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Sample records for field unit tailored

  1. BIGRE: A LOW CROSS-TALK INTEGRAL FIELD UNIT TAILORED FOR EXTRASOLAR PLANETS IMAGING SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antichi, Jacopo; Mouillet, David; Puget, Pascal; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Dohlen, Kjetil; Gratton, Raffaele G.; Mesa, Dino; Claudi, Riccardo U.; Giro, Enrico; Boccaletti, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Integral field spectroscopy represents a powerful technique for the detection and characterization of extrasolar planets through high-contrast imaging since it allows us to obtain simultaneously a large number of monochromatic images. These can be used to calibrate and then to reduce the impact of speckles, once their chromatic dependence is taken into account. The main concern in designing integral field spectrographs for high-contrast imaging is the impact of the diffraction effects and the noncommon path aberrations together with an efficient use of the detector pixels. We focus our attention on integral field spectrographs based on lenslet arrays, discussing the main features of these designs: the conditions of appropriate spatial and spectral sampling of the resulting spectrograph's slit functions and their related cross-talk terms when the system works at the diffraction limit. We present a new scheme for the integral field unit based on a dual-lenslet device (BIGRE), that solves some of the problems related to the classical Traitement Integral des Galaxies par l'Etude de leurs Rays (TIGER) design when used for such applications. We show that BIGRE provides much lower cross-talk signals than TIGER, allowing a more efficient use of the detector pixels and a considerable saving of the overall cost of a lenslet-based integral field spectrograph.

  2. Field profile tailoring in a-Si:H radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujieda, I.; Cho, G.; Conti, M.; Drewery, J.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Quershi, S.; Wildermuth, D.; Street, R.A.

    1990-03-01

    The capability of tailoring the field profile in reverse-biased a-Si:H diodes by doping and/or manipulating electrode shapes opens a way to many interesting device structures. Charge collection in a-Si:H radiation detectors is improved for high LET particle detection by inserting thin doped layers into the i-layer of the usual p-i-n diode. This buried p-i-n structure enables us to apply higher reverse-bias and the electric field is enhanced in the mid i-layer. Field profiles of the new structures are calculated and the improved charge collection process is discussed. Also discussed is the possibility of field profile tailoring by utilizing the fixed space charges in i-layers and/or manipulating electrode shapes of the reverse-biased p-i-n diodes. 10 refs., 7 figs

  3. Tailoring optical complex field with spiral blade plasmonic vortex lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Guanghao; Zhan, Qiwen; Cui, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Optical complex fields have attracted increasing interests because of the novel effects and phenomena arising from the spatially inhomogeneous state of polarizations and optical singularities of the light beam. In this work, we propose a spiral blade plasmonic vortex lens (SBPVL) that offers unique opportunities to manipulate these novel fields. The strong interaction between the SBPVL and the optical complex fields enable the synthesis of highly tunable plasmonic vortex. Through theoretical derivations and numerical simulations we demonstrated that the characteristics of the plasmonic vortex are determined by the angular momentum (AM) of the light, and the geometrical topological charge of the SBPVL, which is govern by the nonlinear superposition of the pitch and the number of blade element. In addition, it is also shown that by adjusting the geometric parameters, SBPVL can be utilized to focus and manipulate optical complex field with fractional AM. This miniature plasmonic device may find potential applications in optical trapping, optical data storage and many other related fields. PMID:26335894

  4. The effects of a tailored intensive care unit delirium prevention protocol: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyoung-Ja; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2015-09-01

    A decreased incidence of delirium following the application of non-pharmacologic intervention protocols to several patient populations has been previously reported. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the effects of their application to intensive care unit (ICU) patients. To examine the effects of applying a tailored delirium preventive protocol, developed by the authors, to ICU patients by analyzing its effects on delirium incidence, in-hospital mortality, ICU readmission, and length of ICU stay in a Korean hospital. A single-blind randomized controlled trial. A 1049-bed general hospital with a 105-bed ICU. Sixty and 63 ICU patients were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups, respectively. The researchers applied the delirium prevention protocol to the intervention group every day for the first 7 days of ICU hospitalization. Delirium incidence, mortality, and re-admission to the ICU during the same hospitalization period were analyzed by logistic regression analysis; the 7- and 30-day in-hospital mortality by Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis; and length of ICU stay was assessed by linear regression analysis. Application of the protocol had no significant effect on delirium incidence, in-hospital mortality, re-admission to the ICU, or length of ICU stay. Whereas the risk of 30-day in-hospital mortality was not significantly lower in the intervention than in the control group (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.10-1.09), we found a significantly decreased 7-day in-hospital mortality in the intervention group after protocol application (HR: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01-0.72). Application of a tailored delirium prevention protocol to acute stage patients during the first 7 days of ICU hospitalization appeared to reduce the 7-day in-hospital risk of mortality only for this patient population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tailored optical vector fields for ultrashort-pulse laser induced complex surface plasmon structuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, J; Perrie, W; Allegre, O J; Heil, T; Jin, Y; Fearon, E; Eckford, D; Edwardson, S P; Dearden, G

    2015-05-18

    Precise tailoring of optical vector beams is demonstrated, shaping their focal electric fields and used to create complex laser micro-patterning on a metal surface. A Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) and a micro-structured S-waveplate were integrated with a picosecond laser system and employed to structure the vector fields into radial and azimuthal polarizations with and without a vortex phase wavefront as well as superposition states. Imprinting Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) elucidates the detailed vector fields around the focal region. In addition to clear azimuthal and radial plasmon surface structures, unique, variable logarithmic spiral micro-structures with a pitch Λ ∼1μm, not observed previously, were imprinted on the surface, confirming unambiguously the complex 2D focal electric fields. We show clearly also how the Orbital Angular Momentum(OAM) associated with a helical wavefront induces rotation of vector fields along the optic axis of a focusing lens and confirmed by the observed surface micro-structures.

  6. Effectiveness of culturally tailored diabetes interventions for Asian immigrants to the United States: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jee Young

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness of tailoring community-based diabetes intervention to Asian immigrant cultures. The Cochrane processes and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations guided this systematic review. PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Ovid, and PsycINFO were searched for analyses and syntheses of primary research published since 2000 that described interventions tailored for the cultures of Asian immigrants with diabetes. This search yielded a total of 9 articles published from 2005 to 2013. The Amsterdam-Maastricht Consensus List for Quality Assessment was used to assess the quality of the studies. Retrieved studies' populations were foreign-born adults >50 years of age with type 2 diabetes. The review revealed that culturally tailored diabetes programs are effective at improving patients' objectively measured clinical outcomes, in particular A1C levels, and psychobehavioral outcomes. Patients were also highly satisfied with bilingual health care providers and bilingual educational programs. There is strong evidence of the effectiveness of tailoring diabetes interventions to Asian immigrant populations' cultures. Further studies, including longitudinal studies and studies with rigorous research designs that subclassify Asian immigrants, are needed to encourage the implementation of culturally tailored diabetes intervention for this ethnic minority. © 2014 The Author(s).

  7. Portable field water sample filtration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, A.J.; Young, G.G.

    1977-01-01

    A lightweight back-packable field-tested filtration unit is described. The unit is easily cleaned without cross contamination at the part-per-billion level and allows rapid filtration of boiling hot and sometimes muddy water. The filtration results in samples that are free of bacteria and particulates and which resist algae growth even after storage for months. 3 figures

  8. Field demonstrations of radon adsorption units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Four radon gas removal units have been installed in homes in the Northeast U.S. These units utilize dynamic adsorption of the radon gas onto activated charcoal to remove the radon from room air. Two beds of charcoal are used so that one bed removes radon while the second bed is regenerated using outdoor air in a unique process. The beds reverse at the end of a predetermined cycle time, providing continuous removal of radon from the room air. The process and units have undergone extensive development work in the laboratory as well as in homes and a summary of this work is discussed. This work showed that the system performs very effectively over a range of operating conditions similar to those found in a home. The field test data that is presented shows that scale up from the laboratory work was without problem and the units are functioning as expected. This unit provides homeowners and mitigation contractors with another option to solve the radon gas problem in homes, particularly in homes that it is difficult to prevent radon from entering

  9. Ultra-capacitor flexible films with tailored dielectric constants using electric field assisted assembly of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Saurabh; Cakmak, Miko

    2015-12-28

    In this study, the chaining and preferential alignment of barium titanate nanoparticles (100 nm) through the thickness direction of a polymer matrix in the presence of an electric field is shown. Application of an AC electric field in a well-dispersed solution leads to the formation of chains of nanoparticles in discrete rows oriented with their primary axis in the E-field direction due to dielectrophoresis. The change in the orientation of these chains was quantified through statistical analysis of SEM images and was found to be dependent on E-field, frequency and viscosity. When a DC field is applied a distinct layer consisting of dense particles was observed with micro-computed tomography. These studies show that the increase in DC voltage leads to increase in the thickness of the particle rich layer along with the packing density also increasing. Increasing the mutual interactions between particles due to the formation of particle chains in the "Z"-direction decreases the critical percolation concentration above which substantial enhancement of properties occurs. This manufacturing method therefore shows promise to lower the cost of the products for a range of applications including capacitors by either enhancing the dielectric properties for a given concentration or reduces the concentration of nanoparticles needed for a given property.

  10. The application of tailor-made force fields and molecular dynamics for NMR crystallography: a case study of free base cocaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Neumann, Marcus A.; van de Streek, Jacco

    2017-01-01

    of a fully automatically generated tailor-made force field (TMFF) for the dynamic aspects of NMR crystallography is evaluated and compared with existing benchmarks, including static dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations and the COMPASS force field. The crystal structure of free base...

  11. Field evaluation of a tailor-made new passive sampler for the determination of NO2 levels in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Ozlem; Dogeroglu, Tuncay

    2008-07-01

    This study describes the field evaluation of a tailor-made new glass passive sampler developed for the determination of NO(2), based on the collection on triethanolemine (TEA)-coated fibre filter paper. The sampler has been derived from a Palmes design. The overall uncertainty of the sampler was determined by using Griess-Saltzman ASTM D 1607 standard test method as a reference method. The agreement between the results of the passive sampler and the reference method was +/-7.90% with the correlation coefficient of 0.90. Method precision in terms of coefficient of variance (CV) for three simultaneously applied passive samplers was 8.80%. The uptake rate of NO(2) was found to be 2.49 ml/min in a very good agreement with the value calculated from theory (2.63 ml/min). Sampler detection limit was 1.99 microg/m(3) for an exposure period of 1 week and the sampler can be stored safely for a period of up to 6 weeks before exposure. A comparison of the sampler performance was conducted against a commercially available diffusion tube (Gradko diffusion tube). The results from the applied statistical paired t test indicated that there was no significant difference between the performances of two passive samplers (R (2) > 0.90). Also, another statistical comparison was carried out between the dark and transparent glass passive samplers. The results from the dark-colour sampler were higher than that from the transparent sampler (approximately 25%) during the summer season because of the possible photodegradation of NO(2)-TEA complex.

  12. Tailoring luminescence color conversion via affinitive co-assembly of glutamates appended with pyrene and naphthalene dicarboximide units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Pengyao; Zhao, Zhuo; Hao, Aiyou; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-01-21

    Structural matching of two organic building blocks bearing glutamate units and different luminophores assembled into unilamellar nanovesicles in aqueous media through a co-assembly process. Aggregation-induced energy transfer took place in the co-assembled system, leading to controllable generation of multiple luminescence colors including white light.

  13. A tailored relocation stress intervention programme for family caregivers of patients transferred from a surgical intensive care unit to a general ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seul; Oh, HyunSoo; Suh, YeonOk; Seo, WhaSook

    2017-03-01

    To develop and examine a relocation stress intervention programme tailored for the family caregivers of patients scheduled for transfer from a surgical intensive care unit to a general ward. Family relocation stress syndrome has been reported to be similar to that exhibited by patients, and investigators have emphasised that nurses should make special efforts to relieve family relocation stress to maximise positive contributions to the well-being of patients by family caregivers. A nonequivalent control group, nonsynchronised pretest-post-test design was adopted. The study subjects were 60 family caregivers of patients with neurosurgical or general surgical conditions in the surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital located in Incheon, South Korea. Relocation stress and family burden were evaluated at three times, that is before intervention, immediately after transfer and four to five days after transfer. This relocation stress intervention programme was developed for the family caregivers based on disease characteristics and relocation-related needs. In the experimental group, relocation stress levels significantly and continuously decreased after intervention, whereas in the control group, a slight nonsignificant trend was observed. Family burden levels in the control group increased significantly after transfer, whereas burden levels in the experimental group increased only marginally and nonsignificantly. No significant between-group differences in relocation stress or family burden levels were observed after intervention. Relocation stress levels of family caregivers were significantly decreased after intervention in the experimental group, which indicates that the devised family relocation stress intervention programme effectively alleviated family relocation stress. The devised intervention programme, which was tailored to disease characteristics and relocation-related needs, may enhance the practicality and efficacy of relocation stress

  14. Space vehicle field unit and ground station system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Delapp, Jerry; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Michel, John; Enemark, Donald

    2017-09-19

    A field unit and ground station may use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and share a common architecture, where differences in functionality are governed by software. The field units and ground stations may be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and be relatively easy to operate. A novel file system may be used where datagrams of a file may be stored across multiple drives and/or devices. The datagrams may be received out of order and reassembled at the receiving device.

  15. The Sport Education Model: A Track and Field Unit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kason; Krause, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Track and field is a traditional instructional unit often taught in secondary physical education settings due to its history, variety of events, and potential for student interest. This article provides an approach to teaching this unit using the sport education model (SEM) of instruction, which has traditionally been presented as a model for team…

  16. A non-linear theory for the bubble regime of plasma wake fields in tailored plasma channels

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a first full analytical bubble and blow-out model for a radially inhomogeneous plasma in a quasi-static approximation. For both cases we calculate the accelerating and the focusing fields. In our model we also assume a thin electron layer that surrounds the wake field and calculate the field configuration within. Our theory holds for arbitrary radial density profiles and reduces to known models in the limit of a homogeneous plasma. From a previous study of hollow plasma channels with smooth boundaries for laser-driven electron acceleration in the bubble regime we know that pancake-like laser pulses lead to highest electron energies [Pukhov et al, PRL 113, 245003 (2014)]. As it was shown, the bubble fields can be adjusted to balance the laser depletion and dephasing lengths by varying the plasma density profile inside a deep channel. Now we show why the radial fields in the vacuum part of a channel become defocussing.

  17. Femtosecond refractive-index tailoring of an optical fiber and phase retrieval from far-field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savolainen, Juha-Matti; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Kristensen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    A refractive-index change is written inside an optical fiber close to the end face by femtosecond laser light. The induced phase change is measured by analyzing the far-field intensity profiles before and after the irradiation.......A refractive-index change is written inside an optical fiber close to the end face by femtosecond laser light. The induced phase change is measured by analyzing the far-field intensity profiles before and after the irradiation....

