O; Maddox, M K; Phatak, S C; Adesogan, A T

    2011-04-01

    This study determined the nutritive value, ensiling characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge 'Tifton 9'), perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth. 'Florigraze'), annual peanut [Arachis hypogaea (L.) 'FL MDR 98'], cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. 'Iron clay'], and pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. 'GA-2']. All forages were harvested at maturity stages that optimized dry matter (DM) yield and nutritive value. After harvest, forages were wilted to 45% DM, and 4 replicate bales of each legume and 8 bales of bahiagrass were wrapped in polyethylene and ensiled for 180 d. After each bale was opened, the forage was thoroughly mixed, and representative subsamples were taken for laboratory analysis and in situ incubation. Wilting and ensiling decreased the rumen-undegradable protein, water-soluble carbohydrate, crude protein (CP), and in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) of bahiagrass, perennial peanut, and cowpea, and increased their neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations. Among haylages, CP concentration was greatest for annual peanut, followed by perennial peanut and cowpea, and least for bahiagrass. In contrast, NDF concentration was greater in bahiagrass than in legumes. Pigeonpea had the greatest NDF concentration among legumes and lowest IVTD of all haylages. All haylages were aerobically stable for at least 84 h, but pH was lower in perennial peanut and cowpea than in pigeonpea. Ammonia-N concentrations tended to be greater in legume haylages than in bahiagrass haylage. Butyrate concentration was greater in annual and perennial peanut than in bahiagrass. Total VFA concentration was greater in annual and perennial peanut and cowpea haylages than in bahiagrass haylage. Undegradable DM fractions were greater and extent of DM degradation was lower in bahiagrass and pigeonpea than in other haylages but lag time and degradation rates did not differ. Annual and perennial peanut and cowpea haylages were as

  8. Distribution Map and Community Characteristics of Weeds in Barley Fields of Ardabil Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Soheili

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Surveying weeds of irrigated barley fields is one of the most important practices in weed management. Based on cultivated areas irrigated barley in all counties of Ardabil province during six years (2000-2005, 46 sample barley fields were selected and weed species were counted in each sampling point and population indices were calculated with Thomas method. By using specific furmula the density, frequency and uniformity of each weed species in fields were calculated. In each field longitude, latitude and altitude were recorded by using GPS. These data were used for producing weed maps using GIS. Results showed that Galium tricurnatum, Fumaria vaillantiand Raphanus raphanistrum were dominante broadleaf species in irrigated barley fields of Ardabil province. The dominant grassy weed species in these fields were Avena fatua and Secale cereal. Convolvulus arvensis and Cirsium arvense were the most important troublesome plants prior to harvesting in irrigated barley fields of this province.

  9. Characteristic values of the lumbar load of manual patient handling for the application in workers' compensation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wortmann Norbert

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human spine is often exposed to mechanical load in vocational activities especially in combination with lifting, carrying and positioning of heavy objects. This also applies in particular to nursing activities with manual patient handling. In the present study a detailed investigation on the load of the lumbar spine during manual patient handling was performed. Methods For a total of 13 presumably endangering activities with transferring a patient, the body movements performed by healthcare workers were recorded and the exerted action forces were determined with regard to magnitude, direction and lateral distribution in the time course with a "measuring bed", a "measuring chair" and a "measuring floor". By the application of biomechanical model calculations the load on the lowest intervertebral disc of the lumbar spine (L5-S1 was determined considering the posture and action force data for every manual patient handling. Results The results of the investigations reveal the occurrence of high lumbar load during manual patient handling activities, especially in those cases, where awkward postures of the healthcare worker are combined with high action forces caused by the patient's mass. These findings were compared to suitable issues of corresponding investigations provided in the literature. Furthermore measurement-based characteristic values of lumbar load were derived for the use in statement procedures concerning the disease no. 2108 of the German list of occupational diseases. Conclusions To protect healthcare workers from mechanical overload and the risk of developing a disc-related disease, prevention measures should be compiled. Such measures could include the application of "back-fairer" nursing techniques and the use of "technical" and" small aids" to reduce the lumbar load during manual patient handling. Further studies, concerning these aspects, are necessary.

  10. Characteristic values of the lumbar load of manual patient handling for the application in workers' compensation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Claus; Luttmann, Alwin; Theilmeier, Andreas; Kuhn, Stefan; Wortmann, Norbert; Jäger, Matthias

    2011-05-26

    The human spine is often exposed to mechanical load in vocational activities especially in combination with lifting, carrying and positioning of heavy objects. This also applies in particular to nursing activities with manual patient handling. In the present study a detailed investigation on the load of the lumbar spine during manual patient handling was performed. For a total of 13 presumably endangering activities with transferring a patient, the body movements performed by healthcare workers were recorded and the exerted action forces were determined with regard to magnitude, direction and lateral distribution in the time course with a "measuring bed", a "measuring chair" and a "measuring floor". By the application of biomechanical model calculations the load on the lowest intervertebral disc of the lumbar spine (L5-S1) was determined considering the posture and action force data for every manual patient handling. The results of the investigations reveal the occurrence of high lumbar load during manual patient handling activities, especially in those cases, where awkward postures of the healthcare worker are combined with high action forces caused by the patient's mass. These findings were compared to suitable issues of corresponding investigations provided in the literature. Furthermore measurement-based characteristic values of lumbar load were derived for the use in statement procedures concerning the disease no. 2108 of the German list of occupational diseases. To protect healthcare workers from mechanical overload and the risk of developing a disc-related disease, prevention measures should be compiled. Such measures could include the application of "back-fairer" nursing techniques and the use of "technical" and" small aids" to reduce the lumbar load during manual patient handling. Further studies, concerning these aspects, are necessary.

  11. Variations in the Characteristics of Part-Time Faculty by General Fields of Instruction and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Ernst

    1998-01-01

    Data from the 1993 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty are analyzed for patterns in part-time faculty characteristics in vocationally oriented and liberal arts-oriented two- and four-year colleges, by discipline group. Characteristics examined include qualifications, job satisfaction, economic condition (income, additional employment), reasons…

  12. Relationship between optical coherence tomography sector peripapillary angioflow-density and Octopus visual field cluster mean defect values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Holló

    Full Text Available To compare the relationship of Octopus perimeter cluster mean-defect (cluster MD values with the spatially corresponding optical coherence tomography (OCT sector peripapillary angioflow vessel-density (PAFD and sector retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT values.High quality PAFD and RNFLT images acquired on the same day with the Angiovue/RTVue-XR Avanti OCT (Optovue Inc., Fremont, USA on 1 eye of 27 stable early-to-moderate glaucoma, 22 medically controlled ocular hypertensive and 13 healthy participants were analyzed. Octopus G2 normal visual field test was made within 3 months from the imaging.Total peripapillary PAFD and RNFLT showed similar strong positive correlation with global mean sensitivity (r-values: 0.6710 and 0.6088, P<0.0001, and similar (P = 0.9614 strong negative correlation (r-values: -0.4462 and -0.4412, P≤0.004 with global MD. Both inferotemporal and superotemporal sector PAFD were significantly (≤0.039 lower in glaucoma than in the other groups. No significant difference between the corresponding inferotemporal and superotemporal parameters was seen. The coefficient of determination (R2 calculated for the relationship between inferotemporal sector PAFD and superotemporal cluster MD (0.5141, P<0.0001 was significantly greater than that between inferotemporal sector RNFLT and superotemporal cluster MD (0.2546, P = 0.0001. The R2 values calculated for the relationships between superotemporal sector PAFD and RNFLT, and inferotemporal cluster MD were similar (0.3747 and 0.4037, respectively, P<0.0001.In the current population the relationship between inferotemporal sector PAFD and superotemporal cluster MD was strong. It was stronger than that between inferotemporal sector RNFLT and superotemporal cluster MD. Further investigations are necessary to clarify if our results are valid for other populations and can be usefully applied for glaucoma research.

  13. Manifestation of π-contacts in magnetic field dependence of I-V characteristics for proximity-type 2D Josephson junction array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, V.A.G.; Sergeenkov, S.; Marega, E.; Araujo-Moreira, F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Results on the temperature and magnetic field dependence of current-voltage characteristics (CVC) are presented for SNS-type 2D ordered array of Nb-Cu 0.95 Al 0.05 -Nb junctions. The critical current I C (T,H) and the power exponent a(T,H)=1+Φ 0 I C (T,H)/2k B T of the nonlinear CVC law V=R[I-I C (T,H)] a(T,H) are found to have a maximum at non-zero value of applied magnetic field H p =225 Oe, which is attributed to manifestation of π-type Josephson contacts in our sample.

  14. Investigation of scaling characteristics for defining design environments due to transient ground winds and near-field, nonlinear acoustic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    In order to establish a foundation of scaling laws for the highly nonlinear waves associated with the launch vehicle, the basic knowledge of the relationships among the paramaters pertinent to the energy dissipation process associated with the propagation of nonlinear pressure waves in thermoviscous media is required. The problem of interest is to experimentally investigate the temporal and spacial velocity profiles of fluid flow in a 3-inch open-end pipe of various lengths, produced by the propagation of nonlinear pressure waves for various diaphragm burst pressures of a pressure wave generator. As a result, temporal and spacial characteristics of wave propagation for a parametric set of nonlinear pressure waves in the pipe containing air under atmospheric conditions were determined. Velocity measurements at five sections along the pipes of up to 210 ft. in length were made with hot-film anemometers for five pressure waves produced by a piston. The piston was derived with diaphragm burst pressures at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 psi in the driver chamber of the pressure wave generator.

  15. Effective mass approximation versus full atomistic model to calculate the output characteristics of a gate-all-around germanium nanowire field effect transistor (GAA-GeNW-FET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Amir Hossein; Voves, Jan; Dideban, Daryoosh

    2018-01-01

    Here, we compare the output characteristics of a gate-all-around germanium nanowire field effect transistor (GAA-GeNW-FET) with 2.36 nm2 square cross-section area using tight-binding (TB) sp3d5s∗ model (full atomistic model (FAM)) and effective mass approximation (EMA). Synopsys/QuantumWise Atomistix ToolKit (ATK) and Silvaco Atlas3D are used to consider the TB model and EMA, respectively. Results show that EMA predicted only one quantum state (QS) for quantum transport, whereas FAM predicted three QSs. A cosine function behavior is obtained by both methods for the first quantum state. The calculated bandgap value by EMA is almost twice smaller than that of the FAM. Also, a fluctuating current is predicted by both methods but in different oscillation values.

  16. Flow-Field Characteristics of High-Temperature Annular Buoyant Jets and Their Development Laws Influenced by Ventilation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow-field characteristics of high-temperature annular buoyant jets as well as the development laws influenced by ventilation system were studied using numerical methods to eliminate the pollutants effectively in this paper. The development laws of high-temperature annular buoyant jets were analyzed and compared with previous studies, including radial velocity distribution, axial velocity and temperature decay, reattachment position, cross-section diameter, volumetric flow rate, and velocity field characteristics with different pressures at the exhaust hood inlet. The results showed that when the ratio of outer diameter to inner diameter of the annulus was smaller than 5/2, the flow-field characteristics had significant difference compared to circular buoyant jets with the same outer diameter. For similar diameter ratios, reattachment in this paper occurred further downstream in contrast to previous study. Besides, the development laws of volumetric flow rate and cross-section diameter were given with different initial parameters. In addition, through analyzing air distribution characteristics under the coupling effect of high-temperature annular buoyant jets and ventilation system, it could be found that the position where maximum axial velocity occurred was changing gradually when the pressure at the exhaust hood inlet changed from 0 Pa to −5 Pa.

  17. Flow-field characteristics of high-temperature annular buoyant jets and their development laws influenced by ventilation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Huang, Yanqiu; Liu, Jiaping; Wang, Hai; Liu, Qiuhan

    2013-01-01

    The flow-field characteristics of high-temperature annular buoyant jets as well as the development laws influenced by ventilation system were studied using numerical methods to eliminate the pollutants effectively in this paper. The development laws of high-temperature annular buoyant jets were analyzed and compared with previous studies, including radial velocity distribution, axial velocity and temperature decay, reattachment position, cross-section diameter, volumetric flow rate, and velocity field characteristics with different pressures at the exhaust hood inlet. The results showed that when the ratio of outer diameter to inner diameter of the annulus was smaller than 5/2, the flow-field characteristics had significant difference compared to circular buoyant jets with the same outer diameter. For similar diameter ratios, reattachment in this paper occurred further downstream in contrast to previous study. Besides, the development laws of volumetric flow rate and cross-section diameter were given with different initial parameters. In addition, through analyzing air distribution characteristics under the coupling effect of high-temperature annular buoyant jets and ventilation system, it could be found that the position where maximum axial velocity occurred was changing gradually when the pressure at the exhaust hood inlet changed from 0 Pa to -5 Pa.

  18. Effect of Temperature and Electric Field on the Damping and Stiffness Characteristics of ER Fluid Short Squeeze Film Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Jagadish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Squeeze film dampers are novel rotor dynamic devices used to alleviate small amplitude, large force vibrations and are used in conjunction with antifriction bearings in aircraft jet engine bearings to provide external damping as these possess very little inherent damping. Electrorheological (ER fluids are controllable fluids in which the rheological properties of the fluid, particularly viscosity, can be controlled in accordance with the requirements of the rotor dynamic system by controlling the intensity of the applied electric field and this property can be utilized in squeeze film dampers, to provide variable stiffness and damping at a particular excitation frequency. The paper investigates the effect of temperature and electric field on the apparent viscosity and dynamic (stiffness and damping characteristics of ER fluid (suspension of diatomite in transformer oil using the available literature. These characteristics increase with the field as the viscosity increases with the field. However, these characteristics decrease with increase in temperature and shear strain rate as the viscosity of the fluid decreases with temperature and shear strain rate. The temperature is an important parameter as the aircraft jet engine rotors are located in a zone of high temperature gradients and the damper fluid is susceptible to large variations in temperature.

  19. Elliptic genera and characteristic q-series of superconformal field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bonora

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the characteristic series, the KO series and the series associated with the Witten genus, and their analytic forms as the q-analogs of classical special functions (in particular q-analog of the beta integral and the gamma function. q-Series admit an analytic interpretation in terms of the spectral Ruelle functions, and their relations with appropriate elliptic modular forms can be described. We show that there is a deep correspondence between the characteristic series of the Witten genus and KO characteristic series, on one side, and the denominator identities and characters of N=2 superconformal algebras, and the affine Lie (superalgebras on the other. We represent the characteristic series in the form of double series using the Hecke–Rogers modular identity.

  20. Analysis of force characteristics of a superconducting ball in a given magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jianhua, E-mail: liujianhua@mail.iee.ac.c [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 6 Beiertiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Qiuliang; Yan Luguang [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 6 Beiertiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2009-07-01

    The electromagnetic force characteristics along Z direction of a superconducting ball levitated by spherical coils with shaping blocks are calculated based on a semi-analytical method. The calculating results from the semi-analytical method are compared with the finite element analysis (FEA) method through a calculation example. The method can be applied to further analysis of dynamic characteristics and parameter optimization in the suspension system.

  1. Effects of pulsed electrical field processing on microbial survival, quality change and nutritional characteristics of blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole fresh blueberries were treated using a parallel pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment chamber and a sanitizer solution (60 ppm peracetic acid [PAA]) as PEF treatment medium with square wave bipolar pulses at 2 kV/cm electric field strength, 1us pulse width, and 100 pulses per second for 2, 4, ...

  2. Flow field characteristics of impinging sweeping jets: TR-PIV measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; Peng, Di; Liu, Yingzheng; Tang, Hui

    2017-11-01

    Influence of Reynolds number of sweeping jets on its impinging flow fields was extensively investigated in a water tank. Toward this end, a fluidic oscillator was specially designed to produce spatially sweeping jets which imping on a flat plate. Six Reynolds numbers were tested by controlling the supply flow rate of the fluidic oscillator. Impinging flow fields were captured by time-resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-PIV) measurement. Reference signals were extracted from the flow fields for phase reconstruction. The oscillating flow fields with super-harmonic frequency at different regions were discussed in term of the phase-averaged velocity, vorticity and turbulent velocity. Dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) was used to capture the most-energetic flow patterns with distinct frequencies. By projecting the phase-averaged flow fields onto a reduced basis of DMD modes, the phase correlation between the distinct flow patterns were analyzed under different Reynolds numbers.

