WorldWideScience

Sample records for field-controlled magnetic order

  1. Low Cost Magnetic Field Controller

    CERN Document Server

    Malafronte, Alexandre A

    2005-01-01

    The Physics Institute of the University of São Paulo (IFUSP) is building a continuous wave (cw) racetrack microtron. This machine has several dipole magnets, like the first and second stage recirculators, and a number of smaller ones in the transport line. These magnets must produce very stable magnetic fields to allow the beam to recirculate along very precise orbits and paths. Furthermore, the fields must be reproducible with great accuracy to allow an easier setup of the machine, though the effects of hysteresis tend to jeopardize the reproducibility. If the magnetic field is chosen by setting the current in the coils, temperature effects over the magnet and power supply tend to change the field. This work describes an inexpensive magnetic field controller that allows a direct measure of the magnetic field through an Hall probe. It includes a microcontroller running a feedback algorithm to control the power supply, in order to keep the field stable and reproducible. The controller can also execu...

  2. DC-based magnetic field controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotter, Dale K. (Shelley, ID); Rankin, Richard A. (Ammon, ID); Morgan, John P,. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic field controller for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage.

  3. DC-based magnetic field controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.; Morgan, J.P.

    1994-05-31

    A magnetic field controller is described for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a Hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage. 1 fig.

  4. Field-controlled magnetic order in the quantum spin-ladder system (Hpip)2CuBr4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielemann, B.; Rüegg, C.; Kiefer, K.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is used to investigate the field-induced, antiferromagnetically ordered state in the two-leg spin-ladder material (Hpip)(2)CuBr4. This "classical" phase, a consequence of weak interladder coupling, is nevertheless highly unconventional: its properties are influenced strongly b...

  5. Magnetic-field-controlled reconfigurable semiconductor logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sungjung; Kim, Taeyueb; Shin, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ju Young; Hong, Jinki; Song, Jin Dong; Chang, Joonyeon; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Rhie, Kungwon; Han, Suk Hee; Shin, Kyung-Ho; Johnson, Mark

    2013-02-07

    Logic devices based on magnetism show promise for increasing computational efficiency while decreasing consumed power. They offer zero quiescent power and yet combine novel functions such as programmable logic operation and non-volatile built-in memory. However, practical efforts to adapt a magnetic device to logic suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio and other performance attributes that are not adequate for logic gates. Rather than exploiting magnetoresistive effects that result from spin-dependent transport of carriers, we have approached the development of a magnetic logic device in a different way: we use the phenomenon of large magnetoresistance found in non-magnetic semiconductors in high electric fields. Here we report a device showing a strong diode characteristic that is highly sensitive to both the sign and the magnitude of an external magnetic field, offering a reversible change between two different characteristic states by the application of a magnetic field. This feature results from magnetic control of carrier generation and recombination in an InSb p-n bilayer channel. Simple circuits combining such elementary devices are fabricated and tested, and Boolean logic functions including AND, OR, NAND and NOR are performed. They are programmed dynamically by external electric or magnetic signals, demonstrating magnetic-field-controlled semiconductor reconfigurable logic at room temperature. This magnetic technology permits a new kind of spintronic device, characterized as a current switch rather than a voltage switch, and provides a simple and compact platform for non-volatile reconfigurable logic devices.

  6. Magnetic Field Control of Combustion Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmina, I.; Valdmanis, R.; Zake, M.; Kalis, H.; Marinaki, M.; Strautins, U.

    2016-08-01

    Experimental studies and mathematical modelling of the effects of magnetic field on combustion dynamics at thermo-chemical conversion of biomass are carried out with the aim of providing control of the processes developing in the reaction zone of swirling flame. The joint research of the magnetic field effect on the combustion dynamics includes the estimation of this effect on the formation of the swirling flame dynamics, flame temperature and composition, providing analysis of the magnetic field effects on the flame characteristics. The results of experiments have shown that the magnetic field exerts the influence on the flow velocity components by enhancing a swirl motion in the flame reaction zone with swirl-enhanced mixing of the axial flow of volatiles with cold air swirl, by cooling the flame reaction zone and by limiting the thermo-chemical conversion of volatiles. Mathematical modelling of magnetic field effect on the formation of the flame dynamics confirms that the electromagnetic force, which is induced by the electric current surrounding the flame, leads to field-enhanced increase of flow vorticity by enhancing mixing of the reactants. The magnetic field effect on the flame temperature and rate of reactions leads to conclusion that field-enhanced increase of the flow vorticity results in flame cooling by limiting the chemical conversion of the reactants.

  7. Reversible electric-field control of magnetization at oxide interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, F. A.; Liu, Y. H.; Salafranca, J.; Nemes, N.; Iborra, E.; Sanchez-Santolino, G.; Varela, M.; Hernandez, M. Garcia; Freeland, J. W.; Zhernenkov, M.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Okamoto, S.; Pennycook, S. J.; Bibes, M.; Barthélémy, A.; Te Velthuis, S. G. E.; Sefrioui, Z.; Leon, C.; Santamaria, J.

    2014-06-01

    Electric-field control of magnetism has remained a major challenge which would greatly impact data storage technology. Although progress in this direction has been recently achieved, reversible magnetization switching by an electric field requires the assistance of a bias magnetic field. Here we take advantage of the novel electronic phenomena emerging at interfaces between correlated oxides and demonstrate reversible, voltage-driven magnetization switching without magnetic field. Sandwiching a non-superconducting cuprate between two manganese oxide layers, we find a novel form of magnetoelectric coupling arising from the orbital reconstruction at the interface between interfacial Mn spins and localized states in the CuO2 planes. This results in a ferromagnetic coupling between the manganite layers that can be controlled by a voltage. Consequently, magnetic tunnel junctions can be electrically toggled between two magnetization states, and the corresponding spin-dependent resistance states, in the absence of a magnetic field.

  8. Electric-field control of magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonggang; Zhang, Sen; Li, Peisen; Chen, Aitian; Li, Dalai; Yang, Lifeng; Rizwan, S.; Liu, Y.; Xiao, Xia; Wu, Yizheng; Jin, Xiaofeng; Han, Xiufeng; Zhang, Huiyun; Zhu, Meihong

    2015-03-01

    We have studied electric-field control of magnetism in different multiferroic heterostructures, composed of ferromagnetic (FM) and ferroelectric (FE) materials such as Co40Fe40B20(CoFeB)/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3(PMN-PT) and magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) on PMN-PT, etc. A giant electric-field control of magnetization as well as magnetic anisotropy was observed in a CoFeB/PMN-PT structure at room temperature with a maximum relative magnetization change up to 83 percent and a 90° rotation of the easy axis. In MTJ of CoFeB/AlOx/CoFeB grown on PMN-PT, we demonstrate a reversible, continuous magnetization rotation and manipulation of tunneling magnetoresistance at room temperature by electric fields without the assistance of a magnetic field. These results show the interesting new physics and potential applications of the FM/FE multiferroic heterostructures.

  9. Electric-field control of spin-orbit torque in a magnetically doped topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yabin; Kou, Xufeng; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Shao, Qiming; Pan, Lei; Lang, Murong; Che, Xiaoyu; Tang, Jianshi; Montazeri, Mohammad; Murata, Koichi; Chang, Li-Te; Akyol, Mustafa; Yu, Guoqiang; Nie, Tianxiao; Wong, Kin L.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-04-01

    Electric-field manipulation of magnetic order has proved of both fundamental and technological importance in spintronic devices. So far, electric-field control of ferromagnetism, magnetization and magnetic anisotropy has been explored in various magnetic materials, but the efficient electric-field control of spin-orbit torque (SOT) still remains elusive. Here, we report the effective electric-field control of a giant SOT in a Cr-doped topological insulator (TI) thin film using a top-gate field-effect transistor structure. The SOT strength can be modulated by a factor of four within the accessible gate voltage range, and it shows strong correlation with the spin-polarized surface current in the film. Furthermore, we demonstrate the magnetization switching by scanning gate voltage with constant current and in-plane magnetic field applied in the film. The effective electric-field control of SOT and the giant spin-torque efficiency in Cr-doped TI may lead to the development of energy-efficient gate-controlled spin-torque devices compatible with modern field-effect semiconductor technologies.

  10. Electric and Magnetic Field control of Exchange Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binek, Christian

    2007-03-01

    Exchange bias (EB) and its accompanying training effect are fundamental interface phenomena in coupled magnetic thin films with significant impact in spintronic applications. Here we report on the electric field control of the EB in innovative antiferromagnetic (AF)/ferromagnetic (FM) heterostructures and the magnetic field control of the EB training effect in exchange coupled all FM bilayer systems. Electric control of the EB is realized in Cr2O3 (111)/(Co/Pt)3 heterostructures by taking advantage of the magnetoelectric (ME) properties of the AF pinning layer [1]. An electric field induces excess magnetization in the ME Cr2O3 film. Exchange coupling between the induced magnetization and the CoPt thin film gives rise to electrically controlled perpendicular EB. Bias fields are measured by means of AGFM, SQUID-magnetometry and polar Kerr-rotation. Electrically controlled EB is proposed for novel spintronic applications such as pure voltage control of magnetic configurations in spin valve-type architectures. The latter provide an attractive alternative to current-induced switching of the magnetization [2]. In addition, training of the EB effect is studied in novel all FM heterostructures of exchange coupled soft and hard FM thin films [3]. FM bilayers show remarkable analogies to the conventional AF/FM EB systems. Not only do they exhibit a tunable EB effect, they also show a distinct training behavior upon cycling the soft layer through consecutive hysteresis loops. In contrast to conventional EB systems, all FM bilayers allow the observation of training induced changes in the bias-setting hard layer by means of simple magnetometry. Initialization of the EB is achieved at constant temperature exclusively by means of magnetic fields. Our experiments show unambiguously that EB training is driven by deviations from the equilibrium spin configuration of the pinning layer. The experimental data show excellent agreement with our theoretical predictions including the

  11. Design and implementation of a dc-based magnetic field controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.; Morgan, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a magnetic field controller for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage. 1 fig.

  12. Design and implementation of a dc-based magnetic field controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.; Morgan, J.P.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a magnetic field controller for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage. 1 fig.

  13. Electric-field control of magnetism via strain transfer across ferromagnetic/ferroelectric interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Tomoyasu

    2015-12-01

    By taking advantage of the coupling between magnetism and ferroelectricity, ferromagnetic (FM)/ferroelectric (FE) multiferroic interfaces play a pivotal role in manipulating magnetism by electric fields. Integrating the multiferroic heterostructures into spintronic devices significantly reduces energy dissipation from Joule heating because only an electric field is required to switch the magnetic element. New concepts of storage and processing of information thus can be envisioned when the electric-field control of magnetism is a viable alternative to the traditional current based means of controlling magnetism. This article reviews some salient aspects of the electric-field effects on magnetism, providing a short overview of the mechanisms of magneto-electric (ME) coupling at the FM/FE interfaces. A particular emphasis is placed on the ME effect via interfacial magneto-elastic coupling arising from strain transfer from the FE to FM layer. Recent results that demonstrate the electric-field control of magnetic anisotropy, magnetic order, magnetic domain wall motion, and etc are described. Obstacles that need to be overcome are also discussed for making this a reality for future device applications.

  14. Electric-field control of magnetism via strain transfer across ferromagnetic/ferroelectric interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Tomoyasu

    2015-12-23

    By taking advantage of the coupling between magnetism and ferroelectricity, ferromagnetic (FM)/ferroelectric (FE) multiferroic interfaces play a pivotal role in manipulating magnetism by electric fields. Integrating the multiferroic heterostructures into spintronic devices significantly reduces energy dissipation from Joule heating because only an electric field is required to switch the magnetic element. New concepts of storage and processing of information thus can be envisioned when the electric-field control of magnetism is a viable alternative to the traditional current based means of controlling magnetism. This article reviews some salient aspects of the electric-field effects on magnetism, providing a short overview of the mechanisms of magneto-electric (ME) coupling at the FM/FE interfaces. A particular emphasis is placed on the ME effect via interfacial magneto-elastic coupling arising from strain transfer from the FE to FM layer. Recent results that demonstrate the electric-field control of magnetic anisotropy, magnetic order, magnetic domain wall motion, and etc are described. Obstacles that need to be overcome are also discussed for making this a reality for future device applications.

  15. Three-dimensional solidification and melting using magnetic field control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulikravich, George S.; Ahuja, Vineet

    1993-01-01

    A new two-fluid mathematical model for fully three dimensional steady solidification under the influence of an arbitrary acceleration vector and with or without an arbitrary externally applied steady magnetic field have been formulated and integrated numerically. The model includes Joule heating and allows for separate temperature dependent physical properties within the melt and the solid. Latent heat of phase change during melting/solidification was incorporated using an enthalpy method. Mushy region was automatically captured by varying viscosity orders of magnitude between liquidus and solidus temperature. Computational results were obtained for silicon melt solidification in a parallelepiped container cooled from above and from a side. The results confirm that the magnetic field has a profound influence on the solidifying melt flow field thus changing convective heat transfer through the boundaries and the amount and shape of the solid accrued. This suggests that development of a quick-response algorithm for active control of three dimensional solidification is feasible since it would require low strength magnetic fields.

  16. Electric field control of Skyrmions in magnetic nanodisks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Kanai, S.; Fukami, S.; Ohno, H.

    2016-04-01

    The control of magnetic Skyrmions confined in a nanometer scale disk using electric field pulses is studied by micromagnetic simulation. A stable Skyrmion can be created and annihilated by an electric field pulse depending on the polarity of the electric field. Moreover, the core direction of the Skyrmion can be switched using the same electric field pulses. Such creation and annihilation of Skyrmions, and its core switching do not require any magnetic field and precise control of the pulse length. This unconventional manipulation of magnetic texture using electric field pulses allows a robust way of controlling magnetic Skyrmions in nanodiscs, a path toward building ultralow power memory devices.

  17. Magnetic field control of the spin Seebeck effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzmann, Ulrike; Hinzke, Denise; Kehlberger, Andreas; Guo, Er-Jia; Kläui, Mathias; Nowak, Ulrich

    2015-11-01

    The origin of the suppression of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect by applied magnetic fields is studied. We perform numerical simulations of the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation of motion for an atomistic spin model and calculate the magnon accumulation in linear temperature gradients for different strengths of applied magnetic fields and different length scales of the temperature gradient. We observe a decrease of the magnon accumulation with increasing magnetic field and we reveal that the origin of this effect is a field dependent change of the frequency distribution of the propagating magnons. With increasing field the magnonic spin currents are reduced due to a suppression of parts of the frequency spectrum. By comparison with measurements of the magnetic field dependent longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in YIG thin films with various thicknesses, we find qualitative agreement between our model and the experimental data, demonstrating the importance of this effect for experimental systems.

  18. Electric-field control of spin-orbit torque in magnetically doped topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yabin; Shao, Qiming; Kou, Xufeng; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Wang, Kang

    Recent advances of spin-orbit torques (SOTs) generated by topological insulators (TIs) have drawn increasing interest to the spin-momentum locking feature of TIs' surface states, which can potentially provide a very efficient means to generate SOTs for spintronic applications. In this presentation, we will show the magnetization switching through current-induced giant SOT in both TI/Cr-doped TI bilayer and uniformly Cr-doped TI films In particular, we show that the current-induced SOT has significant contribution from the spin-momentum locked surface states of TIs. We find that the spin torque efficiency is in general three orders of magnitude larger than those reported in heavy metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures. In the second part, we will present the electric-field control of the giant SOT in magnetically doped TIs, which suggests promising gate-controlled spin-torque device applications. The giant SOT and efficient current-induced magnetization switching exhibited by the magnetic TIs may lead to innovative spintronic applications such as ultralow power dissipation memory and logic devices. We acknowledge the supports from DARPA, FAME, SHINES and ARO programs.

  19. Electric field-controlled magnetization in bilayered magnetic films for magnetoelectric memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Gang; Morley, Nicola A.; Rainforth, W. Mark

    2015-07-01

    Bilayered magnetic films (Co50Fe50 (CoFe)/Metglas) were RF sputtered on both (001)-oriented and (011)-oriented PMN-PT (lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate) substrates. Electric field-controlled magnetization changes were observed in all these samples: 65 nm CoFe/24 nm Metglas/(001) PMN-PT, 65 nm CoFe/24 nm Metglas/(011) PMN-PT, and 30 nm CoFe/12 nm Metglas/(011) PMN-PT. The maximum magnetic remanence ratio change (ΔMr/Ms) was 46% for CoFe/Metglas/(001) PMN-PT. In this heterostructure, the electric-field created two new non-volatile switchable remanence states and the as-grown remanence state was altered permanently. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images show a sharp and smooth interface between Metglas and substrate and conversely a rougher interface was observed between Metglas and CoFe films. In the 30 nm CoFe/12 nm Metglas/(011) PMN-PT sample, a large ΔMr/Ms of 80% along the [100] direction was measured, while the ΔMr/Ms along the [01-1] direction was 60% at the applied electric field of 5 kV/cm, corresponding to a giant magnetoelectric coupling constant α = μoΔMr/E = 2.9 × 10-6 s/m.

  20. Origin of the magnetic-field controlled polarization reversal in multiferroic TbMn2 O 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, N.; Meier, D.; Pisarev, R. V.; Park, S.; Cheong, S.-W.; Fiebig, M.

    2011-03-01

    The interplay of multi-dimensional complex magnetic order parameters leads to interesting effects like magnetically induced ferroelectricity. A particular interesting example is TbMn 2 O5 because of the associated magnetic-field controllable electric polarization. By optical second harmonic generation we show that the gigantic magnetoelectric effect originates in three independent ferroelectric contributions. Two of these are manganese-generated. The third contribution is related to the magnetism of the Tb 3+ sublattice and has not been identified so far. It mediates the remarkable magnetic-field induced polarization reversal. This model is verified by experiments on the isostructural YMn 2 O5 where Y3+ ions are nonmagnetic and only two polarization contributions are present and no magnetoelectric coupling is observed. These results underline the importance of the 3 d - 4 f -interaction for the intricate magnetoelectric coupling in the class of isostructural RMn 2 O5 compounds. This work was supported by the DFG through SFB 608.

  1. Electric field-controlled magnetization in bilayered magnetic films for magnetoelectric memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wei-Gang; Morley, Nicola A.; Rainforth, W. Mark, E-mail: m.rainforth@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-21

    Bilayered magnetic films (Co{sub 50}Fe{sub 50} (CoFe)/Metglas) were RF sputtered on both (001)-oriented and (011)-oriented PMN-PT (lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate) substrates. Electric field-controlled magnetization changes were observed in all these samples: 65 nm CoFe/24 nm Metglas/(001) PMN-PT, 65 nm CoFe/24 nm Metglas/(011) PMN-PT, and 30 nm CoFe/12 nm Metglas/(011) PMN-PT. The maximum magnetic remanence ratio change (ΔM{sub r}/M{sub s}) was 46% for CoFe/Metglas/(001) PMN-PT. In this heterostructure, the electric-field created two new non-volatile switchable remanence states and the as-grown remanence state was altered permanently. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images show a sharp and smooth interface between Metglas and substrate and conversely a rougher interface was observed between Metglas and CoFe films. In the 30 nm CoFe/12 nm Metglas/(011) PMN-PT sample, a large ΔM{sub r}/M{sub s} of 80% along the [100] direction was measured, while the ΔM{sub r}/M{sub s} along the [01-1] direction was 60% at the applied electric field of 5 kV/cm, corresponding to a giant magnetoelectric coupling constant α = μ{sub o}ΔM{sub r}/E = 2.9 × 10{sup −6} s/m.

  2. Electric-field controlled ferromagnetism in MnGe magnetic quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faxian Xiu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric-field control of ferromagnetism in magnetic semiconductors at room temperature has been actively pursued as one of the important approaches to realize practical spintronics and non-volatile logic devices. While Mn-doped III-V semiconductors were considered as potential candidates for achieving this controllability, the search for an ideal material with high Curie temperature (Tc>300 K and controllable ferromagnetism at room temperature has continued for nearly a decade. Among various dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMSs, materials derived from group IV elements such as Si and Ge are the ideal candidates for such materials due to their excellent compatibility with the conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS technology. Here, we review recent reports on the development of high-Curie temperature Mn0.05Ge0.95 quantum dots (QDs and successfully demonstrate electric-field control of ferromagnetism in the Mn0.05Ge0.95 quantum dots up to 300 K. Upon the application of gate-bias to a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS capacitor, the ferromagnetism of the channel layer (i.e. the Mn0.05Ge0.95 quantum dots was modulated as a function of the hole concentration. Finally, a theoretical model based upon the formation of magnetic polarons has been proposed to explain the observed field controlled ferromagnetism.

  3. Magnetic order in ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, M. R.; Coles, B. R.; Ritter, C.; Cywinski, R.

    1996-10-01

    Neutron powder diffraction has been used to study the evolution of magnetic order with increasing Zr substitution in the C14 Laves phase compounds 0953-8984/8/41/022/img8. For compounds with x = 0.3 and x = 0.4 we find a simple antiferromagnetic structure, similar to that reported for isostructural 0953-8984/8/41/022/img9. In this structure the Fe moments at the 6h sites are aligned along the c-axis, ferromagnetically coupled within the a - b plane, with adjacent planes antiferromagnetically coupled. This spin structure results in a cancellation of the molecular field at the interplanar 2a sites, and the Fe atoms at these sites carry no ordered moment. The neutron diffraction measurements on 0953-8984/8/41/022/img10 compounds in the composition range 0953-8984/8/41/022/img11 provide evidence of a low-temperature spin-canted structure in which the antiferromagnetic structure described above is modified by the appearance of a basal-plane ferromagnetic component which in turn leads to a small ordered Fe moment at the 2a site. The temperature dependence of the staggered magnetization in the antiferromagnetic state of the x = 0.4 compounds is found to closely follow the form 0953-8984/8/41/022/img12, as predicted for weak itinerant antiferromagnets by SCR spin-fluctuation theory.

  4. Electric-field-controlled suppression of Walker breakdown and chirality switching in magnetic domain wall motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Bo; Li, You-Quan

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically study the dynamics of a magnetic domain wall controlled by an electric field in the presence of the spin flexoelectric interaction. We reveal that this interaction generates an effective spin torque and results in significant changes in the current-driven domain wall motion. In particular, the electric field can stabilize the domain wall motion, leading to strong suppression of the current-induced Walker breakdown and thus allowing a higher maximum wall velocity. We can furthermore use this electric-field control to efficiently switch the chirality of a moving domain wall in the steady regime.

  5. Magnetic Field-Controlled Lithium Polysulfide Semiliquid Battery with Ferrofluidic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiyang; Liang, Zheng; Lu, Zhenda; Tao, Xinyong; Liu, Kai; Yao, Hongbin; Cui, Yi

    2015-11-11

    Large-scale energy storage systems are of critical importance for electric grids, especially with the rapid increasing deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. New cost-effective systems that can deliver high energy density and efficiency for such storage often involve the flow of redox molecules and particles. Enhancing the mass and electron transport is critical for efficient battery operation in these systems. Herein, we report the design and characterization of a novel proof-of-concept magnetic field-controlled flow battery using lithium metal-polysulfide semiliquid battery as an example. A biphasic magnetic solution containing lithium polysulfide and magnetic nanoparticles is used as catholyte, and lithium metal is used as anode. The catholyte is composed of two phases of polysulfide with different concentrations, in which most of the polysulfide molecules and the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can be extracted together to form a high-concentration polysulfide phase, in close contact with the current collector under the influence of applied magnetic field. This unique feature can help to maximize the utilization of the polysulfide and minimize the polysulfide shuttle effect, contributing to enhanced energy density and Coulombic efficiency. Additionally, owing to the effect of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles, the concentrated polysulfide phase shows the behavior of a ferrofluid that is flowable with the control of magnetic field, which can be used for a hybrid flow battery without the employment of any pumps. Our innovative design provides new insight for a broad range of flow battery chemistries and systems.

  6. Nonvolatile, reversible electric-field controlled switching of remanent magnetization in multifunctional ferromagnetic/ferroelectric hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandlmaier, A.; Geprägs, S.; Woltersdorf, G.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.

    2011-08-01

    In spin-mechanics, the magnetoelastic coupling in ferromagnetic/ferroelectric hybrid devices is exploited in order to realize an electric-voltage control of magnetization orientation. To this end, different voltage-induced elastic strain states are used to generate different magnetization orientations. In our approach, we take advantage of the hysteretic expansion and contraction of a commercial piezoelectric actuator as a function of electrical voltage to deterministically select one of two electro-remanent elastic strain states. We investigate the resulting magnetic response in a nickel thin film/piezoelectric actuator hybrid device at room temperature, using simultaneous magneto-optical Kerr effect and magnetotransport measurements. The magnetic properties of the hybrid can be consistently described in a macrospin model, i.e., in terms of a single magnetic domain. At zero external magnetic field, the magnetization orientation in the two electro-remanent strain states differs by 15°, which corresponds to a magnetoresistance change of 0.5%. These results demonstrate that the spin-mechanics scheme indeed enables a nonvolatile electrically read- and writable memory bit where the information is encoded in a magnetic property.

  7. Magnetic Excitations and Magnetic Ordering in Praseodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Chapellier, M.; Mackintosh, A. R.;

    1975-01-01

    The dispersion relations for magnetic excitons propagating on the hexagonal sites of double-hcp Pr provide clear evidence for a pronounced anisotropy in the exchange. The energy of the excitations decreases rapidly as the temperature is lowered, but becomes almost constant below about 7 K......, in agreement with a random-phase-approximation calculation. No evidence of magnetic ordering has been observed above 0.4 K, although the exchange is close to the critical value necessary for an antiferromagnetic state....

  8. Electric field control of magnon-induced magnetization dynamics in multiferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinggård, Vetle; Kulagina, Iryna; Linder, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    We consider theoretically the effect of an inhomogeneous magnetoelectric coupling on the magnon-induced dynamics of a ferromagnet. The magnon-mediated magnetoelectric torque affects both the homogeneous magnetization and magnon-driven domain wall motion. In the domains, we predict a reorientation of the magnetization, controllable by the applied electric field, which is almost an order of magnitude larger than that observed in other physical systems via the same mechanism. The applied electric field can also be used to tune the domain wall speed and direction of motion in a linear fashion, producing domain wall velocities several times the zero field velocity. These results show that multiferroic systems offer a promising arena to achieve low-dissipation magnetization rotation and domain wall motion by exciting spin-waves. PMID:27554064

  9. Phase coexistence and electric-field control of toroidal order in oxide superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, A. R.; Clarkson, J. D.; Hong, Z.; Liu, H.; Yadav, A. K.; Nelson, C. T.; Hsu, S.-L.; McCarter, M. R.; Park, K.-D.; Kravtsov, V.; Farhan, A.; Dong, Y.; Cai, Z.; Zhou, H.; Aguado-Puente, P.; García-Fernández, P.; Íñiguez, J.; Junquera, J.; Scholl, A.; Raschke, M. B.; Chen, L.-Q.; Fong, D. D.; Ramesh, R.; Martin, L. W.

    2017-10-01

    Systems that exhibit phase competition, order parameter coexistence, and emergent order parameter topologies constitute a major part of modern condensed-matter physics. Here, by applying a range of characterization techniques, and simulations, we observe that in PbTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices all of these effects can be found. By exploring superlattice period-, temperature- and field-dependent evolution of these structures, we observe several new features. First, it is possible to engineer phase coexistence mediated by a first-order phase transition between an emergent, low-temperature vortex phase with electric toroidal order and a high-temperature ferroelectric a1/a2 phase. At room temperature, the coexisting vortex and ferroelectric phases form a mesoscale, fibre-textured hierarchical superstructure. The vortex phase possesses an axial polarization, set by the net polarization of the surrounding ferroelectric domains, such that it possesses a multi-order-parameter state and belongs to a class of gyrotropic electrotoroidal compounds. Finally, application of electric fields to this mixed-phase system permits interconversion between the vortex and the ferroelectric phases concomitant with order-of-magnitude changes in piezoelectric and nonlinear optical responses. Our findings suggest new cross-coupled functionalities.

  10. Electric field control of magnetism using BiFeO{sub 3}-based heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heron, J. T., E-mail: jth247@cornell.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Schlom, D. G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Ramesh, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Conventional CMOS based logic and magnetic based data storage devices require the shuttling of electrons for data processing and storage. As these devices are scaled to increasingly smaller dimensions in the pursuit of speed and storage density, significant energy dissipation in the form of heat has become a center stage issue for the microelectronics industry. By taking advantage of the strong correlations between ferroic orders in multiferroics, specifically the coupling between ferroelectric and magnetic orders (magnetoelectricity), new device functionalities with ultra-low energy consumption can be envisioned. In this article, we review the advances and highlight challenges toward this goal with a particular focus on the room temperature magnetoelectric multiferroic, BiFeO{sub 3}, exchange coupled to a ferromagnet. We summarize our understanding of the nature of exchange coupling and the mechanisms of the voltage control of ferromagnetism observed in these heterostructures.

  11. Magnetic field controlled charge density wave coupling in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.; Blackburn, E.; Ivashko, O.; Holmes, A. T.; Christensen, N. B.; Hücker, M.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Rütt, U.; Zimmermann, M. V.; Forgan, E. M.; Hayden, S. M.

    2016-05-01

    The application of magnetic fields to layered cuprates suppresses their high-temperature superconducting behaviour and reveals competing ground states. In widely studied underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO), the microscopic nature of field-induced electronic and structural changes at low temperatures remains unclear. Here we report an X-ray study of the high-field charge density wave (CDW) in YBCO. For hole dopings ~0.123, we find that a field (B~10 T) induces additional CDW correlations along the CuO chain (b-direction) only, leading to a three-dimensional (3D) ordered state along this direction at B~15 T. The CDW signal along the a-direction is also enhanced by field, but does not develop an additional pattern of correlations. Magnetic field modifies the coupling between the CuO2 bilayers in the YBCO structure, and causes the sudden appearance of the 3D CDW order. The mirror symmetry of individual bilayers is broken by the CDW at low and high fields, allowing Fermi surface reconstruction, as recently suggested.

  12. The physical mechanism of magnetic field controlled magnetocaloric effect and magnetoresistance in bulk PrGa compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X Q; Wu, H; Chen, J; Zhang, B; Li, Y Q; Hu, F X; Sun, J R; Huang, Q Z; Shen, B G

    2015-10-12

    The PrGa compound shows excellent performance on the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and magnetoresistance (MR). The physical mechanism of MCE and MR in PrGa compound was investigated and elaborated in detail on the basis of magnetic measurement, heat capacity measurement and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) experiment. New types of magnetic structure and magnetic transition are found. The results of the NPD along with the saturation magnetic moment (MS) and magnetic entropy (SM) indicate that the magnetic moments are randomly distributed within the equivalent conical surface in the ferromagnetic (FM) temperature range. PrGa compound undergoes an FM to FM transition and an FM to paramagnetic (PM) transition as temperature increases. The magnetizing process was discussed in detail and the physical mechanism of the magnetic field controlled magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and the magnetoresistance (MR) was studied. The formation of the plateau on MCE curve was explained and MR was calculated in detail on the basis of the magnetic structure and the analysis of the magnetizing process. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the calculations. Finally, the expression of MR = β(T)X(2) and its application conditions were discussed, where X is M(H)/Meff, and Meff is the paramagnetic effective moment.

  13. The physical mechanism of magnetic field controlled magnetocaloric effect and magnetoresistance in bulk PrGa compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X. Q.; Wu, H.; Chen, J.; Zhang, B.; Li, Y. Q.; Hu, F. X.; Sun, J. R.; Huang, Q. Z.; Shen, B. G.

    2015-10-01

    The PrGa compound shows excellent performance on the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and magnetoresistance (MR). The physical mechanism of MCE and MR in PrGa compound was investigated and elaborated in detail on the basis of magnetic measurement, heat capacity measurement and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) experiment. New types of magnetic structure and magnetic transition are found. The results of the NPD along with the saturation magnetic moment (MS) and magnetic entropy (SM) indicate that the magnetic moments are randomly distributed within the equivalent conical surface in the ferromagnetic (FM) temperature range. PrGa compound undergoes an FM to FM transition and an FM to paramagnetic (PM) transition as temperature increases. The magnetizing process was discussed in detail and the physical mechanism of the magnetic field controlled magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and the magnetoresistance (MR) was studied. The formation of the plateau on MCE curve was explained and MR was calculated in detail on the basis of the magnetic structure and the analysis of the magnetizing process. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the calculations. Finally, the expression of MR = β(T)X2 and its application conditions were discussed, where X is M(H)/Meff, and Meff is the paramagnetic effective moment.

  14. In-plane magnetic field effect on switching voltage and thermal stability in electric-field-controlled perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grezes, C.; Rojas Rozas, A.; Ebrahimi, F.; Alzate, J. G.; Cai, X.; Katine, J. A.; Langer, J.; Ocker, B.; Khalili Amiri, P.; Wang, K. L.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of in-plane magnetic field on switching voltage (Vsw) and thermal stability factor (Δ) are investigated in electric-field-controlled perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs). Dwell time measurements are used to determine the voltage dependence of the energy barrier height for various in-plane magnetic fields (Hin), and gain insight into the Hin dependent energy landscape. We find that both Vsw and Δ decrease with increasing Hin, with a dominant linear dependence. The results are reproduced by calculations based on a macrospin model while accounting for the modified magnetization configuration in the presence of an external magnetic field.

  15. Electric field-controlled magnetization switching in Co/Pt thin-film ferromagnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siddique

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of dynamic and reversible voltage-controlled magnetization switching in ferromagnetic Co/Pt thin film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at room temperature is presented. The change in the magnetic properties of the system is observed in a relatively thick film of 15 nm. A surface charge is induced by the formation of electrochemical double layer between the metallic thin film and non-aqueous lithium LiClO4 electrolyte to manipulate the magnetism. The change in the magnetic properties occurred by the application of an external electric field. As the negative voltage was increased, the coercivity and the switching magnetic field decreased thus activating magnetization switching. The results are envisaged to lead to faster and ultra-low-power magnetization switching as compared to spin-transfer torque (STT switching in spintronic devices.

  16. Magnetic Ordering in Gold Nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrachev, Mikhail; Antonello, Sabrina; Dainese, Tiziano; Ruzzi, Marco; Zoleo, Alfonso; Aprà, Edoardo; Govind, Niranjan; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Sementa, Luca; Maran, Flavio

    2017-06-12

    Several research groups have observed magnetism in monolayer-protected gold-cluster samples, but the results were often contradictory and thus a clear understanding of this phenomenon is still missing. We used Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)180, which is a paramagnetic cluster that can be prepared with atomic precision and whose structure is known precisely. Previous magnetometry studies only detected paramagnetism. We used samples representing a range of crystallographic orders and studied their magnetic behaviors by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). As a film, Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)180 displays paramagnetic behavior but, at low temperature, ferromagnetic interactions are detectable. One or few single crystals undergo physical reorientation with the applied field and display ferromagnetism, as detected through hysteresis experiments. A large collection of microcrystals is magnetic even at room temperature and shows distinct paramagnetic, superparamagnetic, and ferromagnetic behaviors. Simulation of the EPR spectra shows that both spin-orbit coupling and crystal distortion are important to determine the observed magnetic behaviors. DFT calculations carried out on single cluster and periodic models predict values of spin6orbit coupling and crystal6splitting effects in agreement with the EPR derived quantities. Magnetism in gold nanoclusters is thus demonstrated to be the outcome of a very delicate balance of factors. To obtain reproducible results, the samples must be (i) controlled for composition and thus be monodispersed with atomic precision, (ii) of known charge state, and (iii) well defined also in terms of crystallinity and experimental conditions. This study highlights the efficacy of EPR spectroscopy to provide a molecular understanding of these phenomena

  17. Nuclear magnetic ordering in silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefmann, K.

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear antiferromagnetic ordering has been observed by neutron diffraction in a single crystal of {sup 109}Ag. The critical temperature is found to 700 pK, and the critical field is 100 {mu}T. From the paramagnetic phase a second order phase transition leads into a type-I 1-k structure with long range order. The experiments have taken place at the Hahn-Meitner Institut in Berlin in collaboration with the low Temperature Laboratory in Helsinki, the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, and Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde. The present report is a Ph.D. thesis which has been successfully defended at the Niels Bohr Institute. Besides the results of the nuclear ordering experiments the thesis contains a description of the theoretical background for nuclear magnetism and a review of earlier nuclear ordering experiments as well as theoretical work. The principles for studying polarized nuclei with use of polarized and unpolarized neutrons are presented, as well as the results of such experiments. (au) 11 tabs., 59 ills., 143 refs.

  18. Thermally assisted electric field control of magnetism in flexible multiferroic heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwei; Zhan, Qingfeng; Dai, Guohong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Baomin; Liu, Gang; Zuo, Zhenghu; Rong, Xin; Yang, Huali; Zhu, Xiaojian; Xie, Yali; Chen, Bin; Li, Run-Wei

    2014-11-01

    Thermal and electrical control of magnetic anisotropy were investigated in flexible Fe81Ga19 (FeGa)/Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) multiferroic heterostructures. Due to the large anisotropic thermal deformation of PVDF (α1 = -13 × 10-6 K-1 and α2 = -145 × 10-6 K-1), the in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) of FeGa can be reoriented 90° by changing the temperature across 295 K where the films are magnetically isotropic. Thus, the magnetization of FeGa can be reversed by the thermal cycling between 280 and 320 K under a constant magnetic field lower than coercivity. Moreover, under the assistance of thermal deformation with slightly heating the samples to the critical temperature, the electric field of +/- 267 kV cm-1 can well align the UMA along the two orthogonal directions. The new route of combining thermal and electrical control of magnetic properties realized in PVDF-based flexible multiferroic materials shows good prospects in application of flexible thermal spintronic devices and flexible microwave magnetic materials.

  19. Electric field controlled magnetic hysteresis loops in a Metglas/PMN-PT heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yajie; Fitchorov, Trifon; Vittoria, Carmine; Harris, V G [Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits, and the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Cai, Zhuhua; Ziemer, K S, E-mail: y.chen@neu.ed [Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2010-04-21

    An electric field tunable magnetic hysteresis loop was studied in a multiferroic heterostructure consisting of a 25 {mu}m thick Metglas (registered) ribbon affixed to a lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) crystal. This multiferroic heterostructure exhibits a considerably strong converse magnetoelectric effect, CME = -80%, where CME = [M(E) - M(0)]/M(0), and a converse magnetoelectric coupling constant, A = 23 Oe cm kV{sup -1}, in the vicinity of the saturation electric polarization. This work systematically demonstrates the tunability of magnetic parameters including magnetization, coercivity, remanence and squareness, under the application of an electric field of 0-8 kV cm{sup -1}. Additionally, the physical mechanism of the CME is discussed. These results provide useful resources for the design of a new generation of electrically controlled devices.

  20. Large electric-field control of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in strained [Co/Ni] / PZT heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopman, Daniel; Dennis, Cindi; Chen, P. J.; Iunin, Yury; Shull, Robert

    We present a piezoelectric/ferromagnetic heterostructure with PMA - a Co/Ni multilayer sputtered directly onto a Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) substrate. Chemical-mechanical polishing was used to reduce the roughness of PZT plates to below 2 nm rms, enabling optimal magnetoelectric coupling via the direct interface between PZT and sputtered Co/Ni films with large PMA (Keff = (95 +/-9 kJ/m3)) . We grew the following layer stack: Ta(3)/Pt(2)/[Co(0.15)/Ni(0.6)]x4/Co(0.15)/Pt(2)/Ta(3); numbers in parentheses indicate thicknesses in nm. Applied electric fields up to +/- 2 MV/m to the PZT generated 0.05% in-plane compression in the Co/Ni multilayer, enabling a large electric-field reduction of the PMA (ΔKeff >= 103 J/m3) and of the coercive field (35%). Our results demonstrate that: (i) heterostructures combining PZT and [Co/Ni] exhibit larger PMA (Keff ~105 J/m3) than previous magnetoelectric heterostructures based on Co/Pt and CoFeB, enabling thermally stable hybrid magnetoelectric/spintronic devices only tens of nm in diameter and (ii) electric-field control of the PMA is promising for more energy efficient switching of spintronic devices.

  1. Magnetic field controlled single crystal growth and surface modification of titanium alloys exposed for biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Regina; Uhlemann, Margitta; Wendrock, Horst; Gerbeth, Gunter; Büchner, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work is growth and characterisation of Ti55Nb45 (wt%) single crystals by floating-zone single crystal growth of intermetallic compounds using two-phase radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic heating. Thereby, the process and, in particular, the flow field in the molten zone is influenced by additional magnetic fields. The growth of massive intermetallic single crystals is very often unsuccessful due to an unfavourable solid-liquid interface geometry enclosing concave fringes. It is generally known that the crystallization process stability is enhanced if the crystallization interface is convex. For this, a tailored magnetic two-phase stirrer system has been developed, which enables a controlled influence on the melt ranging from intensive inwards to outwards flows. Since Ti is favourably light, strong and biocompatible, it is one of the few materials that naturally match the requirements for implantation in the human body. Therefore, the magnetic system was applied to crystal growth of Ti alloys. The grown crystals were oriented and cut to cubes with the desired crystallographic orientations [1 0 0] and [1 0 1] normally on a plane. The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique was applied to clearly determine crystal orientation and to localize grain boundaries. The formation of oxidic nanotubes on Ti surfaces in dependence of the grain orientation was investigated, performed electrochemically by anodic oxidation from fluoride containing electrolyte.

  2. Light and electric field control of ferromagnetism in magnetic quantum structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukari, H; Kossacki, P; Bertolini, M; Ferrand, D; Cibert, J; Tatarenko, S; Wasiela, A; Gaj, J A; Dietl, T

    2002-05-20

    A strong influence of illumination and electric bias on the Curie temperature and saturation value of the magnetization is demonstrated for semiconductor structures containing a modulation-doped p-type Cd(0.96)Mn(0.04)Te quantum well placed in various built-in electric fields. It is shown that both light beam and bias voltage generate an isothermal and reversible crossover between the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases, in the way that is predetermined by the structure design. The observed behavior is in quantitative agreement with the expectations for systems, in which ferromagnetic interactions are mediated by the weakly disordered two-dimensional hole liquid.

  3. Anatomy of electric field control of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at Fe/MgO interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, F.; Yang, H. X.; Hallal, A.; Dieny, B.; Chshiev, M.

    2016-01-01

    The charge-mediated effect of electric field on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of Fe/MgO interfaces is investigated using first-principles calculations. We present an approach by discussing this effect in relation to the intrinsic dipole field existing at the Fe/MgO interface. A firm correlation between the PMA and the interfacial dipole is established and further verified in the absence of an applied electric field. The on-site projected PMA analysis not only elucidates that the effect of electric field on the PMA extends beyond the interfacial Fe layer, but also shows that the second Fe layer carries the largest contribution to the effect. This observation is interpreted in relation to the orbital hybridization changes induced by applying an electric field.

  4. Effect of Current Frequency on Droplet Evolution During Magnetic-Field-Controlled Electroslag Remelting Process Via Visualization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huai; Zhong, Yunbo; Li, Qiang; Fang, Yipeng; Ren, Weili; Lei, Zuosheng; Ren, Zhongming

    2017-02-01

    A transparent physical model was set up to investigate the influence of the remelting current frequencies on droplet evolution during the magnetic-field-controlled electroslag remelting process. Physical simulation experiments were done under the remelting current of 8 A with frequencies ranging from 10 to 500 Hz, and a transverse static magnetic field (TSMF) of 0.7 T was superimposed simultaneously. The high-speed camera was used to record the evolution behavior of the droplet. Representative processes of formation and detachment of the droplets were observed under different conditions. The results showed that there was little influence of the current frequencies on the evolution behavior of the droplet without the external magnetic field. Nevertheless, if a TSMF was introduced, the liquid droplet's neck would be smashed into a lot of smaller droplets when the remelting current frequencies were lower than 100 Hz, while the smashing effect disappeared when the frequencies were higher than 100 Hz. The mechanism of the smashing effect was discussed. Statistical work was done to obtain the quantitative data to give a clear result revealing the influence of the remelting current frequencies on droplet evolution. The decrease in the diameter of the liquid droplets would remarkably increase the interface area and shorten the migrating distance of the inclusions in the droplets, which meant that a higher purifying efficiency could be expected.

  5. Interplanetary magnetic field control of Saturn's polar cusp aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Bunce

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dayside UV emissions in Saturn's polar ionosphere have been suggested to be the first observational evidence of the kronian "cusp" (Gérard et al., 2004. The emission has two distinct states. The first is a bright arc-like feature located in the pre-noon sector, and the second is a more diffuse "spot" of aurora which lies poleward of the general location of the main auroral oval, which may be related to different upstream interplanetary magnetic field (IMF orientations. Here we take up the suggestion that these emissions correspond to the cusp. However, direct precipitation of electrons in the cusp regions is not capable of producing significant UV aurora. We have therefore investigated the possibility that the observed UV emissions are associated with reconnection occurring at the dayside magnetopause, possibly pulsed, akin to flux transfer events seen at the Earth. We devise a conceptual model of pulsed reconnection at the low-latitude dayside magnetopause for the case of northwards IMF which will give rise to pulsed twin-vortical flows in the magnetosphere and ionosphere in the vicinity of the open-closed field-line boundary, and hence to bi-polar field-aligned currents centred in the vortical flows. During intervals of high-latitude lobe reconnection for southward IMF, we also expect to have pulsed twin-vortical flows and corresponding bi-polar field-aligned currents. The vortical flows in this case, however, are displaced poleward of the open-closed field line boundary, and are reversed in sense, such that the field-aligned currents are also reversed. For both cases of northward and southward IMF we have also for the first time included the effects associated with the IMF By effect. We also include the modulation introduced by the structured nature of the solar wind and IMF at Saturn's orbit by developing "slow" and "fast" flow models corresponding to intermediate and high strength IMF respectively. We then

  6. Magnetic fields from second-order interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Osano, Bob

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that when two types of perturbations interact in cosmological perturbation theory, the interaction may lead to the generation of a third type. In this article we discuss the generation of magnetic fields from such interactions. We determine conditions under which the interaction of a first-order magnetic field with a first-order scalar-or vector-, or tensor-perturbations would lead to the generation of second order magnetic field. The analysis is done in a covariant-index-free approach, but could be done in the standard covariant indexed-approach.

  7. Magnetic fields from second-order interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Osano, Bob

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that when two types of perturbations interact in cosmological perturbation theory, the interaction may lead to the generation of a third type. In this article we discuss the generation of magnetic fields from such interactions. We determine conditions under which the interaction of a first-order magnetic field with a first-order scalar-or vector-, or tensor-perturbations would lead to the generation of second order magnetic field. The analysis is done in a covariant-index-fre...

  8. Ultralow energy electric field control of magnetism: can we get to 1 AttoJoule/bit? (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2016-10-01

    Complex perovskite oxides exhibit a rich spectrum of functional responses, including magnetism, ferroelectricity, highly correlated electron behavior, superconductivity, etc. The basic materials physics of such materials provide the ideal playground for interdisciplinary scientific exploration. Among the large number of materials systems, there exists a small set of materials which exhibit multiple order parameters; these are known as multiferroics. Our work so far has clearly demonstrated the possibility of reversible, electric field switching and control of the state and direction of magnetization. I will present our results to date.

  9. Multiaxial magnetic ordering in NdMg

    CERN Document Server

    Deldem, M; Galera, R M; Morin, P; Schmitt, D; Ouladdiaf, B

    1998-01-01

    NdMg is a cubic compound (CsCl-type) which orders antiferromagnetically at T sub N =61 K. The magnetization measurements show a second transition at T sub R =35 K. Over the whole order range, the powder neutron diffraction pattern can be indexed on the hypothesis of a collinear structure, the magnetic moments being parallel to the wave vector. The neutron diffraction experiments on a single crystal, under an applied magnetic field, establish that the transition at T sub R corresponds to a change from a collinear structure to a multiaxial one. The magnetic moments successively point along a fourfold axis, in the collinear structure, and along twofold axes in the multiaxial one. This sequence of magnetic structures is consistent with the coexistence of ferroquadrupolar gamma-couplings and antiferroquadrupolar epsilon-couplings. (author)

  10. Magnetic ordering in TmGa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cadogan, J.M.; Stewart, G.A.; Muños Pérez, S.;

    2014-01-01

    to be a first-order transition. At 3 K the magnetic structure of TmGa is predominantly ferromagnetic but a weakened incommensurate component remains. The ferromagnetic Tm moment reaches 6.7(2) μB at 3 K and the amplitude of the remaining incommensurate component is 2.7(4) μB. The 169Tm hyperfine magnetic field......We have determined the magnetic structure of the intermetallic compound TmGa by high-resolution neutron powder diffraction and 169Tm Mössbauer spectroscopy. This compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic (Cmcm) CrB-type structure and its magnetic structure is characterized by magnetic order...... of the Tm sublattice along the a-axis. The initial magnetic ordering occurs at 15(1) K and yields an incommensurate antiferromagnetic structure described by the propagation vector k1 = [0 0.275(2) 0]. At 12 K the dominant ferromagnetic ordering of the Tm sublattice along the a-axis develops in what appears...

  11. Ferroic nature of magnetic toroidal order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Anne S; Meier, Dennis; Fiebig, Manfred

    2014-09-05

    Electric dipoles and ferroelectricity violate spatial inversion symmetry, and magnetic dipoles and ferromagnetism break time-inversion symmetry. Breaking both symmetries favours magnetoelectric charge-spin coupling effects of enormous interest, such as multiferroics, skyrmions, polar superconductors, topological insulators or dynamic phenomena such as electromagnons. Extending the rationale, a novel type of ferroic order violating space- and time-inversion symmetry with a single order parameter should exist. This existence is fundamental and the inherent magnetoelectric coupling is technologically interesting. A uniform alignment of magnetic vortices, called ferrotoroidicity, was proposed to represent this state. Here we demonstrate that the magnetic vortex pattern identified in LiCoPO4 exhibits the indispensable hallmark of such a ferroic state, namely hysteretic poling of ferrotoroidic domains in the conjugate toroidal field, along with a distinction of toroidal from non-toroidal poling effects. This consolidates ferrotoroidicity as fourth form of ferroic order.

  12. Electric field control of magnetization reorientation in Co/Pb (Mg1/3Nb2/3)-PbTiO3 heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenglong; Zhou, Cai; Gesang, Dunzhu; Jiang, Changjun

    2017-12-01

    Herein, we demonstrated an apparent electric field control of magnetization reorientation at room temperature, through a strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in ferromagnetic/ferroelectric (FM/FE) multiferroic heterostructure. As the applied electric field increased, the magnetization tended to deviate from the original direction, which was induced by nonlinear strain vs electric-field behavior from the ferroelectric substrates. Ferromagnetic resonance showed that the in-plane magnetic easy axis of the Co film was shifted sharply with electric field E = 10 kV/cm, which indicates that the in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of the Co film can be inverted via the application of an electric field. These results demonstrated that converse magnetoelectric effect in the FM/FE heterostructure was indeed a feasible method to control magnetization orientation in technologically relevant ferromagnetic thin films at room temperature.

  13. Magnetic field control of hysteretic switching in Co/Al2O3 multilayers by carrier injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kalitsov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a theoretical model of magnetic field dependence of hysteretic switching in magnetic granular system. The model is based on the self-trapped electrons mechanism. Our calculations show that the switching voltage may be significantly decreased with increasing the magnetic field. The underlying mechanism is the influence of the magnetic field on electron occupation of the conduction band, which depends on the materials used in magnetic granular system, concentration of magnetic granules in the insulating matrix, applied voltage, and the charge accumulation on the granules. We support our theoretical calculations by measuring the magnetic field dependence of resistive switching behaviour in Co/Al2O3 granular multilayers. Our experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the proposed theory.

  14. Assembly of ordered magnetic microsphere arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanling; Ketterson, John

    2008-08-01

    We have developed a straightforward technique to assemble ordered arrays of magnetic microspheres on patterned thin Permalloy (Py) films deposited on the surface of a silicon wafer. Droplets containing micrometer-sized carboxyl paramagnetic microspheres are placed on a horizontally oriented wafer. The field produced by a permanent magnet placed under the wafer is rendered inhomogeneous by the patterned Py features and the resulting field gradients attract and hold the paramagnetic microspheres to these features. While the magnetic microspheres are being attracted to and secured on the pattered Permalloy features, a horizontal flow is created by a pipette, which also removes loose (unsecured) microspheres. By applying this technique to a cocktail of individually functionalized microspheres, a sensor could be realized, which will screen, in parallel, for a large number of targets per unit area. The ability to resolve individual microspheres is close to 100%. A desirable feature is that the substrate is reusable; removing the magnet allows an existing batch of microspheres, which may have lost sensitivity due to environmental exposure, to be flushed from the substrate and replaced with a new batch. The technique complements existing approaches in the field of microarrays widely used in immunoassay, DNA fragment detection, pathogen detection, and other applications in functional genomics and diagnostics.

  15. Electric field control of magnetization in Cu2O/porous anodic alumina hybrid structures at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L. Q.; Liu, H. Y.; Sun, H. Y.; Liu, L. H.; Han, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    Cu2O nanoporous films are deposited on porous anodic alumina (PAA) substrates by DC-reactive magnetron sputtering. This paper focuses on voltage driven magnetization switching in Cu2O/PAA (CP) composite films prepared by DC-reactive magnetron sputtering. By applying a dc electric field, the magnetization of the CP composite films can be controlled in a reversible and reproducible way and shows an analogous on-off behavior. The magnitude of the change in the magnetization was about 75 emu/cm3 as the electric field was switched on and off. Resistive switching behavior was also observed in as-prepared CP composite films. Further analysis indicated that the formation/rupture of conducting filaments composed of oxygen vacancies is likely responsible for the changes in the magnetization as well as in the resistivity. Such reversible change of magnetization controlled by an electric field at room temperature may have applications in spintronics and power efficient data storage technologies.

  16. Electric field controlled strain induced reversible switching of magnetization in Galfenol nanomagnets delineated on PMN-PT substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hasnain; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    We report a non-volatile converse magneto-electric effect in elliptical Galfenol (FeGa) nanomagnets of ~300 nm lateral dimensions and ~10nm thickness delineated on a PMN-PT substrate. This effect can be harnessed for energy-efficient non-volatile memory. The nanomagnets are fabricated with e-beam lithography and sputtering. Their major axes are aligned parallel to the direction in which the substrate is poled and they are magnetized in this direction with a magnetic field. An electric field in the opposite direction generates compressive strain in the piezoelectric substrate which is partially transferred to the nanomagnets and rotates their magnetization away from the major axes to metastable orientations. There they remain after the field is removed, resulting in non-volatility. Reversing the electric field generates tensile strain which returns the magnetization to the original state. The two states can encode two binary bits which can be written using the correct voltage polarity, resulting in non-toggle behavior. Scaled memory fashioned on this effect can exhibit write energy dissipation of only ~2 aJ. Work is supported by NSF under ECCS-1124714 and CCF-1216614. Sputtering was carried out at NIST Gaithersburg.

  17. Electric-field control of magnetic anisotropy in Fe81Ga19/BaTiO3 heterostructure films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Xie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the control of magnetism with an electric field in Fe81Ga19(FeGa/BaTiO3(BTO heterostructure films. The as-prepared FeGa/BTO samples present a uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, which is ascribed to be induced by the spontaneous ferroelectric polarization of the BTO substrates. With the electric field applied on the BTO substrates increasing from 0 to 6 kV/cm, the coercivity of FeGa films measured along the BTO[110] direction increases from 28 to 41 Oe, while the squareness of the hysteresis loop decreases from 0.99 to 0.31, which indicates that the easy and hard axes of FeGa films are swapped. The ferroelectric domains of BTO substrates and the magnetic domains of FeGa films exhibit the same dependence on the applied electric fields, manifesting the strong magnetoelectric coupling between the ferroelectricity of BTO substrates and the magnetism of FeGa films.

  18. Electric-field control of magnetic anisotropy in Fe81Ga19/BaTiO3 heterostructure films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yali; Zhan, Qingfeng; Liu, Yiwei; Dai, Guohong; Yang, Huali; Zuo, Zhenghu; Chen, Bin; Wang, Baomin; Zhang, Yao; Rong, Xin; Li, Run-Wei

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the control of magnetism with an electric field in Fe81Ga19(FeGa)/BaTiO3(BTO) heterostructure films. The as-prepared FeGa/BTO samples present a uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, which is ascribed to be induced by the spontaneous ferroelectric polarization of the BTO substrates. With the electric field applied on the BTO substrates increasing from 0 to 6 kV/cm, the coercivity of FeGa films measured along the BTO[110] direction increases from 28 to 41 Oe, while the squareness of the hysteresis loop decreases from 0.99 to 0.31, which indicates that the easy and hard axes of FeGa films are swapped. The ferroelectric domains of BTO substrates and the magnetic domains of FeGa films exhibit the same dependence on the applied electric fields, manifesting the strong magnetoelectric coupling between the ferroelectricity of BTO substrates and the magnetism of FeGa films.

  19. Magnetic field control and wavelength tunability of SPP excitations using Al2O3/SiO2/Fe structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaihara, Terunori; Shimizu, Hiromasa; Cebollada, Alfonso; Armelles, Gaspar

    2016-09-01

    Here, we show the high wavelength tunability and magnetic field modulation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) of a waveguide mode that Double-layer Dielectrics and Ferromagnetic Metal, Al2O3/SiO2/Fe, trilayer structures exhibit when excited in the Otto configuration of attenuated total reflection setup. First by modeling, and then experimentally, we demonstrate that it is possible to tune the wavelength at which the angular dependent reflectance of these structures reaches its absolute minimum by simply adjusting the SiO2 intermediate dielectric layer thickness. This precise wavelength corresponds to the cut-off condition of SPPs' waveguide mode supported by the proposed structure, and it can be then switched between two values upon magnetization reversal of the Fe layer. In this specific situation, a large enhancement of the transverse magneto-optical effect is also obtained.

  20. The Mars Crustal Magnetic Field Control of Plasma Boundary Locations and Atmospheric Loss: MHD Prediction and Comparison with MAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaohua; Ma, Yingjuan; Masunaga, Kei; Dong, Chuanfei; Brain, David; Halekas, Jasper; Lillis, Robert; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Connerney, Jack; Grebowsky, Joseph; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present results from a global Mars time-dependent MHD simulation under constant solar wind and solar radiation impact considering inherent magnetic field variations due to continuous planetary rotation. We calculate the 3-D shapes and locations of the bow shock (BS) and the induced magnetospheric boundary (IMB) and then examine their dynamic changes with time. We develop a physics-based, empirical algorithm to effectively summarize the multidimensional crustal field distribution. It is found that by organizing the model results using this new approach, the Mars crustal field shows a clear, significant influence on both the IMB and the BS. Specifically, quantitative relationships have been established between the field distribution and the mean boundary distances and the cross-section areas in the terminator plane for both of the boundaries. The model-predicted relationships are further verified by the observations from the NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission. Our analysis shows that the boundaries are collectively affected by the global crustal field distribution, which, however, cannot be simply parameterized by a local parameter like the widely used subsolar longitude. Our calculations show that the variability of the intrinsic crustal field distribution in Mars-centered Solar Orbital itself may account for approx.60% of the variation in total atmospheric loss, when external drivers are static. It is found that the crustal field has not only a shielding effect for atmospheric loss but also an escape-fostering effect by positively affecting the transterminator ion flow cross-section area.

  1. Electric-Field Control of Magnetism in Co40Fe40B20/(1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 Multiferroic Heterostructures with Different Ferroelectric Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zhao, Yonggang; Li, Peisen; Zhang, Sen; Li, Dalai; Wu, Hao; Chen, Aitian; Xu, Yang; Han, X F; Li, Shiyan; Lin, Di; Luo, Haosu

    2016-02-17

    Electric-field control of magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures composed of Co40Fe40B20 (CoFeB) and (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-xPT) with different ferroelectric phases via changing composition and temperature is explored. It is demonstrated that the nonvolatile looplike bipolar-electric-field-controlled magnetization, previously found in the CoFeB/PMN-xPT heterostructures with PMN-xPT in the rhombohedral (R) phase around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), also occurs for PMN-xPTs with both R phase (far away from MPB) and monoclinic (M) phase, suggesting that the phenomenon is the common feature of CoFeB/PMN-xPT multiferroic heterostructures for PMN-xPT with different phases. The magnitude of the effect changes with increasing temperature and volatile bipolar-electric-field-controlled magnetization with a butterflylike behavior occurs when the ferroelectric phase changes to the tetragonal phase (T). Moreover, for the R-phase sample with x = 0.18, an abrupt and giant increase of magnetization is observed at a characteristic temperature in the temperature dependence of magnetization curve. These results are discussed in terms of coupling between magnetism and ferroelectric domains including macro- and microdomains for different ferroelectric phases. This work is helpful for understanding the phenomena of electric-field control of magnetism in FM/FE multiferroic heterostructures and is also important for applications.

  2. magnetic order studied by nuclear methods

    CERN Document Server

    Reichl, C

    2001-01-01

    investigated within the frame of this work. The studies on the highly concentrated deuterides revealed a gradual loss in local field due to a distribution of 'local Curie temperatures' depending on the number of Fe neighbours and their distances from the Moessbauer nucleus. On rising the temperature, during a magnetic transition, an increasing number of Fe sites with different local environment loose their hyperfine fields, whereas bulk measurements showed a relatively sharp, however, incomplete transition. By using a combination of neutron diffraction- and muon spin relaxation studies the complex magnetic phase diagram of the system Ce(Rh,Ru) sub 3 B sub 2 , where weak magnetic moments exist, could be studied. There, transitions from para- to ferromagnetism, and more complicated magnetic structures could be observed. Due to the existence of several isotopes of B and Ru, each carrying different nuclear spins and magnetic moment, particularly complicated second moment simulations for interpreting the muon data...

  3. Anisotropy-Tuned Magnetic Order in Pyrochlore Iridates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, E.; Simonet, V.; Ballou, R.; Lhotel, E.; Hadj-Azzem, A.; Kodjikian, S.; Lejay, P.; Manuel, P.; Khalyavin, D.; Chapon, L. C.

    2015-06-01

    The magnetic behavior of polycrystalline samples of Er2Ir2O7 and Tb2Ir2O7 pyrochlores is studied by magnetization measurements and neutron diffraction. Both compounds undergo a magnetic transition at 140 and 130 K, respectively, associated with an ordering of the Ir sublattice, signaled by thermomagnetic hysteresis. In Tb2Ir2O7 , we show that the Ir molecular field leads the Tb magnetic moments to order below 40 K in the all-in-all-out magnetic arrangement. No sign of magnetic long-range order on the Er sublattice is evidenced in Er2Ir2O7 down to 0.6 K where a spin freezing is detected. These contrasting behaviors result from the competition between the Ir molecular field and the different single-ion anisotropy of the rare-earth elements on which it is acting. Additionally, this strongly supports the all-in-all-out iridium magnetic order.

  4. Studies on magnetic-field-induced first-order transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Chaddah

    2006-07-01

    We shall discuss magnetization and transport measurements in materials exhibiting a broad first-order transition. The phase transitions would be caused by varying magnetic field as well as temperature, and we concentrate on ferro- to antiferromagnetic transitions in magnetic materials. We distinguish between metastable supercooled phases and metastable glassy phase.

  5. Influence of magnetic anisotropy on the superferromagnetic ordering in nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Christiansen, Gunnar Dan

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic interaction between ultrafine particles may result in superferromagnetism, i.e., ordering of the magnetic moments of particles which would be superparamagnetic if they were noninteracting. In this article we discuss the influence of the magnetic anisotropy on the temperature dependence o...