  18. Controlling electron quantum paths for generation of circularly polarized high-order harmonics by H2+ subject to tailored (ω , 2 ω ) counter-rotating laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslar, John; Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, studies of high-order harmonics (HHG) from atoms driven by bichromatic counter-rotating circularly polarized laser fields as a source of coherent circularly polarized extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and soft-x-ray beams in a tabletop-scale setup have received considerable attention. Here, we demonstrate the ability to control the electron recollisions giving three returns per one cycle of the fundamental frequency ω by using tailored bichromatic (ω , 2 ω ) counter-rotating circularly polarized laser fields with a molecular target. The full control of the electronic pathway is first analyzed by a classical trajectory analysis and then extended to a detailed quantum study of H2+ molecules in bichromatic (ω , 2 ω ) counter-rotating circularly polarized laser fields. The radiation spectrum contains doublets of left- and right-circularly polarized harmonics in the XUV ranges. We study in detail the below-, near-, and above-threshold harmonic regions and describe how excited-state resonances alter the ellipticity and phase of the generated harmonic peaks.

  19. Higher order mode excitation in eccentric active nano-particles for tailoring of the near-field radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, R. O.; Arslanagic, Samel

    2015-01-01

    We examine the excitation of resonant modes inside eccentrically layered cylindrical active nano-particles. The nano-particle is a three-layer structure comprised of a silica core, a free-space middle layer, and an outer shell of silver. It is shown that a concentric configuration, initially desi...... of the gain constant, is shown to be controlled by the direction of the core displacement. The present eccentric active nano-particles may provide alternative strategies for directive near-field radiation relative to the existing designs....

  20. Signal amplification and leakage current suppression in amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes by field profile tailoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, W.S.; Zhong, F.; Mireshghi, A.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1999-01-01

    The performance of amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes as radiation detectors in terms of signal amplitude can be greatly improved when there is a built-in signal gain mechanism. The authors describe an avalanche gain mechanism which is achieved by introducing stacked intrinsic, p-type, and n-type layers into the diode structure. They replaced the intrinsic layer of the conventional p-i-n diode with i 1 -p-i 2 -n-i 3 multilayers. The i 2 layer (typically 1 ∼ 3 microm) achieves an electric field > 10 6 V/cm, while maintaining the p-i interfaces to the metallic contact at electric fields 4 V/cm, when the diode is fully depleted. For use in photo-diode applications the whole structure is less than 10 microm thick. Avalanche gains of 10 ∼ 50 can be obtained when the diode is biased to ∼ 500 V. Also, dividing the electrodes to strips of 2 microm width and 20 microm pitch reduced the leakage current up to an order of magnitude, and increased light transmission without creating inactive regions

  1. Nikola Tesla: the man behind the magnetic field unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roguin, Ariel

    2004-03-01

    The magnetic field strength of both the magnet and gradient coils used in MR imaging equipment is measured in Tesla units, which are named for Nikola Tesla. This article presents the life and achievements of this Serbian-American inventor and researcher who discovered the rotating magnetic field, the basis of most alternating-current machinery. Nikola Tesla had 700 patents in the United States and Europe that covered every aspect of science and technology. Tesla's discoveries include the Tesla coil, AC electrical conduction, improved lighting, newer forms of turbine engines, robotics, fluorescent light, wireless transmission of electrical energy, radio, remote control, discovery of cosmic radio waves, and the use of the ionosphere for scientific purposes. He was a genius whose discoveries had a pivotal role in advancing us into the modern era. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Tailoring and field-testing the use of a knowledge translation peer support shared decision making strategy with First Nations, Inuit and Métis people making decisions about their cancer care: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, Janet; Mazereeuw, Maegan; Sheppard, Amanada; Kewayosh, Alethea; Steiner, Richard; Graham, Ian D

    2018-01-01

    cancer risks in relation to general populations and experience barriers to health service use. Shared decision making (SDM) has been found to improve peoples' participation and outcomes in healthcare and peer support with SDM further improves these benefits. The purpose of this study is to tailor and then field test, by and with FNIM communities, a peer support SDM strategy for use in cancer care. Methods This project has 2 theory-driven phases and 5 stages (a-e). A core research team that includes members of the Aboriginal Cancer Control Unit of Cancer Care Ontario communities and academic researchers, will work with a Steering Committee. In phase 1 , (stage a) a peer support SDM strategy will be tailored to meet the needs of cancer system users who are receiving care in urban settings and (stage b), training developed that will i) introduce participant communities to SDM, and ii) train community support workers (CSWs) within these communities. Next (stage c), three communities will be approached for voluntary participation in the study. These communities will be introduced to SDM in community meetings, and if in agreement then CSWs from each community will be recruited to participate in the study. One volunteer CSW from each community will be trained to use the peer support SDM strategy to enable phase 2 (field test of the peer support SDM strategy).During phase 2 (stage d), each CSW will be matched to a volunteer community member who has had a diagnosis of cancer or has supported a family member with cancer and is familiar with Ontario cancer systems. Each CSW-community member pair (3 to 4 pairs/community) will use the tailored peer support SDM strategy; their interaction will be audio-recorded and their participation and experience evaluated (total of 9 to 12 interviews). As well (stage e), data will be collected on health systems' factors related to the use of the peer support SDM strategy. Discussion Findings will develop peer support SDM strategies to enhance

  3. Magnetic fields in a neonatal intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aasen, S.E.; Johansson, A.; Cristensen, T.

    1995-06-01

    In this study the magnetic flux density in and around the infant incubators of a neonatal intensive care unit were registered and mapped. The mean 50 Hz magnetic flux densities in an incubator was typically in the region 0.2 - l μT, with maximum values around 1.5μT. The field levels are quite varying dependent on type of incubator, position in the incubator, position of the electronic surveillance and treatment equipment and the position of the 220 V main plugs. 8 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs

  4. The Athena X-ray Integral Field Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, D.

    2017-10-01

    The Athena X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) is a high-resolution X-ray spectrometer, providing 2.5 eV spectral resolution, over a 5' (equivalent diameter) field of view, and count rate capabilities up to 1 Crab in the 0.2-12 keV range. Approaching the end of its feasibility study (scheduled around the end of 2017), I will briefly recall the scientific objectives of Athena driving the X-IFU specifications and will describe its current baseline configuration and the expected performances. I will outline the on-going technology developments that will enable the X-IFU. The X-IFU will be developed by an international consortium led by France (IRAP/CNES), the Netherlands (SRON), Italy (IAPS), with ESA member state contributions from Belgium, Finland, Germany, Poland, Spain and Switzerland, and international partner contributions from Japan and the United States. This talk is given on behalf of the X-IFU Consortium.

  5. Workplace Field Characterisation at Chernobyl Unit 4 Shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, V.; Bakhanova, E.; Volosky, V.; Shylo, S.; Chernyshov, G.; Dmitrienko, A.; Rozumny, V.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: When assessment of effective dose is required, radiation field needs to be characterised in terms of energy spectrum and geometry of exposure. Prior to application of pre-calculated (e.g. ICRP 74) or site-specific conversion coefficients, one need to demonstrate compliance with one of standard irradiation geometries and determine appropriate energy (or energy spectrum). Particular conditions of the entombment of Chernobyl Unit 4 (Object 'Shelter') high dose rate fields, complex source-target geometry, presence of heavy shielding structures and, as a result, significant scattered component in radiation field make application of conventional area monitoring instruments like in situ spectrometers complicated if possible at all. Unique techniques and devices were developed for workplace field characterisation at Object 'Shelter'. The set of devices includes passive spectrometric system, which makes use of simultaneous exposing several TLD detectors placed inside spherical attenuators (principle much similar to Bonner sphere neutron spectroscopy). Deconvolution of gamma spectra is performed through solving a system of simultaneous linear equations. Geometry of irradiation at given workplace is determined by TLD detectors placed in the six-vector collimator. This simple device allows determination of anisotropy of radiation field, both horizontal and vertical. Another design incorporates portable gamma spectrometer with 1'x2' NaI detector placed in the specially designed lead-copper collimator with aperture compatible with the one of the described above six-vector passive system. The discussed experimental set-up was extensively tested in various locations within Object 'Shelter'. Results of both energy spectrum and exposure geometry characterisation demonstrated feasibility of the proposed approach. (author)

  6. Flow field measurements in the cell culture unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephen; Wilder, Mike; Dimanlig, Arsenio; Jagger, Justin; Searby, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    The cell culture unit (CCU) is being designed to support cell growth for long-duration life science experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The CCU is a perfused loop system that provides a fluid environment for controlled cell growth experiments within cell specimen chambers (CSCs), and is intended to accommodate diverse cell specimen types. Many of the functional requirements depend on the fluid flow field within the CSC (e.g., feeding and gas management). A design goal of the CCU is to match, within experimental limits, all environmental conditions, other than the effects of gravity on the cells, whether the hardware is in microgravity ( micro g), normal Earth gravity, or up to 2g on the ISS centrifuge. In order to achieve this goal, two steps are being taken. The first step is to characterize the environmental conditions of current 1g cell biology experiments being performed in laboratories using ground-based hardware. The second step is to ensure that the design of the CCU allows the fluid flow conditions found in 1g to be replicated from microgravity up to 2g. The techniques that are being used to take these steps include flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Flow visualization using the injection of dye has been used to gain a global perspective of the characteristics of the CSC flow field. To characterize laboratory cell culture conditions, PIV is being used to determine the flow field parameters of cell suspension cultures grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on orbital shakers. These measured parameters will be compared to PIV measurements in the CSCs to ensure that the flow field that cells encounter in CSCs is within the bounds determined for typical laboratory experiments. Using CFD, a detailed simulation is being developed to predict the flow field within the CSC for a wide variety of flow conditions, including microgravity environments. Results from all these measurements and analyses of the

  7. Tailored Porous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARTON,THOMAS J.; BULL,LUCY M.; KLEMPERER,WALTER G.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCENANEY,BRIAN; MISONO,MAKOTO; MONSON,PETER A.; PEZ,GUIDO; SCHERER,GEORGE W.; VARTULI,JAMES C.; YAGHI,OMAR M.

    1999-11-09

    Tailoring of porous materials involves not only chemical synthetic techniques for tailoring microscopic properties such as pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and pore surface reactivity, but also materials processing techniques for tailoring the meso- and the macroscopic properties of bulk materials in the form of fibers, thin films and monoliths. These issues are addressed in the context of five specific classes of porous materials: oxide molecular sieves, porous coordination solids, porous carbons, sol-gel derived oxides, and porous heteropolyanion salts. Reviews of these specific areas are preceded by a presentation of background material and review of current theoretical approaches to adsorption phenomena. A concluding section outlines current research needs and opportunities.

  8. Human habitation field study of the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaker, Harry L.; Archer, Ronald D.; Szabo, Richard; Twyford, Evan S.; Conlee, Carl S.; Howard, Robert L.

    2013-10-01

    Landing and supporting a permanent outpost on a planetary surface represents humankind's capability to expand its own horizons and challenge current technology. With this in mind, habitability of these structures becomes more essential given the longer durations of the missions. The purpose of this evaluation was to obtain preliminary human-in-the-loop performance data on the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) configuration during a 14-day simulated lunar exploration field trial and to apply this knowledge to further enhance the habitat's capabilities for forward designs. Human factors engineers at the NASA/Johnson Space Center's Habitability and Human Factors Branch recorded approximately 96 h of crew task performance with four work stations. Human factors measures used during this study included the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) and customized post questionnaires. Overall the volume for the PEM was considered acceptable by the crew; however; the habitat's individual work station volume was constrained when setting up the vehicle for operation, medical operations, and suit maintenance while general maintenance, logistical resupply, and geo science was considered acceptable. Crew workload for each station indicated resupply as being the lowest rated, with medical operations, general maintenance, and geo science tasks as being light, while suit maintenance was considered moderate and general vehicle setup being rated the highest. Stowage was an issue around the habitat with the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV) resupply stowage located in the center of the habitat as interfering with some work station volumes and activities. Ergonomics of the geo science station was considered a major issue, especially with the overhead touch screens.

  9. Improving the organization of the outfitting of gas and oil fields in a unitized design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezin, V.L.; Kurepin, B.N.; Sivergin, M.Yu.; Telegin, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    The basic tenets of the organization of outfitting gas and oil fields in a unitized design are examined. An economic and mathematical model for selecting a variant for transporting unitized devices is proposed in which the transport expenditures are minimal.

  10. Tailoring of mobility advices to consumers. Executive summary; Tailoring van mobiliteitsadviezen aan consumenten. Managementsamenvatting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Weerdt, I.; Jonkers, R. [ResCon, Haarlem (Netherlands)

    2003-09-01

    An outline is given of the options to apply so-called computer tailoring in the field of mobility. A feasibility study has been carried out for the realization of a computerized tailored mobility programme. Tailoring is a method, based on social-scientific theories on behavioral change, by means of which information is tailored to individual circumstances, preferences and motivation. [Dutch] De mogelijkheden van computer tailoring (tailoring is een methodiek die gebaseerd is op sociaal-wetenschappelijke theorieen over gedragsverandering, waarbij de aangeboden informatie is afgestemd op individuele omstandigheden, preferenties en motivaties) op het gebied van mobiliteit worden verkend. Er is een haalbaarheidsonderzoek uitgevoerd ter voorbereiding op de realisatie van een computer tailored mobiliteitsprogramma. In dit onderzoek is nagegaan: of consumenten belangstelling hebben voor informatie op maat over mobiliteit; waar consumenten zelf de meeste mogelijkheden zien om hun mobiliteitspatroon te veranderen (en dus meer duurzame mobiliteitsopties toe te passen); hoe het gedrag van consumenten m.b.t. mobiliteit d.m.v. een tailoring systeem gericht beinvloed kan worden; of er organisaties te vinden zijn die de exploitatie van een tailoring systeem m.b.t. mobiliteit op zich zouden willen nemen; of de ontwikkeling van een dergelijk systeem kosten effectief kan zijn.

  11. Tailoring of mobility advices to consumers. A determinants survey; Tailoring van mobiliteitsadviezen aan consumenten. Een determinantenonderzoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Weerdt, I.; Jonkers, R. [ResCon, Haarlem (Netherlands)

    2003-08-01

    An outline is given of the options to apply so-called computer tailoring in the field of mobility. A feasibility study has been carried out for the realization of a computerized tailored mobility programme. Tailoring is a method, based on social-scientific theories on behavioral change, by means of which information is tailored to individual circumstances, preferences and motivation. [Dutch] De mogelijkheden van computer tailoring (tailoring is een methodiek die gebaseerd is op sociaal-wetenschappelijke theorieen over gedragsverandering, waarbij de aangeboden informatie is afgestemd op individuele omstandigheden, preferenties en motivaties) op het gebied van mobiliteit worden verkend. Er is een haalbaarheidsonderzoek uitgevoerd ter voorbereiding op de realisatie van een computer tailored mobiliteitsprogramma. In dit onderzoek is nagegaan: of consumenten belangstelling hebben voor informatie op maat over mobiliteit; waar consumenten zelf de meeste mogelijkheden zien om hun mobiliteitspatroon te veranderen (en dus meer duurzame mobiliteitsopties toe te passen); hoe het gedrag van consumenten m.b.t. mobiliteit d.m.v. een tailoring systeem gericht beinvloed kan worden; of er organisaties te vinden zijn die de exploitatie van een tailoring systeem m.b.t. mobiliteit op zich zouden willen nemen; of de ontwikkeling van een dergelijk systeem kosten effectief kan zijn.