  3. Effect of Longitudinal Magnetic Field on Vibration Characteristics of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in a Viscoelastic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D. P.; Lei, Y.; Shen, Z. B.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of longitudinal magnetic field on vibration response of a sing-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) embedded in viscoelastic medium is investigated. Based on nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Maxwell's relations, and Kelvin viscoelastic foundation model, the governing equations of motion for vibration analysis are established. The complex natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes in closed form for the embedded SWCNT with arbitrary boundary conditions are obtained using transfer function method (TFM). The new analytical expressions for the complex natural frequencies are also derived for certain typical boundary conditions and Kelvin-Voigt model. Numerical results from the model are presented to show the effects of nonlocal parameter, viscoelastic parameter, boundary conditions, aspect ratio, and strength of the magnetic field on vibration characteristics for the embedded SWCNT in longitudinal magnetic field. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods for vibration analysis of embedded SWCNTs under magnetic field.

  4. Propagation characteristics of a focused laser beam in a strontium barium niobate photorefractive crystal under reverse external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Q L; Liang, B L; Wang, Y; Deng, G Y; Jiang, Y H; Zhang, S H; Fu, G S; Simmonds, P J

    2014-10-01

    The propagation characteristics of a focused laser beam in a SBN:75 photorefractive crystal strongly depend on the signal-to-background intensity ratio (R=Is/Ib) under reverse external electric field. In the range 20>R>0.05, the laser beam shows enhanced self-defocusing behavior with increasing external electric field, while it shows self-focusing in the range 0.03>R>0.01. Spatial solitons are observed under a suitable reverse external electric field for R=0.025. A theoretical model is proposed to explain the experimental observations, which suggest a new type of soliton formation due to "enhancement" not "screening" of the external electrical field.

  5. Microphysical and Kinematic Characteristics of Regions of Flash Initiation in a Supercell Storm and a Multicell Storm Observed During the DC3 Field Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGangi, E.; MacGorman, D. R.; Ziegler, C.; Betten, D.; Biggerstaff, M. I.

    2017-12-01

    Lightning initiation in thunderstorms requires that the local electric field magnitude exceed breakdown values somewhere, and this tends to occur between regions of positive and negative charge, where the largest electric field magnitudes tend to occur. Past studies have demonstrated that, near updrafts, storms with very strong updrafts tend to elevate regions of charge and of flash initiations higher, as well as to have more flashes initiated by small pockets of charge, than in storms with much weaker updrafts. In all thunderstorms, the source of these charge regions is generally thought to be microscopic charge separation via the relative growth rate noninductive mechanism, followed by macroscopic charge separation via sedimentation, although other charge generation mechanisms can contribute to charge in some regions. Charge generation and lightning initiation are therefore inherently dependent on the microphysical and kinematic characteristics of a given storm. This study compares the results of a hydrometeor classification algorithm applied to C-band mobile radar data with mixing ratios calculated by a diabatic Lagrangian analysis retrieval from the dual-Doppler wind fields for two storms, the 29-30 May 2012 supercell storm and the 21 June 2012 multicell storm, observed during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry experiment. Using these data, we then compare the inferred microphysical and kinematic characteristics of regions in which the Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array indicated that flashes were initiated in these two very different storms.

  6. Preliminary study of the effect of the turbulent flow field around complex surfaces on their acoustic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, W. A.; Boldman, D.

    1978-01-01

    Fairly extensive measurements have been conducted of the turbulent flow around various surfaces as a basis for a study of the acoustic characteristics involved. In the experiments the flow from a nozzle was directed upon various two-dimensional surface configurations such as the three-flap model. A turbulent flow field description is given and an estimate of the acoustic characteristics is provided. The developed equations are based upon fundamental theories for simple configurations having simple flows. Qualitative estimates are obtained regarding the radiation pattern and the velocity power law. The effect of geometry and turbulent flow distribution on the acoustic emission from simple configurations are discussed.

  7. Consumer evaluation of palatability characteristics of a beef value-added cut compared to common retail cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper-Blilie, A N; Berg, E P; Germolus, A J; Buchanan, D S; Berg, P T

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to educate consumers about value-added beef cuts and evaluate their palatability responses of a value cut and three traditional cuts. Three hundred and twenty-two individuals participated in the beef value cut education seminar series presented by trained beef industry educators. Seminar participants evaluated tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall like of four samples, bottom round, top sirloin, ribeye, and a value cut (Delmonico or Denver), on a 9-point scale. The ribeye and the value cut were found to be similar in all four attributes and differed from the top sirloin and bottom round. Correlations and regression analysis found that flavor was the largest influencing factor for overall like for the ribeye, value cut, and top sirloin. The value cut is comparable to the ribeye and can be a less expensive replacement. © 2013.

  8. [Research on characteristics of soil clay mineral evolution in paddy field and dry land by XRD spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-dan; Li, Qiao; Luo, Xiang-li; Jiang, Hai-chao; Zheng, Qing-fu; Zhao, Lan-po; Wang, Ji-hong

    2014-08-01

    The present paper took the typical saline-alkali soil in Jilin province as study object, and determinated the soil clay mineral composition characteristics of soil in paddy field and dry land. Then XRD spectrum was used to analyze the evolutionary mechanism of clay mineral in the two kinds of soil. The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of soil in paddy field were better than those in dry land, and paddy field would promote the weathering of mineral particles in saline-alkali soil and enhance the silt content. Paddy field soil showed a strong potassium-removal process, with a higher degree of clay mineral hydration and lower degree of illite crystallinity. Analysis of XRD spectrum showed that the clay mineral composition was similar in two kinds of soil, while the intensity and position of diffraction peak showed difference. The evolution process of clay mineral in dry land was S/I mixture-->vermiculite, while in paddy field it was S/I mixture-->vermiculite-->kaolinite. One kind of hydroxylated 'chlorite' mineral would appear in saline-alkali soil in long-term cultivated paddy field. Taking into account that the physical and chemical properties of soil in paddy field were better then those in dry land, we could know that paddy field could help much improve soil structure, cultivate high-fertility soil and improve saline-alkali soil. This paper used XRD spectrum to determine the characteristics of clay minerals comprehensively, and analyzed two'kinds of land use comparatively, and was a new perspective of soil minerals study.

  9. A Study on Field Emission Characteristics of Planar Graphene Layers Obtained from a Highly Oriented Pyrolyzed Graphite Block.

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seok Woo; Lee, Seung S; Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study on field emission characteristics of individual graphene layers for vacuum nanoelectronics. Graphene layers were prepared by mechanical exfoliation from a highly oriented pyrolyzed graphite block and placed on an insulating substrate, with the resulting field emission behavior investigated using a nanomanipulator operating inside a scanning electron microscope. A pair of tungsten tips controlled by the nanomanipulator enabled electric connection with the graphene layers without postfabrication. The maximum emitted current from the graphene layers was 170 nA and the turn-on voltage was 12.1 V.

  10. Oil field and freshwater isolates of Shewanella putrefaciens have lipopolysaccharide polyacrylamide gel profiles characteristic of marine bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, C.; Foght, J.M.; Pickard, M.A.; Westlake, D.W.S.

    1993-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide structure of oil field and freshwater isolates of bacteria that reduce ferric iron, recently classified as strains of Shewanella putrefaciens, was analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a lipopolysaccharide-specific silver-staining procedure. The results demonstrate that all the oil field and freshwater isolates examined exhibited the more hydrophobic R-type lipopolysaccharide, which has been found to be characteristic of Gram-negative marine bacteria. This hydrophobic lipopolysaccharide would confer an advantage on bacteria involved in hydrocarbon degradation by assisting their association with the surface of oil droplets. 15 refs., 1 fig

  11. An analysis of the radiation field characteristics for extremity dose assessment during maintenance periods at nuclear power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. G.; Kong, T. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Workers who maintain the water chambers of steam generators during maintenance periods in nuclear power plants (NPPs) have a higher likelihood of high radiation exposure, even if they are exposed for a short period of time. In particular, it is expected that the hands of workers would receive the highest radiation exposure as a consequence of hand contact with radioactive materials. In this study, a characteristic analysis of inhomogeneous radiation fields for contact operations was conducted using thermoluminescent dosemeters for the whole body and extremities during maintenance periods at Korean NPPs. It was observed that inhomogeneous radiation fields for contact operations at NPPs were dominated by high-energy photons. (authors)

  12. A Study on Field Emission Characteristics of Planar Graphene Layers Obtained from a Highly Oriented Pyrolyzed Graphite Block.

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seok Woo

    2009-07-12

    This paper describes an experimental study on field emission characteristics of individual graphene layers for vacuum nanoelectronics. Graphene layers were prepared by mechanical exfoliation from a highly oriented pyrolyzed graphite block and placed on an insulating substrate, with the resulting field emission behavior investigated using a nanomanipulator operating inside a scanning electron microscope. A pair of tungsten tips controlled by the nanomanipulator enabled electric connection with the graphene layers without postfabrication. The maximum emitted current from the graphene layers was 170 nA and the turn-on voltage was 12.1 V.

  13. General performance characteristics and parametric optimum criteria of a nano-thermoelectric refrigerator with an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hao; Wu Guoxing; Xie Jian

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, we describe a single-level quantum dot with an external magnetic field that works as a nano-thermoelectric refrigerator. Based on the model, the expressions for the cooling rate (R), the power input (P) and the coefficient of performance (ε) are derived. The effects of the magnetic field strength and the level energy on the performance of the refrigerator are revealed. The optimal performance characteristics of the refrigerator are analyzed by numerical calculation. Furthermore, the practical operating regions of the cycle are determined.

  14. The Characteristics of Successful MOOCs in the Fields of Software, Science, and Management, According to Students’ Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Cohen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of successful MOOCs were explored in this study. Thousands of student reviews regarding five xMOOCs (Massive Open Online Course in the fields of software, science, and management were extracted from the Coursetalk website and analyzed by quantitative and qualitative methods using the Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2000 Community of Inquiry (CoI model. The 14 characteristics found to contribute to the success of MOOCs (e.g., teacher, atmosphere, exercise were partitioned into the teaching, social, and cognitive presence elements. In addition, cluster analysis revealed five types of learners, based on the characteristics they mentioned for course success: atmosphere, exercise, teacher, exam, and unspecified. This divides learners into groups that may prefer social, cognitive, or teaching presence. The findings of this study negate the perception that xMOOCs mostly contain teaching presence elements. This research contributes to the understanding of characteristics that contribute to successful MOOCs and sheds light on the students, too. Listening to the voices of the students and the types of characteristics that they chose to mention, enables further exploration of their preferences and expectations regarding MOOCs and, accordingly, to future adaptation between students’ preferences and MOOC characteristics.

  15. Characteristic and magnetic field analysis of a high temperature superconductor axial-flux coreless induction maglev motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qin; Yu, Fan; Jin, Fang; Shuo, Li; Guoguo, Li; Gang, Lv

    2012-04-01

    A new high temperature superconductor axial-flux coreless maglev motor (HTS AFIM) is proposed, of which the primary windings are made of HTS tapes and the secondary is a non-magnetic conductor. The main works of this paper are the magnetic-field computation and characteristics analysis of HTS AFIM. For the first one, the reduction of magnetic fields near outer and inner radius of the HTS AFIM is solved by introducing the sub-loop electro-magnetic model along the radial position. For the second one, the AC losses of HTS coils are calculated. The relationships between the device's characteristics and device parameters are presented, and the results indicate that under certain frequency and current levitation device can output enough lift force. The conclusions are verified by finite element calculations.

  16. Computational Flow Dynamic Simulation of Micro Flow Field Characteristics Drainage Device Used in the Process of Oil-Water Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangya Jin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous crude oil often contains large amounts of produced water and heavy sediment, which seriously threats the safety of crude oil storage and transportation. Therefore, the proper design of crude oil tank drainage device is prerequisite for efficient purification of aqueous crude oil. In this work, the composition and physicochemical properties of crude oil samples were tested under the actual conditions encountered. Based on these data, an appropriate crude oil tank drainage device was developed using the principle of floating ball and multiphase flow. In addition, the flow field characteristics in the device were simulated and the contours and streamtraces of velocity magnitude at different nine moments were obtained. Meanwhile, the improvement of flow field characteristics after the addition of grids in crude oil tank drainage device was validated. These findings provide insights into the development of effective selection methods and serve as important references for oil-water separation process.

  17. Grain boundary characteristics and texture formation in a medium carbon steel during its austenitic decomposition in a high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.D.; Esling, C.; Lecomte, J.S.; He, C.S.; Zhao, X.; Zuo, L.

    2005-01-01

    A 12-T magnetic field has been applied to a medium plain carbon steel during the diffusional decomposition of austenite and the effect of a high magnetic field on the distribution of misorientation angles, grain boundary characteristics and texture formation in the ferrite produced has been investigated. The results show that a high magnetic field can cause a considerable decrease in the frequency of low-angle misorientations and an increase in the occurrence of low Σ coincidence boundaries, in particular the Σ3 of ferrite. This may be attributed to the elevation in the transformation temperature caused by the magnetic field and, therefore, the reduction of the transformation stress. The wider temperature range for grain growth offers longer time to the less mobile Σ boundaries to enlarge their areas. Moreover, the magnetic field can enhance the transverse field-direction fiber ( parallel TFD). It can be assumed that the effects of the field were caused by the dipolar interaction between the magnetic moments of Fe atoms

  18. Modeling of bias-induced changes of organic field-effect transistor characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, A.

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors offer exciting possibilities in developing new types of solar cells, photodetectors, light emitting diodes and field-effect transistors. Important advantages of organic semiconducting materials over their inorganic counterparts are their chemical tunability, their low weight,

  19. Some far-field acoustics characteristics of the XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Robert A.; Conner, David A.; Becker, Lawrence E.; Rutledge, C. Kendall; Smith, Rita A.

    1990-01-01

    Far-field acoustics tests have been conducted on an instrumented XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft. The purpose of these acoustic measurements was to create an encompassing, high confidence (90 percent), and accurate (-1.4/ +1/8 dB theoretical confidence interval) far-field acoustics data base to validate ROTONET and other current rotorcraft noise prediction computer codes. This paper describes the flight techniques used, with emphasis on the care taken to obtain high-quality far-field acoustic data. The quality and extensiveness of the data base collected are shown by presentation of ground acoustic contours for level flyovers for the airplane flight mode and for several forward velocities and nacelle tilts for the transition mode and helicopter flight mode. Acoustic pressure time-histories and fully analyzed ensemble averaged far-field data results (spectra) are shown for each of the ground contour cases.

  20. Benthos and substratum characteristics of prawn culture fields in and around the Cochin backwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aravindakshan, P.N.; Balasubramanian; Devi, C.B.L.; Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Jayalakshmy; Kutty, M.K.

    Benthic ecology of certain selected seasonal and perennial prawn fields in the Cochin Backwaters, Kerala, India was studied for understanding the environmental factors controlling the abundance of the major groups of macrobenthos which form...

  1. Characteristics of physical loads endured by military officers of mechanized troops during field maneuvres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L. Shlyamar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: observation over influence of physical loads on military officers in process of acquiring and mastering of military applied skills during field maneuvers. Material: in experiment 120 military officers of 20-25 years old age with equal physical fitness participated. Results: it was determined that in period of field maneuvers the greatest load was endured by military officers in attack exercises and on the march. The least physical loads were in period of organization and fulfillment of combat shooting. It was also established that main part of motor actions was fulfilled in aerobic mode. Military officers’ functioning in field maneuvers was accompanied by heart beats rate of 120-150 b.p.m. and 60-90 b.p.m. during long time. Conclusions: We offered to practice physical training of mechanized units’ military officers in modes, close to field ones.