  6. Giant Electric Field Control of Magnetism and Narrow Ferromagnetic Resonance Linewidth in FeCoSiB/Si/SiO2/PMN PT Multiferroic Heterostructures (Open Access Author’s Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    1 Giant electric field control of magnetism and narrow ferromagnetic resonance linewidth in FeCoSiB/Si/SiO2/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructures...coupling and narrow ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidth in multiferroic heterostructures. Electric field induced large effective field of 175Oe...in which the electric field applied to the piezoelectric layer produces a mechanical deformation that couples to the magnetic film, and hence induces

  7. Numerical modeling of higher order magnetic moments in UXO discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, V.; Yaoguo, L.; Nabighian, M.N.; Wright, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    The surface magnetic anomaly observed in unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearance is mainly dipolar, and consequently, the dipole is the only magnetic moment regularly recovered in UXO discrimination. The dipole moment contains information about the intensity of magnetization but lacks information about the shape of the target. In contrast, higher order moments, such as quadrupole and octupole, encode asymmetry properties of the magnetization distribution within the buried targets. In order to improve our understanding of magnetization distribution within UXO and non-UXO objects and to show its potential utility in UXO clearance, we present a numerical modeling study of UXO and related metallic objects. The tool for the modeling is a nonlinear integral equation describing magnetization within isolated compact objects of high susceptibility. A solution for magnetization distribution then allows us to compute the magnetic multipole moments of the object, analyze their relationships, and provide a depiction of the anomaly produced by different moments within the object. Our modeling results show the presence of significant higher order moments for more asymmetric objects, and the fields of these higher order moments are well above the noise level of magnetic gradient data. The contribution from higher order moments may provide a practical tool for improved UXO discrimination. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  8. Hyperfine Interactions, Magnetic Impurities and Ordering in Praseodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Jensen, J. Z.; Wulff, M.;

    1982-01-01

    The antiferromagnetic ordering in Pr due to the coupling of the 4f electronic system to the nuclei and to magnetic Nd impurities has been studied by neutron diffraction. A pure monocrystal of Pr develops true long-range order at about 50-60 mK. The ordering in both this crystal and a PrNd alloy i...

  9. MAGNETIC FIELD INDUCED FIRST-ORDER TRANSITIONS IN DYSPROSIUM ORTHOFERRITE

    OpenAIRE

    Eremenko, V.; Gnatchenko, S.; Kharchenko, N.; Lebedev, P.; Piotrowski, K; Szymczak, H.; Szymczak, R.

    1988-01-01

    New type of magnetic first-order phase transition induced by external magnetic field applied in the ab-plane in DyFeO3 is investigated using different magnetooptic techniques. The phenomenological model of this transition is proposed. The phase diagram in H-T plane has been obtained for various H orientation in the ab-plane.

  10. Spiral Magnetic Order in the One-Dimensional Kondo Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhen-Rong; LI Zheng-Zhong; SHEN Rui

    2001-01-01

    The effects of c-f (conduction-f electrons) hybridization on the spiral spin magnetism in the one dimensional Kondo lattice are studied. By using the mean-field approximation, a close set of equations of the Green's functions with arbitrary wave vector Q for the spiral ordering of spins is deduced. The magnetic phase boundary between the spiral magnetism and ferromagnetism has been calculated approximately. From our qualitative results, one can find that the ferromagnetic region is enlarged due to the c f hybridization. Moreover, some new results reflecting the Kondo effect, such as the modified dispersion relation and the weakening of the localized magnetic moments are also obtained.

  11. Driving magnetic order in a manganite by ultrafast lattice excitation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, M.; Tobey, R. I.; Wall, S.; Bromberger, H.; Khanna, V.; Cavalieri, A. L.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Lee, W. S.; Moore, R.; Schlotter, W. F.; Turner, J. J.; Krupin, O.; Trigo, M.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.; Dhesi, S. S.; Hill, J. P.; Cavalleri, A. (Materials Science Division); (Univ. Hamburg); (Brookhaven Nat. Lab.); (Fritz-Haber-Inst. Max Planck Soc.); (Univ. Oxford); (Lawrence Berkeley Lab.); (SLAC Nat. Accel. Lab.); (Stanford Univ.); (European XFEL); (Diamond Light Source)

    2011-01-01

    Femtosecond midinfrared pulses are used to directly excite the lattice of the single-layer manganite La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.5}MnO{sub 4}. Magnetic and orbital orders, as measured by femtosecond resonant soft x-ray diffraction with an x-ray free-electron laser, are reduced within a few picoseconds. This effect is interpreted as a displacive exchange quench, a prompt shift in the equilibrium value of the magnetic- and orbital-order parameters after the lattice has been distorted. Control of magnetism through ultrafast lattice excitation may be of use for high-speed optomagnetism.

  12. Towards a third-order topological invariant for magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hornig, G

    2002-01-01

    An expression for a third-order link integral of three magnetic fields is presented. It is a topological invariant and therefore an invariant of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The integral generalizes existing expressions for third-order invariants which are obtained from the Massey triple product, where the three fields are restricted to isolated flux tubes. The derivation and interpretation of the invariant shows a close relationship with the well-known magnetic helicity, which is a second-order topological invariant. Using gauge fields with an SU(2) symmetry, helicity and the new third-order invariant originate from the same identity, an identity which relates the second Chern class and the Chern-Simons three-form. We present an explicit example of three magnetic fields with non-disjunct support. These fields, derived from a vacuum Yang-Mills field with a non-vanishing winding number, possess a third-order linkage detected by our invariant.

  13. Magnetic field controlled charge density wave coupling in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Blackburn, E.; Ivashko, O.;

    2016-01-01

    The application of magnetic fields to layered cuprates suppresses their high-temperature superconducting behaviour and reveals competing ground states. In widely studied underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO), the microscopic nature of field-induced electronic and structural changes at low temperatures...... remains unclear. Here we report an X-ray study of the high-field charge density wave (CDW) in YBCO. For hole dopings ∼ 0.123, we find that a field (B∼10 T) induces additional CDW correlations along the CuO chain (b-direction) only, leading to a three-dimensional (3D) ordered state along this direction...... at B∼15 T. The CDW signal along the a-direction is also enhanced by field, but does not develop an additional pattern of correlations. Magnetic field modifies the coupling between the CuO2 bilayers in the YBCO structure, and causes the sudden appearance of the 3D CDW order. The mirror symmetry...

  14. Two-dimensional magnetic ordering in a multilayer structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Mukhopadhyay; M K Sanyal

    2006-07-01

    The effect of confinement from one, two or from all three directions on magnetic ordering has remained an active field of research for almost 100 years. The role of dipolar interactions and anisotropy are important to obtain, the otherwise forbidden, ferromagnetic ordering at finite temperature for ions arranged in two-dimensional (2D) arrays (monolayers). We have demonstrated that conventional low-temperature magnetometry and polarized neutron scattering measurements can be performed to study short-range ferromagnetic ordering of in-plane spins in 2D systems using a multilayer stack of non-interacting monolayers of gadolinium ions formed by Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique. The spontaneous magnetization could not be detected in the heterogeneous magnetic phase observed here and the saturation value of the net magnetization was found to depend on the sample temperature and applied magnetic field. The net magnetization rises exponentially with lowering temperature and then reaches saturation following a ln( ) dependence. The ln( ) dependence of magnetization has been predicted from spin-wave theory of 2D in-plane spin system with ferromagnetic interaction. The experimental findings reported here could be explained by extending this theory to a temperature domain of < 1.

  15. Electrically tuned magnetic order and magnetoresistance in a topological insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zuocheng; Feng, Xiao; Guo, Minghua; Li, Kang; Zhang, Jinsong; Ou, Yunbo; Feng, Yang; Wang, Lili; Chen, Xi; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Wang, Yayu

    2014-09-15

    The interplay between topological protection and broken time reversal symmetry in topological insulators may lead to highly unconventional magnetoresistance behaviour that can find unique applications in magnetic sensing and data storage. However, the magnetoresistance of topological insulators with spontaneously broken time reversal symmetry is still poorly understood. In this work, we investigate the transport properties of a ferromagnetic topological insulator thin film fabricated into a field effect transistor device. We observe a complex evolution of gate-tuned magnetoresistance, which is positive when the Fermi level lies close to the Dirac point but becomes negative at higher energies. This trend is opposite to that expected from the Berry phase picture, but is intimately correlated with the gate-tuned magnetic order. The underlying physics is the competition between the topology-induced weak antilocalization and magnetism-induced negative magnetoresistance. The simultaneous electrical control of magnetic order and magnetoresistance facilitates future topological insulator based spintronic devices.

  16. Magnetic Orders and Fluctuations in the Dipolar Pyrochlore Antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepas, Olivier; Shastry, B. Sriram

    2005-03-01

    While the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the pyrochlore lattice does not order, we will discuss, from a theoretical standpoint, possible magnetic phases induced by the dipole-dipole interactions. Such interactions play a role in systems such as Gd2Ti2O7 or Gd2Sn2O7 in stabilizing exotic forms of magnetic order, a subject of current debate. We will also argue that the external magnetic field induces multiple transitions, one of which is associated with no obvious broken symmetry, but can be characterized by a disorder parameter. Finally, Monte-Carlo simulations and Landau-Ginzburg expansion show that the dipolar Heisenberg model exhibits a fluctuation-induced first-order transition, thanks to the frustration and a continuous set of soft modes.

  17. Electric field control of magnetic anisotropy in a Co/Pt bilayer deposited on a high-κ SrTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, S.; Obinata, A.; Chiba, D.; Ueno, K.

    2017-02-01

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of a Co (0.5 nm)/Pt (2.4 nm) bilayer film was electrostatically tuned using a high-κ dielectric, SrTiO3, with a back-gating configuration. The Co film was directly deposited onto a SrTiO3 (001) substrate and capped by a Pt layer. The coercivity was enhanced (reduced) by applying a positive (negative) gate bias. The efficiency of the PMA energy modulation by the electric field was determined to be 1300-23 100 fJ/V m, which is 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than the efficiencies obtained in previous studies. The superior efficiency of this system is most likely attributable to the large dielectric constant of the SrTiO3 gate insulator and could be evidence that the PMA energy modulation is induced by charge accumulation.

  18. Magnetic ordering in pyrochlore Ho2Mn2O7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raju, N.P.; Greedan, J.E.; Pedersen, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of Ho2Mn2O7 With a spontaneous rise below about 40 K and a paramagnetic Curie temperature of +39 K suggests a ferromagnetic ordering. Indeed neutron diffraction profiles show strongly enhanced Bragg peaks with a temperature dependence which indicates an apparent T-c...... approximate to 35 K. Nonetheless, the magnetic diffraction pattern is not consistent with a collinear ferro or ferrimagnetic ordering of the Ho3+ and Mn4+ sublattices. Furthermore, specific heat and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) show features which are also incompatible with conventional long...

  19. Higher order finite difference schemes for the magnetic induction equations

    CERN Document Server

    Koley, Ujjwal; Risebro, Nils Henrik; Svärd, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    We describe high order accurate and stable finite difference schemes for the initial-boundary value problem associated with the magnetic induction equations. These equations model the evolution of a magnetic field due to a given velocity field. The finite difference schemes are based on Summation by Parts (SBP) operators for spatial derivatives and a Simultaneous Approximation Term (SAT) technique for imposing boundary conditions. We present various numerical experiments that demonstrate both the stability as well as high order of accuracy of the schemes.

  20. Modeling the field control of the surface electroclinic effect near continuous and first-order smectic-A* to smectic-C* transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappitelli, Kara; Hipolite, Dana N; Saunders, Karl

    2014-02-01

    We present and analyze a model for the combination of bulk and surface electroclinic effects in the smectic-A* (Sm-A*) phase near a Sm-A*-Sm-C* transition. As part of our analysis we calculate the dependence of the surface tilt on external electric field and show that it can be eliminated, or even reversed from its zero-field value, as demonstrated in previous experimental work on a system (W415) with a continuous Sm-A*-Sm-C* transition. We also analyze, for the first time, the combination of bulk and surface electroclinic effects in systems with a first-order Sm-A*-Sm-C* transition. The variation of surface tilt with electric field in this case is much more dramatic, with discontinuities and hysteresis. With regard to technological, e.g., display, applications, this could be a feature to be avoided or potentially exploited. Near each type of Sm-A*-Sm-C* transition we obtain the temperature dependence of the field required to eliminate surface tilt. Additionally, we analyze the effect of varying the system's enantiomeric excess, showing that it strongly affects the field dependence of surface tilt, in particular, near a first-order Sm-A*-Sm-C* transition. In this case, increasing enantiomeric excess can change the field dependence of surface tilt from continuous to discontinuous. Our model also allows us to calculate the variation of layer spacing in going from surface to bulk, which in turn allows us to estimate the strain resulting from the difference between the surface and bulk layer spacing. We show that for certain ranges of applied electric field, this strain can result in layer buckling, which reduces the overall quality of the liquid crystal cell. For de Vries materials, with small tilt-induced change in layer spacing, the induced strain for a given surface tilt should be smaller. However, we argue that this may be offset by the fact that de Vries materials, which typically have Sm-A*-Sm-C* transitions near a tricritical point, will generally have larger

  1. Second order semiclassics with self-generated magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdös, Laszlo; Fournais, Søren; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2012-01-01

    We consider the semiclassical asymptotics of the sum of negative eigenvalues of the three-dimensional Pauli operator with an external potential and a self-generated magnetic field $B$. We also add the field energy $\\beta \\int B^2$ and we minimize over all magnetic fields. The parameter $\\beta......$ effectively determines the strength of the field. We consider the weak field regime with $\\beta h^{2}\\ge {const}>0$, where $h$ is the semiclassical parameter. For smooth potentials we prove that the semiclassical asymptotics of the total energy is given by the non-magnetic Weyl term to leading order...... in the companion paper \\cite{EFS3} to prove the second order Scott correction to the ground state energy of large atoms and molecules....

  2. Superconductivity and magnetic order in La--Ce alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollan, J.J.; Finnemore, D.K.

    1971-03-01

    Superconductivity and magnetic order have been studied both above and below the Kondo temperature for the La--Ce system. Electrical resistivity measurements on La 0.2, 1.0, 2.0, 3.2, and 4.0 wt. percent Ce have been made from 0.060 to 20.0K.

  3. Neutron scattering studies on magnetic excitations in complex ordered manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senff, D.

    2007-09-15

    This thesis deals with magnetic excitations in three different Manganese oxides, single-layered LaSrMnO{sub 4}, charge- and orbital-ordered La{sub 1/2}Sr{sub 3/2}MnO{sub 4}, and multiferroic TbMnO{sub 3}, which are studied by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The properties of the first system, LaSrMnO{sub 4}, are governed by the complex interplay of orbital, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom typical for the physics of manganites. The magnetic low-temperature behavior is quite unusual, and the comprehensive analysis of the spin-wave spectrum of LaSrMnO{sub 4} suggests a heterogenous ground state with ferromagnetic orbital polarons embedded in an antiferromagnetic background. The doped system La{sub 1/2}Sr{sub 3/2}MnO{sub 4} exhibits a stable charge- and orbital-ordered state, which today is discussed very controversially, as it is of great relevance for the colossal increase of electric conductivity at the metal-insulator transition in perovskite manganites. Analyzing the spin-wave dispersion of the ordered state, we find an excellent agreement with classical predictions by Goodenough and reject a recent alternative proposal. The different strength of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange in the CE-type ordering leads to the conclusion that the magnetic state has to be considered as a weak AFM coupling of stable FM elements. This thesis is further supported by the thermal evolution of the ordered state, revealing anisotropic correlations and the close competition of FM and AFM correlations above the Neel transition, as well as by the doping dependence of the charge- and orbital-ordered state, which is interpreted on the basis of a different response of the magnetic system with respect to additional electrons or holes. In the orthorhombic perovskite TbMnO{sub 3} the electric polarization is closely coupled to the magnetic degrees of freedom via a complex, non-collinear magnetic ordering. Precisely characterizing the different magnon excitations

  4. Second-order magnetic critical points at finite magnetic fields: Revisiting Arrott plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustingorry, S.; Pomiro, F.; Aurelio, G.; Curiale, J.

    2016-06-01

    The so-called Arrott plot, which consists in plotting H /M against M2, with H the applied magnetic field and M the magnetization, is used to extract valuable information in second-order magnetic phase transitions. Besides, it is widely accepted that a negative slope in the Arrott plot is indicative of a first-order magnetic transition. This is known as the Banerjee criterion. In consequence, the zero-field transition temperature T* is reported as the characteristic first-order transition temperature. By carefully analyzing the mean-field Landau model used for studying first-order magnetic transitions, we show in this work that T* corresponds in fact to a triple point where three first-order lines meet. More importantly, this analysis reveals the existence of two symmetrical second-order critical points at finite magnetic field (Tc,±Hc) . We then show that a modified Arrott plot can be used to obtain information about these second-order critical points. To support this idea we analyze experimental data on La2 /3Ca1 /3MnO3 and discuss an estimate for the location of the triple point and the second-order critical points.

  5. In-plane electric field controlled perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in an FePt/[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.7-(PbTiO3)0.3 heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Xu, Xiaoguang; Feng, Julong; Liu, Pengfei; Wu, Yong; Ma, Li; Zhou, Shiming; Miao, Jun; Jiang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    We report the in-plane electric field controlled perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of L10-FePt films deposited on polarized [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.7-(PbTiO3)0.3 single crystal substrates. The out-of-plane coercivity (H c⊥) of FePt films exhibits a regular response to the in-plane electric field applied on substrates. The experimental change of H c⊥ is approximately 21.3% with the electric field varying from -10 to 10 kV/cm. The magnetization direction can be controlled by switching the electric field. The remanence of FePt films can also be manipulated by the electric field, so that a “W”-shaped sawtooth magnetic signal can be generated by a sawtooth electric field.

  6. Interplay between electronic transport and magnetic order in ferromagnetic magnetic manganite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundley, M.F.; Neumeier, J.J.; Heffner, R.H.; Jia, Q.X.; Wu, X.D.; Thompson, J.D.

    1997-05-01

    The transition metal oxides La{sub 1{minus}x}A{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (A = Ba, Ca, or Sr) order ferromagnetically with Curie temperatures ranging from as low as 50 K to well above room temperature. Magnetic order in these compounds results in a concomitant metal-insulator transition. The feature displayed by the manganites that is most important technologically is the extremely large negative magnetoresistance that achieves its largest values near the magnetic ordering temperature. Qualitatively, this colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) phenomenon involves the suppression of the relatively sharp maximum in the resistivity that is centered at T{sub C}. When considered collectively, the anomalous temperature-dependent transport properties, the CMR effect, and the magnetically ordered ground state indicate that a novel interplay between magnetism and electronic transport occurs in the manganites. General features of the magnetic-field and temperature-dependent electrical resistivity and magnetization as displayed by PLD-grown thin films are examined. Particular emphasis is placed on what these measurements tell us about the conduction process both above and below the magnetic ordering temperature.

  7. FIRST-ORDER PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN MAGNETICALLY DRIVEN FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresnyak, Andrey [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    We demonstrate that particles are regularly accelerated while experiencing curvature drift in flows driven by magnetic tension. Some examples of such flows include spontaneous turbulent reconnection and decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, where a magnetic field relaxes to a lower-energy configuration and transfers part of its energy to kinetic motions of the fluid. We show that this energy transfer, which normally causes turbulent cascade and heating of the fluid, also results in a first-order acceleration of non-thermal particles. Since it is generic, this acceleration mechanism is likely to play a role in the production of non-thermal particle distribution in magnetically dominant environments such as the solar chromosphere, pulsar magnetospheres, jets from supermassive black holes, and γ-ray bursts.

  8. Electric field control of magnetic states in isolated and dipole-coupled FeGa nanomagnets delineated on a PMN-PT substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hasnain; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2015-10-01

    We report observation of a ‘non-volatile’ converse magneto-electric effect in elliptical FeGa nanomagnets delineated on a piezoelectric PMN-PT substrate. The nanomagnets are first magnetized with a magnetic field directed along their nominal major axes. Subsequent application of a strong electric field across the piezoelectric substrate generates strain in the substrate, which is partially transferred to the nanomagnets and rotates the magnetizations of some of them away from their initial orientations. The rotated magnetizations remain in their new orientations after the field is removed, resulting in ‘non-volatility’. In isolated nanomagnets, the magnetization rotates by \\lt 90^\\circ upon application of the electric field, but in a dipole-coupled pair consisting of one ‘hard’ and one ‘soft’ nanomagnet, which are both initially magnetized in the same direction by the magnetic field, the soft nanomagnet’s magnetization rotates by \\gt 90^\\circ upon application of the electric field because of the dipole influence of the hard nanomagnet. This effect can be utilized for a nanomagnetic NOT logic gate.

  9. Magnetic ordering and anisotropy in heavy atom radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Stephen M; Hill, Stephen; Oakley, Richard T

    2015-03-25

    Recent developments in stable radical chemistry have afforded "heavy atom" radicals, neutral open-shell (S = 1/2) molecular species containing heavy p-block elements (S, Se), which display solid-state magnetic properties once considered exclusive to conventional metal-based magnets. These highly spin-delocalized radicals do not associate in the solid state and yet display extensive networks of close intermolecular interactions. Spin density on the heavy atoms allows for increased isotropic and spin-orbit mediated anisotropic exchange effects. Structural variations induced by chemical modification and physical pressure, coupled with ab-initio methods to estimate exchange energies, have facilitated the development of predictive structure/property relationships. These results, coupled with detailed theoretical analyses and magnetic resonance spectroscopic measurements, have provided insight into the magnetic structure of ferromagnetic and spin-canted antiferromagnetic ordered materials as well as an understanding of the importance of spin-orbit coupling contributions to magnetic hysteresis and anisotropy. Isotropic and anisotropic ferromagnetic exchange can also be enhanced indirectly by the incorporation of heavy atoms into nonspin-bearing sites, where they can contribute to multi-orbital spin-orbit coupling.

  10. Observation of nuclear magnetic order in solid 3He

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halperin, W.P.; Archie, C.N.; Rasmussen, Finn Berg

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of T dp/dT have been made along the He3 melting curve near an anomaly at Ts=1.17 mK. It is found that the solid-He3 entropy decreases by 80% in an interval of 100 μK at Ts. This is attributed to onset of nuclear magnetic order.......Measurements of T dp/dT have been made along the He3 melting curve near an anomaly at Ts=1.17 mK. It is found that the solid-He3 entropy decreases by 80% in an interval of 100 μK at Ts. This is attributed to onset of nuclear magnetic order....

  11. Incommensurate magnetic ordering of PrPdAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, L. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Doenni, A. [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Lab.; Fauth, F. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-09-01

    The intermetallic rare earth compound PrPdAl with ZrNiAl-type structure was investigated by means of powder neutron diffraction. PrPdAl orders below T{sub N} {approx_equal}4.2 K with an incommensurate antiferromagnetic propagation vector k = [1/2,0,{tau}], {tau}=0.398. The best fit was obtained with a sinusoidal modulation of the magnetic moments along the c-axis. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  12. Magnetic-field control of photon echo from the electron-trion system in a CdTe quantum well: shuffling coherence between optically accessible and inaccessible states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, L; Poltavtsev, S V; Yugova, I A; Yakovlev, D R; Karczewski, G; Wojtowicz, T; Kossut, J; Akimov, I A; Bayer, M

    2012-10-12

    We report on magnetic field-induced oscillations of the photon echo signal from negatively charged excitons in a CdTe/(Cd,Mg)Te semiconductor quantum well. The oscillatory signal is due to Larmor precession of the electron spin about a transverse magnetic field and depends sensitively on the polarization configuration of the exciting and refocusing pulses. The echo amplitude can be fully tuned from the maximum down to zero depending on the time delay between the two pulses and the magnetic-field strength. The results are explained in terms of the optical Bloch equations accounting for the spin level structure of electrons and trions.

  13. Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian to all orders in the magnetic field and the Chiral Magnetic Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Mages, Simon Wolfgang; Schäfer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In high energy heavy ion collisions as well as in astrophysical objects like magnetars extreme magnetic field strengths are reached. Thus, there exists a need to calculate divers QED processes to all orders in the magnetic field. We calculate the vacuum polarization graph in second order of the electric field and all orders of the magnetic field resulting in a generalization of the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian. We perform the calculation in the effective Lagrangian approach of J. Schwinger as well as using modified Feynman rules. We find that both approaches give the same results provided that the different finite renormalization terms are taken into account. Our results imply that any quantitative explanation of the recently proposed Chiral Magnetic Effect has to take 'Strong QED' effects into account, because these corrections are huge.

  14. Second order semiclassics with self-generated magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Erdos, Laszlo; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2011-01-01

    We consider the semiclassical asymptotics of the sum of negative eigenvalues of the three-dimensional Pauli operator with an external potential and a self-generated magnetic field $B$. We also add the field energy $\\beta \\int B^2$ and we minimize over all magnetic fields. The parameter $\\beta$ effectively determines the strength of the field. We consider the weak field regime with $\\beta h^{2}\\ge {const}>0$, where $h$ is the semiclassical parameter. For smooth potentials we prove that the semiclassical asymptotics of the total energy is given by the non-magnetic Weyl term to leading order with an error bound that is smaller by a factor $h^{1+\\e}$, i.e. the subleading term vanishes. However, for potentials with a Coulomb singularity the subleading term does not vanish due to the non-semiclassical effect of the singularity. Combined with a multiscale technique, this refined estimate is used in the companion paper \\cite{EFS3} to prove the second order Scott correction to the ground state energy of large atoms an...

  15. Electric field control of spin re-orientation in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions—CoFeB and MgO thickness dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hao; Naik, Vinayak Bharat; Liu, Ruisheng; Han, Guchang

    2014-07-01

    We report an investigation of electric-field (EF) control of spin re-orientation as functions of the thicknesses of CoFeB free layer (FL) and MgO layer in synthetic-antiferromagnetic pinned magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. It is found that the EF modulates the coercivity (Hc) of the FL almost linearly for all FL thicknesses, while the EF efficiency, i.e., the slope of the linearity, increases as the FL thickness increases. This linear variation in Hc is also observed for larger MgO thicknesses (≥1.5 nm), while the EF efficiency increases only slightly from 370 to 410 Oe nm/V when MgO thickness increases from 1.5 to 1.76 nm. We have further observed the absence of quasi-DC unipolar switching. We discuss its origin and highlight the underlying challenges to implement the EF controlled switching in a practical magnetic memory.

  16. Proximity-Driven Enhanced Magnetic Order at Ferromagnetic-Insulator-Magnetic-Topological-Insulator Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingda; Chang, Cui-Zu; Kirby, Brian. J.; Jamer, Michelle E.; Cui, Wenping; Wu, Lijun; Wei, Peng; Zhu, Yimei; Heiman, Don; Li, Ju; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic exchange driven proximity effect at a magnetic-insulator-topological-insulator (MI-TI) interface provides a rich playground for novel phenomena as well as a way to realize low energy dissipation quantum devices. Here we report a dramatic enhancement of proximity exchange coupling in the MI/magnetic-TI EuS /Sb2 -xVx Te3 hybrid heterostructure, where V doping is used to drive the TI (Sb2 Te3 ) magnetic. We observe an artificial antiferromagneticlike structure near the MI-TI interface, which may account for the enhanced proximity coupling. The interplay between the proximity effect and doping in a hybrid heterostructure provides insights into the engineering of magnetic ordering.

  17. Magnetic field-induced switching of magnetic ordering in SrFeO3- δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan Radheep, D.; Shanmugapriya, K.; Palanivel, Balan; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2016-08-01

    The oxygen-deficient strontium iron oxide SrFeO3- δ (SFO) exhibits richness in the phase diagram over a broad range of temperatures and for other external parameters. Room-temperature X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrum reveals that the structure of synthesized SFO system consists of two mixed phases, i.e., major orthorhombic and minor tetragonal phases. The low-temperature Raman and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements indicated a structural transition below 253 K. The magnetic property of the synthesized SFO for various external magnetic field (up to 5 T) reveals possible variation in oxygen stoichiometry. Also, the application of external H increases Neel transition temperature ( T N), suppresses the hysteresis width ( W H), and thus weakens the first-order nature of the transition. Our analysis revealed the vanishing of hysteresis and the first-order antiferromagnetic transition becomes a crossover above a critical magnetic field H CR ≈ 5 T. Possible switching of magnetic ordering and oxidation state observed in same system enhances interest in related compounds which may be used in magnetic sensors and other magnetic switching devices.

  18. Magnetic field-induced switching of magnetic ordering in SrFeO{sub 3-δ}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan Radheep, D.; Murugan, Ramaswamy [Pondicherry University, Department of Physics, Puducherry (India); Shanmugapriya, K.; Palanivel, Balan [Pondicherry Engineering College, Department of Physics, Puducherry (India)

    2016-08-15

    The oxygen-deficient strontium iron oxide SrFeO{sub 3-δ} (SFO) exhibits richness in the phase diagram over a broad range of temperatures and for other external parameters. Room-temperature X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrum reveals that the structure of synthesized SFO system consists of two mixed phases, i.e., major orthorhombic and minor tetragonal phases. The low-temperature Raman and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements indicated a structural transition below 253 K. The magnetic property of the synthesized SFO for various external magnetic field (up to 5 T) reveals possible variation in oxygen stoichiometry. Also, the application of external H increases Neel transition temperature (T{sub N}), suppresses the hysteresis width (W{sub H}), and thus weakens the first-order nature of the transition. Our analysis revealed the vanishing of hysteresis and the first-order antiferromagnetic transition becomes a crossover above a critical magnetic field H{sub CR} ∼ 5 T. Possible switching of magnetic ordering and oxidation state observed in same system enhances interest in related compounds which may be used in magnetic sensors and other magnetic switching devices. (orig.)

  19. Zero-field NMR and NQR studies of magnetically ordered state in charge-ordered EuPtP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, T.; Maruyama, T.; Ueda, K.; Mito, T.; Mitsuda, A.; Umeda, M.; Sugishima, M.; Wada, H.

    2015-03-01

    EuPtP undergoes two valence transitions and has two kinds of valence states of Eu ions at low temperatures. In the charge-ordered state, this compound shows an antiferromagnetic order ascribed to magnetic divalent Eu ions. We investigated the antiferromagnetically ordered state of EuPtP by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurement and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurement in a zero external magnetic field. The observed 153Eu NMR signals of a magnetic divalent state and Eu,153151 NQR signals of a nonmagnetic trivalent state clearly demonstrate that the spins order in the hexagonal basal plane and the internal magnetic field is not canceled out, even at the Eu3 + layers which are in the middle of magnetic Eu2 + layers. In addition, the observation of 31P and 195Pt NMR spectra allowed us to discuss a possible magnetic structure. We also evaluated the nuclear quadrupole frequencies for both Eu2 + and Eu3 + ion states.

  20. Magnetic field control of the neutral and charged exciton fine structure in single quantum dashes emitting at 1.55 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrowiński, P.; Musiał, A.; Maryński, A.; Syperek, M.; Misiewicz, J.; Sęk, G. [Laboratory for Optical Spectroscopy of Nanostructures, Department of Experimental Physics, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, Wrocław (Poland); Somers, A. [Technische Physik, University of Würzburg and Wilhelm-Conrad-Röntgen-Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Reithmaier, J. P. [Technische Physik, University of Würzburg and Wilhelm-Conrad-Röntgen-Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics (INA), CINSaT, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, 34132 Kassel (Germany); Höfling, S. [Technische Physik, University of Würzburg and Wilhelm-Conrad-Röntgen-Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, KY16 9SS St. Andrews (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-02

    We investigated the neutral and charged exciton fine structure in single InAs/InGaAlAs/InP quantum dashes emitting at 1.55 μm using polarization-resolved microphotoluminescence in a magnetic field. Inverted spin configuration of horizontally [1–10] and vertically [110] polarized transitions has been observed. An in-plane magnetic field of up to 5 Tesla has been applied to tailor the fine structure, and eventually to reduce the splitting of the bright exciton states down to zero. This inverted structure has been observed for all the investigated excitons, making it a characteristic feature for this class of nanostructures with the largest splitting reduction of 170 μeV.

  1. Giant electric field control of magnetism and narrow ferromagnetic resonance linewidth in FeCoSiB/Si/SiO2/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Wang, X.; Xie, L.; Hu, Z.; Lin, H.; Zhou, Z.; Nan, T.; Yang, X.; Howe, B. M.; Jones, J. G.; Brown, G. J.; Sun, N. X.

    2016-06-01

    It has been challenging to achieve combined strong magnetoelectric coupling and narrow ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidth in multiferroic heterostructures. Electric field induced large effective field of 175 Oe and narrow FMR linewidth of 40 Oe were observed in FeCoSiB/Si/SiO2/PMN-PT heterostructures with substrate clamping effect minimized through removing the Si substrate. As a comparison, FeCoSiB/PMN-PT heterostructures with FeCoSiB film directly deposited on PMN-PT showed a comparable voltage induced effective magnetic field but a significantly larger FMR linewidth of 283 Oe. These multiferroic heterostructures exhibiting combined giant magnetoelectric coupling and narrow ferromagnetic resonance linewidth offer great opportunities for integrated voltage tunable RF magnetic devices.

  2. Electric field control of spin re-orientation in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions—CoFeB and MgO thickness dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Hao; Naik, Vinayak Bharat; Liu, Ruisheng; Han, Guchang, E-mail: han-guchang@dsi.a-star.edu.sg [Data Storage Institute, A*STAR (Agency for Science Technology and Research), 5 Engineering Drive 1, DSI Building, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)

    2014-07-28

    We report an investigation of electric-field (EF) control of spin re-orientation as functions of the thicknesses of CoFeB free layer (FL) and MgO layer in synthetic-antiferromagnetic pinned magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. It is found that the EF modulates the coercivity (Hc) of the FL almost linearly for all FL thicknesses, while the EF efficiency, i.e., the slope of the linearity, increases as the FL thickness increases. This linear variation in Hc is also observed for larger MgO thicknesses (≥1.5 nm), while the EF efficiency increases only slightly from 370 to 410 Oe nm/V when MgO thickness increases from 1.5 to 1.76 nm. We have further observed the absence of quasi-DC unipolar switching. We discuss its origin and highlight the underlying challenges to implement the EF controlled switching in a practical magnetic memory.

  3. Magnetic order of UPt3 under uniaxial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, N. H.; Rodière, P.; Yakhou, F.; Fernández-Díaz, M.-T.; Fåk, B.; Huxley, A.; Flouquet, J.

    2001-03-01

    The weak antiferromagnetic order of the heavy fermion superconductor UPt3 has been investigated by elastic neutron-scattering measurements under applied uniaxial pressure up to 6 kbars along the a and c axes of the hexagonal crystal structure. For p\\|\\|c the small antiferromagnetically ordered moment of 0.02 μB/U atom shows a nonlinear decrease for increasing pressures and is still not completely suppressed at the maximum applied pressure of 6 kbars. For p\\|\\|a a significant increase in the magnetic Bragg peak intensity is observed, which suggests an incomplete domain repopulation and confirms the presence of a single-k structure. The Néel temperature of TN=6 K does not substantially change with uniaxial pressure. The results are discussed in relation to the understanding of the unconventional superconducting phase diagram.

  4. CaMn2Al10 : Itinerant Mn magnetism on the verge of magnetic order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, L.; Simonson, J. W.; Yin, W.-G.; Smith, G. J.; Kistner-Morris, J. J.; Zellman, S.; Puri, A.; Aronson, M. C.

    2015-07-01

    We report the discovery of CaMn2Al10 , a metal with strong magnetic anisotropy and moderate electronic correlations. Magnetization measurements find a Curie-Weiss moment of 0.83 μB/Mn , significantly reduced from the Hund's rule value, and the magnetic entropy obtained from specific heat measurements is correspondingly small, only ≈9 % of R ln 2 . These results imply that the Mn magnetism is highly itinerant, a conclusion supported by density functional theory calculations that find strong Mn-Al hybridization. Consistent with the layered nature of the crystal structure, the magnetic susceptibility χ is anisotropic below 20 K, with a maximum ratio of χ[010 ]/χ[001 ]≈3.5 . A strong power-law divergence χ (T ) ˜T-1.2 below 20 K implies incipient ferromagnetic order with a low Curie temperature TC<2 K . Our experiments indicate that CaMn2Al10 is a rare example of a system where the weak and itinerant Mn-based magnetism is poised on the verge of order.

  5. Second order anisotropy contribution in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timopheev, A A; Sousa, R; Chshiev, M; Nguyen, H T; Dieny, B

    2016-06-01

    Hard-axis magnetoresistance loops were measured on perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction pillars of diameter ranging from 50 to 150 nm. By fitting these loops to an analytical model, the effective anisotropy fields in both free and reference layers were derived and their variations in temperature range between 340 K and 5 K were determined. It is found that a second-order anisotropy term of the form -K2cos(4)θ must be added to the conventional uniaxial -K1cos(2)θ term to explain the experimental data. This higher order contribution exists both in the free and reference layers. At T = 300 K, the estimated -K2/K1 ratios are 0.1 and 0.24 for the free and reference layers, respectively. The ratio is more than doubled at low temperatures changing the ground state of the reference layer from "easy-axis" to "easy-cone" regime. The easy-cone regime has clear signatures in the shape of the hard-axis magnetoresistance loops. The existence of this higher order anisotropy was also confirmed by ferromagnetic resonance experiments on FeCoB/MgO sheet films. It is of interfacial nature and is believed to be due to spatial fluctuations at the nanoscale of the first order anisotropy parameter at the FeCoB/MgO interface.

  6. Long-range magnetic ordering in magnetic ionic liquid: Emim[FeCl{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Pedro, I; Rojas, D P; Rodriguez Fernandez, J [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Albo, J; Luis, P; Irabien, A [Departamento de Ingenierioa Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Blanco, Jesus A, E-mail: rodrigufj@unican.e [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-07-28

    Up to now most of the magnetic ionic liquids containing tetrachloroferrate ion FeCl{sub 4} have evidenced a paramagnetic temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility, with only small deviations from the Curie law at low temperatures. However, we report on the physical properties of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroferrate Emim[FeCl{sub 4}], that clearly shows a long-range antiferromagnetic ordering below the Neel temperature T{sub N{approx}}3.8 K. In addition, the field dependence of the magnetization measured at 2 K is characterized by a linear behaviour up to around 40 kOe, while above this field the magnetization becomes saturated with a value of 4.3 {mu}{sub B}/Fe, which is near the expected fully saturated value of 5 {mu}{sub B}/Fe for an Fe{sup 3+} ion.

  7. Large Magnetization and Reversible Magnetocaloric Effect at the Second-Order Magnetic Transition in Heusler Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjay; Caron, Luana; D'Souza, Sunil Wilfred; Fichtner, Tina; Porcari, Giacomo; Fabbrici, Simone; Shekhar, Chandra; Chadov, Stanislav; Solzi, Massimo; Felser, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to rare-earth-based materials, cheaper and more environmentally friendly candidates for cooling applications are found within the family of Ni-Mn Heusler alloys. Initial interest in these materials is focused on the first-order magnetostructural transitions. However, large hysteresis makes a magnetocaloric cycle irreversible. Alternatively, here it is shown how the Heusler family can be used to optimize reversible second-order magnetic phase transitions for magnetocaloric applications.

  8. Partial magnetic order in the itinerant-electron magnet MnSi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Pintschovius; D Reznik; C Pfleiderer; H v Löhneysen

    2004-07-01

    MnSi is an itinerant ferromagnet with a long-wavelength helical modulation of the spin structure. Macroscopic measurements suggest that the ordering temperature c is reduced with increasing pressure from c = 30 K at = 0 to zero at the critical pressure c = 14.6 kbar. Resistivity measurements show that MnSi enters a non-Fermi liquid state at c, which remains to be understood. Neutron scattering techniques have been used to investigate the magnetic structure at and above c, i.e. triple-axis spectrometry and small angle neutron scattering. Surprisingly, sizeable quasi-static moments were found to survive to pressures considerably above c. They are, however, organized in a highly unusual way such that the magnetic Bragg reflections are sharp in the longitudinal direction but are very broad in the transverse direction, implying a partial magnetic order that was never seen before.

  9. Ultra-low switching energy and scaling in electric-field-controlled nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions with high resistance-area product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grezes, C.; Alzate, J. G.; Cai, X.; Wang, K. L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ebrahimi, F.; Khalili Amiri, P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Inston, Inc., Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Katine, J. A. [HGST, Inc., San Jose, California 95135 (United States); Langer, J.; Ocker, B. [Singulus Technologies AG, Kahl am Main 63796 (Germany)

    2016-01-04

    We report electric-field-induced switching with write energies down to 6 fJ/bit for switching times of 0.5 ns, in nanoscale perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with high resistance-area product and diameters down to 50 nm. The ultra-low switching energy is made possible by a thick MgO barrier that ensures negligible spin-transfer torque contributions, along with a reduction of the Ohmic dissipation. We find that the switching voltage and time are insensitive to the junction diameter for high-resistance MTJs, a result accounted for by a macrospin model of purely voltage-induced switching. The measured performance enables integration with same-size CMOS transistors in compact memory and logic integrated circuits.

  10. Stabilization of Néel order in frustrated magnets with increasing magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Burkhard; Siahatgar, Mohammad; Thalmeier, Peter

    2013-01-01

    For low-dimensional frustrated quantum magnets, the dependence of the staggered moment ms on a magnetic field is nonmonotonic: For small and intermediate fields, quantum fluctuations are gradually suppressed, leading to an increase of ms (H). For large applied magnetic fields however, the classically expected monotonous decrease is recovered. For the same reasons, the Néel ordering temperature TN of such compounds first increases and then exhibits a reentrant behavior as a function of the field strength. The quantitative analysis of this behavior is an excellent tool to determine the frustration parameter of a given compound. We have derived a general linear spin-wave (LSW) theory in the presence of a magnetic field. Based on our LSW theory, including a small interlayer coupling, we use a self-consistent approach determining TN by the condition of a vanishing total moment. We apply our findings to the recently measured field dependence of the magnetic ordering temperature TN of Cu(pz)2 (ClO4)2 in the framework of the S = 1/2 two-dimensional J1-J2 Heisenberg model. The observed increase with increasing field strength can be understood naturally using an intermediate frustration ratio J2/J1 ≈ 0.2, which is in accordance with the field dependence of the staggered moment.

  11. Highly ordered ultralong magnetic nanowires wrapped in stacked graphene layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Aziz El Mel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis and magnetic characterization of ultralong (1 cm arrays of highly ordered coaxial nanowires with nickel cores and graphene stacking shells (also known as metal-filled carbon nanotubes. Carbon-containing nickel nanowires are first grown on a nanograted surface by magnetron sputtering. Then, a post-annealing treatment favors the metal-catalyzed crystallization of carbon into stacked graphene layers rolled around the nickel cores. The observed uniaxial magnetic anisotropy field oriented along the nanowire axis is an indication that the shape anisotropy dominates the dipolar coupling between the wires. We further show that the thermal treatment induces a decrease in the coercivity of the nanowire arrays. This reflects an enhancement of the quality of the nickel nanowires after annealing attributed to a decrease of the roughness of the nickel surface and to a reduction of the defect density. This new type of graphene–ferromagnetic-metal nanowire appears to be an interesting building block for spintronic applications.

  12. Magnetic order and Mott transition on the checkerboard lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Nyayabanta; Majumdar, Pinaki

    2017-03-01

    The checkerboard lattice, with alternating ‘crossed’ plaquettes, serves as the two dimensional analog of the pyrochlore lattice. The corner sharing plaquette structure leads to a hugely degenerate ground state, and no magnetic order, for classical spins with short range antiferromagnetic interaction. For the half-filled Hubbard model on this structure, however, we find that the Mott insulating phase involves virtual electronic processes that generate longer range and multispin couplings. These couplings lift the degeneracy, selecting a ‘flux like’ state in the Mott insulator. Increasing temperature leads, strangely, to a sharp crossover from this state to a ‘120 degree’ correlated state and then a paramagnet. Decrease in the Hubbard repulsion drives the system towards an insulator-metal transition—the moments reduce, and a spin disordered state wins over the flux state. Near the insulator-metal transition the electron system displays a pseudogap extending over a large temperature window.

  13. Magnetic order in two-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgescu, M

    2008-01-01

    This thesis involves a fundamental study of two-dimensional arrays of magnetic nanoparticles using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Force Microscopy, and Atomic Force Spectroscopy. The goal is to acquire a better understanding of the interactions between magnetic nanoparticles and the

  14. Magnetic order in two-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgescu, M

    2008-01-01

    This thesis involves a fundamental study of two-dimensional arrays of magnetic nanoparticles using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Force Microscopy, and Atomic Force Spectroscopy. The goal is to acquire a better understanding of the interactions between magnetic nanoparticles and the r

  15. Magnetic order of Au nanoparticle with clean surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Ryuju; Ishikawa, Soichiro; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sato, Tetsuya, E-mail: satoh@appi.keio.ac.jp

    2015-11-01

    Au nanoparticles, which are kept in vacuum after the preparation by gas evaporation method, show ferromagnetism even in 1.7 nm in diameter. The intrinsic magnetism is examined by detecting the disappearance of spontaneous magnetization in Au bulk prepared by heating the nanoparticles without exposure to the air. The temperature dependence of spontaneous magnetization is not monotonic and the increase in magnetization is observed after Au nanoparticles are exposed to the air. The magnetic behavior can be interpreted by the ferrimagnetic-like core–shell structure with shell thickness of 0.16±0.01 nm and magnetic moment of (1.5±0.1)×10{sup −2} μ{sub B}/Au atom, respectively. - Highlights: • Au nanoparticles with clean surface were prepared by the gas evaporation method. • The spontaneous magnetization was observed in Au nanoparticles. • Temperature dependent spontaneous magnetization of smaller Au particles was not monotonic. • The magnetic behavior was interpreted by the ferrimagnetic-like core–shell model. • The shell thickness and the magnetic moment per Au atom were estimated.

  16. Tenth-Order Lepton Anomalous Magnetic Moment -- Sixth-Order Vertices Containing Vacuum-Polarization Subdiagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Tatsumi; Kinoshita, Toichiro; Nio, Makiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the values of contributions to the electron g-2 from 300 Feynman diagrams of the gauge-invariant Set III(a) and 450 Feynman diagrams of the gauge-invariant Set III(b). The evaluation is carried out in two versions. Version A is to start from the sixth-order magnetic anomaly M_6 obtained in the previous work. The mass-independent contributions of Set III(a) and Set III(b) are 2.1275 (2) and 3.3271 (6) in units of (alpha/pi)^5, respectively. Version B is based on the recently-developed automatic code generation scheme. This method yields 2.1271 (3) and 3.3271 (8) in units of (alpha/pi)^5, respectively. They are in excellent agreement with the results of the first method within the uncertainties of numerical integration. Combining these results as statistically independent we obtain the best values, 2.1273 (2), and 3.3271 (5) times (alpha/pi)^5, for the mass-independent contributions of the Set III(a) and Set III(b), respectively. We have also evaluated mass-dependent contributions of diagrams...

  17. Neutron Diffraction Studies of Nuclear Magnetic Ordering in Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jyrkkiö, T.A.; Huiku, M.T.; Siemensmeyer, K.;

    1989-01-01

    to depend strongly on the external magnetic field between zero and the critical fieldB c=0.25 mT, indicating the existence of at least two antiferromagnetic phases. The results are compared to previous measurements of the magnetic susceptibility. Theoretical calculations do not provide a full explanation......We have constructed a two-stage nuclear demagnetization cryostat for neutron diffraction studies of nuclear magnetism in copper. The cryostat is combined with a two-axis neutron spectrometer which can use both polarized and unpolarized neutrons. By demagnetizing highly polarized copper nuclear...

  18. Dynamic magnetic susceptibility of systems with long-range magnetic order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannette, Matthew Dano [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The utility of the TDR as an instrument in the study of magnetically ordered materials has been expanded beyond the simple demonstration purposes. Results of static applied magnetic field dependent measurements of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility, χ, of various ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials showing a range of transition temperatures (1-800 K) are presented. Data was collected primarily with a tunnel diode resonator (TDR) at different radio-frequencies (~10-30 MHz). In the vicinity of TC local moment ferromagnets show a very sharp, narrow peak in χ which is suppressed in amplitude and shifted to higher temperatures as the static bias field is increased. Unexpectedly, critical scaling analysis fails for these data. It is seen that these data are frequency dependent, however there is no simple method whereby measurement frequency can be changed in a controllable fashion. In contrast, itinerant ferromagnets show a broad maximum in χ well below TC which is suppressed and shifts to lower temperatures as the dc bias field is increased. The data on itinerant ferromagnets is fitted to a semi-phenomenological model that suggests the sample response is dominated by the uncompensated minority spins in the conduction band. Concluding remarks suggest possible scenarios to achieve frequency resolved data using the TDR as well as other fields in which the apparatus may be exploited.

  19. Ordering Intermetallic Alloys by Ion Irradiation: A Way to Tailor Magnetic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernas, H.; Attané, J.-Ph.; Heinig, K.-H.; Halley, D.; Ravelosona, D.; Marty, A.; Auric, P.; Chappert, C.; Samson, Y.

    2003-08-01

    We show how, combining He ion irradiation and thermal mobility below 600K, the transformation from chemical disorder to order in thin films of an intermetallic ferromagnet (FePd) may be triggered and controlled. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations show that the initial directional short range order determines the transformation. Magnetic ordering perpendicular to the film plane was achieved, promoting the initially weak magnetic anisotropy to the highest values known for FePd films. Applications to ultrahigh density magnetic recording are suggested.

  20. Magnetic structures of vanadium iodide (VI2): long- and short-range order and Moessbauer spectroscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuindersma, S. R.; Sanchez, J. P.; Haas, C.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron diffraction data of VI2 show a magnetic phase transition at 14 K from a 120° magnetic structure to a collinear structure. The collinear structure is compatible with low-temp. Moessbauer spectra. The 120° structure is not a magnetic phase with long-range order but rather a paramagnetic phase

  1. Short- and long-range magnetic order in LaMnAsO

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Michael A.; Garlea, V. Ovidiu

    2016-02-01

    The magnetic properties of the layered oxypnictide LaMnAsO have been revisited using neutron scattering and magnetization measurements. The present measurements identify the Néel temperature TN=360 (1 ) K. Below TN the critical exponent describing the magnetic order parameter is β =0.33 -0.35 , consistent with a three-dimensional Heisenberg model. Above this temperature, diffuse magnetic scattering indicative of short-range magnetic order is observed, and this scattering persists up to TSRO=650 (10 ) K. The magnetic susceptibility shows a weak anomaly at TSRO and no anomaly at TN. Analysis of the diffuse scattering data using a reverse Monte Carlo algorithm indicates that above TN nearly two-dimensional, short-range magnetic order is present with a correlation length of 9.3(3) Å within the Mn layers at 400 K. The inelastic scattering data reveal a spin gap of 3.5 meV in the long-range ordered state, and strong, low-energy (quasielastic) magnetic excitations emerging in the short-range ordered state. Comparison with other related compounds correlates the distortion of the Mn coordination tetrahedra to the sign of the magnetic exchange along the layer-stacking direction, and suggests that short-range order above TN is a common feature in the magnetic behavior of layered Mn-based pnictides and oxypnictides.

  2. Observation of dimension dependent magnetic ordering in bismuth ferrite particulate and fiber nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakar, M.; Bharathkumar, S.; Balakumar, S., E-mail: balasuga@yahoo.com [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Madras, Chennai 600 025 (India); Saravanan, P. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Nanoparticles and nanofibers of bismuth ferrite were fabricated by sol-gel and electrospinning methods respectively. The structural and morphological analysis was carried out by XRD and FESEM techniques respectively. The magnetic measurements were carried out by SQUID magnetometer. The BFO nanofibers showed an enhanced magnetic property compared to nanoparticles. The observed magnetic properties were found to be associated with their magnetic ordering in the system where the antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic core/shell like nature and ‘canted’ spin structure ordering was found to be the magnetic origin in the particulate and fiber nanostructures respectively.

  3. Magnetic ordering in Fe/Co sandwiches on Cu(100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razee, S S A; Staunton, J B; Szunyogh, L

    2009-07-01

    We investigate magnetic correlations and local magnetic moments at finite temperatures of some Fe and Co multilayers on Cu(100) substrates, such as Co(m)Fe(n)Co(m)/Cu(100) and Fe(m)Co(n)Fe(m)/Cu(100). We use an ab initio mean-field theory of magnetic fluctuations for layered materials based on the first-principles local spin-density functional theory implemented through the screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method. We find that the presence of Fe layers in the neighbourhood of a Co layer always leads to a reduction in the magnetic moment of the Co atoms, whereas that of the Fe atoms is enhanced. Of particular interest is the lack of local moment formation on the single fcc-Co layer sandwiched between two fcc-Fe layers. However, a Co layer completely immersed in a Cu environment remains ferromagnetic. The Curie temperature of the Co(m)Fe(n)Co(m)/Cu(100) system oscillates as the Fe layer thickness is increased whereas that of the Fe(m)Co(n)Fe(m)/Cu(100) system increases almost monotonically with Co layer thickness.

  4. Primordial magnetic fields from self-ordering scalar fields

    CERN Document Server

    Horiguchi, Kouichirou; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2015-01-01

    A symmetry-breaking phase transition in the early universe could have led to the formation of cosmic defects. Because these defects dynamically excite not only scalar and tensor type cosmological perturbations but also vector type ones, they may serve as a source of primordial magnetic fields. In this study, we calculate the time evolution and the spectrum of magnetic fields that are generated by a type of cosmic defects, called global textures, using the non-linear sigma (NLSM) model. Based on the standard cosmological perturbation theory, we show, both analytically and numerically, that a vector-mode relative velocity between photon and baryon fluids is induced by textures, which inevitably leads to the generation of magnetic fields over a wide range of scales. We find that the amplitude of the magnetic fields is given by $B\\sim{10^{-9}}{((1+z)/10^3)^{-2.5}}({v}/{m_{\\rm pl}})^2({k}/{\\rm Mpc^{-1}})^{3.5}/{\\sqrt{N}}$ Gauss in the radiation dominated era for $k\\lesssim 1$ Mpc$^{-1}$, with $v$ being the vacuum ...

  5. Dipolar magnetism in ordered and disordered low-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varón, M.; Beleggia, M; Kasama, T

    2013-01-01

    Magnetostatic (dipolar) interactions between nanoparticles promise to open new ways to design nanocrystalline magnetic materials and devices if the collective magnetic properties can be controlled at the nanoparticle level. Magnetic dipolar interactions are sufficiently strong to sustain magnetic...... order at ambient temperature in assemblies of closely-spaced nanoparticles with magnetic moments of ≥ 100 μ(B). Here we use electron holography with sub-particle resolution to reveal the correlation between particle arrangement and magnetic order in self-assembled 1D and quasi-2D arrangements of 15 nm...... cobalt nanoparticles. In the initial states, we observe dipolar ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism and local flux closure, depending on the particle arrangement. Surprisingly, after magnetic saturation, measurements and numerical simulations show that overall ferromagnetic order exists in the present...

  6. Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal dysprosium under ultrahigh pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2014-04-01

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in heavy rare earth metal dysprosium (Dy) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to a pressure of 69 GPa and a temperature of 10 K. Previous studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures were able to track magnetic ordering temperature only till 7 GPa in the hexagonal close packed (hcp) phase of Dy. Our studies indicate that the magnetic ordering temperature shows an abrupt drop of 80 K at the hcp-Sm phase transition followed by a gradual decrease that continues till 17 GPa. This is followed by a rapid increase in the magnetic ordering temperatures in the double hcp phase and finally leveling off in the distorted face centered cubic phase of Dy. Our studies reaffirm that 4f-shell remains localized in Dy and there is no loss of magnetic moment or 4f-shell delocalization for pressures up to 69 GPa.

  7. Chalcogen-height dependent magnetic interactions and magnetic order switching in FeSexTe1-x.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chang-Youn; Choi, Hyoung Joon

    2010-02-05

    Magnetic properties of iron chalcogenide superconducting materials are investigated using density-functional calculations. We find that the stability of magnetic phases is very sensitive to the height of chalcogen species from the Fe plane: while FeTe with optimized Te height has the double-stripe (pi, 0) magnetic ordering, the single-stripe (pi, pi) ordering becomes the ground state when Te is lowered below a critical height by, e.g., Se doping. This behavior is understood by opposite Te-height dependences of the superexchange interaction and a longer range magnetic interaction mediated by itinerant electrons. We also demonstrate a linear temperature dependence of the macroscopic magnetic susceptibility in the single-stripe phase in contrast with the constant behavior in the double-stripe phase. Our findings provide a comprehensive and unified view on the magnetism in FeSexTe1-x and iron pnictide superconductors.

  8. A symmetric, triply interlaced 3-D anionic MOF that exhibits both magnetic order and SMM behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J; Falvello, L R; Forcén-Vázquez, E; Sáenz de Pipaón, C; Palacio, F; Tomás, M

    2016-11-14

    A newly prepared 3-D polymer of cobalt citrate cubanes bridged by high-spin Co(ii) centres displays both single-molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour and magnetic ordering. Triple interpenetration of the 3-D diamondoid polymers yields a crystalline solid with channels that host cations and free water molecules, with the SMM behaviour of the Co4O4 cores preserved. The octahedrally coordinated Co(ii) bridges are implicated in the onset of magnetic order at an experimentally accessible temperature.

  9. Intrinsic Third Order Aberrations in Electrostatic and Magnetic Quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Baartman, R

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic aberrations are those which occur due to the finite length of the desired field configuration. They are often loosely ascribed to the fringing field. This is misleading as it implies that the effects can be minimized by shaping the fields. In fact, there is an irreducible component related to the broken symmetry. It is present even in the hard-edge limit, and moreover, the other (soft-edge) effects can be simply ascribed to the intrinsic aberration spread over a finite length. We rederive the aberration formulas for quadrupoles using a Hamiltonian formalism. This allows for an easy comparison of electrostatic and magnetic quadrupoles. For different combinations of large and small emittances in the two transverse planes, it is found that in some situations electrostatic quadrupoles have lower aberrations, while in others, magnetic quadrupoles are better. As well, we discuss the ways in which existing transport codes handle quadrupole fringe fields. Pitfalls are pointed out and improvements proposed.

  10. Ordered Magnetic Nanoparticle Arrays on Tunable Substrates for RF Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    J. Soulen., Jr., Journal of Applied Physics 104, 083701 (2008) 2. “Transverse susceptibility study of the effect of varying dipolar interactions on...Srikanth, Journal of Applied Physics 104, 063901 (2008) 3. “Static and dynamic magnetic properties of Co nanoparticles” –S. Srinath, P. Poddar, D. S...in ball milled zinc ferrite powder” –J. Gass, H. Srikanth, N. Kislov, S. Srinivasan and Y. Emirov, Journal of Applied Physics 103, 07B309 (2008) 5

  11. One-dimensional magnetic order in the metal-organic framework Tb(HCOO ) 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcombe, Daniel R.; Welch, Philip G.; Manuel, Pascal; Saines, Paul J.; Goodwin, Andrew L.

    2016-11-01

    Variable-temperature neutron scattering measurements, reverse Monte Carlo analysis, and direct Monte Carlo simulation are used to characterize magnetic order in the metal-organic framework (MOF) Tb (HCOO) 3 over the temperature range 100 to 1.6 K =TN . The magnetic transition at TN is shown to involve one-dimensional ferromagnetic ordering to a partially ordered state related to the triangular Ising antiferromagnet and distinct from the canonical partially disordered antiferromagnet model. In this phase, the direction of magnetization of ferromagnetic chains tends to alternate between neighboring chains but this alternation is frustrated and is not itself ordered. We suggest the existence of low-dimensional magnetic order in Tb (HCOO) 3 is stabilized by the contrasting strength of inter- and intrachain magnetic coupling, itself a consequence of the underlying MOF architecture. Our results demonstrate how MOFs may provide an attractive if as yet underexplored platform for the realization and investigation of low-dimensional physics.

  12. Electrically Tunable Magnetism in Magnetic Topological Insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2015-07-14

    The external controllability of the magnetic properties in topological insulators would be important both for fundamental and practical interests. Here we predict the electric-field control of ferromagnetism in a thin film of insulating magnetic topological insulators. The decrease of band inversion by the application of electric fields results in a reduction of magnetic susceptibility, and hence in the modification of magnetism. Remarkably, the electric field could even induce the magnetic quantum phase transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. We further propose a transistor device in which the dissipationless charge transport of chiral edge states is controlled by an electric field. In particular, the field-controlled ferromagnetism in a magnetic topological insulator can be used for voltage based writing of magnetic random access memories in magnetic tunnel junctions. The simultaneous electrical control of magnetic order and chiral edge transport in such devices may lead to electronic and spintronic applications for topological insulators.

  13. Local magnetic order vs superconductivity in a layered cuprate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa; Uchida; Tranquada; Niemoller; Gehring; Lee; Schneider

    2000-08-21

    We report on the phase diagram for charge-stripe order in La1.6-xNd0. 4SrxCuO4, determined by neutron and x-ray scattering studies and resistivity measurements. From an analysis of the in-plane resistivity motivated by recent nuclear-quadrupole-resonance studies, we conclude that the transition temperature for local charge ordering decreases monotonically with x, and hence that local antiferromagnetic order is uniquely correlated with the anomalous depression of superconductivity at x approximately 1 / 8. This result is consistent with theories in which superconductivity depends on the existence of charge-stripe correlations.

  14. Crystalline and magnetic ordering in the monoclinic phase of the layered perovskite PAMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, P.; Lebech, B.; Achiwa, N.

    1994-01-01

    of 1/3b*, and below 39 K PAMC is an antiferromagnet with a small ferromagnetic component. The temperature dependence of the monoclinic angle alpha depends on the mosaicity of the crystal which increases with the number of 'cooling cycles'. The satellite reflections do not have any contribution from...... the magnetic ordering, but their intensity has abrupt changes that coincide with changes in either the nuclear or the magnetic ordering parameter. Magnetoelastic effects seem to influence the ordering of the crystal....

  15. LARGE MAGNETIC ENTROPY CHANGE NEAR CHARGE-ORDERED TRANSITION TEMPERATURE IN PEROVSKITE-TYPE MANGANITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 都有为

    2001-01-01

    The magnetocaloric effect in polycrystalline of Pr1-xSrxMnO3 (x=0.33, 0.43, 0.50) has been investigated. A large magnetic entropy change (7.1J/kgK) was discovered in Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3 under a low magnetic field of IT at charge-ordered state transition temperature (161K). The physical mechanism is related to a drastic magnetization change at a temperature where the field-induced magnetic, electron and structural phase transitions occur (from the antiferromagnetic charge-ordered state to the ferromagnetic charge-disordered state).

  16. Long-range magnetic ordering in Na2IrO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Berlijn, T.; Yin, W.-G.; Ku, W.; Tsvelik, A.; Kim, Young-June; Gretarsson, H.; Singh, Yogesh; Gegenwart, P.; Hill, J. P.

    2011-06-01

    We report a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the magnetic structure of the honeycomb-lattice magnet Na2IrO3, a candidate for a realization of a gapless spin liquid. Using resonant x-ray magnetic scattering at the Ir L3 edge, we find three-dimensional long-range antiferromagnetic order below TN=13.3 K. From the azimuthal dependence of the magnetic Bragg peak, the ordered moment is determined to be predominantly along the a axis. Combining the experimental data with first-principles calculations, we propose that the most likely spin structure is a zig-zag structure.

  17. Local Magnetic Order vs Superconductivity in a Layered Cuprate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, N. [Department of Superconductivity, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, (Japan); Uchida, S. [Department of Superconductivity, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, (Japan); Tranquada, J. M. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Niemoeller, T. [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg, (Germany); Gehring, P. M. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Lee, S.-H. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Schneider, J. R. [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg, (Germany)

    2000-08-21

    We report on the phase diagram for charge-stripe order in La{sub 1.6-x} Nd{sub 0.4}Sr {sub x}CuO{sub 4} , determined by neutron and x-ray scattering studies and resistivity measurements. From an analysis of the in-plane resistivity motivated by recent nuclear-quadrupole-resonance studies, we conclude that the transition temperature for local charge ordering decreases monotonically with x , and hence that local antiferromagnetic order is uniquely correlated with the anomalous depression of superconductivity at x{approx_equal}(1/8) . This result is consistent with theories in which superconductivity depends on the existence of charge-stripe correlations. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  18. Charge orders, magnetism and pairings in the cuprate superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, T; Montiel, X; de Carvalho, V S; Freire, H; Pépin, C

    2016-08-01

    We review the recent developments in the field of cuprate superconductors with special focus on the recently observed charge order in the underdoped compounds. We introduce new theoretical developments following the study of the antiferromagnetic quantum critical point in two dimensions, in which preemptive orders in both charge and superconducting (SC) sectors emerge, that are in turn related by an SU(2) symmetry. We consider the implications of this proliferation of orders in the underdoped region, and provide a study of the type of fluctuations which characterize the SU(2) symmetry. We identify an intermediate energy scale where the SC fluctuations are dominant and argue that they are unstable towards the formation of a resonant excitonic state at the pseudogap temperature T (*). We discuss the implications of this scenario for a few key experiments.