  12. Effectiveness of a Group-Based Culturally Tailored Lifestyle Intervention Program on Changes in Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes among Asian Indians in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupal M. Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest control group repeated measures design to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based culturally appropriate lifestyle intervention program to reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM among Gujarati Asian Indians (AIs in an urban community in the US. Participants included 70 adult AIs in the greater Houston metropolitan area. The primary outcomes were reduction in weight and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and improvement in physical activity. Participants were screened for risk factors and randomly assigned to a 12-week group-based lifestyle intervention program (n=34 or a control group (n=36 that received standard print material on diabetes prevention. Participants also completed clinical measures and self-reported questionnaires about physical activity, social, and lifestyle habits at 0, 3, and 6 months. No significant baseline differences were noted between groups. While a significant decline in weight and increase in physical activity was observed in all participants, the intervention group lowered their HbA1c (p<0.0005 and waist circumference (p=0.04 significantly as compared to the control group. Findings demonstrated that participation in a culturally tailored, lifestyle intervention program in a community setting can effectively reduce weight, waist circumference, and HbA1c among Gujarati AIs living in the US.

  13. Radiation field mapping in mammography units with TLDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, J.C.O.; Silva, J.O., E-mail: jonas.silva@ufg.br [Universidade Federal de Goiás (IFG), Goiânia (Brazil). Instituto de Física; Veneziani, G.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo-SP (Brazil). Centro de Metrologia das Radiações

    2017-07-01

    Mammography is the most common imaging technique for breast cancer detection and its tracking. For dosimetry, is important to know the field intensity variation. In this work, TLD-100 were used to made a field mapping of a mammographic system from a hospital in Goiânia/GO. The maximum radiation intensity was 8 cm far from chest wall. The results obtained could be used in the optimization of the dosimetry in the equipment used in this work. (author)

  14. Psychiatric units in Brazilian general hospitals: a growing philanthropic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botega, Neury José

    2002-06-01

    Some countries, mainly in North America and Europe, have adopted psychiatric wards in the general hospital as an alternative to the classic psychiatric hospital. In Brazil there are 6,169 general hospitals, 1.3% of which with a psychiatric unit. This service strategy is scarcely developed in the country and comprises only 4% of all psychiatric admissions. There was no information on the facilities and functioning of the psychiatric units in general hospitals. To determine the main characteristics of psychiatric units in Brazilian general hospitals and to assess the current trends in the services provided. A mailing survey assessed all 94 Brazilian general hospitals which made psychiatric admissions. A two-page questionnaire was designed to determine the main characteristics of each institution and of the psychiatric unit. Seventy-nine (84%) questionnaires were returned. In contrast to the 1970s and 1980s, in the last decade the installation of psychiatric units has spread to smaller philanthropic institutions that are not linked to medical schools. A fifth of hospitals admit psychiatric patients to medical wards because there is no specialist psychiatric ward. They try to meet all the local emergency demands, usually alcohol-dependent patients who need short term admission. This could signal the beginning of a program through which mental health professionals may become an integral part of general health services. The inauguration of psychiatric wards in philanthropic hospitals, as well as the admission of psychiatric patients in their medical wards, is a phenomenon peculiar to this decade. The installation of psychiatric services in these and other general hospitals would overcome two of major difficulties encountered: prejudice and a lack of financial resources.

  15. Principles and foundation: national standards on quantities and units in nuclear science field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lishu

    1993-11-01

    The main contents of National Standards on Quantities and units of atomic and nuclear physics (GB 3102.9) and Quantities and Units of nuclear reactions and ionizing radiations (GB 310.10) are presented in which most important quantities with their symbols and definitions in the nuclear scientific field are given. The principles and foundation, including the International System of Units (SI) and its application to the nuclear scientific field, in the setting of the National Standards are explained

  16. A new united atom force field for adsorption of alkenes in zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, B.; Smit, B.; Rey, F.; Valencia, S.; Calero, S.

    2008-01-01

    A new united atom force field was developed that accurately describes the adsorption properties of linear alkenes in zeolites. The force field was specifically designed for use in the inhomogeneous system and therefore a truncated and shifted potential was used. With the determined force field, we

  17. Fusion of heterocyclic polymerogenic units onto a central ring: a fruitful approach to the investigation and specific tailoring of the dependence of electrical properties on monomer structure in conductive polyheterocycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, A.; Brenna, E.; Pagani, G.A.; Sannicolo, F. (Dipt. di Chimica Organica e Industriale, Univ. di Milano (Italy) Centro CNR Speciali Sistemi Organici, Milan (Italy)); Zotti, G.; Schiavon, G. (CNR, Ist. di Polarografia ed Elettrochimica Preparativa, Padua (Italy))

    1992-09-01

    In this review the ''spacer'' strategy is described and evaluated in detail. According to this principle, the monomer contains, as terminal units, two polymerogenic rings (pyrrole or thiophene) linked to a central [pi]-conjugatively-active frame; as spacers, we have investigated ethenylic, sulphide, and aromatic moieties. In this way the redox potentials, E[sup 0], of the polymers derived from such monomers can be calibrated by the substituent effect exerted by the spacer. This control is beneficial because it is possible to increase the E[sup 0] value of polypyrrole-type systems and decrease the E[sup 0] value of polythiophene-type systems. Also, the ''spacer'' may be further functionalised and, being remote from the polymerisation site, cannot alter the conductivity characteristics typical of the polymer derived from the parent heterocycle (pyrrole or thiophene): such a functionalisation may provide the final, tailored, conductive polymer with special properties (e.g., solubility). If the central ring, acting as a ''spacer'', is formed linking two positions of a di-heterocycle with a saturated chain, it is possible partially to control the twist angle between the heterocyclic units. Crystal and molecular structures have shown that dipyrrole units, further linked through the nitrogen atoms, are quite sensitive to the central ring size. With regard to the conductivity of unsubstituted polypyrrole, the conductivity of the polymers derived from such monomers is dependent upon the twist angle between the rings. This result is relevant to a description of conjugation conditions between the heterocyclic units of a monomer required to produce a conductive polymer on doping. (orig.).

  18. Field sports and conservation in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, T E E; Smith, R J; Harrop, S R; Leader-Williams, N

    2003-05-29

    Many natural habitats exist on privately owned land outside protected areas, but few governments can afford to enforce or subsidize conservation of this biodiversity. Even in some developed countries, conservation subsidy schemes have only achieved limited success. Fortunately, some landowners may be willing to accept management costs in return for other benefits, although this remains controversial when it involves the killing of charismatic species. For example, participants in British field sports, such as fox hunting and game-bird shooting, may voluntarily conserve important habitats that are required by quarry species. Here we report results from a multidisciplinary study that addressed this issue by focusing on three sites across central England. We found that landowners participating in field sports maintained the most established woodland and planted more new woodland and hedgerows than those who did not, despite the equal availability of subsidies. Therefore, voluntary habitat management appears to be important for biodiversity conservation in Britain. Current debates on the future of field sports in Britain, and similar activities globally, may benefit from considering their utility as incentives to conserve additional habitat on private land.

  19. Tailoring PKI for the battlespace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Carlin R.

    2003-07-01

    A Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) can provide useful communication protections for friendly forces in the battlespace. The PKI would be used in conjunction with communication facilities that are accorded physical and Type-1 cryptographic protections. The latter protections would safeguard the confidentiality and (optionally) the integrity of communications between enclaves of users, whereas the PKI protections would furnish identification, authentication, authorization and privacy services for individual users. However, Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) and most Government-Off-the-Shelf (GOTS) PKI solutions are not ideally tailored for the battlespace environment. Most PKI solutions assume a relatively static, high-bandwidth communication network, whereas communication links in the battlespace will be dynamically reconfigured and bandwidth-limited. Most enterprise-wide PKI systems assume that users will enroll and disenroll at an orderly pace, whereas the battlespace PKI "enterprise" will grow and shrink abruptly as units are deployed or withdrawn from the battlespace. COTS and GOTS PKIs are seldom required to incorporate temporary "enterprise mergers", whereas the battlespace "enterprise" will need to incorporate temporary coalitions of forces drawn from various nations. This paper addresses both well-known and novel techniques for tailoring PKI for the battlespace environment. These techniques include the design of the security architecture, the selection of appropriate options within PKI standards, and some new PKI protocols that offer significant advantages in the battlespace.

  20. Investigations on avoidance of hot cracks during laser welding of austenitic Cr-Ni steels and nickel-based alloys using temperature field tailoring. Final report; Untersuchungen zur Vermeidung von Heissrissen beim Laserstrahlschweissen von austenitischen Cr-Ni-Staehlen und Nickelbasislegierungen mittels Temperaturfeld-Tailoring. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-08

    The aim of the project was to transfer the developed method of laser beam welding of heat treated machining steels of temperature field tailoring on hot crack endangered austenitic Cr-Ni steels and nickel-based alloys. With this method, transient thermal stresses adjacent to the weld are produced by an travelling induction heating so that the hot cracking is prevented during welding. As test materials the austenitic Cr-Ni steel with sulfur additive 1.4305, the Cr-Ni steels 1.4404 and 1.4435 and the nickel-based alloy Udimet 720 were selected. As a result of the research it was shown that a hot crack-free laser welding in the investigated materials using at least three different welding and material-technical approaches is possible. [German] Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens bestand darin, das fuer das Laserstrahlschweissen verguetbarer Automatenstaehle entwickelte Verfahren des Temperaturfeld-Tailorings auf heissrissgefaehrdete austenitische Cr-Ni-Staehle und Nickelbasislegierungen zu uebertragen. Mit diesem Verfahren werden waehrend des Schweissens transiente thermische Spannungen neben der Schweissnaht durch eine mitlaufende induktive Erwaermung so erzeugt, dass die Heissrissbildung verhindert wird. Als Versuchswerkstoffe wurden der austenitische Cr-Ni-Stahl mit Schwefelzusatz 1.4305, die Cr-Ni-Staehle 1.4404 und 1.4435 sowie die Nickelbasislegierung Udimet 720 ausgewaehlt. Im Ergebnis des Forschungsvorhabens konnte gezeigt werden, dass ein heissrissfreies Laserstrahlschweissen bei den untersuchten Werkstoffen unter Nutzung von mindestens drei verschiedenen schweiss- und werkstofftechnischen Ansaetzen moeglich ist: Erstens koennen mit einem Temperaturfeld-Tailoring bei im Stumpfstoss zu verschweissenden Blechen aus austenitischen Staehlen bis mindestens 6 mm Dicke senkrecht zur Naht und parallel zur Blechoberflaeche wirkende transiente Druckspannungen erzeugt werden, die der Bildung von Mittelrippenrissen oder dazu parallel liegenden Heissrissen entgegenwirken

  1. The unit field sanitation team: a square peg in a round hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Timothy; Bridges, Davin

    2009-01-01

    Basic field sanitation and hygiene is a lost art in today's modern Army. Today, more than ever, there is a need for the unit field sanitation team (FST) to serve as advisors to unit commanders in the area of basic field sanitation and hygiene. Soldiers should know how to construct field latrines, construct waste disposal devices, conduct pest management and control activities, disinfect field water supplies, and practice personal hygiene under field conditions. The current unit FST concept is centered on company-sized formations operating in open terrain. This concept does not support current operations, transformed formations, rapidly changing doctrine, and the expeditionary nature of the Army. This article does not present a new concept, but rather a new look at an existing concept and practice based upon the lessons-learned and after-action reports from the Global War on Terrorism to support the Army in transformation during an era of persistent conflict.

  2. Coal Fields and Federal Lands of the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    1997-01-01

    The map depicts the relationship of coal and public lands in the conterminous U. S. Multiple GIS layers are being created for the purpose of deriving estimates of how much coal is owned and administered by the Federal government. Federal coal areas have a profound effect on land-management decisions. Regulatory agencies attempt to balance energy development with alternative land-use and environmental concerns. A GIS database of Federal lands used in energy resource assessments is being developed by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to integrate information on status of public land, and minerals owned by the Federal government with geologic information on coal resources, other spatial data, coal quality characteristics, and coal availability for development. Using national-scale data we estimate that approximately 60 percent of the area underlain by coal-bearing rocks in the conterminous United States are under Federal surface. Coal produced from Federal leases has tripled from about 12 percent of the total U.S. production in 1976 to almost 34 percent in 1995 (Energy Information Administration website ftp://ftp.eia.doe.gov/pub/coal/cia_95_tables/t13p01.txt). The reason for this increase is demand for low-sulfur coal for use in power plants and the fact that large reserves of this low-sulfur coal are in the western interior U.S., where the Federal government owns the rights to most of the coal reserves. The map was created using Arc/Info 7.0.3 on a UNIX system. The HPGL2 plot file for this map is available from the USGS Energy Resource Surveys Team from http://energy.cr.usgs.gov:8080/energy/coal.html.

  3. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction on Energy Conservation in Field Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George; Scanlon, Dennis C.

    This unit of instruction on energy conservation in field crop production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate…

  4. Background noise characteristics of field effect transistors for X-ray detection units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gostilo, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    Energy equivalent for noise of experimental samples of field-effect transistors for X-ray detection units is investigated. Resolution of 160 eV for lines of 5.9 keV is obtained in detection unit with drain feedback using the Si(Li)-detector of 25 mm 2 by square

  5. "Individualized Science" Field Test Findings and Recommendations, the Hooke Unit. Appendix A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loue, William E., III

    This informal report contains the findings and recommendations resulting from the field test of the Hooke Unit of the "Individualized Science" program. Data were collected from three schools. Because of an unusual number of weaknesses ranging from formal inconsistencies to manipulative deficiencies, it was concluded that the Hooke Unit is somewhat…

  6. Tailored reflectors for illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D; Winston, R

    1996-04-01

    We report on tailored reflector design methods that allow the placement of general illumination patterns onto a target plane. The use of a new integral design method based on the edge-ray principle of nonimaging optics gives much more compact reflector shapes by eliminating the need for a gap between the source and the reflector profile. In addition, the reflectivity of the reflector is incorporated as a design parameter. We show the performance of design for constant irradiance on a distant plane, and we show how a leading-edge-ray method may be used to achieve general illumination patterns on nearby targets.

  7. Tailoring the Dielectric Layer Structure for Enhanced Performance of Organic Field-Effect Transistors: The Use of a Sandwiched Polar Dielectric Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijiao Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the origins of hydroxyl groups in a polymeric dielectric and its applications in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs, a polar polymer layer was inserted between two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA dielectric layers, and its effect on the performance as an organic field-effect transistor (OFET was studied. The OFETs with a sandwiched dielectric layer of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA or poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP containing hydroxyl groups had shown enhanced characteristics compared to those with only PMMA layers. The field-effect mobility had been raised more than 10 times in n-type devices (three times in the p-type one, and the threshold voltage had been lowered almost eight times in p-type devices (two times in the n-type. The on-off ratio of two kinds of devices had been enhanced by almost two orders of magnitude. This was attributed to the orientation of hydroxyl groups from disordered to perpendicular to the substrate under gate-applied voltage bias, and additional charges would be induced by this polarization at the interface between the semiconductor and dielectrics, contributing to the accumulation of charge transfer.