  2. Characteristics of value-based health and social care from organisations' perspectives (OrgValue): a mixed-methods study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansmann, Lena; Hillen, Hendrik Ansgar; Kuntz, Ludwig; Stock, Stephanie; Vennedey, Vera; Hower, Kira Isabelle

    2018-04-27

    Health and social care systems are under pressure to organise care around patients' needs with constrained resources. Several studies reveal that care is constantly challenged by balancing economic requirements against individual patients' preferences and needs. Therefore, value-based health and social care aims to facilitate patient-centredness while taking the resources spent into consideration. The OrgValue project examines the implementation of patient-centredness while considering the health and social care organisations' resource orientation in the model region of the city of Cologne, Germany. First, the implementation status of patient-centredness as well as its facilitators and barriers-also in terms of resource orientation-will be assessed through face-to-face interviews with decision-makers (at least n=18) from health and social care organisations (HSCOs) in Cologne. Second, patients' understanding of patient-centredness and their preferences and needs will be revealed by conducting face-to-face interviews (at least n=15). Third, the qualitative results will provide the basis for a quantitative survey of decision-makers from all HSCOs in Cologne, which will include questions on patient-centredness, resource orientation and determinants of implementation. Fourth, qualitative interviews with decision-makers from different types of HSCOs will be conducted to develop a uniform measurement instrument on the cost and service structure of HSCOs. For all collected data, the relevant data protection regulations will be adhered to. Consultation and a positive vote from the ethics committee of the Medical Faculty of the University of Cologne have been obtained. All personal identifiers (eg, name, date of birth) will be pseudonymised. Dissemination strategies include a feedback report as well as research and development workshops for the organisations with the aim of initiating organisational learning and organisational development, presenting results in publications

  3. A Direct Approach to Determine the External Disturbing Gravity Field by Applying Green Integral with the Ground Boundary Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIAN Jialei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available By using the ground as the boundary, Molodensky problem usually gets the solution in form of series. Higher order terms reflect the correction between a smooth surface and the ground boundary. Application difficulties arise from not only computational complexity and stability maintenance, but also data-intensiveness. Therefore, in this paper, starting from the application of external gravity disturbance, Green formula is used on digital terrain surface. In the case of ignoring the influence of horizontal component of the integral, the expression formula of external disturbance potential determined by boundary value consisted of ground gravity anomalies and height anomaly difference are obtained, whose kernel function is reciprocal of distance and Poisson core respectively. With this method, there is no need of continuation of ground data. And kernel function is concise, and suitable for the stochastic computation of external disturbing gravity field.

  4. Influence of pulsed electric field on defectoscopic characteristics of electro- x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, E.A.; Lomonosov, V.V.; Sosnin, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    A new method to increase electric resistance of semiconductor plates in the process of electro-X-ray radiography, which is based on influence of a pulsed electric field on the plate semiconductor layer is suggested. The effect of a pulsed field with the intensity E=10 6 V/cm, frequency of 50 Hz and front length of 1 ns has increased electric resistance of the semiconductor layer and improved flaw detection in the process of electroradiography

  5. First principle DFT study of electric field effects on the characteristics of bilayer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabzyan, Hassan; Sadeghpour, Narges [Isfahan Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-04-01

    First principle density functional theory methods, local density and Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximations with Goedecker pseudopotential (LDA-G and PBE-G), are used to study the electric field effects on the binding energy and atomic charges of bilayer graphene (BLG) at the Γ point of the Brillouin zone based on two types of unit cells (α and β) containing n{sub C}=8-32 carbon atoms. Results show that application of electric fields of 4-24 V/nm strengths reduces the binding energies and induces charge transfer between the two layers. The transferred charge increases almost linearly with the strength of the electric field for all sizes of the two types of unit cells. Furthermore, the charge transfer calculated with the α-type unit cells is more sensitive to the electric field strength. The calculated field-dependent contour plots of the differential charge densities of the two layers show details of charge density redistribution under the influence of the electric field.

  6. A study on electromagnetic and mechanical characteristics of the field coil in HTS motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Kadota, T.; Joo, J.H.; Sano, H.; Murase, S.; Lee, S.H.; Hong, J.P.; Kim, H.M.; Kwon, Y.K.; Jo, Y.S.

    2010-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) motors electromagnetically consist of a rotator wound with HTS wires and an armature with conventional copper wires like Litz wire. The HTS rotor windings, as field coils, consist of a straight part and an end-ring part. Because a major rotation torque is induced by an interaction between magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors in the straight part, most of mechanical stresses in the motor occur at the straight part. An end-ring is placed in the edge of the straight part and used to connect to each adjacent straight-part coils. The magnetic fields by coil currents concentrate on the end-ring part, therefore, it is expected that the critical current of the entire coil, straight and end-ring, can be determined by the magnitude of the field in the end-ring. This paper deals with the overall J c degradation in the end-ring part by self-field generated from the coil. In addition to electromagnetic analyses, we have performed a numerical analysis in order to evaluate mechanical stresses in the straight part of field coil by armature reaction on steady-state operation. The analytical results will be presented in this paper.

  7. Optical, physical and chemical characteristics of Australian continental aerosols: results from a field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radhi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust is one of the major components of the world's aerosol mix, having a number of impacts within the Earth system. However, the climate forcing impact of mineral dust is currently poorly constrained, with even its sign uncertain. As Australian deserts are more reddish than those in the Northern Hemisphere, it is important to better understand the physical, chemical and optical properties of this important aerosol. We have investigated the properties of Australian desert dust at a site in SW Queensland, which is strongly influenced by both dust and biomass burning aerosol.

    Three years of ground-based monitoring of spectral optical thickness has provided a statistical picture of gross aerosol properties. The aerosol optical depth data showed a clear though moderate seasonal cycle with an annual mean of 0.06 ± 0.03. The Angstrom coefficient showed a stronger cycle, indicating the influence of the winter-spring burning season in Australia's north. AERONET size distributions showed a generally bimodal character, with the coarse mode assumed to be mineral dust, and the fine mode a mixture of fine dust, biomass burning and marine biogenic material.

    In November 2006 we undertook a field campaign which collected 4 sets of size-resolved aerosol samples for laboratory analysis – ion beam analysis and ion chromatography. Ion beam analysis was used to determine the elemental composition of all filter samples, although elemental ratios were considered the most reliable output. Scatter plots showed that Fe, Al and Ti were well correlated with Si, and Co reasonably well correlated with Si, with the Fe/Al ratio somewhat higher than values reported from Northern Hemisphere sites (as expected. Scatter plots for Ca, Mn and K against Si showed clear evidence of a second population, which in some cases could be identified with a particular sample day or size fraction. These data may be used to attempt to build a signature of soil in this

  8. Flow-Field Characteristics of High-Temperature Annular Buoyant Jets and Their Development Laws Influenced by Ventilation System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi; Huang, Yanqiu; Liu, Jiaping; Wang, Hai; Liu, Qiuhan

    2013-01-01

    The flow-field characteristics of high-temperature annular buoyant jets as well as the development laws influenced by ventilation system were studied using numerical methods to eliminate the pollutants effectively in this paper. The development laws of high-temperature annular buoyant jets were analyzed and compared with previous studies, including radial velocity distribution, axial velocity and temperature decay, reattachment position, cross-section diameter, volumetric flow rate, and veloc...

  9. The magnetic field investigation on the ARASE (ERG) mission: Data characteristics and initial scientific results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, A.; Teramoto, M.; Nomura, R.; Nose, M.; Fujimoto, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Shinohara, M.; Nagatsuma, T.; Shiokawa, K.; Obana, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Takashima, T.; Shinohara, I.

    2017-12-01

    The ARASE (ERG) satellite was successfully launched on December 20 2016. A fluxgate magnetometer (MGF) was built for the ARASE satellite to measure DC and low-frequency magnetic field. The requirements to the magnetic field measurements by ARASE was defined as (1) accuracy of the absolute field intensity is within 5 nT (2) angular accuracy of the field direction is within 1 degree (3) measurement frequency range is from DC to 60Hz or wider. MGF measures the vector magnetic field with the original sampling frequency of 256 Hz. The dynamic range is switched between +/-8000nT and +/- 60000nT according to the background field intensity. The MGF initial checkout was carried on January 10th 2017, when the MGF normal performance and downlinked data were confirmed. The 5-m length MAST for the sensor was deployed on 17th January. The nominal operation of MGF started in March 2017. The MGF data are calibrated based on the results from the ground experiments and in-orbit data analysis. The MGF CDF files are distributed by the ARASE Science Center and available by Space Physics Environment Data Analysis Software (SPEDAS). The acceleration process of the charged particles in the inner magnetosphere is considered to be closely related to the deformation and perturbation of the magnetic field. Accurate measurement of the magnetic field is required to understand the acceleration mechanism of the charged particles, which is one of the major scientific objectives of the ARASE mission. We designed a fluxgate magnetometer which is optimized to investigate following topics; (1) accurate measurement of the background magnetic field - the deformation of the magnetic field and its relationship with the particle acceleration. (2) MHD waves - measurement of the ULF electromagnetic waves of frequencies about 1mHz (Pc4-5), and investigation of the radiation-belt electrons radially diffused by the resonance with the ULF waves. (3) EMIC waves - measurement of the electromagnetic ion

  10. Wind power development field test project at Hirashima, Sakito-cho. Detailed wind characteristics survey; Sakitocho Hirashima ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A detailed wind characteristics survey was conducted at Hirashima, Sakito-cho, Nishisonogi-gun, Nagasaki Prefecture, on the assumption that a wind power generation system would be constructed. The survey was a 1-year project from October 1998 through September 1999, and wind characteristics such as the average wind speed, average wind direction, standard deviation of wind velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind speed were observed. The observation point was fixed at 20m above ground, the minimum time unit for observation was 10 minutes, and the 10-minute average value was defined as the measured value. For the maximum instantaneous wind speed, the minimum time unit for observation was set to be 2 seconds. The yearly average wind speed was 7.1m/s and the maximum wind speed in the period was 37m/s. Winds came prevalently from N (13.9%), and then from NNE (13.3%), NW (12.2%), and NE (10.7%). The total wind direction occurrence rate involving the 4 directions was 50.1%. Turbulence intensity was 0.14 at wind speed 2.0m/s or more and 0.12 at wind speed 4.0m/s or more. Estimated wind turbine yearly operating factors of 77-87% were obtained using rated values of a 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW-class wind turbines. (NEDO)

  11. Wind power development field test project at Ashibe-cho. Detailed wind characteristics survey; Ashibecho ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A detailed wind characteristics survey was conducted at Ashibe-cho, Iki-gun, Nagasaki Prefecture, on the assumption that a wind power generation system would be constructed. The survey was a 1-year project from October 1998 through September 1999, and wind characteristics such as the average wind speed, average wind direction, standard deviation of wind velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind speed were observed. The observation point was fixed at 20m above ground, the minimum time unit for observation was 10 minutes, and the 10-minute average value was defined as the measured value. For the maximum instantaneous wind speed, the minimum time unit for observation was set to be 2 seconds. The yearly average wind speed was 5.8m/s and the maximum wind speed in the period was 35m/s. Winds came from the prevailing direction of NE (21.3%), and then from NNE (14.7%) and ENE (7.9%). The wind axis was in the NE-SW direction, and the total wind direction occurrence rate from the 6 directions was 60.2%. Turbulence intensity was 0.19 at wind speed 2.0m/s or more and 0.17 at wind speed 4.0m/s or more. Estimated wind turbine yearly operating factors of 66-84% were obtained using rated values of a 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW-class wind turbines. (NEDO)

  12. Swelling characteristics of acrylic acid polyelectrolyte hydrogel in a dc electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Esmaiel; Tavakoli, Javad; Sarvestani, Alireza S.

    2007-10-01

    A novel application of environmentally sensitive polyelectrolytes is in the fabrication of BioMEMS devices as sensors and actuators. Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) gels are anionic polyelectrolyte networks that exhibit volume expansion in aqueous physiological environments. When an electric field is applied to PAA polyelectrolyte gels, the fixed anionic polyelectrolyte charges and the requirement of electro-neutrality in the network generate an osmotic pressure, above that in the absence of the electric field, to expand the network. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of an externally applied dc electric field on the volume expansion of the PAA polyelectrolyte gel in a simulated physiological solution of phosphate buffer saline (PBS). For swelling studies in the electric field, two platinum-coated plates, as electrodes, were wrapped in a polyethylene sheet to protect the plates from corrosion and placed vertically in a vessel filled with PBS. The plates were placed on a rail such that the distance between the two plates could be adjusted. The PAA gel was synthesized by free radical crosslinking of acrylic acid monomer with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) crosslinker. Our results demonstrate that volume expansion depends on the intensity of the electric field, the PAA network density, network homogeneity, and the position of the gel in the field relative to positive/negative electrodes. Our model predictions for PAA volume expansion, based on the dilute electrolyte concentration in the gel network, is in excellent agreement with the experimental findings in the high-electric-field regime (250-300 Newton/Coulomb).

  13. Characteristic of the radiation field in low earth orbit and in deep space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, Guenther

    2008-01-01

    The radiation exposure in space by cosmic radiation can be reduced through careful mission planning and constructive measures as example the provision of a radiation shelter, but it cannot be completely avoided. The reason for that are the extreme high energies of particles in this field and the herewith connected high penetration depth in matter. For missions outside the magnetosphere ionizing radiation is recognized as the key factor through its impact on crew health and performance. In absence of sporadic solar particle events the radiation exposure in Low Earth orbit (LEO) inside Spacecraft is determined by the galactic cosmic radiation (protons and heavier ions) and by the protons inside the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), an area where the radiation belt comes closer to the earth surface due to a displacement of the magnetic dipole axes from the Earth's center. In addition there is an albedo source of neutrons produced as interaction products of the primary galactic particles with the atoms of the earth atmosphere. Outside the spacecraft the dose is dominated by the electrons of the horns of the radiation belt located at about 60 latitude in Polar Regions. The radiation field has spatial and temporal variations in dependence of the Earth magnetic field and the solar cycle. The complexity of the radiation field inside a spacecraft is further increased through the interaction of the high energy components with the spacecraft shielding material and with the body of the astronauts. In interplanetary missions the radiation belt will be crossed in a couple of minutes and therefore its contribution to their radiation exposure is quite small, but subsequently the protection by the Earth magnetic field is lost, leaving only shielding measures as exposure reduction means. The report intends to describe the radiation field in space, the interaction of the particles with the magnetic field and shielding material and give some numbers on the radiation exposure in low earth

  14. Characteristic of the radiation field in low Earth orbit and in deep space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Guenther

    2008-01-01

    The radiation exposure in space by cosmic radiation can be reduced through careful mission planning and constructive measures as example the provision of a radiation shelter, but it cannot be completely avoided. The reason for that are the extreme high energies of particles in this field and the herewith connected high penetration depth in matter. For missions outside the magnetosphere ionizing radiation is recognized as the key factor through its impact on crew health and performance. In absence of sporadic solar particle events the radiation exposure in Low Earth orbit (LEO) inside Spacecraft is determined by the galactic cosmic radiation (protons and heavier ions) and by the protons inside the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), an area where the radiation belt comes closer to the earth surface due to a displacement of the magnetic dipole axes from the Earth's center. In addition there is an albedo source of neutrons produced as interaction products of the primary galactic particles with the atoms of the earth atmosphere. Outside the spacecraft the dose is dominated by the electrons of the horns of the radiation belt located at about 60" latitude in Polar Regions. The radiation field has spatial and temporal variations in dependence of the Earth magnetic field and the solar cycle. The complexity of the radiation field inside a spacecraft is further increased through the interaction of the high energy components with the spacecraft shielding material and with the body of the astronauts. In interplanetary missions the radiation belt will be crossed in a couple of minutes and therefore its contribution to their radiation exposure is quite small, but subsequently the protection by the Earth magnetic field is lost, leaving only shielding measures as exposure reduction means. The report intends to describe the radiation field in space, the interaction of the particles with the magnetic field and shielding material and give some numbers on the radiation exposure in low earth

  15. Plasma and magnetic field characteristics of the distant polar cusp near local noon: The entry layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschmann, G.; Haerendel, G.; Sckopke, N.; Rosenbauer, H.; Hedgecock, P.C.