  19. Magnetization dynamics across the first order phase transition in FeRh thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pressacco, Federico

    2014-08-01

    The metallic alloy FeRh undergoes a phase transition from an antiferromagnetic phase (AFP) to a ferromagnetic phase (FP) when heated above 400 K. The change in magnetic order results in a change in the net magnetization of the system from zero up to 1.2 kA/m after increasing the system temperature. This is an uncommon characteristic for a magnetic material since usually one observes a decrease of the magnetization upon heating. This discloses the possibility to apply FeRh to Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR) devices.

  20. Investigation of potential fluctuating intra-unit cell magnetic order in cuprates by μ SR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, A.; Akintola, K.; Potma, M.; Ishikado, M.; Eisaki, H.; Hardy, W. N.; Bonn, D. A.; Liang, R.; Sonier, J. E.

    2016-10-01

    We report low temperature muon spin relaxation (μ SR ) measurements of the high-transition-temperature (Tc) cuprate superconductors Bi2 +xSr2 -xCaCu2O8 +δ and YBa2Cu3O6.57 , aimed at detecting the mysterious intra-unit cell (IUC) magnetic order that has been observed by spin-polarized neutron scattering in the pseudogap phase of four different cuprate families. A lack of confirmation by local magnetic probe methods has raised the possibility that the magnetic order fluctuates slowly enough to appear static on the time scale of neutron scattering, but too fast to affect μ SR or nuclear magnetic resonance signals. The IUC magnetic order has been linked to a theoretical model for the cuprates, which predicts a long-range ordered phase of electron-current loop order that terminates at a quantum crictical point (QCP). Our study suggests that lowering the temperature to T ˜25 mK and moving far below the purported QCP does not cause enough of a slowing down of fluctuations for the IUC magnetic order to become detectable on the time scale of μ SR . Our measurements place narrow limits on the fluctuation rate of this unidentified magnetic order.

  1. Magnetic order in α -RuCl3 : A honeycomb-lattice quantum magnet with strong spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, J. A.; Songvilay, M.; Plumb, K. W.; Clancy, J. P.; Qiu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Parshall, D.; Kim, Young-June

    2015-04-01

    We report magnetic and thermodynamic properties of single crystal α -RuCl3 , in which the Ru3+(4 d5) ion is in its low spin state and forms a honeycomb lattice. Two features are observed in both magnetic susceptibility and specific heat data; a sharp peak at 7 K and a broad hump near 10-15 K. In addition, we observe a metamagnetic transition between 5 and 10 T. Our neutron diffraction study of single crystal samples confirms that the low temperature peak in the specific heat is associated with a magnetic order with unit cell doubling along the honeycomb (100) direction, which is consistent with zigzag order, one of the types of magnetic order predicted within the framework of the Kitaev-Heisenberg model.

  2. Antiferromagnetic ordering in magnetic ionic liquid Emim[FeCl{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedro, I. de, E-mail: depedrovm@unican.e [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Rojas, D.P. [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Blanco, Jesus A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Fernandez, J. Rodriguez [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    The magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) are considered to open up a wide range of applications because of their magnetic and electrochromic switching. Until recently almost all magnetic ionic liquids containing tetrachloroferrate ion FeCl{sub 4}{sup -} evidenced a paramagnetic temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility, with only small deviations from the Curie law at low temperatures. However, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroferrate, Emim[FeCl{sub 4}], clearly exhibits a long-range antiferromagnetic ordering below the Neel temperature T{sub N}{approx}3.8 K. In addition, the shape of the magnetic ordering depends on the cooling speed, indicating that the magnetic coupling could be modified. - Research highlights: Study of MILs is a new and emergent field, involving chemistry, physics, and engineering. MILs have potential applications in relation with their magnetic properties. We present for the first time a long-range magnetic ordering of an ionic liquid. The long-range magnetic ordering depends on the cooling speed.

  3. Pressure induced enhancement of the magnetic ordering temperature in rhenium(IV) monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Christopher H.; Craig, Gavin A.; Prescimone, Alessandro; Misek, Martin; Cano, Joan; Faus, Juan; Probert, Michael R.; Parsons, Simon; Moggach, Stephen; Martínez-Lillo, José; Murrie, Mark; Kamenev, Konstantin V.; Brechin, Euan K.

    2016-12-01

    Materials that demonstrate long-range magnetic order are synonymous with information storage and the electronics industry, with the phenomenon commonly associated with metals, metal alloys or metal oxides and sulfides. A lesser known family of magnetically ordered complexes are the monometallic compounds of highly anisotropic d-block transition metals; the `transformation' from isolated zero-dimensional molecule to ordered, spin-canted, three-dimensional lattice being the result of through-space interactions arising from the combination of large magnetic anisotropy and spin-delocalization from metal to ligand which induces important intermolecular contacts. Here we report the effect of pressure on two such mononuclear rhenium(IV) compounds that exhibit long-range magnetic order under ambient conditions via a spin canting mechanism, with Tc controlled by the strength of the intermolecular interactions. As these are determined by intermolecular distance, `squeezing' the molecules closer together generates remarkable enhancements in ordering temperatures, with a linear dependence of Tc with pressure.

  4. Emergence of chiral spin liquids via quantum melting of noncoplanar magnetic orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Ciarán; Cincio, Lukasz; Papić, Zlatko; Paramekanti, Arun

    2017-09-01

    Quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are highly entangled states of quantum magnets which lie beyond the Landau paradigm of classifying phases of matter via broken symmetries. A physical route to arriving at QSLs is via frustration-induced quantum melting of ordered states such as valence bond crystals or magnetic orders. Here we show, using extensive exact diagonalization (ED) and density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) studies of concrete S U (2 ) invariant spin models on honeycomb, triangular, and square lattices, that chiral spin liquids (CSLs) emerge as descendants of triple-Q spin crystals with tetrahedral magnetic order and a large scalar spin chirality. Such ordered-to-CSL melting transitions may yield lattice realizations of effective Chern-Simons-Higgs field theories. Our work provides a distinct unifying perspective on the emergence of CSLs and suggests that materials with certain noncoplanar magnetic orders might provide a good starting point to search for CSLs.

  5. Primordial magnetic fields from second-order cosmological perturbations:Tight coupling approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Shiromizu, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    We explore the possibility of generating large-scale magnetic fields from second-order cosmological perturbations during the pre-recombination era. The key process for this is Thomson scattering between the photons and the charged particles within the cosmic plasma. To tame the multi-component interacting fluid system, we employ the tight coupling approximation. It is shown that the source term for the magnetic field is given by the product of the first order perturbations and so the intrinsically second-order quantities do not contribute to magnetogenesis. The magnetic fields generated by this process are estimated to be \\sim 10^{-26},Gauss on the horizon scale.

  6. Magnetic moments in chemically ordered mass-selected CoPt and FePt clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, V., E-mail: Veronique.Dupuis@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Khadra, G.; Linas, S.; Hillion, A. [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Gragnaniello, L. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Tamion, A.; Tuaillon-Combes, J.; Bardotti, L.; Tournus, F. [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Otero, E.; Ohresser, P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Rogalev, A.; Wilhelm, F. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2015-06-01

    By combining high photon flux and chemical selectivity, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) have been used to study the magnetism of CoPt and FePt clusters before and after their transition to the chemically ordered L1{sub 0}-like phase. Compared to the bulk, we find larger magnetic spin and orbital moments of Fe, Co and Pt atoms in nanoalloys. - Highlights: • Study of magnetism on well-defined CoPt and FePt clusters embedded in carbon matrix • X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at each specific Fe, Co and Pt edges, before and after annealing to induce transition to the chemically L1{sub 0}-like phase. • Quantitative values of the spin and orbital magnetic moments of Co (resp. Fe) and Pt after the chemical ordering transition. • Specific nanoalloy effects.

  7. Spontaneous ordering of magnetic particles in liquid crystals: From chains to biaxial lamellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroukidis, Stavros D; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2015-07-01

    Using Monte Carlo computer simulations we explore the self-assembly and ordering behavior of a hybrid, soft magnetic system consisting of small magnetic nanospheres in a liquid-crystalline (LC) matrix. Inspired by recent experiments with colloidal rod matrices, we focus on conditions where the sphere and rod diameters are comparable. Already in the absence of a magnetic field, the nematic ordering of the LC can stabilize the formation of magnetic chains along the nematic or smectic director, yielding a state with local (yet no macroscopic) magnetic order. The chains, in turn, increase the overall nematic order, reflecting the complex interplay of the structure formation of the two components. When increasing the sphere diameter, the spontaneous uniaxial ordering is replaced by biaxial lamellar morphologies characterized by alternating layers of rods and magnetic chains oriented perpendicular to the rod's director. These ordering scenarios at zero field suggest a complex response of the resulting hybrid to external stimuli, such as magnetic fields and shear forces.

  8. Ferromagnetic ordering in dilute magnetic dielectrics with and without free carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikoin, K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)], E-mail: konstk@post.tau.ac.il

    2009-04-15

    The state of art in the theoretical and experimental studies of transition metal doped oxides (dilute magnetic dielectrics) is reviewed. The available data show that the generic non-equilibrium state of oxide films doped with magnetic impurities may either favor ferromagnetism with high Curie temperature or result in highly inhomogeneous state without long-range magnetic order. In both case concomitant defects (vacancies, interstitial ions) play crucial part.

  9. Magnetic ordering in GaAlAs:Mn heterostructures: Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boselli, M.A.; Ghazali, A.; Cunha Lima, I.C. da E-mail: ivan@uerj.br

    2001-05-01

    The magnetic order resulting from a confinement-adapted Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida indirect exchange between magnetic moments in the metallic phase of AlAs/Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x} As structures is studied by Monte Carlo simulation. This coupling mechanism leads to a paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, or canted spin phase, depending on the carrier concentration, and on the magnetic layer width.

  10. Magnetic lattice dynamics of the oxygen-free FeAs pnictides: how sensitive are phonons to magnetic ordering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbiri, Mohamed; Mittal, Ranjan; Rols, Stéphane; Su, Yixi; Xiao, Yinguo; Schober, Helmut; Chaplot, Samrath L; Johnson, Mark R; Chatterji, Tapan; Inoue, Yasunori; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo; Brueckel, Thomas

    2010-08-11

    To shed light on the role of magnetism on the superconducting mechanism of the oxygen-free FeAs pnictides, we investigate the effect of magnetic ordering on phonon dynamics in the low-temperature orthorhombic parent compounds, which present a spin density wave. The study covers both the 122 (AFe(2)As(2); A = Ca, Sr, Ba) and 1111 (AFeAsF; A = Ca, Sr) phases. We extend our recent work on the Ca (122 and 1111) and Ba (122) cases by treating, computationally and experimentally, the 122 and 1111 Sr compounds. The effect of magnetic ordering is investigated through detailed non-magnetic and magnetic lattice dynamical calculations. The comparison of the experimental and calculated phonon spectra shows that the magnetic interactions/ordering have to be included in order to reproduce well the measured density of states. This highlights a spin-correlated phonon behavior which is more pronounced than the apparently weak electron-phonon coupling estimated in these materials. Furthermore, there is no noticeable difference between phonon spectra of the 122 Ba and Sr, whereas there are substantial differences when comparing these to CaFe(2)As(2) originating from different aspects of structure and bonding.

  11. Pressure effects on Emim[FeCl4], a magnetic ionic liquid with three-dimensional magnetic ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Saiz, Abel; de Pedro, Imanol; Blanco, Jesús A; González, Jesús; Rodríguez Fernández, Jesús

    2013-03-21

    We report a combined study using magnetization and Raman spectroscopy on the magnetic ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroferrate, Emim[FeCl4]. This material shows a long-range antiferromagnetic ordering below the Néel temperature T(N) ≈ 3.8 K. The effects of pressure on the magnetic properties have been studied using a miniature piston-cylinder CuBe pressure cell. This three-dimensional ordering is strongly influenced when hydrostatic pressure is applied. It is observed that low applied pressure is enough to modify the magnetic interactions, inducing a transition from antiferromagnetic to ferrimagnetic ordering. Raman spectroscopy measurements reveal important information about the existence of isolated [FeCl4](-) anions and the absence of dimeric [Fe2Cl7](-) units in the liquid and solid states. These features seem to suggest that the superexchange pathways responsible for the appearance of magnetic ordering are mediated through Fe-Cl-Cl-Fe. Furthermore, the liquid-solid phase transition exhibits a magnetic hysteresis near room temperature, which can be tuned by weak pressures.

  12. Complex magnetic ordering in CeFe1.76 studied by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasekara, Wageesha T [Ames Laboratory; Tian, W [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Hodovanets, Halyna [Ames Laboratory; Canfield, Paul C [Ames Laboratory; Bud' ko, Serguei L [Ames Laboratory; Kreyssig, Andreas [Ames Laboratory; Goldman, Alan I [Ames Laboratory

    2014-10-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements on a single crystal of CeGe1.76 reveal a complex series of magnetic transitions at low temperature. At TN≈7 K, there is a transition from a paramagnetic state at higher temperature to an incommensurate magnetic structure characterized by a magnetic propagation vector (0 0 τ) with τ≈1/4 and the magnetic moment along the a axis of the orthorhombic unit cell. Below TLI≈5 K, the magnetic structure locks in to a commensurate structure with τ=1/4 and the magnetic moment remains along the a axis. Below T≈4 K, we find additional half-integer and integer indexed magnetic Bragg peaks consistent with a second commensurately ordered antiferromagnetic state.

  13. E -type noncollinear magnetic ordering in multiferroic o -LuMnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Saumya; Dönni, Andreas; Nakajima, Taro; Mitsuda, Setsuo; Tachibana, Makoto; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Pomjakushin, Vladimir; Keller, Lukas; Niedermayer, Christof; Scaramucci, Andrea; Kenzelmann, Michel

    2017-03-01

    Multiferroic orthorhombic o -LuMnO3 exhibits large ferroelectric polarization induced by an E -type magnetic order. Recently, the E -type magnetic phase in LuMnO3 was proposed to feature magnetic moments tilted away from the collinear ordering. We employed neutron diffraction to determine the symmetry of the magnetic order in o -LuMnO3 . We observed that below TN=39 K, the Mn3 + spins order into an incommensurate amplitude-modulated phase that obeys the Pbnm crystal symmetry and is paraelectric. The incommensurate phase locks into a commensurate phase at TC=35.5 K described by a fully antiferromagnetic and noncollinear E -type order. This noncollinear E -type ordering breaks the spatial inversion symmetry and induces a spontaneous polarization at TC. At T =2 K, an appreciably large electric polarization was observed similar to that of other orthorhombic manganites featuring E -type magnetic order. We also present a Pbnm symmetry-allowed Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction that explains the noncollinear E -type order in the commensurate phase. These results are in qualitative agreement with the type of distortions from collinear E -type antiferromagnetic order found using Monte Carlo simulation for rare-earth manganites [M. Mochizuki et al., Phys. Rev. B 84, 144409 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.144409].

  14. Nature of the first-order magnetic phase transition in giant-magnetocaloric materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yibole

    2016-01-01

    This thesis reports on advanced characterizations of giant magnetocaloric materials that show a first order magnetic phase transition (FOMT). The results are of great interest not only for the design of new magnetic refrigerants, but also for a better understanding of the FOMT. This thesis paves the

  15. Modelling of the magnetic field effects in hydrodynamic codes using a second order tensorial diffusion scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breil, J; Maire, P-H; Nicolai, P; Schurtz, G [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux I, CNRS, CEA, 351 cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)], E-mail: breil@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr

    2008-05-15

    In laser produced plasmas large self-generated magnetic fields have been measured. The classical formulas by Braginskii predict that magnetic fields induce a reduction of the magnitude of the heat flux and its rotation through the Righi-Leduc effect. In this paper a second order tensorial diffusion method used to correctly solve the Righi-Leduc effect in multidimensional code is presented.

  16. Short-range magnetic order in two-dimensional cobalt-ferrite nanoparticle assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgescu, M; Viota, J.L.; Klokkenburg, M.; Erne, B.H.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.; Zeijlmans Van Emmichoven, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic order in two-dimensional islands of spherical 21 nm cobalt-ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles is studied by magnetic force microscopy and spectroscopy. Images obtained at a temperature of 105 K clearly reveal the presence of repulsive and attractive areas on top of the islands. Monte Carlo

  17. Evidence for magnetic ordering in ultrathin gadolinium Langmuir-Blodgett films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tishin, A.M.; Koksharov, Yu.A.; Bohr, Jakob

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic ultrathin Langmuir-Blodgett films containing rare earths are investigated. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements suggest the possible existence of a transition from a paramagnetic to a magnetically ordered state. In Langmuir-Blodgett films with one hundred layers of Gd, a transiti...

  18. Tenth-Order QED Lepton Anomalous Magnetic Moment --- Eighth-Order Vertices Containing a Second-Order Vacuum Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Tatsumi; Kinoshita, Toichiro; Nio, Makiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the evaluation of the tenth-order QED contribution to the lepton g-2 from the gauge-invariant set of 2072 Feynman diagrams, called Set IV, which are obtained by inserting a second-order lepton vacuum-polarization loop into 518 eighth-order vertex diagrams of four-photon exchange type. The numerical evaluation is carried out by the adaptive-iterative Monte-Carlo integration routine vegas using the fortran codes written by the automatic code-generating algorithm gencodeN. Some of the numerical results are confirmed by comparison with the values of corresponding integrals that have been obtained previously by a different method. The result for the mass-independent contribution of the Set IV to the electron g-2 is $-7.7296 (48) (\\alpha/\\pi)^5$. There is also a small mass-dependent contribution to the electron g-2 due to the muon loop: $-0.01136 (7) (\\alpha/\\pi)^5$. The contribution of the tau-lepton loop is $-0.0000937(104)(\\alpha/\\pi)^5$. The sum of all these contributions to the electron g-2 ...

  19. Dipolar interaction effects in the magnetic and magnetotransport properties of ordered nanoparticle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kechrakos, D; Trohidou, K N

    2008-06-01

    Assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles exhibit interesting physical properties arising from the competition of intraparticle dynamics and interparticle interactions. In ordered arrays of magnetic nanoparticles magnetostatic interparticle interactions introduce collective dynamics acting competitively to random anisotropy. Basic understanding, characterization and control of dipolar interaction effects in arrays of magnetic nanoparticles is an issue of central importance. To this end, numerical simulation techniques offer an indispensable tool. We report on Monte Carlo studies of the magnetic hysteresis and spin-dependent transport in thin films formed by ordered arrays of magnetic nanoparticles. Emphasis is given to the modifications of the single-particle behavior due to interparticle dipolar interactions as these arise in quantities of experimental interest, such as, the magnetization, the susceptibility and the magnetoresistance. We investigate the role of the structural parameters of an array (interparticle separation, number of stacked monolayers) and the role of the internal structure of the nanoparticles (single phase, core-shell). Dipolar interactions are responsible for anisotropic magnetic behavior between the in-plane and out-of-plane directions of the sample, which is reflected on the investigated magnetic properties (magnetization, transverse susceptibility and magnetoresistance) and the parameters of the array (remanent magnetization, coercive field, and blocking temperature). Our numerical results are compared to existing measurements on self-assembled arrays of Fe-based and Co nanoparticles is made.

  20. On the Coexistence of Superconductivity and Magnetic Ordering in Unconventional Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues de Campos, Fillipi Klos; Zanella, Fernando; Dartora, C. A.

    2017-04-01

    It is demonstrated that the coexistence of superconductivity and magnetic ordering, occurring, for instance, in iron-based pnictides and uranium compounds, is not forbidden by classical Maxwell's equations and London-type equations. It predicts simply that internal magnetization is allowed but localized magnetic moments are screened at distances of the order of the London penetration depth. A microscopic theory is considered for the case of ferromagnetic ordering, described in simple terms by electron-magnon coupling. For the sake of simplicity, we assume that itinerant electrons are not responsible for the magnetic ordering, but interact with phonon and magnon excitations, leading to an alternative Cooper pair channel. The temperature dependence and the isotope effect of the superconducting gap is also analysed.

  1. Study of the effect of short ranged ordering on the magnetism in FeCr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, Ambika Prasad, E-mail: apjena@bose.res.in [Department of Condensed Matter and Materials Science, S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098 (India); Sanyal, Biplab, E-mail: biplab.sanyal@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Mookerjee, Abhijit, E-mail: abhijit.mookerjee61@gmail.com [Department of Condensed Matter and Materials Science, S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2014-01-15

    For the study of magnetism in systems where the local environment plays an important role, we propose a marriage between the Monte Carlo simulation and Zunger's special quasi-random structures. We apply this technique on disordered FeCr alloys and show that our estimates of the transition temperature is in good agreement with earlier experiments. - Highlights: • The magnetism in FeCr is sensitively depended on the ordering of the atoms : disordered or with short ranged ordering. • This work uses the SQS technique suggested by Zunger has been used to generate various degrees of short range ordering in FeCr. • The electronic structure and pair energies have been obatined from first principles ASR and Lichtenstein methods. • The effect of chemical ordering on magnetic ordering is studied in detail. • Only those situations where the chemical ordering is complete have been studied.

  2. Magnetic field induced 1st order transitions: Recent studies, and some new concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddah, P.

    2015-05-01

    Phase transitions are caused by varying temperature, or pressure, or magnetic field. The observation of 1st order magneto-structural transitions has created application possibilities based on magnetoresistance, magnetocaloric effect, magnetic shape memory effect, and magneto-dielectric effect. Magnetic field induced transitions, and phase coexistence of competing magnetic phases down to the lowest temperature, gained prominence over a decade ago with theoretical models suggesting that the ground state is not homogeneous. Researchers at Indore pushed an alternative view that this phase coexistence could be due to glasslike "kinetic arrest" of a disorder-broadened first-order magnetic transition between two states with long-range magnetic order, resulting in phase coexistence down to the lowest temperatures. The CHUF (cooling and heating in unequal field) protocol created at Indore allows the observation of `devitrification', followed by `melting'. I show examples of measurements establishing kinetic arrest in various materials, emphasizing that glasslike arrest of 1st order magnetic transitions may be as ubiquitous as glass formation following the arrest of 1st order structural transitions.

  3. Magnetic field induced third order susceptibility of third order harmonic generation in a ZnMgSe strained quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, J. Abraham Hudson, E-mail: a.john.peter@gmail.com; Peter, A. John, E-mail: a.john.peter@gmail.com [Dept. of Physics, SSM Institute of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul-624002 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Third order susceptibility of third order harmonic generation is investigated in a Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se/Zn{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}Se/Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se quantum well in the presence of magnetic field strength. The confinement potential is considered as the addition of energy offsets of the conduction band (or valence band) and the strain-induced potential in our calculations. The material dependent effective mass is followed throughout the computation because it has a high influence on the electron energy levels in low dimensional semiconductor systems.

  4. Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Magnetic Surgical Instrument System. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the Magnetic Surgical Instrument System into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the magnetic surgical instrument system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  5. Ordering of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass in magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, H; Imagawa, D

    2001-11-12

    Spin and chirality orderings of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass are studied under magnetic fields in light of the recently developed spin-chirality decoupling-recoupling scenario. It is found by Monte Carlo simulations that the chiral-glass transition and the chiral-glass ordered state, which are essentially of the same character as their zero-field counterparts, occur under magnetic fields. The implication to the experimental phase diagram is discussed.

  6. Microfluidic separation of magnetic nanoparticles on an ordered array of magnetized micropillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, G; Kuzhir, P; Izmaylov, Y; Alves Marins, J; Ezzaier, H; Robert, L; Doutre, F; Noblin, X; Lomenech, C; Bossis, G; Meunier, A; Sandoz, G; Zubarev, A

    2016-06-01

    Microfluidic separation of magnetic particles is based on their capture by magnetized microcollectors while the suspending fluid flows past the microcollectors inside a microchannel. Separation of nanoparticles is often challenging because of strong Brownian motion. Low capture efficiency of nanoparticles limits their applications in bioanalysis. However, at some conditions, magnetic nanoparticles may undergo field-induced aggregation that amplifies the magnetic attractive force proportionally to the aggregate volume and considerably increases nanoparticle capture efficiency. In this paper, we have demonstrated the role of such aggregation on an efficient capture of magnetic nanoparticles (about 80 nm in diameter) in a microfluidic channel equipped with a nickel micropillar array. This array was magnetized by an external uniform magnetic field, of intensity as low as 6-10 kA/m, and experiments were carried out at flow rates ranging between 0.3 and 30 μL/min. Nanoparticle capture is shown to be mostly governed by the Mason number Ma, while the dipolar coupling parameter α does not exhibit a clear effect in the studied range, 1.4 < α < 4.5. The capture efficiency Λ shows a strongly decreasing Mason number behavior, Λ∝Ma^{-1.78} within the range 32 ≤ Ma ≤ 3250. We have proposed a simple theoretical model which considers destructible nanoparticle chains and gives the scaling behavior, Λ∝Ma^{-1.7}, close to the experimental findings.

  7. First-Order Transitions and the Magnetic Phase Diagram of CeSb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Vogt, O.

    1980-01-01

    The high-temperature (14-17K) low-magnetic field (0-0.8 T) region of the phase diagram of the anomalous antiferromagnet CeSb has been reinvestigated by neutron diffraction in an attempt to locate a possible tricritical point. Previous neutron diffraction studies indicated that a tricritical point...... might exist in the magnetic phase diagram of CeSb at 16K for a field of approximately 0.3 T. The present study concludes that the transitions from the paramagnetic to the magnetically ordered states are of first order for fields below 0.8 T. Within the experimental accuracy no change has been observed...

  8. Small ordered magnetic moment in a weak itinerant electron ferromagnet Sc{sub 3}In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamishima, K., E-mail: kamisima@fms.saitama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-okubo, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Note, R. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Imakubo, T. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Watanabe, K. [Global Research Cluster, Collaboration Promotion Unit, RIKEN, 2-1 Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Katori, H.A. [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Fujimori, A.; Sakai, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-okubo, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Kamenev, K.V. [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Erskine Williamson Building, The King’s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • We performed the first neutron diffraction study of Sc–In alloy. • The ordered magnetic moment in this material is intrinsically tiny. • The resistivity depends on temperature as T{sup 3/2}. • The magnetization depends on magnetic fields as M{sup 5}/μ{sub 0}H in the vicinity of the Curie temperature. • This behavior can be explained by assuming that the total spin fluctuation amplitude is conserved. -- Abstract: We performed neutron diffraction study of Sc–In alloy which indicates that the ordered magnetic moment in this material is intrinsically tiny. This tiny magnetic moment (0.04–0.05 μ{sub B}/Sc) is not caused by the uncompensated antiferromagnetic ordering of large magnetic moments. The temperature dependence of the resistivity is in proportion to T{sup 3/2}, which suggests that this material is naturally close to the quantum critical point where ferromagnetism vanishes. This is consistent with the fact that this material shows ferromagnetism in an extremely narrow range of compositions which is typical of materials exhibiting quantum critical phenomenon. In the vicinity of the Curie temperature the magnetization depends on magnetic fields as M{sup 5}∝μ{sub 0}H. This behavior for itinerant ferromagnets can be explained by assuming that the total spin fluctuation amplitude is conserved.

  9. Magnetic ordering in ternary germanide Nd{sub 2}CuGe{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.X. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan)]. E-mail: dxli@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Nimori, S. [Tsukuba Magnet Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Li, Y.X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Koyama, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Shiokawa, Y. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan)

    2006-02-09

    We have performed a systematic investigation on a well-annealed polycrystalline Nd{sub 2}CuGe{sub 6} sample by measuring its AC and DC susceptibility {chi}(T), magnetization M(H), magnetic relaxation M(t), electrical resistivity {rho}(T) and specific heat C(T). The sharp peak observed at about T {sub N} = 9.4 K in {chi} {sub AC}(T), {chi} {sub DC}(T) and C(T) curves, respectively, indicates the occurrence of an antiferromagnetic order, which is further confirmed by the sudden decrease in {rho}(T) at the same temperature. In the magnetically ordered state, M(H) shows an evident metamagnetic transition. Moreover, the {chi} {sub DC}(T) and M(t) measurements reveal evident irreversible magnetism and long-time magnetic relaxation effect below T {sub N} indicating the metastable characters of the magnetically ordered state. The formation of the metastable magnetic state cannot be explained as glass freezing of the neodymium magnetic moments in the Ce{sub 2}CuGe{sub 6}-type orthorhombic Nd{sub 2}CuGe{sub 6} sample.

  10. Magnetic Ordering in BaFe_{11.9} In_{0.1} O_{19} Hexaferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trukhanov, S. V.; Trukhanov, A. V.; Turchenko, V. O.; Kostishin, V. G.; Panina, L. V.; Kazakevich, I. S.; Balagurov, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    The crystal and magnetic structure by powder neutron diffractometry as well as the magnetic properties by vibration sample magnetometry for the BaFe_{11.9} In_{0.1} O_{19} polycrystalline sample have been performed in a wide temperature range from 10 up to 730 K and in magnetic field up to 14 T. The atomic coordinates and lattice parameters have been Rietveld refined. The Invar effect has been observed in the low-temperature range below 150 K. It was explained by the thermal oscillation anharmonicity of atoms. The increase of the microstress value with decreasing temperature has been defined from Rietveld refinement. It is established that the ferrimagnet-paramagnet phase transition is a standard second-order one. From the macroscopic magnetization measurement, the Curie temperature and ordered magnetic moment per nominal iron ion are obtained. From the microscopic diffraction measurement, the magnetic moments at different atomic position and total magnetic moment per iron ion have been defined at different temperatures. The most likely reasons and the mechanism of magnetic ordering are discussed.

  11. Magnetism, Superconductivity, and Spontaneous Orbital Order in Iron-Based Superconductors: Which Comes First and Why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Chubukov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetism and nematic order are the two nonsuperconducting orders observed in iron-based superconductors. To elucidate the interplay between them and ultimately unveil the pairing mechanism, several models have been investigated. In models with quenched orbital degrees of freedom, magnetic fluctuations promote stripe magnetism, which induces orbital order. In models with quenched spin degrees of freedom, charge fluctuations promote spontaneous orbital order, which induces stripe magnetism. Here, we develop an unbiased approach, in which we treat magnetic and orbital fluctuations on equal footing. Key to our approach is the inclusion of the orbital character of the low-energy electronic states into renormalization group (RG analysis. We analyze the RG flow of the couplings and argue that the same magnetic fluctuations, which are known to promote s^{+-} superconductivity, also promote an attraction in the orbital channel, even if the bare orbital interaction is repulsive. We next analyze the RG flow of the susceptibilities and show that, if all Fermi pockets are small, the system first develops a spontaneous orbital order, then s^{+-} superconductivity, and magnetic order does not develop down to T=0. We argue that this scenario applies to FeSe. In systems with larger pockets, such as BaFe_{2}As_{2} and LaFeAsO, we find that the leading instability is either towards a spin-density wave or superconductivity. We argue that in this situation nematic order is caused by composite spin fluctuations and is vestigial to stripe magnetism. Our results provide a unifying description of different iron-based materials.

  12. Magnetism, Superconductivity, and Spontaneous Orbital Order in Iron-Based Superconductors: Which Comes First and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubukov, Andrey V.; Khodas, M.; Fernandes, Rafael M.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetism and nematic order are the two nonsuperconducting orders observed in iron-based superconductors. To elucidate the interplay between them and ultimately unveil the pairing mechanism, several models have been investigated. In models with quenched orbital degrees of freedom, magnetic fluctuations promote stripe magnetism, which induces orbital order. In models with quenched spin degrees of freedom, charge fluctuations promote spontaneous orbital order, which induces stripe magnetism. Here, we develop an unbiased approach, in which we treat magnetic and orbital fluctuations on equal footing. Key to our approach is the inclusion of the orbital character of the low-energy electronic states into renormalization group (RG) analysis. We analyze the RG flow of the couplings and argue that the same magnetic fluctuations, which are known to promote s+- superconductivity, also promote an attraction in the orbital channel, even if the bare orbital interaction is repulsive. We next analyze the RG flow of the susceptibilities and show that, if all Fermi pockets are small, the system first develops a spontaneous orbital order, then s+- superconductivity, and magnetic order does not develop down to T =0 . We argue that this scenario applies to FeSe. In systems with larger pockets, such as BaFe2 As2 and LaFeAsO, we find that the leading instability is either towards a spin-density wave or superconductivity. We argue that in this situation nematic order is caused by composite spin fluctuations and is vestigial to stripe magnetism. Our results provide a unifying description of different iron-based materials.

  13. Self-assembly of magnetic Ni nanoparticles into 1D arrays with antiferromagnetic order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliznyuk, V; Singamaneni, S; Sahoo, S; Polisetty, S; He, Xi; Binek, Ch

    2009-03-11

    In this paper, we report on the magnetic properties of isolated nanoparticles and interacting nanochains formed by the self-assembly of Ni nanoparticles. The magnetic properties were studied using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). We demonstrate that single-domain Ni nanoparticles spontaneously form one-dimensional (1D) chains under the influence of an external magnetic field. Furthermore, such magnetic field-driven self-assembly in conjunction with surface templating produces regular arrays of 1D nanochains with antiferromagnetic intra-chain order. The antiferromagnetic order, which is in striking contrast to what is found for non-interacting nanoparticle assemblies within the chains, can be evidenced from MFM and SQUID measurements.

  14. Self-assembly of magnetic Ni nanoparticles into 1D arrays with antiferromagnetic order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliznyuk, V.; Singamaneni, S.; Sahoo, S.; Polisetty, S.; He, Xi; Binek, Ch

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we report on the magnetic properties of isolated nanoparticles and interacting nanochains formed by the self-assembly of Ni nanoparticles. The magnetic properties were studied using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). We demonstrate that single-domain Ni nanoparticles spontaneously form one-dimensional (1D) chains under the influence of an external magnetic field. Furthermore, such magnetic field-driven self-assembly in conjunction with surface templating produces regular arrays of 1D nanochains with antiferromagnetic intra-chain order. The antiferromagnetic order, which is in striking contrast to what is found for non-interacting nanoparticle assemblies within the chains, can be evidenced from MFM and SQUID measurements.

  15. Possible coexistence of superconductivity and magnetic order in NdPt2B2C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Dhar; A D Chinchure; E Alleno; C Godart; L C Gupta; R Nagarajan

    2002-05-01

    Coexistence of superconductivity and magnetic order has been one of the exciting aspects of the quaternary borocarbide superconductors. So far, RNi2B2C (R=Tm, Er, Ho and Dy) are the only known magnetic superconductors in this family. Here, we present our resistivity, magnetization and heat capacity studies on NdPt2B2C (nominal composition, NdPt1.5Au0.6B2C and NdPt2.1B2.4C1.2). We find superconductivity in both samples with c,onset∼ 3 K. Bulk magnetic order is found to occur below 1.7 K. We suggest that NdPt2B2C is a possible magnetic superconductor.

  16. Induced magnetic ordering transition in RCo{sub 5} type materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivin, Oleg, E-mail: drorivin@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center – Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Shaked, Hagai [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Caspi, El’ad N. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center – Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel)

    2015-09-15

    The magnetism in several materials of the RCo{sub 5} type is studied. A numerical calculation scheme, based on an induced magnetic ordering transition, is set up. Using this scheme, and previously reported crystalline electric and magnetic exchange fields parameters, the magnetic structure in R{sub 1−y}Y{sub y}Co{sub 3}B{sub 2} and R(Co{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}){sub 5} materials (R=Tb and Ho), and its temperature evolution, is calculated, and compared with the corresponding observed results. It is proposed that the magnetic order in the materials of the RCO{sub 5} type, with R{sup 3+} of integral J, is driven by an induced transition. - Highlights: • A numerical calculations scheme, that simulates induced transition magnetic ordering in R{sub 1−y}YyCo{sub 3}B{sub 2} and R(Co{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}){sub 5} type materials, is set up. • The observed ordered magnetic moment of the R sub-lattice, as function of the magnetic exchange field, and as function of temperature, is shown to agree with induced transition theory, and not with Curie–Weiss theory. • In R{sub 1−y}Y{sub y}Co{sub 3}B{sub 2}, the relative magnitudes of the crystalline electric field and the magnetic exchange field are just above the critical threshold for induced transition ordering, making them the best experimental ‘realization’ found so far.

  17. Magnetic ordering and non-Fermi-liquid behavior in the multichannel Kondo-lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irkhin, Valentin Yu.

    2016-05-01

    Scaling equations for the Kondo lattice in the paramagnetic and magnetically ordered phases are derived to next-leading order with account of spin dynamics. The results are applied to describe various mechanisms of the non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) behavior in the multichannel Kondo-lattice model where a fixed point occurs in the weak-coupling region. The corresponding temperature dependences of electronic and magnetic properties are discussed. The model describes naturally formation of a magnetic state with soft boson mode and small moment value. An important role of Van Hove singularities in the magnon spectral function is demonstrated. The results are rather sensitive to the type of magnetic ordering and space dimensionality, the conditions for NFL behavior being more favorable in the antiferromagnetic and 2D cases.

  18. Fabrication and magnetic behaviour of 2D ordered Fe/SiO2 nanodots array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Zhong, W.; Qiu, L. J.; Lü, L. Y.; Du, Y. W.

    2006-06-01

    We have demonstrated a simple and universal morphology-controlled growth of 2D ordered Fe/SiO2 magnetic nanodots array, which was based on 2D colloidal monolayer template composed of polystyrene (PS) spheres and one-step sol-gel spin-coating technique. The Fe/SiO2 nanodots have a well-ordered structure arranged in a hexagonal pattern. The dots have the shape of quasi-pyramidal tetrahedron, which reside in the interstitial region between three PS spheres and the substrate. Magnetic measurements reveal that the nanodots array exhibits the in-plane easy magnetization direction. Compared with the unpatterned Fe/SiO2 thin film, the dots array has lower saturated field, higher remanence and coercivity. The present method is applicable to 2D ordered nanodots array of other magnetic materials.

  19. Cooperative Ordering and Kinetics of Cellulose Nanocrystal Alignment in a Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De France, Kevin J; Yager, Kevin G; Hoare, Todd; Cranston, Emily D

    2016-08-02

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are emerging nanomaterials that form chiral nematic liquid crystals above a critical concentration (C*) and additionally orient within electromagnetic fields. The control over CNC alignment is significant for materials processing and end use; to date, magnetic alignment has been demonstrated using only strong fields over extended or arbitrary time scales. This work investigates the effects of comparatively weak magnetic fields (0-1.2 T) and CNC concentration (1.65-8.25 wt %) on the kinetics and degree of CNC ordering using small-angle X-ray scattering. Interparticle spacing, correlation length, and orientation order parameters (η and S) increased with time and field strength following a sigmoidal profile. In a 1.2 T magnetic field for CNC suspensions above C*, partial alignment occurred in under 2 min followed by slower cooperative ordering to achieve nearly perfect alignment in under 200 min (S = -0.499 where S = -0.5 indicates perfect antialignment). At 0.56 T, nearly perfect alignment was also achieved, yet the ordering was 36% slower. Outside of a magnetic field, the order parameter plateaued at 52% alignment (S = -0.26) after 5 h, showcasing the drastic effects of relatively weak magnetic fields on CNC alignment. For suspensions below C*, no magnetic alignment was detected.

  20. Magnetic and orbital ordering in the iron-based superconductors. Role of spin-orbit coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Felix; Eremin, Ilya [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Knolle, Johannes [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden (Germany); Fernandes, Rafael [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    We analyze the magnetic ordering in the iron-based superconductors in presence of spin-orbit coupling. Based on several tight-binding parametrizations of the 3d electron states we show how the spin-orbit coupling introduces the anisotropy of the magnetization of the striped antiferromagnetic state by lifting the degeneracy of all three components of the magnetization m{sub x}, m{sub y} and m{sub z}. The orientation of the magnetic moment is determined by the contribution of the xy, xz, and yz orbitals to the electronic states near the Fermi level of the electron and hole bands and is determined by the electron filling. We find that within an itinerant approach the magnetic ordering is most favorable along the wavevector of the striped AF state. This appears to be a natural consequence of the spin-orbit coupling in the striped AF state where the ferro-orbital order of the xz and yz orbitals is only a consequence of the striped AF order. We further analyze the role of spin-orbit coupling for the C{sub 4} magnetic structure where SDW order parameters with both wavevectors, Q{sub x} = (π,0) and Q{sub y} = (0,π), coexist.

  1. Disorder-promoted C4-symmetric magnetic order in iron-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Mareike; Fernandes, Rafael M.; Levchenko, Alex; Schmalian, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    In most iron-based superconductors, the transition to the magnetically ordered state is closely linked to a lowering of structural symmetry from tetragonal (C4) to orthorhombic (C2). However, recently, a regime of C4-symmetric magnetic order has been reported in certain hole-doped iron-based superconductors. This novel magnetic ground state can be understood as a double-Q spin density wave characterized by two order parameters M1 and M2 related to each of the two Q vectors. Depending on the relative orientations of the order parameters, either a noncollinear spin-vortex crystal or a nonuniform charge-spin density wave could form. Experimentally, Mössbauer spectroscopy, neutron scattering, and muon spin rotation established the latter as the magnetic configuration of some of these optimally hole-doped iron-based superconductors. Theoretically, low-energy itinerant models do support a transition from single-Q to double-Q magnetic order, but with nearly degenerate spin-vortex crystal and charge-spin density wave states. In fact, extensions of these low-energy models including additional electronic interactions tip the balance in favor of the spin-vortex crystal, in apparent contradiction with the recent experimental findings. In this paper we revisit the phase diagram of magnetic ground states of low-energy multiband models in the presence of weak disorder. We show that impurity scattering not only promotes the transition from C2 to C4-magnetic order, but it also favors the charge-spin density wave over the spin-vortex crystal phase. Additionally, in the single-Q phase, our analysis of the nematic coupling constant in the presence of disorder supports the experimental finding that the splitting between the structural and stripe-magnetic transition is enhanced by disorder.

  2. Magnetic order in PrBa2Cu3O6+x

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longmore, A.; Nutley, M.P.; Boothroyd, A.T.

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic ordering of the Cu and Pr ions in PrBa2Cu3O6+x by neutron diffraction on single crystals with different oxygen contents. Two types of Cu ordering were observed, qualitatively similar to the anti-ferromagnetic phases reported in some studies of YBa2Cu3O6+x. A third...

  3. Stochastic effect on thermally magnetization reversal in Pico second ordering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadnawanto, W.; Purnama, Budi

    2014-10-01

    In this study a magnetization reversal dynamics observed in the heat assisted magnetization reversal of CoPtCr perpendicularly magnetized material in the order of a pico second ordering time. Observation of heat assisted magnetization reversal have been using micromagnetic simulation solved by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The magnetic dot size of the simulation was 50 nm × 50 nm × 20 nm. The perpendicularly anisotropy constant CoPtCr was 2 × 106 erg/cc. Micro-magnetic simulations was carried out systematically by providing pulse-external field with varying pulse duration of 25 ps to 1 ns. The decrease of the minimum field required for reversal observed in this simulation until it reached 90% for 125 ps cooled ordering time. The results also was showed that this sequence simulation running had a zero probability of switching at zero fields. It was indicated that the heat stochastic effect dominated in the mechanism reduced of the field was required for along to the magnetic field direction.

  4. Pressure dependence of the Cu magnetic order in RBa2Cu3O6+x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, J. W.; Li, W.-H.; Trevino, S. F.; Fisk, Z.

    1989-09-01

    Neutron-diffraction measurements have been carried out as a function of hydrostatic pressure to study the magnetic order of the Cu spins in NdBa2Cu3O6.35 and NdBa2Cu3O6.1. In the high-temperature phase, where the Cu planes order antiferromagnetically, we find that the Néel temperature TN1 is very strongly dependent on pressure, increasing at the rate of ~23 K/kbar. We attribute this phenomenal sensitivity to the two-dimensional-like behavior of this magnetic system. In the low-temperature phase, which is associated with magnetic ordering of the chains, only a small change in the ordering temperature TN2 is observed.

  5. Pressure-induced magnetic order in FeSe: A muon spin rotation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Amato, Alex; Morenzoni, Elvezio; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhou, Fang; Zhao, Zhongxian

    2017-05-01

    The magnetic order induced by the pressure was studied in FeSe by means of muon spin rotation (μ SR ) technique. By following the evolution of the oscillatory part of the μ SR signal as a function of angle between the initial muon spin polarization and 101 axis of the studied FeSe sample, it was found that the pressure-induced magnetic order in FeSe corresponds either to the collinear (single-stripe) antiferromagnetic order as observed in parent compounds of various FeAs-based superconductors or to the bi-collinear order as obtained in the FeTe system, but with the Fe spins turned by 45o within the a b plane. The value of the magnetic moment per Fe atom was estimated to be ≃0.13 -0.14 μB at p ≃1.9 GPa.

  6. Influence of thermal annealing and magnetic field on first order magnetic transition in Pd substituted FeRh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, Pallavi; Lakhani, Archana; Rawat, R; Chaddah, P, E-mail: archnalakhani@csr.ernet.i [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research University Campus, Khandwa Road Indore-452001, M.P (India)

    2010-01-01

    Influence of successive thermal annealing and magnetic field on First order antiferro (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) transition in the Pd substituted FeRh has been studied. With successive thermal annealing CsCl type bcc phase increases at the expense of fct (pseudo fcc) phase. Resistivity measurements do not show any transition in as-cast sample in contrast to annealed samples. AFM to FM transition temperature (T{sub N}) is found to decrease with higher annealing temperature. With the application of magnetic field, T{sub N} shift to lower temperature. These measurements show anomalous thermomagnetic irreversibility besides showing giant magnetoresistance across magnetic field induced first order AFM to FM transition.

  7. Room-temperature magnetic order on zigzag edges of narrow graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magda, Gábor Zsolt; Jin, Xiaozhan; Hagymási, Imre; Vancsó, Péter; Osváth, Zoltán; Nemes-Incze, Péter; Hwang, Chanyong; Biró, László P; Tapasztó, Levente

    2014-10-30

    The possibility that non-magnetic materials such as carbon could exhibit a novel type of s-p electron magnetism has attracted much attention over the years, not least because such magnetic order is predicted to be stable at high temperatures. It has been demonstrated that atomic-scale structural defects of graphene can host unpaired spins, but it remains unclear under what conditions long-range magnetic order can emerge from such defect-bound magnetic moments. Here we propose that, in contrast to random defect distributions, atomic-scale engineering of graphene edges with specific crystallographic orientation--comprising edge atoms from only one sub-lattice of the bipartite graphene lattice--can give rise to a robust magnetic order. We use a nanofabrication technique based on scanning tunnelling microscopy to define graphene nanoribbons with nanometre precision and well-defined crystallographic edge orientations. Although so-called 'armchair' ribbons display quantum confinement gaps, ribbons with the 'zigzag' edge structure that are narrower than 7 nanometres exhibit an electronic bandgap of about 0.2-0.3 electronvolts, which can be identified as a signature of interaction-induced spin ordering along their edges. Moreover, upon increasing the ribbon width, a semiconductor-to-metal transition is revealed, indicating the switching of the magnetic coupling between opposite ribbon edges from the antiferromagnetic to the ferromagnetic configuration. We found that the magnetic order on graphene edges of controlled zigzag orientation can be stable even at room temperature, raising hopes of graphene-based spintronic devices operating under ambient conditions.

  8. Magnetic Order and Spin Dynamics in a Hexagonal Rare Earth Manganite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, J. S.; Singh, D. K.; Elizabeth, S.; Harikrishnan, S.; Lynn, J. W.

    2011-03-01

    Hexagonal rare earth manganites, RMn O3 R = Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y, or Sc), have attracted a great deal of recent attention as magnetoelectric multiferroics as most of these systems are ferroelectric at room temperature and display magnetic order below TN ~ 100 K. This magnetic order can be quite complex, as both the R and Mn ions lie on geometrically frustrated triangular lattices. DyMn O3 is typically orthorhombic, but can also be grown in the hexagonal phase; Dy 0.5 Y0.5 Mn O3 displays the hexagonal phase and is magnetically diluted at the rare earth site. We have used neutron scattering experiments to explore the magnetic structure and spin dynamics of Dy 0.5 Y0.5 Mn O3 .

  9. Pressure induced superconductivity on the border of magnetic order in MnP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J-G; Matsubayashi, K; Wu, W; Sun, J P; Lin, F K; Luo, J L; Uwatoko, Y

    2015-03-20

    We report the discovery of superconductivity on the border of long-range magnetic order in the itinerant-electron helimagnet MnP via the application of high pressure. Superconductivity with T(sc)≈1  K emerges and exists merely near the critical pressure P(c)≈8  GPa, where the long-range magnetic order just vanishes. The present finding makes MnP the first Mn-based superconductor. The close proximity of superconductivity to a magnetic instability suggests an unconventional pairing mechanism. Moreover, the detailed analysis of the normal-state transport properties evidenced non-Fermi-liquid behavior and the dramatic enhancement of the quasiparticle effective mass near P(c) associated with the magnetic quantum fluctuations.

  10. Magnetic field induced switching of the antiferromagnetic order parameter in thin films of magnetoelectric chromia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallarino, Lorenzo; Berger, Andreas; Binek, Christian

    2015-02-01

    A Landau-theoretical approach is utilized to model the magnetic field induced reversal of the antiferromagnetic order parameter in thin films of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets. A key ingredient of this peculiar switching phenomenon is the presence of a robust spin polarized state at the surface of the antiferromagnetic films. Surface or boundary magnetization is symmetry allowed in magnetoelectric antiferromagnets and experimentally established for chromia thin films. It couples rigidly to the antiferromagnetic order parameter and its Zeeman energy creates a pathway to switch the antiferromagnet via magnetic field application. In the framework of a minimalist Landau free energy expansion, the temperature dependence of the switching field and the field dependence of the transition width are derived. Least-squares fits to magnetometry data of (0001 ) textured chromia thin films strongly support this model of the magnetic reversal mechanism.

  11. The Magnetic Ordering in Diluted Crystal Magnets with Indirect Exchange Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Belokon, V. I.; Nefedev, K. V.; Savunov, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    The closed system of equations for a determination of parameters distribution function for random interaction fields was calculated analytically. The estimations of critical concentrations for phase transitions in diluted crystal magnets with face centered cubic (fcc), volume centered cubic (vcc) and simple cubic (sc) lattices with interaction of Ruderman-Kittel-Kasua-Yosida between spins were made.

  12. Orientational order and translational dynamics of magnetic particle assemblies in liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroukidis, Stavros D; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2016-08-10

    Implementing extensive molecular dynamics simulations we explore the organization of magnetic particle assemblies (clusters) in a uniaxial liquid crystalline matrix comprised of rodlike particles. The magnetic particles are modelled as soft dipolar spheres with diameter significantly smaller than the width of the rods. Depending on the dipolar strength coupling the magnetic particles arrange into head-to-tail configurations forming various types of clusters including rings (closed loops) and chains. In turn, the liquid crystalline matrix induces long range orientational ordering to these structures and promotes their diffusion along the director of the phase. Different translational dynamics are exhibited as the liquid crystalline matrix transforms either from isotropic to nematic or from nematic to smectic state. This is caused due to different collective motion of the magnetic particles into various clusters in the anisotropic environments. Our results offer a physical insight for understanding both the structure and dynamics of magnetic particle assemblies in liquid crystalline matrices.

  13. Magnetic ordering of defects in a molecular spin-Peierls system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlie, Adam; Terry, Ian; Cottrell, Stephen; Pratt, Francis L.; Szablewski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    With interest in charge transfer compounds growing steadily, it is important to understand all aspects of the underlying physics of these systems, including the properties of the defects and interfaces that are universally present in actual experimental systems. For the study of these defects and their interactions a spin-Peierls (SP) system provides a useful testing ground. This work presents an investigation within the SP phase of potassium TCNQF4 where anomalous features are observed in both the magnetic susceptibility and ESR spectra for temperatures between 60 K and 100 K. Muon spin spectroscopy measurements confirm the presence of these anomalous magnetic features, with low temperature zero-field data exhibiting the damped oscillatory form that is a characteristic signature of static magnetic order. This ordering is most likely due to the interaction between structurally correlated magnetic defects in the system. The critical behaviour of the temperature dependent muon spin rotation frequency indicates that a 2D Ising model is applicable to the magnetic ordering of these defects. We show that these observations can be explained by a simple model in which the magnetic defects are located at stacking faults, which provide them with a 2D structural framework to constrain their interactions.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic performance of Co-incorporated ordered mesoporous carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhi, E-mail: zhiliu@lnnu.edu.cn [Institute of Chemistry for Functionalized Materials, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Song, Yan; Yang, Yuan; Mi, Junhua; Deng, Liping [Institute of Chemistry for Functionalized Materials, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A facile one-pot aqueous self-assembly strategy for the synthesis Co-incorporated ordered mesoporous carbons (Co-OMCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-OMCs exhibit typical ferromagnetic characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Saturation magnetization strength can be easily adjusted by changing the content of cobalt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization temperatures have significant effects on the structure and magnetic properties of Co-OMCs. -- Abstract: Co-incorporated ordered mesoporous carbon (Co-OMC) with magnetic frameworks has been synthesized via a one-pot self-assembly strategy. The effects of cobalt loading on carbon matrix, adsorption properties and magnetic properties of the resultant mesostructured cobalt/carbon composites were investigated by nitrogen sorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and magnetometer measurements. The results show that the mesoporous composites with a high cobalt content (such as 18.0 wt%) possess an ordered and uniform mesoporous structure (5.3 nm), high surface areas (up to 687 m{sup 2}/g) and high pore volumes (up to 0.54 cm{sup 3}/g). Cobalt nanoparticles of size 4-9 nm are confined inside the mesopores or walls of the mesoporous carbon. These materials exhibit typical ferromagnetic characteristics. The saturation magnetization strength can be easily adjusted by changing the content of cobalt. The carbonization temperatures have significant effects on the structure and magnetic properties of Co-OMC also.

  15. Exchange Mechanisms in Long Range Ordered Thin Film Organic Magnetic Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, N.; Headrick, R.; Furis, M.; McGill, S.; Kilanski, L.; Waterman, R.

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic exchange mechanisms in crystalline thin films of Metal Phthalocyanines (M-Pc) are explored using Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD) and SQUID measurements up to 10 T and 2K. Long range ordered thin films of organo-soluble derivatives of Co-Pc and Mn-Pc were fabricated using solution processing technique. In the case of Mn-Pc, our measurements show enhanced hybridization of ligand π-electronic states with the Mn d-orbitals. MCD active states beyond 1 μm have been observed for the first time, providing crucial information on the orbital arrangements of MPc's that result in competing (co-existing) long-range superexchange and indirect exchange reminiscent of RKKY. The evolution of Zeeman splitting of specific MCD-active states is very well described by enhanced effective π-electrons g-factors as large as 100, analogous to diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) systems. In Co-Pc MCD data indicates a weaker exchange interaction between delocalized charge carriers and d-like spin-polarized electrons, however SQUID measurements reveal magnetic ordering up to 180K. A comparison between Mn-Pc and Co-Pc and earlier results from the spin 1/2 Cu-Pc and their non-magnetic Zn-Pc counterpart, offers an interesting view on the role of long range order in magnetic interactions. NSF, MRI and CAREER programs: DMR- 0722451; DMR-0348354; DMR- 0821268; DMR-1056589.

  16. Non-equilibrium magnetic colloidal dispersions at liquid-air interfaces: dynamic patterns, magnetic order and self-assembled swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snezhko, Alexey

    2011-04-20

    Colloidal dispersions of interacting particles subjected to an external periodic forcing often develop nontrivial self-assembled patterns and complex collective behavior. A fundamental issue is how collective ordering in such non-equilibrium systems arises from the dynamics of discrete interacting components. In addition, from a practical viewpoint, by working in regimes far from equilibrium new self-organized structures which are generally not available through equilibrium thermodynamics can be created. In this review spontaneous self-assembly phenomena in magnetic colloidal dispersions suspended at liquid-air interfaces and driven out of equilibrium by an alternating magnetic field are presented. Experiments reveal a new type of nontrivially ordered self-assembled structures emerging in such systems in a certain range of excitation parameters. These dynamic structures emerge as a result of the competition between magnetic and hydrodynamic forces and have complex unconventional magnetic ordering. Nontrivial self-induced hydrodynamic fields accompany each out-of-equilibrium pattern. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of the self-induced surface flows leading to a formation of self-propelled microstructures has been discovered. Some features of the self-localized structures can be understood in the framework of the amplitude equation (Ginzburg-Landau type equation) for parametric waves coupled to the conservation law equation describing the evolution of the magnetic particle density and the Navier-Stokes equation for hydrodynamic flows. To understand the fundamental microscopic mechanisms governing self-assembly processes in magnetic colloidal dispersions at liquid-air interfaces a first-principle model for a non-equilibrium self-assembly is presented. The latter model allows us to capture in detail the entire process of out-of-equilibrium self-assembly in the system and reproduces most of the observed phenomenology.

  17. A High-Order Finite-Volume Algorithm for Fokker-Planck Collisions in Magnetized Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Z; Cohen, R H; Rognlien, T D; Xu, X Q

    2007-04-18

    A high-order finite volume algorithm is developed for the Fokker-Planck Operator (FPO) describing Coulomb collisions in strongly magnetized plasmas. The algorithm is based on a general fourth-order reconstruction scheme for an unstructured grid in the velocity space spanned by parallel velocity and magnetic moment. The method provides density conservation and high-order-accurate evaluation of the FPO independent of the choice of the velocity coordinates. As an example, a linearized FPO in constant-of-motion coordinates, i.e. the total energy and the magnetic moment, is developed using the present algorithm combined with a cut-cell merging procedure. Numerical tests include the Spitzer thermalization problem and the return to isotropy for distributions initialized with velocity space loss cones. Utilization of the method for a nonlinear FPO is straightforward but requires evaluation of the Rosenbluth potentials.

  18. Order in the Heisenberg pyrochlore: The magnetic structure of Gd2Ti2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, J. D. M.; Wills, A. S.; Fennell, T.; Bramwell, S. T.; Gardner, J. S.; Green, M. A.

    2001-10-01

    The rare-earth pyrochlore material Gd2Ti2O7 is considered to be an ideal model frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet with additional dipolar interactions. For this system there are several untested theoretical predictions of the ground state ordering pattern. Here we establish the magnetic structure of isotopically enriched 160Gd2Ti2O7, using powder neutron diffraction at a temperature of 50 mK. The magnetic structure at this temperature is a partially ordered, noncollinear antiferromagnetic structure, with propagation vector k=121212. It can be described as a set of ``q=0'' ordered kagomé planes separated by zero interstitial moments. This magnetic structure agrees with theory only in part, leaving an interesting problem for future research.

  19. Time Ordering Effects on Hydrogen Zeeman-Stark Line Profiles in Low-Density Magnetized Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rosato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stark broadening of hydrogen lines is investigated in low-density magnetized plasmas, at typical conditions of magnetic fusion experiments. The role of time ordering is assessed numerically, by using a simulation code accounting for the evolution of the microscopic electric field generated by the charged particles moving at the vicinity of the atom. The Zeeman effect due to the magnetic field is also retained. Lyman lines with a low principal quantum number n are first investigated, for an application to opacity calculations; next Balmer lines with successively low and high principal quantum numbers are considered for diagnostic purposes. It is shown that neglecting time ordering results in a dramatic underestimation of the Stark effect on the low-n lines. Another conclusion is that time ordering becomes negligible only when ion dynamics effects vanish, as shown in the case of high-n lines.

  20. Interplay of nematic and magnetic orders in FeSe under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Daniel D.; Jacko, A. C.; Friedrich, Christoph; Şaşıoǧlu, Ersoy; Blügel, Stefan; Valentí, Roser; Andersen, Brian M.

    2017-03-01

    We offer an explanation for the recently observed pressure-induced magnetic state in the iron-chalcogenide FeSe based on ab initio estimates for the pressure evolution of the most important Coulomb interaction parameters. We find that an increase of pressure leads to an overall decrease mostly in the nearest-neighbor Coulomb repulsion, which in turn leads to a reduction of the nematic order and the generation of magnetic stripe order. We treat the concomitant effects of band renormalization and the induced interplay of nematic and magnetic order in a self-consistent way and determine the generic topology of the temperature-pressure phase diagram and find qualitative agreement with the experimentally determined phase diagram.

  1. Ising-like chain magnetism, Arrhenius magnetic relaxation, and case against 3D magnetic ordering in β-manganese phthalocyanine (C32H16MnN8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Seehra, Mohindar S.

    2016-04-01

    Previous magnetic studies in the organic semiconductor β-manganese phthalocyanine (β-MnPc) have reported it to be a canted ferromagnet below T C  ≈  8.6 K. However, the recent result of the lack of a λ-type anomaly in the specific heat versus temperature data near the quoted T C has questioned the presence of long-range 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic ordering in this system. In this paper, detailed measurements and analysis of the temperature (2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (up to 90 kOe) dependence of the dc and ac magnetic susceptibilities in a powder sample of β-MnPc leads us to conclude that 3D long-range magnetic ordering is absent in this material. This is supported by the Arrott plots and the lack of a peak in the ac susceptibilities, χ‧ and χ″, near the quoted T C. Instead, the system can be best described as an Ising-like chain magnet with Arrhenius relaxation of the magnetization governed by an intra-layer ferromagnetic exchange constant J/k B  =  2.6 K and the single ion anisotropy energy parameter |D|/k B  =  8.3 K. The absence of 3D long range order is consistent with the measured \\mid D\\mid   >  J.

  2. Ising-like chain magnetism, Arrhenius magnetic relaxation, and case against 3D magnetic ordering in β-manganese phthalocyanine (C₃₂H₁₆MnN₈).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Seehra, Mohindar S

    2016-04-06

    Previous magnetic studies in the organic semiconductor β-manganese phthalocyanine (β-MnPc) have reported it to be a canted ferromagnet below T(C)  ≈  8.6 K. However, the recent result of the lack of a λ-type anomaly in the specific heat versus temperature data near the quoted T(C) has questioned the presence of long-range 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic ordering in this system. In this paper, detailed measurements and analysis of the temperature (2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (up to 90 kOe) dependence of the dc and ac magnetic susceptibilities in a powder sample of β-MnPc leads us to conclude that 3D long-range magnetic ordering is absent in this material. This is supported by the Arrott plots and the lack of a peak in the ac susceptibilities, χ' and χ″, near the quoted T(C). Instead, the system can be best described as an Ising-like chain magnet with Arrhenius relaxation of the magnetization governed by an intra-layer ferromagnetic exchange constant J/k(B)  =  2.6 K and the single ion anisotropy energy parameter |D|/k(B)  =  8.3 K. The absence of 3D long range order is consistent with the measured |D|/  >  J.

  3. {mu} {sup +}SR study of zero-field magnetic ordering in CsC{sub 60}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristofolini, L.; Lappas, A.; Vavekis, K.; Prassides, K.; DeRenzi, R.; Ricco, M.; Schenck, A.; Amato, A.; Gygax, F.N.; Kosaka, M.; Tanigaki, K. [Sch. of Chem. and Molecular Sci., Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-23

    We have measured the zero-field muon spin relaxation (ZF {mu} {sup +}SR) spectra of the quasi-one-dimensional fulleride conductor CsC{sub 60}. Static magnetic order of a random nature develops gradually below about 30 K. The local field distribution at the muon site has a Gaussian shape with a width of 48.3(7) G at 2.8 K. Muon spin rotation (TF {mu} {sup +}SR) measurements at an applied transverse field of 6 kG also show the onset of magnetic order in the same temperature range. (authors). Letter-to-the-editor.