  8. PMAS: The Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer. II. The Wide Integral Field Unit PPak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelz, Andreas; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Roth, Martin M.; Bauer, Svend M.; Becker, Thomas; Paschke, Jens; Popow, Emil; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Laux, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    PPak is a new fiber-based integral field unit (IFU) developed at the Astrophysical Institute of Potsdam and implemented as a module into the existing Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer (PMAS) spectrograph. The purpose of PPak is to provide an extended field of view with a large

  9. The Athena X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, Didier; Lam Trong, Thien; den Herder, Jan-Willem; Piro, Luigi; Barcons, Xavier; Huovelin, Juhani; Kelley, Richard; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Paltani, Stéphane; Rauw, Gregor; RoŻanska, Agata; Wilms, Joern; Barbera, Marco; Bozzo, Enrico; Ceballos, Maria Teresa; Charles, Ivan; Decourchelle, Anne; den Hartog, Roland; Duval, Jean-Marc; Fiore, Fabrizio; Gatti, Flavio; Goldwurm, Andrea; Jackson, Brian; Jonker, Peter; Kilbourne, Caroline; Macculi, Claudio; Mendez, Mariano; Molendi, Silvano; Orleanski, Piotr; Pajot, François; Pointecouteau, Etienne; Porter, Frederick; Pratt, Gabriel W.; Prêle, Damien; Ravera, Laurent; Renotte, Etienne; Schaye, Joop; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Valenziano, Luca; Vink, Jacco; Webb, Natalie; Yamasaki, Noriko; Delcelier-Douchin, Françoise; Le Du, Michel; Mesnager, Jean-Michel; Pradines, Alice; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Dadina, Mauro; Finoguenov, Alexis; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Miller, Jon; Nazé, Yaël; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Sciortino, Salvatore; Torrejon, Jose Miguel; Geoffray, Hervé; Hernandez, Isabelle; Luno, Laure; Peille, Philippe; André, Jérôme; Daniel, Christophe; Etcheverry, Christophe; Gloaguen, Emilie; Hassin, Jérémie; Hervet, Gilles; Maussang, Irwin; Moueza, Jérôme; Paillet, Alexis; Vella, Bruno; Campos Garrido, Gonzalo; Damery, Jean-Charles; Panem, Chantal; Panh, Johan; Bandler, Simon; Biffi, Jean-Marc; Boyce, Kevin; Clénet, Antoine; DiPirro, Michael; Jamotton, Pierre; Lotti, Simone; Schwander, Denis; Smith, Stephen; van Leeuwen, Bert-Joost; van Weers, Henk; Brand, Thorsten; Cobo, Beatriz; Dauser, Thomas; de Plaa, Jelle; Cucchetti, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on board the Advanced Telescope for High-ENergy Astrophysics (Athena) will provide spatially resolved high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy from 0.2 to 12 keV, with 5" pixels over a field of view of 5 arc minute equivalent diameter and a spectral resolution of 2.5

  10. Variability of pesticide residues in eggplant units collected from a field trial and marketplaces in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodhan, Mohammad Dalower Hossain; Papadakis, Emmanouil-Nikolaos; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2018-04-01

    Variability of pesticide residues among food items is very important when assessing the risks and food safety for the consumers. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to estimate the unit-to-unit residue variability factors for eggplant. In total, 120 samples from a trial field and 142 samples from different marketplaces in Thessaloniki, Greece, were collected to estimate the variability of pesticide residues in eggplant units. They were extracted by the QuEChERS method and the residues were determined by LC-MS/MS. For the field samples, the unit-to-unit variability factors (VFs) obtained for cypermethrin and deltamethrin residues were 2.54 and 2.51, respectively. The mean residue levels of both pesticides were higher in the composite samples than in the individual samples. The average VFs for the marketplace samples was 3.89. The eggplant units exposed to pesticides were higher in residues than the non-exposed units. The variability factors obtained in the marketplace samples were higher than those in the samples collected from the field trial. A default VF value of 3 for field trials is appropriate for use when assessing the acute dietary intake but a VF for the marketplace samples should be reconsidered with a larger data. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. RADIOGRAPHY IN THE FIELD: ASSESSING A LIGHTWEIGHT, HANDHELD, BATTERY-POWERED DENTISTRY UNIT FOR FIELD DIAGNOSTIC APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilern-Moy, Katharina; Vielgrader, Hanna; Gerritsmann, Hanno; Walzer, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Radiography units are not used commonly in wildlife medicine field settings, primarily because of their weight and requirement for a power supply. In this study, a portable, battery-powered, and lightweight radiography unit, originally developed for dentistry, was assessed for its potential field applications. Radiographs of various animal species (ranging in weight from 14 g to 1,000 kg) were imaged using varying source image distance (SID) and exposure time. The quality of these images was evaluated for their resolution, image noise, and motion blur. When required, image resolutions were further enhanced using computed radiography postprocessing. Other parameters evaluated were the freehand use of the device, its battery durability, the maximum obtainable image size, and multiple use of a single computed radiography cassette. Using an SID of 60 cm, radiographs delivered adequate image quality. The quality, however, was found deteriorated in images of larger animals (>50 kg) or thicker tissues (>15 cm). The use of a tripod proved unnecessary in most cases, and its exclusion greatly facilitated equipment handling. Under field conditions, the battery was depleted after a total running time of 1.6 hr or 36 radiographs. The maximum size of a radiographic image reached a diameter of 40 cm, and radiation shielding allowed the multiple use of a single computed radiography cassette. Taken together, the radiography unit evaluated in this study presented a balanced compromise between portability and radiograph quality for field use. However, the unit image resolution cannot replace those of the fixed standard radiography units commonly used in veterinary medicine.

  12. LEGAL STATUS OF ADVISORS IN THE FIELD OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrystyna Kmetyk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to research the legal status of advisors in the field of intellectual property right in the United Kingdom. In this article an author distinguishes and gives a legal description of the types of advisors in the field of intellectual property right in the United Kingdom. The main provisions of the Rules of Conduct for Patent Attorneys, Ttrade Mark Attorneys and Other Regulated Persons (2015 are considered. Methods: to analyse the legal status of advisors in the field of intellectual property right in the United Kingdom the method of induction, systematic approach, formal legal methods were used. Results: this research provides an opportunity to broaden the understanding of the institute of advisors in the field of intellectual property right (in particular patent attorneys and trademark attorneys in the UK and thus include this knowledge in domestic research on intellectual property right. Conclusions: the majority of types of advisors in the field of intellectual property right in the United Kingdom (patent attorneys, chartered patent attorneys, European patent attorneys, registered trademark attorneys and trademark attorneys, European trademark attorneys, etc. is well-educated professionals in all areas of intellectual property and are able to advise on a wide range of technical and commercial issues in this field. The obtained results will have a positive impact on the reform of the institute of representatives in the field of intellectual property in Ukraine in order to ensure its effectiveness and relevance to the challenges of the present.

  13. Tailored Random Graph Ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, E S; Annibale, A; Coolen, A C C

    2013-01-01

    Tailored graph ensembles are a developing bridge between biological networks and statistical mechanics. The aim is to use this concept to generate a suite of rigorous tools that can be used to quantify and compare the topology of cellular signalling networks, such as protein-protein interaction networks and gene regulation networks. We calculate exact and explicit formulae for the leading orders in the system size of the Shannon entropies of random graph ensembles constrained with degree distribution and degree-degree correlation. We also construct an ergodic detailed balance Markov chain with non-trivial acceptance probabilities which converges to a strictly uniform measure and is based on edge swaps that conserve all degrees. The acceptance probabilities can be generalized to define Markov chains that target any alternative desired measure on the space of directed or undirected graphs, in order to generate graphs with more sophisticated topological features.

  14. Adaptive switching of interaction potentials in the time domain: an extended Lagrangian approach tailored to transmute force field to QM/MM simulations and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckmann, Marcus; Doltsinis, Nikos L; Marx, Dominik

    2015-06-09

    An extended Lagrangian formalism that allows for a smooth transition between two different descriptions of interactions during a molecular dynamics simulation is presented. This time-adaptive method is particularly useful in the context of multiscale simulation as it provides a sound recipe to switch on demand between different hierarchical levels of theory, for instance between ab initio ("QM") and force field ("MM") descriptions of a given (sub)system in the course of a molecular dynamics simulation. The equations of motion can be integrated straightforwardly using the usual propagators, such as the Verlet algorithm. First test cases include a bath of harmonic oscillators, of which a subset is switched to a different force constant and/or equilibrium position, as well as an all-MM to QM/MM transition in a hydrogen-bonded water dimer. The method is then applied to a smectic 8AB8 liquid crystal and is shown to be able to switch dynamically a preselected 8AB8 molecule from an all-MM to a QM/MM description which involves partition boundaries through covalent bonds. These examples show that the extended Lagrangian approach is not only easy to implement into existing code but that it is also efficient and robust. The technique moreover provides easy access to a conserved energy quantity, also in cases when Nosé-Hoover chain thermostatting is used throughout dynamical switching. A simple quadratic driving potential proves to be sufficient to guarantee a smooth transition whose time scale can be easily tuned by varying the fictitious mass parameter associated with the auxiliary variable used to extend the Lagrangian. The method is general and can be applied to time-adaptive switching on demand between two different levels of theory within the framework of hybrid scale-bridging simulations.

  15. Poster - 21: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculations for Breast Field-In-Field Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosztyla, Robert; Pierce, Greg; Ploquin, Nicolas; Roumeliotis, Michael; Schinkel, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the source of systematic monitor unit (MU) calculation discrepancies between RadCalc and Eclipse treatment planning software for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy field-in-field breast treatments. Methods: Data were reviewed for 28 patients treated with a field-in-field breast technique with MU calculations from RadCalc that were larger than MU calculations from Eclipse for at least one field. The distance of the calculation point from the jaws was measured in each field’s beam’s-eye-view and compared with the percentage difference in MU (%ΔMU) between RadCalc and Eclipse. 10×10, 17×13 and 20×20 cm 2 beam profiles were measured using the Profiler 2 diode array for 6-MV photon beams and compared with profiles calculated with Eclipse and RadCalc using a gamma analysis (3%, 3 mm). Results: The mean %ΔMU was 1.3%±0.3%. There was a statistically-significant correlation between %ΔMU and the distance of the calculation point from the Y jaw (r=−0.43, p<0.001). RadCalc profiles differed from measured profiles, especially near the jaws. The gamma pass rate for 6-MV fields of 17×13 cm 2 field size was 95%±1% for Eclipse-generated profiles and 53%±20% for RadCalc-generated profiles (p=0.01). Conclusions: Calculations using RadCalc for field-in-field breast plans resulted in MUs that were larger than expected from previous clinical experience with wedged plans with calculation points far from the jaws due to the position of the calculation point near the jaws in the beam’s-eye-view of each field.

  16. Poster - 21: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculations for Breast Field-In-Field Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosztyla, Robert; Pierce, Greg; Ploquin, Nicolas; Roumeliotis, Michael; Schinkel, Colleen [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To determine the source of systematic monitor unit (MU) calculation discrepancies between RadCalc and Eclipse treatment planning software for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy field-in-field breast treatments. Methods: Data were reviewed for 28 patients treated with a field-in-field breast technique with MU calculations from RadCalc that were larger than MU calculations from Eclipse for at least one field. The distance of the calculation point from the jaws was measured in each field’s beam’s-eye-view and compared with the percentage difference in MU (%ΔMU) between RadCalc and Eclipse. 10×10, 17×13 and 20×20 cm{sup 2} beam profiles were measured using the Profiler 2 diode array for 6-MV photon beams and compared with profiles calculated with Eclipse and RadCalc using a gamma analysis (3%, 3 mm). Results: The mean %ΔMU was 1.3%±0.3%. There was a statistically-significant correlation between %ΔMU and the distance of the calculation point from the Y jaw (r=−0.43, p<0.001). RadCalc profiles differed from measured profiles, especially near the jaws. The gamma pass rate for 6-MV fields of 17×13 cm{sup 2} field size was 95%±1% for Eclipse-generated profiles and 53%±20% for RadCalc-generated profiles (p=0.01). Conclusions: Calculations using RadCalc for field-in-field breast plans resulted in MUs that were larger than expected from previous clinical experience with wedged plans with calculation points far from the jaws due to the position of the calculation point near the jaws in the beam’s-eye-view of each field.

  17. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-27

    This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

  18. On Materiality and Dimensionality of the Space. Is There Some Unit of the Field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyakov A. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents arguments with a view to recognize that space is material and has possibly a fractal dimension in the range of from three to two. It is proposed that along to the unit of substance (atom Some Unit of the field (vortex tubes should be set. It is shown that the formation of the field structures being a kind “ doubles” of atomic ones is possible. The existence of the three-zone electron structure is confirmed. It is indicated that this concept have already resulted in to the successful explanation of phenomena and to finding of their important parameters at different levels of the organization of matter.

  19. Self-organization of porphyrin units induced by magnetic field during sol-gel polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerouge, Frédéric; Cerveau, Geneviève; Corriu, Robert J P; Stern, Christine; Guilard, Roger

    2007-04-21

    The use of a magnetic field as a controlling factor during the hydrolysis-polycondensation of porphyrin precursors substituted by Si(OR)(3) groups, induces a self-organization of porphyrin moieties due to the stacking of these units in the hybrid material and this study also confirms the effect of the magnetic field in the nano- and micrometric organization during the kinetically controlled polycondensation process.

  20. High magnetic field science and its application in the United States current status and future directions

    CERN Document Server

    National Research Council of the National Academies

    2013-01-01

    The Committee to Assess the Current Status and Future Direction of High Magnetic Field Science in the United States was convened by the National Research Council in response to a request by the National Science Foundation. This report answers three questions: (1) What is the current state of high-field magnet science, engineering, and technology in the United States, and are there any conspicuous needs to be addressed? (2) What are the current science drivers and which scientific opportunities and challenges can be anticipated over the next ten years? (3) What are the principal existing and planned high magnetic field facilities outside of the United States, what roles have U.S. high field magnet development efforts played in developing those facilities, and what potentials exist for further international collaboration in this area? A magnetic field is produced by an electrical current in a metal coil. This current exerts an expansive force on the coil, and a magnetic field is "high" if it challenges the str...

  1. Tailoring electronic structure of polyazomethines thin films

    OpenAIRE

    J. Weszka; B. Hajduk; M. Domański; M. Chwastek; J. Jurusik; B. Jarząbek; H. Bednarski; P. Jarka

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to show how electronic properties of polyazomethine thin films deposited by chemical vapor deposition method (CVD) can be tailored by manipulating technological parameters of pristine films preparation as well as modifying them while the as-prepared films put into iodine atmosphere.Design/methodology/approach: The recent achievements in the field of designing and preparation methods to be used while preparing polymer photovoltaic solar cells or optoelectronic ...