    1976-01-01

    Heos 2 plasma and magnetic field measurements in the distant polar cusp region reveal the existence of a plasma layer on day side field lines just inside the magnetopause. Density and temperature in this layer are nearly the same as they are in the adjacent magnetosheath, but the flow lacks the order existing both in the magnetosheath and in the plasma mantle. Flow directions toward and away from the sun but, in general, parallel to the field lines have been found. The magnetopause (as defined by a sudden rotation of the magnetic field vector) mostly coincides with the transition to ordered magnetosheath flow. The inner boundary of the layer is located just within the outer boundary of the hot ring current plasma. In the region of overlap the hot electrons have the signature of trapped particles, though often at reduced intensity. The magnetic field is strongly fluctuating in magnitude, while its orientation is more stable, consistent with a connection to the earth, but is systematically distorted out of the meridian plane. The layer is thought to be a consequence of the entry of magnetosheath plasma, which does not appear to be unobstructed, as has been claimed in the concept of a magnetospheric cleft. The magnetopause has a cusplike indentation which is elongated in local time. The existence of field-aligned currents (total strength approx. =10 6 A) and their location of flow in the inner part of the entry layer (into the ionosphere before noon and out of it after noon) are inferred from the systematic bending of field lines. It is proposed that the dynamo of the related current system is provided by the transfer of perpendicular momentum resulting from the plasma entry into the layer. The essential features of the entry layer might be compatible with the model of plasma flow through the magnetopause of Levy et al. (1964) if a 'dam' effect caused by the cusp geometry were added

  16. Three-Field Modelling of Nonlinear Nonsmooth Boundary Value Problems and Stability of Differential Mixed Variational Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gwinner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly we consider nonlinear nonsmooth elliptic boundary value problems, and also related parabolic initial boundary value problems that model in a simplified way steady-state unilateral contact with Tresca friction in solid mechanics, respectively, stem from nonlinear transient heat conduction with unilateral boundary conditions. Here a recent duality approach, that augments the classical Babuška-Brezzi saddle point formulation for mixed variational problems to twofold saddle point formulations, is extended to the nonsmooth problems under consideration. This approach leads to variational inequalities of mixed form for three coupled fields as unknowns and to related differential mixed variational inequalities in the time-dependent case. Secondly we are concerned with the stability of the solution set of a general class of differential mixed variational inequalities. Here we present a novel upper set convergence result with respect to perturbations in the data, including perturbations of the associated nonlinear maps, the nonsmooth convex functionals, and the convex constraint set. We employ epiconvergence for the convergence of the functionals and Mosco convergence for set convergence. We impose weak convergence assumptions on the perturbed maps using the monotonicity method of Browder and Minty.

  17. Decay characteristics and erosion-related transport of glyphosate in Chinese loess soil under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Wang, Fei; Martins Bento, Celia; Meng, L.; Dam, van R.C.J.; Mol, J.G.J.; Liu, Guobin; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2015-01-01

    The decay characteristics and erosion-related transport of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were monitored for 35 d at different slope gradients and rates of application in plots with loess soil on the Loess Plateau, China. The initial glyphosate decayed rapidly (half-life of 3.5 d)

  18. Radionuclide Data Centre. Tasks and problems of obtaining the most reliable values of the nuclear physics characteristics of radionuclides and radiation physics parameters of radionuclide sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechev, V.P.

    1994-01-01

    Information is provided on the establishment of the Radionuclide Data Centre under the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute. Its functions and areas of activity are discussed. The paper focuses on the procedure of obtaining the evaluated values of the decay and radiative characteristics of the widely used radionuclides. (author)

  19. Consideration of characteristic values of unleaded sliding layer systems in tests and in EHD simulations; Beruecksichtigung von Kenngroessen bleifreier Gleitschichtsysteme in Test und EHD-Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiadas, A.; Schubert, W. [KS Gleitlager GmbH, St. Leon-Rot (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Composite materials for hydrodynamic plain bearings are tested on engine like test rigs in order to assess their mechanical and tribological behavior. The determined characteristic values can be used either in a direct comparison to the actual application or as well for the evaluation of EHD-simulations. (orig.)

  20. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Beef Quality Audit-2011(NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processin...

  1. Fabrication and characteristics of magnetic field sensors based on nano-polysilicon thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaofeng; Wen Dianzhong; Zhuang Cuicui; Cao Jingya; Wang Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    A magnetic field sensor based on nano-polysilicon thin films transistors (TFTs) with Hall probes is proposed. The magnetic field sensors are fabricated on 〈100〉 orientation high resistivity (ρ > 500 Ω·cm) silicon substrates by using CMOS technology, which adopt nano-polysilicon thin films with thicknesses of 90 nm and heterojunction interfaces between the nano-polysilicon thin films and the high resistivity silicon substrates as the sensing layers. The experimental results show that when V DS = 5.0 V, the magnetic sensitivities of magnetic field sensors based on nano-polysilicon TFTs with length—width ratios of 160 μm/80 μm, 320 μm/80 μm and 480 μm/80 μm are 78 mV/T, 55 mV/T and 34 mV/T, respectively. Under the same conditions, the magnetic sensitivity of the obtained magnetic field sensor is significantly improved in comparison with a Hall magnetic field sensor adopting silicon as the sensing layers. (semiconductor technology)

  2. Reverse blocking characteristics and mechanisms in Schottky-drain AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a drain field plate and floating field plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mao; Wei-Bo, She; Cui, Yang; Jin-Feng, Zhang; Xue-Feng, Zheng; Chong, Wang; Yue, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a Schottky drain and a compound field plate (SD-CFP HEMT) is presented for the purpose of better reverse blocking capability. The compound field plate (CFP) consists of a drain field plate (DFP) and several floating field plates (FFPs). The physical mechanisms of the CFP to improve the reverse breakdown voltage and to modulate the distributions of channel electric field and potential are investigated by two-dimensional numerical simulations with Silvaco-ATLAS. Compared with the HEMT with a Schottky drain (SD HEMT) and the HEMT with a Schottky drain and a DFP (SD-FP HEMT), the superiorities of SD-CFP HEMT lie in the continuous improvement of the reverse breakdown voltage by increasing the number of FFPs and in the same fabrication procedure as the SD-FP HEMT. Two useful optimization laws for the SD-CFP HEMTs are found and extracted from simulation results. The relationship between the number of the FFPs and the reverse breakdown voltage as well as the FP efficiency in SD-CFP HEMTs are discussed. The results in this paper demonstrate a great potential of CFP for enhancing the reverse blocking ability in AlGaN/GaN HEMT and may be of great value and significance in the design and actual manufacture of SD-CFP HEMTs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61204085, 61334002, 61306017, 61474091, 61574112, and 61574110).

  3. Reverse blocking characteristics and mechanisms in Schottky-drain AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a drain field plate and floating field plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Wei; She Wei-Bo; Zhang Jin-Feng; Zheng Xue-Feng; Wang Chong; Hao Yue; Yang Cui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a Schottky drain and a compound field plate (SD-CFP HEMT) is presented for the purpose of better reverse blocking capability. The compound field plate (CFP) consists of a drain field plate (DFP) and several floating field plates (FFPs). The physical mechanisms of the CFP to improve the reverse breakdown voltage and to modulate the distributions of channel electric field and potential are investigated by two-dimensional numerical simulations with Silvaco-ATLAS. Compared with the HEMT with a Schottky drain (SD HEMT) and the HEMT with a Schottky drain and a DFP (SD-FP HEMT), the superiorities of SD-CFP HEMT lie in the continuous improvement of the reverse breakdown voltage by increasing the number of FFPs and in the same fabrication procedure as the SD-FP HEMT. Two useful optimization laws for the SD-CFP HEMTs are found and extracted from simulation results. The relationship between the number of the FFPs and the reverse breakdown voltage as well as the FP efficiency in SD-CFP HEMTs are discussed. The results in this paper demonstrate a great potential of CFP for enhancing the reverse blocking ability in AlGaN/GaN HEMT and may be of great value and significance in the design and actual manufacture of SD-CFP HEMTs. (paper)

  4. Dynamic characteristics of non-ideal plasmas in an external high frequency electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamyan, V M [Department of Theoretical Physics, I. I. Mechnikov Odessa National University, 65026 Odessa (Ukraine); Djuric, Z [Silvaco Data System, Silvaco Technology Centre, Compass Point, St. Ives PE27 5JL (United Kingdom); Mihajlov, A A [Institute of Physics, PO Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Sakan, N M [Institute of Physics, PO Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Tkachenko, I M [Department of Applied Mathematics, ETSII, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia 46022 (Spain)

    2004-07-21

    The dynamic electric conductivity, dielectric permeability and refraction and reflection coefficients of a completely ionized gaseous plasma in a high frequency (HF) external electric field are calculated. These results are obtained within the self-consistent field approach developed earlier for the static conductivity determination. The plasma electron density, N{sub e}, and temperature, T, varied within the following limits: 10{sup 19} {<=} N{sub e} {<=} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} and 2 x 10{sup 4} {<=} T {<=} 10{sup 6} K, respectively. The external electric field frequency, f, varied in the range 3 GHz{<=} f {<=} 0.05{omicron}{sub p}, where {omicron}{sub p} is the circular plasma frequency. Thus, the upper limit for f is either in the microwave or in the far infrared frequency band. The final results are shown in a parameterized form, suitable for laboratory applications.

  5. Dynamic characteristics of non-ideal plasmas in an external high frequency electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamyan, V M; Djuric, Z; Mihajlov, A A; Sakan, N M; Tkachenko, I M

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic electric conductivity, dielectric permeability and refraction and reflection coefficients of a completely ionized gaseous plasma in a high frequency (HF) external electric field are calculated. These results are obtained within the self-consistent field approach developed earlier for the static conductivity determination. The plasma electron density, N e , and temperature, T, varied within the following limits: 10 19 ≤ N e ≤ 10 21 cm -3 and 2 x 10 4 ≤ T ≤ 10 6 K, respectively. The external electric field frequency, f, varied in the range 3 GHz≤ f ≤ 0.05ο p , where ο p is the circular plasma frequency. Thus, the upper limit for f is either in the microwave or in the far infrared frequency band. The final results are shown in a parameterized form, suitable for laboratory applications

  6. Surface flux density distribution characteristics of bulk high-Tc superconductor in external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, S.; Yuasa, K.

    2004-01-01

    Various magnetic levitation systems using oxide superconductors are developed as strong pinning forces are obtained in melt-processed bulk. However, the trapped flux of superconductor is moved by flux creep and fluctuating magnetic field. Therefore, to examine the internal condition of superconductor, the authors measure the dynamic surface flux density distribution of YBCO bulk. Flux density measurement system has a structure with the air-core coil and the Hall sensors. Ten Hall sensors are arranged in series. The YBCO bulk, which has 25 mm diameter and 13 mm thickness, is field cooled by liquid nitrogen. After that, magnetic field is changed by the air-core coil. This paper describes about the measured results of flux density distribution of YBCO bulk in the various frequencies of air-core coils currents

  7. Surface flux density distribution characteristics of bulk high- Tc superconductor in external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, S.; Yuasa, K.

    2004-10-01

    Various magnetic levitation systems using oxide superconductors are developed as strong pinning forces are obtained in melt-processed bulk. However, the trapped flux of superconductor is moved by flux creep and fluctuating magnetic field. Therefore, to examine the internal condition of superconductor, the authors measure the dynamic surface flux density distribution of YBCO bulk. Flux density measurement system has a structure with the air-core coil and the Hall sensors. Ten Hall sensors are arranged in series. The YBCO bulk, which has 25 mm diameter and 13 mm thickness, is field cooled by liquid nitrogen. After that, magnetic field is changed by the air-core coil. This paper describes about the measured results of flux density distribution of YBCO bulk in the various frequencies of air-core coils currents.

  8. Droplet size characteristics and energy input requirements of emulsions formed using high-intensity-pulsed electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, T.C.; Sisson, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental methods have been developed to measure droplet size characteristics and energy inputs associated with the rupture of aqueous droplets by high-intensity-pulsed electric fields. The combination of in situ microscope optics and high-speed video cameras allows reliable observation of liquid droplets down to 0.5 μm in size. Videotapes of electric-field-created emulsions reveal that average droplet sizes of less than 5 μm are easily obtained in such systems. Analysis of the energy inputs into the fluids indicates that the electric field method requires less than 1% of the energy required from mechanical agitation to create comparable droplet sizes. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Characteristics of single-atom trapping in a magneto-optical trap with a high magnetic-field gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seokchan; Choi, Youngwoon; Park, Sangbum; Ji, Wangxi; Lee, Jai-Hyung; An, Kyungwon

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative study on characteristics of a magneto-optical trap with a single or a few atoms is presented. A very small number of 85 Rb atoms were trapped in a micron-size magneto-optical trap with a high magnetic-field gradient. In order to find the optimum condition for a single-atom trap, we have investigated how the number of atoms and the size of atomic cloud change as various experimental parameters, such as a magnetic-field gradient and the trapping laser intensity and detuning. The averaged number of atoms was measured very accurately with a calibration procedure based on the single-atom saturation curve of resonance fluorescence. In addition, the number of atoms in a trap could be controlled by suppressing stochastic loading events by means of a real-time active feedback on the magnetic-field gradient

  10. Near-field characteristics of radiating-wave simulator antenna based on TEM horn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Chunming; Ge Debiao

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel antenna of NEMP (nuclear electromagnetic pulse) radiating-wave simulator, which is analyzed and optimized using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. The intense voltage pulse is fed as the source to this antenna by the coaxial line. The parallel plate transmission line and the size of the transverse electromagnetic horn are optimized. The near field of antenna is analyzed, and the effects of the size on the near field are also given. The antenna designed in this paper can well satisfy the requirement for studying the EMP effects

  11. Vibration analysis and sound field characteristics of a tubular ultrasonic radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhaofeng; Zhou, Guangping; Zhang, Yihui; Li, Zhengzhong; Lin, Shuyu

    2006-12-01

    A sort of tubular ultrasonic radiator used in ultrasonic liquid processing is studied. The frequency equation of the tubular radiator is derived, and its radiated sound field in cylindrical reactor is calculated using finite element method and recorded by means of aluminum foil erosion. The results indicate that sound field of tubular ultrasonic radiator in cylindrical reactor appears standing waves along both its radial direction and axial direction, and amplitudes of standing waves decrease gradually along its radial direction, and the numbers of standing waves along its axial direction are equal to the axial wave numbers of tubular radiator. The experimental results are in good agreement with calculated results.

  12. Characteristics and land suitability of newly establish rice field in Lesung Batu Muda, Rawas Ulu, Musi Rawas, South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sudaryanto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice field has a strategic function because it is the main provider of food for the population of Indonesia. The data of the land use for the rice field in Indonesia showed that around 41% in Java Island. Agricultural technology at the level of industry experienced rapid progress, but the technology implementation at the level by farmer is relatively slow. Increased production of rice in Indonesia was reported of less than 1% per year. The research aimed to study the characteristics and land suitability of newly established rice field in Lesung Batu Muda, Rawas Ulu, Musi Rawas, South Sumatera. There were two soil land units that were tested included water availability, rooting medium, level of erosion, soil chemical properties and land preparation. The results of the study showed that newly established rice fields in Lesung Batu Muda, Rawas Ulu, Musi Rawas, South Sumatera could be used to open new rice fields by planting twice a year. In opening new rice fields, the application of organic matter and creation of terracing on sloping areas were needed.

  13. Characteristics of the Taylor microscale in the solar wind/foreshock. Magnetic field and electron velocity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgiolo, C. [Bitterroot Basic Research, Hamilton, MT (United States); Goldstein, M.L.; Vinas, A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Heliospheric Physics Lab.; Matthaeus, W.H. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Bartol Research Foundation; Fazakerley, A.N. [University College London, Dorking (United Kingdom). Mullard Space Science Lab.

    2013-07-01

    The Taylor microscale is one of the fundamental turbulence scales. Not easily estimated in the interplanetary medium employing single spacecraft data, it has generally been studied through two point correlations. In this paper we present an alternative, albeit mathematically equivalent, method for estimating the Taylor microscale ({lambda}{sub T}). We make two independent determinations employing multi-spacecraft data sets from the Cluster mission, one using magnetic field data and a second using electron velocity data. Our results using the magnetic field data set yields a scale length of 1538{+-}550 km, slightly less than, but within the same range as, values found in previous magnetic-field-based studies. During time periods where both magnetic field and electron velocity data can be used, the two values can be compared. Relative comparisons show {lambda}{sub T} computed from the velocity is often significantly smaller than that from the magnetic field data. Due to a lack of events where both measurements are available, the absolute {lambda}{sub T} based on the electron fluid velocity is not able to be determined.