  4. Measurement, analysis and modification of the fifth-order fringe field components of magnetic quadrupole lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moloney, G.R.; Jamieson, D.N.; Legge, G.J.F. (School of Physics, Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia))

    1991-03-01

    Extensive, quantitative measurements of magnetic quadrupole lens fringe fields have been conducted. The fringe field region of magnetic quadrupole lenses has been shown to contain significant contamination by higher-order multipole fields. These multipole components will contribute to the aberration coefficients of the lens. One of the largest components is the duodecapole component, which contributes to the fifth-order geometric aberrations of the lens. The measured multipole profiles in the fringe field region of the Melbourne quadrupoles are presented. We also present the results of an investigation into the effect of modifying the quadrupole pole tip profile at the pole ends. (orig.).

  5. Mixed convection peristaltic flow of third order nanofluid with an induced magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Saima

    2013-01-01

    This research is concerned with the peristaltic flow of third order nanofluid in an asymmetric channel. The governing equations of third order nanofluid are modelled in wave frame of reference. Effect of induced magnetic field is considered. Long wavelength and low Reynolds number situation is tackled. Numerical solutions of the governing problem are computed and analyzed. The effects of Brownian motion and thermophoretic diffusion of nano particles are particularly emphasized. Physical quantities such as velocity, pressure rise, temperature, induced magnetic field and concentration distributions are discussed.

  6. Mixed convection peristaltic flow of third order nanofluid with an induced magnetic field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Noreen

    Full Text Available This research is concerned with the peristaltic flow of third order nanofluid in an asymmetric channel. The governing equations of third order nanofluid are modelled in wave frame of reference. Effect of induced magnetic field is considered. Long wavelength and low Reynolds number situation is tackled. Numerical solutions of the governing problem are computed and analyzed. The effects of Brownian motion and thermophoretic diffusion of nano particles are particularly emphasized. Physical quantities such as velocity, pressure rise, temperature, induced magnetic field and concentration distributions are discussed.

  7. First order magneto-structural transition in functional magnetic materials: phase-coexistence and metastability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S B Roy; M K Chattopadhyay; M A Manekar; K J S Sokhey; P Chaddah

    2006-11-01

    First order magneto-structural transition plays an important role in the functionality of various magnetic materials of current interest like manganese oxide systems showing colossal magnetoresistance, Gd5(Ge, Si)4 alloys showing giant magnetocaloric effects and magnetic shape memory alloys. The key features of this magneto-structural transition are phase-coexistence and metastability. This generality is highlighted with experimental results obtained in a particular class of materials. A generalized framework of disorder influenced first order phase transition is introduced to understand the interesting experimental results which have some bearing on the functionality of the concerned materials.

  8. Complex magnetic order in Pr₂Pd₃Ge₅: a single crystal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, V K; Thamizhavel, A; Ramakrishnan, S; Hossain, Z

    2012-11-14

    We have investigated the magnetic and electronic transport properties of single crystal Pr(2)Pd(3)Ge(5) grown by the Czochralski method. Complex magnetic behaviour (multiple magnetic transitions) is clearly seen in this compound from the magnetic susceptibility χ(T), isothermal magnetization M(H) and electrical resistivity ρ(T) data. For the magnetic field applied along the crystallographic c-axis (H ‖ [001]) the χ(T) data exhibit two sharp transitions at 6.9 and 6.3 K and a broad hump near 8 K. Four anomalies at 8.0, 7.3, 6.2 and 4.9 K are observed for the magnetic field along both a- and b-directions (H ‖ [100] and H ‖ [010]). Further, the ordered state χ(T) presents a large anisotropy with an easy axis along the c-axis. The presence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy is also inferred from the isothermal M(H) data. The M(H) data measured at 1.9 K for H ‖ [001] exhibit a step-like increase due to field-induced metamagnetic transitions at [Formula: see text] T and [Formula: see text] T. For H ‖ [100] and H ‖ [010] sharp step-like field-induced metamagnetic transitions occur at [Formula: see text] T and [Formula: see text] T which are accompanied by a weak S-shaped spin-flop metamagnetic transition at [Formula: see text] T. We have extracted the H-T phase diagram from the M(H) data collected at different temperatures in the magnetically ordered state which shows the existence of three magnetic phases below T(N) for H ‖ [100] and H ‖ [010], and two magnetic phases for H ‖ [001]. A sharp transition due to the onset of long range antiferromagnetic order is also seen in the ρ(T) data which also exhibit anisotropic behaviour. The observation of an upturn near T(N) in the ρ(T) data suggests the formation of a super-zone gap and hence the existence of incommensurate magnetic structure. Further, in the ordered state, the ρ(T) data present a gap in the excitation spectrum of magnons with a characteristic energy gap Δ ∼ 0.23 meV.

  9. Emergence of noncollinear magnetic ordering in small magnetic clusters: Mn$_n$ and As@Mn$_n$

    CERN Document Server

    Kabir, Mukul; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2007-01-01

    Using first-principles density functional calculations, we have studied the magnetic ordering in pure Mn$_n$ ($n=2-$10, 13, 15, 19) and As@Mn$_n$ ($n=1-$10) clusters. Although, for both pure and doped manganese clusters, there exists many collinear and noncollinear isomers close in energy, the smaller clusters with $n\\leqslant$5 have collinear magnetic ground state and the emergence of noncollinear ground states is seen for $n\\geqslant$6 clusters. Due to strong $p-d$ hybridization in As@Mn$_n$ clusters, the binding energy is substantially enhanced and the magnetic moment is reduced compared to the corresponding pure Mn$_n$ clusters.

  10. Tunning the magnetic ordering in EuTiO3 through doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Zhigang; Janotti, Anderson

    EuTiO3 (ETO) is a complex oxide that displays strong spin-lattice coupling, large magnetoelectric effects, and undergoes a series of structural and magnetic phase transitions when subjected to pressure or epitaxial strain. ETO adopts a cubic structure and is paramagnetic at high temperatures, while at very low temperatures it transforms to an antiferrodistortive tetragonal structure with a G-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering. Several approaches have been presented to tune the magnetic ordering from the G-type antiferromagnetism to the F-type ferromagnetism, often relying on external pressure or epitaxial strain. Doping through substitution of trivalent species on the europium sites or creation of oxygen vacancies have also been proposed to lead to ferromagnetism. However, the fundamental mechanism by which excess electrons from impurities or defects lead to ferromagnetic ordering is unclear. In this study, we explore the effects of doping on the magnetic ordering in EuTiO3 through first-principles calculations. We show how itinerant carriers in the Ti- d-derived conduction-band states interact with europium f states, inducing an alignment of the large moments on the europium ions. The effects of doping of different types of magnetic ordering are considered, a

  11. Magnetism, structure and chemical order in small CoPd clusters: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb, E-mail: Junais.Mokkath@kaust.edu.sa

    2014-01-15

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of small Co{sub m}Pd{sub n}(N=m+n=8,m=0−N) nanoalloy clusters are studied in the framework of a generalized-gradient approximation to density-functional theory. The optimized cluster structures have a clear tendency to maximize the number of nearest-neighbor CoCo pairs. The magnetic order is found to be ferromagnetic-like (FM) for all the ground-state structures. Antiferromagnetic-like spin arrangements were found in some low-lying isomers. The average magnetic moment per atom μ{sup ¯}{sub N} increases approximately linearly with Co content. A remarkable enhancement of the local Co moments is observed as a result of Pd doping. This is a consequence of the increase in the number of Co d holes, due to CoPd charge transfer, combined with the reduced local coordination. The influence of spin–orbit interactions on the cluster properties is also discussed. - Highlights: • This work analyses the structural and magnetic properties of CoPd nanoclusters. • The magnetic order is found to be ferromagnetic-like for all the ground-state structures. • The average magnetic moment per atom increases approximately linearly with Co content. • The influence of spin–orbit interactions on the cluster properties is discussed.

  12. Electric Field Effect on the Magnetic Order in Multiferroic LuMnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chunruo; Yang, Junjie; Harriger, Leland; Louca, Despina

    LuMnO3 belongs to the family of hexagonal multiferroics in which ferroelectric and magnetic orders coexist and compete. The Mn3+ ions reside on a triangular lattice that is geometrically frustrated but undergoes a Neel transition at TN ~90 K. Neutron experiments under electric field were carried out on a single crystal of LuMnO3 at SPINS to investigate the coupling of the electric field to the magnetic order. The elastic and inelastic scattering around the commensurate (101) magnetic peak and the Mn trimerization induced (100) peak with and without electric field were investigated. When applying an E-field of 13.3 kV/cm along the (001) direction on an unpoled sample, an increase in (101) peak as well as a shift of the inelastic excitation near (100) to higher ΔE have been observed. Once the sample is polarized, these effects exist without the field. On the other hand, an E-field along (110) direction shows almost no effect. The spin arrangement of the magnetic order is within the ab-plane, thus the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction explains why a polarization perpendicular to the magnetic moment gives a larger effect. The implication will be discussed.

  13. On magnetic ordering in heavily sodium substituted hole doped lanthanum manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethulakshmi, N. [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Unnimaya, A.N. [Centre for Materials for Electronic Technology (CMET), Thrissur 680581, Kerala (India); Al-Omari, I.A.; Al-Harthi, Salim [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, PC 123 Muscat (Oman); Sagar, S. [Government College for Women, Thiruvananthapuram 695014, Kerala (India); Thomas, Senoy [Materials Science and Technology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695019, Kerala (India); Srinivasan, G. [Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester (United States); Anantharaman, M.R., E-mail: mraiyer@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India)

    2015-10-01

    Mixed valence manganite system with monovalent sodium substituted lanthanum manganites form the basis of the present work. Lanthanum manganites belonging to the series La{sub 1−x}Na{sub x}MnO{sub 3} with x=0.5–0.9 were synthesized using modified citrate gel method. Variation of lattice parameters and unit cell volume with Na concentration were analyzed and the magnetization measurements indicated ferromagnetic ordering in all samples at room temperature. Low temperature magnetization behavior indicated that all samples exhibit antiferromagnetism along with ferromagnetism and it has also been observed that antiferromagnetic ordering dominates ferromagnetic ordering as concentration is increased. Evidence for such a magnetic inhomogeneity in these samples has been confirmed from the variation in Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ion ratio from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and from the absorption peak studies using Ferromagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Higher substitution of more than 50 percent of monovalent ion, sodium for La sites in lanthanum manganites scarce in literature. • Structural studies using XRD and further structure refinement by Rietveld refinement confirmed orthorhombic pbnm spacegroup. • Ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature with saturation magnetization decreasing with increase in sodium concentration. • M vs T measurements using FC ZFC proved coexisting FM/AFM behavior arising from exchange interactions between different valence states of Mn ions. • Disparity in ratio of Mn valence ions indicated presence of vacancies providing the role of vacancies and oxygen stoichiometry in deciding magnetic inhomogeneity.

  14. Three-dimensional antiferromagnetic order of single-chain magnets: a new approach to design molecule-based magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Takayama, Karin; Saitoh, Ayumi; Furukawa, Sachie; Yamashita, Masahiro; Clérac, Rodolphe

    2010-03-22

    Two one-dimensional compounds composed of a 1:1 ratio of Mn(III) salen-type complex and Ni(II) oximato moiety with different counter anions, PF(6)(-) and BPh(4)(-), were synthesized: [Mn(3,5-Cl(2)saltmen)Ni(pao)(2)(phen)]PF(6) (1) and [Mn(5-Clsaltmen)Ni(pao)(2)(phen)]BPh(4) (2), where 3,5-Cl(2)saltmen(2-) = N,N'-(1,1,2,2-tetramethylethylene)bis(3,5-dichlorosalicylideneiminate); 5-Clsaltmen(2-) = N,N'-(1,1,2,2-tetramethylethylene)bis(5-chlorosalicylideneiminate); pao(-) = pyridine-2-aldoximate; and phen = 1,10-phenanthroline. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction study was carried out for both compounds. In 1 and 2, the chain topology is very similar forming an alternating linear chain with a [-Mn(III)-ON-Ni(II)-NO-] repeating motif (where -ON- is the oximate bridge). The use of a bulky counteranion, such as BPh(4)(-), located between the chains in 2 rather than PF(6)(-) in 1, successfully led to the magnetic isolation of the chains in 2. This minimization of the interchain interactions allows the study of the intrinsic magnetic properties of the chains present in 1 and 2. While 1 and 2 possess, as expected, very similar paramagnetic properties above 15 K, their ground state is antiferromagnetic below 9.4 K and paramagnetic down to 1.8 K, respectively. Nevertheless, both compounds exhibit a magnet-type behavior at temperatures below 6 K. While for 2, the observed magnetism is well explained by a Single-Chain Magnet (SCM) behavior, the magnet properties for 1 are induced by the presence in the material of SCM building units that order antiferromagnetically. By controlling both intra- and interchain magnetic interactions in this new [Mn(III)Ni(II)] SCM system, a remarkable AF phase with a magnet-type behavior has been stabilized in relation with the intrinsic SCM properties of the chains present in 1. This result suggests that the simultaneous enhancement of both intrachain (J) and interchain (J') magnetic interactions (with keeping J > J'), independently of the presence

  15. High magnetic field studies of the hidden order transition in URu2Si2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, M; Kim, K H; Jorge, G; McCall, S; Mydosh, J A

    2002-12-31

    We studied in detail the low temperature/high magnetic field phases of URu2Si2 single crystals with specific heat, magnetocaloric effect, and magnetoresistance in magnetic fields up to 45 T. Data obtained down to 0.5 K, and extrapolated to T=0, show a suppression of the hidden-order phase at H0(0)=35.9+/-0.35 T and the appearance of a new phase for magnetic fields in excess of H1(0)=36.1+/-0.35 T observed only at temperatures lower than 6 K. In turn, complete suppression of this high field state is attained at a critical magnetic field H2(0)=39.7+/-0.35 T. No phase transitions are observed above 40 T. We discuss our results in the context of itinerant versus localized f electrons.

  16. Spacetimes with Longitudinal and Angular Magnetic Fields in Third Order Lovelock Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Dehghani, M H

    2006-01-01

    We obtain two new classes of magnetic brane solutions in third order Lovelock gravity. The first class of solutions yields an $(n+1)$-dimensional spacetime with a longitudinal magnetic field generated by a static source. We generalize this class of solutions to the case of spinning magnetic branes with one or more rotation parameters. These solutions have no curvature singularity and no horizons, but have a conic geometry. For the spinning brane, when one or more rotation parameters are nonzero, the brane has a net electric charge which is proportional to the magnitude of the rotation parameters, while the static brane has no net electric charge. The second class of solutions yields a pacetime with an angular magnetic field. These solutions have no curvature singularity, no horizon, and no conical singularity. Although the second class of solutions may be made electrically charged by a boost transformation, the transformed solutions do not present new spacetimes. Finally, we use the counterterm method in thir...

  17. Frustration-driven magnetic order in hexagonal InMnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrèges, X.; Mirebeau, I.; Petit, S.; Bonville, P.; Belik, A. A.

    2011-08-01

    InMnO3 is a peculiar member of the hexagonal manganites h-RMnO3 (where R is a rare-earth metal element), showing crystalline, electronic, and magnetic properties at variance with the other compounds of the family. We have studied high quality samples synthesized at high pressure and temperature by powder neutron diffraction. The position of the Mn ions is found to be close to the threshold x=1/3 where superexchange Mn-Mn interactions along the c axis compensate. Magnetic long-range order occurs below TN=120(2) K with a magnetic unit cell doubled along c, whereas short-range two-dimensional dynamical spin correlations are observed above TN. We propose that pseudodipolar interactions are responsible for the long period magnetic structure.

  18. Mixed Convection Peristaltic Flow of Third Order Nanofluid with an Induced Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Saima Noreen

    2013-01-01

    This research is concerned with the peristaltic flow of third order nanofluid in an asymmetric channel. The governing equations of third order nanofluid are modelled in wave frame of reference. Effect of induced magnetic field is considered. Long wavelength and low Reynolds number situation is tackled. Numerical solutions of the governing problem are computed and analyzed. The effects of Brownian motion and thermophoretic diffusion of nano particles are particularly emphasized. Physical quant...

  19. Electronic structure and magnetic ordering of the unconventional antiferromagnet Yb3Pt4

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2009-12-01

    Applying density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation, we investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of the intermetallic rare-earth system Yb3Pt4. This material recently has been put forward as host for quantum criticality, while details of the magnetic ordering could not be established (Bennett N. C.et al., J. Magn. & Magn. Mater., 321 (2009) 2021). In this context, we investigate the effect of spin-orbit coupling and compare various spin patterns from the energetic point of view, which enables us to determine the electronic ground state of Yb3Pt4. The assumption of an elementary superexchange mechanism yields a magnetic-coupling constant in good agreement with the experimental ordering temperature. Copyright © 2009 EPLA.

  20. Manifestation of axion electrodynamics through magnetic ordering on edges of a topological insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yea-Lee; Park, Hee Chul; Ihm, Jisoon; Son, Young-Woo

    2015-09-15

    Because topological surface states of a single-crystal topological insulator can exist on all surfaces with different crystal orientations enclosing the crystal, mutual interactions among those states contiguous to each other through edges can lead to unique phenomena inconceivable in normal insulators. Here we show, based on a first-principles approach, that the difference in the work function between adjacent surfaces with different crystal-face orientations generates a built-in electric field around facet edges of a prototypical topological insulator such as Bi2Se3. Owing to the topological magnetoelectric coupling for a given broken time-reversal symmetry in the crystal, the electric field, in turn, forces effective magnetic dipoles to accumulate along the edges, realizing the facet-edge magnetic ordering. We demonstrate that the predicted magnetic ordering is in fact a manifestation of the axion electrodynamics in real solids.

  1. Long-range magnetic order in models for rare-earth quasicrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, Stefanie; Chalker, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    We take a two-step theoretical approach to study magnetism of rare-earth quasicrystals by considering Ising spins on quasiperiodic tilings, coupled via Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interactions. First, we compute RKKY interactions from a tight-binding Hamiltonian defined on the two-dimensional quasiperiodic tilings. We find that the magnetic interactions are frustrated and strongly dependent on the local environment. This results in the formation of clusters with strong bonds at certain patterns of the tilings that repeat quasiperiodically. Second, we examine the statistical mechanics of Ising spins with these RKKY interactions, using extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Although models that have frustrated interactions and lack translational invariance might be expected to display spin-glass behavior, we show that the spin system has a phase transition to low-temperature states with long-range quasiperiodic magnetic order. Additionally, we find that in some of the systems spin clusters can fluctuate much below the ordering temperature.

  2. The role of magnetic dipoles and non-zero-order Bragg waves in metamaterial perfect absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yong; Chen, Hou-Tong; Dalvit, Diego A R

    2013-02-11

    We develop a simple treatment of a metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA) based on grating theory. We analytically prove that the condition of MPA requires the existence of two currents, which are nearly out of phase and have almost identical amplitude, akin to a magnetic dipole. Furthermore, we show that non-zero-order Bragg modes within the MPA may consume electromagnetic energy significantly.

  3. Influence of magnetic on ferroelectric ordering in LuMnO3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Aken, BB; Palstra, TTM

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the influence of antiferromagnetic ordering on the local dielectric moments of the MnO5 and LuO7 polyhedra by measuring neutron powder-diffraction patterns of LuMnO3 at temperatures near T-N. We show that the coupling is weak, because the magnetic exchange coupling is predominantly i

  4. Neutron diffraction study of the magnetic long-range order in Tb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, O.W.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1967-01-01

    Like other heavy rare-earth metals, Tb exhibits a magnetic phase with a spiral structure. This appears within the temperature region from 216 to 226deg K between the ferromagnetic phase and the paramagnetic phase. The transition between ferromagnetic and spiral structure is of first order and imp...

  5. Spiral magnetic order and pressure-induced superconductivity in transition metal compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yishu; Feng, Yejun; Cheng, J.-G.; Wu, W.; Luo, J. L.; Rosenbaum, T. F.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic and superconducting ground states can compete, cooperate and coexist. MnP provides a compelling and potentially generalizable example of a material where superconductivity and magnetism may be intertwined. Using a synchrotron-based non-resonant X-ray magnetic diffraction technique, we reveal a spiral spin order in MnP and trace its pressure evolution towards superconducting order via measurements in a diamond anvil cell. Judging from the magnetostriction, ordered moments vanish at the quantum phase transition as pressure increases the electron kinetic energy. Spins remain local in the disordered phase, and the promotion of superconductivity is likely to emerge from an enhanced coupling to residual spiral spin fluctuations and their concomitant suppression of phonon-mediated superconductivity. As the pitch of the spiral order varies across the 3d transition metal compounds in the MnP family, the magnetic ground state switches between antiferromagnet and ferromagnet, providing an additional tuning parameter in probing spin-fluctuation-induced superconductivity.

  6. Magnetic ordering in Ho{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}Si{sub 2}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susilo, R. A., E-mail: resta.susilo@student.adfa.edu.au; Cadogan, J. M.; Cobas, R.; Hutchison, W. D.; Campbell, S. J. [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, UNSW Canberra at the Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra BC 2610 (Australia); Avdeev, M. [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)

    2015-05-07

    We have used neutron diffraction and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, complemented by magnetisation and specific heat measurements, to examine the magnetic ordering of Ho{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}Si{sub 2}C. We have established that Ho{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}Si{sub 2}C orders antiferromagnetically below T{sub N} = 16(1) K with a magnetic structure involving ordering of the Ho sublattice along the b-axis with a propagation vector k=[0 0 1/2 ]. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra collected below T{sub N} show no evidence of a magnetic splitting, demonstrating the absence of long range magnetic ordering of the Fe sublattice. A small line broadening is observed in the {sup 57}Fe spectra below T{sub N}, which is due to a transferred hyperfine field—estimated to be around 0.3 T at 10 K—from the Ho sublattice.

  7. Spiral magnetic order and pressure-induced superconductivity in transition metal compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yishu; Feng, Yejun; Cheng, J.-G.; Wu, W.; Luo, J. L.; Rosenbaum, T. F.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic and superconducting ground states can compete, cooperate and coexist. MnP provides a compelling and potentially generalizable example of a material where superconductivity and magnetism may be intertwined. Using a synchrotron-based non-resonant X-ray magnetic diffraction technique, we reveal a spiral spin order in MnP and trace its pressure evolution towards superconducting order via measurements in a diamond anvil cell. Judging from the magnetostriction, ordered moments vanish at the quantum phase transition as pressure increases the electron kinetic energy. Spins remain local in the disordered phase, and the promotion of superconductivity is likely to emerge from an enhanced coupling to residual spiral spin fluctuations and their concomitant suppression of phonon-mediated superconductivity. As the pitch of the spiral order varies across the 3d transition metal compounds in the MnP family, the magnetic ground state switches between antiferromagnet and ferromagnet, providing an additional tuning parameter in probing spin-fluctuation-induced superconductivity. PMID:27708255

  8. Spontaneous magnetic order in complex materials: Role of longitudinal spin-orbit interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subrata; Vijay, Amrendra

    2017-06-01

    We show that the longitudinal spin-orbit interactions (SOI) critically determine the fate of spontaneous magnetic order (SMO) in complex materials. To study the magnetic response of interacting electrons constituting the material, we implement an extension of the Hubbard model that faithfully accounts for the SOI. Next, we use the double-time Green functions of quantum statistical mechanics to obtain the spontaneous magnetization, Msp , and thence ascertain the possibility of SMO. For materials with quenched SOI, in an arbitrary dimension, Msp vanishes at finite temperatures, implying the presence of the disordered (paramagnetic) phase. This is consistent with and goes beyond the Bogolyubov's inequality based analysis in one and two dimensions. In the presence of longitudinal SOI, Msp , for materials in an arbitrary dimension, remains non-zero at finite temperatures, which indicates the existence of the ordered (ferromagnetic) phase. As a plausible experimental evidence of the present SOI-based phenomenology, we discuss, inter alia, a recent experimental study on Y4Mn1-xGa12-yGey, an intermetallic compound, which exhibits a magnetic phase transition (paramagnetic to ferromagnetic) upon tuning the fraction of Ge atoms and thence the vacancies of the magnetic centers in this system. The availability of Ge atoms to form a direct chemical bond with octahedral Mn in this material appears to quench the SOI and, as a consequence, favours the formation of the disordered (paramagnetic) phase.

  9. A model for doping-dependent magnetic frustration and ordering in a triangular lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshadri, K.; Chainani, A.

    2013-10-01

    The family of cobaltates AxCoO2 (A = Na, Li, K), with a crystal structure consisting of a layered triangular lattice of Co ions, exhibits a fascinating range of coupled spin, charge and ion ordering phenomena as a function of electron doping content x. Based on these experimental observations, we investigate an extended Ising (J\\text{-}J') model for suppression of magnetic frustration caused by electron doping in a quasi-2-dimensional nearest-neighbour antiferromagnetic triangular lattice. As determined by geometry and bond-counting, it is found that magnetic frustration can be quantified by a frustration index fub and its magnitude is a non-monotonic function of x. A mean-field calculation is carried out to determine the temperature-dependent magnetization, spin-entropy and heat capacity for the obtained structures with the lowest energy (≡ lowest fub) for each x. The calculations reveal that the magnetic-ordering temperature TC exhibits an anti-correlation with fub as a function of x. In addition, as seen in thermopower experiments, an anomalous spin-entropy is obtained for the high-doping cases when J'>0.7J . The results indicate the importance of doping-dependent magnetic frustration in the layered cobaltates.

  10. Quadrupole order in the frustrated pyrochlore magnet Tb2Ti2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu, H.; Taniguchi, T.; Kittaka, S.; Sakakibara, T.; Kadowaki, H.

    2016-02-01

    We have studied the hidden long-range order (LRO) of the frustrated pyrochlore magnet Tb2Ti2O7 by means of specific-heat experiments and Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations, which has been discussed as the LRO of quadrupole moments inherent to the non-Kramers ion of Tb3+. We have found that the sharp specific-heat peak is collapsed into a broad hump by magnetic fields above 0.3 T for H//[001]. This result, qualitatively reproduced by MC simulations, suggests that a field-induced magnetic state overcomes the quadrupolar LRO state, as a similar case of a classical spin ice. The present results support the interpretation that Tb2+xTi2-xO7+y is a unique material in the boundary between the quadrupolar (x ⩾ xc = - 0.0025) and spin-liquid (x ⩽ xc) states, where the magnetic field along the [001] axis is a tuning parameter which induces the magnetic ordered state.

  11. Chemical ordering in magnetic FePd/Pd (001) epitaxial thin films induced by annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, D.; Gilles, B.; Bayle-Guillemaud, P.; Arenal, R.; Marty, A.; Patrat, G.; Samson, Y.

    2004-11-01

    Chemically disordered FePd epitaxial layers are grown at room temperature by molecular beam epitaxy on a Pd(001) buffer layer and then annealed in order to induce the chemically ordered L 10 (AuCu I) structure. Contrary to what is observed in the case of ordering during growth above room temperature, the ordered structure appears here with the three possible variants of the L 10 phase. The ratio of the three different variant volumes is set by the residual epitaxial strain in the layer before annealing. It thus explains that for long annealing times, the long-range order parameter associated with the L 10 variant with c along the (100) growth direction saturates at a value close to 0.65, and never reaches unity. Magnetic consequences of the ordering are studied.

  12. Emergent order in the kagome Ising magnet Dy3Mg2Sb3O14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddison, Joseph A. M.; Ong, Harapan S.; Hamp, James O.; Mukherjee, Paromita; Bai, Xiaojian; Tucker, Matthew G.; Butch, Nicholas P.; Castelnovo, Claudio; Mourigal, Martin; Dutton, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Ising model--in which degrees of freedom (spins) are binary valued (up/down)--is a cornerstone of statistical physics that shows rich behaviour when spins occupy a highly frustrated lattice such as kagome. Here we show that the layered Ising magnet Dy3Mg2Sb3O14 hosts an emergent order predicted theoretically for individual kagome layers of in-plane Ising spins. Neutron-scattering and bulk thermomagnetic measurements reveal a phase transition at ~0.3 K from a disordered spin-ice-like regime to an emergent charge ordered state, in which emergent magnetic charge degrees of freedom exhibit three-dimensional order while spins remain partially disordered. Monte Carlo simulations show that an interplay of inter-layer interactions, spin canting and chemical disorder stabilizes this state. Our results establish Dy3Mg2Sb3O14 as a tuneable system to study interacting emergent charges arising from kagome Ising frustration.

  13. First-order magnetic transition in Yb2Ti2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhotel, E.; Giblin, S. R.; Lees, M. R.; Balakrishnan, G.; Chang, L. J.; Yasui, Y.

    2014-06-01

    The very nature of the ground state of the pyrochlore compound Yb2Ti2O7 is much debated, because experimental results demonstrate evidence for either a disordered ground state or a long-range ordered ground state. Indeed, the delicate balance of exchange interactions and anisotropy is believed to lead to competing states, such as a quantum spin liquid state or a ferromagnetic state which may originate from an Anderson-Higgs transition. We present a detailed magnetization study demonstrating a first-order ferromagnetic transition at 245 and 150 mK in a powder and a single-crystal sample, respectively. Its first-order character is preserved up to applied fields of ˜200 Oe. The transition stabilizes a ferromagnetic component and involves slow dynamics in the magnetization. Residual fluctuations are also evidenced, the presence of which might explain some of the discrepancies between previously published data for Yb2Ti2O7.

  14. Second order optical nonlinearity of graphene due to electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J. L.; Vermeulen, N.; Sipe, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    We present a practical scheme to separate the contributions of the electric quadrupole-like and the magnetic dipole-like effects to the forbidden second order optical nonlinear response of graphene, and give analytic expressions for the second order optical conductivities, calculated from the independent particle approximation, with relaxation described in a phenomenological way. We predict strong second order nonlinear effects, including second harmonic generation, photon drag, and difference frequency generation. We discuss in detail the controllability of these effects by tuning the chemical potential, taking advantage of the dominant role played by interband optical transitions in the response. PMID:28262762

  15. Hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment to next-to-next-to-leading order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Alexander [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Liu, Tao [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Steinhauser, Matthias [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-06-27

    We compute the next-to-next-to-leading order hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment originating from the photon vacuum polarization. The corresponding three-loop kernel functions are calculated using asymptotic expansion techniques which lead to analytic expressions. Our final result, a{sub μ}{sup had,NNLO}=1.24±0.01×10{sup −10}, has the same order of magnitude as the current uncertainty of the leading order hadronic contribution and should thus be included in future analyses.

  16. Higher-order hadronic and heavy-lepton contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Alexander [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Liu, Tao; Steinhauser, Matthias [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    We report about recent results obtained for the muon anomalous magnetic moment. Three-loop kernel functions have been computed to obtain the next-to-next-to-leading-order hadronic vacuum polarization contributions. The numerical result, a{sub μ}{sup had,NNLO} = 1.24 ± 0.01 x 10{sup -10}, is of the same order of magnitude as the current uncertainty from the hadronic contributions. For heavy-lepton corrections, analytical results are obtained at four-loop order and compared with the known results.

  17. Higher-order hadronic and heavy-lepton contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment

    CERN Document Server

    Kurz, Alexander; Marquard, Peter; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    We report about recent results obtained for the muon anomalous magnetic moment. Three-loop kernel functions have been computed to obtain the next-to-next-to-leading-order hadronic vacuum polarization contributions. The numerical result, $a_\\mu^{\\rm{had,NNLO}}=1.24\\pm 0.01 \\times 10^{-10}$, is of the same order of magnitude as the current uncertainty from the hadronic contributions. For heavy-lepton corrections, analytical results are obtained at four-loop order and compared with the known results.

  18. Hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment to next-to-next-to-leading order

    CERN Document Server

    Kurz, Alexander; Marquard, Peter; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    We compute the next-to-next-to-leading order hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment originating from the photon vacuum polarization. The corresponding three-loop kernel functions are calculated using asymptotic expansion techniques which lead to analytic expressions. Our final result, $a_\\mu^{\\rm had,NNLO} = 1.24 \\pm 0.01 \\times 10^{-10}$, has the same order of magnitude as the current uncertainty of the leading order hadronic contribution and should thus be included in future analyses.

  19. Hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment to next-to-next-to-leading order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Alexander [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Liu, Tao; Steinhauser, Matthias [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    We compute the next-to-next-to-leading order hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment originating from the photon vacuum polarization. The corresponding three-loop kernel functions are calculated using asymptotic expansion techniques which lead to analytic expressions. Our final result, a{sup had,NNLO}{sub μ} = 1.24 ± 0.01 x 10{sup -10}, has the same order of magnitude as the current uncertainty of the leading order hadronic contribution and should thus be included in future analyses.

  20. Loss of long-range magnetic order in a nanoparticle assembly due to random anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binns, C [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Howes, P B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Baker, S H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Marchetto, H [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Potenza, A [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Steadman, P [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Dhesi, S S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Roy, M [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Everard, M J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Rushforth, A [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-06

    We have used soft x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) combined with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and DC SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometry to probe the magnetic ground state in Fe thin films produced by depositing size-selected gas-phase Fe nanoparticles with a diameter of 1.7 nm ({approx}200 atoms) onto Si substrates. The depositions were carried out in ultrahigh vacuum conditions and thicknesses of the deposited film in the range 5-50 nm were studied. The magnetometry data are consistent with the film forming a correlated super-spin glass with a magnetic correlation length {approx}5 nm. The XPEEM magnetic maps from the cluster-assembled films were compared to those for a conventional thin Fe film with a thickness of 20 nm produced by a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) source. Whereas a normal magnetic domain structure is observed in the conventional MBE thin film, no domain structure could be observed in any of the nanoparticle films down to the resolution limit of the XMCD based XPEEM (100 nm) confirming the ground state indicated by the magnetometry measurements. This observation is consistent with the theoretical prediction that an arbitrarily weak random anisotropy field will destroy long-range magnetic order.

  1. Abnormal magnetic ordering and ferromagnetism in perovskite ScMnO3 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Liu, W.; Ning, X. K.; Bai, Y.; Dai, Z. M.; Ma, S.; Zhao, X. G.; Li, S. K.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2015-06-01

    Bulk multiferroic ScMnO3 is the stable hexagonal phase, and it is very difficult to prepare its perovskite orthorhombic phase even under high pressure. We fabricated the orthorhombic ScMnO3 thin film by pulsed laser deposition through suitable substrate LaAlO3 and found that nano-scale twin-like domains are naturally formed in the thin film. Magnetic properties of the orthorhombic ScMnO3 thin films show that, besides normal antiferromagnetic ordering at 47 K, an anomalous magnetic transition occurs at 27 K for 60 nm film and at 36 K for 150 nm film only along the c-axis, which is absent in the ab-plane. Moreover, the second magnetic transition for both films is suppressed when the applied field increases from 1 kOe to 10 kOe. In addition, the ferromagnetism shows up in both films at 10 K, and saturation magnetization increases dramatically in 60 nm film compared with 150 nm film. We propose that the second magnetic transition might be more of lattice strain effect and also related to magnetism-induced ferroelectric polarization in orthorhombic RMnO3 thin films and low-temperature ferromagnetic properties in our films originate from the nano-scale twin-like domain structure.

  2. Emergence of magnetic order in ultra-thin pyrochlore iridate films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Suraj; Serrao, Claudy; Mundy, Julia; Patankar, Shreyas; Birgeneau, Robert; Orenstein, Joseph; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    We report on thickness-dependent magnetotransport in (111) - oriented Pb2Ir2O7-x (Pb227) epitaxial thin films. For thicknesses greater than 4 nm, the magnetoresistance (MR) of metallic Pb227 is positive, linear and non-saturated up to 14 T. Meanwhile at 4 nm, the conduction turns nonmetallic and the MR becomes negative and asymmetric upon field-cooling; such traits are reminiscent of all-in-all-out (AIAO) magnetic order in the insulating pyrochlore iridates. Hysteretic low-field MR dips and trained-untrained resistivity bifurcations suggest the presence of magnetic conducting domain walls within the chiral AIAO spin structure. Beyond just AIAO order, angular-dependent MR indicates a magnetic phase space hosting 2-in-2-out (2I2O) spin ice order. Such anomalous magnetotransport calls for re-evaluation of the pyrochlore iridate phase diagram, as epitaxially strained Pb227 exhibits traits reminiscent of both the insulating magnetic and metallic spin-liquid members. Furthermore, these results open avenues for realizing topological phase predictions in (111) - oriented pyrochlore slabs of kagome-triangular iridate heterostructures. This work is supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  3. Methanol masers probing the ordered magnetic field of W75N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surcis, G.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Dodson, R.; van Langevelde, H. J.

    2009-11-01

    Context: The role of magnetic fields during the protostellar phase of high-mass star-formation is a debated topic. In particular, it is still unclear how magnetic fields influence the formation and dynamic of disks and outflows. Most current information on magnetic fields close to high-mass protostars comes from H2O and OH maser observations. Recently, the first 6.7 GHz methanol maser polarization observations were made, and they reveal strong and ordered magnetic fields. Aims: The morphology of the magnetic field during high-mass star-formation needs to be investigated on small scales, which can only be done using very long baseline interferometry observations. The massive star-forming region W75N contains three radio sources and associated masers, while a large-scale molecular bipolar outflow is also present. Polarization observations of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers at high angular resolution probe the strength and structure of the magnetic field and determine its relation to the outflow. Methods: Eight of the European VLBI network antennas were used to measure the linear polarization and Zeeman-splitting of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers in the star-forming region W75N. Results: We detected 10 methanol maser features, 4 of which were undetected in previous work. All arise near the source VLA 1 of W75N. The linear polarization of the masers reveals a tightly ordered magnetic field over more than 2000 AU around VLA 1 that is exactly aligned with the large-scale molecular outflow. This is consistent with the twisted magnetic field model proposed for explaining dust polarization observations. The Zeeman-splitting measured on 3 of the maser features indicates a dynamically important magnetic field in the maser region of the order of 50 mG. We suggest VLA 1 is the powering sources of the bipolar outflow. Member of the International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Universities of Bonn and Cologne.

  4. Ferromagnetic Ni decorated ordered mesoporous carbons as magnetically separable adsorbents for methyl orange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Ningning [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Yin Longwei, E-mail: yinlw@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang Luyuan; Wang Changbin; Lun Ning; Qi Yongxin; Wang Chengxiang [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetically separable Ni-decorated ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) was successfully synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption capacities for MO dyes on ordered mesoporous carbons, Ni-OMC and activated carbon powder were comparatively investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of surface area, pore structure, and Ni deposition on the absorption capacities for MO were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ferromagnetic Ni decorated OMC can be easily dispersed in aqueous solution and removed by an external magnetic field. - Abstract: Magnetic ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) with Ni nanoparticle (average size: 10 nm) homogeneously modified on surfaces of OMCs were successfully fabricated via a facile casting route. The microstructure, pore size distribution, pore structure, and surface area of the synthesized OMCs and Ni decorated OMCs (Ni-OMCs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and N{sub 2} sorption. The characterization by magnetic hysteresis loops suggests a ferromagnetic behavior for the Ni-OMCs samples with a magnetization saturation of 2.34 emu g{sup -1} at 300 K, high enough for magnetic separation. The ferromagnetic Ni-OMCs were used as magnetically separable high-performance adsorbents for methyl orange (MO). The adsorption capacities for MO on the Ni-OMCs as magnetically separable adsorbents were investigated comparatively with pristine OMCs and activated carbon powder (ACP). The results show that the adsorption capacities for MO on the OMCs and Ni-OMCs adsorbents could be well described according to Langmuir isotherm with MO molecule preferentially adsorbed in the structured mesopores, suggesting the adsorption type of monolayer coverage of MO dye onto the mesoporous samples. The effects of surface area, pore structure, and the Ni deposition on the adsorption capacities for MO

  5. Charge disproportionation and collinear magnetic order in the frustrated triangular antiferromagnet AgNiO2

    OpenAIRE

    Wawrzynska, E.; Coldea, R.; Wheeler, E M; Sorgel, T.; Jansen, M; Ibberson, R. M.; Radaelli, P. G.; Koza, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    We report a high-resolution neutron diffraction study of the crystal and magnetic structure of the orbitally-degenerate frustrated metallic magnet AgNiO2. At high temperatures the structure is hexagonal with a single crystallographic Ni site, low-spin Ni3+ with spin-1/2 and two-fold orbital degeneracy, arranged in an antiferromagnetic triangular lattice with frustrated spin and orbital order. A structural transition occurs upon cooling below 365 K to a tripled hexagonal unit cell containing t...

  6. Dipolar interactions in magnetic thin films: perpendicular to in-plane ordering transition

    CERN Document Server

    Santamarina-Rios, C

    2000-01-01

    We study by extensive Monte Carlo (MC) simulations magnetic properties of very thin films with Heisenberg spin model on a BCC lattice with (0 0 1) surfaces, taking into account long-range dipolar interactions and single-ion anisotropy. In a range of parameters, a transition from perpendicular to in-plane ordering at a finite temperature is found. A phase diagram is shown. We interpret this magnetization reorientation as an entropy effect generated by dipolar interaction. Discussion in connection with experiments is given.

  7. Forced ferromagnetic ordering in systems with magnetic ions of two types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavorotnev, Yu.D., E-mail: zavorotnev@fti.dn.u [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering, NAS of Ukraine, 72 R. Luxemburg St., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Medvedeva, L.I. [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering, NAS of Ukraine, 72 R. Luxemburg St., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2011-04-15

    The distribution of magnetization in domain walls of ferromagnetic (FM) crystals with two order parameters interacting with each other-F{sub 1z} and F{sub 2z}, is considered. In one case the interaction is represented as (F{sub 1z}F{sub 2z}) and in another-(F{sub 1z}{sup 2}F{sub 2z}{sup 2}). It is shown that in the former case the magnetization distribution has space amplitude modulation, and in latter case appears space frequency modulation. Changes of the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transition temperature in view of interaction of two FM subsystems have been studied.

  8. Interrupted Magnetic First Order Transitions and Kinetic Arrest probed with In-field Neutron Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siruguri, V.; Kaushik, S. D.; Rayaprol, S.; Babu, P. D.; Chaddah, P.; Sampathkumaran, E. V.; Hoser, A.; Ritter, C.

    2016-09-01

    In-field neutron diffraction studies were carried out on two compounds that exhibit magnetic first order phase transitions (FOPT). It is shown that the FOPT can be interrupted by an external magnetic field, resulting in a coexistence of kinetically arrested metastable states and equilibrium phases. Use of a novel protocol CHUF (Cooling and Heating under Unequal Fields) helps to determine the coexisting phase fractions and also to observe the devitrification of the kinetically arrested phase into the equilibrium phase, in a manner similar to that found in structural glassy systems.

  9. Collapse and reappearance of magnetic orderings in spin frustrated TbMnO{sub 3} induced by Fe substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Fang [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, Australian Institute of Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, 1690 Cailun Rd. Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China); The Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 80R0114, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Yue, Binbin, E-mail: yuebb@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: cheng@uow.edu.au [Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, 1690 Cailun Rd. Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China); The Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 80R0114, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Wang, Jianli [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, Australian Institute of Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), Bragg Institute, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Studer, Andrew [The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), Bragg Institute, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Fang, Chunsheng; Wang, Xiaolin; Dou, Shixue; Cheng, Zhenxiang, E-mail: yuebb@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: cheng@uow.edu.au [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, Australian Institute of Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia)

    2016-09-05

    We studied the temperature dependent magnetic phase evolution in spin frustrated TbMnO{sub 3} affected by Fe doping via powder neutron diffraction. With the introduction of Fe (10% and 20%), the long range incommensurate magnetic orderings collapse. When the Fe content is increased to 30%, a long-range antiferromagnetic ordering develops, while a spin reorientation transition is found near 35 K from a canted G-type antiferromagnetic ordering to a collinear G-type antiferromagnetic ordering. This work demonstrates the complex magnetic interactions existing in transition metal oxides, which helps to understand the frustrated spin states in other similar systems and design magnetic materials as well.

  10. Tenth-Order QED contribution to Lepton Anomalous Magnetic Moment - Fourth-Order Vertices Containing Sixth-Order Vacuum-Polarization Subdiagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, T; Kinoshita, T; Nio, M

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the tenth-order contributions to the g-2 of the electron a_e and those of the muon a_mu from the gauge-invariant Set II(c), which consists of 36 Feynman diagrams, and Set II(d), which consists of 180 Feynman diagrams. Both sets are obtained by insertion of sixth-order vacuum-polarization diagrams in the fourth-order anomalous magnetic moment. The mass-independent contributions from Set II(c) and Set II(d) are -0.116 489 (32)(alpha/pi)^5 and -0.243 00 (29)(alpha/pi)^5, respectively. The leading contributions to a_mu, which involve electron loops only, are -3.888 27 (90)(alpha/pi)^5 and 0.4972 (65)(alpha/pi)^5 for Set II(c) and Set II(d), respectively. The total contributions of the electron, muon, and tau-lepton loops to a_e are -0.116 874 (32) (alpha/pi)^5 for Set II(c) and -0.243 10 (29) (alpha/pi)^5 for Set II(d). The contributions of electron, muon, and tau-lepton loops to a_mu are -5.5594 (11) (alpha/pi)^5 for Set II(c) and 0.2465 (65) (alpha/pi)^5 for Set II(d).

  11. Yafet-Kittel-type magnetic order in Zn-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with uniaxial anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, R.; Baykal, A.; Demir, A.

    2013-01-01

    = 0.0) under consideration in this work. From the computation of Y-K angles for the TREG-coated Zn x Co1- x Fe2O4 NPs, it can be concluded that all the zinc-doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (for x > 0.0) have a Y-K-type magnetic order, while the pure cobalt ferrite nanoparticles ( x = 0.0) have a Néel-type magnetic order. Zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) measurement results further verify that the samples with 0.6 ≤ x ≤ 1.0 have superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, which shows weak interaction between magnetic particles. The blocking temperatures obtained from ZFC-FC curves decrease as a function of Zn concentration. It was found that the effective magnetic anisotropy, the coercivity, and remanence magnetization continuously decrease with increasing Zn concentration. Lower reduced remanent magnetization ( M r/ M s) values (<0.5) suggest that all the samples have uniaxial anisotropy. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurement shows that the FMR spectra of all the samples have broad linewidth because of the magnetic nanoparticles with randomly distributed anisotropy axes, and the decrease in the internal field conversely leads to the increase in the resonance field with respect to increasing Zn concentration.

  12. Yafet-Kittel-type magnetic order in Zn-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with uniaxial anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topkaya, R., E-mail: rtopkaya@gyte.edu.tr [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Turkey); Baykal, A. [Fatih University, Department of Chemistry (Turkey); Demir, A. [Istanbul Medeniyet University, Department of Chemistry (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    canting angles (Y-K angles) suggests the existence of triangular (or canted) spin arrangements in all the samples (except for the samples with x = 0.0) under consideration in this work. From the computation of Y-K angles for the TREG-coated Zn{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NPs, it can be concluded that all the zinc-doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (for x > 0.0) have a Y-K-type magnetic order, while the pure cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (x = 0.0) have a Neel-type magnetic order. Zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) measurement results further verify that the samples with 0.6 {<=} x {<=} 1.0 have superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, which shows weak interaction between magnetic particles. The blocking temperatures obtained from ZFC-FC curves decrease as a function of Zn concentration. It was found that the effective magnetic anisotropy, the coercivity, and remanence magnetization continuously decrease with increasing Zn concentration. Lower reduced remanent magnetization (M{sub r}/M{sub s}) values (<0.5) suggest that all the samples have uniaxial anisotropy. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurement shows that the FMR spectra of all the samples have broad linewidth because of the magnetic nanoparticles with randomly distributed anisotropy axes, and the decrease in the internal field conversely leads to the increase in the resonance field with respect to increasing Zn concentration.

  13. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Observation of a transverse magnetization in the ordered phases of the pyrochlore magnet Gd2Ti2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazkov, V. N.; Marin, C.; Sanchez, J.-P.

    2006-08-01

    We have performed a detailed transverse magnetization study of the pyrochlore antiferromagnet Gd2Ti2O7. A transverse magnetization of about 10-3Msat is observed in the low-temperature ordered phases. These measurements result in the refinement of the Gd2Ti2O7 phase diagrams. Observation of a transverse magnetization indicates loss of the cubic symmetry in some of the magnetic phases and provides new information for a better understanding of the complicated magnetic ordering of Gd2Ti2O7.

  14. Magnetic ordering induced giant optical property change in tetragonal BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wen-Yi; Ding, Hang-Chen; Gong, Shi Jing; Wan, Xiangang; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic ordering could have significant influence on band structures, spin-dependent transport, and other important properties of materials. Its measurement, especially for the case of antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering, however, is generally difficult to be achieved. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of magnetic ordering detection using a noncontact and nondestructive optical method. Taking the tetragonal BiFeO3 (BFO) as an example and combining density functional theory calculations with tight-binding models, we find that when BFO changes from C1-type to G-type AFM phase, the top of valance band shifts from the Z point to Γ point, which makes the original direct band gap become indirect. This can be explained by Slater-Koster parameters using the Harrison approach. The impact of magnetic ordering on band dispersion dramatically changes the optical properties. For the linear ones, the energy shift of the optical band gap could be as large as 0.4 eV. As for the nonlinear ones, the change is even larger. The second-harmonic generation coefficient d33 of G-AFM becomes more than 13 times smaller than that of C1-AFM case. Finally, we propose a practical way to distinguish the two AFM phases of BFO using the optical method, which is of great importance in next-generation information storage technologies.

  15. Orbital driven impurity spin effect on the magnetic order of quasi-3D cupric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganga, B. G.; Santhosh, P. N.; Nanda, B. R. K.

    2017-04-01

    Density functional calculations are performed to study the magnetic order of the severely distorted square planar cupric oxide (CuO) and local spin disorder in it in the presence of the transition metal impurities M (=Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni). The distortion in the crystal structure, arisen to reduce the band energy by minimizing the covalent interaction, creates two crisscrossing zigzag spin-1/2 chains. From the spin dimer analysis we find that while the spin chain along ≤ft[1 0 \\bar{1}\\right] has strong Heisenberg type antiferromagnetic coupling (J ~ 127 meV), along ≤ft[1 0 1\\right] it exhibits weak, but robust, ferromagnetic coupling (J ~ 9 meV) mediated by reminiscent p-d covalent interactions. The impurity effect on the magnetic ordering is independent of M and purely orbital driven. If the given spin-state of M is such that the {{d}{{x2}-{{y}2}}} orbital is spin-polarized, then the original long-range ordering is maintained. However, if {{d}{{x2}-{{y}2}}} orbital is unoccupied, the absence of corresponding covalent interaction breaks the weak ferromagnetic coupling and a spin-flip takes place at the impurity site leading to breakdown of the long range magnetic ordering.

  16. Hydrogen-plasma-induced magnetocrystalline anisotropy ordering in self-assembled magnetic nanoparticle monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddemann, Alexander; Meyer, Judith; Regtmeier, Anna; Janzen, Irina; Akemeier, Dieter; Hütten, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Self-assembled two-dimensional arrays of either 14 nm hcp-Co or 6 nm ε-Co particle components were treated by hydrogen plasma for various exposure times. A change of hysteretic sample behavior depending on the treatment duration is reported, which can be divided in two time scales: oxygen reduction increases the particle magnetization during the first 20 min, which is followed by an alteration of the magnetic response shape. The latter depends on the respective particle species. Based on the Landau-Lifshitz equations for a discrete set of magnetic moments, we propose a model that relates the change of the hysteresis loops to a dipole-driven ordering of the magnetocrystalline easy axes within the particle plane due to the high spatial aspect ratio of the system.

  17. Hydrogen-plasma-induced magnetocrystalline anisotropy ordering in self-assembled magnetic nanoparticle monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Weddemann

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembled two-dimensional arrays of either 14 nm hcp-Co or 6 nm ε-Co particle components were treated by hydrogen plasma for various exposure times. A change of hysteretic sample behavior depending on the treatment duration is reported, which can be divided in two time scales: oxygen reduction increases the particle magnetization during the first 20 min, which is followed by an alteration of the magnetic response shape. The latter depends on the respective particle species. Based on the Landau–Lifshitz equations for a discrete set of magnetic moments, we propose a model that relates the change of the hysteresis loops to a dipole-driven ordering of the magnetocrystalline easy axes within the particle plane due to the high spatial aspect ratio of the system.

  18. On the calculation of second-order magnetic properties using subsystem approaches in the relativistic framework

    CERN Document Server

    Olejniczak, Malgorzata; Gomes, Andre Severo Pereira

    2016-01-01

    We report an implementation of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding ($\\sigma$), isotope-independent indirect spin-spin coupling ($K$) and the magnetizability ($\\xi$) tensors in the frozen density embedding (FDE) scheme using the four-component (4c) relativistic Dirac--Coulomb (DC) Hamiltonian and the non-collinear spin density functional theory (SDFT). The formalism takes into account the magnetic balance between the large and the small components of molecular spinors and assures the gauge-origin independence of NMR shielding and magnetizability results. This implementation has been applied to hydrogen-bonded HXH$\\cdots$OH$_2$ complexes (X = Se, Te, Po) and compared with the supermolecular calculations and with the approach based on the integration of the magnetically induced current density vector. A comparison with the approximate Zeroth-Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) Hamiltonian indicates non-negligible differences in $\\sigma$ and $K$ in the HPoH$\\cdots$OH$_2$ complex, and calls for a thourou...

  19. Technique for 1st order design of a large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Cunsolo, A; Foti, A; Lazzaro, A; Melita, A L; Nociforo, C; Shchepunov, V A; Winfield, J S

    2002-01-01

    A general scheme of the layout of a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer based on a wide aperture quadrupole and a multipurpose bending magnet is described. Physical quantities such as momentum resolution, focal plane size and inclination are explicitly represented as functions of transport matrix elements. In this way such quantities are directly related to the parameters defining the configuration of the spectrometer. Realistic assumptions on the shapes, the distances and the fields of the magnetic elements are taken into account in order to limit the parameter space to be spanned. A self-consistent technique simplifies the search for the best configuration and avoids the problem of ending in local minima. This technique is applied to the MAGNEX spectrometer, for which two competitive configurations, characterised by different bending angle, are found and discussed.

  20. Phase transitions in quantum crystals : on growth of magnetically ordered 3He and a search for supersolid 4He

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bueno, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Due to its rich magnetic phase diagram and its superfluidity, 3He is a very interesting system if magnetic effects on the crystal growth mechanisms want to be studied. Solid 3He orders magnetically into the U2D2 phase (an antiferromagnetic phase with two planes of spins pointing up and two planes o

  1. Order and phase stability in CoPt: the role of magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karoui, Sondes; Amara, Hakim; Ducastelle, Francois [LEM, ONERA-CNRS, BP72 92322 Chatillon Cedex (France); Legrand, Bernard [SRMP, CEA, Saclay (France)

    2011-07-01

    Transition metal nano-alloys (FePd, CoRh, and CoPt) are innovative new materials whose size and chemical composition govern their physical and chemical properties. CoPt, the focus point of this study, had been duly studied in the bulk phase both experimentally and theoretically. There exists a large array of results that clearly hint at the importance of magnetism, and the stabilization that it brings to the system. Indeed, we strongly believe that the crystallographic order present in CoPt can be attributed to the alloy's inherent magnetic character. To point out this effect, Density Functional Theory calculations have been performed using the ABINIT code with and without magnetism. We report on the influence of spin polarized calculations on structure stabilization in bulk Co and Pt as well as the alloy's various crystallographic phases: ordered L1o, L12, and disordered FCC. This approach corresponds to a quantitative first step towards better understanding the role of magnetism at the atomic scale.

  2. First order reversal curves (FORC) analysis of individual magnetic nanostructures using micro-Hall magnetometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlit, Merlin; Eibisch, Paul; Akbari, Maryam; Porrati, Fabrizio; Huth, Michael; Müller, Jens

    2016-11-01

    Alongside the development of artificially created magnetic nanostructures, micro-Hall magnetometry has proven to be a versatile tool to obtain high-resolution hysteresis loop data and access dynamical properties. Here we explore the application of First Order Reversal Curves (FORC)—a technique well-established in the field of paleomagnetism for studying grain-size and interaction effects in magnetic rocks—to individual and dipolar-coupled arrays of magnetic nanostructures using micro-Hall sensors. A proof-of-principle experiment performed on a macroscopic piece of a floppy disk as a reference sample well known in the literature demonstrates that the FORC diagrams obtained by magnetic stray field measurements using home-built magnetometers are in good agreement with magnetization data obtained by a commercial vibrating sample magnetometer. We discuss in detail the FORC diagrams and their interpretation of three different representative magnetic systems, prepared by the direct-write Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition (FEBID) technique: (1) an isolated Co-nanoisland showing a simple square-shaped hysteresis loop, (2) a more complex CoFe-alloy nanoisland exhibiting a wasp-waist-type hysteresis, and (3) a cluster of interacting Co-nanoislands. Our findings reveal that the combination of FORC and micro-Hall magnetometry is a promising tool to investigate complex magnetization reversal processes within individual or small ensembles of nanomagnets grown by FEBID or other fabrication methods. The method provides sub-μm spatial resolution and bridges the gap of FORC analysis, commonly used for studying macroscopic samples and rather large arrays, to studies of small ensembles of interacting nanoparticles with the high moment sensitivity inherent to micro-Hall magnetometry.

  3. Perpendicular Magnetization Behavior of Low- Temperature Ordered FePt Films with Insertion of Ag Nanolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Hua Wei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available FePt-Ag nanocomposite films with large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy have been fabricated by alternate-atomic-layer electron beam evaporation onto MgO(100 substrates at the low temperature of 300 °C. Their magnetization behavior and microstructure have been studied. The surface topography was observed and varied from continuous to nanogranular microstructures with insertion of Ag nanolayers into Fe/Pt bilayer films. The measurement of angular-dependent coercivity showed a tendency of the domain-wall motion as a typical peak behavior shift toward more like a coherent Stoner-Wohlfarth rotation type with the insertion of Ag nanolayers into the FePt films. On the other hand, the inter-grain interaction was determined from a Kelly-Henkel plot. The FePt film without insertion of Ag nanolayers has a positive δM, indicating strong exchange coupling between neighboring grains, whereas the FePt film with insertion of Ag nanolayers has a negative δM, indicating that inter-grain exchange coupling is weaker, thus leading to the presence of dipole interaction in the FePt–Ag nanogranular films. The magnetic characteristic measurements confirmed that the perpendicular magnetization reversal behavior and related surface morphology of low-temperature-ordered FePt(001 nanogranular films can be systematically controlled by the insertion of Ag nanolayers into the FePt system for next generation magnetic storage medium applications.

  4. Analysis of magnetic structures of iron nitrides by Landau's theory of second-order phase transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Fang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic structures of iron nitrides are studied by Landau's theory of second-order phase transitions. It is found that the magnetization direction of ɛ-Fe3N must be parallel to the c-axis of the hexagonal structure, which may conclude the debates on the easy axes of ɛ-Fe3N in this field. The easy axes of α″-Fe16N2 are turned out to be along [001], or [100], or [110] direction, with the former two cases already found by the experiments. The magnetization along [111] is forbidden, which solves rigorously the puzzle why the easy axes of the α″-Fe16N2 on InGaAs and Fe are different from each other. Finally, the magnetic structure of γ′-Fe4N is also determined, and the result shows that there are three possibilities for the magnetization: parallel to the axial, or the body diagonal, or the face diagonal direction of the cubic structure, among which the first case has been found in experiments.

  5. Magnetic Fields at First Order Phase Transition: A Threat to Electroweak Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    De Simone, Andrea; Quiros, Mariano; Riotto, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The generation of the observed baryon asymmetry may have taken place during the electroweak phase transition, thus involving physics testable at LHC, a scenario dubbed electroweak baryogenesis. In this paper we point out that the magnetic field which is produced in the bubbles of a first order phase transition endangers the baryon asymmetry produced in the bubble walls. The reason being that the produced magnetic field couples to the sphaleron magnetic moment and lowers the sphaleron energy; this strengthens the sphaleron transitions inside the bubbles and triggers a more effective wash out of the baryon asymmetry. We apply this scenario to the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) where, in the absence of a magnetic field, successful electroweak baryogenesis requires the lightest CP-even Higgs and the right-handed stop masses to be lighter than about 127 GeV and 120 GeV, respectively. We show that even for moderate values of the magnetic field, the Higgs mass required to preserve the ...

  6. A first-order magnetic phase transition near 15 K with novel magnetic-field-induced effects in Er5Si3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Niharika; Mukherjee, K; Iyer, Kartik K; Sampathkumaran, E V

    2011-12-14

    We present magnetic characterization of a binary rare-earth intermetallic compound Er(5)Si(3), crystallizing in Mn(5)Si(3)-type hexagonal structure, through magnetization, heat capacity, electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance measurements. Our investigations confirm that the compound exhibits two magnetic transitions with decreasing temperature, the first one at 35 K and the second one at 15 K. The present results reveal that the second magnetic transition is a disorder-broadened first-order transition, as shown by thermal hysteresis in the measured data. Another important finding is that, below 15 K, there is a magnetic-field-induced transition with a hysteretic effect with the electrical resistance getting unusually enhanced at this transition and the magnetoresistance is found to exhibit intriguing magnetic-field dependence, indicating novel magnetic phase coexistence phenomenon. It thus appears that this compound is characterized by interesting magnetic anomalies in the temperature-magnetic-field phase diagram.

  7. The third order helicity of magnetic fields via link maps II

    CERN Document Server

    Komendarczyk, R

    2009-01-01

    In this sequel we extend the derivation of the third order helicity to magnetic fields supported on unlinked domains in 3-space. The formula is expressed in terms of generators of the deRham cohomology of the configuration space of three points in $\\R^3$, which is a more practical domain from the perspective of applications. It also admits an ergodic interpretation as the asymptotic Milnor $\\bar{\\mu}_{123}$-invariant of orbits of the field.

  8. Magnetic-Field-Induced Weak Order in Nematic Liquid Crystals Formed by Biaxial Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-Dong; ZHANG De-Xian; SUN Yu-Bao

    2000-01-01

    Nematic liquid crystal system of interacting biaxial particles via dispersion forces is studied. The molecular orienting potential form in a magnetic field is given for the first time. Weakly ordered isotropic phase is treated in the two-particle cluster approximation. Taking account of the molecular biaxiality, it is found that the ratio of the lowest supercooling temperature T* to the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature TC approaches the observed value, and the validity of the mean field theory is clarified.

  9. Neutron Diffraction Study of Magnetic Ordering in Cd1-xMnxTe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebultowicz, T.; Kepa, H.; Buras, B.;

    1981-01-01

    Neutron diffraction experiments were performed on Cd1−xMnxTe crystals for x=0.40, 0.60, 0.63, 0.65 and 0.70. Magnetic Bragg scattering was observed at low temperatures for xgreater-or-equal, slanted0.60 corresponding to the Type III antiferromagnetic ordering of a f.c.c. sub-lattice. The Néel tem...... temperatures decreasing with x were determined and the critical concentration xc was estimated....

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Ba[CoSO]: Magnetic Complexity in the Presence of Chalcogen Ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valldor, Martin; Rößler, Ulrich K; Prots, Yurii; Kuo, Chang-Yang; Chiang, Jen-Che; Hu, Zhiwei; Pi, Tun-Wen; Kniep, Rüdiger; Tjeng, Liu Hao

    2015-07-20

    Barium thio-oxocobaltate(II), Ba[CoS2/2 O2/2 ], was synthesized by the reaction of equimolar amounts of BaO, Co, and S in closed silica ampoules. The title compound (Cmcm, a=3.98808(3), b=12.75518(9), c=6.10697(4) Å) is isostructural to Ba[ZnSO]. The use of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirmed that cobalt is in the oxidation state +2 and tetrahedrally coordinated. Its coordination consists of two sulfur and two oxygen atoms in an ordered fashion. High-temperature magnetic susceptibility data indicate strong low-dimensional spin-spin interactions, which are suggested to be closely related to the layer-type crystal structure and perhaps the ordered distribution of sulfur and oxygen. Antiferromagnetic ordering below TN =222 K is observed as an anomaly in the specific heat, coinciding with a significant lowering of the magnetic susceptibility. Density functional theory calculations within a generalized-gradient approximation (GGA)+U approach identify an antiferromagnetic ground state within the square-like two-dimensional layers of Co, and antiferromagnetic correlations for nearest and next nearest neighbors along bonds mediated by oxygen or sulfur. However, this magnetic state is subject to frustration by relatively strong interlayer couplings.