  2. Deflection or Azimuth: Which Direction Should the United States Field Artillery Follow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    FUNDING NUMBERS reflection or Azimuth; Which Direction Should The United States Field Artillery FolIlo W? 6. AUTHOR(S) VIAJ James M. McDonald, USA 7...system that displays distinct advantages in the safety arena is certainly worthy of evaluation and consideration as a possible system to use

  3. Field Evaluation of the Performance of the RTU Challenge Unit: Daikin Rebel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ngo, Hung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Underhill, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-31

    Packaged rooftop air-conditioning units (RTUs) are used in 44% (2.5 million) of all commercial buildings, serving over 57% (46 billion square feet) of the commercial building floor space in the United States (EIA 2012). The primary energy consumption associated with RTUs is over 2.2 quads annually. Therefore, even a small improvement in efficiency or part-load operation of these units can lead to significant reductions in energy use and carbon emissions. Starting in 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office funded a series of projects related to RTUs. Some projects were intended to improve the operating efficiency of the existing RTUs, while others were focused on improving the operating efficiency of new units. This report documents the field-testing and comparison of the seasonal efficiency of a state-of-art RTU Challenge unit and a standard unit. Section II provides the background for the work. Section III describes the measurement and verification plan for the field tests. Section IV describes the measurement and verification evaluation plan. The results are described in Section V. The lessons learned and recommendations for future work are presented in Section VI. A list of references is provided in Section VII.

  4. Exposure to electromagnetic fields aboard high-speed electric multiple unit trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, D; Zhu, F; Qiu, R; Niu, Q

    2016-01-01

    High-speed electric multiple unit (EMU) trains generate high-frequency electric fields, low-frequency magnetic fields, and high-frequency wideband electromagnetic emissions when running. Potential human health concerns arise because the electromagnetic disturbances are transmitted mainly into the car body from windows, and from there to passengers and train staff. The transmission amount and amplitude distribution characteristics that dominate electromagnetic field emission need to be studied, and the exposure level of electromagnetic field emission to humans should be measured. We conducted a series of tests of the on board electromagnetic field distribution on several high-speed railway lines. While results showed that exposure was within permitted levels, the possibility of long-term health effects should be investigated.

  5. The new special names of SI units in the field of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyckoff, H.O.; Allisy, A.; Liden, K.

    1976-01-01

    The authors write on behalf of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Details are given of two resolutions adopted by the Fifteenth General Conference of Weights and Measures at its meeting in May-June 1975, following proposals put by ICRU to the International Committee of Weights and Measures. The SI unit the joule per kilogram when used for ionizing radiation (absorbed dose, kerma, specific energy imparted, etc.) has been given the name gray with the symbol Gy. l Gy = 100 rad = 1 J/kg. The SI unit the reciprocal second (one per second) for activity has been given the name becquerel, symbol Bq. 1 Bq = 1s -1 approximately 2.703 x 10 -11 Ci. Although ICRU did not then recommend giving a special name to the SI unit of exposure to replace the currently used roentgen, it is now recommended that the special units the rad, the roentgen and the curie be gradually abandoned over a period of not less than about 10 years. The formulation (for selection) of a suitable unit for dose equivalent, which has the same physical dimension as absorbed dose, is a special problem which will be thoroughly discussed by ICRU, since the availability of a proper set of quantitites and units is of paramount importance in the field of radiation protection. (U.K.)

  6. Generalized monitor unit calculation for the Varian enhanced dynamic wedge field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chihray; Kim, Siyong; Kahler, Darren L.; Palta, Jatinder R.

    2003-01-01

    The generalized monitor unit (MU) calculation equation for the Varian enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) is derived. The assumption of this MU calculation method is that the wedge factor of the EDW at the center of the field is a function of field size, the position of the center of the field in the wedge direction, and the final position of the moving jaw. The wedge factors at the center of the field in both symmetric and asymmetric fields are examined. The difference between calculated and measured wedge factors is within 1.0%. The method developed here is easy to implement. The only datum required in addition to the standard set of conventional physical wedge implementation data is the off-axis output factor for the open field in the reference condition. The off-center point calculation is also examined. For the off-center point calculation, the dose profile in the wedge direction for the largest EDW field is used to obtain the relative off-center ratio in any smaller wedge field. The accuracy of the off-center point calculation decreases when the point of calculation is too close to the field edge

  7. Field Tests of Wind Turbine Unit with Tandem Wind Rotors and Double Rotational Armatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Ahmed Mohamed; Kanemoto, Toshiaki

    This paper discusses the field tests of the wind turbine unit, in which the front and the rear wind rotors drive the inner and the outer armatures of the synchronous generator. The wind rotors were designed conveniently by the traditional procedure for the single wind rotor, where the diameters of the front and the rear wind rotors are 2 m and 1.33 m. The tests were done on a pick-up type truck driven straightly at constant speed. The rotational torque of the unit is directly proportional to the induced electric current irrespective of the rotational speeds of the wind rotors, while the induced voltage is proportional to the relative rotational speed. The performance of the unit is significantly affected not only by the wind velocity, but also by the blade setting angles of both wind rotors and the applied load especially at lower wind velocity.

  8. Tailored light 2

    CERN Document Server

    Poprawe, Reinhart

    2011-01-01

    The present book covers the application technology of lasers, focusing more on the vast range of processes than on individual applications, in order to motivate and enable future innovations. The physical basics are presented in the first half of the book. The following examination of application categories and their processes is documented by experts from their practical points of view but always refers back to the underlying physical principles. In this way, readers are free to choose their own individual level of depth in understanding this globally relevant field of innovation.

  9. Mean field dynamics of networks of delay-coupled noisy excitable units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franović, Igor, E-mail: franovic@ipb.ac.rs [Scientific Computing Laboratory, Institute of Physics Belgrade, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Todorović, Kristina; Burić, Nikola [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 450, Belgrade (Serbia); Vasović, Nebojša [Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, PO Box 162, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-06-08

    We use the mean-field approach to analyze the collective dynamics in macroscopic networks of stochastic Fitzhugh-Nagumo units with delayed couplings. The conditions for validity of the two main approximations behind the model, called the Gaussian approximation and the Quasi-independence approximation, are examined. It is shown that the dynamics of the mean-field model may indicate in a self-consistent fashion the parameter domains where the Quasi-independence approximation fails. Apart from a network of globally coupled units, we also consider the paradigmatic setup of two interacting assemblies to demonstrate how our framework may be extended to hierarchical and modular networks. In both cases, the mean-field model can be used to qualitatively analyze the stability of the system, as well as the scenarios for the onset and the suppression of the collective mode. In quantitative terms, the mean-field model is capable of predicting the average oscillation frequency corresponding to the global variables of the exact system.

  10. Test plan for the field evaluation and demonstration of the Contamination Control Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, M.R.; Thompson, D.N.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes test details of a full demonstration of the Contamination Control Unit (CCU). The CCU is a mobile trailer capable of employing the use of soil fixatives, dust suppression agents, misting, and vacuum systems. These systems can perform a large number of contamination control functions to support the Office of Waste Technology Development (OTD) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) projects, transuranic (TRU) waste retrieval operations, and emergency response for hazardous and radioactive materials incidents. The demonstration will include both performance testing at the North Holmes Laboratory Facility (NHLF) and field testing in conjunction with the Remote Excavation System Demonstration at the Cold Test Pit. The NHLF will test operational parameters using water only, and the field demonstration at the Cold Test Pit involves full scale operation of vacuum, fixant, misting, and dust suppression systems. Test objectives, detailed experimental procedures, and data quality objectives necessary to perform the field demonstration are included in this test plan

  11. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to assess the applicability of interim remedial measures (IRM) for reducing human health and environmental risks within the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit. The 100-HR-3 Operable Unit is comprised of three subareas; the 100 D Area, the 100 H Area and those portions of the 600 Area between the two reactor areas. The operable unit is one of seven operable units associated with the 100 D and H Areas. Operable units 100-DR-1, 100-DR-2, 100-DR-3, 100-HR-1, 100-HR-2 and 100-IU-4 address contaminant sources while 100-HR-3 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The primary method of field investigation used during this LFI was the installation and sampling of monitoring wells. Samples were collected from the groundwater and soils, and submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the locations and levels of contaminants. All samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all round one, two and three and a minimum of 10% of round four data associated with the LFI were validated. A screening method was used to identify contaminants of potential concern (COPC). This screening method eliminated from further consideration, constituents that were below background. Constituents which are considered non-toxic to humans were eliminated from the human health evaluation. Data consistency and blank contamination were also evaluated in the screening process. These COPC were then evaluated further in the qualitative risk assessment (QRA). A human health QRA was performed using conservative (maximum equilibrated contaminant levels from the LFI) analyses

  12. The role of the United Nations in the field of verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    By resolution 43/81 B of 7 December 1988, the General Assembly requested the Secretary General to undertake, with the assistance of a group of qualified governmental experts, an in-depth study of the role of the United Nations in the field of verification. In August 1990, the Secretary-General transmitted to the General Assembly the unanimously approved report of the experts. The report is structured in six chapters and contains a bibliographic appendix on technical aspects of verification. The Introduction provides a brief historical background on the development of the question of verification in the United Nations context, culminating with the adoption by the General Assembly of resolution 43/81 B, which requested the study. Chapters II and III address the definition and functions of verification and the various approaches, methods, procedures and techniques used in the process of verification. Chapters IV and V examine the existing activities of the United Nations in the field of verification, possibilities for improvements in those activities as well as possible additional activities, while addressing the organizational, technical, legal, operational and financial implications of each of the possibilities discussed. Chapter VI presents the conclusions and recommendations of the Group

  13. Limited field investigation report for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to optimize the use of interim remedial measures (IRM) for expediting clean up while maintaining a technically sound and cost-effective program. The 100-KR-4 Operable Unit is one of four operable units associated with the 100 K Area. Operable units KR-1, KR-2 and KR-3 address contaminant sources while 100-KR-4 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The IRM decision process for groundwater operable units is based on three aspects: (1) Is the concentration greater than Hanford background? (2) Does the concentration present a medium or high human-health risk? (3) Does the concentration exceed an ecologically based applicable, relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR) or present an environmental hazard quotient > I? The primary methods of investigation used during this LFI were the installation of monitoring wells and sampling of groundwater. The samples collected from the groundwater and soils were submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the location and degree of contamination. All soil samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all first round and a minimum of 10% of subsequent round data were validated

  14. Limited field investigation report for the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-DR-1 Source Operable Unite LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit is one of four operable units associated with the 100 D/DR Area at the Hanford Site. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit encompasses approximately 1.5 km 2 (0.59 mi 2 ) and is located immediately adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. In general, it contains waste facilities associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support D Reactor facilities, as well as cooling water retention basin systems for both D and DR Reactors. The 100-DR-1 LFI began the investigative phase of the remedial investigation for a select number of high-priority sites. The LFI was performed to provide additional data needed to support selection, design and implementation of IRM, if needed. The LFI included data compilation, nonintrusive investigations, intrusive investigations, summarization of 100 Area aggregate studies, and data evaluation

  15. Evaluation of mean glandular dose in a full-field digital mammography unit in Tabriz (IR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riabi, H. A.; Mehnati, P.; Mesbahi, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the mean glandular dose (MGD) and affecting factors during mammography examinations by a full-field digital mammography unit. An extensive quality control program was performed to assure that the unit is properly working. Required information including compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast parenchymal pattern and technical factors used for imaging were recorded. An entrance skin exposure measurement was also performed using slabs of polymethylmethacrylate with 2-8 cm thickness. On the basis of recorded information and measured data, the MGD was estimated for 1145 mammography examinations obtained from 298 patients. Mean CBTs of 4.9 and 5.8 cm and MGDs of 2 and 2.4 mGy were observed for cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique views, respectively. Significant correlation was seen between MGD and CBT, breast parenchymal pattern and applied kVp and mAs. (authors)

  16. E-ELT M5 field stabilisation unit scale 1 demonstrator design and performances evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalta, J. M.; Barriga, J.; Ariño, J.; Mercader, J.; San Andrés, M.; Serra, J.; Kjelberg, I.; Hubin, N.; Jochum, L.; Vernet, E.; Dimmler, M.; Müller, M.

    2010-07-01

    The M5 Field stabilization Unit (M5FU) for European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a fast correcting optical system that shall provide tip-tilt corrections for the telescope dynamic pointing errors and the effect of atmospheric tiptilt and wind disturbances. A M5FU scale 1 demonstrator (M5FU1D) is being built to assess the feasibility of the key elements (actuators, sensors, mirror, mirror interfaces) and the real-time control algorithm. The strict constraints (e.g. tip-tilt control frequency range 100Hz, 3m ellipse mirror size, mirror first Eigen frequency 300Hz, maximum tip/tilt range +/- 30 arcsec, maximum tiptilt error < 40 marcsec) have been a big challenge for developing the M5FU Conceptual Design and its scale 1 demonstrator. The paper summarises the proposed design for the final unit and demonstrator and the measured performances compared to the applicable specifications.

  17. Terms and definitions in the field of radiological technique. Dose quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The standard gives the terms and definitions of concepts, dose quantities and units. The radiation field condition 'secondary electron equilibrium', which forms part of the definition of standard ion dose, is given more precisely. The term 'free in air' is used in its original meaning, i.e. characterization of measuring conditions excluding avoidable stray radiation, which deviates from DIN 6814, part 3/06.72. Dosemeters for measurement of standard ion dose of air kerma are calibrated 'free in air', but this calibration condition is not part of the quantity definition. The quantities standard ion dose or air kerma therefore can also be measured in any other material. The qunatitative relationships between standard ion dose and the quantities 'exposure' and air kerma, as given in the ICRU publication 33 'Quantities and Units' (1980), are explained. The standard introduces the SI units Gray (for energy dose), Sievert (for dose equivalent), and Becquerel (for the activity of a radioactive substance). As the change to the SI units conceals the approximated equality of the numerical values of the standrd ion dose of photon radiation in roentgen, of the energy dose for soft tissue in rad, and of the dose equivalent in rem, new definitions are given in accordance with ICRU 33 for the quantities specified dose rate, dose rate constant, and area exposure product. These definitions use the terms 'energy dose' and 'kerma'. The dose concepts applied in the field of radiation protection, especially ambient dose and individual dose, are defined as dose equivalents in compliance with the Radiation Protection Ordinance. The relevant sections present information on the conversion of standard ion dose values to the corresponding values of kerma, energy dose, or dose equivalent. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Analysis of radiation field distribution in Yonggwang unit 3 with MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol Woo; Ha, Wi Ho; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Soon Young; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2004-01-01

    Radiation field analysis is performed at the inside of the containment building of nuclear power plant(NPP) using the well-known MCNP code. The target NPP in this study is Yonggwang Unit 3 Cycle 8. In this work, whole transport calculations were done using MCNPX 2.4.0 due to the functional benefits, such as Mesh Tally, that the code provides. The neutron spectra released from the operating reactor core were firstly evaluated as a radiation source term, and then dose distributions in the work areas of the NPP were calculated

  19. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities by the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLozier, M.F.P.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Field Office of the United States Department of Energy is projecting one of the largest decommissioning efforts in the nation during the next ten to twenty years. The nuclear facilities are varied with respect to the types of contaminants and types of structures and equipment involved. The facilities planned for decommissioning include 26 ORNL facilities (e.g., OGR, HRE, MSRE), 70 facilities at Oak Ridge K25 site, and the Y-12 plant at Oak Ridge. Innovative technologies are required to decommission the facilities and dispose of the waste generated. (R.P.)