  14. Characteristics of the Taylor microscale in the solar wind/foreshock: magnetic field and electron velocity measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gurgiolo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Taylor microscale is one of the fundamental turbulence scales. Not easily estimated in the interplanetary medium employing single spacecraft data, it has generally been studied through two point correlations. In this paper we present an alternative, albeit mathematically equivalent, method for estimating the Taylor microscale (λT. We make two independent determinations employing multi-spacecraft data sets from the Cluster mission, one using magnetic field data and a second using electron velocity data. Our results using the magnetic field data set yields a scale length of 1538 ± 550 km, slightly less than, but within the same range as, values found in previous magnetic-field-based studies. During time periods where both magnetic field and electron velocity data can be used, the two values can be compared. Relative comparisons show λT computed from the velocity is often significantly smaller than that from the magnetic field data. Due to a lack of events where both measurements are available, the absolute λT based on the electron fluid velocity is not able to be determined.

  15. Characteristics of the Taylor microscale in the solar wind/foreshock. Magnetic field and electron velocity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgiolo, C.; Goldstein, M.L.; Vinas, A.; Matthaeus, W.H.; Fazakerley, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    The Taylor microscale is one of the fundamental turbulence scales. Not easily estimated in the interplanetary medium employing single spacecraft data, it has generally been studied through two point correlations. In this paper we present an alternative, albeit mathematically equivalent, method for estimating the Taylor microscale (λ T ). We make two independent determinations employing multi-spacecraft data sets from the Cluster mission, one using magnetic field data and a second using electron velocity data. Our results using the magnetic field data set yields a scale length of 1538±550 km, slightly less than, but within the same range as, values found in previous magnetic-field-based studies. During time periods where both magnetic field and electron velocity data can be used, the two values can be compared. Relative comparisons show λ T computed from the velocity is often significantly smaller than that from the magnetic field data. Due to a lack of events where both measurements are available, the absolute λ T based on the electron fluid velocity is not able to be determined.

  16. The effects of metamaterial on electromagnetic fields absorption characteristics of human eye tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmelseed, Akram; Yunus, Jasmy

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of a dipole antenna with a human eye model in the presence of a metamaterial is investigated in this paper. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method with convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) formulation have been used. A three-dimensional anatomical model of the human eye with resolution of 1.25 mm × 1.25 mm × 1.25 mm was used in this study. The dipole antenna was driven by modulated Gaussian pulse and the numerical study is performed with dipole operating at 900 MHz. The analysis has been done by varying the size and value of electric permittivity of the metamaterial. By normalizing the peak SAR (1 g and 10 g) to 1 W for all examined cases, we observed how the SAR values are not affected by the different permittivity values with the size of the metamaterial kept fixed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Research on the characteristics of temperature field of asphalt pavement in seasonal frozen region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Jiangang; Liu, Weizheng

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of climate in seasonal frozen area are low temperature and a large range of temperature variation between day and night in winter. These characteristics often lead to problems of asphalt pavement, especially transverse cracks. To reduce the problems of asphalt pavement, it is necessary to examine the distribution of the temperature range of asphalt pavement. A three-dimensional finite element model was used, taking the SMA asphalt pavement as an example with solid70 and plane55 unit features of ANSYS software. It can obtain the relationship between temperature gradient and time and the relationship between temperature gradient and depth. In addition, a function relation model of stress and time was also established. It can provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of problems of asphalt pavement in seasonal frozen area. Moreover, it has an important significance for improving asphalt pavement design

  18. Dynamic Characteristic of Aluminium Sphere Levitating in Electromagnetic Field Respecting its Induction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Ivo; Karban, P.; Mach, M.; Musil, Ladislav; Ulrych, B.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 2 (2005), s. 77-80 ISSN 0033-2097 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/04/0095 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : coupled electromagnetic-thermal field * levitation * finite element method Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  19. Background noise characteristics of field effect transistors for X-ray detection units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gostilo, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    Energy equivalent for noise of experimental samples of field-effect transistors for X-ray detection units is investigated. Resolution of 160 eV for lines of 5.9 keV is obtained in detection unit with drain feedback using the Si(Li)-detector of 25 mm 2 by square

  20. Characteristics of gravity fields in the Jinggu M6.6 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Shaoan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the study of high-precision gravity data obtained from recent studies and the regional gravity network for Yunnan province, a variation in the regional gravity field was identified before the occurrence of the Yunnan Jinggu M6. 6 earthquake.

  1. Morphology dependent field emission characteristics of ZnS/silicon nanoporous pillar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling Li; Zhao, Cheng Zhou; Kang, Li Ping; Liu, De Wei; Zhao, Hui Chun; Hao, Shan Peng; Zhang, Yuan Kai; Chen, Zhen Ping; Li, Xin Jian

    2016-10-01

    Through depositing zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanoparticals on silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) and crater-shaped silicon nanoporous pillar array (c-Si-NPA) by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method, ZnS/Si-NPA and c-ZnS/Si-NPA were prepared and the field emission (FE) properties of them were investigated. The turn-on electric fields of were 3.8 V/mm for ZnS/Si-NPA and 5.0 V/mm for c-ZnS/Si-NPA, respectively. The lower turn-on electric fields of ZnS/Si-NPA than that of c-ZnS/Si-NPA were attributed to the different electric distribution of the field emitters causing by the different surface morphology of the two samples, which was further demonstrated via the simulated results by finite element modeling. The FN curves for the ZnS/Si-NPA showed two-slope behavior. All the results indicate that the morphology play an important role in the FE properties and designing an appropriate top morphology for the emitter is a very efficient way to improve the FE performance.

  2. Field emission characteristics of ZnO nanoneedle array cell under ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woong; Jeong, Min-Chang; Kim, Min Jun; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2007-01-01

    Field emission (FE) behaviours of ZnO nanoneedle array under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation have been investigated. UV irradiation noticeably stabilized the FE behaviours. Modifications in the tunnelling barrier height and effective aspect ratio due to the oxygen-related surface species, which can be desorbed by UV irradiation, are supposed to be responsible for these observations

  3. Characteristics of growing media mixes and application for open-field production of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathogen-free growing media are widely used for strawberry production in protected structures in Europe but not common in the United States. There is a need to investigate the feasibility of producing strawberry fruits in open fields with the pathogen-free media in the U.S. The objective of the stud...

  4. Enhancement on field emission characteristics of pulsed laser deposited diamondlike carbon films using Au precoatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, F.Y.; Sun, C.Y.; Cheng, H.F.; Lin, I.N.

    1997-01-01

    Using Au precoatings has been observed to significantly enhance the field emission properties of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films deposited on Si substrates. The electron emission can be turned on at a low field as 7 V/μm and a large emission current density as 2000 μA/cm 2 can be obtained at 20 V/μm applied field. However, preannealing the Au-coated Si substrates at 500 degree C for 30 min is necessary to achieve such a performance. Microscopic examination on surface and cross-sectional morphologies of the DLC/Au/Si films using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively, in conjunction with the elemental depth profile examination of these films using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, indicated that substantial interdiffusion between DLC, Au, and Si layers has occurred. Such kind of reaction is proposed to lower the resistance for electrons to transport across the interfaces and, thereafter, enhances the field emission properties of the DLC/Au/Si films. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. Characteristics of a single photon emission tomography system with a wide field gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathonnat, F.; Soussaline, F.; Todd-Pokropek, A.E.; Kellershohn, C.

    1979-01-01

    This text summarizes a work study describing the imagery possibilities of a single photon emission tomography system composed of a conventional wide field gamma camera, connected to a computer. The encouraging results achieved on the various phantoms studied suggest a significant development of this technique in clinical work in Nuclear Medicine Departments [fr

  6. Tunneling Characteristics of an Electron-Hole Trilayer in a Parallel Magnetic Field

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Y

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the tunneling properties of GaSb/AlSb/InAs/AlSb/GaSb heterostructures in which electrons- and boles accumulate in the InAs and GaSb regions respectively under a magnetic field parallel...

  7. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Soyo Town (wind characteristics investigation); Soyomachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at Soyo Town, Aso-gun, Kumamoto Prefecture. The annual average wind speed is 5.9m/s and 5.6m/s at 20m and 10m above ground, respectively, satisfying the reference values of 5.6m/s and 5.0m/s. The prevalent wind direction is WNW (occurrence rate: 32.8%). The wind from the directions with WNW at their middle occupies 75%, stable and satisfying the reference value of 60%. Strong winds come frequently from the direction of high occurrence, which is advantageous in arranging plural wind turbine systems. The exponential index in the wind speed vertical distribution is 13.3, but wind distribution is not simple at a mountain top site like the observation station in this report. Wind characteristics are similar to those at places with mild inundations, and the maximum instantaneous wind speed of 40.8m/s will not pose a problem. The wind energy density is 205W/m{sup 2}, satisfying the reference value of 150. Wind power systems of 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW are assumed. When the exponential index is 13.3, their annual operation rates will be 70%, 71%, and 82%; and their capacity ratios are 22.6%, 23.9%, and 22.9%, all satisfying the reference values. They will collect 297MWh, 629MWh, and 1507MWh of wind energy per year. It is concluded that Soyo Town is fully qualified as a site for wind power development. (NEDO)

  8. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Yaku Town (wind characteristics investigation); Yakumachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at Yakushima Young Travellers' Village of the above-named town, Kagoshima Prefecture. The exponential index of the wind speed distribution in the vertical direction is between 1.6 and 4.7, or 3.5 on the average, relatively small due probably to the peculiar terrain and causing no trouble in the development. Turbulence intensity is 0.16 at when the wind speed is 2m/s or more, low enough to meet the reference value (0.30 or less). The total occurrence rate on the prevalent wind axis (SSE-NNW) is 48%, falling short of the reference value (60% or more). The average wind speed in the prevalent wind direction is high and the wind energy density concentrates on the prevalent wind axis, this showing that the site is good for wind power development. The annual average wind speed is 5.6m/s, slightly lower than the reference value (5.8m/s or more). Since there are possibilities of a maximum instantaneous wind speed of over 60m/s, caution is to be used in determining the wind endurance level for the wind turbine design. The annual wind energy density is 325W/m{sup 2}, fully meeting the reference value (215W/m{sup 2} or more). The annual operation rates of the 150/300/750kW wind turbine models are 61/65/80%, and these meet the reference value (45% or more). Their annual capacity ratios are 24.5/26.6/27.7%, and these again meet the reference value (17% or more). (NEDO)

  9. Identification of dynamic characteristics by field vibration test in Tsurumi Tsubasa bridge; Tsurumi Tsubasakyo no shindo jikken ni yoru doteki tokusei no dotei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Takano, H.; Ogasawara, M.; Shimosato, T. [Metropolitan Expressway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kato, M.; Okada, J. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-21

    Field vibration test of the Tsurumi Tsubasa Bridge, a long span cable stayed bridge, has been conducted. Focusing on its dynamic characteristics, an identification method from test results and its validity were investigated. The natural frequency identified using mode circle and resonance curve from steady vibration test agreed with that identified by the peak method from free damping test. Accordingly, there was no difference due to identification methods, and both methods provided appropriate accuracy. The natural vibration mode obtained from the steady vibration test agreed with that obtained by the eigenvalue analysis. The dispersion of experimental values, which indicates the adaptation to mode circle method, became a scale indicating reliability of identified values. When the damping obtained by the half power method for the microtremors test is compared with that identified from the steady vibration test and free damping test, it is required to compare them at lower amplitude level region, considering that the amplitude level of microtremors test is very low. For the dynamic characteristics of the Tsurumi Tsubasa Bridge, it was found that it has lower natural frequency and higher modal damping compared with other cable stayed bridges with similar scale of span. 18 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Measurement of Neutron Field Characteristics at Nuclear-Physics Instalations for Personal Radiation Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, A G; Britvich, G I; Kosyanenko, E V; Pikalov, V A; Gomonov, I P

    2003-01-01

    n this work the observed data of neutron spectra on Rostov NEP, Kursk NEP and Smolensk NEP and on the reactor IRT MIPHI are submitted. For measurement of neutron spectra two types of spectrometer were used: SHANS (IHEP design ) and SDN-MS01 (FEI design). The comparison of the data measurements per-formed by those spectrometers above one-type cells on the reactor RBMK is submitted. On the basis of the 1-st horizontal experimental channel HEC-1 of the IRT reactor 4 reference fields of neutrons are investigated. It is shown, that spectra of neutrons of reference fields can be used for imitation of neutron spectra for conditions of NEP with VVER and RBMK type reactors.

  11. Quasi-biennial oscillations in the geomagnetic field: Their global characteristics and origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Jiaming; Du, Aimin; Finlay, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Quasi-biennial oscillations (QBOs), with periods in the range 1–3 years, have been persistently observed in the geomagnetic field. They provide unique information on the mechanisms by which magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems are modulated on interannual timescales and are also of cruc...... primarily originates from the current systems due to the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling process....... postmidnight sectors, and the results from spherical harmonic analysis, verify that the majority of geomagnetic QBO is of external origin. We furthermore find a very high correlation between the geomagnetic QBO and the QBOs in solar wind speed and solar wind dynamic pressure. This suggests the geomagnetic QBO......Quasi-biennial oscillations (QBOs), with periods in the range 1–3 years, have been persistently observed in the geomagnetic field. They provide unique information on the mechanisms by which magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems are modulated on interannual timescales and are also...

  12. Field electron emission characteristics of chemical vapour deposition diamond films with controlled sp2 phase concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.; Yang, Q.; Xiao, C.; Hirose, A.

    2008-01-01

    Diamond films were synthesized in a microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition reactor. The microstructure and surface morphology of deposited films were characterized by Raman spectroscope and scanning electron microscope. The sp 2 phase concentration in diamond films was varied and its effect on the field electron emission (FEE) properties was investigated. Diamond films deposited under higher methane concentration exhibit better FEE property including lower turn-on electric field and larger emission current. The predominating factor modifying the FEE property is presumed to be the increase of sp 2 phase concentration. The influence of bias voltage on the FEE property of diamond films is not monotonic. Postgrowth acid treatment reduces the sp 2 phase content in diamond films without changing diamond grain sizes. The corresponding FEE property was degraded

  13. Characteristics of enriched cultures for bio-huff-`n`-puff tests at Jilin oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Gang Dai; Yan-Fen Xue; Shu-Hua Xie [Institute of Microbiology, Beijing (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Three enriched cultures (48, 15a, and 26a), selected from more than 80 soil and water samples, could grow anaerobically in the presence of crude oil at 30{degrees}C and could ferment molasses to gases and organic acids. Oil recovery by culture 48 in the laboratory model experiment was enhanced by 25.2% over the original reserves and by 53.7% over the residual reserves. Enriched culture 48 was composed of at least 4 species belonging to the genera Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides. This enriched culture was used as inoculum for MEOR field trials at Jilin oil field with satisfactory results. The importance of the role of these isolates in EOR was confirmed by their presence and behavior in the fluids produced from the microbiologically treated reservoir.

  14. Characteristics of Phosphorus Runoff Losses from Typical Paddy Fields in Guangdong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NING Jian-feng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Three experimental paddy fields located in the city of Zengcheng, Qingyuan and Gaozhou in Guangdong Province were selected to monitor the runoff losses of phosphorus from the year of 2008 to 2012. The results showed that runoff event in paddy field occurred mainly in the early rice season. The runoff concentration of total phosphorus(TP under conventional fertilization treatment was in the range of 0.02~1.56 mg·L-1. It was recorded that TP concentration in 11%~18% of the total runoff samples exceeded the grade Ⅴ of the national surface water environmental quality(0.4 mg·L-1. Peak concentration of different phosphorus forms[TP, dissolved total P(DTP and particulate P(PP] were observed within 14 days after fertilization, which indicated the high environmental pollution risk of phosphorus during this period. Application of phosphorus fertilizer increased runoff load of DTP in paddy field and showed no effect on that of PP and TP. The annual runoff loads of 0.63~4.05, 0.33~2.91 kg·hm-2 and 1.10~6.68 kg·hm-2 for DTP, PP and TP, respectively, were recorded under conventional fertilizer model. Runoff load of phosphorus exhibited wide spatial and temporal variation during experimental period. Runoff coefficient of 0.06%~6.81% of phosphorus was recorded. It was observed that DTP dominated the phosphorus runoff load. Phosphorus runoff losses from paddy field was affected by a variety of natural and human factors, and fertilization, precipitation and runoff volume were identified as the main factors.