  11. Magnetic and magnetoresistive properties of half-metallic ferromagnetic and charge ordered modified ferromagnetic manganite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kalipada; Das, I.

    2017-03-01

    In our present study, we address in detail magnetic and magneto-transport properties of well known half metallic La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) and charge order suppressed ferromagnetic La0.48Ca0.52MnO3 (LCMO) nanoparticles. The average particle size for LSMO and LCMO is ˜20 nm and ˜25 nm, respectively. With respect to their magnetic properties, both compounds exhibit ferromagnetic behavior, whereas they markedly differ in their magneto-transport characteristics. The magnetoresistive properties of LSMO nanoparticles indicate low field magnetoresistance and tendency for saturation at higher field values. In addition to the sharp low field magnetoresistance, we have achieved significantly large magnetoresistance at higher values of external magnetic field for the ferromagnetic LCMO nanoparticles. To address such anomalous behavior in these two different classes of ferromagnetic materials, we introduce the re-entrant core-shell type structure formation in charge ordered nanoparticles (LCMO) when charge ordering is completely suppressed.

  12. Nitriding-induced texture, ordering and coercivity enhancement in FePtAgB nanocomposite magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, O.; Vasiliu, F.; Palade, P.; Mercioniu, I.

    2016-03-01

    FePt system attracts currently a great deal of interest for applications as future RE free permanent magnets. Among the key issues to be solved one may count the decreasing of the ordering temperature and improvement of magnetic behavior. For that purpose we have studied the effect of a nitriding post-synthesis procedure on the FePtAgB melt spun ribbons, aimed at refining the microstructure and enhancing the magnetic performances. Deep structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction allowed us to observe the morphology and to correctly assign and identify the nature of the main granular phases observed. Nitriding procedure is shown to strongly enhance the (001) texturing and the degree of ordering of the L10 FePt phase, as well as largely increase of coercivity, compared to the as-cast state. These changes are interpreted in terms of Ag segregation towards intergranular region associated to N diffusion and creation of vacancies that favor consistently the process of ordering the FePt grains into the L10 tetragonal phase.

  13. Magnetic order tuned by Cu substitution in Fe1.1-zCuzTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jinsheng; Xu, Zhijun; Xu, Guangyong; Lumsden, M. D.; Valdivia, P. N.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Gu, Genda; Lee, Dung-Hai; Tranquada, J. M.; Birgeneau, R. J.

    2012-07-01

    We study the effects of Cu substitution in Fe1.1Te, the nonsuperconducting parent compound of the iron-based superconductor, Fe1+yTe1-xSex, utilizing neutron scattering techniques. It is found that the structural and magnetic transitions, which occur at ˜60 K without Cu, are monotonically depressed with increasing Cu content. By 10% Cu for Fe, the structural transition is hardly detectable, and the system becomes a spin glass below 22 K, with a slightly incommensurate ordering wave vector of (0.5-δ, 0, 0.5) with δ being the incommensurability of 0.02, and correlation length of 12 Å along the a axis and 9 Å along the c axis. With 4% Cu, both transition temperatures are at 41 K, though short-range incommensurate order at (0.42, 0, 0.5) is present at 60 K. With further cooling, the incommensurability decreases linearly with temperature down to 37 K, below which there is a first-order transition to a long-range almost-commensurate antiferromagnetic structure. A spin anisotropy gap of 4.5 meV is also observed in this compound. Our results show that the weakly magnetic Cu has a large effect on the magnetic correlations; it is suggested that this is caused by the frustration of the exchange interactions between the coupled Fe spins.

  14. Magnetic orders tuned by Cu substitution in Fe1.1 zCuzTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Jinsheng [University of California, Berkeley; Xu, Zhijun [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Xu, Guangyong [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Lumsden, Mark D [ORNL; Valdivia, P. N. [University of California, Berkeley; Bourret-Courchesne, E. D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Gu, Genda [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Lee, Dunghai [University of California, Berkeley & LBNL; Tranquada, John M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Birgeneau, R. J. [University of California, Berkeley

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of Cu substitution in Fe1.1Te, the non-superconducting parent compound of the iron-based superconductor, Fe1+yTe1 xSex, utilizing neutron scattering techniques. It is found that the structural and magnetic transitions, which occur at 60 K without Cu, are monotonically depressed with increasing Cu content. By 10% Cu for Fe, the structural transition is hardly detectable, and the system becomes a spin glass below 22 K, with a slightly incommensurate ordering wave vector of (0.48, 0, 0.5), and correlation length of 12 A along the a axis and 9 A along the c axis. With 4% Cu, both transition temperatures are at 41 K, though short-range incommensurate order at (0.42, 0, 0.5) is present at 60 K. With further cooling, the incommensurability decreases linearly with temperature down to 37 K, below which there is a first order transition to a longrange almost-commensurate antiferromagnetic structure. A spin anisotropy gap of 4.5 meV is also observed in this compound. Our results show that the weakly magnetic Cu has large effects on the magnetic correlations; it is suggested that this is caused by the frustration of the exchange interactions between the coupled Fe spins.

  15. Spin-flop transition accompanied with changing the type of magnetic ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syromyatnikov, A. V.

    2017-03-01

    We discuss theoretically rather rear example of spin-flop transition which is accompanied with changing the type of magnetic ordering and which seemingly has not been addressed yet. We demonstrate that changing the type of magnetic ordering can manifest itself in antiferromagnetic (AF) resonance experiments as an apparent peculiar switching of the anisotropy at the transition from the easy-axis type to the easy-plane one. We argue that this kind of spin-flop transition is observed recently by Povarov et al. (2013) [12] in Cu(pz)2(ClO4)2 (where pz denotes pyrazine), one of the best realizations of spin-1/2 Heisenberg AFs on square lattice having a very small anisotropy. We show that the magnetic ordering changes at the spin-flop transition in this material in the direction perpendicular to AF square planes. We examine the microscopic mechanism of such behavior in Cu(pz)2(ClO4)2 and find that dipolar forces and extremely small exchange coupling between spins from neighboring planes are responsible for it.

  16. Leading-order hadronic contributions to the lepton anomalous magnetic moments from the lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger Florian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hadronic leading-order (hlo contribution to the lepton anomalous magnetic moments alhlo of the Standard Model leptons still accounts for the dominant source of the uncertainty of the Standard Model estimates. We present the results of an investigation of the hadronic leading order anomalous magnetic moments of the electron, muon and tau lepton from first principles in twisted mass lattice QCD. With lattice data for multiple pion masses in the range 230MeV ≲ mPS ≲ 490 MeV, multiple lattice volumes and three lattice spacings we perform the extrapolation to the continuum and to the physical pion mass and check for all systematic uncertainties in the lattice calculation. As a result we calculate alhlo for the three Standard Model leptons with controlled statistical and systematic error in agreement with phenomenological determinations using dispersion relations and experimental data. In addition, we also give a first estimate of the hadronic leading order anomalous magnetic moments from simulations directly at the physical value of the pion mass.

  17. Leading-order hadronic contributions to the lepton anomalous magnetic moments from the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Florian [OakLabs GmbH, Hennigsdorf (Germany); Feng, Xu [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Jansen, Karl [DESY Zeuthen (Germany). NIC; Petschlies, Marcus [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik; Pientka, Grit [Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Renner, Dru B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The hadronic leading-order (hlo) contribution to the lepton anomalous magnetic moments a{sup hlo}{sub l} of the Standard Model leptons still accounts for the dominant source of the uncertainty of the Standard Model estimates. We present the results of an investigation of the hadronic leading order anomalous magnetic moments of the electron, muon and tau lepton from first principles in twisted mass lattice QCD. With lattice data for multiple pion masses in the range 230 MeVorder anomalous magnetic moments from simulations directly at the physical value of the pion mass.

  18. Non-magnetic simplified cylindrical cloak with suppressed zero-th order scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Wei; Qiu, Min

    2008-01-01

    A new type of simplified cloaks with matched exterior boundaries is proposed. The cloak uses non-magnetic material for the TM polarization and can function with a relatively thin thickness. It is shown that the $zero^{th}$ order scattering of such cloak is dominant among all cylindrical scattering terms. A gap is added at the cloak's inner surface to eliminate the zero-th order scattering, through the mechanism of scattering resonance. The reduction in scattering is relatively smooth, indicating that the proposed scattering reduction method has good tolerance to perturbations. Numerical simulations also confirm that the proposed structure has very low scattering.

  19. Magnetic ordering of three-component ultracold fermionic mixtures in optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, Andrii; Hofstetter, Walter

    2014-06-01

    We study finite-temperature magnetic phases of three-component mixtures of ultracold fermions with repulsive interactions in optical lattices with simple cubic or square geometry by means of dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). We focus on the case of one particle per site (1/3 band filling) at moderate interaction strength, where we observe a sequence of thermal phase transitions into two- and three-sublattice ordered states by means of the unrestricted real-space generalization of DMFT. From our quantitative analysis we conclude that long-range ordering in three-component mixtures should be observable at comparable temperatures as in two-component mixtures.

  20. 2D and 3D ordered arrays of Co magnetic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Prida, V.M., E-mail: vmpp@uniovi.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Vega, V. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Rosa, W.O. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150 Urca., 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Caballero-Flores, R.; Iglesias, L.; Hernando, B. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)

    2015-06-01

    Cobalt nanowire arrays spatially distributed in 2D and 3D arrangements have been performed by pulsed electrodeposition into the pores of planar and cylindrical nanoporous anodic alumina membranes, respectively. Morphological characterization points out the good filling factor reached by electroplated Co nanowires in both kinds of alumina membranes exhibiting hexagonally self-ordered porous structures. Co nanowires grown in both kinds of alumina templates exhibit the same crystalline phases. DC magnetometry and First Order Reversal Curve (FORC) analysis were carried out in order to determine the overall magnetic behavior for both nanowire array geometries. It is found that when the Co nanowires of two kinds of arrays are perpendicularly magnetized, both hysteresis loops are identical, suggesting that neither the intrinsic magnetic behavior of the nanowires nor the collective one depend on the arrays geometry. FORC analysis performed along the radial direction of the Co nanowire arrays embedded in the cylindrical alumina template reveals that the contribution of each nanowire to the magnetization reversal process involves its specific orientation with respect to the applied field direction. Furthermore, the comparison between the magnetic properties for both kinds of Co nanowire arrays allows discussing about the effect of the cylindrical geometry of the template on the magnetostatic interaction among nanowires. - Graphical abstract: Scanning electronic microscope images of cylindrical anodic aluminum membranes (CAAM) electrodeposited with Co nanowires. From top, SEM micrographs of the nanoporous CAAM template at different magnifications, to bottom at the left, a cross-section image showing Co nanowires embedded in the nanopores of the alumina template. On the right at the bottom are shown the radial and axial hysteresis loops together FORC diagram obtained for the Co nanowires array along the radial direction of the CAAM template. - Highlights: • Co nanowire

  1. Second-order-like cluster-monomer transition within magnetic fluids and its impact upon the magnetic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jing; Xiang, Qing; Massa, Letícia O; Qu, Fanyao; Morais, Paulo C; Liu, Wenzhong

    2012-03-05

    The low-field (below 5 Oe) ac and dc magnetic response of a magnetic fluid [MF] sample in the range of 305 to 360 K and 410 to 455 K was experimentally and theoretically investigated. We found a systematic deviation of Curie's law, which predicts a linear temperature dependence of inverse initial susceptibility in the range of our investigation. This finding, as we hypothesized, is due to the onset of a second-order-like cluster-to-monomer transition with a critical exponent which is equal to 0.50. The susceptibility data were well fitted by a modified Langevin function, in which cluster dissociation into monomers, at the critical temperature [T*], was included. In the ac experiments, we found that T* was reducing from 381.8 to 380.4 K as the frequency of the applied field increases from 123 to 173 Hz. In addition, our ac experiments confirm that only monomers respond for the magnetic behavior of the MF sample above T*. Furthermore, our Monte Carlo simulation and analytical results support the hypothesis of a thermal-assisted dissociation of chain-like structures.PACS: 75.75.-C; 75.30.Kz; 75.30.Cr.

  2. Magnetic order-disorder transitions on a one-third-depleted square lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H.-M.; Mendes-Santos, T.; Pickett, W. E.; Scalettar, R. T.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the magnetic and transport properties of the Hubbard model, and its strong coupling Heisenberg limit, on a one-third-depleted square lattice. This is the geometry occupied, after charge ordering, by the spin-1/2 Ni1 + atoms in a single layer of the nickelate materials La4Ni3O8 and (predicted) La3Ni2O6 . Our model is also a description of strained graphene, where a honeycomb lattice has bond strengths which are inequivalent. For the Heisenberg case, we determine the location of the quantum critical point (QCP) where there is an onset of long range antiferromagnetic order (LRAFO), and the magnitude of the order parameter, and then compare with results of spin wave theory. An ordered phase also exists when electrons are itinerant. In this case, the growth in the antiferromagnetic structure factor coincides with the transition from band insulator to metal in the absence of interactions.

  3. Group theory for magnetic structure determination: Recent developments and quadrupolar ordering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: sikora@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl; Pytlik, L. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Bialas, F. [Nowy Sacz School of Busines-National Louis University, 33-300 Nowy Sacz (Poland); Malinowski, J. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2007-09-13

    In this paper, the recent developments in practical applications of symmetry analysis are described. The theoretical basis shortly described in Section 1 has been implemented in several computer applications, one of which is the program 'MODY-win', developed by the authors of the paper. The program calculates the so-called basis vectors of irreducible representations of a given symmetry group, which can be used for calculation of possible ordering modes. Its practical application is demonstrated on some examples, presenting the recent aspects of using the symmetry analysis to description of various types of ordering encountered in solids. The scalar-type ordering (occupation probability) is discussed shortly for occupation of interstitial sites by hydrogen atoms in inter-metallic compounds. The description of vector ordering is demonstrated on the magnetic ordering modes, with special attention focused on the freedom that is left in the structure after imposing all the symmetry constraints. In practice, the final ordering mode usually contains some free parameters that cannot be determined from the symmetry itself. The last application presented in the paper is the description of quadrupolar ordering, recently found in some compounds of 4f (5f) elements. For the latter case, an additional advantage is demonstrated by calculation of possible displacements of neighboring atoms after the establishment of non-zero quadrupolar order parameter on the central atom.

  4. Exploring high temperature magnetic order in CeTi1-xScxGe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereni, J. G.; Pedrazzini, P.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Chacoma, A.; Encina, S.; Gruner, T.; Caroca-Canales, N.; Geibel, C.

    2015-03-01

    We studied the magnetic, transport, and thermodynamic properties of the alloy CeTi1-xScxGe in order to shed some light into the origin of the exceptionally large antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering temperature TN = 47 K in pure CeScGe. We observed a complex magnetic phase diagram, which present an interesting dichotomy: Despite strong changes in the nature of the ordered state, from ferromagnetic (FM) for x 0.55, the ordering temperature increases smoothly and continuously from TC = 7 K at x = 0.25 to TN = 47 K at x = 1. Within the AFM regime we observe a metamagnetic transition at a critical field increasing from H = 0 at x ≈ 0.55 to μ0 * H ≈ 6 Tesla at x = 1. Furthermore a second transition appears at TL = 0.65. In contrast to observations in CeRh2Si2 or CeRh3B2, we found no evidence for a strong hybridization of the 4f electrons at large Sc contents. Therefore the exceptionally large TN of CeScGe could be attributed to the unusually strong RKKY interaction in this type of compounds.

  5. Ab initio investigation on the magnetic ordering in Gd doped ZnO

    KAUST Repository

    Bantounas, Ioannis

    2011-04-22

    The current study investigates the magnetic properties of the Gdx Zn1−xO, with x=0.0625 and 0.0185, dopedsemiconductor using the full potential (linearized) augmented plane wave plus local orbital method. We show that in contrast to the findings of Shi et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023910 (2009)], the implementation of the Hubbard U parameter to the Gd f states favors an antiferromagnetic phase in both wurtzite GdO and Gdx Zn1−xO. Spin polarized calculations on Gdx Zn1−xO indicate that, even if a ferromagnetic ground state were favored, the magnetic influence of Gd in a perfect ZnO wurtzite lattice is highly localized and limited to the first three nearest neighboring O atoms. Increasing the supercell size and thus diluting the concentration of Gd within the ZnO matrix does not show any changes in the net magnetic moment between these three O atoms nor in the remaining lattice sites, indicating that sizing effects do not influence the range of matrix polarization. We conclude that the localized Gd induced polarization can not account for long range magnetic ordering in a defect-free ZnO wurtzite lattice.

  6. Interplay between chemical and magnetic order in CoRh nanoparticles: A first principles theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Sanchez, Luis Enrique; Pastor, Gustavo [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Kassel, Heinrich Plett Str. 40, 34132 Kassel (Germany); Dorantes Davila, Jesus [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    The ground-state magnetic properties of Co{sub x}Rh{sub 1-x} nanoparticles having sizes N=43, 273 and 531 atoms, and Co concentrations x=0, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 are investigated in the framework of density functional theory. The role of chemical order on the magnetic behavior is quantified by considering different fully-segregated face-centered cubic atomic arrangements showing both spherical and planar CoRh interfaces: core-shell and left-right subclusters. The ground-state magnetization for each cluster is determined by using a fixed-moment method. Electron correlation effects are discussed by comparing the results of LSDA and GGA exchange-correlation functionals. All considered CoRh clusters are found to be magnetic with an average spin moment that is larger than in macroscopic alloys with similar concentrations. The effect of embedding pure Co(Rh) clusters with Rh(Co) outer shells is analyzed.

  7. Magnetic ordering in Ho-doped Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, A.I.; Van der Laan, G.; Hesjedal, T. [Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot (United Kingdom); Harrison, S.E. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Collins-McIntyre, L.J. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    We investigate the magnetic properties of Ho-doped Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Analysis of the polarized X-ray absorption spectra at the Ho M{sub 5} absorption edge gives an effective 4f magnetic moment which is ∝45% of the Hund's rule ground state value. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) shows no significant anisotropy, which suggests that the reduced spin moment is not due to the crystal field effects, but rather the presence of non-magnetic or antiferromagnetic Ho sites. Extrapolating the temperature dependence of the XMCD measured in total electron yield and fluorescence yield mode in a field of 7 T gives a Curie-Weiss temperature of and vartheta;{sub CW} ∼ -30 K, which suggests antiferromagnetic ordering, in contrast to the paramagnetic behavior observed with SQUID magnetometry. From the anomaly of the XMCD signal at low temperatures, a Neel temperature T{sub N} between 10 K and 25 K is estimated. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Magnetic detection and characterization of biogenic magnetic minerals : A comparison of ferromagnetic resonance and first-order reversal curve diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Liao; Roberts, Andrew P.; Winklhofer, Michael; Heslop, David; Dekkers, Mark J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073463744; Krijgsman, Wout|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/148529763; Gerald, John D Fitz; Smith, Paul

    Biogenic magnetic minerals produced by magnetotactic bacteria occur ubiquitously in natural aquatic environments. Their identification and characterization are important for interpretation of paleomagnetic and environmental magnetic records. We compare two magnetic methods for their identification

  9. Hydrogen-mediated long-range magnetic ordering in Pd-rich alloy film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wen-Chin, E-mail: wclin@ntnu.edu.tw; Tsai, Cheng-Jui; Huang, Han-Yuan; Mudinepalli, Venkata Ramana; Chiu, Hsiang-Chih [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Wang, Bo-Yao, E-mail: bywang1735@cc.ncue.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-05

    The effect of hydrogenation on a 14 nm Co{sub 14}Pd{sub 86}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) thin film was investigated on the basis of the magnetooptical Kerr effect. After exposure to H{sub 2} gas, the squareness of the hysteresis loop showed a large transition from approximately 10% to 100% and the saturation Kerr signal was reduced to nearly 30% of the pristine value. The reversibility of the transition was verified and the response time was within 2–3 s. These observations indicate that the hydride formation transformed the short-range coupled and disordered magnetic state of the Co{sub 14}Pd{sub 86} film to a long-range-ordered ferromagnetic state and induced appreciable decrease in the magnetic moment. The enhanced long-range-ordering and the reduction of the magnetic moment were attributed to the change of electronic structure in Co{sub 14}Pd{sub 86} with hydrogen uptake.

  10. Atomic and magnetic order in the shape memory alloy Mn2NiGa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P J; Kanomata, T; Neumann, K; Neumann, K U; Ouladdiaf, B; Sheikh, A; Ziebeck, K R A

    2010-12-22

    Magnetization and high resolution neutron powder diffraction measurements on the magnetic shape memory alloy Mn(2)NiGa have confirmed that it is ferromagnetic with a Curie temperature above 500 K. The compound undergoes a broad structural phase transformation ΔT ∼ 90 K with a mean transition temperature T(M) ∼ 270 K. The high temperature parent phase is cubic (a = 5.937 Å) and has a modified L 2(1) structure. At 500 K the ordered magnetic moment essentially all on the 4a site is 1.35 μ(B)/Mn. The low temperature martensite has space group I4/mmm and is related to the cubic phase through a Bain transformation a(tet) = (a(cub) + b(cub))/2, b(tet) = (a(cub) - b(cub)) and c(tet) = c(cub) in which the change in cell volume is < 2.6%. In this structure at 5 K the ordered moment of ≈2.3 μ(B) is again found to be confined to the sites with full Mn occupation and is aligned parallel to c. Neutron diffraction patterns obtained at 5 K suggested the presence of a weak incommensurate antiferromagnetic phase characterized by either a ((1/3)0(1/3)) or (00(1/3)) propagation vector.

  11. Magnetically aligned phospholipid bilayers with positive ordering: a new model membrane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, R S; Hwang, J S; Vold, R R

    1998-01-01

    A stable smectic phospholipid bilayer phase aligned with the director parallel to the magnetic field can be generated by the addition of certain trivalent paramagnetic lanthanide ions to a bicellar solution of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) in water. Suitable lanthanide ions are those with positive anisotropy of their magnetic susceptibility, namely Eu3+, Er3+, Tm3+, and Yb3+. For samples doped with Tm3+, this phase extends over a wide range of Tm3+ concentrations (6-40 mM) and temperatures (35-90 degrees C) and appears to undergo a transition from a fluid nematic discotic to a fluid, but highly ordered, smectic phase at a temperature that depends on the thulium concentration. As a membrane mimetic, these new, positively ordered phospholipid phases have high potential for structural studies using a variety of techniques such as magnetic resonance (EMR and NMR), small-angle x-ray and neutron diffraction, as well as optical and infrared spectroscopy. PMID:9591667

  12. Effect of rare earth dopants on the magnetic ordering of frustrated h-YMnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neetika; Das, A.; Prajapat, C. L.; Singh, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    In this report the combined effects of chemical pressure and R-Mn interaction on the structural and magnetic properties of frustrated h-YMnO3 have been investigated. Towards this, neutron powder diffraction and magnetization measurements were carried out on isostructural compounds Y1-xRxMnO3(R=Yb, Er, Tb, Ho; x≤0.2) with hexagonal structure (P63cm space group). The dopants are evenly distributed between the two Yttrium sites. The unit cell volume shows a linear increase with average A-site ionic radii, . The average apical a and planar p bond lengths are found to increase with . The tilting angle of the MnO5 polyhedron decreases linearly with increase in , whereas the buckling angle remains constant. No significant change in TN (within 10 K) is observed on doping. The temperature variation of the volume indicates an anomalous reduction in volume at TN which is found to be correlated with the square of the antiferromagnetic Mn moment. A spin reorientation behavior (evident from a change in the irreducible representation (IR) Γ3 to Γ4) is observed on decreasing from 1.019 Å (Y) to 1.012 Å (Yb) similar to that reported in external pressure studies on YMnO3. Additional interaction between the doped R and Mn influences the magnetic structure in the case of Ho and Tb doped samples. With Ho doping at Y site, the magnetic structure is described by IR Γ3 alone for 5 K≤T<35 K and a mixture of Γ3 and Γ4 for T≥35 K. However, in Tb doped sample, the magnetic structure is better described by Γ4Tb,Mn IR with additional moment on Tb. The frustration parameter, f reduces from 6 to 1 in the doped samples. A combination of chemical pressure effect and magnetic coupling between the magnetic R ion and Mn moments thus describes the magnetic structures and relieves the frustration effects inherent to the quasi-two dimensional Mn moment ordering.

  13. Stripe order in La2-xBaxCuO4 in high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huecker, M.; von Zimmermann, M.; Xu, Z. J.; Wen, J. S.; Gu, G. D.; Zaliznyak, I. A.; Chung, J.-H.; Choi, E. S.; Tranquada, J. M.

    2012-02-01

    The observation of enhanced spin stripe order in the vortex cores of La2-xSrxCuO4 has been a landmark experiment that revealed the intimate connection between superconductivity and incommensurate antiferromagnetism. Only recently we have observed a corresponding field dependence of the spin and, more importantly, of the charge stripe order in La2-xBaxCuO4. Here we present our recent results from neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and torque measurements in high magnetic fields. These helped us to establish the field versus temperature and doping phase diagrams for spin and charge order, and to further corroborate the stripe model as the more appropriate description than for example spiral and vortex states.

  14. In situ investigation of ordering phase transformations in FePt magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, James E; Bentley, James; Allard, Lawrence F

    2016-12-11

    In situ high-resolution electron microscopy was used to reveal information at the atomic level for the disordered-to-ordered phase transformation of equiatomic FePt nanoparticles that can exhibit outstanding magnetic properties after transforming from disordered face-centered-cubic into the tetragonal L10 ordered structure. High-angle annular dark-field imaging in the scanning transmission electron microscope provided sufficient contrast between the Fe and Pt atoms to readily monitor the ordering of the atoms during in situ heating experiments. However, during continuous high-magnification imaging the electron beam influenced the kinetics of the transformation so annealing had to be performed with the electron beam blanked. At 500°C where the reaction rate was relatively slow, observation of the transformation mechanisms using this sequential imaging protocol revealed that ordering proceeded from (002) surface facets but was incomplete and multiple-domain particles were formed that contained anti-phase domain boundaries and anti-site defects. At 600 and 700°C, the limitations of sequential imaging were revealed as a consequence of increased transformation kinetics. Annealing for only 5min at 700°C produced complete single-domain L10 order; such single-domain particles were more spherical in shape with (002) facets. The in situ experiments also provided information concerning nanoparticle sintering, coalescence, and consolidation. Although there was resistance to complete sintering due to the crystallography of L10 order, the driving force from the large surface-area-to-volume ratio resulted in considerable nanoparticle coalescence, which would render such FePt nanoparticles unsuitable for use as magnetic recording media. Comparison of the in situ data acquired using the protocol described above with parallel ex situ annealing experiments showed that identical behavior resulted in all cases.

  15. Thermal plasma processed ferro-magnetically ordered face-centered cubic iron at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Suyog A.; Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Das, A. K.; Mathe, V. L.

    2014-10-01

    Here, we report tailor made phase of iron nanoparticles using homogeneous gas phase condensation process via thermal plasma route. It was observed that crystal lattice of nano-crystalline iron changes as a function of operating parameters of the plasma reactor. In the present investigation iron nanoparticles have been synthesized in presence of argon at operating pressures of 125-1000 Torr and fixed plasma input DC power of 6 kW. It was possible to obtain pure fcc, pure bcc as well as the mixed phases for iron nanoparticles in powder form as a function of operating pressure. The as synthesized product was characterized for understanding the structural and magnetic properties by using X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The data reveal that fcc phase is ferromagnetically ordered with high spin state, which is unusual whereas bcc phase is found to be ferromagnetic as usual. Finally, the structural and magnetic properties are co-related.

  16. A star role for stripes[Charge order in high-temperature superconductors in magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquada, John [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States)

    2002-06-01

    New images of magnetic and charge order in copper-oxide compounds are providing important clues about the nature of high-temperature superconductors. Visual images can have a powerful impact on the viewer, and this is certainly the case when the images are atomic-scale pictures of the surface of a high-temperature copper-oxide superconductor. The unusual properties of these materials have vexed condensed-matter theorists for the last 15 years. Now a new flurry of theoretical papers has been stimulated by the latest images of a cuprate superconductor, which reveal that an applied magnetic field can induce 'stripes' of charge. The experimental results provide intriguing and important clues to the nature of these ever-surprising materials - although the theorists have still to agree on their meaning. (U.K.)

  17. The many faces of order-by-disorder in rare-earth pyrochlore magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Michel J. P.

    Order-by-disorder (ObD) is a concept of central importance in the field of frustrated magnetism. Saddled with large accidental degeneracies, a subset of states, those that support the largest quantum and/or thermal fluctuations, may be selected to form true long-range order. More formally, one often begins describing a system in terms of some order parameter m with the low-energy description framed in terms of an effective action Γ (m) . In each ObD scenario, one starts from an artificial limit where there is an accidental degeneracy; that is the effective action at this point, Γ0 (m) , has an accidental symmetry. One may then view ObD phenomena as cases where the corrections to Γ0 (m) arise through some form of fluctuation corrections, may they be thermal, quantum or virtual, towards an enlarged higher energy Hilbert space. In the rare-earth pyrochlore oxides, of formula R2M2O7, the trivalent magnetic rare-earth ions R3+ (e.g R = Gd, Er, Yb; M = Ti, Sn is non-magnetic) reside on a three-dimensional pyrochlore lattice of corner-sharing tetrahedra. This architecture is prone to a high degree of magnetic frustration, with the R2M2 O7 pyrochlore materials having been found over the past twenty years to display a gamut of exotic phenomena. In this talk, I will discuss three such phenomena: (i) the intermediate partially-ordered multiple- k state between 0 . 7 K and 1K in the Gd2Ti2O7 Heisenberg antiferromagnet, (ii) the ordered ψ2 state selection in the XY Er2Ti2O7 antiferromagnet and (iii) the puzzling high sample sensitivity of the Yb2Ti2O7 ``quantum spin ice'' candidate. I will argue that in all three cases, some form of fluctuation corrections to their simplest Γ0 (m) description play a significant role in the state selection and experimentally observed behaviors.

  18. Direct observation of a helical magnetic order near the superconducting state of MnP under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yishu; Feng, Yejun; Cheng, J.-G.; Rosenbaum, T. F.

    A recent high-pressure electrical transport study of the 3d transition metal compound MnP manifested a complex pressure-temperature phase diagram of different types of magnetism and superconductivity. However, the nature of the high-pressure magnetic phase proximate to the superconducting state was not determined. We use non-resonant X-ray magnetic diffraction to probe the magnetic order in MnP under pressure. We discover incommensurate helical order in a confined region under high pressure, and ascertain the phase boundary through the pressure evolution of the lattice. Although the antiferromagnetic and superconducting phases are separated, there is no signature of a strong first-order phase transition between them. We discuss how our direct observation of a helimagnetic order in MnP helps to better understand aspects of magnetically-mediated superconductivity.

  19. Direct surface charging and alkali-metal doping for tuning the interlayer magnetic order in planar nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasa, Tamene R.; Stepanyuk, Valeri S.

    2015-08-01

    The continuous reduction of magnetic units to ultrasmall length scales inspires efforts to look for a suitable means of controlling magnetic states. In this study, we show two surface charge alteration techniques for tuning the interlayer exchange coupling of ferromagnetic layers separated by paramagnetic spacers. Our ab initio study reveals that already a modest amount of extra charge can switch the mutual alignment of the magnetization from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic or vice versa. We also propose adsorption of alkali metals as an alternative way of varying the electronic and chemical properties of magnetic surfaces. Clear evidence is found that the interlayer magnetic order can be reversed by adsorbing alkali metals on the magnetic layer. Moreover, alkali-metal overlayers strongly enhance the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in FePt thin films. These findings combined with atomistic spin model calculations suggest that the electronic or ionic way of surface charging can have a crucial role for magnetic hardening and spin state control.

  20. Magnetic ordering in tetragonal FeS: Evidence for strong itinerant spin fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, K.D.; Refson, K.; Bone, S.; Qiao, R.; Yang, W.; Liu, Z.; Sposito, G.

    2010-11-01

    Mackinawite is a naturally occurring layer-type FeS mineral important in biogeochemical cycles and, more recently, in the development of microbial fuel cells. Conflicting results have been published as to the magnetic properties of this mineral, with Moessbauer spectroscopy indicating no magnetic ordering down to 4.2 K but density functional theory (DFT) predicting an antiferromagnetic ground state, similar to the Fe-based high-temperature superconductors with which it is isostructural and for which it is known that magnetism is suppressed by strong itinerant spin fluctuations. We investigated this latter possibility for mackinawite using photoemission spectroscopy, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and DFT computations. Our Fe 3{sub s} core-level photoemission spectrum of mackinawite showed a clear exchange-energy splitting (2.9 eV) consistent with a 1 {micro}{sub B} magnetic moment on the Fe ions, while the Fe L-edge x-ray absorption spectrum indicated rather delocalized Fe 3{sub d} electrons in mackinawite similar to those in Fe metal. Our DFT computations demonstrated that the ground state of mackinawite is single-stripe antiferromagnetic, with an Fe magnetic moment (2.7 {micro}{sub B}) that is significantly larger than the experimental estimate and has a strong dependence on the S height and lattice parameters. All of these trends signal the existence of strong itinerant spin fluctuations. If spin fluctuations prove to be mediators of electron pairing, we conjecture that mackinawite may be one of the simplest Fe-based superconductors.

  1. Tenth-Order Electron Anomalous Magnetic Moment --- Contribution of Diagrams without Closed Lepton Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, T; Kinoshita, T; Nio, M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed account of evaluation of the electron anomalous magnetic moment a_e which arises from the gauge-invariant set, called Set V, consisting of 6354 tenth-order Feynman diagrams without closed lepton loops. The latest value of the sum of Set V diagrams evaluated by the Monte-Carlo integration routine VEGAS is 8.726(336)(\\alpha/\\pi)^5, which replaces the very preliminary value reported in 2012. Combining it with other 6318 tenth-order diagrams published previously we obtain 7.795(336)(\\alpha/\\pi)^5 as the complete mass-independent tenth-order term. Together with the improved value of the eighth-order term this leads to a_e(theory)=1 159 652 181.643 (25)(23)(16)(763) \\times 10^{-12}, where first three uncertainties are from the eighth-order term, tenth-order term, and hadronic and elecroweak terms. The fourth and largest uncertainty is from \\alpha^{-1}=137.035 999 049(90), the fine-structure constant derived from the rubidium recoil measurement. a_e(theory) and a_e(experiment) agree wi...

  2. Synthesis of magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (Fe-OMC) adsorbent and its evaluation for fuel desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzin Nejad, N., E-mail: Farzinnejadn@ripi.ir [Petroleum Refining Technology Development Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran 14857-33111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shams, E.; Amini, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this work, magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon adsorbent was synthesized using soft templating method to adsorb sulfur from model oil (dibenzothiophene in n-hexane). Through this research, pluronic F-127, resorcinol-formaldehyde and hydrated iron nitrate were respectively used as soft template, carbon source and iron source. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm and transmission electron microscopy. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement revealed the high surface area (810 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), maxima pore size of 3.3 nm and large pore volume (1.01 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}) of the synthesized sample. The adsorbent showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 111 mg dibenzothiophene g{sup −1} of adsorbent. Sorption process was described by the pseudo-second-order rate equation and could be better fitted by the Freundlich model, showing the heterogeneous feature of the adsorption process. In addition, the adsorption capacity of regenerated adsorbent was 78.6% of the initial level, after five regeneration cycles. - Highlights: • Adsorptive desulfurization of model oil with magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon adsorbent, Fe-OMC, was studied. • Maximum adsorption capacity (q{sub max}) of Fe-OMC for DBT was found to be 111.1 mg g{sup −1}. • Freundlich isotherm best represents the equilibrium adsorption data. • Rate of DBT adsorption process onto Fe-OMC is controlled by at least two steps.

  3. Charge order and low frequency spin dynamics in lanthanum cuprates revealed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafe, H.J.; Vyalikh, A.; Vavilova, J.; Buchner, B. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Solid State Research, Dresden (Germany); Curro, N.J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Young, B.L. [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Gu, G.D.; Hucker, M. [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Vavilova, J. [Kazan Zavoiskiy Physical-Technical Institute, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-15

    We report detailed {sup 17}O, {sup 139}La, and {sup 63,65}Cu Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) measurements in a stripe ordered La{sub 1.875}Ba{sub 0.125}CuO{sub 4} single crystal and in oriented powder samples of La{sub 1.8-x}Eu{sub 0.2}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. We observe a partial wipe out of the {sup 17}O NMR intensity and a simultaneous drop of the {sup 17}O electric field gradient (EFG) at low temperatures where the spin stripe order sets in. In contrast, the {sup 63,65}Cu intensity is completely wiped out at the same temperature. The drop of the {sup 17}O quadrupole frequency is compatible with a charge stripe order. The {sup 17}O spin lattice relaxation rate shows a peak similar to that of the {sup 139}La, which is of magnetic origin. This peak is doping dependent and is maximal at x {approx} 1/8. (authors)

  4. A new ternary magnetically ordered heavy fermion compound Pr2Rh3Ge: magnetic, electronic and thermodynamic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, M.; Strydom, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The results of the magnetic, electron transport, heat capacity and heat conduction measurements on the new rhombohedral ternary compound Pr2Rh3Ge have been investigated. The synthesized polycrystalline compound was found to crystallize in the ternary ordered variant of the cubic Laves phase MgCu2 -type of structure with the space group R\\overline{3} m, as previously reported. Pr2Rh3Ge exhibits a ferromagnetic behaviour below TC = 8.5 K, which was found to be unstable in low applied magnetic fields, revealing characteristics usually attributed to the long-range order. In the entire paramagnetic region electrical resistivity shows monotonous metallic conductivity character. We estimated that the Sommerfeld coefficient γ  =  315 mJ/Pr-mol · K2 of Pr2 Rh3 Ge is very large with comparison to ordinary metals which indicate the existence of heavy fermion behaviour of itinerant charge carriers at low temperatures or enhanced density of the quasi-particle state at the Fermi level. The crucial role of the crystalline electric field effects on the ground state properties of Pr3+ (J  =  4) has been also observed. We think that the heavy fermion behaviour in Pr2 Rh3 Ge results from the dynamic low-lying crystal-field fluctuations, since there is no sign of Kondo effect in electrical resistivity and no enhancement of the slope S(T)/T in thermoelectric power data at low temperatures. It suggests that the conduction electrons at the Fermi level does not correlate with the 4f 2 states of Pr3+ atoms and hence there is no place for a typical spin Kondo effect, as it is commonly observed in Ce- and Yb-based heavy fermion systems.

  5. A new ternary magnetically ordered heavy fermion compound Pr2Rh3Ge: magnetic, electronic and thermodynamic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, M; Strydom, A M

    2017-10-04

    The results of the magnetic, electron transport, heat capacity and heat conduction measurements on the new rhombohedral ternary compound Pr2Rh3Ge have been investigated. The synthesized polycrystalline compound was found to crystallize in the ternary ordered variant of the cubic Laves phase [Formula: see text]-type of structure with the space group R[Formula: see text]m, as previously reported. Pr2Rh3Ge exhibits a ferromagnetic behaviour below [Formula: see text] K, which was found to be unstable in low applied magnetic fields, revealing characteristics usually attributed to the long-range order. In the entire paramagnetic region electrical resistivity shows monotonous metallic conductivity character. We estimated that the Sommerfeld coefficient γ  =  315 mJ/Pr-mol · [Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]Ge is very large with comparison to ordinary metals which indicate the existence of heavy fermion behaviour of itinerant charge carriers at low temperatures or enhanced density of the quasi-particle state at the Fermi level. The crucial role of the crystalline electric field effects on the ground state properties of [Formula: see text] (J  =  4) has been also observed. We think that the heavy fermion behaviour in [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]Ge results from the dynamic low-lying crystal-field fluctuations, since there is no sign of Kondo effect in electrical resistivity and no enhancement of the slope S(T)/T in thermoelectric power data at low temperatures. It suggests that the conduction electrons at the Fermi level does not correlate with the 4f (2) states of [Formula: see text] atoms and hence there is no place for a typical spin Kondo effect, as it is commonly observed in Ce- and Yb-based heavy fermion systems.

  6. Pressure effects on first-order magnetic Raman scattering in NiO

    CERN Document Server

    Mita, Y; Kobayashi, M; Endo, S

    2002-01-01

    The pressure dependence of first-order magnetic Raman peak of NiO single crystal was studied up to 20 GPa at room temperature. At ambient pressure, an unknown peak is also observed at nearly the same position as the one-magnon one and their separation becomes remarkable with increasing pressure. Pressure coefficients of the one-magnon peak and the other peak are obtained as 0.4 and 1.5 cm sup - sup 1 GPa sup - sup 1 , respectively. The next-nearest-neighbour antiferromagnetic exchange constant J sub 2 is obtained as a function of the lattice constant.

  7. Zero-field magnetic order in the boundary layers of /sup 3/He on Grafoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, L.J.; Thomson, A.L.; Gould, C.M.; Bozler, H.M.; Weichman, P.B.; Cross, M.C.

    1989-04-03

    The low-field NMR spectra of /sup 3/He boundary layers on exfoliated graphite show collective modes for T<1 mK. We measure the amplitude and frequency for these modes with the static H/sub 0/ field applied parallel to the graphite planes and varying continuously between 0 and 15 G. One of the modes extrapolates to a nonzero frequency and amplitude as the field is dropped to zero. We interpret these nonzero intercepts as an indication of zero-field magnetic order in the /sup 3/He boundary layers.

  8. Exploring high temperature magnetic order in CeTi_1-xSc_xGe

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Most of magnetic transitions related to Ce ordering are found below T_ord~12K. Among the few cases exceeding that temperature, two types of behaviors can be distinguished. One of them is related to the rare cases of Ce binary compounds formed in BCC structures, with a quartet ground state, whose degeneracy is reduced by undergoing different types of transitions mostly structural. The other group shows evidences of itinerant character with the outstanding example of CeRh_3B_2 showing the highe...

  9. From Complex Magnetism Ordering to Simple Ferromagnetism in Two-Dimensional LaCrSb{sub 3} by Hole Doping.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haijie; Narayan, Awadhesh; Fang, Lei; Calta, Nicholas P.; Shi, Fengyuan; Chung, Duck Young; Wagner, Lucas; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2016-10-11

    Competing orders widely exist in many material systems, such as superconductivity, magnetism, and ferroelectricity; LaCrSb3 is a highly anisotropic magnetic material in which the spins are aligned ferromagnetically in one direction and canted antiferromagnetically in another in the Cr-Sb chains. Hole doping with Sr2+ and Ca2+ in the La site suppresses the antiferromagnetic correlations and transforms the anisotropic magnetic order into a ferromagnetic lattice in all directions. First-principles density functional theory calculations show that the canted magnetic order becomes energetically less favorable compared to the FM order upon hole doping. Doping in the La site is an effective approach to modulate the competing orders in LaCrSb3.

  10. Tenth-order electron anomalous magnetic moment: Contribution of diagrams without closed lepton loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Tatsumi; Hayakawa, Masashi; Kinoshita, Toichiro; Nio, Makiko

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a detailed account of the evaluation of the electron anomalous magnetic moment ae which arises from a gauge-invariant set, called Set V, consisting of 6354 tenth-order Feynman diagrams without closed lepton loops. The latest value of the sum of Set V diagrams evaluated by the Monte Carlo integration routine VEGAS is 8.726 (336 )(α /π )5 , which replaces the very preliminary value reported in 2012. Combining it with 6318 previously published tenth-order diagrams, we obtain 7.795 (336 )(α /π )5 as the complete mass-independent tenth-order term. Together with the improved value of the eighth-order term this leads to ae(theory)=1 159 652 181.643 (25 )(23 )(16 )(763 )×1 0-12 , where the first three uncertainties are from the eighth-order, tenth-order, and hadronic and elecroweak terms. The fourth and largest uncertainty is from α-1=137.035 999 049 (90 ) , the fine-structure constant derived from the rubidium recoil measurement. Thus, ae(experiment)-ae(theory)=-0.91 (0.82 )×1 0-12 . Assuming the validity of the standard model, we obtain the fine-structure constant α-1(ae)=137.035 999 1570 (29 )(27 )(18 )(331 ) , where uncertainties are from the eighth-order, tenth-order, and hadronic and electroweak terms, and the measurement of ae. This is the most precise value of α available at present and provides a stringent constraint on possible theories beyond the standard model.

  11. Neutron Scattering Study of Magnetic Field Effect on the Stripe Order in LBCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Xu, Guangyong; Hücker, Markus; Tranquada, John; Gu, Genda

    2009-03-01

    We have been investigating the relationship of stripe order to high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates. In particular, our neutron scattering results indicate that spin-stripe order is present in La2-xBaxCuO4 (LBCO) over a substantial range of doping about x = 1/8, where the bulk superconductivity is anomalously suppressed. Focusing on the x = 1/8 composition, we have recently studied the impact on stripe order of a magnetic field applied along the c-axis [1]. Applying a field up to 7 T, we observed a small enhancement of the intensity of the incommensurate antiferromagnetic superlattice peaks and a slight increase in the ordering temperature. In measurements of the spin dynamics, the field had no significant impact on the small spin gap (˜ 0.5 meV) found in the ordered phase [2]. [1] Jinsheng Wen et al., arXiv:0810.4085. [2] J.M. Tranquada et al., arXiv:0809.0711. Work supported by Office of Science, U.S. DOE, under Contract No. DEAC02-98CH10886

  12. Highly Ordered Surface Self-Assembly of Fe₄ Single Molecule Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Philipp; Schmitt, Peter; Barth, Nicole; Irmler, Andreas; Bouvron, Samuel; Huhn, Thomas; Groth, Ulrich; Pauly, Fabian; Gragnaniello, Luca; Fonin, Mikhail

    2015-07-08

    Single molecule magnets (SMMs) have attracted considerable attention due to low-temperature magnetic hysteresis and fascinating quantum effects. The investigation of these properties requires the possibility to deposit well-defined monolayers or spatially isolated molecules within a well-controlled adsorption geometry. Here we present a successful fabrication of self-organized arrays of Fe4 SMMs on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) on Rh(111) as template. Using a rational design of the ligand shell optimized for surface assembly and electrospray as a gentle deposition method, we demonstrate how to obtain ordered arrays of molecules forming perfect hexagonal superlattices of tunable size, from small islands to an almost perfect monolayer. High-resolution low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) reveals that the Fe4 molecule adsorbs on the substrate in a flat geometry, meaning that its magnetic easy axis is perpendicular to the surface. By scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we infer that the majority- and minority-spin components of the spin-split lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) can be addressed separately on a submolecular level.

  13. Magnetism, structure and chemical order in small CoPd clusters: A first-principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2014-01-01

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of small ComPdn (N=m+n=8,m=0-N) nanoalloy clusters are studied in the framework of a generalized-gradient approximation to density-functional theory. The optimized cluster structures have a clear tendency to maximize the number of nearest-neighbor CoCo pairs. The magnetic order is found to be ferromagnetic-like (FM) for all the ground-state structures. Antiferromagnetic-like spin arrangements were found in some low-lying isomers. The average magnetic moment per atom μ̄N increases approximately linearly with Co content. A remarkable enhancement of the local Co moments is observed as a result of Pd doping. This is a consequence of the increase in the number of Co d holes, due to CoPd charge transfer, combined with the reduced local coordination. The influence of spin-orbit interactions on the cluster properties is also discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Neutron diffraction studies of magnetic ordering in Ni-doped LaCoO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeevan, N. E.; Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Ravi; Kaushik, S. D.

    2015-11-01

    Research in rare earth cobaltite has recently been intensified due to its fascinating magnetic properties. LaCoO3, an important cobaltite, exhibits two prominent susceptibility features at ~90 K and 500 K in low field measurement. The magnetic behavior below 100 K is predominantly antiferromagnetic (AFM), but absence of pure AFM ordering and emergence of ferromagnetic coupling on further decreasing temperature made situation more intricate. The present work of studying the effect of Ni substitution at Co site in polycrystalline LaCo1-xNixO3 (0≤x≤0.3) is motivated by the interesting changes in magnetic and electronic properties. For lucid understanding, temperature dependent neutron diffraction (ND) study was carried out. ND patterns fitted with rhombohedral structure in perovskite form with R-3c space group, elucidated information on phase purity. Further temperature dependent cell parameter, Co-O bond-length and Co-O-Co bond angle were calculated for the series of Ni doped LaCoO3. The results are explained in terms of decrease in the crystal field energy which led to the transition of cobalt from low Spin (LS) state to intermediate spin state (IS).

  15. Magnetic field penetration into a 3D ordered Josephson medium and applicability of the bean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelikman, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    The results of calculation of penetration of an external magnetic field into a 3D ordered Josephson medium, based on analysis of modification of the configuration in the direction of the decrease in its Gibbs potential, are reported. When the external field slightly exceeds the stability threshold, the Meissner configuration is transformed into a periodic sequence of linear vortices, which are parallel to the boundary of the medium and are located at a certain distance from it. There exists a critical value I C separating two possible regimes of penetration of the external magnetic field into the medium. For I > I C, for any value of the external field, a finite-length boundary current configuration appears, which completely compensates the external field in the bulk of the sample. At the sample boundary, the field decreases with increasing depth almost linearly. The values of the slope of the magnetic field dependence are rational fractions, which remain constant in finite intervals of I. When the value of I exceeds the upper boundary of such an interval, the slope increases and assumes the value of another rational fraction. If, however, I < I C, such a situation takes place only up to a certain value of external field H max. For higher values, the field penetrates into the medium to an infinite depth. These results lead to the conclusion that the Bean assumptions are violated and that Bean's model is inapplicable for analyzing the processes considered here.

  16. Magnetic-Field-Enhanced Incommensurate Magnetic Order in the Underdoped High-Temperature Superconductor YBa2Cu3O6.45

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, D.; Hinkov, V.; Suchaneck, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a neutron-scattering study of the static and dynamic spin correlations in the underdoped high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O6.45 in magnetic fields up to 15 T. The field strongly enhances static incommensurate magnetic order at low temperatures and induces a spectral-weight shift...

  17. Field dependence of the magnetic entropy change in typical materials with a second-order phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Qiaoyan [State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhang Hongwei [State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: hwzhang@g203.iphy.ac.cn; Shen Juelian; Sun Jirong; Shen Baogen [State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2007-12-15

    Magnetic field dependence of the magnetic entropy change ({delta}S) is the key for magnetic refrigeration. For magnetic materials with a second-order phase transition, the experimental data can be well fitted by the formula of {delta}S=-kM{sub s}(0)h{sup 2/3}-S(0,0) for a practical field change from 0 to h (the reduced field), where M{sub s}(0) is the spontaneous magnetization at 0 K. The constant k is approximately equal to 1.00 T/K, and S(0,0) is interestingly found to be negative. The formula is discussed based on the renormalization group approach to scaling. The attempts have also been made using the formula for NaZn{sub 13}-type La(Fe,Si){sub 13} compounds with a magnetic first-order phase transition.

  18. Four-flavour leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Florian [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik,Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Feng, Xu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK),Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Hotzel, Grit [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik,Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Jansen, Karl [NIC, DESY,Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Cyprus,P.O.Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Petschlies, Marcus [The Cyprus Institute,P.O.Box 27456, 1645 Nicosia (Cyprus); Renner, Dru B. [Jefferson Lab,12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Collaboration: The ETM Collaboration

    2014-02-24

    We present a four-flavour lattice calculation of the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarisation contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, a{sub μ}{sup hvp}, arising from quark-connected Feynman graphs. It is based on ensembles featuring N{sub f}=2+1+1 dynamical twisted mass fermions generated by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC). Several light quark masses are used in order to yield a controlled extrapolation to the physical pion mass. We employ three lattice spacings to examine lattice artefacts and several different volumes to check for finite-size effects. Incorporating the complete first two generations of quarks allows for a direct comparison with phenomenological determinations of a{sub μ}{sup hvp}. Our final result including an estimate of the systematic uncertainty a{sub μ}{sup hvp}=6.74(21)(18)⋅10{sup −8} shows a good overall agreement with these computations.

  19. Cobalt nanoparticles-embedded magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon for highly effective adsorption of rhodamine B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lin, E-mail: tanglin@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Cai, Ye; Yang, Guide; Liu, Yuanyuan [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng, Guangming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhou, Yaoyu; Li, Sisi; Wang, Jiajia; Zhang, Sheng; Fang, Yan; He, Yibin [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Cobalt nanoparticles-embedded magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (Co/OMC) was applied as a novel adsorption material to remove rhodamine B. • Co/OMC was synthesized by directly introducing cobalt into OMC through a simple infusing method. • High removal capacity of rhodamine B: maximum adsorption capacity reaches 468 mg/g at 200 mg/L initial rhodamine B concentration. • Very quick adsorption property: 96% of rhodamine B can be removed within 25 min. - Abstract: Cobalt nanoparticles-embedded magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (Co/OMC), prepared through a simple method involving infusing and calcination, was used as a highly effective adsorbent for rhodamine B (Rh B) removal. Several techniques, including SEM, HRTEM, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, XRD, Raman spectra, EDX, zeta potential and VSM measurement, were applied to characterize the adsorbent. Batch tests were conducted to investigate the adsorption performance. The adsorption capacity of the resultant adsorbent was relatively high compared with raw ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) and reached an equilibrium value of 468 mg/g at 200 mg/L initial Rh B concentration. Removal efficiency even reached 96% within 25 min at 100 mg/L initial Rh B concentration. Besides, the adsorption amount increased with the increase of solution pH, adsorbent dose and initial Rh B concentration. Kinetics study showed that the adsorption agreed well with pseudo-second-order model (R{sup 2} = 0.999) and had a significant correlation with intra-particle diffusion model in the both two adsorption periods. Furthermore, thermodynamics research indicated that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous in nature. The adsorption isotherms fitted well with Langmuir model, demonstrating the formation of mono-molecular layer on the surface of Co/OMC during adsorption process. The results confirmed that Co/OMC has the potential superiority in removal of Rh B from aqueous solution.

  20. Neutron diffraction studies of magnetic ordering in Ni-doped LaCoO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeevan, N.E. [Department of Physics, Z.G. College, Calicut 673014, Kerala (India); Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Rajesh [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur 177005, Himachal Pradesh (India); Kumar, Ravi [Beant College of Engineering and Technology, Gurudaspur 143521, Punjab (India); Kaushik, S.D. [UGC-DAE CSR Mumbai Centre, R-5 Shed, BARC, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India)

    2015-11-01

    Research in rare earth cobaltite has recently been intensified due to its fascinating magnetic properties. LaCoO{sub 3}, an important cobaltite, exhibits two prominent susceptibility features at ~90 K and 500 K in low field measurement. The magnetic behavior below 100 K is predominantly antiferromagnetic (AFM), but absence of pure AFM ordering and emergence of ferromagnetic coupling on further decreasing temperature made situation more intricate. The present work of studying the effect of Ni substitution at Co site in polycrystalline LaCo{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (0≤x≤0.3) is motivated by the interesting changes in magnetic and electronic properties. For lucid understanding, temperature dependent neutron diffraction (ND) study was carried out. ND patterns fitted with rhombohedral structure in perovskite form with R-3c space group, elucidated information on phase purity. Further temperature dependent cell parameter, Co–O bond-length and Co–O–Co bond angle were calculated for the series of Ni doped LaCoO{sub 3}. The results are explained in terms of decrease in the crystal field energy which led to the transition of cobalt from low Spin (LS) state to intermediate spin state (IS). - Highlights: • Temperature dependent neutron diffraction (ND) on Ni doped LaCoO{sub 3} are studied. • Microscopic parameters (cell, bond length, bond angle etc.) are determined by ND. • Increase in Co–O bond length and decrease in Co–O–Co bond angle on Ni substitution. • Ionic radii of Co{sup +3} in IS state (0.56 Å) is larger than in LS state (0.54 Å). • Lattice expansion induced increase in Co–O length stabilizes Co{sup +3} in magnetic state.

  1. Fractional Order PID Control of Rotor Suspension by Active Magnetic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinya Anantachaisilp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key issues in control design for Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB systems is the tradeoff between the simplicity of the controller structure and the performance of the closed-loop system. To achieve this tradeoff, this paper proposes the design of a fractional order Proportional-Integral-Derivative (FOPID controller. The FOPID controller consists of only two additional parameters in comparison with a conventional PID controller. The feasibility of FOPID for AMB systems is investigated for rotor suspension in both the radial and axial directions. Tuning methods are developed based on the evolutionary algorithms for searching the optimal values of the controller parameters. The resulting FOPID controllers are then tested and compared with a conventional PID controller, as well as with some advanced controllers such as Linear Quadratic Gausian (LQG and H ∞ controllers. The comparison is made in terms of various stability and robustness specifications, as well as the dimensions of the controllers as implemented. Lastly, to validate the proposed method, experimental testing is carried out on a single-stage centrifugal compressor test rig equipped with magnetic bearings. The results show that, with a proper selection of gains and fractional orders, the performance of the resulting FOPID is similar to those of the advanced controllers.

  2. Chemical short range order and magnetic correction in liquid manganese-gallium zero alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosdidier, B.; Ben Abdellah, A.; Osman, S. M.; Ataati, J.; Gasser, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Mn66Ga34 alloy at this particular composition is known to be zero alloy in which the linear combination of the two neutron scattering lengths weighted by the atomic compositions vanish. Thus for this specific concentration, the effect of the partial structure factors SNN and SNC is cancelled by a weighted term, which value is zero. Then the measured total structure factor S(q) gives directly the concentration-concentration structure factor SCC(q). We present here the first experimental results of neutron diffraction on the Mn66Ga34 "null matrix alloy" at 1050 °C. The main peak of the experimental SCC(q) gives a strong evidence of a hetero-atomic chemical order in this coordinated alloy. This order also appears in real space radial distribution function which is calculated by the Fourier transform of the structure factor. The degree of hetero-coordination is discussed together with other manganese-polyvalent alloys. However manganese also shows abnormal magnetic scattering in the alloy structure factor which must be corrected. This correction gives an experimental information on the mean effective spin of manganese in this liquid alloy. We present the first critical theoretical calculations of the magnetic correction factor in Mn-Ga zero-alloy based on our accurate experimental measurements of SCC(q).

  3. Verification of high-order mixed FEM solution of transient Magnetic diffusion problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieben, R; White, D A

    2005-05-12

    We develop and present high order mixed finite element discretizations of the time dependent electromagnetic diffusion equations for solving eddy current problems on 3D unstructured grids. The discretizations are based on high order H(grad), H(curl) and H(div) conforming finite element spaces combined with an implicit and unconditionally stable generalized Crank-Nicholson time differencing method. We develop three separate electromagnetic diffusion formulations, namely the E (electric field), H (magnetic field) and the A-{phi} (potential) formulations. For each formulation, we also provide a consistent procedure for computing the secondary variables F (current flux density) and B (magnetic flux density), as these fields are required for the computation of electromagnetic force and heating terms. We verify the error convergence properties of each formulation via a series of numerical experiments on canonical problems with known analytic solutions. The key result is that the different formulations are equally accurate, even for the secondary variables J and B, and hence the choice of which formulation to use depends mostly upon relevance of the Natural and Essential boundary conditions to the problem of interest. In addition, we highlight issues with numerical verification of finite element methods which can lead to false conclusions on the accuracy of the methods.

  4. Chemical short range order and magnetic correction in liquid manganese–gallium zero alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosdidier, B. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique – Approche Multi-Echelle des Milieux Complexes, Institut Jean Bariol, Université de Lorraine, Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France); Ben Abdellah, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique – Approche Multi-Echelle des Milieux Complexes, Institut Jean Bariol, Université de Lorraine, Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France); Innovation and Management of Industrial Systems, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, College of Sciences and Techniques of Tangier , P.O. Box 416, Postal code 90000, Tangier (Morocco); Université Internationale de Rabat, Parc Technopolis Rabat-Shore, 11100 Sala El Jadida (Morocco); Osman, S.M., E-mail: osm@squ.edu.om [Physics Department, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Postal Code 123, Al-Khod, Muscat (Oman); Ataati, J. [Innovation and Management of Industrial Systems, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, College of Sciences and Techniques of Tangier, P.O. Box 416, Postal code 90000, Tangier (Morocco); Gasser, J.G. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique – Approche Multi-Echelle des Milieux Complexes, Institut Jean Bariol, Université de Lorraine, Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France)

    2015-12-15

    The Mn{sub 66}Ga{sub 34} alloy at this particular composition is known to be zero alloy in which the linear combination of the two neutron scattering lengths weighted by the atomic compositions vanish. Thus for this specific concentration, the effect of the partial structure factors S{sub NN} and S{sub NC} is cancelled by a weighted term, which value is zero. Then the measured total structure factor S(q) gives directly the concentration–concentration structure factor S{sub CC}(q). We present here the first experimental results of neutron diffraction on the Mn{sub 66}Ga{sub 34} “null matrix alloy” at 1050 °C. The main peak of the experimental S{sub CC}(q) gives a strong evidence of a hetero-atomic chemical order in this coordinated alloy. This order also appears in real space radial distribution function which is calculated by the Fourier transform of the structure factor. The degree of hetero-coordination is discussed together with other manganese-polyvalent alloys. However manganese also shows abnormal magnetic scattering in the alloy structure factor which must be corrected. This correction gives an experimental information on the mean effective spin of manganese in this liquid alloy. We present the first critical theoretical calculations of the magnetic correction factor in Mn–Ga zero-alloy based on our accurate experimental measurements of S{sub CC}(q).

  5. Leading-order hadronic contributions to the lepton anomalous magnetic moments from the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, Florian; Jansen, Karl; Petschlies, Marcus; Pientka, Grit; Renner, Dru B

    2015-01-01

    The hadronic leading-order (hlo) contribution to the lepton anomalous magnetic moments $a_l^\\mathrm{hlo}$ of the Standard Model leptons still accounts for the dominant source of the uncertainty of the Standard Model estimates. We present the results of an investigation of the hadronic leading order anomalous magnetic moments of the electron, muon and tau lepton from first principles in twisted mass lattice QCD. With lattice data for multiple pion masses in the range $230 \\mathrm{~MeV} \\lesssim m_{PS} \\lesssim 490 \\mathrm{~MeV}$, multiple lattice volumes and three lattice spacings we perform the extrapolation to the continuum and to the physical pion mass and check for all systematic uncertainties in the lattice calculation. As a result we calculate $a_{l}^\\mathrm{hlo}$ for the three Standard Model leptons with controlled statistical and systematic error in agreement with phenomenological determinations using dispersion relations and experimental data. In addition, we also give a first estimate of the hadronic...

  6. Longitudinal Conductivity in Strong Magnetic Field in Perturbative QCD: Complete Leading Order

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Koichi; Satow, Daisuke; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2016-01-01

    We compute the longitudinal electrical conductivity in the presence of strong background magnetic field in complete leading order of perturbative QCD, based on the assumed hierarchy of scales $\\alpha_s eB\\ll (m_q^2,T^2)\\ll eB$. We formulate an effective kinetic theory of lowest Landau level quarks with the leading order QCD collision term arising from 1-to-2 processes that become possible due to 1+1 dimensional Landau level kinematics. In small $m_q/T\\ll 1$ regime, the longitudinal conductivity behaves as $\\sigma_{zz}\\sim e^2(eB)T/(\\alpha_s m_q^2\\log(m_q/T))$, where the quark mass dependence can be understood from the chiral anomaly with the axial charge relaxation provided by a finite quark mass $m_q$. We also present parametric estimates for the longitudinal and transverse "color conductivities" in the presence of strong magnetic field, by computing dominant damping rates for quarks and gluons that are responsible for color charge transportation. We observe that the longitudinal color conductivity is enhanc...