  20. Neonates need tailored drug formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegaert, Karel

    2013-02-08

    Drugs are very strong tools used to improve outcome in neonates. Despite this fact and in contrast to tailored perfusion equipment, incubators or ventilators for neonates, we still commonly use drug formulations initially developed for adults. We would like to make the point that drug formulations given to neonates need to be tailored for this age group. Besides the obvious need to search for active compounds that take the pathophysiology of the newborn into account, this includes the dosage and formulation. The dosage or concentration should facilitate the administration of low amounts and be flexible since clearance is lower in neonates with additional extensive between-individual variability. Formulations need to be tailored for dosage variability in the low ranges and also to the clinical characteristics of neonates. A specific focus of interest during neonatal drug development therefore is a need to quantify and limit excipient exposure based on the available knowledge of their safety or toxicity. Until such tailored vials and formulations become available, compounding practices for drug formulations in neonates should be evaluated to guarantee the correct dosing, product stability and safety.

  1. Field-trip guides to selected volcanoes and volcanic landscapes of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-06-23

    The North American Cordillera is home to a greater diversity of volcanic provinces than any comparably sized region in the world. The interplay between changing plate-margin interactions, tectonic complexity, intra-crustal magma differentiation, and mantle melting have resulted in a wealth of volcanic landscapes.  Field trips in this guide book collection (published as USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5022) visit many of these landscapes, including (1) active subduction-related arc volcanoes in the Cascade Range; (2) flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau; (3) bimodal volcanism of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone volcanic system; (4) some of the world’s largest known ignimbrites from southern Utah, central Colorado, and northern Nevada; (5) extension-related volcanism in the Rio Grande Rift and Basin and Range Province; and (6) the eastern Sierra Nevada featuring Long Valley Caldera and the iconic Bishop Tuff.  Some of the field trips focus on volcanic eruptive and emplacement processes, calling attention to the fact that the western United States provides opportunities to examine a wide range of volcanological phenomena at many scales.The 2017 Scientific Assembly of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) in Portland, Oregon, was the impetus to update field guides for many of the volcanoes in the Cascades Arc, as well as publish new guides for numerous volcanic provinces and features of the North American Cordillera. This collection of guidebooks summarizes decades of advances in understanding of magmatic and tectonic processes of volcanic western North America. These field guides are intended for future generations of scientists and the general public as introductions to these fascinating areas; the hope is that the general public will be enticed toward further exploration and that scientists will pursue further field-based research.

  2. Tailoring superelasticity of soft magnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Peet; Löwen, Hartmut; Menzel, Andreas M.

    2015-10-01

    Embedding magnetic colloidal particles in an elastic polymer matrix leads to smart soft materials that can reversibly be addressed from outside by external magnetic fields. We discover a pronounced nonlinear superelastic stress-strain behavior of such materials using numerical simulations. This behavior results from a combination of two stress-induced mechanisms: a detachment mechanism of embedded particle aggregates and a reorientation mechanism of magnetic moments. The superelastic regime can be reversibly tuned or even be switched on and off by external magnetic fields and thus be tailored during operation. Similarities to the superelastic behavior of shape-memory alloys suggest analogous applications, with the additional benefit of reversible switchability and a higher biocompatibility of soft materials.

  3. Geospatial field applications within United States Department of Agriculture, Veterinary Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzMaurice, Priscilla L; Freier, Jerome E; Geter, Kenneth D

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologists, veterinary medical officers and animal health technicians within Veterinary Services (VS) are actively utilising global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain positional data on livestock and poultry operations throughout the United States. Geospatial data, if acquired for monitoring and surveillance purposes, are stored within the VS Generic Database (GDB). If the information is collected in response to an animal disease outbreak, the data are entered into the Emergency Management Response System (EMRS). The Spatial Epidemiology group within the Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health (CEAH) has established minimum data accuracy standards for geodata acquisition. To ensure that field-collected geographic coordinates meet these minimum standards, field personnel are trained in proper data collection procedures. Positional accuracy is validated with digital atlases, aerial photographs, Web-based parcel maps, or address geocoding. Several geospatial methods and technologies are under investigation for future use within VS. These include the direct transfer of coordinates from GPS receivers to computers, GPS-enabled digital cameras, tablet PCs, and GPS receivers preloaded with custom ArcGIS maps - all with the objective of reducing transcription and data entry errors and improving the ease of data collection in the field.

  4. The Focal Plane Assembly for the Athena X-Ray Integral Field Unit Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B. D.; Van Weers, H.; van der Kuur, J.; den Hartog, R.; Akamatsu, H.; Argan, A.; Bandler, S. R.; Barbera, M.; Barret, D.; Bruijn, M. P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes a preliminary design concept for the focal plane assembly of the X-ray Integral Field Unit on the Athena spacecraft, an imaging microcalorimeter that will enable high spectral resolution imaging and point-source spectroscopy. The instrument's sensor array will be a 3840-pixel transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array, with a frequency domain multiplexed SQUID readout system allowing this large-format sensor array to be operated within the thermal constraints of the instrument's cryogenic system. A second TES detector will be operated in close proximity to the sensor array to detect cosmic rays and secondary particles passing through the sensor array for off-line coincidence detection to identify and reject events caused by the in-orbit high-energy particle background. The detectors, operating at 55 mK, or less, will be thermally isolated from the instrument cryostat's 2 K stage, while shielding and filtering within the FPA will allow the instrument's sensitive sensor array to be operated in the expected environment during both on-ground testing and in-flight operation, including stray light from the cryostat environment, low-energy photons entering through the X-ray aperture, low-frequency magnetic fields, and high-frequency electric fields.

  5. The Athena X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Didier; Trong, Thein Lam; Den Herder, Jan-Willem; Piro, Luigi; Barcons, Xavier; Huovelin, Juhani; Kelley, Richard; Mas-Hesse, J. Miquel; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Paltani, Stephane; hide

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on board the Advanced Telescope for High-ENergy Astrophysics (Athena) will provide spatially resolved high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy from 0.2 to 12 keV, with 5 pixels over a field of view of 5 arc minute equivalent diameter and a spectral resolution of 2.5 eV up to 7 keV. In this paper, we first review the core scientific objectives of Athena, driving the main performance parameters of the X-IFU, namely the spectral resolution, the field of view, the effective area, the count rate capabilities, the instrumental background. We also illustrate the breakthrough potential of the X-IFU for some observatory science goals. Then we brie y describe the X-IFU design as defined at the time of the mission consolidation review concluded in May 2016, and report on its predicted performance. Finally, we discuss some options to improve the instrument performance while not increasing its complexity and resource demands (e.g. count rate capability, spectral resolution). (2016) .

  6. The X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) for Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Laurent; Barret, Didier; Willem den Herder, Jan; Piro, Luigi; Cledassou, Rodolphe; Pointecouteau, Etienne; Peille, Philippe; Pajot, Francois; Arnaud, Monique; Pigot, Claude; hide

    2014-01-01

    Athena is designed to implement the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme selected by the European Space Agency for the second large mission of its Cosmic Vision program. The Athena science payload consists of a large aperture high angular resolution X-ray optics (2 m2 at 1 keV) and twelve meters away, two interchangeable focal plane instruments: the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) and the Wide Field Imager. The X-IFU is a cryogenic X-ray spectrometer, based on a large array of Transition Edge Sensors (TES), oering 2.5 eV spectral resolution, with approximately 5" pixels, over a field of view of 5' in diameter. In this paper, we present the X-IFU detector and readout electronics principles, some elements of the current design for the focal plane assembly and the cooling chain. We describe the current performance estimates, in terms of spectral resolution, effective area, particle background rejection and count rate capability. Finally, we emphasize on the technology developments necessary to meet the demanding requirements of the X-IFU, both for the sensor, readout electronics and cooling chain.

  7. Tailoring Earned Value Management. General Guidelines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    Partial Contents: General Principles, A Spectrum of Implementation, OMB Guidance, A Special Note about DOD, Risk Factors to Consider, How can EVMS be tailored, Tailor EVMS to Inherent Risk, Application Thresholds-DoD...

  8. Irradiation of malignant lymphonuos with irregularly shaped fields (Yesterday gammatron-3, today theratron 780C cobalt unit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Rasonyi, J.; Pecsenye, B.

    1995-01-01

    The authors compare the technique of shaping irregular (Mantle) field irradiation using Gammatron-3 and Theratron 780C Co-60 units. Patients can be treated from both directions on the treating coach without changing their position as the collimator of Theratron 780C unit makes it possible. Earlier patients could be treated with large field irradiation in prone and supine position on the ground with the old Gammatron-3 unit. The authors prefer using individually casted shielding blocks to manufactured ones. These blocks make personal treatment possible. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs

  9. Study on the role of the United Nations in the field of verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present report has been prepared pursuant to General Assembly resolution 43/81 B. The Group of Governmental Experts, while taking fully into account the mandate of the resolution, that is, to prepare a study that addresses the role of the United Nations in the field of verification of arms limitation and disarmament, has also taken into consideration approaches, methods, procedures and techniques relating to other arrangements in the area of international peace and security which might otherwise be useful to the process of verification of arms limitation and disarmament agreements. A selected bibliography on technical aspects of verification is given. However, materials published in languages other than English are not adequately reflected. Refs

  10. Using an integral-field unit spectrograph to study radical species in cometary coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Benjamin; Pierce, Donna M.; Vaughan, Charles M.; Cochran, Anita

    2015-01-01

    We have observed several comets using an integral-field unit spectrograph (the George and Cynthia Mitchell Spectrograph) on the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory. Full-coma spectroscopic images were obtained for various radical species (C2, C3, CN, NH2). Various coma enhancements were used to identify and characterize coma morphological features. The azimuthal average profiles and the Haser model were used to determine production rates and possible parent molecules. Here, we present the work completed to date, and we compare our results to other comet taxonomic surveys. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation Graduate K-12 (GK-12) STEM Fellows program (Award No. DGE-0947419), NASA's Planetary Atmospheres program (Award No. NNX14AH18G), and the Fund for Astrophysical Research, Inc.

  11. Limited field investigation report for the 100-NR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-NR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land-use scenarios. This report is unique in that it is based on Hanford-specific agreements discussed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992), the Hanford Site Risk Assessment Methodology (DOE-RL 1994a), the Remedial Investigation Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-NR-1 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a), and the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS) (DOE-RL 1991), and must be viewed in this context. The HPPS emphasizes initiating and completing waste site cleanup through interim actions. The strategy includes paths for interim decision-making and a final remedy-selection process for the operable unit. A LFI report is required, in accordance with the HPPS, when waste sites are to be considered for IRM and existing data are insufficient to formulate a conceptual model or perform a QRA. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRM, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify potential contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose a risk to human health or the environment that warrants action through IRM

  12. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA) (WHC 1993a), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. A LFI Report is required, in accordance with the HPPS, when waste sites are to be considered for IRMs. The LFI is an integral part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) facility investigation/corrective measures study (RFI/CMS) and process and functions as a focused RI or RFI for selection of IRMs. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRMs, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARA), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose an unacceptable risk that warrants action through IRMs. The 100-HR-1 unit encompasses approximately 100 acres adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. It contains waste units associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support the H Reactor. The area also contains evaporation basins which received liquid process wastes and nonroutine deposits of chemical wastes from the 300 Area, where fuel elements for the N Reactor were produced

  13. Dynamics of Industrial Forests in Southeast United States Assessed using Satellite and Field Inventory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Tao, X.; Zhao, F. A.; Schleeweis, K.; Ling, P. Y.; Goward, S. N.; Masek, J. G.; Michaelis, A.

    2015-12-01

    The southeast United States (SE-US) is dominated by tree plantations and other forms of industrial forests that provide vital socio-ecological services to the human society. Most of these forests are managed to maximize economic outcome, and hence are often subject to intensive management practices and have different harvest-regrowth cycles as compared with natural forest ecosystems. Through the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) study, we have mapped forest disturbances for the conterminous United States using dense time series Landsat observations. The derived map products revealed that more than 50% of the forests in SE-US were harvested or disturbed by other forms of human or natural disturbance events at least once between 1986 and 2010. These products are being analyzed together with ancillary GIS data sets and field inventory data to identify industrial forests and to quantify their logging intensity, timber output, recovery rate, and the harvest-regrowth cycle. The derived results will be summarized in this presentation, along with discussions of the underlying environmental and management factors that may drive the spatio-temporal dynamics of the industrial forests in SE-US.

  14. NICOLAU: compact unit for photometric characterization of automotive lighting from near-field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo, Santiago; Arranz, Maria J.; Arasa, Josep; Cattoen, Michel; Bosch, Thierry

    2005-02-01

    The present works depicts a measurement technique intended to enhance the characterization procedures of the photometric emissions of automotive headlamps, with potential applications to any light source emission, either automotive or non-automotive. A CCD array with a precisely characterized optical system is used for sampling the luminance field of the headlamp just a few centimetres in front of it, by combining deflectometric techniques (yielding the direction of the light beams) and photometric techniques (yielding the energy travelling in each direction). The CCD array scans the measurement plane using a self-developed mechanical unit and electronics, and then image-processing techniques are used for obtaining the photometric behaviour of the headlamp in any given plane, in particular in the plane and positions required by current normative, but also on the road, on traffic signs, etc. An overview of the construction of the system, of the considered principle of measurement, and of the main calibrations performed on the unit is presented. First results concerning relative measurements are presented compared both to reference data from a photometric tunnel and from a plane placed 5m away from the source. Preliminary results for the absolute photometric calibration of the system are also presented for different illumination beams of different headlamps (driving and passing beam).

  15. Deep drawing simulation of Tailored Blanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Albert; Meinders, Vincent T.; Stokman, B.

    1998-01-01

    Tailored blanks are increasingly used in the automotive industry. A tailored blank consists of different metal parts, which are joined by a welding process. These metal parts usually have different material properties. Hence, the main advantage of using a tailored blank is to provide the right

  16. Characterization of shrubland ecosystem components as continuous fields in the northwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, George Z.; Homer, Collin G.; Rigge, Matthew B.; Shi, Hua; Meyer, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and consistent estimates of shrubland ecosystem components are crucial to a better understanding of ecosystem conditions in arid and semiarid lands. An innovative approach was developed by integrating multiple sources of information to quantify shrubland components as continuous field products within the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). The approach consists of several procedures including field sample collections, high-resolution mapping of shrubland components using WorldView-2 imagery and regression tree models, Landsat 8 radiometric balancing and phenological mosaicking, medium resolution estimates of shrubland components following different climate zones using Landsat 8 phenological mosaics and regression tree models, and product validation. Fractional covers of nine shrubland components were estimated: annual herbaceous, bare ground, big sagebrush, herbaceous, litter, sagebrush, shrub, sagebrush height, and shrub height. Our study area included the footprint of six Landsat 8 scenes in the northwestern United States. Results show that most components have relatively significant correlations with validation data, have small normalized root mean square errors, and correspond well with expected ecological gradients. While some uncertainties remain with height estimates, the model formulated in this study provides a cross-validated, unbiased, and cost effective approach to quantify shrubland components at a regional scale and advances knowledge of horizontal and vertical variability of these components.