  15. Integrated studies into characteristics of physical fields using discontinuous geomedium models under external loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoltseva Vostrikov, OM, VI; Tsoy, PA; Semenov, VN

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the laboratory study of deformation in artificial layered geomaterial samples down to failure with the simultaneous measurement of stresses, strains, micro-strains and signals of microseismic emission. The analysis of the synchronized experimental data made it possible to determine features of change in the microseismicity parameters and micro-strain fields in the samples depending on the deformation stage, and also to reveal the dynamics of evolution of microfailures and the main fracture zone.

  16. Effects of light guide and magnetic field on the characteristics of the short time measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshihiro; Ohira, Kyozo

    1977-01-01

    In order to construct the nuclear life-time measurement apparatus with good energy and time resolution, consisting of DuMond type beta-ray spectrometer and plastic scintillator, experimental studies are carried out for the effects of light guide and magnetic field on the time resolution, and for the effects of μ-metal shielding on the energy resolution. It has been found that all these effects could be practically diminished. (auth.)

  17. Characteristics of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Effluent Load from a Paddy-field District Implementing Crop Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Takehide; Aoki, Takeru; Osuga, Katsuyuki; Nakamura, Kimihito; Sugiyama, Sho; Kawashima, Shigeto

    Implementation of collective crop rotation in a paddy-field district may increase nutrients effluent load. We have investigated a paddy-field district implementing collective crop rotation of wheat and soybeans, measured temporal variations in nutrients concentration of drainage water and the amount of discharged water for consecutive three years, and estimated nutrients effluent load from the district during the irrigation and non-irrigation periods. As a result, the highest concentration of nutrients was observed during the non-irrigation period in every investigation year. It was shown that high nutrients concentration of drainage water during the non-irrigation period was caused by runoff of fertilizer applied to wheat because the peaks of nutrients concentration of drainage water were seen in rainy days after fertilizer application in the crop-rotation field. The effluent load during the non-irrigation periods was 16.9-22.1 kgN ha-1 (nitrogen) and 0.84-1.42 kgP ha-1 (phosphorus), which respectively accounted for 46-66% and 27-54% of annual nutrients effluent load.

  18. Characteristics of the therapeutic effect of low-frequency magnetic field in some ENT diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozinkovskiy, V.V.

    The purpose of this investigation was to study by infrared thermography the influence of a pulsating magnetic field on the superficial capillaries of the soft tissues of ENT organs and the temperature of tissues in certain ENT diseases. Studies were performed on thirty-six patients, 19 to 68 years of age, including 26 women and 10 men. The patients were subdivided into three groups: those with chronic catarrhal and hyperplastic laryngitis, those with chronic subatrophic pharyngitis, and those with neuro-vegetative vasomotor rhinitis. The patients were treated with a Polyus-1 Soviet magnetotherapeutic apparatus using a pulsating magnetic field with a frequency of 50 Hz in continuous mode at four different intensities in ten daily sessions of fifteen minutes each. Clinical observations and thermographic studies indicated that immediately after completion of the course of magnetotherapy there was clinical improvement and equalization of thermoasymmetry, by an increase or decrease in ENT organs exposed to the magnetic field. The method of thermography therefore allows an objective evaluation of the results of magnetotherapy in patients with ENT pathology. 6 references, 2 figures.

  19. Effect of long-term organic fertilization on the soil pore characteristics of greenhouse vegetable fields converted from rice-wheat rotation fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L Y; Wang, M Y; Shi, X Z; Yu, Q B; Shi, Y J; Xu, S X; Sun, W X

    2018-08-01

    The shift from rice-wheat rotation (RWR) to greenhouse vegetable soils has been widely practiced in China. Several studies have discussed the changes in soil properties with land-use changes, but few studies have sought to address the differences in soil pore properties, especially for fields based on long-term organic fertilization under greenhouse vegetable system from RWR fields. This study uses the X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning and statistical analysis to compare the long-term effects of the conversion of organic greenhouse vegetable fields (over one year, nine years, and fourteen years) from RWR fields on the soil macropore structure as well as the influencing factors from samples obtained in Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, using the surface soil layer and triplicate samples. The results demonstrated that the macropore structure became more complex and stable, with a higher connectivity, fractal dimension (FD) and a lower degree of anisotropy (DA), as the greenhouse vegetable planting time increased. The total topsoil macroporosity increased considerably, but the rate of increase gradually decelerated with time. The transmission pores (round pores ranging from 50 to 500μm) increased with time, but the biopores (>2000μm) clearly decreased after nine years of use as greenhouse vegetable fields. Soil organic matter (OM) has a significant relationship with the soil pore structure characteristics, especially for the transmission pores. In addition, organic fertilization on the topsoil had a short-term effect on the pores, but the effect stabilized and had a weak influence on the pores over longer periods. These results suggested that organic fertilization was conducive for controlling soil degradation regarding it physical quality for water and oxygen availability in the short term. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Geological, Geophysical, And Thermal Characteristics Of The Salton Sea Geothermal Field, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younker, L.W.; Kasameyer, P. W.; Tewhey, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The Salton Sea Geothermal Field is the largest water-dominated geothermal field in the Salton Trough in Southern California. Within the trough, local zones of extension among active right-stepping right-lateral strike-slip faults allow mantle-derived magmas to intrude the sedimentary sequence. The intrusions serves as heat sources to drive hydrothermal systems. We can characterize the field in detail because we have an extensive geological and geophysical data base. The sediments are relatively undeformed and can be divided into three categories as a function of depth: (1) low-permeability cap rock, (2) upper reservoir rocks consisting of sandstones, siltstones, and shales that were subject to minor alterations, and (3) lower reservoir rocks that were extensively altered. Because of the alteration, intergranular porosity and permeability are reduced with depth. permeability is enhanced by renewable fractures, i.e., fractures that can be reactivated by faulting or natural hydraulic fracturing subsequent to being sealed by mineral deposition. In the central portion of the field, temperature gradients are high near the surface and lower below 700 m. Surface gradients in this elliptically shaped region are fairly constant and define a thermal cap, which does not necessarily correspond to the lithologic cap. At the margin of the field, a narrow transition region, with a low near-surface gradient and an increasing gradient at greater depths, separates the high temperature resource from areas of normal regional gradient. Geophysical and geochemical evidence suggest that vertical convective motion in the reservoir beneath the thermal cap is confined to small units, and small-scale convection is superimposed on large-scale lateral flow of pore fluid. Interpretation of magnetic, resistivity, and gravity anomalies help to establish the relationship between the inferred heat source, the hydrothermal system, and the observed alteration patterns. A simple hydrothermal model is

  1. Effect of substrate material on the growth and field emission characteristics of large-area carbon nanotube forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ummethala, Raghunandan; Täschner, Christine; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Büchner, Bernd [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Wenger, Daniela; Tedde, Sandro F. [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Technology Centre, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Eckert, Jürgen [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Jahnstrasse 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Department Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, Jahnstraße 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2016-01-28

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a promising replacement for tungsten filaments as electron emitters in conventional x-ray sources, owing to their higher aspect ratio, superior mechanical stability, chemical inertness, and high electrical and thermal conductivities. Conditions for realizing the best emission behavior from CNTs have been formulated over the last few years. In this paper, we report the relatively less-investigated factor, namely, the influence of the nature of substrate material on the growth as well as field emission characteristics of large-area multiwalled CNTs for their practical application in medical x-ray sources. We compare the morphology of CNTs on a variety of substrates such as stainless steel, copper, molybdenum, graphite, few-layer graphene, and carbon nanowalls grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition following a simple drop-coating of catalyst. We find that CNTs grown on stainless steel and graphite show the best combination of emission characteristics under pulsed operation mode. These studies are helpful in selecting the optimum substrate material for field emission applications. Ex situ studies on field emission degradation of CNTs are presented towards the end.

  2. Effect of substrate material on the growth and field emission characteristics of large-area carbon nanotube forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummethala, Raghunandan; Wenger, Daniela; Tedde, Sandro F.; Täschner, Christine; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Büchner, Bernd; Eckert, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a promising replacement for tungsten filaments as electron emitters in conventional x-ray sources, owing to their higher aspect ratio, superior mechanical stability, chemical inertness, and high electrical and thermal conductivities. Conditions for realizing the best emission behavior from CNTs have been formulated over the last few years. In this paper, we report the relatively less-investigated factor, namely, the influence of the nature of substrate material on the growth as well as field emission characteristics of large-area multiwalled CNTs for their practical application in medical x-ray sources. We compare the morphology of CNTs on a variety of substrates such as stainless steel, copper, molybdenum, graphite, few-layer graphene, and carbon nanowalls grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition following a simple drop-coating of catalyst. We find that CNTs grown on stainless steel and graphite show the best combination of emission characteristics under pulsed operation mode. These studies are helpful in selecting the optimum substrate material for field emission applications. Ex situ studies on field emission degradation of CNTs are presented towards the end.

  3. The effects of droplet characteristics on the surface features in a rain field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R.; Brown, H.; Liu, X.; Duncan, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    The characteristics of the shape of a water surface in response to the impact of simulated raindrops are studied experimentally in a 1.22-m-by-1.22-m water pool with a water depth of 0.3 m. A rain generator consisting of an open-surface water tank with an array of 22-gauge hypodermic needles (typical needle-to-needle spacing of about L0 = 3 . 5 cm) attached to holes in the tank bottom is mounted 2 m above the water pool. The tank is connected to a 2D translation stage to provide a small-radius (volumetric flow rate (nπd3 / 6) through control of the water depth in the generator tank. The water surface features, including the crown, stalk and ring waves, due to the impacts of the drops are measured with a cinematic laser-induced- fluorescence (LIF) technique. The dependence of these features on the rain characteristics are discussed. The support of the National Science Foundation, Division of Ocean Sciences, and the assistance of Mr. Larry Gong are gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Hazard surveillance for workplace magnetic fields. 1: Walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient field magnitude; 2: Field characteristics from waveform measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methner, M.M.; Bowman, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    Recent epidemiologic research has suggested that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) may be associated with leukemia, brain cancer, spontaneous abortions, and Alzheimer`s disease. A walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient ELF-MF levels was developed for use in conducting occupational hazard surveillance. This survey was designed to determine the range of MF levels at different industrial facilities so they could be categorized by MF levels and identified for possible subsequent personal exposure assessments. Industries were selected based on their annual electric power consumption in accordance with the hypothesis that large power consumers would have higher ambient MFs when compared with lower power consumers. Sixty-two facilities within thirteen 2-digit Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) were selected based on their willingness to participate. A traditional industrial hygiene walkaround survey was conducted to identify MF sources, with a special emphasis on work stations.

  5. High-Resolution Source Parameter and Site Characteristics Using Near-Field Recordings - Decoding the Trade-off Problems Between Site and Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Abercrombie, R. E.; Pennington, C.

    2017-12-01

    Recorded seismic waveforms include contributions from earthquake source properties and propagation effects, leading to long-standing trade-off problems between site/path effects and source effects. With near-field recordings, the path effect is relatively small, so the trade-off problem can be simplified to between source and site effects (commonly referred as "kappa value"). This problem is especially significant for small earthquakes where the corner frequencies are within similar ranges of kappa values, so direct spectrum fitting often leads to systematic biases due to corner frequency and magnitude. In response to the significantly increased seismicity rate in Oklahoma, several local networks have been deployed following major earthquakes: the Prague, Pawnee and Fairview earthquakes. Each network provides dense observations within 20 km surrounding the fault zone, recording tens of thousands of aftershocks between M1 to M3. Using near-field recordings in the Prague area, we apply a stacking approach to separate path/site and source effects. The resulting source parameters are consistent with parameters derived from ground motion and spectral ratio methods from other studies; they exhibit spatial coherence within the fault zone for different fault patches. We apply these source parameter constraints in an analysis of kappa values for stations within 20 km of the fault zone. The resulting kappa values show significantly reduced variability compared to those from direct spectral fitting without constraints on the source spectrum; they are not biased by earthquake magnitudes. With these improvements, we plan to apply the stacking analysis to other local arrays to analyze source properties and site characteristics. For selected individual earthquakes, we will also use individual-pair empirical Green's function (EGF) analysis to validate the source parameter estimations.

  6. Influence of a drain field plate on the forward blocking characteristics of an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Sheng-Lei; Yue Tong; Wang Yi; Luo Jun; Mao Wei; Ma Xiao-Hua; Hao Yue; Chen Wei-Wei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of a drain field plate (FP) on the forward blocking characteristics of an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) is investigated. The HEMT with only a gate FP is optimized, and breakdown voltage V BR is saturated at 1085 V for gate—drain spacing L GD ≥ 8 μm. On the basis of the HEMT with a gate FP, a drain FP is added with L GD = 10 μm. For the length of the drain FP L DF ≤ 2 μm, V BR is almost kept at 1085 V, showing no degradation. When L DF exceeds 2 μm, V BR decreases obviously as L DF increases. Moreover, the larger the L DF , the larger the decrease of V BR . It is concluded that the distance between the gate edge and the drain FP edge should be larger than a certain value to prevent the drain FP from affecting the forward blocking voltage and the value should be equal to the L GD at which V BR begins to saturate in the first structure. The electric field and potential distribution are simulated and analyzed to account for the decrease of V BR

  7. [Characteristics of foliar delta13C values of common shrub species in various microhabitats with different karst rocky desertification degrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xue-Lian; Wang, Shi-Jie; Rong, Li

    2011-12-01

    By measuring the foliar delta13C values of 5 common shrub species (Rhamnus davurica, Pyracantha fortuneana, Rubus biflorus, Zanthoxylum planispinum, and Viburnum utile) growing in various microhabitats in Wangjiazhai catchment, a typical karst desertification area in Guizhou Province, this paper studied the spatial heterogeneity of plant water use at niche scale and the response of the heterogeneity to different karst rocky desertification degrees. The foliar delta13C values of the shrub species in the microhabitats followed the order of stony surface > stony gully > stony crevice > soil surface, and those of the majority of the species were more negative in the microhabitat soil surface than in the others. The foliar delta13C values decreased in the sequence of V. utile > R. biflorus > Z. planispinum > P. fortuneana > R. davurica, and the mean foliar delta13C value of the shrubs and that of typical species in various microhabitats all increased with increasing karst rocky desertification degree, differed significantly among different microhabitats. It was suggested that with the increasing degree of karst rocky desertification, the structure and functions of karst habitats were impaired, microhabitats differentiated gradually, and drought degree increased.

  8. Formation and physical characteristics of van der Waals molecules, cations, and anions: Estimates of complete basis set values

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradník, Rudolf; Šroubková, Libuše

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 1 (2005), s. 52-63 ISSN 0020-7608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : intermolecular complexes * van der Waals species * ab initio calculations * complete basis set values * estimates Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.192, year: 2005

  9. In-field frequencies and characteristics of oilseed rape with double herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz-Pfeilstetter, Antje; Zwerger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    When growing different transgenic herbicide-resistant oilseed rape cultivars side by side, seeds with multiple herbicide resistance can arise, possibly causing problems for the management of volunteer plants. Large-scale field experiments were performed in the years 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 in order to investigate the frequencies and the consequences of the transfer of herbicide resistance genes from transgenic oilseed rape to cultivars grown on neighboring agricultural fields. Transgenic oilseed rape with resistance to glufosinate-ammonium (LibertyLink, LL) and with glyphosate resistance (RoundupReady, RR), respectively, was sown in adjacent 0.5 ha plots, surrounded by about 8 ha non-transgenic oilseed rape. The plots and the field were either in direct contact (0.5 m gap width) or they were separated by 10 m of fallow land. Seed samples taken during harvest in the transgenic plots at different distances were investigated for progeny with resistance to the respective other herbicide. It was found that outcrossing frequencies were reduced to different extents by a 10 m isolation distance. In addition to pollen-mediated transgene flow as a result of outcrossing, we found considerable seed-mediated gene flow by adventitious dispersal of transgenic seeds through the harvesting machine. Volunteer plants with double herbicide resistance emerging in the transgenic plots after harvest were selected by suitable applications of the complementary herbicides Basta and Roundup Ultra. In both years, double-resistant volunteers were largely restricted to the inner edges of the plots. Expression analysis under controlled laboratory conditions of double-resistant plants generated by manual crosses revealed stability of transgene expression even at elevated temperatures. Greenhouse tests with double-resistant oilseed rape plants gave no indication that the sensitivity to a range of different herbicides is changed as compared to non-transgenic oilseed rape.