  7. A 3rd Order WENO GLM-MHD Scheme for Magnetic Reconnection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xueshang; ZHOU Yufen; HU Yanqi

    2006-01-01

    A new numerical scheme of 3rd order Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO)type for 2.5D mixed GLM-MHD in Cartesian coordinates is proposed. The MHD equations are modified by combining the arguments as by Dellar and Dedner et al to couple the divergence constraint with the evolution equations using a Generalized Lagrange Multiplier (GLM). Moreover, the magnetohydrodynamic part of the GLM-MHD system is still in conservation form. Meanwhile, this method is very easy to add to an existing code since the underlying MHD solver does not have to be modified. To show the validation and capacity of its application to MHD problem modelling,interaction between a magnetosonic shock and a denser cloud and magnetic reconnection problems are used to verify this new MHD code. The numerical tests for 2D Orszag and Tang's MHD vortex,interaction between a magnetosonic shock and a denser cloud and magnetic reconnection problems show that the third order WENO MHD solvers are robust and yield reliable results by the new mixed GLM or the mixed EGLM correction here even if it can not be shown that how the divergence errors are transported as well as damped as done for one dimensional ideal MHD by Dedner et al.

  8. Vacancies driven magnetic ordering in ZnO nanoparticles due to low concentrated Co ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Kuldeep Chand; Bhatia, Ravi; Kumar, Sanjeev; Kotnala, R. K.

    2016-07-01

    The lattice defects due to oxygen vacancies in ZnO nanoparticles with low doping of Co ions are investigated. The low concentrated Co ions in ZnO are responsible to the free charge carriers and oxygen vacancies to induce long-range ferromagnetic ordering. We have synthesized Zn1-x Co x O [x = 0.002, 0.004, 0.006 and 0.008] nanoparticles by a sol-gel process. X-ray fluorescence analysis detects the chemical composition of Zn, Co and O atoms. Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction pattern could confirm the wurtzite ZnO structure and the lattice constants with Co doping. The nanoparticles dimensions as well lattice spacing of ZnO are enhanced with Co substitution. Fourier transform infrared vibrational modes involve some organic groups to induce lattice defects and the ionic coordination among Zn, Co and O atoms. The room temperature Raman active mode E2 indicates frequency shifting with Co to induce stress in the wurtzite lattice. Photoluminescence spectra have a strong near-band-edge emission due to band gap energy and defects related to oxygen vacancies. X-ray photoelectron spectra confirm that the low dopant Co ions in ZnO lattice occupied Zn atoms by introducing oxygen vacancies and the valance states Zn2+, Co2,3+. The zero-field and field cooling magnetic measurement at 500 Oe in Co:ZnO samples indicate long-range ferromagnetism that is enhanced at 10 K due to antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic ordering. The lattice defects/vacancies due to oxygen act as the medium of magnetic interactions which is explained by the bound magnetic polaron model.

  9. NMR investigation of field-induced magnetic order in barium manganese oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Steve

    As early as 1956, Matsubara and Matsuda found an exact correspondence between a lattice gas model and a quantum antiferromagnet model[1]. They paved the way for the language of integer spin boson particles to be used interchangeably with quantum magnetic insulator systems in a general manner. For example, an analogy of density of bosons is found in magnetization, and analogy of chemical potential is found in external field. Just as there exist corresponding parameters between these two seemingly unrelated systems, quantum magnets can also exhibit consequences of Boson particle systems. In particular, spin-ordering transition in quantum magnets can be interpreted as Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) transition in Boson particle framework. Direct observation of BEC in Boson particles has been realized in 4He's superfluid transition and in dilute atomic gas clouds cooled to very low temperatures[2]. In this thesis, we try to realize and analyze BEC transition through field-induced spin-ordering transition in the S = 1 antiferromagnetic dimer system, Ba3Mn2O8. We perform NMR measurements with 135,137Ba nucleus as a local probe. Although S = 1 spin properties of Ba 3Mn2O8 come from electronic spins on Mn atoms, hyperfine coupling between Mn electronic spins and Ba nuclear spins allow us to infer Mn electrons' spin information. Since there are 2 inequivalent Ba sites, Ba(1) and Ba(2), in Ba3Mn2O8, we essentially have two probes that provide a detailed picture of structure and nature of magnetism in this material. There are many antiferromagnetic BEC candidates, but there is a significant advantage of studying Ba3Mn 2O8. Unlike the other popular antiferromagnetic BEC candidates such as TlCuCl3[3] or BaCuSi2O6[4], we find no evidence of lattice deformation in Ba3Mn2O8 . This allows us an unprecedented clean look at magnetic properties. Aside from the aforementioned simple technical advantage, there are new physics that we can learn from Ba3Mn2O 8. The geometric frustration of

  10. Anomalous magnetic ordering in DyxPr1-x alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clegg, P.S.; Cowley, R.A.; Goff, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Epitaxial thin-films of DyxPr1-x alloys have been studied using neutron diffraction and magnetization measurements. The crystal structure changes from HCP to Sm type to DHCP as x decreases; each crystal phase has different magnetic behaviour. Surprisingly, long-range order is suppressed in the DH...

  11. Pr1-xCaxMnO3 system in the crossover region between different kinds of magnetic ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, LM; Kalinov, AV; Voloshin, IF; Babushkina, NA; Kugel, KI; Khomskii, DI

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of the Pr1-xCaxMnO3 system were studied in the characteristic points of the phase diagram corresponding to the ferromagnetic insulating (FI) and charge-ordered anti ferromagnetic states. The magnetization M and resistivity p of the ceramic samples with x = 0.2,

  12. Nature of the magnetic order in the charge-ordered cuprate La1.48Nd0.4Sr0.12CuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Bech; Rønnow, H.M.; Mesot, J.;

    2007-01-01

    Using polarized neutron scattering we establish that the magnetic order in La1.48Nd0.4Sr0.12CuO4 is either (i) one dimensionally modulated and collinear, consistent with the stripe model or (ii) two dimensionally modulated with a novel noncollinear structure. The measurements rule out a number...

  13. Magnetic Order in Ce0.95Nd0.05CoIn5: The Q-Phase at Zero Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Stéphane; Ramos, Scheilla M.; Aoki, Dai; Knebel, Georg; Mineev, Vladimir P.; Lapertot, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    We report neutron scattering experiment results revealing the nature of the magnetic order occurring in the heavy fermion superconductor Ce0.95Nd0.05CoIn5. In this system, an antiferromagnetic state is stabilized at a temperature below the superconducting transition one. We evidence that it is an incommensurate order and its propagation vector is found to be identical to that of the magnetic field induced antiferromagnetic order occurring in the stoichiometric superconductor CeCoIn5, the so-called Q-phase. The commonality between these two cases suggests that d-wave superconductivity is playing a key role for the formation of this kind of magnetic order. The proposed mechanism is the enhancement of the nesting condition by an order parameter with nodes in the nesting area.

  14. Bond-order potential for magnetic body-centered-cubic iron and its transferability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Shen; Mrovec, M.; Vitek, V.

    2016-06-01

    We derived and thoroughly tested a bond-order potential (BOP) for body-centered-cubic (bcc) magnetic iron that can be employed in atomistic calculations of a broad variety of crystal defects that control structural, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of this technologically important metal. The constructed BOP reflects correctly the mixed nearly free electron and covalent bonding arising from the partially filled d band as well as the ferromagnetism that is actually responsible for the stability of the bcc structure of iron at low temperatures. The covalent part of the cohesive energy is determined within the tight-binding bond model with the Green's function of the Schrödinger equation determined using the method of continued fractions terminated at a sufficient level of the moments of the density of states. This makes the BOP an O (N ) method usable for very large numbers of particles. Only d d bonds are included explicitly, but the effect of s electrons on the covalent energy is included via their screening of the corresponding d d bonds. The magnetic part of the cohesive energy is included using the Stoner model of itinerant magnetism. The repulsive part of the cohesive energy is represented, as in any tight-binding scheme, by an empirical formula. Its functional form is physically justified by studies of the repulsion in face-centered-cubic (fcc) solid argon under very high pressure where the repulsion originates from overlapping s and p closed-shell electrons just as it does from closed-shell s electrons in transition metals squeezed into the ion core under the influence of the large covalent d bonding. Testing of the transferability of the developed BOP to environments significantly different from those of the ideal bcc lattice was carried out by studying crystal structures and magnetic states alternative to the ferromagnetic bcc lattice, vacancies, divacancies, self-interstitial atoms (SIAs), paths continuously transforming the bcc structure to

  15. Enhancement of the incommensurate magnetic order by an applied magnetic field in underdoped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.45}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haug, Daniel; Hinkov, Vladimir; Suchaneck, Anton; Inosov, Dmytro; Park, Ji Tae; Lin, Chengtian; Keimer, Bernhard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Christensen, Niels; Niedermayer, Christof; Mesot, Joel [Paul-Scherrer-Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Bourges, Philippe; Sidis, Yvan [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA-CNRS, Saclay (France); Ivanov, Alexandre [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    2009-07-01

    The discovery of quantum oscillations in the high-temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.5} above its critical magnetic field showed that the concepts of Fermi liquid theory are applicable to the strongly correlated electron system in the underdoped cuprates. However, the observation of small electron pockets in these experiments puts a new question as such pockets are incompatible with band structure calculations and the Fermi surface topology found in angle-resolved photoemission at zero magnetic field. Our recent neutron scattering experiments on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.45} reveal an enhancement of the static incommensurate magnetic signal at low temperatures when applying an external magnetic field. This field-enhanced magnetic order may lead to a Fermi surface reconstruction and thus provide a natural explanation for the unexpected Fermi surface topology observed in the quantum oscillation experiments at high magnetic fields.

  16. L10-Ordered Thin Films with High Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy for STT-MRAM Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Efrem Yuan-Fu

    The objective of the research conducted herein was to develop L10-ordered materials and thin film stack structures with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) for spin-transfertorque magnetoresistive random access memory (STT-MRAM) applications. A systematic approach was taken in this dissertation, culminating in exchange coupled L1 0-FePt and L10- MnAl heterogeneous structures showing great promise for developing perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (pMTJs) with both high thermal stability and low critical switching current. First, using MgO underlayers on Si substrates, sputtered MnAl films were systematically optimized, ultimately producing a Si substrate/MgO (20 nm)/MnAl (30)/Ta (5) film stack with a high degree of ordering and large PMA. Next, noting the incompatibility of insulating MgO underlayers with industrial-scale CMOS processes, attention was turned to using conductive underlayers. TiN was found to excel at promoting growth of L10-MnAl, with optimized films showing improved magnetic properties over those fabricated on MgO underlayers. The use of different post-annealing processes was then studied as an alternative to in situ annealing. Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) was found to produce PMA in films at lower annealing temperatures than tube furnace annealing, but tube furnace annealing produced films with higher maximum PMA than RTA. While annealed samples had lower surface roughness than those ordered by high in situ deposition temperatures, relying solely on annealing to achieve L10-ordering resulted drastically reduced PMA. Finally, heterogeneous L10-ordered FePt/MgO/MnAl film stacks were explored for pMTJs. Film stacks with MgO barrier layers thinner than 2 nm showed significant interdiffusion between the FePt and MnAl, while film stacks with thicker MgO barrier layers exhibited good ordering and high PMA in both the FePt and MnAl films. It is believed that this limitation is caused by the roughness of the underlying FePt, which was thicker

  17. Magnetic unmixing of first-order reversal curve diagrams using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascu, Ioan; Harrison, Richard J.; Li, Yuting; Muraszko, Joy R.; Channell, James E. T.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Hodell, David A.

    2015-09-01

    We describe a quantitative magnetic unmixing method based on principal component analysis (PCA) of first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams. For PCA, we resample FORC distributions on grids that capture diagnostic signatures of single-domain (SD), pseudosingle-domain (PSD), and multidomain (MD) magnetite, as well as of minerals such as hematite. Individual FORC diagrams are recast as linear combinations of end-member (EM) FORC diagrams, located at user-defined positions in PCA space. The EM selection is guided by constraints derived from physical modeling and imposed by data scatter. We investigate temporal variations of two EMs in bulk North Atlantic sediment cores collected from the Rockall Trough and the Iberian Continental Margin. Sediments from each site contain a mixture of magnetosomes and granulometrically distinct detrital magnetite. We also quantify the spatial variation of three EM components (a coarse silt-sized MD component, a fine silt-sized PSD component, and a mixed clay-sized component containing both SD magnetite and hematite) in surficial sediments along the flow path of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). These samples were separated into granulometric fractions, which helped constrain EM definition. PCA-based unmixing reveals systematic variations in EM relative abundance as a function of distance along NADW flow. Finally, we apply PCA to the combined data set of Rockall Trough and NADW sediments, which can be recast as a four-EM mixture, providing enhanced discrimination between components. Our method forms the foundation of a general solution to the problem of unmixing multicomponent magnetic mixtures, a fundamental task of rock magnetic studies.

  18. Collagene order of articular cartilage by clinical magnetic resonance images and its age dependency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, P.; Gruender, W. [Inst. of Medical Physics and Biophysics, Univ. of Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The present papers describes a novel method to obtain information on the degree of order of the collagen network of the knee meniscal cartilage by means of a single clinical MRI. Images were obtained from 34 healthy volunteers aged between 6 and 76 years as well as from one patient with clinically-diagnosed arthrosis at the age of 32 and 37 years. A siemens vision (1.5 T) MRT with TR = 750 ms, TE = 50 ms, FoV = 160 mm, and Matrix 512 x 512 was used for this purpose. The MR signal intensities of the cartilage were read out along slices with constant height above the subchondral bone and plotted versus the actual angle to the external magnetic field. The obtained intensity curves were fitted by a model distribution, and the degree of order of the collagen fibers was calculated. For the knee meniscal cartilage, there was an age-dependency of the degree of order and a significant deviation of the volunteer with arthrosis from the normal curve. The results are discussed in view of the arcade model and of a possible use of non-invasive clinical MRT for the detection of early arthrotic changes of cartilage. (orig.)

  19. Evolution of the magnetic order in the Ho(Mn, Al) sub 2 system; neutron diffraction study

    CERN Document Server

    Golosovsky, I V; Markosyan, A S; Roisnel, T

    2002-01-01

    The neutron diffraction study of Ho(Mn sub 1 sub - sub x Al sub x) sub 2 shows the coexistence of two cubic Laves phases with different unit-cell parameters and substantially different magnetic behaviours. The first phase combines ordered ferrimagnetic and disordered antiferromagnetic components of the magnetic moments. With increasing Al content, starting from the long-range ferrimagnetic order with the induced Mn moment in HoMn sub 2 , the progressive formation of spontaneous Mn moments yields short-range order, which in turn transforms to ferromagnetic order in HoAl sub 2. The second phase with incommensurate magnetic structure is driven by the spontaneous Mn moments and exists only over limited ranges of Al content and unit-cell parameter. It has a finite correlation length and appears from a second-order transition without a magneto-volume effect.

  20. Magnetic orderings and phase separations in a simple model of insulating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapcia, Konrad Jerzy; Murawski, Szymon; Kłobus, Waldemar; Robaszkiewicz, Stanisław

    2015-11-01

    A simple effective model for a description of magnetically ordered narrow-band insulators is studied. The Hamiltonian considered consists of the effective on-site interaction (U) and intersite magnetic exchange interactions (Jz, Jxy) between nearest-neighbours. The phase diagrams and properties of this model for arbitrary chemical potential μ and arbitrary electron density n have been determined within several approaches: (i) the variational method (which treats the on-site interaction term exactly and the intersite interactions within the mean-field approximation) for any Jz,Jxy ≠ 0 (exact in the limit of infinite dimensions), (ii) the Monte Carlo simulations on a square lattice with periodic boundary conditions for Jxy = 0, and (iii) other approximate methods (inter alia: random phase approximation and spin-wave approximation) as well as (iv) rigorous treatment to obtain results concerning the ground state phase diagrams (the two last also for Jz,Jxy ≠ 0). The investigations of the general case show that, depending on the values of interaction parameters and electron concentration n, the system can exhibit not only homogeneous phases: (anti-)ferromagnetic (Fα, α = z, xy) and nonordered (NO), but also phase separated states (PSα: Fα/NO). For a fixed n one finds the following phase transitions (both continuous and discontinuous ones) and their sequences, which can occur with increasing temperature: Fα → NO, PSα → NO, PSα →Fα → NO, PSα →Fα →PSα → NO. The system analysed exhibits also tricritical behaviour.

  1. Cosmic magnetization: from spontaneously emitted aperiodic turbulent to ordered equipartition fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlickeiser, R

    2012-12-28

    It is shown that an unmagnetized nonrelativistic thermal electron-proton plasma spontaneously emits aperiodic turbulent magnetic field fluctuations of strength |δB|=3.5β(e)g(1/3)W(e)(1/2)  G, where β(e) is the normalized thermal electron temperature, W(e) the thermal plasma energy density, and g the plasma parameter. For the unmagnetized intergalactic medium, immediately after the reionization onset, the field strengths from this mechanism are about 2×10(-16)  G in cosmic voids and 2×10(-10)  G in protogalaxies, both too weak to affect the dynamics of the plasma. Accounting for simultaneous viscous damping reduces these estimates to 2×10(-21)  G in cosmic voids and 2×10(-12)  G in protogalaxies. The shear and/or compression of the intergalactic and protogalactic medium exerted by the first supernova explosions locally amplify these seed fields and make them anisotropic, until the magnetic restoring forces affect the gas dynamics at ordered plasma betas near unity.

  2. First-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams of natural and cultured biogenic magnetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Amy P.; Egli, Ramon; Moskowitz, Bruce M.

    2007-08-01

    First-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams are rapidly becoming a standard tool for characterizing magnetic particles because they simultaneously incorporate information regarding magnetostatic interaction and domain states. The simplest interpretation of FORC diagrams of single-domain (SD) particles is based on the Neel interpretation of Preisach theory, which predicts that the FORC function is the product of a coercivity and an interaction field distribution. Although the underlying assumptions of this interpretation are not correct, a strictly quantitative model of weakly interacting SD grains proves that the distributions of coercivities and interaction fields can be retrieved from a FORC diagram. To test this model, we present the possibility of a quantitative interpretation of FORC diagrams, and we present measurements of samples containing magnetosomes from cultures of magnetotactic bacteria and from a lake sediment. Two samples are investigated under the electron microscope to characterize the geometrical arrangement of the particles. We find that the clustering of otherwise similar particles has a strong influence on FORC diagrams. We also obtained a crude estimate of packing densities form the FORC diagrams, which were consistent with transmission electron microscopy observations and measurements of the anhysteretic remanent magnetization.

  3. Magnetic ordering and electronic properties of Pd-doped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, Rafael; Lopez-Perez, William [Grupo de Investigacion en Fisica Aplicada, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia); Jairo Arbey Rodriguez, M. [Grupo de Estudio de Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2012-01-15

    We carried out first-principles spin-polarized calculations in order to provide comprehensive information regarding the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the Pd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O (with x = 0.0625) semiconductor. The highly accurate all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method was used to calculate total energy and electronic structure of the Pd-doped ZnO semiconductor. The recently developed Wu-Cohen generalized gradient approximation to the exchange correlation functional was adopted. The results indicate that the ferromagnetic ground state originates from the strong hybridization between Pd-4d and O-2p states, which is in agreement with previous studies on 4d doping in wide gap semiconductors. This article shows that 4d transition metals such as palladium may also be considered as candidates to explore new half-metallic ferromagnetism in semiconductors. This study gives new clues to the fabrication of diluted magnetic semiconductors. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Magnetism and Bond Order in Diatomic Molecules Described by Semiclassical Electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekesan, Solen; Lin, Damian Y; Herzfeld, Judith

    2016-07-01

    The past decade has seen the first attempts at quantifying a semiclassical description of electrons in molecules. The challenge in this endeavor is to find potentials for electron interactions that adequately capture quantum effects. As has been the case for density functionals, the challenge is particularly great for the effects that follow from the requirement for wave function antisymmetry. Here we extend our empirical inquiry into effective potentials, from prior work on the monatomic atoms and ions of nonmetals, to diatomic molecules and ions formed by these elements. Newly adjusted and trained for the longer distances relevant to diatomics, pairwise potentials are able to fit the bond orders and magnetic properties of homonuclear species. These potentials are then found to do an excellent job of predicting the magnetism of heteronuclear species. In these molecules the predicted distribution of electrons also correctly reflects increasing ionic character with increasing difference in the electronegativities of the participating atoms. The distinctive features of the current potential are discussed, along with issues calling for further improvements.

  5. Thermal plasma processed ferro-magnetically ordered face-centered cubic iron at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, Suyog A.; Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L., E-mail: vlmathe@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Das, A. K. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-10-28

    Here, we report tailor made phase of iron nanoparticles using homogeneous gas phase condensation process via thermal plasma route. It was observed that crystal lattice of nano-crystalline iron changes as a function of operating parameters of the plasma reactor. In the present investigation iron nanoparticles have been synthesized in presence of argon at operating pressures of 125–1000 Torr and fixed plasma input DC power of 6 kW. It was possible to obtain pure fcc, pure bcc as well as the mixed phases for iron nanoparticles in powder form as a function of operating pressure. The as synthesized product was characterized for understanding the structural and magnetic properties by using X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The data reveal that fcc phase is ferromagnetically ordered with high spin state, which is unusual whereas bcc phase is found to be ferromagnetic as usual. Finally, the structural and magnetic properties are co-related.

  6. Electrical transport and magnetic ordering in 2Ti3Ge4 (=Dy, Ho and Er) compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Nirmala; V Sankaranarayanan; K Sethupathi; A V Morozkin; T Geethakumary; Y Hariharan

    2002-05-01

    New 2Ti3Ge4 ( = Dy, Ho and Er) intermetallic compounds have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction and low temperature ac magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power measurements were carried out. The compounds crystallize in the parent, Sm5Ge4-type orthorhombic structure (space group Pnma) and lanthanide contraction is observed as one moves along the rare-earth series. The changeover from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic phase happens at low temperatures and the ordering temperature scales with the de Gennes factor. The electrical resistivity is metallic with a negative curvature above 100 K. Thermopower displays a weak maximum at temperatures less than 50 K signifying the possible phonon and magnon drag effects.

  7. The magnetic ordering in high magnetoresistance Mn-doped ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Venkatesh, S.

    2016-03-24

    We studied the nature of magnetic ordering in Mn-doped ZnO thin films that exhibited ferromagnetism at 300 K and superparamagnetism at 5 K. We directly inter-related the magnetisation and magnetoresistance by invoking the polaronpercolation theory and variable range of hopping conduction below the metal-to-insulator transition. By obtaining a qualitative agreement between these two models, we attribute the ferromagnetism to the s-d exchange-induced spin splitting that was indicated by large positive magnetoresistance (∼40 %). Low temperature superparamagnetism was attributed to the localization of carriers and non-interacting polaron clusters. This analysis can assist in understanding the presence or absence of ferromagnetism in doped/un-doped ZnO.

  8. Influence of magnetic on ferroelectric ordering in LuMnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aken, Bas B.; Palstra, Thomas T.

    2004-04-01

    We have studied the influence of antiferromagnetic ordering on the local dielectric moments of the MnO5 and LuO7 polyhedra by measuring neutron powder-diffraction patterns of LuMnO3 at temperatures near TN. We show that the coupling is weak, because the magnetic exchange coupling is predominantly in the ab plane of the MnO5 trigonal bipyramids, and the electric dipole moments, originating in the LuO7 polyhedra, are oriented along the hexagonal c axis. Anomalies in the dielectric properties near TN are thus caused by the geometric constraints between the MnO5 and the LuO7 polyhedra.

  9. Behaviour of the order parameter of the simple magnet in an external field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.Kozlovskii

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a homogeneous external field on the three-dimensional uniaxial magnet behaviour near the critical point is investigated within the framework of the nonperturbative collective variables method using the ρ4 model. The research is carried out for the low-temperature region. The analytic explicit expressions for the free energy, average spin moment and susceptibility are obtained for weak and strong fields in comparison with the field value belonging to the pseudocritical line. The calculations are performed on the microscopic level without any adjusting parameters. It is established that the long-wave fluctuations of the order parameter play a crucial role in forming a crossover between the temperature-dependence and field-dependence critical behaviour of the system.

  10. Disappearance of Static Magnetic Order and Evolution of Spin Fluctuations in Fe1+ SexTe1−x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, G.; Xu, Z.; Wen, J.; Jie, Q.; Lin, Z.; Li, Q.; Chi, S.; Singh, D.K.; Gu, G.; Tranquada, J.M.

    2010-09-29

    We report neutron-scattering studies on static magnetic orders and spin excitations in the Fe-based chalcogenide system Fe{sub 1+{delta}}Se{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} with different Fe and Se compositions. Short-range static magnetic order with an in-plane wave vector near the (0.5,0) (using the two-Fe unit cell), together with strong low-energy magnetic excitations is found in all nonsuperconducting samples for Se doping up to 45%. When the static order disappears and bulk superconductivity emerges, the spectral weight of the magnetic excitations shifts to the region of reciprocal space near the in-plane wave vector (0.5, 0.5), corresponding to 'collinear' spin correlations. Our results suggest that there is a strong correlation between superconductivity and the character of the magnetic order/fluctuations in this system. Excess Fe appears to be important for stabilizing the magnetic order that competes with superconductivity.

  11. Magnetic ordering and exchange interactions in structural modifications of M n3Ga alloys: Interplay of frustration, atomic order, and off-stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmelevskyi, Sergii; Ruban, Andrei V.; Mohn, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Mn-Ga alloys close to the M n3Ga stoichiometry can be synthesized in three different crystal modifications: hexagonal, tetragonal, and face-centered cubic, both in bulk and in thin-film forms. The magnetic ordering of these modifications is varying from noncollinear antiferromagnetic in the hexagonal case to ferrimagnetic order in the tetragonal one, whereas it is still unknown for the atomically disordered fcc structure. Here we study the onset of magnetic order at finite temperatures in these systems on a first-principles basis calculating the interatomic magnetic exchange interactions in the high-temperature paramagnetic regime. We employ the disordered local moment formalism and the magnetic force theorem within the framework of the local spin-density approximation and Monte Carlo simulations taking also the effects of atomic disorder in fcc alloys into account. In particular we find the origin of the stabilization of the noncollinear 3 k structure in competition between antiferromagnetic inter- and in-plane couplings of frustrated kagome planes in hexagonal M n3Ga and predict the antiferromagnetic-1 collinear order due to frustration in fcc alloys. Special attention is paid to the effects of the off-stoichiometry and the consequences of atomic disorder. We calculate the site-preference energy of Ga antisite atoms in the tetragonal structures in the range of the compositions from M n3Ga to M n2Ga and slightly beyond and confirm the earlier explanation of the effect of magnetization increase due to Ga preferentially occupying one of the Mn sites.

  12. Magnetic, thermodynamic and transport properties at the first and second order magnetic phase transitions in Dy{sub 5}Si{sub 3} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkowski, M., E-mail: falkowski@ifmpan.poznan.pl [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Kowalczyk, A.; Toliński, T. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)

    2013-04-15

    We present extended studies including the dc and ac magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, specific heat, electrical resistivity and magnetoresistivity measurements for the Dy{sub 5}Si{sub 3} compound with the hexagonal Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type structure. The results indicate that this compound orders antiferromagnetically below T{sub N}=137 K. The magnetic properties of Dy{sub 5}Si{sub 3} are mainly governed by the presence of the magnetic moments of Dy{sup 3+} ions. In the paramagnetic range, the magnetic susceptibility follows the Curie–Weiss law with μ{sub eff}=10.57 μ{sub B}/Dy, which is very close to the theoretical value of 10.6 μ{sub B}. From the magnetometric, specific heat and transport data it has been found that below 50 K this compound reveals a non-collinear magnetic order, associated with a phase transition, probably of the first order type. On the basis of the thermodynamic approach, we report the magnetocaloric properties in the whole temperature range but concentrate mainly on the region around 50 K. The magnetocaloric effect was calculated in terms of the isothermal magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub M} as well as the adiabatic temperature change ΔT{sub ad} using the specific heat data. In spite of the only moderate ΔS{sub M} values a significant relative cooling power has been observed. -- Highlights: ► Dy{sub 5}Si{sub 3} orders antiferromagnetically below T{sub N}=137 K. ► Below 50 K it reveals a non-collinear antiferromagnetic-like behavior, associated with a first-order phase transition. ► Complex magnetic structure. ► A significant relative cooling power has been observed.

  13. First-order phase transitions in spinor Bose gases and frustrated magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debelhoir, T.; Dupuis, N.

    2016-11-01

    We show that phase transitions in spin-1 Bose gases and stacked triangular Heisenberg antiferromagnets—an example of frustrated magnets with competing interactions—are described by the same Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson Hamiltonian with O (3 )×O (2 ) symmetry. In agreement with previous nonperturbative-renormalization-group studies of the three-dimensional O (3 )×O (2 ) model, we find that the transition from the normal phase to the superfluid ferromagnetic phase in a spin-1 Bose gas is weakly first order and shows pseudoscaling behavior. The (nonuniversal) pseudoscaling exponent ν is fully determined by the scattering lengths a0 and a2. We provide estimates of ν in 87Rb,41K, and 7Li atom gases which can be tested experimentally. We argue that pseudoscaling comes from either a crossover phenomenon due to proximity of the O(6) Wilson-Fisher fixed point (87Rb and 41K) or the existence of two unphysical fixed points (with complex coordinates) which slow down the RG flow (7Li). These unphysical fixed points are a remnant of the chiral and antichiral fixed points that exist in the O (N )×O (2 ) model when N is larger than Nc≃5.3 (the transition being then second order and controlled by the chiral fixed point). Finally, we discuss a O (2 )×O (2 ) lattice model and show that our results, even though we find the transition to be first order, are compatible with Monte Carlo simulations yielding an apparent second-order transition.

  14. Neutron diffraction studies of magnetic ordering in superconducting ErNi2B2C and TmNi2B2C in an applied magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Katrine Nørgaard

    along [110], the magnetic structure rotates a small angle of 0.5 degrees away from the symmetrydirection. TmNi2B2C: A magnetic field applied in the [100] direction suppresses the zero field magnetic structure QF = (0.094,0.094,0) (TN = 1.6 K), in favor of the Fermi surface nesting structure QN = (0......The field-induced magnetic structures of ErNi2B2C and TmNi2B2C in are especially interesting because the field suppresses the superconducting order parameter and therefore the magnetic properties can be studied while varying the strength ofsuperconductivity. ErNi2B2C: For magnetic fields along all...... three symmetry directions, the observed magnetic structures have a period corresponding to the Fermi surface nesting structure. The phase diagrams present all the observed magnetic structures.Two results remain unresolved: 1. When applying the magnetic field along [010], the minority domain (QNB = (0,Q...

  15. Separation of charge-order and magnetic QCPs in heavy fermions and high Tc cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil

    2010-03-01

    The Fermi surface topology of high temperature superconductors inferred from magnetic quantum oscillation measurements provides clues for the origin of unconventional pairing thus previously not accessed by other spectroscopy techniques. While the overdoped regime of the high Tc phase diagram has a large Fermi surface consistent with bandstructure calculations, the underdoped regime of YBa2Cu2O6+x is found to be composed of small pockets. There is considerable debate as to whether the small observed ``pocket'' is hole-like or electron-like- whether the Fermi surface is best described by a t-J model or a conventional band folding picture- whether or not a Fermi liquid description applies- or- whether bilayer coupling splits the degeneracy of the observed pockets. We (myself and collaborators) have now collected an extensive body of experimental data that brings this debate to rest, but raises new questions about the nature of itinerant magnetism in underdoped high Tc cuprates. Quantum oscillation measurements are performed on multiple samples in magnetic fields extending to 85 T, temperatures between 30 mK (dilution fridge in dc fields to 45 T) and 18 K, over a range of hole dopings and with samples rotated in-situ about multiple axes with respect to the magnetic field. We perform a topographical map of the Fermi surface, enabling the in-plane shape of one of the pockets to be determined- imposing stringent constraints on the origin of the Fermi surface. While quantum oscillations measurements are consistent with a topological Fermi surface change associated with magnetism near optimal doping, they also point to a secondary instability deep within the underdoped regime beneath a high Tc superconducting sub-dome. An steep upturn in the quasiparticle effective mass is observed on underdoping, suggestive of a quantum critical point near x= 0.46 separating the metallic regime (composed of small pockets) from a more underdoped insulating charge-ordered regime (earlier

  16. Tenth-Order Lepton Anomalous Magnetic Moment -- Second-Order Vertex Containing Two Vacuum Polarization Subdiagrams, One Within the Other

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, T; Kinoshita, T; Nio, M

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the tenth-order QED contribution to the g-2 of electron and muon from two gauge-invariant sets, Set I(g) and Set I(h). In the case of electron g-2 Set I(g) consists of 9 Feynman diagrams which have 4th-order vacuum-polarization loop containing another 4th-order vacuum-polarization loop. Set I(h) consists of 30 Feynman diagrams which have proper 6th-order vacuum-polarization loop containing a second-order vacuum-polarization loop. The results of numerical integration, including mass-dependent terms containing one closed loop of muon, are 0.028 597 (4) (alpha/pi)^5 for Set I(g) and 0.001 685 (13) (alpha/pi)^5 for Set I(h), respectively. We also report the contributions of Set I(g) and Set I(h) to the muon anomaly. Diagrams included are those containing electron, muon, and tau-lepton loops. Their sums are 2.640 9 (4) (alpha/pi)^5 and -0.564 8 (11) (alpha/pi)^5, respectively. The sum of contributions of Sets I(g) and I(h) containing only electron loops are in fair agreement with the recently ob...

  17. Synthesis of magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (Fe-OMC) adsorbent and its evaluation for fuel desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzin Nejad, N.; Shams, E.; Amini, M. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon adsorbent was synthesized using soft templating method to adsorb sulfur from model oil (dibenzothiophene in n-hexane). Through this research, pluronic F-127, resorcinol-formaldehyde and hydrated iron nitrate were respectively used as soft template, carbon source and iron source. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm and transmission electron microscopy. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement revealed the high surface area (810 m2 g-1), maxima pore size of 3.3 nm and large pore volume (1.01 cm3 g-1) of the synthesized sample. The adsorbent showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 111 mg dibenzothiophene g-1 of adsorbent. Sorption process was described by the pseudo-second-order rate equation and could be better fitted by the Freundlich model, showing the heterogeneous feature of the adsorption process. In addition, the adsorption capacity of regenerated adsorbent was 78.6% of the initial level, after five regeneration cycles.

  18. Coalescence-driven magnetic order of the uncompensated antiferromagnetic Co doped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, V.; Henne, B.; Lumetzberger, J.; Wilhelm, F.; Ollefs, K.; Rogalev, A.; Kovacs, A.; Kieschnick, M.; Ney, A.

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of the structural and magnetic properties of Co doped ZnO has been investigated over an unprecedented concentration range above the coalescence limit. ZnO films with Co concentrations from 20% to 60% of the cationic lattice have been grown by reactive magnetron sputtering. The wurtzite crystal structure was maintained even for these high dopant concentrations. By measuring the x-ray absorption at the near edge and the linear and circular dichroism of the films at the Zn and Co K edge, it could be shown that Co substitutes predominantly for Zn in the lattice. No indications of metallic Co have been found in the samples. At low Co concentrations, the films are paramagnetic, but with increasing Co content, the films become antiferromagnetically ordered with increasing order temperature. Uncompensated spins, coupled to the antiferromagnetic dopant configurations, lead to a vertical exchange-bias-like effect, which increases with increasing Co concentration. In parallel, the single-ion anisotropy is gradually lost.

  19. Thickness-Dependent and Magnetic-Field-Driven Suppression of Antiferromagnetic Order in Thin V5S8 Single Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Will J; Yuan, Jiangtan; Guo, Hua; Zhou, Panpan; Lou, Jun; Natelson, Douglas

    2016-06-28

    With materials approaching the 2D limit yielding many exciting systems with intriguing physical properties and promising technological functionalities, understanding and engineering magnetic order in nanoscale, layered materials is generating keen interest. One such material is V5S8, a metal with an antiferromagnetic ground state below the Néel temperature TN ∼ 32 K and a prominent spin-flop signature in the magnetoresistance (MR) when H∥c ∼ 4.2 T. Here we study nanoscale-thickness single crystals of V5S8, focusing on temperatures close to TN and the evolution of material properties in response to systematic reduction in crystal thickness. Transport measurements just below TN reveal magnetic hysteresis that we ascribe to a metamagnetic transition, the first-order magnetic-field-driven breakdown of the ordered state. The reduction of crystal thickness to ∼10 nm coincides with systematic changes in the magnetic response: TN falls, implying that antiferromagnetism is suppressed; and while the spin-flop signature remains, the hysteresis disappears, implying that the metamagnetic transition becomes second order as the thickness approaches the 2D limit. This work demonstrates that single crystals of magnetic materials with nanometer thicknesses are promising systems for future studies of magnetism in reduced dimensionality and quantum phase transitions.

  20. A convective divertor utilizing a 2nd-order magnetic field null

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognlien, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    New results motivate a detailed study of a magnetic divertor concept characterized by strong plasma convection near a poloidal magnetic field (Bp) null region. The configuration is that of a near-2nd-order Bp null (Bp ~ Δ r2) , as in a snowflake divertor. The concept has 2 key features: (A) Convection spreads the heat flux between multiple divertor legs and further broadens the heat-flux profile within each leg, thereby greatly reducing target-plate heat loads. (B) The heat flux is further reduced by line radiation in each leg in detachment-like ionization zones. Theory indicates that convective turbulence arises when the poloidal plasma beta, βp = 2μ0nT/B p 2 >> 1 . Measurements in TCV now more fully quantify earlier NSTX and TCV observations of plasma mixing, and related modeling of TCV indicates that strongly enhanced null-region transport is present. Convective mixing provides a stabilizing mechanism to prevent the ionization fronts (hydrogenic and impurity) from collapsing to a highly radiating core MARFE. Also, the radiating zone maps to a very small region at the midplane owing to the very weak Bp in the convective region, thus minimizing its impact on the core plasma. Detailed calculations are reported that combine features A and B noted above. The plasma mixing mechanisms are described together with the corresponding transport model implemented in the 2D UEDGE edge transport code. UEDGE calculations are presented that quantify the roles of mixing, impurity radiation, and detachment stability for a realistic snowflake configuration. Work in collaboration with D.D. Ryutov, S.I. Krasheninnikov, and M.V. Umansky. Performed for the U.S. DoE by LLNS, LLC, LLNL, under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Spin state ordering of strongly correlating LaCoO3 induced at ultrahigh magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Akihiko; Nomura, Toshihiro; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H.; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi; Sato, Keisuke

    2016-06-01

    Magnetization measurements of LaCoO3 have been carried out up to 133 T, generated with a destructive pulse magnet at a wide temperature range from 2 to 120 K. A novel magnetic transition was found at B >100 T and T >T*=32 ±5 K, which is characterized by its transition field increasing with increasing temperature. At T LaCoO3 at high magnetic fields.

  2. Superconductivity and magnetic short-range order in the system with a Pd sheet sandwiched between graphene sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masatsugu [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902-6016 (United States); Suzuki, Itsuko S [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902-6016 (United States); Walter, Juergen [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902-6016 (United States)

    2004-02-18

    Pd-metal graphite (Pd-MG) has a layered structure, where each Pd sheet is sandwiched between adjacent graphene sheets. The DC magnetization and AC magnetic susceptibility of Pd-MG have been measured using a SQUID magnetometer. Pd-MG undergoes a superconducting transition at T{sub c} (= 3.63 {+-} 0.04 K). The superconductivity occurs in the Pd sheets. The irreversibility between {chi}{sub ZFC} and {chi}{sub FC} occurs well above T{sub c}. The susceptibility {chi}{sub FC} obeys a Curie-Weiss behaviour with a negative Curie-Weiss temperature (-13.1 {<=}{theta} {<=}-5.4 K). The growth of magnetic order is limited by the disordered nature of nanographites, forming magnetic short-range order at low temperature in the graphene sheets.

  3. Effect of Jahn-Teller distortion on the short range magnetic order in copper ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, M. H.; Innocenti, Claudia; Liakos, Ioannis; Scarpellini, Alice; Marras, Sergio; Salerno, Marco

    2017-02-01

    Copper ferrite of spinel crystal structure was synthesized in the form of nano-particles using citrate-gel auto-combustion method. The sample morphology and composition were identified using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray spectroscopy. The latter technique reveals an inverse spinel structure with Jahn-Teller tetragonal distortion. The static magnetization was measured using vibrating sample magnetometer. Magnetic force microscopy was used in combination with the magnetization data to demonstrate the finite size effect of the magnetic spins and their casting behavior due to the introduction of copper ions in the tetrahedral magnetic sub-lattices, which results in tetragonal distorting the spinel structure of the copper ferrite. The magnetic properties of materials are a result of the collective behavior of the magnetic spins, and magnetic force microscopy can probe the collective behavior of the magnetic spins in copper ferrite, yet providing a sufficient resolution to map the effects below the micrometer size scale, such as the magnetic spin canting. A theoretical study was done to clarify the finite size effect of Jahn-Teller distortion on the magnetic properties of the material. When the particles are in the nano-scale, below the single domain size, their magnetic properties are very sensitive to their size change.

  4. Experimental and micromagnetic first-order reversal curves analysis in NdFeB-based bulk 'exchange spring'-type permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiriac, Horia [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Boulevard, 700050, Iasi (Romania); Lupu, Nicoleta [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Boulevard, 700050, Iasi (Romania); Stoleriu, Laurentiu [Al. I. Cuza University, Department of Solid State and Theoretical Physics, Blvd. Carol I, 11, 700506, Iasi (Romania)]. E-mail: lstoler@uaic.ro; Postolache, Petronel [Al. I. Cuza University, Department of Solid State and Theoretical Physics, Blvd. Carol I, 11, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Stancu, Alexandru [Al. I. Cuza University, Department of Solid State and Theoretical Physics, Blvd. Carol I, 11, 700506, Iasi (Romania)

    2007-09-15

    In this paper we present the results of applying the first-order reversal curves (FORC) diagram experimental method to the analysis of the magnetization processes of NdFeB-based permanents magnets. The FORC diagrams for this kind of exchange spring magnets show the existence of two magnetic phases-a soft magnetic phase and a hard magnetic one. Micromagnetic modeling is used for validating the hypotheses regarding the origin of the different features of the experimental FORC diagrams.

  5. Magnetic-field-induced charge-stripe order in the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Mayaffre, Hadrien; Krämer, Steffen; Horvatić, Mladen; Berthier, Claude; Hardy, W N; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D A; Julien, Marc-Henri

    2011-09-07

    Electronic charges introduced in copper-oxide (CuO(2)) planes generate high-transition-temperature (T(c)) superconductivity but, under special circumstances, they can also order into filaments called stripes. Whether an underlying tendency towards charge order is present in all copper oxides and whether this has any relationship with superconductivity are, however, two highly controversial issues. To uncover underlying electronic order, magnetic fields strong enough to destabilize superconductivity can be used. Such experiments, including quantum oscillations in YBa(2)Cu(3)O(y) (an extremely clean copper oxide in which charge order has not until now been observed) have suggested that superconductivity competes with spin, rather than charge, order. Here we report nuclear magnetic resonance measurements showing that high magnetic fields actually induce charge order, without spin order, in the CuO(2) planes of YBa(2)Cu(3)O(y). The observed static, unidirectional, modulation of the charge density breaks translational symmetry, thus explaining quantum oscillation results, and we argue that it is most probably the same 4a-periodic modulation as in stripe-ordered copper oxides. That it develops only when superconductivity fades away and near the same 1/8 hole doping as in La(2-x)Ba(x)CuO(4) (ref. 1) suggests that charge order, although visibly pinned by CuO chains in YBa(2)Cu(3)O(y), is an intrinsic propensity of the superconducting planes of high-T(c) copper oxides.

  6. Magnetic ordering and phase transitions in R{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szytula, A. E-mail: szytula@if.uj.edu.pl; Wawrzynska, E.; Penc, B.; Hernandez-Velasco, J.; Zygmunt, A

    2004-05-01

    Ternary R{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4} (R=Tb-Er; X=Si, Ge, Sn) compounds were investigated by means of neutron powder diffraction and magnetization measurements. The compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic Gd{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}Ge{sub 4}-type crystal structure (space group Immm). The rare-earth atoms occupy two inequivalent 2d and 4e sublattices. The magnetic moments are localized exclusively on the rare earths and order at low temperatures. On the basis of the collected data thermal dependence of the magnetic structure was determined.

  7. 2D to 3D crossover of the magnetic properties in ordered arrays of iron oxide nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Bertrand; Wetterskog, Erik; Gunnarsson, Klas

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic 2D to 3D crossover behavior of well-ordered arrays of monodomain γ-Fe2O3 spherical nanoparticles with different thicknesses has been investigated by magnetometry and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Using the structural information of the arrays obtained from grazing incidence small...... interactions induce a ferromagnetic coupling that increases in strength with decreasing thickness of the array. The 2D to 3D transition in the magnetic properties is mainly driven by a change in the orientation of the magnetic vortex states with increasing thickness, becoming more isotropic as the thickness...

  8. Design, Fabrication, and Implementation of a Wireless, Passive Implantable Pressure Sensor Based on Magnetic Higher-Order Harmonic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keat Ghee Ong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A passive and wireless sensor was developed for monitoring pressure in vivo. Structurally, the pressure sensor, referred to as the magneto-harmonic pressure sensor, is an airtight chamber sealed with an elastic pressure membrane. A strip of magnetically-soft material is attached to the bottom of the chamber and a permanent magnet strip is embedded inside the membrane. Under the excitation of an externally applied AC magnetic field, the magnetically-soft strip produces a higher-order magnetic signature that can be remotely detected with an external receiving coil. As ambient pressure varies, the pressure membrane deflects, altering the separation distance between the magnetically-soft strip and the permanent magnet. This shifts the higher-order harmonic signal, allowing for detection of pressure change as a function of harmonic shifting. The wireless, passive nature of this sensor technology allows for continuous long-term pressure monitoring, particularly useful for biomedical applications such as monitoring pressure in aneurysm sac and sphincter of Oddi. In addition to demonstrating its pressure sensing capability, an animal model was used to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of the pressure sensor in a biological environment.

  9. Magnetism and rotation effect on surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic general viscoelastic media of higher order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Dahab, S. M. [Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Abd-Alla, A. M. [SVU, Qena (Egypt); Khan, Aftab [Sohag University, Sohag (Egypt)

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the propagation of surface waves in a rotating fibre-reinforced viscoelastic media of higher order under the influence of magnetic field. The general surface wave speeds derived to study the effects of rotation and magnetic field on surface waves. Particular cases for Stoneley, Love and Rayleigh waves are also discussed and dispersion relation for the waves has been deduced. The results obtained in this investigation are more general in the sense that some earlier published results are obtained from our result as special cases. For order zero our results are well agreement to fibre-reinforced materials. Also by neglecting the reinforced elastic parameters, the results reduce to well known isotropic medium. It is observed that in a rotating medium the surface waves are dispersive. Also magnetic effects play a significant roll. It is observed that Love wave remain unaffected in a rotating medium but remain under the influence of magnetic field. Rayleigh waves are affected by rotation and magnetic field whereas Stoneley waves are independent of Maxwell stresses. It is also observed that, surface waves cannot propagate in a fast rotating medium or in the presence of magnetic field of high intensity. Numerical results for particular materials are given and illustrated graphically. The results indicate that the effect of rotation and magnetic field are very pronounced.

  10. Europium mixed-valence, long-range magnetic order, and dynamic magnetic response in EuCu2(SixGe1 -x)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemkovski, K. S.; Kozlenko, D. P.; Alekseev, P. A.; Mignot, J.-M.; Menushenkov, A. P.; Yaroslavtsev, A. A.; Clementyev, E. S.; Ivanov, A. S.; Rols, S.; Klobes, B.; Hermann, R. P.; Gribanov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    In mixed-valence or heavy-fermion systems, the hybridization between local f orbitals and conduction band states can cause the suppression of long-range magnetic order, which competes with strong spin fluctuations. Ce- and Yb-based systems have been found to exhibit fascinating physical properties (heavy-fermion superconductivity, non-Fermi-liquid states, etc.) when tuned to the vicinity of magnetic quantum critical points by use of various external control parameters (temperature, magnetic field, chemical composition). Recently, similar effects (mixed-valence, Kondo fluctuations, heavy Fermi liquid) have been reported to exist in some Eu-based compounds. Unlike Ce (Yb), Eu has a multiple electron (hole) occupancy of its 4 f shell, and the magnetic Eu2 + state (4 f7 ) has no orbital component in the usual L S coupling scheme, which can lead to a quite different and interesting physics. In the EuCu2(SixGe1 -x)2 series, where the valence can be tuned by varying the Si/Ge ratio, it has been reported that a significant valence fluctuation can exist even in the magnetic order regime. This paper presents a detailed study of the latter material using different microscopic probes (XANES, Mössbauer spectroscopy, elastic and inelastic neutron scattering), in which the composition dependence of the magnetic order and dynamics across the series is traced back to the change in the Eu valence state. In particular, the results support the persistence of valence fluctuations into the antiferromagnetic state over a sizable composition range below the critical Si concentration xc≈0.65 . The sequence of magnetic ground states in the series is shown to reflect the evolution of the magnetic spectral response.

  11. Structures, magnetic and dielectric properties of the ordered double perovskites LnPbNiSbO6 (Ln = La, Pr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Bai, Yijia; Liu, Xiaojuan; Yao, Chuangang; Meng, Junling; Liang, Qingshuang; Wu, Xiaojie; Meng, Jian

    2014-09-01

    The crystal structures, magnetic and dielectric properties for the ordered double perovskites LnPbNiSbO6 (Ln = La, Pr) have been investigated. Rietveld refinements of x-ray diffraction data have been indexed for the monoclinic symmetry in space group P21/n (No. 14) and a highly rock-salt ordered arrangement of NiO6 and SbO6 octahedra. The B-site lattices are distorted strongly due to the substitution of rare Earth ions at the A-site. The magnetization measurements show an antiferromagnetic ordering. The effective magnetic moments μ eff are larger than the spin-only values, suggesting that the orbital component for Ni2+ is significant. The maximum values of isothermal magnetization increase due to the lattice distortion of BO6 octahedra, which may weaken the antiferromagnetic interaction via Ni2+-O-Sb5+-O-Ni2+ paths. The dielectric constants for LaPbNiSbO6 present frequency dependence and the tan δ curves exhibit relaxor-like dielectric response. The ɛ‧ decreases with the reduction of the magnetic moments of B-site transition metal ions, which reveals a relationship between the dielectric and magnetic properties.

  12. Influence of the Jahn-Teller distortion on magnetic ordering in TbMn1-xFexO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Jin-Ling; Zhang Xiang-Qun; Li Guo-Ke; Cheng Zhao-Hua

    2012-01-01

    The Jahn-Teller distortion plays an important role in determining the exchange interaction in rare-earth manganites.In this work we study the influence of the Jahn-Teller distortion on the magnetic structures of TbMn1-xFexO3 (x =0,0.02,0.05,0.10,and 0.20) single crystals in the basal MnO2 plane.The decrease in the quadruple splitting with the increasing Fe doping indicates the reduction of the Jahn-Teller distortion,which makes the nearest neighboring (NN) FM interaction dominant over the next nearest neighbor (NNN) AFM interaction.This alteration is favorable for the development of A-type AFM ordering instead of the spiral magnetic ordering,which collapses when x ≥ 0.05.The analysis of dielectric data indicates that the ferroelectricity is arising from the peculiar spiral magnetic ordering.

  13. Modulated magnetism in the ferromagnet PrPtAl: Clear experimental evidence of the `order by disorder' theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J.-Ph.; O'Neill, Chris; Walker, Alex; Lithgow, Calum; Abdul-Jabbar, Gino; Yelland, Edward; Sokolov, Dmitry A.; Huxley, Andrew D.

    The ferromagnet PrPtAl is unlike any other. At the phase boundary between paramagnetism and ferromagnetism the fluctuations of the order parameter are so strong that energetically favourable phases of novel modulated magnetism emerge. In fact, it's the lack of order (the 'disorder') that is pivotal to promote a new 'order'. This mechanism is referred to as 'order by disorder' and is the centre of numerous theoretical studies. In this seminar, following an introduction on the topic of ferromagnetic materials, I will show how we can use both electrical and thermal conductivities to learn everything about these phases of modulated magnetism and to validate the predictions of the 'order by disorder' theory.

  14. The Effect of Magnetic Field and Initial Stress on Fractional Order Generalized Thermoelastic Half-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Deswal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study magneto-thermoelastic interactions in an initially stressed isotropic homogeneous half-space in the context of fractional order theory of generalized thermoelasticity. State space formulation with the Laplace transform technique is used to obtain the general solution, and the resulting formulation is applied to the ramp type increase in thermal load and zero stress. Solutions of the problem in the physical domain are obtained by using a numerical method of the Laplace inverse transform based on the Fourier expansion technique, and the expressions for the displacement, temperature, and stress inside the half-space are obtained. Numerical computations are carried out for a particular material for illustrating the results. Results obtained for the field variables are displayed graphically. Some comparisons have been shown in figures to present the effect of fractional parameter, ramp parameter, magnetic field, and initial stress on the field variables. Some particular cases of special interest have been deduced from the present investigation.

  15. Neutron star deformation due to arbitrary-order multipolar magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mastrano, Alpha; Melatos, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Certain multi-wavelength observations of neutron stars, such as intermittent radio emissions from rotation-powered pulsars beyond the pair-cascade death line, the pulse profile of the magnetar SGR 1900+14 after its 1998 August 27 giant flare, and X-ray spectral features of PSR J0821-4300 and SGR 0418+5729, suggest that the magnetic fields of non-accreting neutron stars are not purely dipolar and may contain higher-order multipoles. Here, we calculate the ellipticity of a non-barotropic neutron star with (i) a quadrupole poloidal-toroidal field, and (ii) a purely poloidal field containing arbitrary multipoles, deriving the relation between the ellipticity and the multipole amplitudes. We present, as a worked example, a purely poloidal field comprising dipole, quadrupole, and octupole components. We show the correlation between field energy and ellipticity for each multipole, that the l=4 multipole has the lowest energy, and that l=5 has the lowest ellipticity. We show how a mixed multipolar field creates an ob...

  16. Concepts relating magnetic interactions, intertwined electronic orders, and strongly correlated superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J C Séamus; Lee, Dung-Hai

    2013-10-29

    Unconventional superconductivity (SC) is said to occur when Cooper pair formation is dominated by repulsive electron-electron interactions, so that the symmetry of the pair wave function is other than an isotropic s-wave. The strong, on-site, repulsive electron-electron interactions that are the proximate cause of such SC are more typically drivers of commensurate magnetism. Indeed, it is the suppression of commensurate antiferromagnetism (AF) that usually allows this type of unconventional superconductivity to emerge. Importantly, however, intervening between these AF and SC phases, intertwined electronic ordered phases (IP) of an unexpected nature are frequently discovered. For this reason, it has been extremely difficult to distinguish the microscopic essence of the correlated superconductivity from the often spectacular phenomenology of the IPs. Here we introduce a model conceptual framework within which to understand the relationship between AF electron-electron interactions, IPs, and correlated SC. We demonstrate its effectiveness in simultaneously explaining the consequences of AF interactions for the copper-based, iron-based, and heavy-fermion superconductors, as well as for their quite distinct IPs.

  17. Magnetic ordering of ScMn{sub 6}Ge{sub 6} by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobinger-Papamantellos, P., E-mail: Schobinger@mat.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Crystallography, ETH-Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Rodríguez-Carvajal, J. [Institut Laue-Langevin, CS 20156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Buschow, K.H.J. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, NL-1018 XE The Netherlands (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    The compound ScMn{sub 6}Ge{sub 6} (HfFe{sub 6}Ge{sub 6}-type, P6/mmm) orders antiferromagnetically below T{sub N}=516 K. Neutron powder diffraction at various temperatures 1.5–309 K shows the existence of two distinct magnetic ordering ranges described by the commensurate q{sub 1}=(0, 0, 1/2) and the incommensurate q{sub 2}=(0, 0, q{sub z}) vectors: (i) the HT (high temperature) T{sub t}≈100 KT>1.5 K range has an easy double-cone incommensurately modulated structure described by two vectors (q{sub 1}, q{sub 2}). At 1.5 K q{sub 2}=(0, 0, 0.405(1)), the spiral angle is Φ=145.8° the cone half angle is α≈8° and the ordered moment value μ{sub Mn}=2.12(2) μ{sub B} is the same as for the isomorphic RMn{sub 6}Ge{sub 6} (R=heavy rare earth) compounds. The 1.5 K q{sub 2} satellites are very weak as the in-plane moment component measures only 0.31 μ{sub B}. - Highlights: • T-magnetic phase diagram of antiferromagnetic (afmg.) ScMn{sub 6}Ge{sub 6} compound (T{sub N}=516 K). • 1.5–309 K neutron patterns detected two propagation vectors: q{sub 1}=(0, 0, 1/2) and INC q{sub 2}=(0, 0, q{sub z}). • The HT T{sub t}≈100–309 K range with q{sub 1} has a+− −+Mn moment stacking ||c at z∼1/4, 3/4, 5/4, and 7/4. • The LT range T{sub t}−1.5 K has an easy double cone INC structure requiring both vectors. • At 1.5 K, q{sub 2}=(0, 0, 0.405(1)), the cone half angle 8° and μ{sub Mn}=2.12(2) μ{sub B}.

  18. Weak arrest-like and field-driven first order magnetic phase transitions of itinerant Fe3Ga4 revealed by magnetization and magnetoresistance isotherms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samatham, S. Shanmukharao; Suresh, K. G.

    2017-01-01

    The detailed magnetic study of complex 3d-electron based Fe3Ga4 is reported. It undergoes paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic (TN) and antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic (TC) transitions respectively around 380 and 70 K. The thermal hysteresis of field-cooled cooling (FCC) and field-cooled warming (FCW) hints at first order phase transition below Curie temperature. A weak phase coexistence of ferro and antiferromagnetic phases is suggested by exploring the arrest-like first-order phenomenon. In the intermediate temperature range, field-driven metamagnetic transition from antiferro to ferromagnetic phase is confirmed. Further bringing the system very near to TN, field-induced transitions disappear and above TN predominant paramagnetic contribution is evident. The magnetic H-T phase diagram distinguishing different magnetic phases of Fe3Ga4 is obtained.

  19. Double-stage nematic bond ordering above double stripe magnetism: Application to BaTi2Sb2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Glasbrenner, J. K.; Flint, R.; Mazin, I. I.; Fernandes, R. M.

    2017-05-01

    Spin-driven nematicity, or the breaking of the point-group symmetry of the lattice without long-range magnetic order, is clearly quite important in iron-based superconductors. From a symmetry point of view, nematic order can be described as a coherent locking of spin fluctuations in two interpenetrating Néel sublattices with ensuing nearest-neighbor bond order and an absence of static magnetism. Here, we argue that the low-temperature state of the recently discovered superconductor BaTi2Sb2O is a strong candidate for a more exotic form of spin-driven nematic order, in which fluctuations occurring in four Néel sublattices promote both nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor bond order. We develop a low-energy field theory of this state and show that it can have, as a function of temperature, up to two separate bond-order phase transitions, namely, one that breaks rotation symmetry and one that breaks reflection and translation symmetries of the lattice. The resulting state has an orthorhombic lattice distortion, an intra-unit-cell charge density wave, and no long-range magnetic order, all consistent with reported measurements of the low-temperature phase of BaTi2Sb2O . We then use density functional theory calculations to extract exchange parameters to confirm that the model is applicable to BaTi2Sb2O .

  20. Antiferromagnetic spin ordering and interlayer magnetic correlations in MnTe/CdTe superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebultowicz, T. M.; Faschinger, W.; Nunez, V.; Klosowski, P.; Bauer, G.; Sitter, H.; Furdyna, J. K.

    1994-04-01

    Results of neutron scattering studies on MnTe/CdTe superlattices with ultrathin non-magnetic CdTe "barriers" are presented and compared with data from earlier studies on MnSe/ZnSe, MnTe/ZnTe, and MnSe/ZnTe multilayers with thick non-magnetic spacers. The experiments revealed two qualitatively new effects—namely, (i) the existence of pronounced interlayer magnetic correlations in the case of the CdTe thickness corresponding to two single monolayers and (ii) the coexistence of two magnetic phases that never occurred simultaneously in the previously studied systems.

  1. Chaos Suppression in Fractional Order Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and PI controlled Induction motor by Extended Back stepping Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Karthikeyan; Karthikeyan, Anitha; Duraisamy, Prakash

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we investigate the control of three-dimensional non-autonomous fractional-order model of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and PI controlled fractional order Induction motor via recursive extended back stepping control technique. A robust generalized weighted controllers are derived to suppress the chaotic oscillations of the fractional order model. As the direct Lyapunov stability analysis of the controller is difficult for a fractional order first derivative, we have derived a new lemma to analyze the stability of the system. Numerical simulations of the proposed chaos suppression methodology are given to prove the analytical results.

  2. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3−x}Na{sub x}MnO{sub 3} exhibiting first-order and second-order magnetic phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, T.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Dang, N.T. [Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang (Viet Nam); Phan, The-Long [Department of Physics and Oxide Research Center, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, D.S. [Physics Division, School of Science Education, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B.W. [Department of Physics and Oxide Research Center, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, S.C., E-mail: scyu@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Polycrystalline orthorhombic samples La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3−x}Na{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x = 0–0.09) were prepared by solid-state reaction. The study of magnetic properties revealed that the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic (FM-PM) transition temperature (T{sub C}) increases from 255 to about 271 K with increasing Na-doping content (x) from 0 to 0.09, respectively. Around the T{sub C}, we have found the samples showing a large magnetocaloric (MC) effect with maximum values of magnetic entropy change (|ΔS{sub max}|) of 7–8 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} and relative cooling power RCP = 232–236 J/kg for the samples x = 0.03–0.09 in a magnetic-field interval ΔH = 40 kOe. Detailed analyses of isothermal magnetization data M(T, H) based on Banerjee's criteria indicated a first-to-second-order magnetic-phase transformation taking place at a threshold Na-doping concentration x{sub c} ≈ 0.06. This could also be observed clearly from the feature of entropy universal curves. An assessment of the magnetic-ordering exponent N = dLn|ΔS{sub m}|/dLnH demonstrates an existence of short-range magnetic order in the samples. We believe that the changes of the magnetic properties and MC effect in La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3−x}Na{sub x}MnO{sub 3} caused by Na doping are related to the changes in the structural parameters and Mn{sup 4+}/Mn{sup 3+} ratio, which are confirmed by the geometrical and electronic analyses based on X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure. - Highlights: • Geometrical and electronic structures of La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3−x}Na{sub x}MnO{sub 3}. • Threshold of first-to-second-order phase transformation in La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3−x}Na{sub x}MnO{sub 3}. • Large magneto-caloric effect with |ΔS{sub max}| ≈ 7–8 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}, and RCP = 232–236 J/kg. • Universal curve of magnetic-entropy change.

  3. Magnetic unmixing of first-order reversal curve diagrams using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascu, Ioan; Harrison, Richard; Li, Yuting; Piotrowski, Alexander; Channell, James; Muraszko, Joy; Hodell, David

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a magnetic unmixing method based on principal component analysis (PCA) of entire first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams. FORC diagrams are an advanced hysteresis technique that allows the quantitative characterisation of magnetic grain size, domain state, coercivity and spatial distribution of ensembles of particles within a sample. PCA has been previously applied on extracted central ridges from FORC diagrams of sediment samples containing single domain (SD) magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria (Heslop et al., 2014). We extend this methodology to the entire FORC space, which incorporates additional SD signatures, pseudo-single domain (PSD) and multi domain (MD) magnetite signatures, as well as fingerprints of other minerals, such as hematite (HEM). We apply the PCA by resampling the FORC distribution on a regular grid designed to encompass all significant features. Typically 80-90% of the variability within the FORC dataset is described by one or two principal components. Individual FORCs are recast as linear combinations of physically distinct end-member FORCs defined using the principal components and constraints derived from physical modelling. In a first case study we quantify the spatial variation of end-member components in surficial sediments along the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) from Iceland to Newfoundland. The samples have been physically separated into granulometric fractions, which added a further constraint in determining three end members used to model the magnetic ensemble, namely a coarse silt-sized MD component, a fine silt-sized PSD component, and a mixed clay-sized component containing both SD magnetite and hematite (SD+HEM). Sediments from core tops proximal to Iceland are dominated by the SD+HEM component, whereas those closer to Greenland and Canada are increasingly dominated by MD grains. Iceland sediments follow a PSD to SD+HEM trend with increasing grain-size fraction, whereas the Greenland and North

  4. Magnetic ordering in the ultrapure site-diluted spin chain materials SrCu1 -xNixO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simutis, G.; Thede, M.; Saint-Martin, R.; Mohan, A.; Baines, C.; Guguchia, Z.; Khasanov, R.; Hess, C.; Revcolevschi, A.; Büchner, B.; Zheludev, A.