  17. Lava flow field emplacement studies of Manua Ulu (Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, United States) and Venus, using field and remote sensing analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Jeffrey Myer

    2002-04-01

    This work examines lava emplacement processes by characterizing surface units using field and remote sensing analyses in order to understand the development of lava flow fields. Specific study areas are the 1969--1974 Mauna Ulu compound flow field, (Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, USA), and five lava flow fields on Venus: Turgmam Fluctus, Zipaltonal Fluctus, the Tuli Mons/Uilata Fluctus flow complex, the Var Mons flow field, and Mylitta Fluctus. Lava surface units have been examined in the field and with visible-, thermal-, and radar-wavelength remote sensing datasets for Mauna Ulu, and with radar data for the Venusian study areas. For the Mauna Ulu flow field, visible characteristics are related to color, glass abundance, and dm- to m-scale surface irregularities, which reflect the lava flow regime, cooling, and modification due to processes such as coalescence and inflation. Thermal characteristics are primarily affected by the abundance of glass and small-scale roughness elements (such as vesicles), and reflect the history of cooling, vesiculation and degassing, and crystallization of the lava. Radar characteristics are primarily affected by unit topography and fracturing, which are related to flow inflation, remobilization, and collapse, and reflect the local supply of lava during and after unit emplacement. Mauna Ulu surface units are correlated with pre-eruption topography, lack a simple relationship to the main feeder lava tubes, and are distributed with respect to their position within compound flow lobes and with distance from the vent. The Venusian lava flow fields appear to have developed through emplacement of numerous, thin, simple and compound flows, presumably over extended periods of time, and show a wider range of radar roughness than is observed at Mauna Ulu. A potential correlation is suggested between flow rheology and surface roughness. Distributary flow morphologies may result from tube-fed flows, and flow inflation is consistent with observed

  18. Time series with tailored nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räth, C.; Laut, I.

    2015-10-01

    It is demonstrated how to generate time series with tailored nonlinearities by inducing well-defined constraints on the Fourier phases. Correlations between the phase information of adjacent phases and (static and dynamic) measures of nonlinearities are established and their origin is explained. By applying a set of simple constraints on the phases of an originally linear and uncorrelated Gaussian time series, the observed scaling behavior of the intensity distribution of empirical time series can be reproduced. The power law character of the intensity distributions being typical for, e.g., turbulence and financial data can thus be explained in terms of phase correlations.

  19. Development of compact integral field unit for spaceborne solar spectro-polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Y.; Koyama, M.; Sukegawa, T.; Enokida, Y.; Saito, K.; Okura, Y.; Nakayasu, T.; Ozaki, S.; Tsuneta, S.

    2017-11-01

    A 1.5-m class aperture Solar Ultra-violet Visible and IR telescope (SUVIT) and its instruments for the Japanese next space solar mission SOLAR-C [1] are under study to obtain critical physical parameters in the lower solar atmosphere. For the precise magnetic field measurements covering field-of-view of 3 arcmin x3 acmin, a full stokes polarimetry at three magnetic sensitive lines in wavelength range of 525 nm to 1083 nm with a four-slit spectrograph of two dinesional image scanning mechanism is proposed: one is a true slit and the other three are pseudo-slits from integral field unit (IFU). To suit this configuration, besides a fiber bundle IFU, a compact mirror slicer IFU is designed and being developed. Integral field spectroscopy (IFS), which is realized with IFU, is a two dimensional spectroscopy, providing spectra simultaneously for each spatial direction of an extended two-dimensional field. The scientific advantages of the IFS for studies of localized and transient solar surface phenomena are obvious. There are in general three methods [2][3] to realize the IFS depending on image slicing devices such as a micro-lenslet array, an optical fiber bundle and a narrow rectangular image slicer array. So far, there exist many applications of the IFS for ground-based astronomical observations [4]. Regarding solar instrumentations, the IFS of micro-lenslet array was done by Suematsu et al. [5], the IFS of densely packed rectangular fiber bundle with thin clads was realized [6] and being developed for 4-m aperture solar telescope DKIST by Lin [7] and being considered for space solar telescope SOLAR-C by Katsukawa et al. [8], and the IFS with mirror slicer array was presented by Ren et al. [9] and under study for up-coming large-aperture solar telescope in Europe by Calcines et al. [10] From the view point of a high efficiency spectroscopy, a wide wavelength coverage, a precision spectropolarimetry and space application, the image slicer consisting of all reflective

  20. Tailored vacuum chambers for ac magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, A.

    1985-01-01

    The proposed LAMPF-II accelerator has a 60-Hz booster synchrotron and a 3-Hz main ring. To provide a vacuum enclosure inside the magnets with low eddy-current losses and minimal field distortion, yet capable of carrying rf image currents and providing beam stabilization, we propose an innovative combination pipe. Structurally, the enclosure is high-purity alumina ceramic, which is strong, radiation resistant, and has good vacuum properties. Applied to the chamber are thin, spaced, silver conductors using adapted thick-film technology. The conductor design can be tailored to the stabilization requirements, for example, longitudinal conductors for image currents, circumferential for transverse stabilization. The inside of the chamber has a thin, resistive coating to avoid charge build-up. The overall 60-Hz power loss is less than 100 W/m

  1. Effect of low-frequency ambient magnetic fields on the control unit and RF head of a commercial SQUID magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The control unit and RF head of the SHE model 330XRFSQUID system are shown to be sensitive to ambient ac magnetic fields below 1 HZ, which cause the appearance of false signals corresponding to a magnetometer signal of 0.000001 phi(0) per gauss of field applied. The control unit shows a sensitivity that is linear with frequency, suggesting that the signal is generated by Faraday induction. In contrast, the RF head response is independent of frequency and shows a strong second-harmonic coversion. This response may be due to the magnetic field sensitivity of the ferrite core inductor in the tuned amplifier of the RF head. These signals induced by ambient fields are a potential source of error in Stanford's Relativity Gyroscope experiment, which uses SQUID's on board a rolling satellite as part of the gyroscope readout system. The extent of the magnetic field sensitivity in these components necessitates the use of additional magnetic shielding aboard the satellite.

  2. Choosing a Field: How Graduate Student Choices of Field Sites Reflect Different Ideas of "Real" Anthropology in Colombia and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the decisions and motivations of graduate students in cultural anthropology when defining the field sites and topics of their final projects. The decisions among students at the Universidad de los Andes in Colombia are contrasted with those at the University of Pittsburgh in the United States. A review of recent final projects…

  3. SpecOp: Optimal Extraction Software for Integral Field Unit Spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Adam; Ciardullo, Robin; Eracleous, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope’s new low resolution integral field spectrographs, LRS2-B and LRS2-R, each cover a 12”x6” area on the sky with 280 fibers and generate spectra with resolutions between R=1100 and R=1900. To extract 1-D spectra from the instrument’s 3D data cubes, a program is needed that is flexible enough to work for a wide variety of targets, including continuum point sources, emission line sources, and compact sources embedded in complex backgrounds. We therefore introduce SpecOp, a user-friendly python program for optimally extracting spectra from integral-field unit spectrographs. As input, SpecOp takes a sky-subtracted data cube consisting of images at each wavelength increment set by the instrument’s spectral resolution, and an error file for each count measurement. All of these files are generated by the current LRS2 reduction pipeline. The program then collapses the cube in the image plane using the optimal extraction algorithm detailed by Keith Horne (1986). The various user-selected options include the fraction of the total signal enclosed in a contour-defined region, the wavelength range to analyze, and the precision of the spatial profile calculation. SpecOp can output the weighted counts and errors at each wavelength in various table formats using python’s astropy package. We outline the algorithm used for extraction and explain how the software can be used to easily obtain high-quality 1-D spectra. We demonstrate the utility of the program by applying it to spectra of a variety of quasars and AGNs. In some of these targets, we extract the spectrum of a nuclear point source that is superposed on a spatially extended galaxy.

  4. Collective Training and Fielding Opportunities for the Objective Force Maneuver Systems at the Unit of Action Level in a Unit Manning/Unit Replacement Personnel System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Courts, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of Objective Force formations, beginning with the first Unit of Action, will fundamentally change existing organizational structures, training requirements and operational constructs for the U.S. Army...

  5. Tailor-welded blanks and their production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi

    2005-01-01

    Tailor welded blanks had been widely used in the automobile industry. A tailor welded blank consists of several flat sheets that were laser welded together before stamping. A combination of different materials, thickness, and coatings could be welded together to form a blank for stamping car body panels. As for the material for automobile industry, this technology was one of the development trend for automobile industry because of its weight reduction, safety improvement and economical use of materials. In this paper, the characters and production of tailor welded blanks in the market were discussed in detail. There had two major methods to produce tailor welded blanks. Laser welding would replace mesh seam welding for the production of tailor welded blanks in the future. The requirements on the edge preparation of unwelded blanks for tailor welded blanks were higher than the other steel processing technology. In order to produce the laser welded blank, there had the other process before the laser welding in the factory. In the world, there had three kinds of patterns for the large volume production of tailor welded blanks. In China, steel factory played the important role in the promotion of the application of tailor welded blanks. The competition for the supply of tailor welded blanks to the automobile industry would become fierce in the near future. As a result, the demand for the quality control on the production of tailor welded blanks would be the first priority concern for the factory.

  6. Limited field investigation report for the 100-NR-1 operable unit. Draft A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-NR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land-use scenarios. An LFI report is required when waste sites are to be considered for IRM and existing data are insufficient to formulate a conceptual model or perform a QRA. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRM, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify potential contaminant and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose a risk to human health or the environment that warrants action through IRM. Seven sites were intrusively investigated: 1322-N, 116-N-2, 119-N, 120-N-2, 120-N-1, South Settling Pond, and the 166-N Tank Farm (UN-100-N-17) unplanned release at the 166-N Tank Farm. Vadose zone sediments from these sites were sampled and analyzed. Radiological contamination is the primary concern as confirmed through this study

  7. Limited field investigation report for the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-FR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. An LFI is required when existing data are insufficient to formulate a conceptual model and perform a QRA. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRM, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose an unacceptable risk that warrants action through IRM. The final decision to conduct an IRM will rely on many factors including risk, ARAR, future land use, point of compliance, time of compliance, a bias-for-action, and the threat to human health and the environment

  8. Development of micro-mirror slicer integral field unit for space-borne solar spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Yoshinori; Saito, Kosuke; Koyama, Masatsugu; Enokida, Yukiya; Okura, Yukinobu; Nakayasu, Tomoyasu; Sukegawa, Takashi

    2017-12-01

    We present an innovative optical design for image slicer integral field unit (IFU) and a manufacturing method that overcomes optical limitations of metallic mirrors. Our IFU consists of a micro-mirror slicer of 45 arrayed, highly narrow, flat metallic mirrors and a pseudo-pupil-mirror array of off-axis conic aspheres forming three pseudo slits of re-arranged slicer images. A prototype IFU demonstrates that the final optical quality is sufficiently high for a visible light spectrograph. Each slicer micro-mirror is 1.58 mm long and 30 μm wide with surface roughness ≤1 nm rms, and edge sharpness ≤ 0.1 μm, etc. This IFU is small size and can be implemented in a multi-slit spectrograph without any moving mechanism and fore optics, in which one slit is real and the others are pseudo slits from the IFU. The IFU mirrors were deposited by a space-qualified, protected silver coating for high reflectivity in visible and near IR wavelength regions. These properties are well suitable for space-borne spectrograph such as the future Japanese solar space mission SOLAR-C. We present the optical design, performance of prototype IFU, and space qualification tests of the silver coating.

  9. Taming Parasites by Tailoring Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjian Ren

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The next-generation gene editing based on CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats has been successfully implemented in a wide range of organisms including some protozoan parasites. However, application of such a versatile game-changing technology in molecular parasitology remains fairly underexplored. Here, we briefly introduce state-of-the-art in human and mouse research and usher new directions to drive the parasitology research in the years to come. In precise, we outline contemporary ways to embolden existing apicomplexan and kinetoplastid parasite models by commissioning front-line gene-tailoring methods, and illustrate how we can break the enduring gridlock of gene manipulation in non-model parasitic protists to tackle intriguing questions that remain long unresolved otherwise. We show how a judicious solicitation of the CRISPR technology can eventually balance out the two facets of pathogen-host interplay.

  10. SparsePak: A Formatted Fiber Field Unit for the WIYN Telescope Bench Spectrograph. I. Design, Construction, and Calibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bershady, Matthew A.; Andersen, David R.; Harker, Justin; Ramsey, Larry W.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the design and construction of a formatted fiber field unit, SparsePak, and characterize its optical and astrometric performance. This array is optimized for spectroscopy of low surface brightness extended sources in the visible and near-infrared. SparsePak contains 82, 4.7" fibers

  11. United States Newspaper Program. List of Intended Audience Terms for 655 Genre Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Historical Society, Madison.

    The United States Newspaper Program (USNP) is a national, cooperative effort to locate, catalog, and preserve on microfilm newspapers published in the United States and its territories since the seventeenth century. This list of intended-audience terms was initially developed by the USNP staff at the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, but soon…

  12. Molecular tailoring of solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenson, Simon Alan

    1997-07-01

    The overall performance of a material can be dramatically improved by tailoring its surface at the molecular level. The aim of this project was to develop a universal technique for attaching dendrimers (well-defined, nanoscale, functional polymers) and Jeffamines (high molecular weight polymer chains) to the surface of any shaped solid substrate. This desire for controlled functionalization is ultimately driven by the need to improve material compatibility in various biomedical applications. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used initially to study the packing and structure of Langmuir-Blodgett films on surfaces, and subsequently resulted in the first visualization of individual, spherically shaped, nanoscopic polyamidoamine dendrimers. The next goal was to develop a methodology for attaching such macromolecules to inert surfaces. Thin copolymer films were deposited onto solid substrates to produce materials with a fixed concentration of surface anhydride groups. Vapor-phase functionalization reactions were then carried out with trifluorinated amines to confirm the viability of this technique to bond molecules to surfaces. Finally, pulsed plasma polymerization of maleic anhydride took this approach one stage further, by forming well-adhered polymer films containing a predetermined concentration of reactive anhydride groups. Subsequent functionalization reactions led to the secure attachment of dendrimers and Jeffamines at any desired packing density. An alternative route to biocompatibilization used 1,2-ethanedithiol to yield thiolated surfaces containing very high polymeric sulfur : carbon ratios. (author)

  13. Molecular tailoring of solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenson, Simon Alan

    1997-01-01

    The overall performance of a material can be dramatically improved by tailoring its surface at the molecular level. The aim of this project was to develop a universal technique for attaching dendrimers (well-defined, nanoscale, functional polymers) and Jeffamines (high molecular weight polymer chains) to the surface of any shaped solid substrate. This desire for controlled functionalization is ultimately driven by the need to improve material compatibility in various biomedical applications. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used initially to study the packing and structure of Langmuir-Blodgett films on surfaces, and subsequently resulted in the first visualization of individual, spherically shaped, nanoscopic polyamidoamine dendrimers. The next goal was to develop a methodology for attaching such macromolecules to inert surfaces. Thin copolymer films were deposited onto solid substrates to produce materials with a fixed concentration of surface anhydride groups. Vapor-phase functionalization reactions were then carried out with trifluorinated amines to confirm the viability of this technique to bond molecules to surfaces. Finally, pulsed plasma polymerization of maleic anhydride took this approach one stage further, by forming well-adhered polymer films containing a predetermined concentration of reactive anhydride groups. Subsequent functionalization reactions led to the secure attachment of dendrimers and Jeffamines at any desired packing density. An alternative route to biocompatibilization used 1,2-ethanedithiol to yield thiolated surfaces containing very high polymeric sulfur : carbon ratios. (author)

  14. Formability of stainless steel tailored blanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2004-01-01

    In a number of systematic tests, the formability of tailored blanks consisting of even and different combinations of AISI304 and AISI316 in thickness of 0.8 mm and 1.5 mm have been investigated. In order to analyse the formability of tailored blanks with different sheet thickness, a method based ...