  10. Experimental study of dielectric characteristics of rocks in a high-frequency field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, S.

    1982-01-01

    Dielectric permeability (epsilon) as an electrical property of rocks has been used in recent years as the new parameter of well logging. Consequently a study was made of the dependence of epsilon of rocks on different factors. It was found that epsilon of rocks depends not only on minerals contained in them, their properties and distribution, but also on the frequency of the field, temperature and content of the mineralized water in the bed. It was indicated that for sedimentary rocks with low content of clay, their epsilon depends mainly on the content of water, and between epsilon and water saturation there is an approximately rectilinear relationship. The epsilon of dry and wet rocks differs 3-5-fold, so that with the help of epsilon one can determine flooding of the bed. Since epsilon increases with a rise in the content of clay in the rocks, with dielectric logging of the flooded bed it is necessary to make the corresponding correction. Under conditions of frequency of the field 60 Mz, epsilon in the NaCl solution decreases with an increase in mineralization, but the epsilon of the soda-containing rocks increases with an increase in mineralization. However, with mineralization less than 1 x 10/sup -2/, its influence on epsilon does not exceed 10%. The epsilon of water containing rocks diminishes with a rise in temperature. In addition, the epsilon of rocks drops with an increase in field frequency. With an increase in frequency, there is a decrease in influence of different factors (mineralization, distribution of minerals, content of clay, etc.) on the epsilon of rocks. At high frequencies, a distinct relationship is observed only between the epsilon and the water content of the rocks. Consequently it is expedient to improve the frequency of measurement to reveal the flooded beds. According to the data of dispersion of epsilon with different frequencies, one can determine the content of quality of the bed using electromagnetic logging.

  11. Velocity overshoot decay mechanisms in compound semiconductor field-effect transistors with a submicron characteristic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jyegal, Jang

    2015-01-01

    Velocity overshoot is a critically important nonstationary effect utilized for the enhanced performance of submicron field-effect devices fabricated with high-electron-mobility compound semiconductors. However, the physical mechanisms of velocity overshoot decay dynamics in the devices are not known in detail. Therefore, a numerical analysis is conducted typically for a submicron GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor in order to elucidate the physical mechanisms. It is found that there exist three different mechanisms, depending on device bias conditions. Specifically, at large drain biases corresponding to the saturation drain current (dc) region, the velocity overshoot suddenly begins to drop very sensitively due to the onset of a rapid decrease of the momentum relaxation time, not the mobility, arising from the effect of velocity-randomizing intervalley scattering. It then continues to drop rapidly and decays completely by severe mobility reduction due to intervalley scattering. On the other hand, at small drain biases corresponding to the linear dc region, the velocity overshoot suddenly begins to drop very sensitively due to the onset of a rapid increase of thermal energy diffusion by electrons in the channel of the gate. It then continues to drop rapidly for a certain channel distance due to the increasing thermal energy diffusion effect, and later completely decays by a sharply decreasing electric field. Moreover, at drain biases close to a dc saturation voltage, the mechanism is a mixture of the above two bias conditions. It is suggested that a large secondary-valley energy separation is essential to increase the performance of submicron devices

  12. Simulation of diode characteristics of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors with symmetric source and drain contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi; Zhang, Xixiang

    2011-01-01

    The diode characteristics of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) with symmetric source and drain contacts have been experimentally found at zero gate voltage (Li J. et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 92 (2008) 133111). We calculate this characteristic using a semiclassical method based on Schottky barrier transistor mechanism. The influences of metal work function, the diameter of the carbon nanotubes and the dielectric thickness on the rectification behavior have been studied. The calculation results show that the metal with a higher work function results in a better diode characteristics for a p-type CNTFET. For single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with different band gaps, both forward current and reverse current increase with decreasing band gap, but the ratio of forward current to reverse current decreases with decreasing band gap. This result is well consistent with the experimental observations reported previously. The simulation of the dielectric thickness effect indicates that the thinner the dielectric layer, the better the rectification behavior. The CNTFETs without a bottom gate could not show the diode characteristics, which is consistent with the reported experimental observation. © 2011 Europhysics Letters Association.

  13. Simulation of diode characteristics of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors with symmetric source and drain contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi

    2011-09-01

    The diode characteristics of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) with symmetric source and drain contacts have been experimentally found at zero gate voltage (Li J. et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 92 (2008) 133111). We calculate this characteristic using a semiclassical method based on Schottky barrier transistor mechanism. The influences of metal work function, the diameter of the carbon nanotubes and the dielectric thickness on the rectification behavior have been studied. The calculation results show that the metal with a higher work function results in a better diode characteristics for a p-type CNTFET. For single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with different band gaps, both forward current and reverse current increase with decreasing band gap, but the ratio of forward current to reverse current decreases with decreasing band gap. This result is well consistent with the experimental observations reported previously. The simulation of the dielectric thickness effect indicates that the thinner the dielectric layer, the better the rectification behavior. The CNTFETs without a bottom gate could not show the diode characteristics, which is consistent with the reported experimental observation. © 2011 Europhysics Letters Association.

  14. Dynamic characteristics of far-field radiation of current modulated phase-locked diode laser arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R. A.; Hartnett, K.

    1987-01-01

    A versatile and powerful streak camera/frame grabber system for studying the evolution of the near and far field radiation patterns of diode lasers was assembled and tested. Software needed to analyze and display the data acquired with the steak camera/frame grabber system was written and the total package used to record and perform preliminary analyses on the behavior of two types of laser, a ten emitter gain guided array and a flared waveguide Y-coupled array. Examples of the information which can be gathered with this system are presented.

  15. Preliminary study on the characteristics of carbon and oxygen isotopes in the Shiziping geothermal field groundwater in Emei Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiujing; Jia Shuyuan

    2000-01-01

    Emei Mountain is a well-known scenic tourism spot in China. In order to promote the development of tourist trade, the authors have explored the hydrothermal water in Emei Mountain. At the beginning of 1998, the hydrothermal water was successfully drilled from the Shiziping geothermal field. In the process of prospecting the hydrothermal water, the authors adopted the geochemical method such as carbon and oxygen isotopes. The result indicates that the groundwater of different genetic types has different constitution characteristics of carbon and oxygen isotopes. This provides the important basis for finding out the forming conditions of underground hydrothermal water. So, it is prospective to study the growth characteristics of hydrothermal water with the carbon and oxygen isotopes of HCO 3 in groundwater

  16. Influence of surface charge on the transport characteristics of nanowire-field effect transistors in liquid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozaki, Daijiro, E-mail: daijiro.nozaki@gmail.com, E-mail: research@nano.tu-dresden.de [Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Kunstmann, Jens [Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Zörgiebel, Felix [Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfAED), TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Cuniberti, Gianaurelio [Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfAED), TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Dresden Center for Computational Materials Science (DCCMS), TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    One dimensional nanowire field effect transistors (NW-FETs) are a promising platform for sensor applications. The transport characteristics of NW-FETs are strongly modified in liquid environment due to the charging of surface functional groups accompanied with protonation or deprotonation. In order to investigate the influence of surface charges and ionic concentrations on the transport characteristics of Schottky-barrier NW-FETs, we have combined the modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory with the Landauer-Büttiker transport formalism. For a typical device, the model is able to capture the reduction of the sensitivity of NW-FETs in ionic solutions due to the screening from counter ions as well as a local gating from surface functional groups. Our approach allows to model, to investigate, and to optimize realistic Schottky-barrier NW-FET devices in liquid environment.

  17. An Analysis of Characteristics of Magnetostatic Waves Propagating in Nonhomogeneous Fields Across the Ferrospinel Film Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikanova, Yu. V.; Vinogradova, M. R.; Mitlina, L. A.

    2018-06-01

    The amplitude-frequency characteristics (AFCs) of magnetostatic waves in the films of magnesium-manganese ferrospinels with nanostructured inhomogeneities are discussed. A common effect, observed in the film AFCs under different process conditions, is the `oscillations of propagation' of magnetostatic waves as a function of the frequency. The oscillation pattern is thought to depend on the inhomogeneous exchange parameters and the surface anisotropy constants. The wave instability is characterized by the resonant interaction of the dipole magnetostatic waves with the surface spin waves. It is shown that the ferrospinel films with periodic nanostructured inhomogeneities of 30-40 nm could be treated as magnon crystals. An inclusion of the inhomogeneity into consideration allows one to provide reasoning for the formation of the rejection bands within the range 9-12 GHz, whose frequencies correspond to Bragg frequencies.

  18. PROFESSIONAL AND NONPROFESSIONAL EVENT MANAGERS: AGENTS’ CHARACTERISTICS OF EVENT-ACTIVITIES FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Nikolaevna Startseva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main research question focuses on studying of the «new», non-traditional, recent forming professional group of event managers in modernRussia. This article provides the event group boundaries, its numerical and structural composition. On the basis of existing community event stereotypes, perceptions of event managers, supervisors’ event agencies and customers such the all agents included in the event activities, the author designed the image of professional and nonprofessional manager.Scientific, theoretical and practical significance of the work is leading to characterize agent-field-event activities and outline the prospects for the professional groups’ formation of event managers in modernRussia.Conceptuality and validity of the study is based on using theoretical and methodological comparative, functional and activity approaches.The obtained results can be used for further investigations in the event managers’ field and for other professional-groups, as well as useful in the study plan such as «Sociology of professions and professional groups» and «Sociology of culture and spiritual life».

  19. Characteristics of Xanthosoma sagittifolium roots during cooking, using physicochemical analysis, uniaxial compression, multispectral imaging and low field NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boakye, Abena Achiaa; Gudjónsdóttir, María; Skytte, Jacob Lercke

    2017-01-01

    and white varieties of cocoyam roots were thus analysed by low field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry, multispectral imaging, uniaxial compression testing, and relevant physicochemical analysis in the current study. Both varieties had similar dry matter content, as well as physical and mechanical...... of that spectral region for rapid analysis of dry matter and water content of the roots. The small, but significant differences in the structural and gelatinization characteristics of the two varieties indicated that they may not be equally suited for further processing, e.g. to flours or starches. Processors thus...

  20. Engineering characterization of ground motion. Task I. Effects of characteristics of free-field motion on structural response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.; Merz, K.L.; Tokarz, F.J.; Idriss, I.M.; Power, M.S.; Sadigh, K.

    1984-05-01

    This report presents the results of the first task of a two-task study on the engineering characterization of earthquake ground motion for nuclear power plant design. The overall objective of this study is to develop recommendations for methods for selecting design response spectra or acceleration time histories to be used to characterize motion at the foundation level of nuclear power plants. Task I of the study develops a basis for selecting design response spectra, taking into account the characteristics of free-field ground motion found to be significant in causing structural damage.

  1. Revisiting the role of trap-assisted-tunneling process on current-voltage characteristics in tunnel field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yasuhisa; Mori, Yoshiaki; Sato, Shingo; Mallik, Abhijit

    2018-04-01

    This paper discusses the role of trap-assisted-tunneling process in controlling the ON- and OFF-state current levels and its impacts on the current-voltage characteristics of a tunnel field-effect transistor. Significant impacts of high-density traps in the source region are observed that are discussed in detail. With regard to recent studies on isoelectronic traps, it has been discovered that deep level density must be minimized to suppress the OFF-state leakage current, as is well known, whereas shallow levels can be utilized to control the ON-state current level. A possible mechanism is discussed based on simulation results.

  2. Engineering characterization of ground motion. Task I. Effects of characteristics of free-field motion on structural response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.; Merz, K.L.; Tokarz, F.J.; Idriss, I.M.; Power, M.S.; Sadigh, K.

    1984-05-01

    This report presents the results of the first task of a two-task study on the engineering characterization of earthquake ground motion for nuclear power plant design. The overall objective of this study is to develop recommendations for methods for selecting design response spectra or acceleration time histories to be used to characterize motion at the foundation level of nuclear power plants. Task I of the study develops a basis for selecting design response spectra, taking into account the characteristics of free-field ground motion found to be significant in causing structural damage

  3. On the tenth value distance of the photon field along the maze of high-energy linear accelerator vaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaohui; Chin, Lee M

    2018-03-01

    There is a wide range in the reported photon tenth value distance (TVD) in the maze of high-energy linear accelerator vaults. In order to gain insight into the appropriate use of the TVD value during door design, we performed measurements of the photon dose in the maze of four vaults. In addition, our study represents the first to describe a scenario where an inner borated polyethylene (BPE) door for neutron shielding is installed in the maze downstream to Point A, the point on the maze centerline that is just visible from the isocenter. The measurements were made along the maze centerline at 1 m above the floor. In all cases, the accelerator operated at a nominal energy of 15 MV. Of the four vaults, three were equipped with an inner BPE door at a distance of 1.0-2.1 m downstream to Point A. The door was made of 10.16 cm (4″) BPE sandwiched between two 0.635 cm (1/4″) steel face plates. The photon dose in the maze without a BPE door decreases exponentially with a characteristic TVD of 6 m beyond a distance of 2.5 m from Point A. The presence of a BPE door in an identical vault not only reduces the photon intensity in the maze by about an order of magnitude, but also softens the energy spectrum with a shortened TVD of 4.7 m, significantly lessening the shielding burden at the outer maze entrance. In contrast to the common use of Point A as the reference point to specify distance, the photon dose in the maze with a BPE door located downstream to Point A can be satisfactorily described as exponential functions of the distance measured from the door, which shows good consistency among the three vaults of different room parameters. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  4. Trace Element Geochemistry of Basaltic Tephra in Maar Cores; Implications for Centre Correlation, Field Evolution, and Mantle Source Characteristics of the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, J. L.; Leonard, G.; Timm, C.; Wilson, C. J. N.; Neil, H.; Millet, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Establishing volcanic hazard and risk management strategies hinges on a detailed understanding of the type, timing and tephra dispersal of past eruptions. In order to unravel the pyroclastic eruption history of a volcanic field, genetic links between the deposits and eruption source centre need to be established. The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF; New Zealand) has been active for ca. 200 kyr and comprises ca. 53 individual centres covering an area of ca. 360km2. These centres show a range of sizes and eruptive styles from maar craters and tuff rings, to scoria cones and lava flows consistent with both phreatomagmatic and magmatic eruptions. Superimposition of the metropolitan area of Auckland (ca. 1.4 million inhabitants) on the volcanic field makes it critically important to assess the characteristics of the volcanic activity, on which to base assessment and management of the consequent hazards. Here we present a geochemical approach for correlating tephra deposits to their source centres. To acquire the most complete stratigraphic record of pyroclastic events, maar crater cores from different locations, covering various depths and thus ages across the field were selected. Magnetic susceptibility and x-ray density scanning of the cores was used to identify the basaltic tephra horizons, which were sampled and in-situ analysis of individual shards undertaken for major and trace elements using EPMA and LA-ICP-MS techniques, respectively. Our results show that tephra shard trace element ratios are comparable and complementary to the AVF whole rock database. The use of specific trace element ratios (e.g. Gd/Yb vs. Zr/Yb) allows us to fingerprint and cross correlate tephra horizons between cores and, when coupled with newly acquired 40Ar-39Ar age dating and eruption size estimates, correlate horizons to their source centres. This integrated style of study can provide valuable information to help volcanic hazard management and forecasting, and mitigation of related risks.