    2016-06-01

    The muon spin rotation technique is used to study magnetic ordering in ultrapure samples of SrCu1 -xNixO2 , an archetypical S =1 /2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain system with a small number of S =1 defects. The ordered state in the parent compound is shown to be highly homogeneous, contrary to a previous report [M. Matsuda et al., Phys. Rev. B 55, R11953 (1997), 10.1103/PhysRevB.55.R11953]. Even a minute number of Ni impurities results in inhomogeneous order and a decrease of the transition temperature. At as little as 0.5 % Ni concentration, magnetic ordering is entirely suppressed. The results are compared to previous theoretical studies of weakly coupled spin chains with site defects.

  5. Distinct magnetic spectra in the hidden order and antiferromagnetic phases in URu2 -xFexSi2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butch, Nicholas P.; Ran, Sheng; Jeon, Inho; Kanchanavatee, Noravee; Huang, Kevin; Breindel, Alexander; Maple, M. Brian; Stillwell, Ryan L.; Zhao, Yang; Harriger, Leland; Lynn, Jeffrey W.

    2016-11-01

    We use neutron scattering to compare the magnetic excitations in the hidden order (HO) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases in URu2 -xFexSi2 as a function of Fe concentration. The magnetic excitation spectra change significantly between x =0.05 and x =0.10 , following the enhancement of the AFM ordered moment, in good analogy to the behavior of the parent compound under applied pressure. Prominent lattice-commensurate low-energy excitations characteristic of the HO phase vanish in the AFM phase. The magnetic scattering is dominated by strong excitations along the Brillouin zone edges, underscoring the important role of electron hybridization to both HO and AFM phases and the similarity of the underlying electronic structure. The stability of the AFM phase is correlated with enhanced local-itinerant electron hybridization.

  6. Ferromagnetic ordered phase of quantum spin ice system Yb2Ti2O7 under [001] magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Hamachi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of magnetization (M and specific heat (C under a [001] magnetic field were carried out on a single crystal of a quantum spin ice system Yb2Ti2O7 in order to investigate a feature of the transition occurred at TC ∼ 0.2 K. As a result of applying the magnetic field μ0H < 0.1 T, the C/T − T curve structure and transition temperature barely changed. On the other hand, applying the more than 0.1 T magnetic field, the C/T − T curve structure drastically change from sharp peak structure to broad peak one, and the broad peak temperature of C/T − T curves linearly increases with increasing magnetic field (H. In the magnetic field μ0H < 0.1 T, the magnetization drastically increases around TC ∼ 0.2 K with decreasing T, and a thermal hysteresis loop of the M − T curve is observed. With increasing H, the thermal hysteresis loop of the M − T curves disappears above μ0HC = 0.1 T. We can understand these results, where Yb2Ti2O7 exhibits a first-order ferromagnetic transition associated with the latent heat corresponding to the energy of μ0HC = 0.1 T. Basis of the H − T phase diagram along [001] magnetic field, the feature of the transition occurred at TC ∼ 0.2 K in quantum spin ice system Yb2Ti2O7 is discussed.

  7. Fabrication and analysis of ordered magnetic cobalt nanoparticles; Herstellung und Untersuchung geordneter magnetischer Kobaltnanoteilchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuern, Klaus P.

    2009-12-17

    In the dissertation on hand monodisperse, wellordered magnetic cobalt and cobalt hydride nanoparticles have been produced and investigated magnetically. The preparation was achieved by diblock-copolymer-micelles filled with cobalt salt, from which nanoparticles of elementary cobalt respectively cobalt hydride were generated in different steps of the procedure. It was evident that the cobalthydride generated by the hydrogen plasma was surprisingly stable. It could even be taken into consideration as a hydrogen storage device for fuel cell. The magnetic properties of the particles has been investigated by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). In addition it was evident, that it was principally impossible to investigate a film layered on a substrate with a SQUID-magnetometer, if this film produces only a small signal as well absolutely as relatively to the magnetically measured total moment of the sample. (orig.)

  8. Quantum paraelectricity in copper-titanates: Magnetic-order driven vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Jitender; Awasthi, A. M., E-mail: amawasthi@csr.res.in [Thermodynamics Laboratory, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India)

    2015-07-21

    Quantum-paraelectric (QP) family character is emergent from shared low-temperature characteristics of SrCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} (SCTO), CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} (CCTO), and Ca{sub 0.9}Li{sub 0.1}Cu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} (CLCTO) A{sub 1/4}A′{sub 3/4}BO{sub 3} structures featuring antiferro-tilted Ti-O{sub 6} octahedra. Above their magnetic ordering temperatures T{sub N}, permittivity of SCTO and CLCTO follow typical Barrett form, whereas in CCTO, quantum paraelectricity is masked by the huge ε′-step. Hidden QP in CCTO gets revealed by Li-doping at the Ca-site, which considerably up-shifts the temperature scale (from ∼100 K to ∼250 K) of the dielectric step-anomaly in CLCTO. Competing magneto-electricity and quantum fluctuations result in glassy-arrest of the QP degrees of freedom near T{sub N}; manifest as dispersive-deviation of the permittivity (in SCTO and CLCTO) from the low-temperature Barrett saturation. However, quantum criticality (QC) regime being well above T{sub N} registers its presence nevertheless, as the ∼T{sup 2} behaviour of their inverse dielectric susceptibility. Non-compliance to the usual behaviours of dispersive-response vs. bias-field and temperature unambiguously rule out a relaxor origin of the glassy state. We determine a dimensionless thermal window (0.3 ≤ T/T{sub 1} ≤ 0.6) of QC signature, covering typical quantum-paraelectrics.

  9. Magnetic order and ferroelectricity in RMnO(3) multiferroic manganites : coupling between R- and Mn-spins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliouane, N.; Prokhnenko, O.; Feyerherm, R.; Mostovoy, M.; Strempfer, J.; Habicht, K.; Rule, K. C.; Dudzik, E.; Maljuk, A.; Argyriou, D. N.

    2008-01-01

    Combining polarized and unpolarized neutron scattering techniques with x-ray resonant magnetic scattering we have studied the coupling between the Mn- and R- spin- ordering in the multiferroic RMnO(3), R = Tb and Dy. Polarized neutron diffraction reveals the moment orientation associated with the va

  10. Dome-shaped magnetic order competing with high-temperature superconductivity at high pressures in FeSe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J P; Matsuura, K; Ye, G Z; Mizukami, Y; Shimozawa, M; Matsubayashi, K; Yamashita, M; Watashige, T; Kasahara, S; Matsuda, Y; Yan, J-Q; Sales, B C; Uwatoko, Y; Cheng, J-G; Shibauchi, T

    2016-07-19

    The coexistence and competition between superconductivity and electronic orders, such as spin or charge density waves, have been a central issue in high transition-temperature (Tc) superconductors. Unlike other iron-based superconductors, FeSe exhibits nematic ordering without magnetism whose relationship with its superconductivity remains unclear. Moreover, a pressure-induced fourfold increase of Tc has been reported, which poses a profound mystery. Here we report high-pressure magnetotransport measurements in FeSe up to ∼15 GPa, which uncover the dome shape of magnetic phase superseding the nematic order. Above ∼6 GPa the sudden enhancement of superconductivity (Tc≤38.3 K) accompanies a suppression of magnetic order, demonstrating their competing nature with very similar energy scales. Above the magnetic dome, we find anomalous transport properties suggesting a possible pseudogap formation, whereas linear-in-temperature resistivity is observed in the normal states of the high-Tc phase above 6 GPa. The obtained phase diagram highlights unique features of FeSe among iron-based superconductors, but bears some resemblance to that of high-Tc cuprates.

  11. Quantum spin liquid and magnetic order in a two-dimensional nonsymmorphic lattice: Considering the distorted kagome lattice of volborthite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Li Ern; Hwang, Kyusung; Mizoguchi, Tomonari; Huh, Yejin; Kim, Yong Baek

    2017-07-01

    The Kagome-lattice-based material, volborthite, Cu3V2O7(OH) 2.2 H2O , has been considered as a promising platform for discovery of unusual quantum ground states due to the frustrated nature of spin interaction. We explore possible quantum spin liquid and magnetically ordered phases in a two-dimensional nonsymmorphic lattice, which is described by the plane group p 2 g g , consistent with the spatial anisotropy of the spin model derived from density functional theory (DFT) for volborthite. Using the projective symmetry group (PSG) analysis and Schwinger boson mean field theory, we classify possible spin liquid phases with bosonic spinons and investigate magnetically ordered phases connected to such states. It is shown, in general, that only translationally invariant mean field spin liquid ansatzes are allowed in two-dimensional nonsymmorphic lattices. We study the mean field phase diagram of the DFT-derived spin model and find that possible quantum spin liquid phases are connected to two types of magnetically ordered phases, a coplanar incommensurate (q ,0 ) spiral order as the ground state and a closely competing coplanar commensurate (π ,π ) spin density wave order. In addition, periodicity enhancement of the two-spinon continuum, a consequence of symmetry fractionalization, is found in the spin liquid state connected to the (π ,π ) spin density wave order. We discuss relevance of these results to recent and future experiments on volborthite.

  12. Magnetic behavior of bulk and fine particles of RCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}C (R = La, Ce) compounds: possible magnetic ordering from Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, K; Iyer, Kartik K; Sampathkumaran, E V, E-mail: sampath@mailhost.tifr.res.i [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2010-07-28

    The magnetic behavior of the quaternary compounds, RCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}C (R = La, Ce), has been investigated by magnetization (M) and heat-capacity (C) measurements (1.8-300 K) in the bulk polycrystals and nano forms (<1 {mu}m) obtained by high-energy balling. Our finding is that Cr appears to exhibit magnetic ordering of an itinerant type at low temperatures (<20 K) in the bulk form, as inferred from a combined look at all the data. The magnetic ordering gets gradually suppressed with increasing milling time. Evidence for a mixed-valence state of Ce for the bulk form is obtained from the tendency of magnetic susceptibility to exhibit a maximum above 300 K. However, this feature vanishes in the nano form, which exhibits a Curie-Weiss behavior above 200 K as though Ce tends towards trivalency in these fine particles; in addition, there is a weak upturn in C/T below 10 K in the bulk, which becomes very prominent in the milled Ce-based specimens at lower temperatures, as though heavy-fermion behavior gets stronger in smaller particles.

  13. Magnetic anisotropy and chemical long-range order in epitaxial ferrimagnetic CrPt{sub 3} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maret, M. E-mail: mireille.maret@uni-konstanz.de; Albrecht, M.; Koehler, J.; Poinsot, R.; Ulhaq-Bouillet, C.; Tonnerre, J.M.; Berar, J.F.; Bucher, E

    2000-08-01

    Thin films of CrPt{sub 3} were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy on both Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0 0 0 1) and MgO(0 0 1) substrates, either directly by co-deposition of Cr and Pt at high temperatures or after in situ annealing of superlattices [Cr(2 A)/Pt(7 A)]. In situ RHEED observations and X-ray diffraction measurements have allowed us to check the single-crystal quality of CrPt{sub 3} films and to determine the degree of L1{sub 2}-type long-range order (LRO). In films co-deposited between 850 deg. C and 950 deg. C a nearly perfect LRO has been observed. As in bulk alloys, such ordering yields a ferrimagnetic order, while the disordered films are non-magnetic. In contrast with the ferromagnetic L1{sub 2}-type ordered CoPt{sub 3}(1 1 1) films, the ferrimagnetic CrPt{sub 3}(1 1 1) films exhibit perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with quality factors, K{sub u}/K{sub d}, as large as 5 and large coercivities around 450 kA/m. Such anisotropy could be related to the arrangement of Cr atoms, which owing to their large magnetic moment, oppositely directed to the small Pt moment, drive the magnetization. Since the six Cr nearest neighbours around a Cr atom are along the <0 0 1> directions, making an angle of 54.74 deg. with the [1 1 1] growth direction, the overlap of their electron distribution favors an easy axis of magnetization normal to the film plane. This idea is supported by the absence of magnetic anisotropy in ferrimagnetic CrPt{sub 3}(0 0 1) films.

  14. Impacts of nanostructuring and magnetic ordering of Nd{sup 3+} on the magnetic and magnetocaloric response in NdMnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Sayan, E-mail: schandr5@mail.usf.edu; Biswas, Anis, E-mail: biswas.anis@gmail.com; Phan, Manh-Huong, E-mail: phanm@usf.edu; Srikanth, Hariharan, E-mail: sharihar@usf.edu

    2015-06-15

    Magnetocaloric properties of NdMnO{sub 3} were investigated in its bulk polycrystalline and nanocrystalline forms. The nanocrystalline sample (average particle size ∼40 nm) exhibits a maximum in the temperature dependence of magnetic entropy change [−ΔS{sub M}(T)] at ∼70 K due to the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition, which is absent in case of its bulk counterpart. The absence of peak in −ΔS{sub M}(T) in the bulk sample is attributed to the co-existence of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic phases. A canted magnetic state (CMS) is stabilized at low temperature for both the samples due to the ordering of Nd{sup 3+} giving rise to a peak in −ΔS{sub M}(T) at ∼15 K. Interestingly −ΔS{sub M}(T) for these two samples show a universal behavior near their transitions at low temperature although their temperature dependence of magnetization is markedly different around those transitions. A detailed analysis of magnetocaloric data conclusively establishes the existence of a canted magnetic state, which is not obvious from magnetometry, demonstrating the usefulness of this method for probing phase coexistence and multiple magnetic states in complex oxide systems. - Highlights: • Effect of reduction of particle size on magnetocaloric properties of NdMnO{sub 3} has been investigated. • The roles of Nd{sup 3+}-ordering and self-doping effect on magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of NdMnO{sub 3} have been discussed. • Nanocrystalline NdMnO{sub 3} exhibits large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in two temperature regimes in contrary to bulk sample. • We emphasize how MCE study can be exploited to explore fundamental physics of magnetism.

  15. Magnetic order and interactions in ferrimagnetic Mn3Si2Te6

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Andrew F.; Liu, Yaohua; Calder, Stuart; Parker, David S.; Pandey, Tribhuwan; Cakmak, Ercan; Cao, Huibo; Yan, Jiaqiang; McGuire, Michael A.

    2017-05-01

    The magnetism in Mn3Si2Te6 has been investigated using thermodynamic measurements, first-principles calculations, neutron diffraction, and diffuse neutron scattering on single crystals. These data confirm that Mn3Si2Te6 is a ferrimagnet below TC ≈78 K. The magnetism is anisotropic, with magnetization and neutron diffraction demonstrating that the moments lie within the basal plane of the trigonal structure. The saturation magnetization of ≈1.6 μB /Mn at 5 K originates from the different multiplicities of the two antiferromagnetically aligned Mn sites. First-principles calculations reveal antiferromagnetic exchange for the three nearest Mn-Mn pairs, which leads to a competition between the ferrimagnetic ground state and three other magnetic configurations. The ferrimagnetic state results from the energy associated with the third-nearest-neighbor interaction, and thus long-range interactions are essential for the observed behavior. Diffuse magnetic scattering is observed around the 002 Bragg reflection at 120 K, which indicates the presence of strong spin correlations well above TC. These are promoted by the competing ground states that result in a relative suppression of TC and may be associated with a small ferromagnetic component that produces anisotropic magnetism below ≈330 K .

  16. Tuning of magnetic ordering by Y substitution onto Tb site in the nanocrystalline TbMnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Keka R., E-mail: kekarc@barc.gov.in, E-mail: smyusuf@barc.gov.in; Mukadam, M. D.; Yusuf, S. M., E-mail: kekarc@barc.gov.in, E-mail: smyusuf@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Shukla, Rakesh; Tyagi, A. K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kaushik, S. D.; Siruguri, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research—Mumbai Centre, R-5 Shed, BARC Campus, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-10-28

    We report the magnetic properties, of nano-crystalline powders Tb{sub 1−x}Y{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4), as perceived by neutron diffraction, and elucidate the effect of Tb site substitution on the magnetic structure of TbMnO{sub 3}. All samples crystallized in the orthorhombic structure conforming to space group Pnma, and exhibited an incommensurate collinear antiferromagnetic ordering of the Mn ions below ∼40 K. Furthermore, at T ≤ 20 K, all these samples showed a change in magnetic structure (of Mn moments) to a spiral ordering down to 2 K, the lowest measured temperature. For the samples with x = 0, 0.1, and 0.2, a short-ranged two dimensional (2D) ordering of Tb moments was also observed at 2 K. However, for the other samples (x = 0.3 and 0.4), no magnetic ordering of Tb moments was found down to 2 K. So with Y substitution, a crossover from 2D ordering to a disordering of Tb moments was observed. The moments at the Mn site were found to be lower than the full Mn{sup 3+} (4μ{sub B}) moment for all the samples below 40 K. The magnetic properties of all the samples studied by us in nano form are more pronounced than those of the reported single crystals of same compositions [V. Yu. Ivanov et al., JETP Lett. 91, 392–397 (2010)].

  17. Electric field control of the magnetocaloric effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Dun-Hui; Cao, Qing-Qi; Liu, En-Ke; Liu, Jian; Du, You-Wei

    2015-02-04

    Through strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling, it is demonstrated that the magnetocaloric effect of a ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy can be controlled by an electric field. Large hysteresis and the limited operating temperature region are effectively overcome by applying an electric field on a laminate comprising a piezoelectric and the alloy. Accordingly, a model for an active magnetic refrigerator with high efficiency is proposed in principle.

  18. Fast magnetic energy dissipation in relativistic plasma induced by high order laser modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.J.Gu; Q.Yu; O.Klimo; T.Zh.Esirkepov; S.V.Bulanov; S.Weber; G.Korn

    2016-01-01

    Fast magnetic field annihilation in a collisionless plasma is induced by using TEM(1,0) laser pulse. The magnetic quadrupole structure formation, expansion and annihilation stages are demonstrated with 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The magnetic field energy is converted to the electric field and accelerate the particles inside the annihilation plane. A bunch of high energy electrons moving backwards is detected in the current sheet. The strong displacement current is the dominant contribution which induces the longitudinal inductive electric field.

  19. Competing magnetic orders and spin liquids in two- and three-dimensional kagome systems: Pseudofermion functional renormalization group perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buessen, Finn Lasse; Trebst, Simon

    2016-12-01

    Quantum magnets on kagome lattice geometries in two and three spatial dimensions are archetypal examples of spin systems in which geometric frustration inhibits conventional magnetic ordering and instead benefits the emergence of long-range entangled spin liquids at low temperature. Here we employ a recently developed pseudofermion functional renormalization group (pf-FRG) approach to study the low-temperature quantum magnetism of kagome and hyperkagome spin systems with exchange interactions beyond the nearest-neighbor coupling. We find that next-nearest-neighbor couplings stabilize a variety of magnetic orders as well as induce additional spin liquid regimes, giving rise to rather rich phase diagrams, which we characterize in detail. On a technical level, we find that the pf-FRG approach is in excellent quantitative agreement with high-temperature series expansions over their range of validity and it exhibits a systematic finite-size convergence in the temperature regime below. We discuss notable advantages and some current limitations of the pf-FRG approach in the ongoing search for unconventional forms of quantum magnetism.

  20. Hexagonal phase stabilization and magnetic orders of multiferroic L u1 -xS cxFe O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L.; Zhang, H. M.; Liu, M. F.; Shen, Shoudong; Zhou, S.; Li, D.; Wang, X.; Yan, Z. B.; Zhang, Z. D.; Zhao, Jun; Dong, Shuai; Liu, J.-M.

    2016-02-01

    Hexagonal LuFe O3 has drawn a lot of research attention due to its contentious room-temperature multiferroicity. Due to the instability of hexagonal phase in the bulk form, most experimental studies focused on LuFe O3 thin films which can be stabilized by strain using proper substrates. Here we report on the hexagonal phase stabilization, magnetism, and magnetoelectric coupling of bulk LuFe O3 by partial Sc substitution of Lu. First, our first-principles calculations show that the hexagonal structure can be stabilized by partial Sc substitution, while the multiferroic properties, including the noncollinear magnetic order and geometric ferroelectricity, remain robustly unaffected. Therefore, L u1 -xS cxFe O3 can act as a platform to check the multiferroicity of LuFe O3 and related materials in the bulk form. Second, the magnetic characterizations on bulk L u1 -xS cxFe O3 demonstrate a magnetic anomaly (probable antiferromagnetic ordering) above room temperature, ˜425-445 K, followed by magnetic transitions in low temperatures (˜167-172 K). In addition, a magnetoelectric response is observed in the low-temperature region. Our study provides useful information on the multiferroic physics of hexagonal R Fe O3 and related systems.

  1. Enhanced charge stripe order of superconducting La2-xBaxCuO4 in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hücker, M.; v. Zimmermann, M.; Xu, Z. J.; Wen, J. S.; Gu, G. D.; Tranquada, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a magnetic field on the charge stripe order in La2-xBaxCuO4 has been studied by means of high-energy (100 keV) x-ray diffraction for charge carrier concentrations ranging from strongly underdoped to optimally doped. We find that charge stripe order can be significantly enhanced by a magnetic field applied along the c axis, but only at temperatures and dopings where it coexists with bulk superconductivity at zero field. The field also increases stripe correlations between the planes, which can result in an enhanced frustration of the interlayer Josephson coupling. Close to the famous x=(1)/(8) compound, where zero field stripe order is pronounced and bulk superconductivity is suppressed, charge stripe order is independent of a magnetic field. The results for La2-xBaxCuO4 resemble recent observations in YBa2Cu3O6+δ and, independent of potential differences in the microscopic origin of charge order in these two compounds, imply a very similar competition with three-dimensionally coherent superconductivity.

  2. Enhancement of order degree and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of L10 ordered Fe(Pt,Pd) alloy film by introducing a thin MgO cap-layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Youhei; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi; Inaba, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Fe50PtxPd50-x (at%, x=0-50) alloy films of 10 nm thickness with and without 2-nm-thick MgO cap-layers are prepared on MgO(001) single-crystal substrates by employing a two-step method consisting of low-temperature deposition at 200 °C followed by high-temperature annealing at 600 °C. The influences of MgO cap-layer on the structure and the magnetic properties are investigated. Fe50PtxPd50-x films epitaxially grow on the substrates at 200 °C. The Fe50Pd50 and the Fe50Pt12.5Pd37.5 films are respectively composed of (001) single-crystals with disordered fcc-based (A1) and bcc-based (A2) structures. The films with x>25 consist of mixtures of A1 and A2 crystals. The volume ratio of A2 to A1 crystal decreases with increasing the x value from 25 to 50. The in-plane and out-of-plane lattices are respectively expanded and shrunk due to accommodation of lattice mismatch between film and substrate. When the films are annealed at 600 °C, phase transformation to L10 ordered phase takes place. L10 phase transformation of Fe50PtxPd50-x film is promoted for a sample with MgO cap-layer and the order degree is higher than that without cap-layer. Furthermore, L10 ordering with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface is enhanced for the film with cap-layer. The cap-layer is considered to be giving a tension stress to the magnetic film in lateral direction which promotes L10 ordering with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. Deposition of cap-layer is shown effective in achieving higher order degree and in enhancing perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with Fe(Pt,Pd) films.

  3. Magnetic relaxation dynamics driven by the first-order character of magnetocaloric La(Fe,Mn,Si)13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Edmund; Bratko, Milan; Caplin, A David; Barcza, Alexander; Katter, Matthias; Ghivelder, Luis; Cohen, Lesley F

    2016-08-13

    Here, we study the temporal evolution of the magnetic field-driven paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition in the La(Fe,Mn,Si)13 material family. Three compositions are chosen that show varying strengths of the first-order character of the transition, as determined by the relative magnitude of their magnetic hysteresis and temperature separation between the zero-field transition temperature Tc and the temperature Tcrit, where the transition becomes continuous. Systematic variations in the fixed field, isothermal rate of relaxation are observed as a function of temperature and as a function of the degree of first-order character. The relaxation rate is reduced in more weakly first-order compositions and is also reduced as the temperature is increased towards Tcrit At temperatures above Tcrit, the metastability of the transition vanishes along with its associated temporal dynamics.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'.

  4. Neutron scattering of modulated magnetic order at the border of ferromagnetism in NbFe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklowitz, Philipp G.; Poulten, James; Duncan, William [Dept of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham (United Kingdom); Hirschberger, Max [Dept of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton (United States); Neubauer, Andreas; Pfleiderer, Christian [Fakultaet fuer Physik, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Cermak, Petr; Schneidewind, Astrid [JCNS at MLZ, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Garching (Germany); Seemann, Klaus; Faulhaber, Enrico [MLZ, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Grosche, F. Malte [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The border of ferromagnetism in the C14 Laves phase NbFe{sub 2} is characterised by non-Fermi liquid properties consistent with ferromagnetic quantum criticality, but the ferromagnetic quantum critical point appears to be masked by modulated magnetic order (MMO). With our elastic neutron scattering studies of three single-crystalline Nb{sub 1-y}Fe{sub 2+y} samples ranging from Fe-rich composition to a nearly stoichiometric sample we have directly determined the ordering wave vector q{sub 1} of MMO. A weak T and H and considerable y dependence of q{sub 1} is observed. Our inelastic neutron data is dominated by strong quasielastic scattering in the vicinity of (002) and contains further features near q{sub 1}. The results indicate that NbFe{sub 2} could display the theoretically predicted scenario of a ferromagnetic quantum critical point, which is masked by emerging modulated magnetic order.

  5. Three-Dimensional Charge Density Wave Order in YBa2Cu3O6.67 at High Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, S.; Jang, H.; Nojiri, H.; Matsuzawa, S.; Yasumura, H.; Bonn, D. A.; Liang, R.; Hardy, W.; Islam, Z.; Lee, W. -S.; Zhu, D.; Lee, J. -S.

    2015-11-20

    Charge density wave (CDW) correlations have been shown to universally exist in cuprate superconductors. However, their nature at high fields inferred from nuclear magnetic resonance is distinct from that measured by x-ray scattering at zero and low fields. Here we combine a pulsed magnet with an x-ray free electron laser to characterize the CDW in YBa2Cu3O6.67 via x-ray scattering in fields up to 28 Tesla. While the zero-field CDW order, which develops below T ~ 150 K, is essentially two-dimensional, at lower temperature and beyond 15 Tesla, another three-dimensionally ordered CDW emerges. The field-induced CDW onsets around the zero-field superconducting transition temperature, yet the incommensurate inplane ordering vector is field-independent. This implies that the two forms of CDW and hightemperature superconductivity are intimately linked.

  6. General principles of describing second- and higher-order null points of a potential magnetic field in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashenko, A. T.; Veselovsky, I. S.

    2015-12-01

    General principles of describing secondand higher-order null points of a potential magnetic field are formulated. The potential near a second-order null of the general form can be specified by a linear combination of four basic functions, the list of which is presented. Near secondand higher-order null points, field line equations often cannot be integrated analytically; however, in some cases, it is possible to present a qualitative description of the geometry of null vicinities with consideration of the behavior of field lines near rays outgoing from null, at which the field is radial or equals zero.

  7. Simultaneous Kerr and Faraday investigations of boundary magnetization and order parameter switching in voltage-controllable exchange bias films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junlei; Echtenkamp, Will; Street, Mike; Binek, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Magnetoelectric oxides are of great interest for ultra-low power spintronics with memory and logic function. A key property for the realization of electrically switchable state variables is the voltage-controlled boundary magnetization in magnetoelectric antiferromagnets. It allows electric switching of an adjacent exchange coupled ferromagnetic layer in the absence of dissipative currents. Previous surface sensitive measurements of boundary magnetization in thin films of the archetypical magnetoelectric antiferromagnet chromia lacked explicit demonstration of the predicted rigid coupling between the bulk antiferromagnetic order parameter and the boundary magnetization. We designed a magneto-optical setup allowing simultaneous measurement of Kerr and Faraday rotation. Our experiments correlate electric field induced bulk magneto-optical effects (non-reciprocal rotation), including the response on switching of the antiferromagnetic order parameter, with the boundary magnetization. Our results suggest that switching of a ferromagnetic film strongly exchange coupled to a magnetoelectric antiferromagnetic ultra-thin film allows switching of the antiferromagnetic order parameter. We investigate the possibility that this switching phenomenon might induce a voltage pulse via a generalized variation of the inverse linear magnetoelectric effect. This project was supported by SRC through CNFD, an SRC-NRI Center, by C-SPIN, part of STARnet, and by the NSF through MRSEC.

  8. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Magnetic ordering in Gd2Sn2O7: the archetypal Heisenberg pyrochlore antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, A. S.; Zhitomirsky, M. E.; Canals, B.; Sanchez, J. P.; Bonville, P.; Dalmas de Réotier, P.; Yaouanc, A.

    2006-01-01

    Low-temperature powder neutron diffraction measurements are performed in the ordered magnetic state of the pyrochlore antiferromagnet Gd2Sn2O7. Symmetry analysis of the diffraction data indicates that this compound has the ground state predicted theoretically for a Heisenberg pyrochlore antiferromagnet with dipolar interactions. The difference in the magnetic structure of Gd2Sn2O7 andof nominally analogous Gd2Ti2O7 is found to be determined by a specific type of third-neighbour superexchange interaction on the pyrochlore lattice between spins across empty hexagons.

  9. FePtCu alloy thin films: Morphology, L1{sub 0} chemical ordering, and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brombacher, C.; Schletter, H.; Daniel, M.; Matthes, P.; Joehrmann, N.; Makarov, D.; Hietschold, M.; Albrecht, M. [Institute of Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Maret, M. [Laboratory of Science and Engineering of Materials and Processes (SIMaP), INP-Grenoble/CNRS/UJF, F-38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France)

    2012-10-01

    Rapid thermal annealing was applied to transform sputter-deposited Fe{sub 51}Pt{sub 49}/Cu bilayers into L1{sub 0} chemically ordered ternary (Fe{sub 51}Pt{sub 49}){sub 100-x}Cu{sub x} alloys with (001) texture on amorphous SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. It was found that for thin film samples, which were processed at 600 Degree-Sign C for 30 s, the addition of Cu strongly favors the L1{sub 0} ordering and (001) texture formation. Furthermore, it could be revealed by transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction that the observed reduction of the ordering temperature with Cu content is accompanied by an increased amount of nucleation sites forming L1{sub 0} ordered grains. The change of the structural properties with Cu content and annealing temperature is closely related to the magnetic properties. While an annealing temperature of 800 Degree-Sign C induces strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in binary Fe{sub 51}Pt{sub 49} films, the addition of Cu systematically reduces the PMA. However, due to the enhancement of both the A1-L1{sub 0} phase transformation and the development of the (001) texture with increasing Cu content, lowering of the annealing temperature leads to a shift of the maximum perpendicular magnetic anisotropy towards alloys with higher Cu content. Thus, for an annealing temperature of 600 Degree-Sign C, the highest perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy is found for the (Fe{sub 51}Pt{sub 49}){sub 91}Cu{sub 9} alloy. The smooth surface morphology, adjustable PMA, and high degree of intergranular exchange coupling make these films suitable for post-processing required for specific applications such as for sensorics or magnetic data storage.

  10. Structural, electronic, and magnetic investigation of magnetic ordering in MBE-grown CrxSb2-xTe3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Duffy, L. B.; Singh, A.; Steinke, N.-J.; Kinane, C. J.; Charlton, T. R.; Pushp, A.; Kellock, A. J.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Holmes, S. N.; Barnes, C. H. W.; van der Laan, G.; Langridge, S.; Hesjedal, T.

    2016-07-01

    We report the structural, electronic, and magnetic study of Cr-doped Sb2Te3 thin films grown by a two-step deposition process using molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). The samples were investigated using a variety of complementary techniques, namely, x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy, SQUID magnetometry, magneto-transport, and polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR). It is found that the samples retain good crystalline order up to a doping level of x=0.42 (in Cr x Sb2-x Te3), above which degradation of the crystal structure is observed by XRD. Fits to the recorded XRD spectra indicate a general reduction in the c-axis lattice parameter as a function of doping, consistent with substitutional doping with an ion of smaller ionic radius. The samples show soft ferromagnetic behavior with the easy axis of magnetization being out-of-plane. The saturation magnetization is dependent on the doping level, and reaches from ˜2 μ_\\text{B} to almost 3 μ_\\text{B} per Cr ion. The transition temperature (T{c}) depends strongly on the Cr concentration and is found to increase with doping concentration. For the highest achievable doping level for phase-pure films of x=0.42 , a T{c} of 125 K was determined. Electric transport measurements find surface-dominated transport below ˜10 K. The magnetic properties extracted from anomalous Hall effect data are in excellent agreement with the magnetometry data. PNR studies indicate a uniform magnetization profile throughout the film, with no indication of enhanced magnetic order towards the sample surface.

  11. 2D Conductive Iron-Quinoid Magnets Ordering up to Tc = 105 K via Heterogenous Redox Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGayner, Jordan A; Jeon, Ie-Rang; Sun, Lei; Dinca, Mircea; Harris, T David

    2017-02-23

    We report the magnetism and conductivity for a redox isomeric pair of iron-quinoid metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The oxidized isomer, (Me2NH2)2[Fe2L3]·2H2O·6DMF (LH2 = 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxo-1,4-benzoquinone) was previously shown to magnetically order below 80 K in its solvated form, with the ordering temperature decreasing to 26 K upon desolvation. Here, we demonstrate this compound to exhibit electrical conductivity values up to σ = 1.4(7) × 10(-2) S/cm (Ea = 0.26(1) cm(-1)) and 1.0(3) × 10(-3) S/cm (Ea = 0.19(1) cm(-1)) in its solvated and desolvated forms, respectively. Upon soaking in a DMF solution of Cp2Co, the compound undergoes a single-crystal-to-single-crystal one-electron reduction to give (Cp2Co)1.43(Me2NH2)1.57[Fe2L3]·4.9DMF. Structural and spectroscopic analysis confirms this reduction to be ligand-based, and as such the trianionic framework is formulated as [Fe(III)2(L(3-•))3](3-). Magnetic measurements for this reduced compound reveal the presence of dominant intralayer metal-organic radical coupling to give a magnetically ordered phase below Tc = 105 K, one of the highest reported ordering temperatures for a MOF. This high ordering temperature is significantly increased relative to the oxidized compound, and stems from the overall increase in coupling strength afforded by an additional organic radical. In line with the high critical temperature, the new MOF exhibits magnetic hysteresis up to 100 K, as revealed by variable-field measurements. Finally, this compound is electrically conductive, with values up to σ = 5.1(3) × 10(-4) S/cm with Ea = 0.34(1) eV. Taken together, these results demonstrate the unique ability of metal-quinoid MOFs to simultaneously exhibit both high magnetic ordering and high electrical conductivity.

  12. Magnetic octupole order in Ce0.7La0.3B6: A polarized neutron diffraction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, K.; Iwasa, K.; Kohgi, M.; Aso, N.; Sera, M.; Iga, F.; Matsuura, M.; Hirota, K.

    2009-09-01

    Recently, in phase IV of CexLa1-xB6, weak but distinct superlattice reflections from the order parameter of phase IV have been detected by our unpolarized neutron scattering experiment [K. Kuwahara, K. Iwasa, M. Kohgi, N. Aso, M. Sera, F. Iga, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 76 (2007) 093702]. The scattering vector dependence of the intensity of superlattice reflections is quite unusual; the intensity is stronger for high scattering vectors. This result strongly indicates that the order parameter of phase IV is the magnetic octupole. However, the possibility that the observed superlattice reflections are due to lattice distortions could not be completely ruled out only on the basis of the unpolarized neutron scattering experiment. To confirm that the superlattice reflections are magnetic, therefore, we have performed a single crystal polarized neutron diffraction experiment on Ce0.7La0.3B6. The obtained result has clearly shown that the time reversal symmetry is broken by the order parameter of phase IV. This is further evidence for the magnetic octupole order in CexLa1-xB6.

  13. Order and phase nucleation in non-equilibrium nanocomposite Fe-Pt thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavero, C.; Skuza, J. R.; Garcia-Martin, J. M.; Cebollada, A.; Walko, D. A.; Lukaszew, R. A.; Coll. of William and Mary; Inst. de Microelectronica de Madrid

    2009-03-01

    We report on the time evolution of mass transport upon annealing nonequilibrium Fe-Pt nanocomposite films, leading to nucleation of L1{sub 0} chemically ordered phase. The nonequilibrium nanocomposite films were fabricated by applying Fe{sup +} ion implantation to epitaxial Pt films grown on (001) MgO substrates, yielding Fe nanoclusters embedded in a Pt matrix at a tailored penetration depth. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies were carried out using synchrotron radiation, allowing determination of the activation energy for nucleation of the FePt L1{sub 0} phase within the segregated nanoclusters during annealing. The growth of the segregated L1{sub 0} ordered phase was modeled using ideal grain-size law and found to be dominated by strain-driven surface nucleation. The activation energies were found to correlate with the nanocluster size. Magnetic characterization of selected annealed samples indicates perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with high coercive field coincident with high value of the chemical order parameter of the ordered phase within the magnetic nanoclusters.

  14. Valence and magnetic ordering in intermediate valence compounds: TmSe versus SmB(6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, J; Knebel, G; Lapertot, G; Salce, B; Méasson, M-A; Flouquet, J

    2006-02-15

    The intermediate valence systems TmSe and SmB(6) have been investigated up to 16 and 18 GPa by ac microcalorimetry with a pressure (p) tuning realized in situ at low temperature. For TmSe, the transition from an antiferromagnetic insulator for p3 GPa), T(N) is found to increase linearly with p. A similar linear p increase of T(N) is observed for the quasitrivalent compound TmS, which is at ambient pressure equivalent to TmSe at p∼7 GPa. In the case of SmB(6) long range magnetism has been detected above p∼8 GPa, i.e. at a pressure slightly higher than the pressure of the insulator to metal transition. However a homogeneous magnetic phase occurs only above 10 GPa. The magnetic and electronic properties are related to the renormalization of the 4f wavefunction either to the divalent or the trivalent configurations. As observed in SmS, long range magnetism in SmB(6) occurs already far below the pressure where a trivalent Sm(3+) state will be reached. It seems possible to describe roughly the physical properties of the intermediate valence equilibrium by assuming formulae for the Kondo lattice temperature depending on the valence configuration. Comparison is also made with the appearance of long range magnetism in cerium and ytterbium heavy fermion compounds.

  15. Magnetic order and crystal structure study of YNi{sub 4}Si-type NdNi{sub 4}Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jinlei [Research Center for Solid State Physics and Materials, School of Mathematics and Physics, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Isnard, O. [Université Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, BP166, Grenoble F-38042 (France); CNRS, Institut NEEL, 25 rue des martyrs, Grenoble F-38042 (France); Morozkin, A.V., E-mail: morozkin@tech.chem.msu.ru [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, GSP-2, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Ivanova, T.I. [Physics Department, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Koshkid' ko, Yu.S. [International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Wrocław (Poland); VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba 70833 (Czech Republic); Bogdanov, A.E.; Nikitin, S.A. [Physics Department, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Suski, W. [International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Wrocław (Poland); Polish Academy of Sciences, Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperatures and Structure Research, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland)

    2015-02-15

    Magnetic measurements and neutron powder diffraction investigation of the magnetic structure of the orthorhombic YNi{sub 4}Si-type (space group Cmmm) NdNi{sub 4}Si compound are presented. The magnetocaloric effect of NdNi{sub 4}Si is calculated in terms of the isothermal magnetic entropy change and it reaches the maximum value of –3.3 J/kg K for a field change of 50 kOe near T{sub C}=12 K. Below ∼12 K, NdNi{sub 4}Si exhibits a commensurate b-axis collinear ferromagnetic ordering with the Cmm′m magnetic space group in a zero magnetic field. At 1.5 K, the neodymium atoms have the magnetic moment of 2.37(5) μ{sub B}. The orthorhombic crystal structure and its thermal evolution are discussed in comparison with the CaCu{sub 5}-type compound. - Graphical abstract: The NdNi{sub 4}Si supplement the series of the orthorhombic derivative of the CaCu{sub 5}-type, namely the YNi{sub 4}Si-type, RNi{sub 4}Si compounds (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd–Ho). Below ∼12 K in a zero applied magnetic field, NdNi{sub 4}Si exhibits a commensurate b-axis collinear ferromagnetic ordering with the Cmm′m magnetic space group. Compared to the CaCu{sub 5}-type NdNi{sub 4}Si compound, the YNi{sub 4}Si-type counterpart has the relatively high ferromagnetic ordering temperature (9.2 K vs. 12 K), the small magnetocaloric effect (–7.3 J/kg K vs. –3.3 J/kg K for ∆H=50 kOe), and the large magnetic anisotropy at low temperatures. In contrast with CaCu{sub 5}-type NdNi{sub 4}Si, YNi{sub 4}Si-type NdNi{sub 4}Si shows distinct hysteresis loop at 2 K.We suggest that orthorhombic distortion may be used as a prospective route for optimization of permanent magnetic properties in the family of CaCu{sub 5}-type rare earth materials. - Highlights: • Below ∼12 K the YNi{sub 4}Si-type NdNi{sub 4}Si shows a ferromagnetic ordering. • MCE of NdNi{sub 4}Si reaches value of –3.3 J/kg K in 0–50 kOe near Curie point. • NdNi{sub 4}Si exhibits b-axis ferromagnetic order with the Cmm′m magnetic space

  16. Interparticle interactions effects on the magnetic order in surface of FeO4 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, E; Vargas, J M; Rechenberg, H R; Zysler, R D

    2008-11-01

    We report interparticle interactions effects on the magnetic structure of the surface region in Fe3O4 nanoparticles. For that, we have studied a desirable system composed by Fe3O4 nanoparticles with (d) = 9.3 nm and a narrow size distribution. These particles present an interesting morphology constituted by a crystalline core and a broad (approximately 50% vol.) disordered superficial shell. Two samples were prepared with distinct concentrations of the particles: weakly-interacting particles dispersed in a polymer and strongly-dipolar-interacting particles in a powder sample. M(H, T) measurements clearly show that strong dipolar interparticle interaction modifies the magnetic structure of the structurally disordered superficial shell. Consequently, we have observed drastically distinct thermal behaviours of magnetization and susceptibility comparing weakly- and strongly-interacting samples for the temperature range 2 K hysteresis loops of the dispersed sample that is not observed in the hysteresis loops of the powder one.

  17. Order-disorder criticality, wetting, and morphological phase transitions in the irreversible growth of far-from-equilibrium magnetic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candia, J.Julian; Albano, E.V.Ezequiel V. E-mail: ealbano@inifta.unlp.edu.ar

    2003-04-01

    An exhaustive numerical investigation of the growth of magnetic films in confined (d+1)-dimensional stripped geometries (d=1,2) is carried out by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Films in contact with a thermal bath at temperature T, are grown by adding spins having two possible orientations and considering ferromagnetic (nearest-neighbor) interactions. At low temperatures, thin films of thickness L are constituted by a sequence of well-ordered domains of average length l{sub D}>>L. These domains have opposite magnetization. So, the films exhibit 'spontaneous magnetization reversal' during the growth process. Such reversal occurs within a short characteristic length l{sub R}, such that l{sub D}>>l{sub R}{approx}L. Furthermore, it is found that for d=1 the system is non-critical, while a continuous order-disorder phase transition at finite temperature takes place in the d=2 case. Using standard finite-size scaling procedures, the critical temperature and some relevant critical exponents are determined. Finally, the growth of magnetic films in (2+1) dimensions with competing short-range magnetic fields acting along the confinement walls is studied. Due to the antisymmetric condition considered, an interface between domains with spins having opposite orientation develops along the growing direction. Such an interface undergoes a localization-delocalization transition that is the precursor of a wetting transition in the thermodynamic limit. Furthermore, the growing interface also undergoes morphological transitions in the growth mode. A comparison between the well-studied equilibrium Ising model and the studied irreversible magnetic growth model is performed throughout. Although valuable analogies are encountered, it is found that the non-equilibrium nature of the latter introduces new and rich physical features of interest.

  18. Order-disorder criticality, wetting, and morphological phase transitions in the irreversible growth of far-from-equilibrium magnetic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, Julián; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2003-04-01

    An exhaustive numerical investigation of the growth of magnetic films in confined ( d+1)-dimensional stripped geometries ( d=1,2) is carried out by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Films in contact with a thermal bath at temperature T, are grown by adding spins having two possible orientations and considering ferromagnetic (nearest-neighbor) interactions. At low temperatures, thin films of thickness L are constituted by a sequence of well-ordered domains of average length lD≫ L. These domains have opposite magnetization. So, the films exhibit "spontaneous magnetization reversal" during the growth process. Such reversal occurs within a short characteristic length lR, such that lD≫ lR˜ L. Furthermore, it is found that for d=1 the system is non-critical, while a continuous order-disorder phase transition at finite temperature takes place in the d=2 case. Using standard finite-size scaling procedures, the critical temperature and some relevant critical exponents are determined. Finally, the growth of magnetic films in (2+1) dimensions with competing short-range magnetic fields acting along the confinement walls is studied. Due to the antisymmetric condition considered, an interface between domains with spins having opposite orientation develops along the growing direction. Such an interface undergoes a localization-delocalization transition that is the precursor of a wetting transition in the thermodynamic limit. Furthermore, the growing interface also undergoes morphological transitions in the growth mode. A comparison between the well-studied equilibrium Ising model and the studied irreversible magnetic growth model is performed throughout. Although valuable analogies are encountered, it is found that the non-equilibrium nature of the latter introduces new and rich physical features of interest.

  19. Leading-order decuplet contributions to the baryon magnetic moments in chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, L.S. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, 46071-Valencia (Spain); Camalich, J. Martin [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, 46071-Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: camalich@ific.uv.es; Vacas, M.J. Vicente [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, 46071-Valencia (Spain)

    2009-06-01

    We extend an earlier study of the baryon magnetic moments in chiral perturbation theory by the explicit inclusion of the spin-3/2 decuplet resonances. We find that the corrections induced by these heavier degrees of freedom are relatively small in a covariant framework where unphysical spin-1/2 modes are removed. Consequently, implementing the leading SU(3)-breaking corrections given by both the baryon and decuplet contributions, we obtain a description of the baryon-octet magnetic moments that is better than the Coleman-Glashow relations. Finally, we discuss the uncertainties and compare between heavy baryon and covariant approaches.

  20. Leading-order decuplet contributions to the baryon magnetic moments in Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, L S; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2009-01-01

    We extend an earlier study of the baryon magnetic moments in chiral perturbation theory by the explicit inclusion of the spin-3/2 decuplet resonances. We find that the corrections induced by these heavier degrees of freedom are relatively small in a covariant framework where unphysical spin-1/2 modes are removed. Consequently, implementing the leading SU(3)-breaking corrections given by both the baryon and decuplet contributions, we obtain a description of the baryon-octet magnetic moments that is better than the Coleman-Glashow relations. Finally, we discuss the uncertainties and compare between heavy baryon and covariant approaches.

  1. Magnetic ordering in nickel-zinc nanoferrite thin film formed by Langmuir Blodgett technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Sangeeta; Pandit, Pallavi; Sharma, S. K.; Katyal, S. C.; Singh, Mahavir; Gupta, Ajay

    2013-12-01

    Nickel-zinc nanoferrite thin films, which reveal application for magnetic materials, were prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett technique. X-ray reflectivity fitting was done using three layer model. Thickness of a monolayer of nanoparticles is obtained as 23.5 Å. Surface roughness increases as the thickness of the film increases. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed that the structure remains cubic spinel after thin film formation. We have measured zero-field cooled and field cooled magnetization and discussed the behavior in three parts: the ferromagnetic part, transition region, and the superparamagnetic part.

  2. Multipolar phases and magnetically hidden order: review of the heavy-fermion compound Ce1-x La x B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Alistair S.; Friemel, Gerd; Inosov, Dmytro S.

    2016-06-01

    Cerium hexaboride is a cubic f-electron heavy-fermion compound that displays a rich array of low-temperature magnetic ordering phenomena which have been the subject of investigation for more than 50 years. Its complex behaviour is the result of competing interactions, with both itinerant and local electrons playing important roles. Investigating this material has proven to be a substantial challenge, in particular because of the appearance of a ‘magnetically hidden order’ phase, which remained elusive to neutron-scattering investigations for many years. It was not until the development of modern x-ray scattering techniques that the long suspected multipolar origin of this phase was confirmed. Doping with non-magnetic lanthanum dilutes the magnetic cerium sublattice and reduces the f-electron count, bringing about substantial changes to the ground state with the emergence of new phases and quantum critical phenomena. To this day, Ce1-x La x B6 and its related compounds remain a subject of intense interest. Despite the substantial progress in understanding their behaviour, they continue to reveal new and unexplained physical phenomena. Here we present a review of the accumulated body of knowledge on this family of materials in order to provide a firm standpoint for future investigations.

  3. First-order magnetic and magnetostructural transitions in the magnetocaloric compound MnNi{sub 0.73}Fe{sub 0.27}Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Aili [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Jinghua [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Jiang, Chengbao, E-mail: jiangcb@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Enke; Wu, Guangheng [State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic and magnetostructural transitions of MnNi{sub 0.73}Fe{sub 0.27}Ge have been studied by calorimetry and by magnetic measurements. The first-order MST from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic martensite shows a giant magnetic entropy change of −27 J/kg K for a magnetic-field change of 50 kOe around 233 K. A weak first-order magnetic transition is observed in the martensite phase over a large low-temperature range, with clear thermal hysteresis and increased saturation field. The origin is discussed on the basis of the competitiom between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling with magneto-elastic coupling.

  4. First-order magnetic and magnetostructural transitions in the magnetocaloric compound MnNi0.73Fe0.27Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Aili; Liu, Jinghua; Jiang, Chengbao; Liu, Enke; Wu, Guangheng

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic and magnetostructural transitions of MnNi0.73Fe0.27Ge have been studied by calorimetry and by magnetic measurements. The first-order MST from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic martensite shows a giant magnetic entropy change of -27 J/kg K for a magnetic-field change of 50 kOe around 233 K. A weak first-order magnetic transition is observed in the martensite phase over a large low-temperature range, with clear thermal hysteresis and increased saturation field. The origin is discussed on the basis of the competitiom between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling with magneto-elastic coupling.

  5. Study of the effect of short ranged ordering on the magnetism in FeCr alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Ambika Prasad; Sanyal, Biplab; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    For the study of magnetism in systems where the local environment plays an important role, we propose a marriage between the Monte Carlo simulation and Zunger's special quasi-random structures. We apply this technique on disordered FeCr alloys and show that our estimates of the transition temperature is in good agreement with earlier experiments.

  6. Composition-dependent variation of magnetic properties and interstitial ordering in homogeneous expanded austenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Bastian K.; Ståhl, Kenny; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin;

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure and magnetic properties of austenitic stainless steel with a colossal interstitial content, so-called expanded austenite, are currently not completely understood. In the present work, the magnetic properties of homogeneous samples of expanded austenite, as prepared by lowera......The crystal structure and magnetic properties of austenitic stainless steel with a colossal interstitial content, so-called expanded austenite, are currently not completely understood. In the present work, the magnetic properties of homogeneous samples of expanded austenite, as prepared...... by lowerature nitriding of thin foils, were investigated with magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. At room temperature, expanded austenite is paramagnetic for relatively low and for relatively high nitrogen contents (yN = 0.13 and 0.55, respectively, where yN is the interstitial nitrogen occupancy), while...... ferromagnetism is observed for intermediate nitrogen loads. Spontaneous volume magnetostriction was observed in the ferromagnetic state and the Curie temperature was found to depend strongly on the nitrogen content. For the first time, X-ray diffraction evidence for the occurrence of long-range interstitial...

  7. Third-order particle motion through the fringing field of a homogeneous bending magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, B. (2. Physikalisches Inst. der Justus-Liebig-Univ., Giessen (Germany)); Wollnik, H. (2. Physikalisches Inst. der Justus-Liebig-Univ., Giessen (Germany))

    1994-05-01

    The ion trajectories through the extended fringing field of a homogeneous magnet are approximated by analytic formulas including the effects of inclined and curved field boundaries. The results are expressed by transfer matrices. All expressions are compared to numerical integrations through typical field distributions. (orig.)

  8. Phonon-induced quadrupolar ordering of the magnetic superconductor TmNi2B2C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, N.H.; Jensen, J.; Jensen, T.B.S.

    2006-01-01

    We present synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies revealing that the lattice of thulium borocarbide is distorted below T(Q)similar or equal to 13.5 K at zero field. T-Q increases and the amplitude of the displacements is drastically enhanced by a factor of 10 at 60 kOe when a magnetic field is app...

  9. Storage of magnetization as singlet order by optimal control designed pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Bowen, Sean; Vinding, Mads Sloth

    2014-01-01

    . With this aim, optimal control theory was applied to create pulses that for near‐equivalent spins accomplish transfers in and out of the singlet state with maximum efficiency while ensuring robustness toward variations in the nuclear spin system Hamiltonian (chemical shift, J‐couplings, B1 and B magnetic field...

  10. Magnetic Ordering in Cerium Monochalcogenides: A Test Case for Epsilon-Expansions with n=4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, H. R.; Kjems, Jørgen; Hulliger, F.

    1979-01-01

    CeSe and CeTe are found by neutron diffraction to be type-II antiferromagnets with the moment along the propagation vector. The phase transitions are continuous with the critical exponent for the magnetization β=0.36±0.02. This constitutes a violation of the ε-expansion predictions of Bak, Krinsky...

  11. Long-range magnetic ordering in a metal-organic framework based on octanuclear nickel(ii) clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Li; Bai, Yan; Pan, Hui; Zheng, Guang-Shui; Dang, Dong-Bin

    2017-09-19

    A novel three-dimensional metal-organic framework [Ni3(BTC)2(bpp)2(H2O)]·3H2O (1) based on mixed ligands H3BTC (1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid) and bpp (1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane) was obtained under hydrothermal conditions. Crystal structure analysis reveals that 1 is a framework based on cage-like Ni8(COO)12 units. Furthermore, long-range magnetic ordering is observed at low temperature.

  12. Co4(OH)2(C10H16O4)3 metal-organic framework: slow magnetic relaxation in the ordered phase of magnetic chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, Romain; Mazet, Thomas; Malaman, Bernard; Gaudisson, Thomas; François, Michel

    2012-03-05

    Reported here are the synthesis and structural and topological analysis as well as a magnetic investigation of the new Co(4)(OH)(2)(C(10)H(16)O(4))(3) metal-organic framework. The structural analysis reveals a one-dimensional inorganic subnetwork based on complex chains of cobalt(II) ions in two different oxygen environments. Long alkane dioic acid molecules bridge these inorganic chains together to afford large distances and poor magnetic media between dense spin chains. The thermal dependence of the χT product provides evidence for uncompensated antiferromagnetic interactions within the cobaltous chains. In zero-field, dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements show slow magnetic relaxation below 5.4 K while both neutron diffraction and heat capacity measurements give evidence of long-range order (LRO) below this temperature. The slow dynamics may originate from the motion of broad domain walls and is characterized by an Arrhenius law with a single energy barrier Δ(τ)/k(B) = 67(1) K for the [10-5000 Hz] frequency range. Moreover, in nonzero dc fields the ac susceptibility signal splits into a low-temperature frequency-dependent peak and a high-temperature frequency-independent peak which strongly shifts to higher temperature upon increasing the bias dc field. Heat capacity measurements have been carried out for various applied field values, and the recorded C(P)(T) data are used for the calculation of the thermal variations of both the adiabatic temperature change ΔT(ad) and magnetic entropy change ΔS(m). The deduced data show a modest magnetocaloric effect at low temperature. Its maximum moves up to higher temperature upon increasing the field variation, in relation with the field-sensibility of the intrachain magnetic correlation length.

  13. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

      The magnet was operated without any problem until the end of the LHC run in February 2013, apart from a CERN-wide power glitch on 10 January 2013 that affected the CMS refrigerator, causing a ramp down to 2 T in order to reconnect the coldbox. Another CERN-wide power glitch on 15 January 2013 didn’t affect the magnet subsystems, the cryoplant or the power converter. At the end of the magnet run, the reconnection of the coldbox at 2.5 T was tested. The process will be updated, in particular the parameters of some PID valve controllers. The helium flow of the current leads was reduced but only for a few seconds. The exercise will be repeated with the revised parameters to validate the automatic reconnection process of the coldbox. During LS1, the water-cooling services will be reduced and many interventions are planned on the electrical services. Therefore, the magnet cryogenics and subsystems will be stopped for several months, and the magnet cannot be kept cold. In order to avoid unc...

  14. First-order transition in the magnetic vortex matter in superconducting MgB2 tuned by disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, T; Marlaud, R; Marcenat, C; Cercellier, H; Konczykowski, M; van der Beek, C J; Mosser, V; Lee, H S; Lee, S I

    2010-07-23

    The field-driven transition from an ordered Bragg glass to a disordered vortex phase in single-crystalline MgB2 is tuned by an increasing density of point defects, introduced by electron irradiation. The discontinuity observed in magnetization attests to the first-order nature of the transition. The temperature and defect density dependences of the transition field point to vortex pinning mediated by fluctuations in the quasiparticle mean free path, and reveal the mechanism of the transition in the absence of complicating factors such as layeredness or thermal fluctuations.

  15. Magnetic ordering of Fe atoms in oxygen-saturated and oxygen-reduced YBa sub 2 (Cu sub 1-x Fe sub x ) sub 3 O sub y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubutin, I.S.; Terziev, V.G.; Dmitrieva, T.V. (Inst. of Crystallography, Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia)); Balagurov, A.M. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia)); Nasu, S. (Dept. of Material Physics, Osaka Univ. (Japan))

    1992-06-01

    The magnetic ordering of Fe atoms in the YBa{sub 2}(Cu{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}){sub 3}O{sub y} system is studied in the superconducting (SC) and non-SC states by Moessbauer spectroscopy. In the SC samples a single magnetic ordering point T{sub m1} is observed for all Fe atoms: T{sub m1}=10 K and 16 K for x=0.05 and 0.10, respectively. In the non-SC state for x=0.05 the Cu(1) and Cu(2) sublattices are magnetically independent and two magnetic ordering points are found: T{sub m1}=20 K and T{sub m2}=405 K. For x=0.10 a strong magnetic coupling between the Cu(1) and Cu(2) sublattices leads to a single magnetic ordering temperature T{sub m2}=435 K. (orig.).

  16. Magnetic damping and spin polarization of highly ordered B2 Co{sub 2}FeAl thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yishen [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Lu, Jiwei, E-mail: jl5tk@virginia.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Schäfer, Sebastian; Khodadadi, Behrouz; Mewes, Tim [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Osofsky, Mike [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Wolf, Stuart A. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2014-08-21

    Epitaxial Co{sub 2}FeAl films were synthesized using the Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition technique. Post annealing yielded Co{sub 2}FeAl films with an improved B2 chemical ordering. Both the magnetization and the Gilbert damping parameter were reduced with increased B2 ordering. A low damping parameter, ∼0.002, was attained in B2 ordered Co{sub 2}FeAl films without the presence of the L2{sub 1} Heusler phase, which suggests that the B2 structure is sufficient for providing low damping in Co{sub 2}FeAl. The spin polarization was ∼53% and was insensitive to the chemical ordering.

  17. Magnetic order in hybrid frustrated magnets Gd2-xTbxTi2O7 (x = 0.2 and 0.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orendáč, M.; Vrábel, P.; Orendáčová, A.; Prokleška, J.; Sechovský, V.; Singh, S.; Suryanarayanan, R.; Revcolevschi, A.

    2012-05-01

    We report on the specific heat, magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements of single crystals of hybrid frustrated magnets Gd1.8Tb0.2Ti2O7 and Gd1.5Tb0.5Ti2O7. The analysis of experimental data revealed that, although partial replacing of the Gd3+ ions by the Tb3+ ions in the Gd2Ti2O7 host lattice slightly enhances antiferromagnetic coupling, as inferred from the evolution of the paramagnetic Curie-Weiss temperature, the ordering temperature gradually decreases. Paramagnetic correlations introduced by the Tb3+ ions cause this perturbation, altering the effective further neighbor interactions and destabilizing the ground state in Gd2Ti2O7. In addition, the low-energy states of Gd2-xTbxTi2O7 are suggested to possess a nature different from those in parent members Tb2Ti2O7 and Gd2Ti2O7. Finally, the frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility behavior in Gd1.5Tb0.5Ti2O7 is consistent with the formation of a spin-glass-like state indicating a pronounced slowing down of the dynamical response of the studied hybrid magnets.

  18. Magnetic Long-Range Order and Colossal Magnetoresistance Effect in Double Exchange Ladders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马冬梅; 邹良剑

    2001-01-01

    By applying Bogoliubov's ineguality to double-exchange(DE) ladders, we show that the ferromagnetic(FM) order is absent in the new DE systems at finite temperatures. The incorporation of Jahn-Teller electron-phonon coupling, orbital degeneracy and on-site Coulomb interaction with the DE interaction do not preserve these orders. The long-wavelength thermal fluctuations of the spins oversome the DEFM correlation and destroy the FM orders. The implication of the absence of FM order on the transport of the DE ladders is discussed.

  19. Appearance of Jet-Driving Poynting Flux in Hot, Tenuous Accretion Disks Threaded by an Ordered Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburaki, Osamu

    2012-04-01

    In a series of our previous studies, a model of radiatively inefficient accretion flows (RIAFs) in a global magnetic field (so-called resistive RIAF model) has proved its ability to account for many physical processes taking place in such accretion flows, as realized in the nuclei of galaxies believed to be accreting at a very small fraction of each Eddington accretion rate. Within the present status of this model, however, the model cannot describe the launch of a self-confined bipolar jet from the vicinity of the disk's inner edge, although it allows the existence of a thermal wind widely distributed over the disk surfaces. This is because the electric field (and hence the Poynting flux) vanishes everywhere in the disk, whereas such a jet in a globally ordered magnetic field is most likely to be accelerated electrodynamically. We show in the present paper that this defect can be overcome naturally if we reformulate the problem so as to admit a quasi-stationary change of the magnetic field (and hence the appearance of a non-irrotational electric field), and also restore all of the terms of order ɛ ≡ (vr/vφ)2 ≲ 1 (where vr and vφ denote the radial and azimuthal components, respectively, of the fluid velocity), which have been neglected altogether in our previous scheme. The restored effects are the inertial and magnetic draggings on the infalling matter. As an illustrative example, a model solution that is correct up to {\\cal O} (ɛ) is derived under a set of plausible restrictions. The new solution predicts the appearance of a localized Poynting flux in a region near the disk inner edge, strongly suggesting that a jet is launched from this region. Another interesting prediction is the appearance of a rapid change of the magnetic field, also localized to this region.

  20. Magnetic properties and atomic ordering of BCC Heusler alloy Fe2MnGa ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yuepeng; Ma, Yuexing; Luo, Hongzhi; Meng, Fanbin; Liu, Heyan

    2016-05-01

    The electronic structure, atomic disorder and magnetic properties of the Heusler alloy Fe2MnGa have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. BCC Fe2MnGa ribbon samples were prepared. Experimentally, a saturation magnetic moment (3.68 μB at 5 K) much larger than the theoretical value (2.04 μB) has been reported. First-principles calculations indicate that the difference is related to the Fe-Mn disorder between A, B sites, as can also be deduced from the XRD pattern. L21 type Fe2MnGa is a ferrimagnet with antiparallel Fe and Mn spin moments. However, when Fe-Mn disorder occurs, part of Mn moments will be parallel to Fe moments, and the Fe moments also clearly increase simultaneously. All this results in a total moment of 3.74 μB, close to the experimental value.