  5. Effects of Intra-Storm Soil Moisture and Runoff Characteristics on Ephemeral Gully Development: Evidence from a No-Till Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir R. Karimov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ephemeral gully erosion, prevalent on agricultural landscapes of the Great Plains, is recognized as a large source of soil loss and a substantial contributor to the sedimentation of small ponds and large reservoirs. Multi-seasonal field studies can provide needed information on ephemeral gully development and its relationship to physical factors associated with field characteristics, rainfall patterns, runoff hydrograph, and management practices. In this study, an ephemeral gully on a no-till cultivated crop field in central Kansas, U.S., was monitored in 2013 and 2014. Data collection included continuous sub-hourly precipitation, soil moisture, soil temperature, and 15 field surveys of cross-sectional profiles in the headcut and channelized parts of the gully. Rainfall excess from a contributing catchment was calculated with the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP model for all storm events and validated on channel flow measurements. Twelve significant runoff events with hydraulic shear stresses higher than the critical value were identified to potentially cause soil erosion in three out of fourteen survey periods. Analysis of shear stress imposed by peak channel flow on soil surface, antecedent soil moisture condition, and channel shape at individual events provided the basis on which to extend the definition of the critical shear stress function by incorporating the intra-storm changes in soil moisture content. One potential form of this function was suggested and tested with collected data. Similar field studies in other agriculturally-dominated areas and laboratory experiments can develop datasets for a better understanding of the physical mechanisms associated with ephemeral gully progression.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of Discharge Characteristics in Inhomogeneous Fields under Air Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Holbøll, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    voltages and a laminar air flow up to 22 m/s. In the first setup, the gap was exposed to a variable DC potential of up to 100 kV in order to create space charges in the vicinity of the electrode. The impact of the air flow on partial discharges and the dynamic behavior of the space charges is evaluated...... by means of partial discharge measurement and ultraviolet photography. The results show that the air flow increases the frequency of partial discharges in the gap due to an increased rate of space charge removal in the high field area around the tip of the electrode. The partial discharge behavior shows...... higher dependency on air flow at positive tip polarity as compared to the negative polarity. In the second setup, the standard impulse voltage created by a multistage impulse voltage generator was superimposed to a DC voltage, which continuously created corona and space charges around the tip...

  7. Calculation of local characteristics of velocity field in turbulent coolant flow in fast reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlbauer, P.

    1981-08-01

    Experience is described gained with the application of computer code VELASCO in calculating the velocity field in fast reactor fuel assemblies taking into account configuration disturbances due to fuel pin displacement. Theoretical results are compared with the results of experiments conducted by UJV on aerodynamic models HEM-1 (model of the fuel assembly central part) and HEM-2 (model of the fuel assembly peripheral part). The results are reported of calculating the distribution of shear stress in wetted rod surfaces and in the assembly wall (model HEM-2) and the corresponding experimental results are shown. The shear stress distribution in wetted surfaces obtained using the VELASCO code allowed forming an opinion on the code capability of comprising local parameters of turbulent flow through a fuel rod bundle. The applicability was also tested of the code for calculating mean velocities in the individual zones, eg., in elementary cells. (B.S.)

  8. Characteristics of symptomatic chronic subdural haematomas on high-field MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminogo, M.; Moroki, J.; Ochi, A.; Ichikura, A.; Onizuka, M.; Shibayama, A.; Miyake, H.; Shibata, S.

    1999-01-01

    We studied the frequency of various features of the appearances on high-field MRI in symptomatic patients with chronic subdural haematomas (CSDH). The ability to predict recurrence after treatment with one burr-hole procedure using MRI was evaluated. Recurrence was seen in three haematomas of group A and one of group B. Reoperation was most closely correlated with diffuse low signal on T2-weighted images but not with a multiloculated appearance. Low signal on T2 weighting was surprisingly high (72.5 %) and the age of the haematomas as estimated on the MRI correlated well with the interval between the onset of symptoms and MRI. Our findings support the causative role of recurrent bleeding in the enlargement of CSDH. (orig.)

  9. Structural characteristics of proposed ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] TF [toroidal field] coil conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, C.R.; Miller, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of transverse loading on a cable-in-conduit conductor which has been proposed for the toroidal field coils of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The primary components of this conductor are a loose cable of superconducting wires, a thin-wall tube for helium containment, and a U-shaped structural channel. A method is given where the geometry of this conductor can be optimized for a given set of operating conditions. It is shown, using finite-element modeling, that the structural channel is effective in supporting loads due to transverse forces and internal pressure. In addition, it is shown that the superconducting cable is effectively shielded from external transverse loads that might otherwise degrade its current carrying capacity. 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Characteristics of carrier-generated field-effect transistors with pentacene/vanadium pentoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, M.; Nakai, K.; Baba, A.; Shinbo, K.; Kato, K.; Kaneko, F.; Lee, C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the driving mechanism of carrier-generated organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with pentacene and vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ) layers is discussed. In this study, large on-currents were observed in an OFET with a 35-nm V 2 O 5 layer. Devices with aluminum (Al)/pentacene/V 2 O 5 /Al layer structures were also prepared. These devices exhibited a large current density in spite of their high carrier injection barriers between each layer and the Al electrodes. Moreover, new absorption bands corresponding to the radical cation absorption of pentacene were observed within the absorption spectrum of the pentacene and V 2 O 5 mixed layers. It was inferred that the charge transfer (CT) complexes that formed at the interface between the pentacene and V 2 O 5 layers were dissociated by the applied gate voltage and that the generated holes contributed to driving the OFETs.

  11. Topological characteristics of the spectrum of the Schrodinger operator in a magnetic field and in a weak potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyskova, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the two-dimensional Schrodinger operator H in a periodic magnetic field B(x,y) and in an electric field with periodic potential V(x,y). It is assumed that the functions B(x,y) and V(x,y) are periodic with respect to some lattice in R 2 and that the m agnetic flux through a unit cell is an integral number. The operator H is represented as a direct integral over the two-dimensional torus of the reciprocal lattice of elliptic self-adjoint operators H /sub p1/, /sub p2/ which possess a discrete spectrum lambda /sub j/ (p 1 ,p 2 ), j = 0,1,2.... On the basis of an exactly integrable case - the Schrodinger operator in a constant magnetic field - perturbation theory is used to investigate the typical dispersion laws lambda /sub j/ (p 1 ,p 2 ) and establish their topological characteristics (quantum numbers). A theorem is proved: In the general case, the Schrodinger operator has a coutable number of dispersion laws with arbitrary quantum numbers in no way related to one another or to thflux of the external magnetic field

  12. The microwave propagation and backscattering characteristics of vegetation. [wheat, sorghum, soybeans and corn fields in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaby, F. T. (Principal Investigator); Wilson, E. A.

    1984-01-01

    A semi-empirical model for microwave backscatter from vegetation was developed and a complete set of canope attenuation measurements as a function of frequency, incidence angle and polarization was acquired. The semi-empirical model was tested on corn and sorghum data over the 8 to 35 GHz range. The model generally provided an excellent fit to the data as measured by the correlation and rms error between observed and predicted data. The model also predicted reasonable values of canopy attenuation. The attenuation data was acquired over the 1.6 to 10.2 GHz range for the linear polarizations at approximately 20 deg and 50 deg incidence angles for wheat and soybeans. An attenuation model is proposed which provides reasonable agreement with the measured data.

  13. Effect of Tourist Characteristic, Marine Tourism Demand, and Number of Visits to the Value Perceptions and Willingness to Pay to Environmental Marine Tourism in Ambon City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papilaya, Renoldy L.

    2018-02-01

    Development of tourism in this era must balance between supply and demand aspects. The tendency of policy makers pay more attention to aspects of supply than demand aspect will lead to the development of tourist products and services do not get good results. This research examined the relationship between marine tourism demand, characteristics and number of visits to the level of perception and willingness to pay (WTP) for a tourists on a marine tourism destination in Ambon city. Respondents come from overseas tourists, domestic and local, amounting to 140 people. The analysis was performed descriptively and further using SEM analysis Amos 19.00 with path analysis. The analysis shows the close relationship between marine tourism demand variables, characteristics, and the number of tourist visits to the perception of value and WTP for tourists. Variable marine tourism demand when connected directly to the tourists perception and WTP tends to correlate negatively than when using a variable as a variable number of tourist visits as a intervening variables. Instead tourists characteristic variables are positively correlated directly or indirectly with the perception of value and WTP for tourists. It is hoped that with this study will motivate tourism policy makers and local communities to be concerned and studied aspects of perception, WTP, marine tourism demand, the number of tourist visits and the characteristics that turned out to be related to each other.

  14. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Kamiyaku Town (wind characteristics investigation); Kamiyakucho ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at the above town located at the northern end of the Yakushima island, Kagoshima Prefecture. The exponential index of the wind speed distribution in the vertical direction is 6.06 with all the directions averaged, and is so high as 8.4/13.6 in the wind directions (W/E). Prudence should be exercised, when to estimate the wind speed at the wind turbine hub altitude, against disjunction from the simple exponential law due to geographical peculiarities of the observation location. Turbulence intensity is low and is 0.15 when the wind speed is 2m/s or more, not exerting an ill effect on wind power development. As for the total wind direction occurrence rate on the prevalent wind axis, 78.2% is recorded, which is much higher than the reference value (60%). The average wind speed on this wind axis is high, and this shows that the location is quite suitable for wind power development. The annual average wind speed of 6.3m/s is much higher than the reference value, this again promising a success. The wind energy density of 478W/m{sup 2} is sufficiently high, as compared with the reference value (215W/m{sup 2}). Since there are possibilities of a maximum instantaneous wind speed of over 60m/s, caution is to be used in determining wind endurance for the wind turbine design. The annual capacity ratios for the 150/300/750kW wind turbine models are 33.8/36.5/36.9%, respectively, higher than the NEDO-provided reference value (17% or higher) and predicting sufficient power generation. (NEDO)

  15. Effect of nanocomposite gate-dielectric properties on pentacene microstructure and field-effect transistor characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Hsi; Wang, Chun-Chieh

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the effect of surface energy and roughness of the nanocomposite gate dielectric on pentacene morphology and electrical properties of pentacene OTFT are reported. Nanoparticles TiO2 were added in the polyimide matrix to form a nanocomposite which has a significantly different surface characteristic from polyimide, leading to a discrepancy in the structural properties of pentacene growth. A growth mode of pentacene deposited on the nanocomposite is proposed to explain successfully the effect of surface properties of nanocomposite gate dielectric such as surface energy and roughness on the pentacene morphology and electrical properties of OTFT. To obtain the lower surface energy and smoother surface of nanocomposite gate dielectric that is responsible for the desired crystalline, microstructure of pentacene and electrical properties of device, a bottom contact OTFT-pentacene deposited on the double-layer nanocomposite gate dielectric consisting of top smoothing layer of the neat polyimide and bottom layer of (PI+ nano-TiO2 particles) nanocomposite has been successfully demonstrated to exhibit very promising performance including high current on to off ratio of about 6 x 10(5), threshold voltage of -10 V and moderately high filed mobility of 0.15 cm2V(-1)s(-1).

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of beam characteristics from small fields based on TrueBeam flattening-filter-free mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Zhongsu; Yue, Haizhen; Zhang, Yibao; Wu, Hao; Cheng, Jinsheng; Su, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Through the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of 6 and 10 MV flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams from Varian TrueBeam accelerator, this study aims to find the best incident electron distribution for further studying the small field characteristics of these beams. By incorporating the training materials of Varian on the geometry and material parameters of TrueBeam Linac head, the 6 and 10 MV FFF beams were modelled using the BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes, where the percentage depth doses (PDDs) and the off-axis ratios (OARs) curves of fields ranging from 4 × 4 to 40 × 40 cm 2 were simulated for both energies by adjusting the incident beam energy, radial intensity distribution and angular spread, respectively. The beam quality and relative output factor (ROF) were calculated. The simulations and measurements were compared using Gamma analysis method provided by Verisoft program (PTW, Freiburg, Germany), based on which the optimal MC model input parameters were selected and were further used to investigate the beam characteristics of small fields. The Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM), mono-energetic energy and angular spread of the resultant incident Gaussian radial intensity electron distribution were 0.75 mm, 6.1 MeV and 0.9° for the nominal 6 MV FFF beam, and 0.7 mm, 10.8 MeV and 0.3° for the nominal 10 MV FFF beam respectively. The simulation was mostly comparable to the measurement. Gamma criteria of 1 mm/1 % (local dose) can be met by all PDDs of fields larger than 1 × 1 cm 2 , and by all OARs of no larger than 20 × 20 cm 2 , otherwise criteria of 1 mm/2 % can be fulfilled. Our MC simulated ROFs agreed well with the measured ROFs of various field sizes (the discrepancies were less than 1 %), except for the 1 × 1 cm 2 field. The MC simulation agrees well with the measurement and the proposed model parameters can be clinically used for further dosimetric studies of 6 and 10 MV FFF beams

  17. [Soil respiration characteristics in winter wheat field in North China Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyue; Li, Jun; Lu, Peiling; Wang, Yinghong; Yu, Qiang

    2004-09-01

    Experiments were conducted at the Yucheng Comprehensive Experimental Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences during 2002-2003 to investigate the respiration of a pulverous sandstone soil under cultivation of winter wheat over a growth season. The effluent CO2 was collected and analyzed by the static-chamber/gas chromatography (GC) method at a frequency of once a week in spring and autumn, once two weeks in winter, twice a week for straw manure treatment, once a week for no straw manure treatment and nitrogen fertilization treatment in summer. The results indicated that diurnal variation of soil respiration rate showed a single peak in typical winter wheat farmlands in the North China Plain, and reached the highest at about 13 o'clock, and the lowest at about 4 o'clock in the early morning. In winter wheat growth season, the soil respiration rate was 31.23-606.85 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) under straw manure, 28.99-549.66 x m(-2) x h(-1) under no straw manure, 10.46-590.86 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) in N0, 16.11-349.88 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) in N100, 12.25-415.00 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) in N200, and 23.01-410.58 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) in N300, showing a similar seasonal variation tendency with soil temperature. Among all treatments, the straw manure had the most distinct soil respiration, though the soil respiration also increased slightly with increasing nitrogen fertilization. Soil respiration increased exponentially with increasing soil temperature, and the correlation of soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm was the best. This relationship was usually described with the Q10 model, which represented the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature. Q10 was not a fixed value, which varied with the depth at which the temperature was measured and the depth of the active soil layer and soil temperature. At same time, the Q10 value decreased with increasing soil temperature. Soil water content was another important factor affecting soil respiration rate, but in this region, the relationship

  18. Characteristics and Antitumor Activity of Morchella esculenta Polysaccharide Extracted by Pulsed Electric Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta have been proven to be functional and helpful for humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical structure and anti-proliferating and antitumor activities of a Morchella esculenta polysaccharide (MEP extracted by pulsed electric field (PEF in submerged fermentation. The endo-polysaccharide was separated and purified by column chromatography and Gel permeation chromatography, and analyzed by gas chromatography. The MEP with an average molecular weight of 81,835 Da consisted of xylose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose and galactose at the ratio of 5.4:5.0:6.5:7.8:72.3. Structure of MEP was further analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and 1H and 13C liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Apoptosis tests proved that MEP could inhibit the proliferation and growth of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner within 48 h. This study provides more information on chemical structure of anti-proliferating polysaccharides isolated from Morchella esculenta.

  19. Emission characteristics of PBDEs during flame-retardant plastics extruding process: field investigation and laboratorial simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Li, Ying; Li, Jinhui; Chen, Yuan; Li, Huafen

    2017-10-01

    Though mechanical recycling of WEEE plastics is supposed to be a promising method, PBDEs release and the resulting contamination during its processing remain unclear yet. The distribution of PBDEs pollution in production lines was investigated from two flame-retardant plastic modification plants in Southern China. This was followed by laboratory simulation experiments to characterize the emission processes. PBDEs concentrations ranged from 37 to 31,305 ng/L in cooling water and from 40,043 to 216,653 ng/g dry wt in solid samples taken during the field investigation. In the laboratory simulation, concentrations ranged from 146 to 433 ng/L in cooling water and from 411,436 to 747,516 ng/Nm 3 in flue gas. All samples were dominated by BDE-209 among the congeners. Temperatures and impurities in plastic substrate can significantly affect PBDEs release. Special attention should be paid to the risks of water directly discharge from the cooling system, especially for the biological sludge and sediments, as well as flue gas emissions to the environment.

  20. Numerical Investigations on Electric Field Characteristics with Respect to Capacitive Detection of Free-Flying Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Koltay

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a multi-disciplinary simulation of a capacitive droplet sensor based on an open plate capacitor as transducing element is presented. The numerical simulations are based on the finite volume method (FVM, including calculations of an electric field which changes according to the presence of a liquid droplet. The volume of fluid (VOF method is applied for the simulation of the ejection process of a liquid droplet out of a dispenser nozzle. The simulations were realised using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD software CFD ACE+. The investigated capacitive sensing principle enables to determine the volume of a micro droplet passing the sensor capacitor due to the induced change in capacity. It could be found that single droplets in the considered volume range of 5 nL < Vdrop < 100 nL lead to a linear change of the capacity up to ΔQ < 30 fC. The sensitivity of the focused capacitor geometry was evaluated to be Si = 0.3 fC/nL. The simulation results are validated by experiments which exhibit good agreement.