  1. Leading-order hadronic contributions to the electron and tau anomalous magnetic moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Florian; Pientka, Grit [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Berlin (Germany); Jansen, Karl [NIC, DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Petschlies, Marcus [The Cyprus Institute, P.O.Box 27456, Nicosia (Cyprus); Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn, Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The leading hadronic contributions to the anomalous magnetic moments of the electron and the τ-lepton are determined by a four-flavour lattice QCD computation with twisted mass fermions. The results presented are based on the quark-connected contribution to the hadronic vacuum polarisation function. The continuum limit is taken and systematic uncertainties are quantified. Full agreement with results obtained by phenomenological analyses is found. (orig.)

  2. Enhancement of Second- and Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities in Magnetized Semiconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Singh; P. Aghamkar; S. Duhan

    2008-01-01

    Using electromagnetic treatment, an expression of effective nonlinear optical susceptibility Xe[= Xe(2) + Xe(3) E] is obtained for Ⅲ-Ⅴ semiconducting crystals in an applied transverse dc magnetic field under off-resonant transition regime. The origin of nonlinear interaction lies in nonlinear polarization arising from the crystal properties such as piezoelectricity and electrostriction. Numerical estimates have been made by a representative n-InSb crystal at 77K duly irradiated by a pulsed lO.6-μm CO2 laser under off-resonant transition regime. Efforts are dedicated to optimizing doping level and externally applied dc magnetic field to achieve maximum Xe(2) and Xe(3). The results are found to be in good agreement with the available literature. The analysis shows that Xe(2) and Xe(3)can be significantly enhanced in doped Ⅲ-Ⅴ semiconductors by the proper selection of doping concentration and dc magnetic field, which confirms its potential as a candidate material for the fabrication of nonlinear optical devices.

  3. Magnetic black holes with higher-order curvature and gauge corrections in even dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, Hideki; Martinez, Cristian

    2010-01-01

    We obtain magnetic black-hole solutions in arbitrary $n(\\ge 4)$ even dimensions for an action given by the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell-$\\Lambda$ pieces with the $F^4$ gauge-correction terms. This action arises in the low energy limit of heterotic string theory with constant dilation and vanishing higher form fields. The spacetime is assumed to be a warped product ${\\ma M}^{2} \\times {\\ma K}^{n-2}$, where ${\\ma K}^{n-2}$ is a $(n-2)$-dimensional Einstein space satisfying a condition on its Weyl tensor, originally considered by Dotti and Gleiser. Under a few reasonable assumptions, we establish the generalized Jebsen-Birkhoff theorem for the magnetic solution in the case where the orbit of the warp factor on ${\\ma K}^{n-2}$ is non-null. We prove that such magnetic solutions do not exist in odd dimensions. In contrast, in even dimensions, we obtain an explicit solution in the case where ${\\ma K}^{n-2}$ is a product manifold of $(n-2)/2$ two-dimensional maximally symmetric spaces with the same constant warp fac...

  4. Magnetic-field-induced first-order phase transitions in Ca3(Ru1-xFex)2 O7 with unusual irreversible behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengze; Peng, Jin; Zou, Tao; Hong, Tao; Prokes, Karel; Mahanti, S. D.; Mao, Zhiqiang; Ke, Xianglin

    Neutron diffraction measurements reveal a magnetic-field-induced incommensurate-commensurate magnetic structure transition in a bilayer ruthenate Ca3(Ru1-xFex)2 O7 (x = 0.05). The transition is of first-order in nature, and exhibits intriguing irreversible behaviors at low temperature, i.e. the zero-field incommensurate state before and after field sweeping showing very distinct magnetic ordering wave vectors. The difference in the wavelength of magnetic ordering is strongly temperature-dependent, and disappears gradually as temperature raises. This unusual irreversibility in magnetic ordering vector is rarely observed, and in disagreement with phase coexistence phenomena that is commonly seen in other irreversible first-order phase transitions. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate that thermal fluctuations also play an essential role in this unusual behavior.

  5. The interplay of long-range magnetic order and single-ion anisotropy in rare earth nickel germanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Z.

    1999-05-10

    This dissertation is concerned with the interplay of long-range order and anisotropy in the tetragonal RNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} (R = rare earth) family of compounds. Microscopic magnetic structures were studied using both neutron and x-ray resonant exchange scattering (XRES) techniques. The magnetic structures of Tb, Dy, Eu and Gd members have been determined using high-quality single-crystal samples. This work has correlated a strong Fermi surface nesting to the magnetic ordering in the RNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} compounds. Generalized susceptibility, {chi}{sub 0}(q), calculations found nesting to be responsible for both incommensurate ordering wave vector in GdNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, and the commensurate structure in EuNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}. A continuous transition from incommensurate to commensurate magnetic structures via band filling is predicted. The surprisingly higher T{sub N} in EuNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} than that in GdNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} is also explained. Next, all the metamagnetic phases in TbNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} with an applied field along the c axis have been characterized with neutron diffraction measurements. A mixed phase model for the first metamagnetic structure consisting of fully-saturated as well as reduced-moment Tb ions is presented. The moment reduction may be due to moment instability which is possible if the exchange is comparable to the low-lying CEF level splitting and the ground state is a singlet. In such a case, certain Tb sites may experience a local field below the critical value needed to reach saturation.

  6. Competing superconducting and magnetic order parameters and field-induced magnetism in electron doped Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob; Uranga, B. Mencia; Stieber, G.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic and superconducting properties of Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 as a function of temperature and external magnetic field using neutron scattering and muon spin rotation. Below the superconducting transition temperature the magnetic and superconducting order parameters coexist...

  7. Magnetic anisotropy and chemical long-range order in epitaxial ferrimagnetic CrPt sub 3 films

    CERN Document Server

    Maret, M; Köhler, J; Poinsot, R; Ulhaq-Bouillet, C; Tonnerre, J M; Berar, J F; Bucher, E

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of CrPt sub 3 were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy on both Al sub 2 O sub 3 (0 0 0 1) and MgO(0 0 1) substrates, either directly by co-deposition of Cr and Pt at high temperatures or after in situ annealing of superlattices [Cr(2 A)/Pt(7 A)]. In situ RHEED observations and X-ray diffraction measurements have allowed us to check the single-crystal quality of CrPt sub 3 films and to determine the degree of L1 sub 2 -type long-range order (LRO). In films co-deposited between 850 deg. C and 950 deg. C a nearly perfect LRO has been observed. As in bulk alloys, such ordering yields a ferrimagnetic order, while the disordered films are non-magnetic. In contrast with the ferromagnetic L1 sub 2 -type ordered CoPt sub 3 (1 1 1) films, the ferrimagnetic CrPt sub 3 (1 1 1) films exhibit perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with quality factors, K sub u /K sub d , as large as 5 and large coercivities around 450 kA/m. Such anisotropy could be related to the arrangement of Cr atoms, which owing to their large mag...

  8. Correspondence between neutron depolarization and higher order magnetic susceptibility to investigate ferromagnetic clusters in phase separated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Kaustuv; Samal, D; Bera, A K; Elizabeth, Suja; Yusuf, S M; Kumar, P S Anil

    2014-01-08

    It is a tough task to distinguish a short-range ferromagnetically correlated cluster-glass phase from a canonical spin-glass-like phase in many magnetic oxide systems using conventional magnetometry measurements. As a case study, we investigate the magnetic ground state of La0.85Sr0.15CoO3, which is often debated based on phase separation issues. We report the results of two samples of La0.85Sr0.15CoO3 (S-1 and S-2) prepared under different conditions. Neutron depolarization, higher harmonic ac susceptibility and magnetic relaxation studies were carried out along with conventional magnetometry measurements to differentiate subtle changes at the microscopic level. There is no evidence of ferromagnetic correlation in the sample S-2 attributed to a spin-glass phase, and this is compounded by the lack of existence of a second order component of higher harmonic ac susceptibility and neutron depolarization. A magnetic relaxation experiment at different temperatures complements the spin glass characteristic in S-2. All these signal a sharp variance when we consider the cluster-glass-like phase (phase separated) in S-1, especially when prepared from an improper chemical synthesis process. This shows that the nonlinear ac susceptibility is a viable tool to detect ferromagnetic clusters such as those the neutron depolarization study can reveal.

  9. First-principles study of magnetism, structure and chemical order in small FeRh alloy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2011-01-01

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of small ${\\rm Fe}_m {\\rm Rh}_n$ clusters having $N = m+n \\leq 8$ atoms are studied in the framework of a generalized-gradient approximation to density-functional theory. The correlation between structure, chemical order, and magnetic behavior is analyzed as a function of size and composition. For $N = m+n \\leq 6$ a thorough sampling of all cluster topologies has been performed, while for N = 7 and 8 only a few representative topologies are considered. In all cases the entire concentration range is systematically investigated. All the clusters show ferromagnetic-like order in the optimized structures. As a result, the average magnetic moment per atom $\\bar\\mu_N$ increases monotonously, which is almost linear over a wide range of concentration with Fe content. A remarkable enhancement of the local Fe moments beyond 3 $\\mu_B$ is observed as result of Rh doping. This is a consequence of the increase in the number of Fe $d$ holes, due to charge transfer from Fe t...

  10. Neutron diffraction evidence for kinetic arrest of first order magneto-structural phase transitions in some functional magnetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siruguri, V; Babu, P D; Kaushik, S D; Biswas, Aniruddha; Sarkar, S K; Krishnan, Madangopal; Chaddah, P

    2013-12-11

    Neutron diffraction measurements, performed in the presence of an external magnetic field, have been used to show structural evidence for the kinetic arrest of the first order phase transition from (i) the high temperature austenite phase to the low temperature martensite phase in the magnetic shape memory alloy Ni37Co11Mn42.5Sn9.5, (ii) the higher temperature ferromagnetic phase to the lower temperature antiferromagnetic phase in the half-doped charge ordered compound La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 and (iii) the formation of glass-like arrested states in both compounds. The cooling and heating under unequal fields protocol has been used to establish phase coexistence of metastable and equilibrium states, and also to demonstrate the devitrification of the arrested metastable states in the neutron diffraction patterns. We also explore the field–temperature dependent kinetic arrest line TK(H), through the transformation of the arrested phase to the equilibrium phase. This transformation has been observed isothermally in reducing H, as also on warming in constant H. TK is seen to increase as H increases in both cases, consistent with the low-T equilibrium phase having lower magnetization.

  11. A Secondary Operator Ordering Problem for a Charged Rigid Planar Rotator in Uniform Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yan-Ping; LAI Mei-Mei; HOU Ji-Xuan; CHEN Xu-Wen; LIU Quan-Hui

    2005-01-01

    When the motion of a particle is constrained, an excess term exists using hermitian form of Cartesian momentum pi (i = 1, 2, 3) in usual kinetic energy (1/2μ)∑p2i, and the correct kinetic energy turns out to be (1/2μ) ∑(1/ fi)pifipi, where the fi are dummy factors in classical mechanics and nontrivial in quantum mechanics. In this paper the explicit form of the dummy functions fi is given for a charged rigid planar rotator in the uniform magnetic field.

  12. Neutron scattering investigation of the magnetic order in single crystalline BaFe2As2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Qiu, Y [NIST; Kofu, M [UNIV OF VA; Lee, S - H [UNIV OF VA; Chang, S [NIST; Wu, T [HEFEI NAT. LAB.; Wu, G [HEFEI NAT. LAB; Chen, X H [HEFEI NAT. LAB

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic structure of BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} was determined from polycrystalline neutron diffraction measurements soon after the ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type FeAs-based superconductors were discovered. Both the moment direction and the in-plane antiferromagnetic wavevector are along the longer a-axis of the orthorhombic unit cell. There is only one combined magnetostructural transition at {approx}140 K. However, a later single-crystal neutron diffraction work reported contradicting results. Here, we show neutron diffraction results from a single-crystal sample, grown by a self-flux method, that support the original polycrystalline work.

  13. Fractional-order system identification and proportional-derivative control of a solid-core magnetic bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianpeng; Li, Lichuan

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the application of fractional-order system identification (FOSI) and proportional-derivative (PD(µ)) control to a solid-core magnetic bearing (MB). A practical strategy for closed-loop incommensurate FOSI along with a modified error criterion is utilized to model the MB system and a corresponding, verification experiment is carried out. Based on the identified model, integer-order (IO) PD and fractional-order (FO) PD(µ) controllers are designed and compared with the same specifications. Besides, the relation between the two categories of controllers is discussed by their feasible control zones. Final simulation and experimental results show that the FO PD(µ) controller can significantly improve the transient and steady-state performance of the MB system comparing with the IO PD controller. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Superconducting scanning tunneling microscopy tips in a magnetic field: Geometry-controlled order of the phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltschka, Matthias, E-mail: m.eltschka@fkf.mpg.de; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kondrashov, Oleg V. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Moscow (Russian Federation); Skvortsov, Mikhail A. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Moscow (Russian Federation); Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, 143026 Moscow (Russian Federation); L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, 142432 Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Kern, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Institut de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-09-21

    The properties of geometrically confined superconductors significantly differ from their bulk counterparts. Here, we demonstrate the geometrical impact for superconducting scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tips, where the confinement ranges from the atomic to the mesoscopic scale. To this end, we compare the experimentally determined magnetic field dependence for several vanadium tips to microscopic calculations based on the Usadel equation. For our theoretical model of a superconducting cone, we find a direct correlation between the geometry and the order of the superconducting phase transition. Increasing the opening angle of the cone changes the phase transition from first to second order. Comparing our experimental findings to the theory reveals first and second order quantum phase transitions in the vanadium STM tips. In addition, the theory also explains experimentally observed broadening effects by the specific tip geometry.

  15. Structural transition and magnetic ordering in (Sm,Ce)FeAsO{sub (1-x)}F{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann-Borrero, Jorge E.; Kondrat, Agnieszka; Klingeler, Ruediger; Hess, Christian; Behr, G.; Buechner, Bernd [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, IFW Dresden (Germany); Maeter, Hemke; Klauss, Hans-Henning [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Dresden (Germany); Feyerherm, Ralf; Argyriou, Dimitri [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The tetragonal to orthorhombic transition of the layered compounds (Sm,Ce)FeAsO{sub (1-x)}F{sub x} is studied by means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction, {mu}SR and resistivity. We particularly focus on the onset of the SDW and superconducting states by monitoring the structural transition temperature T{sub s} the magnetic ordering temperature T{sub N} and the critical temperature T{sub c}. In the case of SmFeAsO{sub (1-x)}F{sub x} the SDW state is only gradually suppressed upon doping until it is entirely suppressed in favour of the superconducting state. This is in contrast to CeFeAsO{sub (1-x)}F{sub x} where the SDW state is suppressed much more efficiently and where superconductivity coexists with magnetism. Moreover we do not observe any orthorhombic distortion in superconducting samples.

  16. Mitigating the effects of higher order multipole fields in the magnets of the Accelerator Test Facility 2 at KEK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Sha; P. Bambade; WANG Dou; GAO Jie; M. Woodley; M. Masuzawa

    2012-01-01

    The ATF2 project is the final focus system prototype for the ILC and CLIC linear collider projects,with the purpose of reaching a 37nm vertical beam size at the interaction point.In the nanometer beam size regime,higher order multipoles in magnets become a crucial point for consideration.The strength and rotation angle of the ATF2 QEA magnets were reconstructed from the IHEP measurements and compared with the KEK ones to be identical.Based on the study of the skew multipoles sensitivity,we report on the analysis of the possible mitigation of the measured multipoles.A suggestion is given which will benefit the ATF2 present commissioning to reach the goal beam size,and also the reduced β optics in future.

  17. First order reversal curves and intrinsic parameter determination for magnetic materials; limitations of hysteron-based approaches in correlated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Sergiu; Hovorka, Ondrej; Huang, Pin-Wei; Wang, Kangkang; Ju, Ganping; Chantrell, Roy

    2017-03-01

    The generic problem of extracting information on intrinsic particle properties from the whole class of interacting magnetic fine particle systems is a long standing and difficult inverse problem. As an example, the Switching Field Distribution (SFD) is an important quantity in the characterization of magnetic systems, and its determination in many technological applications, such as recording media, is especially challenging. Techniques such as the first order reversal curve (FORC) methods, were developed to extract the SFD from macroscopic measurements. However, all methods rely on separating the contributions to the measurements of the intrinsic SFD and the extrinsic effects of magnetostatic and exchange interactions. We investigate the underlying physics of the FORC method by applying it to the output predictions of a kinetic Monte-Carlo model with known input parameters. We show that the FORC method is valid only in cases of weak spatial correlation of the magnetisation and suggest a more general approach.

  18. First order reversal curves and intrinsic parameter determination for magnetic materials; limitations of hysteron-based approaches in correlated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Sergiu; Hovorka, Ondrej; Huang, Pin-Wei; Wang, Kangkang; Ju, Ganping; Chantrell, Roy

    2017-01-01

    The generic problem of extracting information on intrinsic particle properties from the whole class of interacting magnetic fine particle systems is a long standing and difficult inverse problem. As an example, the Switching Field Distribution (SFD) is an important quantity in the characterization of magnetic systems, and its determination in many technological applications, such as recording media, is especially challenging. Techniques such as the first order reversal curve (FORC) methods, were developed to extract the SFD from macroscopic measurements. However, all methods rely on separating the contributions to the measurements of the intrinsic SFD and the extrinsic effects of magnetostatic and exchange interactions. We investigate the underlying physics of the FORC method by applying it to the output predictions of a kinetic Monte-Carlo model with known input parameters. We show that the FORC method is valid only in cases of weak spatial correlation of the magnetisation and suggest a more general approach. PMID:28338056

  19. Why does steady-state magnetic reconnection have a maximum local rate of order 0.1?

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Guo, F; Daughton, W; Li, H; Cassak, P A; Shay, M A

    2016-01-01

    Simulations suggest collisionless steady-state magnetic reconnection of Harris-type current sheets proceeds with a rate of order 0.1, independent of dissipation mechanism. We argue this long-standing puzzle is a result of constraints at the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) scale. We perform a scaling analysis of the reconnection rate as a function of the opening angle made by the upstream magnetic fields, finding a maximum reconnection rate close to 0.2. The predictions compare favorably to particle-in-cell simulations of relativistic electron-positron and non-relativistic electron-proton reconnection. The fact that simulated reconnection rates are close to the predicted maximum suggests reconnection proceeds near the most efficient state allowed at the MHD-scale. The rate near the maximum is relatively insensitive to the opening angle, potentially explaining why reconnection has a similar fast rate in differing models.

  20. Plaquette-triplon analysis of magnetic disorder and order in a trimerized spin-1 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pratyay; Verma, Akhilesh Kumar; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-01-01

    A spin-1 Heisenberg model on trimerized kagome lattice is studied by doing a low-energy bosonic theory in terms of plaquette triplons defined on its triangular unit cells. The model considered has an intratriangle antiferromagnetic exchange interaction J (set to 1) and two intertriangle couplings J'>0 (nearest neighbor) and J″ (next nearest neighbor; of both signs). The triplon analysis performed on this model investigates the stability of the trimerized singlet ground state (which is exact in the absence of intertriangle couplings) in the J'-J″ plane. It gives a quantum phase diagram that has two gapless antiferromagnetically ordered phases separated by the spin-gapped trimerized singlet phase. The trimerized singlet ground state is found to be stable on J″=0 line (the nearest-neighbor case), and on both sides of it for J″≠0 , in an extended region bounded by the critical lines of transition to the gapless antiferromagnetic phases. The gapless phase in the negative J″ region has a coplanar 120∘ antiferromagnetic order with √{3 }×√{3 } structure. In this phase, all the magnetic moments are of equal length, and the angle between any two of them on a triangle is exactly 120∘. The magnetic lattice in this case has a unit cell consisting of three triangles. The other gapless phase, in the positive J″ region, is found to exhibit a different coplanar antiferromagnetic order with ordering wave vector q =(0 ,0 ) . Here, two magnetic moments in a triangle are of the same magnitude, but shorter than the third. While the angle between two short moments is 120∘-2 δ , it is 120∘+δ between a short and the long one. Only when J″=J' , their magnitudes become equal and the relative angles 120∘. The magnetic lattice in this q =(0 ,0 ) phase has the translational symmetry of the kagome lattice with triangular unit cells of reduced (isosceles) symmetry. This reduction in the point-group symmetry is found to show up as a difference in the intensities of

  1. Weyl fermions with arbitrary monopoles in magnetic fields: Landau levels, longitudinal magnetotransport, and density-wave ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Roy, Bitan; Das Sarma, S.

    2016-11-01

    We theoretically address the effects of strong magnetic fields in three-dimensional Weyl semimetals (WSMs) built out of Weyl nodes with a monopole charge n . For n =1 , 2, and 3 we realize single, double, and triple WSM, respectively, and the monopole charge n determines the integer topological invariant of the WSM. Within the linearized continuum description, the quasiparticle spectrum is then composed of Landau levels (LLs), containing exactly n number of chiral zeroth Landau levels (ZLLs), irrespective of the orientation of the magnetic field. In the presence of strong backscattering, for example (due to quenched disorder associated with random impurities), these systems generically give rise to longitudinal magnetotransport. Restricting ourselves to the quantum limit (and assuming only the subspace of the ZLLs to be partially filled) and mainly accounting for Gaussian impurities, we show that the longitudinal magnetoconductivity (LMC) in all members of the Weyl family displays a positive linear-B scaling when the field is applied along the axis that separates the Weyl nodes. But, in double and triple WSM, LMC displays a smooth crossover to a nonlinear B dependence as the field is tilted away from such a high-symmetry direction. In addition, due to the enhanced density of states, the LL quantization can trigger instabilities toward the formation of translational symmetry-breaking density-wave orderings for sufficiently weak interaction (BCS instability), which gaps out the ZLLs. Concomitantly as the temperature (magnetic field) is gradually decreased (increased) the LMC becomes negative. Thus WSMs with arbitrary monopole charge (n ) can host an intriguing interplay of LL quantization, longitudinal magnetotransport (a possible manifestation of one-dimensional chiral or axial anomaly), and density-wave ordering, when placed in a strong magnetic field.

  2. Experimental probing of the emergence of magnetic order at the insulator-to-metal transition in (Ga,Mn)As

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Maciej

    2010-03-01

    The question whether the Anderson-Mott localization enhances or reduces magnetic correlations is central to the physics of magnetic alloys. Particularly intriguing is the case of (Ga,Mn)As the canonical diluted magnetic semiconductors in which the spin-spin coupling is mediated by holes. In order to find out how magnetism evolves when the carrier density is diminished, magnetisation changes induced by an electric field in metal/insulator/(Ga,Mn)As structures were probed directly by SQUID magnetometry [1]. Our findings show that the channel depletion results in a monotonic decrease of the Curie temperature and spontaneous magnetic moment, with no evidence for the maximum expected within the impurity-band models but explained theoretically in terms of the appropriately modified p-d Zener model [1]. We have found that this transformation proceeds via the emergence of a hitherto non-revealed superparamagnetic-like spin arrangement, which points to a fragmentation of long range spin order into ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic regions, which are driven by critical fluctuations in the local density of states, specific to the Anderson-Mott quantum transition. Finally, our studies provide a direct magnetic evidence for spontaneous 90 deg switching of the in-plane uniaxial easy axis upon gate-voltage-induced reduction of the hole density in the channel [2]. The work was done in collaboration with D. Chiba, Y. Nishitani, F. Matsukura, and H. Ohno in Sendai and with A. Korbecka, J.A. Majewski, and T. Dietl in Warsaw. The support from Japanese: Grant-in-Aids from MEXT/JSPS, the GCOE program, the Research and Development for Next-Generation Information Technology Program (MEXT), and EU: FunDMS Advanced Grant of ERC and InTechFun (POIG.01.03.01-00-159/08) is gratefully acknowledged. [4pt] [1] M. Sawicki, D.Chiba, A. Korbecka, Y. Nishitani, J.A. Majewski, F. Matsukura, T. Dietl, H. Ohno, Nature Phys., DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1455. [0pt] [2] D. Chiba, M. Sawicki, Y. Nishitani, Y. Nakatani

  3. Magnetic order in the double pyrochlore Tb{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, L J [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Prager, M; Persson, J [Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Walter, J; Jansen, E [Mineralogisch-Petrologisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Aussenstelle im Forschungszentrum Juelich, MIN/ZFR, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Chen, Y Y [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Gardner, J S, E-mail: ljchang@mx.nthu.edu.t [Department of Physics, Indiana University, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States)

    2010-02-24

    Polycrystalline Tb{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been studied using dc susceptibility, specific heat and neutron scattering techniques. The high temperature paramagnetic state is dominated by the single ion character of Tb{sup 3+} and very similar to that of the well-studied spin liquid Tb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. However, both the Ru{sup 4+} and Tb{sup 3+} sublattices order, at about 110 K and 3.5 K, respectively. Although the Tb sublattice does not fully order until 3.5 K, it is polarized in the presence of the internal field generated by the Ru{sup 4+} sublattice and possesses a significant moment at 7 K. Magnetic entropy measurements suggest that four levels exist in the first 30 K and inelastic neutron scattering investigations revealed two more levels at 10 and 14 meV. As the magnetic sublattices order, the excitations are perturbed from that measured in the paramagnetic state. These data are compared to data for other terbium based and double pyrochlores.

  4. Simultaneous removal of atrazine and copper using polyacrylic acid-functionalized magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon from water: adsorption mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaoyu; Zhang, Fengfeng; Tang, Lin; Zhang, Jiachao; Zeng, Guangming; Luo, Lin; Liu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Pei; Peng, Bo; Liu, Xiaocheng

    2017-03-01

    Highly efficient simultaneous removal of atrazine and Cu(II) was accomplished using synthesized polyacrylic acid-functionalized magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (P-MMC) as compared to magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (MMC) and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC). The mutual effects and interactive mechanism of their adsorption onto P-MMC were investigated systematically by binary, preloading and thermodynamic adsorption procedures. In both binary and preloading systems, the adsorption of atrazine was inhibited to some extent by the presence of Cu(II) because of selective recognition and direct competition, but the presence of atrazine had negligible effect on Cu(II) desorption. With the coexistence of humic acid (0-20 mg L-1), both atrazine and Cu(II) sorption increased slightly in sole and binary systems. With the concentration of coexisting NaCl increasing from 0 to 100 mM, the adsorption capacity for Cu(II) slightly decreased, but as for atrazine adsorption, it decreased at first, and then increased slightly in sole and binary systems. P-MMC was applied to treat real environmental samples, and the sorption capacities for atrazine and Cu(II) in real samples were all more than 91.47% and 96.43% of those in lab ultrapure water, respectively. Finally, comprehensively considering the relatively good renewability and the superior behavior in the application to real water samples, P-MMC has potential in removal of atrazine, Cu(II) and possibly other persistent organic pollutants from wastewater.

  5. [Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in depression; stimulation of the brain in order to cure the psyche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, R C; Snijders, A H; Verkes, R J; Bloem, B R

    2004-02-28

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive approach to briefly stimulate or inhibit cortical brain areas. A novel approach entails the delivery of repetitive TMS pulses (rTMS) at a fixed frequency. In rTMS cortical activity is altered beyond the period of actual stimulation. The changes occur locally as well as at a distance in functionally connected brain areas. These features render rTMS a suitable tool to study normal brain functions and the pathophysiology of brain diseases. Furthermore, it is expected that rTMS could be used as a novel therapy for neurological or psychiatric diseases characterised by abnormal cortical activation. This possibility has been studied mostly in patients suffering from depression, where rTMS has been used to restore normal activity in the hypoactive prefrontal cortex. Despite statistically significant therapeutic effects in small sized trials, the clinical implications are still limited.

  6. Structural and magnetic ordering of CrNb3S6 single crystals grown by gas transport method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisenko, E. B.; Berezin, V. A.; Kolesnikov, N. N.; Gartman, V. K.; Matveev, D. V.; Shakhlevich, O. F.

    2017-07-01

    Paramagnetic layered semiconductor NbS2 doped with some transition metals can transform into ferromagnetic material. That is why such materials are promising candidates for spintronic devices. It is found that only at certain concentrations of a doping metal T crystallographic ordering is possible, which is essential for magnetic ordering of ternary compounds TNbS2. In particular, CrNb3S6 crystals are studied, which form almost completely ordered superstructure with intercalated Cr between NbS2 layers. The main difficulty in crystal growth is reaching stoichiometry of the compound. This problem is solved in the developed method of two-staged gas transport chemical reaction. This new approach provides growth of CrNb3S6 single crystals of several millimeters in diameter and 0.3-0.5 mm thickness. X-ray phase analysis (XRD) of powders is performed to identify all phases involved in synthesis and growth of the crystals. High frequency absorption in external periodic magnetic field as a function of temperature and intensity of magnetic field is used to estimate the temperature of ferromagnetic transition in CrNb3S6 single crystals. The Curie temperature is estimated as 115 K. Growth of CrNb3S6 crystals from vapor phase is studied in detail and full analysis of phase transitions during growth is given. It has been shown that using of high frequency absorption in the crystal provides reliable estimation of the point of ferromagnetic transition in this semiconductor. The authors are grateful to the Physical Science Department of Russian Academy of Sciences for financial support of the studies in the frameworks of the program "Physics of new materials and structures" (project no. 00-12-10).

  7. Spin-glass-like ordering of the magnetic moments of interacting nanosized maghemite particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Bødker, Franz; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    1995-01-01

    measurements of the decay of remanence are much lower. These results are not in accordance with the Néel model for superparamagnetic relaxation, but can be explained by the formation of an ordered spin-glass-like state at low temperatures. At a critical temperature a transition to a superparamagnetic state...

  8. Magnetic ordering of Fe atoms in the YBa2(Cu/0. 95/Fe/0. 05/)3O(7. 01) superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liubutin, I.S.; Terziev, V.G.; Morozov, O.N. (Institut Kristallografii, Moscow (USSR))

    1990-11-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy detected the magnetic ordering of Fe atoms in YBa2(Cu/0.95/Fe/0.05/)3O(y) in both the superconducting and the nonsuperconducting states. It is shown that, in the superconducting sample, the superconductivity coexists with magnetic ordering of the Fe atoms in Cu1 nodes. In the nonsuperconducting sample, the Fe atoms in the Cu1 nodes have a magnetic-ordering point (20 K) which is reduced by 10 K upon transition to the superconducting state. 15 refs.

  9. Z-STEM of L1o Ordering in FePt Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittig, J. E. [Vanderbilt University; Bentley, James [ORNL; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL; Lukehart, C.M. [Vanderbilt University

    2007-01-01

    The L1{sub o} (CuAuI) ordered FePt structure exhibits exceptional magnetic properties with uniaxial-magnetocrystalline anisotropy (K{sub u}) greater than 10{sup 6} ergs/cm3. Chemical synthesis methods can produce monodispersed FePt nanoparticles that have diameters ranging from 3 to 10 nm with a standard deviation of less than 5%. As-synthesized, the FePt nanoparticles are face-centered cubic (FCC) and require annealing at temperatures greater than 550 C for chemical ordering into the L1{sub o} structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods typically characterize the ordering phase transformation by measuring the superlattice peaks. However, since the FePt nanoparticles coarsen during annealing, the larger particles may dominate the XRD data while the smallest particles correspondingly may contribute little to the diffracted intensity. Since recent data suggest that the FePt L1{sub o} ordering transformation is particle-size dependent, the current study employs high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), also known as atomic-number contrast or Z-STEM, methods to investigate the presence of L1{sub o} order in individual FePt nanoparticles.

  10. Enhanced charge stripe order in superconducting La2-xBaxCuO4 in high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huecker, M.; Zimmermann, M. V.; Xu, Z. J.; Wen, J. S.; Gu, G. D.; Tranquada, J. M.

    2013-03-01

    There is mounting evidence for a proximity of the superconducting ground state in the cuprates to competing states with static spin and/or charge density modulations. One such competing state is the spin and charge stripe phase in La2-xBaxCuO4. By means of high energy (100 keV) x-ray diffraction we have studied the effect of a high magnetic field (H||c) on the charge stripe order in a broad range of doping (0.095 <= x <= 0.155). We find that the field can significantly enhance the charge stripe order, but only at temperatures and dopings where it coexists with bulk superconductivity at zero field. The field also increases stripe correlations between the planes, which can result in an enhanced frustration of the interlayer Josephson coupling. Close to the famous x =1/8 compound, where zero field stripe order is pronounced and bulk superconductivity is suppressed, charge stripe order is independent of the field. The results imply that static stripe order and three-dimensionally coherent superconductivity are competing ground states. The work at Brookhaven was supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  11. Magnetic ordering of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond via resonator-mediated coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Bo-Bo [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics, Hong Kong (China); The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Centre for Quantum Coherence, Hong Kong (China); Burk, Christian; Wrachtrup, Joerg [University Stuttgart, 3rd Institute of Physics and Research Center SCOPE, Stuttgart (Germany); Liu, Ren-Bao [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics, Hong Kong (China); The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Centre for Quantum Coherence, Hong Kong (China); The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Hong Kong (China); The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen Research Insitute, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China)

    2015-12-15

    Nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, being a promising candidate for quantum information processing, may also be an ideal platform for simulating many-body physics. However, it is difficult to realize interactions between nitrogen-vacancy centers strong enough to form a macroscopically ordered phase under realistic temperatures. Here we propose a scheme to realize long-range ferromagnetic Ising interactions between distant nitrogen-vacancy centers by using a mechanical resonator as a medium. Since the critical temperature in the long-range Ising model is proportional to the number of spins, a ferromagnetic order can be formed at a temperature of tens of millikelvin for a sample with ∝10{sup 4} nitrogen-vacancy centers. This method may provide a new platform for studying many-body physics using qubit systems. (orig.)

  12. Influence of Sn on the magnetic ordering of Ni-Sn alloy synthesized using chemical reduction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapal, K.; Narayanan, V.; Stephen, A.

    2016-05-01

    The Ni-Sn alloy was synthesized using borohydride assisted chemical reduction method. The composition of the synthesized alloy was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy which revealed that the observed composition of Sn is high when compared to the initial composition. The ultrafine particles are clearly observed from field emission scanning electron microscope for all the sample. The X-ray diffraction measurement confirmed that the as-synthesized samples are of amorphous like nature while the samples annealed at 773 K showed crystalline nature. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed metallic bond stretching in the alloy samples. The crystallization and phase transition temperature was observed from differential scanning calorimetry. The shift in the crystallization temperature of Ni with increasing percentage of Sn was observed. The vibrating sample magnetometer was employed to understand the magnetic behavior of the Ni-Sn alloy. As-synthesized alloy samples showed paramagnetic nature while the annealed ones exhibit the soft ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic nature. The saturation magnetization value and magnetic ordering in the Ni-Sn alloys depend on the percentage of Sn present in the alloy.

  13. Magnetic and quadrupolar ordering in TmNi2B2C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, N.H.; Jensen, J.; Jensen, T.B.S.;

    2006-01-01

    with the Tm ions displaced along the c-axis and modulated with the same wave vector QA=(0.484, 0, 0) as the AF phase induced by fields larger than ≈10 kOe. In zero field, the quadrupolar ordering temperature is TQ≅13.5 K but increases to about 20 K in a field of 100 kOe. The Tm displacements are also...

  14. Novel chiral three-dimensional iron(III) compound exhibiting magnetic ordering at T(c) = 40 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentano, Donatella; De Munno, Giovanni; Lloret, Francesc; Palii, Andrei V; Julve, Miguel

    2002-04-22

    The preparation and crystal structure determination of the iron(III) compound of formula [(NH(4))(2)[Fe(2)O(ox)(2)Cl(2)].2H(2)O](n) (1) (ox = oxalate dianion) are reported here. Complex 1 crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Fdd2, with a = 14.956(7) A, b = 23.671(9) A, c = 9.026(4) A, and Z = 8. The structure of complex 1 consists of the chiral anionic three-dimensional network [Fe(2)O(ox)(2)Cl(2)](2-) where the iron(III) ions are connected by single oxo and bisbidentate oxalato groups. The metal-metal separations through these bridging ligands are 3.384(2) and 5.496(2) A, respectively. Ammonium cations and crystallization water molecules are located in the helical pseudohexagonal tunnels defined by iron atoms. The longest iron-iron distance in the pseudohexagonal tunnel is 15.778(2) A whereas the shortest one is 8.734(2) A. The iron atoms are hexacoordinated: a terminal chloro ligand and five oxygen atoms, that of the oxo group and four from two cis coordinated oxalate ligands, build a distorted octahedral environment around the metal atom. The Fe-O(oxo) bond distance [1.825(2) A] is significantly shorter than the Fe(III)-O(ox) [average value 2.103(4) A] and Fe(III)-Cl bond distances [2.314(2) A]. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of 1 in the temperature range 2.0-300 K reveal the occurrence of a susceptibility maximum at 195 K and a transition toward a magnetically ordered state in the lower temperature region with T(c) = 40 K. The strong antiferromagnetic coupling through the oxo bridge (J = -46.4 cm(-1), the Hamiltonian being H = -JS(A).S(B)) accounts for the susceptibility maximum whereas a weak spin canting of approximately 0.3 degrees due to the antisymmetric magnetic exchange within the chiral three-dimensional network is responsible for the magnetic ordering. The values of coercive field (H(c)) and remnant magnetization (M(r)) obtained from the hysteresis loop of 1 at 5 K are 4000 G and 0.016 micro(B).

  15. Relaxation in ordered systems of ultrafine magnetic particles: effect of the exchange interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Stefanie; Bunde, Armin

    2011-03-30

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations to study the relaxation of single-domain nanoparticles that are located on a simple cubic lattice with anisotropy axes pointing in the z-direction, under the combined influence of anisotropy energy, dipolar interaction and ferromagnetic interaction of strength J. We compare the results of classical Heisenberg systems with three-dimensional magnetic moments [Formula: see text] to those of Ising systems and find that Heisenberg systems show a much richer and more complex dynamical behavior. In contrast to Heisenberg systems, Ising systems need large activation energies to turn a spin and also possess a smaller configuration space for the orientation of the [Formula: see text]. Accordingly, Heisenberg systems possess a whole landscape of different states with very close-lying energies, while Ising systems tend to get frozen in one random state far away from the ground state. For Heisenberg systems, we identify two phase transitions: (i) at intermediate J between domain and layered states and (ii) at larger J between layered and ferromagnetic states. Between these two transitions, the layered states change their appearance and develop a sub-structure, where the orientation of the [Formula: see text] in each layer depends on J, so that for each value of J, a new ground state appears.

  16. Speed sensoless robust control of permanent magnet synchronous motor based on second-order sliding-mode observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezzani Amor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of the performances of a robust speed sensorless nonlinear control of permanent magnet synchronous machine. In the first part, the controllers are designed using two methods: the first one using the input output feedback linearization control and the second is a nonlinear control based on Lyapunov theory combined with sliding mode control. This second solution shows good robustness with respect to parameter variations, measurement errors and noises. In the second part, the high order sliding mode speed observer is used to overcome the occurring chattering phenomena. The super twisting algorithm is modified in order to design a speed and position observer for PMSM. Finally, simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and the good performance of the proposed control methods.

  17. Measuring out-of-time-order correlations and multiple quantum spectra in a trapped ion quantum magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Gärttner, Martin; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Wall, Michael L; Bollinger, John J; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Highly controllable arrays of ions and ultra-cold atoms are providing exciting opportunities for realizing quantum simulators of complex many-body phenomena that can provide insights into unsolved problems in modern science. A fundamental step towards this goal is the development of protocols that can quantify how a quantum simulator builds up quantum correlations and stores quantum information starting from easily prepared uncorrelated states. Out-of-time-order correlation functions have been recently suggested as ideal probes to accomplish this task, because they can quantify the spreading, or "scrambling", of quantum information and set speed limits for thermalization. They might also enable experimental tests of the holographic duality between quantum and gravitational systems. Here we report experimental measurements of dynamics of out-of-time-order correlations in a quantum simulator of more than 100 ions in a Penning trap by using the many-body echo sequence developed in the context of nuclear magnetic...

  18. Fractional order sliding-mode control based on parameters auto-tuning for velocity control of permanent magnet synchronous motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, BiTao; Pi, YouGuo; Luo, Ying

    2012-09-01

    A fractional order sliding mode control (FROSMC) scheme based on parameters auto-tuning for the velocity control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is proposed in this paper. The control law of the proposed F(R)OSMC scheme is designed according to Lyapunov stability theorem. Based on the property of transferring energy with adjustable type in F(R)OSMC, this paper analyzes the chattering phenomenon in classic sliding mode control (SMC) is attenuated with F(R)OSMC system. A fuzzy logic inference scheme (FLIS) is utilized to obtain the gain of switching control. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed FROSMC not only achieve better control performance with smaller chatting than that with integer order sliding mode control, but also is robust to external load disturbance and parameter variations.

  19. Destruction of Magnetic Long-Range Order by Hole-Induced Skyrmions in Two-Dimensional Heisenberg Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Tomoharu; Morinari, Takao

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by the rapid destruction of antiferromagnetic long-range order in hole-doped cuprate high-temperature superconductors, we study the effect of skyrmions on the magnetic long-range order (MLRO). Here we assume that either a skyrmion or antiskyrmion is introduced by a doped hole. Our numerical simulation indicates that in the case of isolated skyrmions, there is an abrupt disappearance of MLRO for doping concentration x < 1.0 × 10-4. In the case of skyrmion-antiskyrmion pairs, the critical doping concentration xc for the suppression of MLRO is given as a function of the separation of the pairs. For a moderate separation of 3-4 lattice constants, we find that the critical doping is consistent with the experimental value.

  20. Study of multi-layer active magnetic regenerators using magnetocaloric materials with first and second order phase transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein;

    2016-01-01

    Magnetocaloric materials (MCM) with a first order phase transition (FOPT) usually exhibit a large, although sharp, isothermal entropy change near their Curie temperature, compared to materials with a second order phase transition (SOPT). Experimental results of applying FOPT materials in recent...... FOPT and SOPT materials is also of fundamental interest. We present modeling results of multi-layer AMRs using FOPT and SOPT materials based on a 1D numerical model. First the impact of isothermal entropy change, adiabatic temperature change and shape factor describing the temperature dependence...... magnetocaloric refrigerators (MCR) demonstrated the great potential for these materials, but a thorough study on the impact of the moderate adiabatic temperature change and strong temperature dependence of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is lacking. Besides, comparing active magnetic regenerators (AMR) using...

  1. Magnetic Fluctuations in a Charge-Ordered State of the One-Dimensional Extended Hubbard Model with a Half-Filled Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Hideo

    2002-08-01

    Magnetic properties in a charge-ordered state are examined for the extended Hubbard model at half-filling. Magnetic excitations, magnetic susceptibilities and a nuclear spin relaxation rate are calculated with taking account of fluctuations around the mean-field solution. The relevance of the present results to the observation in the 1:1 organic conductors, (TTM-TTP)I3, is discussed.

  2. Magnetic field effect on second order slip flow of nanofluid over a stretching/shrinking sheet with thermal radiation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hakeem, A. K.; Vishnu Ganesh, N.; Ganga, B.

    2015-05-01

    The magnetic field effect on a steady two dimensional laminar radiative flow of an incompressible viscous water based nanofluid over a stretching/shrinking sheet with second order slip boundary condition is investigated both analytically and numerically. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by means of Lie symmetry group transformations. The dimensionless governing equations for this investigation are solved analytically using hyper-geometric function and numerically by the fourth order Runge-Kutta method with the shooting technique. A unique exact solution exists for momentum equation in stretching sheet case and dual solutions are obtained for shrinking sheet case which has upper and lower branches. It is found that the lower branch solution vanishes in the presence of higher magnetic field. The velocity and temperature profiles, the local skin friction coefficient and the reduced Nusselt number are examined and discussed for different spherical nanoparticles such as Au, Ag, Cu, Al, Al2 O3 and TiO2. A comparative study between the previously published results and the present analytical and numerical results for a special case is found to be in good agreement.

  3. Impact of Fe on structural modification and room temperature magnetic ordering in BaTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Soumya; Gazzali, P. M. Mohammed; Chandrasekaran, G.

    2017-01-01

    Ba1 - xFexTiO3 (x = 0, 0.005, 0.01) polycrystalline ceramics are prepared using solid state reaction method. Structural studies through XRD, Raman and XPS confirm single tetragonal phase for BaTiO3 whereas a structural disorder tends to intervene with the introduction of smaller Fe ions which reduces the tolerance factor and tetragonality ratio. Grain size of the samples is estimated using SEM micrographs with ImageJ software and chemical composition is confirmed using EDX spectra. Raman spectra measured in the temperature range of 303 K to 573 K showers light on the structural phase transition exploiting a significant disappearance of the 306 cm- 1 mode. Further, structural analyses suggest the entry of Fe into the B-site upon increasing its concentration in BaTiO3. The dopant sensitive modes lying at around 640 cm- 1 and 650 cm- 1 are assigned to lattice strain. A reduction in ferroelectric to paraelectric transition temperature is observed with a transformation from diffused type to normal ferroelectric upon the increased Fe content. The oxidation state of Fe in the BaTiO3 lattice has been decided using EPR Spectra precisely. Room temperature magnetic ordering is observed in Fe substituted BaTiO3 using PPMS. The coexistence of ferroelectric and magnetic ordering is established in the present study for optimized Fe substituted BaTiO3.

  4. Phase diagram and quantum order by disorder in the Kitaev K1-K2 honeycomb magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny; Rachel, Stephan; Perkins, Natalia

    We show that the topological Kitaev spin liquid on the honeycomb lattice is extremely fragile against the second neighbor Kitaev coupling K2, which has been recently identified as the dominant perturbation away from the nearest neighbor model in iridate Na2IrO3, and may also play a role in α-RuCl3. This coupling explains naturally the zig-zag ordering and the special entanglement between real and spin space observed recently in Na2IrO3. The minimal K1-K2 model that we present here holds in addition the unique property that the classical and quantum phase diagrams and their respective order-by-disorder mechanisms are qualitatively different due to their fundamentally different symmetry structure. Nsf DMR-1511768; Freie Univ. Berlin Excellence Initiative of German Research Foundation; European Research Council, ERC-StG-336012; DFG-SFB 1170; DFG-SFB 1143, DFG-SPP 1666, and Helmholtz association VI-521.

  5. Neutron diffraction study of the pressure-induced magnetic ordering in the spin gap system TlCuCl sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Oosawa, A; Kakurai, K; Fujisawa, M; Tanaka, H

    2003-01-01

    Neutron elastic scattering measurements have been performed under a hydrostatic pressure in order to investigate the spin structure of the pressure-induced magnetic ordering in the spin gap system TlCuCl sub 3. Below the ordering temperature T sub N = 16.9 K for the hydrostatic pressure P = 1.48 GPa, magnetic Bragg reflections were observed at reciprocal lattice points Q = (h, 0, l) with integer h and odd l, which are equivalent to those points with the lowest magnetic excitation energy at ambient pressure. This indicates that the spin gap close due to the applied pressure. The spin structure of the pressure-induced magnetic ordered state for P = 1.48 GPa was determined. (author)

  6. Magnetic ordering in the XY pyrochlore antiferromagnet Er{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}: a spherical neutron polarimetry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, A [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Wills, A S [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Lelievre-Berna, E [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2007-11-14

    Er{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been proposed as a realization of the XY<111> pyrochlore antiferromagnet with dipolar interactions, where the spins of Er{sup 3+} lie perpendicular to the <111> local axes. Below a Neel temperature of T{sub N} = 1.173 K magnetic order with the propagation vector k-vector=(000) occurs. Previous powder neutron diffraction studies were not able to determine details of the magnetic ordering beyond its symmetry due to powder averaging. In an attempt to resolve the questions as regards the ordering in this model magnet we performed a spherical neutron polarimetry experiment using CRYOPAD. The analysis of these data and a proposed magnetic order are presented. (fast track communication)

  7. Absence of long-range order in the frustrated magnet SrDy2O4 due to trapped defects from a dimensionality crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, N.; Fennell, A.; Prévost, B.; Uldry, A.-C.; Delley, B.; Sibille, R.; Désilets-Benoit, A.; Dabkowska, H. A.; Nilsen, G. J.; Regnault, L.-P.; White, J. S.; Niedermayer, C.; Pomjakushin, V.; Bianchi, A. D.; Kenzelmann, M.

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic frustration and low dimensionality can prevent long-range magnetic order and lead to exotic correlated ground states. SrDy2O4 consists of magnetic Dy3 + ions forming magnetically frustrated zigzag chains along the c axis and shows no long-range order to temperatures as low as T =60 mK. We carried out neutron scattering and ac magnetic susceptibility measurements using powder and single crystals of SrDy2O4 . Diffuse neutron scattering indicates strong one-dimensional (1D) magnetic correlations along the chain direction that can be qualitatively accounted for by the axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising model with nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor exchange J1=0.3 meV and J2=0.2 meV, respectively. Three-dimensional (3D) correlations become important below T*≈0.7 K. At T =60 mK, the short-range correlations are characterized by a putative propagation vector k1 /2=(0 ,1/2 ,1/2 ) . We argue that the absence of long-range order arises from the presence of slowly decaying 1D domain walls that are trapped due to 3D correlations. This stabilizes a low-temperature phase without long-range magnetic order, but with well-ordered chain segments separated by slowly moving domain walls.

  8. The Search for Magnetic Order in delta-Pu metal using muon spin relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, R; Ohishi, K; Fluss, M; Morris, G; MacLaughlin, D; Shu, L; Chung, B; McCall, S; Bauer, E; Sarrao, J; Ito, T; Higemoto, W

    2006-10-16

    We review results from previous muon spin relaxation ({mu}SR) measurements in applied fields of H{sub 0} = 0 and 0.25 T which established an upper limit for the ordered or disordered frozen spin moment above T = 4 K in {delta}-Pu (4.3 at. % Ga) of {micro}{sub ord} {le} 10{sup -3} {mu}{sub B}. In addition, we present new data in H{sub 0} = 0.25 T and 2 T applied field on a highly annealed {delta}-Pu (4.3 at. % Ga) sample. Neither the muon Knight shift (H{sub 0} = 2 T) nor the inhomogeneous linewidths in the new sample show appreciable temperature dependence below about T = 60 K, also consistent with no spin freezing. Recent theoretical arguments advanced to explain these results are mentioned.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of the magnetic-field-induced ordered phase in the NiCl2-4 SC(NH2) 2 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinder, Rémi; Dupont, Maxime; Mukhopadhyay, Sutirtha; Grbić, Mihael S.; Laflorencie, Nicolas; Capponi, Sylvain; Mayaffre, Hadrien; Berthier, Claude; Paduan-Filho, Armando; Horvatić, Mladen

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance study of the high magnetic field (H ) part of the Bose-Einstein condensed (BEC) phase of the quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) antiferromagnetic quantum spin-chain compound NiCl2-4 SC (NH2)2 was performed. We precisely determined the phase boundary, Tc(H ) , down to 40 mK; the critical boson density, nc(Tc) ; and the absolute value of the BEC order parameter S⊥ at very low temperature (T =0.12 K ) . All results are accurately reproduced by numerical quantum Monte Carlo simulations of a realistic three-dimensional (3D) model Hamiltonian. Approximate analytical predictions based on the 1D Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid description are found to be precise for Tc(H ) , but less so for S⊥(H ) , which is more sensitive to the strength of 3D couplings, in particular close to the critical field. A mean-field treatment, based on the Hartree-Fock-Popov description, is found to be valid only up to nc≅4 % (T <0.3 K), while for higher nc boson interactions appear to modify the density of states.

  10. Magnetic γ-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and Fe nanoparticles confined within ordered mesoporous carbons as efficient microwave absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiacheng; Zhou, Hu; Zhuang, Jiandong; Liu, Qian

    2015-02-07

    A series of magnetic γ-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and Fe nanoparticles have been successfully introduced into the mesochannels of ordered mesoporous carbons by the combination of the impregnation of iron salt precursors and then in situ hydrolysis, pyrolysis and reduction processes. The magnetic nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed and confined within the mesopores of mesoporous carbons. Although the as-prepared magnetic mesoporous carbon composites have high contents of magnetic components, they still possess very high specific surface areas and pore volumes. The magnetic hysteresis loops measurements indicate that the magnetic constituents are poorly-crystalline nanoparticles and their saturation magnetization is evidently smaller than bulky magnetic materials. The confinement of magnetic nanoparticles within the mesopores of mesoporous carbons results in the decrease of the complex permittivity and the increase of the complex permeability of the magnetic nanocomposites. The maximum reflection loss (RL) values of -32 dB at 11.3 GHz and a broad absorption band (over 2 GHz) with RL values magnetic mesoporous carbon composites as high-performance microwave absorbing materials.

  11. Synthesis, structure, magnetic and transport properties of LnFeSb3 (Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, and Tb)--tuning of anisotropic long-range magnetic order as a function of Ln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, W Adam; Nguyen, Giang V; Karki, Amar B; Young, David P; Chan, Julia Y

    2010-07-28

    Single crystals of LnFeSb(3) (Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, and Tb) have been grown from excess Sb flux. The crystal structure consists of (infinity)(2)[FeSb(2)] octahedra separated by layers of Ln atoms and nearly square planar nets of (infinity)(2)[Sb(2)]. These compounds are metallic and display anisotropic magnetic properties. Long-range antiferromagnetic order is observed in the Sm, Gd, and Tb samples when the magnetic field is applied along the crystallographic a-axis. Evidence of magnetic ordering in all the samples is observed for the field applied parallel to the layers. The magnetic properties are well-described by considering only the magnetic interactions between the Ln 4f moments, with no contribution from the Fe sublattice. Herein, we report the crystal growth, structure, magnetization, transport, and chemical stabilities of the title compounds.

  12. Spectroscopic study of partially-ordered semiconductor heterojunction under high pressure and high magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, P.Y.; Martinez, G.; Zeman, J.; Uchida, K.

    2000-12-31

    Photoluminescence upconversion (PLU) is a phenomenon in which a sample emits photons with energy higher than that of the excitation photon. This effect has been observed in many materials including rare earth ions doped in insulating hosts and semiconductor heterostructures without using high power lasers as the excitation source. Recently, this effect has been observed also in partially CuPt-ordered GaInP{sub 2} epilayers grown on GaAs substrates. As a spectroscopic technique photoluminescence upconversion is particularly well suited for studying band alignment at heterojunction interface. The value of band-offset has been determined with meV precision using magneto-photoluminescence. Using the fact that the pressure coefficient of electrons in GaAs is higher than those in GaInP{sub 2} they have been able to manipulate the band-offset at the GaInP/GaAs interface. By converting the band-offset from Type I to Type II they were able to demonstrate that the efficiency of the upconversion process is greatly enhanced by a Type II band-offset.

  13. Magnetic ordering of the Pr sublattice with the substitution of Cu for Mn in PrMn2Si2 intermetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmali, A.; Dincer, I.; Elerman, Y.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.

    2004-12-01

    The magnetic properties of PrMn2-xCuxSi2 (0 \\le x \\le 1 ) were studied by field-cooled and zero-field-cooled magnetization measurements in the temperature range 5 K \\le T \\le 350 K in low external fields (5 mT) and by magnetic-field-dependent magnetization measurements in fields up to 5.5 T. Substitution of Cu for Mn leads to a linear decrease in the lattice constant c and the unit cell volume V and a linear increase in the lattice constant a. Earlier neutron diffraction experiments showed that Pr does not order down to 1.6 K in PrMn2Si2 while the ferromagnetic Mn planes are ordered antiparallel along the c axis. With the increasing Cu content, the magnetization increases rapidly at low temperatures for the samples with 0.4 \\le x \\le 1 . Cu substitution strongly changes the magnetic properties and leads to the magnetic ordering of the Pr sublattice. This is mainly deduced from the discussion of the values of the magnetic moments at low temperatures. Below the Curie temperatures TC, the spins in the Mn sublattice are arranged parallel to the Pr sublattice. With increasing Cu, TC(x) has a maximum value of 155 K at x = 0.6 and decreases for samples with x \\ge 0.7 .

  14. Magnetic ordering of the Pr sublattice with the substitution of Cu for Mn in PrMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmali, A [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey); Dincer, I [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey); Elerman, Y [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey); Ehrenberg, H [Institute for Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Fuess, H [Institute for Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    The magnetic properties of PrMn{sub 2-x}Cu{sub x}Si{sub 2} (0 {<=} x {<=} 1) were studied by field-cooled and zero-field-cooled magnetization measurements in the temperature range 5 K {<=} T {<=} 350 K in low external fields (5 mT) and by magnetic-field-dependent magnetization measurements in fields up to 5.5 T. Substitution of Cu for Mn leads to a linear decrease in the lattice constant c and the unit cell volume V and a linear increase in the lattice constant a. Earlier neutron diffraction experiments showed that Pr does not order down to 1.6 K in PrMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} while the ferromagnetic Mn planes are ordered antiparallel along the c axis. With the increasing Cu content, the magnetization increases rapidly at low temperatures for the samples with 0.4{<=} x {<=} 1. Cu substitution strongly changes the magnetic properties and leads to the magnetic ordering of the Pr sublattice. This is mainly deduced from the discussion of the values of the magnetic moments at low temperatures. Below the Curie temperatures T{sub C}, the spins in the Mn sublattice are arranged parallel to the Pr sublattice. With increasing Cu, T{sub C}(x) has a maximum value of 155 K at x = 0.6 and decreases for samples with x {>=} 0.7.

  15. Realization of stable ferromagnetic order in a topological insulator: Codoping-enhanced magnetism in 4 f transition metal doped B i2S e3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bei; Zhang, Yiou; Zhang, S. B.; Wang, Yayu; He, Ke; Zhu, Junyi

    2016-08-01

    The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) originates from a combination of the spin-orbital coupling and the breaking of time-reversal symmetry due to intrinsic ferromagnetic ordering and was recently observed in Cr and V doped magnetic topological insulators (TIs). However, it was only observed at extremely low temperatures due to the low ferromagnetic Curie temperature and the tiny magnetically induced gap. To fully understand the mechanism of the ferromagnetic ordering, thereby improving the ferromagnetism, we investigated 4 f transition metal doped B i2S e3 , using density functional theory approaches. We predict that Eu and Sm can introduce stable long-range ferromagnetic states in B i2S e3 , with large magnetic moments and low impurity disorders. Additionally, codoping is proposed to tune the Fermi level into the gap, which simultaneously improves the magnetic moment and the incorporation of magnetic ions. Our findings, thus, offer a step in facilitating the realization of QAHE in TI systems.

  16. Two-dimensional orbital-like magnetic order in the high-temperature La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balédent, V; Fauqué, B; Sidis, Y; Christensen, N B; Pailhès, S; Conder, K; Pomjakushina, E; Mesot, J; Bourges, P

    2010-07-09

    In high-temperature copper oxide superconductors, a novel magnetic order associated with the pseudogap phase has been identified in two different cuprate families over a wide region of temperature and doping. We report here the observation below 120 K of a similar magnetic ordering in the archetypal cuprate La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 (LSCO) system for x=0.085. In contrast with the previous reports, the magnetic ordering in LSCO is only short range with an in-plane correlation length of ∼10  A and is bidimensional (2D). Such a less pronounced order suggests an interaction with other electronic instabilities. In particular, LSCO also exhibits a strong tendency towards stripes ordering at the expense of the superconducting state.

  17. Kinetic arrest of first-order transition between charge-ordered and ferromagnetic phases in Gd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 single crystals: magnetization relaxation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Aditya A.; Kumar, P. S. Anil; Elizabeth, Suja

    2016-10-01

    We have studied the span and nature of first-order phase transition (FOPT) between charge-ordered insulating and ferromagnetic metallic phases in oriented single crystals of Gd0.5Sr0.5MnO3. Magnetic field—temperature phase diagram was formulated from magnetization data for different crystallographic axes and non-monotonic variation of supercooling limit was observed at low temperature. A peculiar nature of magnetization was observed as irreversible open hysteresis loops during thermal cycling. We perceive that the nature of metastable states responsible for open hysteresis loops is different from that of supercooled ones. Further, thermal cycling magnetization data reveal that magnetic phases formed at 8 K after zero-field or field-cooled protocols (89 kOe) are not in equilibrium. Relaxation time constant is found to increase below 30 K in magnetization relaxation measurements made across the FOPT. The non-monotonic variation of relaxation time constant is a manifestation of kinetic arrest of the FOPT. We propose that the non-equilibrium, glass-like magnetic phase (at 8 K and 89 kOe) is a consequence of kinetic arrest.

  18. Magnetic ordering and conduction mechanism of different electroactive regions in Lu2NiMnO6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Sadhan; Saha, Sujoy; Dutta, Alo; Krishna Murthy, J.; Venimadhav, A.; Shannigrahi, Santiranjan; Sinha, T. P.

    2016-10-01

    The magnetodielectric response of a double perovskite oxide Lu2NiMnO6 (LNMO) synthesised by the sol-gel process has been investigated. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction data indicates that the room-temperature crystal structure of LNMO is monoclinic with the space group P21/n, which contains an ordered array of alternate MnO6 and NiO6 octahedra. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the mix valence state of Mn (4+ and 3+) and Ni (2+ and 3+). The optical band gap (Eg = 1.56 eV) obtained from the UV-Visible absorption spectrum suggests that LNMO is a semiconductor. The field cooled and zero-field cooled measurements show the ferromagnetic behaviour of the sample with the transition temperature (Tc) = 45 K and a saturation magnetization of 5.2 μB/f.u. is observed at 2.5 K. The temperature and frequency dependent dielectric measurements reveal colossal values of the dielectric constant, which are interpreted by the Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarization. The temperature dependence of the bulk dc conductivity indicates a variable-range-hopping mechanism. The saturation polarization value is estimated to be 232 μC/m2 from the pyroelectric current measurement. A negative magnetodielectric effect of 1% is observed at the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition temperature. The electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory have been performed to analyse the magnetic properties of LNMO.

  19. Possible Kondo-Lattice-Enhanced Magnetic Ordering at Anomalously High Temperature in Nd Metal under Extreme Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, James S.; Song, Jing; Soni, Vikas; Lim, Jinhyuk

    Most elemental lanthanides order magnetically at temperatures To well below ambient, the highest being 292 K for Gd. Sufficiently high pressure is expected to destabilize the well localized magnetic 4 f state of the heavy lanthanides, leading to increasing influence of Kondo physics on the RKKY interaction. For pressures above 80 GPa, To for Dy and Tb begins to increase dramatically, extrapolating for Dy to a record-high value near 400 K at 160 GPa. This anomalous increase may be an heretofore unrecognized feature of the Kondo lattice state; if so, one would expect To to pass through a maximum and fall rapidly at even higher pressures. A parallel is suggested to the ferromagnet CeRh3B2 where To = 115 K at ambient pressure, a temperature more than 100-times higher than anticipated from simple de Gennes scaling. Here we discuss recent experiments on Nd where anomalous behavior in To (P) is found to occur at lower pressures, perhaps reflecting the fact that Nd's 4 f wave function is less localized. Work at Washington University is supported by NSF Grant DMR-1104742 and CDAC through NNSA/DOE Grant DE-FC52-08NA28554.

  20. Instability of Structural, Magnetic, and Magnetoresistive Properties in Ordered Double-perovskite Sr2FeMoO6 Polycrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The problem of instability in polycrystalline ordered double-perovskite Sr2FeMoO6, is presented in this paper. By the X-raydiffraction analysis and the measuring of electrical and magnetic transports, it is indicated that the perovskite structure of thecompound is destroyed, and the Sr2FeMoO6 phase is mainly transformed into SrMoO4 phase when the samples are exposedin damp atmosphere for several weeks or immersed in water for several hours. Simultaneously, their electrical and magneticproperties obviously change, and the value of magnetoresistance remarkably reduces and even vanishes at room temperature.A possible micromechanism of the instability and an effective method to avoid the problem of instability are also discussed.