  15. Aerogels in Chemical Engineering: Strategies Toward Tailor-Made Aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Irina; Gurikov, Pavel

    2017-06-07

    The present review deals with recent advances in the rapidly growing field of aerogel research and technology. The major focus of the review lies in approaches that allow tailoring of aerogel properties to meet application-driven requirements. The decisive properties of aerogels are discussed with regard to existing and potential application areas. Various tailoring strategies, such as modulation of the pore structure, coating, surface modification, and post-treatment, are illustrated by results of the last decade. In view of commercialization of aerogel-based products, a panorama of current industrial aerogel suppliers is given, along with a discussion of possible alternative sources for raw materials and precursors. Finally, growing points and perspectives of the aerogel field are summarized.

  16. LPWA using supersonic gas jet with tailored density profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononenko, O.; Bohlen, S.; Dale, J.; D'Arcy, R.; Dinter, M.; Erbe, J. H.; Indorf, G.; di Lucchio, L.; Goldberg, L.; Gruse, J. N.; Karstensen, S.; Libov, V.; Ludwig, K.; Martinez de La Ossa, A.; Marutzky, F.; Niroula, A.; Osterhoff, J.; Quast, M.; Schaper, L.; Schwinkendorf, J.-P.; Streeter, M.; Tauscher, G.; Weichert, S.; Palmer, C.; Horbatiuk, Taras

    2016-10-01

    Laser driven plasma wakefield accelerators have been explored as a potential compact, reproducible source of relativistic electron bunches, utilising an electric field of many GV/m. Control over injection of electrons into the wakefield is of crucial importance in producing stable, mono-energetic electron bunches. Density tailoring of the target, to control the acceleration process, can also be used to improve the quality of the bunch. By using gas jets to provide tailored targets it is possible to provide good access for plasma diagnostics while also producing sharp density gradients for density down-ramp injection. OpenFOAM hydrodynamic simulations were used to investigate the possibility of producing tailored density targets in a supersonic gas jet. Particle-in-cell simulations of the resulting density profiles modelled the effect of the tailored density on the properties of the accelerated electron bunch. Here, we present the simulation results together with preliminary experimental measurements of electron and x-ray properties from LPWA experiments using gas jet targets and a 25 TW, 25 fs Ti:Sa laser system at DESY.

  17. [Application of new technologies in the design, manufacture and use of technology deployment of field medical units and establishments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovlev, S V; Sidorov, V A; Korniushko, I G; Medvedev, V R; Matveev, A G

    2011-11-01

    Presented data is about attendance means of deployment of field medical units and pieces of army-level medical services and disaster medicine Defense Ministry did not ensure compliance with requirements to create optimal conditions for highly effective work of the medical staff, placing the wounded, the use of modern aids and appliances. The prospects of creation of mobile unit for high-availability modular pre-fabricated on the basis of tent structures, pneumoconstructions and removable habitable bodies, containers, tents, pneumocovers till 2020 are analyzed. Livelihood systems provide armor protection against fragments, bullets, flames, damaging factors of chemical and biological weapons.

  18. Balancing the dual responsibilities of business unit controllers: field and survey evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, V.S.; Matejka, M.

    2009-01-01

    We examine how business unit (BU) controllers balance their dual roles of providing information for both local decision-making (local responsibility) and corporate control (functional responsibility). The existing literature suggests that organizations can improve the quality of financial reporting

  19. Gendered transitions to adulthood by college field of study in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Siqi Han; Dmitry Tumin; Zhenchao Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Field of study may influence the timing of transitions to the labor market, marriage, and parenthood among college graduates. Research to date has yet to study how field of study is associated with the interweaving of these transitions in the USA. Objective: The current study examines gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. Methods: We use Cox proportional hazards models and ...

  20. Development of field simulator to test and qualify the gyrotron local control unit for ITER-India Gyrotron Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Ronak; Mandge, Deepak; Rathod, Vipal; Parmar, Rajvi; Dilip, E. Sharan; Yadav, Amit; Sharma, Anjali; Rao, S.L.

    2017-01-01

    High power RF sources such as a Gyrotron system are operated at required output parameter by using various auxiliary power supplies, High voltage power supplies, auxiliary services and a dedicated Local Control Unit (LCU). These sub-systems must be operated in synchronous and safe way to control the gyrotron output parameters. The LCU performs remote, synchronous and safe operation of the all the gyrotron sub-systems. Broadly the LCU functions are operational control, data acquisition, protection and safety of the gyrotron system. At ITER-India gyrotron Test Facility (IIGTF) a local control unit (LCU) is being developed to operate the complete gyrotron system. This paper presents the design, development and various features of the field simulator. It also discuss LCU functionality test cases and results obtained using field simulator

  1. Simulations and field tests of a reactor coolant pump emergency start-up by means of remote gas units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omahen, P.; Gubina, F.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of the reactor coolant pump start-up in case of emergency by means of remote gas power plant units was analyzed. In this paper a simulation model is developed which enabled a detailed simulation of the transient process occurring at the start-up. The start-up of the RCP motor set was simulated in case of available one and two gas units. The field tests were performed and the measured variable values complied well with the simulation results. Two gas units have been determined as a safe start-up scheme of the RCP motor set considering for safety reasons accepted busbars and motor protection settings. A derived model for deep rotor bars was experimentally confirmed as effective means for the RCP motor set start-up transient simulation. Start-up procedures have been designed and adopted to the safety procedures of the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko

  2. Numerical analyses of magnetic field and force in toroidal superconducting magnetic energy storage using unit coils (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamaru, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Amemiya, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is more useful than other systems of electric energy storage because of its larger amounts of stored energy and its higher efficiency. There are two types of SMES. One is the solenoid type and the other is the toroidal type. Some models of solenoid-type SMES are designed in the U.S. and in Japan. But the large scale SMES causes a high magnetic field in the living environment, and causes the erroneous operation of electronic equipment. The authors studied some suitable designs of magnetic shielding for the solenoidal-type SMES to reduce the magnetic field in the living environment. The toiroidal type SMES is studied in this article. The magnetic leakage flux of the toiroidal-type SMES is generally lower than that of the solenoid-type SMES. The toroidal-type SMES is constructed of unit coils, which are convenient for construction. The magnetic leakage flux occurs between unit coils. The electromagnetic force of the coils is very strong. Therefore analyses of the leakage flux and electromagnetic force are important to the design of SMES. The authors studied the number, radius, and length of unit coils. The storage energy is 5 G Wh. The numerical analyses of magnetic fields in the toroidal type SMES are obtained by analytical solutions. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Development and field tests of a damping controller to mitigate electromechanical oscillations on large diesel generating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Fabricio G.; Barreiros, Jose A.L.; Barra, Walter Jr.; Costa, Carlos T. Jr. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Instituto de Tecnologia, Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica, Campus Universitario do Guama, CEP: 66075-900, Belem (Brazil); Ferreira, Andre M.D. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Para (IFPA), Campus Belem, Departamento de Controle e Processos Industriais, Av. Almirante Barroso, 1155 (Marco), CEP: 66093-020, Belem (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the development and field tests of a digital damping controller designed to mitigate intra-plant electromechanical oscillations via the speed governor system of fast acting units. The controller performance is assessed on an 18-MVA diesel generating unit, at Santana Power Plant (Amapa State, Amazon Region at Northern Brazil). In order to design the damping control law, a set of parametric ARX models representing the plant dynamics at several load conditions, are previously identified from data collected on field tests. The damping controller gains are calculated by using the identified ARX models parameters as inputs to a discrete-time pole-placement design method (pole-shifting) and then embedded on a DSP based microcontroller digital system, for field tests assessment. The digital damping controller modulates the diesel engine inlet valve position according to the observed oscillation on the measured electric power, using a PWM device, which is specially developed to this application. The experimental results shown the good performance of the developed controller on damping efficiently the electromechanical oscillations observed between generating units at Santana Power Plant. (author)

  4. Frame-dragging effect in the field of non rotating body due to unit gravimagnetic moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriglazov, Alexei A.; Ramírez, Walberto Guzmán

    2018-04-01

    Nonminimal spin-gravity interaction through unit gravimagnetic moment leads to modified Mathisson-Papapetrou-Tulczyjew-Dixon equations with improved behavior in the ultrarelativistic limit. We present exact Hamiltonian of the resulting theory and compute an effective 1/c2-Hamiltonian and leading post-Newtonian corrections to the trajectory and spin. Gravimagnetic moment causes the same precession of spin S as a fictitious rotation of the central body with angular momentum J = M/m S. So the modified equations imply a number of qualitatively new effects, that could be used to test experimentally, whether a rotating body in general relativity has null or unit gravimagnetic moment.

  5. Dosimetry of normal and wedge fields for a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, U.B.; Kelkar, N.Y.

    1980-01-01

    A simple analytical method for computation of dose distributions for normal and wedge fields is described and the use of the method in planning radiation treatment is outlined. Formulas has been given to compute: (1) depth dose along central axis of cobalt-60 beam, (2) dose to off-axis points, and (3) dose distribution for a wedge field. Good agreement has been found between theoretical and experimental values. With the help of these formulae, the dose at any point can be easily and accurately calculated and radiotherapy can be planned for tumours of very odd shape and sizes. The limitation of the method is that the formulae have been derived for 50% field definition. For cobalt-60 machine having any other field definition, appropriate correction factors have to be applied. (M.G.B.)

  6. Persistence and failure of mean-field approximations adapted to a class of systems of delay-coupled excitable units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franović, Igor; Todorović, Kristina; Vasović, Nebojša; Burić, Nikola

    2014-02-01

    We consider the approximations behind the typical mean-field model derived for a class of systems made up of type II excitable units influenced by noise and coupling delays. The formulation of the two approximations, referred to as the Gaussian and the quasi-independence approximation, as well as the fashion in which their validity is verified, are adapted to reflect the essential properties of the underlying system. It is demonstrated that the failure of the mean-field model associated with the breakdown of the quasi-independence approximation can be predicted by the noise-induced bistability in the dynamics of the mean-field system. As for the Gaussian approximation, its violation is related to the increase of noise intensity, but the actual condition for failure can be cast in qualitative, rather than quantitative terms. We also discuss how the fulfillment of the mean-field approximations affects the statistics of the first return times for the local and global variables, further exploring the link between the fulfillment of the quasi-independence approximation and certain forms of synchronization between the individual units.

  7. Application of Mensuration Technology to Improve the Accuracy of Field Artillery Firing Unit Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    8 U.S. Army Field Artillery Operations ............................................................................ 8 Geodesy ...Experts in this field of study have a full working knowledge of geodesy and the theory that allows mensuration to surpass the level of accuracy achieved...desired. (2) Fire that is intended to achieve the desired result on target.”6 Geodesy : “that branch of applied mathematics which determines by observation

  8. Outsourced inovation in SMES: a field study of R&D units in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Albors Garrigós, José; Zabaleta Etxebarria, Noemi; Hervás Oliver, Jose Luis; Ganzarain Epelde, Jaione

    2011-01-01

    IJTM aims to provide a refereed and authoritative source of information in the field of managing with technology, and the management of engineering, science and technology. It seeks to establish channels of communication between government departments, technology executives in industry, commerce and related business, and academic experts in the field. SME innovation strategy and motivation has become one of the most challenging subjects of innovation policy. New innovation models propos...

  9. Gendered transitions to adulthood by college field of study in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Han

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Field of study may influence the timing of transitions to the labor market, marriage, and parenthood among college graduates. Research to date has yet to study how field of study is associated with the interweaving of these transitions in the USA. Objective: The current study examines gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. Methods: We use Cox proportional hazards models and multinomial logistic regression to examine gendered associations between field of study and the three transitions among college graduates of the NLSY97 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth cohort. Results: Men majoring in STEM achieve early transitions to full-time work, marriage, and parenthood; women majoring in STEM show no significant advantage in finding full-time work and delayed marriage and childbearing; women in business have earlier transitions to full-time work and marriage than women in other fields, demonstrating an advantage similar to that of men in STEM. Conclusions: The contrast between men and women in STEM shows that transition to adulthood remains gendered; the contrast between women in STEM and women in business illustrates that a prestigious career may not necessarily delay family formation. Contribution: The paper shows how stratification by field of study creates gendered demographic outcomes for college graduates. It also demonstrates that women's decisions regarding marriage and parenthood do not uniformly respond to the economic prospect of their work.

  10. Conservatism implications of shock test tailoring for multiple design environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Thomas J.; Bell, R. Glenn; Robbins, Susan A.

    1987-01-01

    A method for analyzing shock conservation in test specifications that have been tailored to qualify a structure for multiple design environments is discussed. Shock test conservation is qualified for shock response spectra, shock intensity spectra and ranked peak acceleration data in terms of an Index of Conservation (IOC) and an Overtest Factor (OTF). The multi-environment conservation analysis addresses the issue of both absolute and average conservation. The method is demonstrated in a case where four laboratory tests have been specified to qualify a component which must survive seven different field environments. Final judgment of the tailored test specification is shown to require an understanding of the predominant failure modes of the test item.

  11. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit investigative phase and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA). The 100-HR-2 Operable Unit contains solid waste burial grounds, an ash pit, bum pits, electrical facilities, septic systems, and support facilities. All known and suspected areas of contamination were classified as solid waste burial grounds or low-priority waste sites based on the collective knowledge of the operable unit managers (representatives from the US Department of Energy [DOE], the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], and Washington Department of Ecology [Ecology]) during the preparation of the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit work plan (DOE/RL 1993f). Solid waste burial grounds were judged to pose sufficient risk(s), through one or more pathways, to require evaluation for an interim remedial measure (IRM) as per the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS) (DOE/RL 1991) and negotiations with DOE, EPA, and Ecology. An IRM is intended to achieve remedies that are likely to lead to a final record of decision. Low-priority sites are those judged not to pose significant risk to require the streamlined evaluation. There were six low-priority waste sites and seven solid waste burial grounds identified. The investigative phase was conducted in accordance with the RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit (DOE/RL 1993f). The QRA was performed in accordance with the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology (DOE/RL 1993b) and the recommendations incorporate the strategies of the HPPS. The purpose of this report is to: (1) provide a summary of site investigative activities; (2) refine the conceptual exposure model (as needed); (3) identify chemical- and location-specific corrective action requirements; and (4) provide a human health and ecological QRA associated with solid waste burial grounds

  12. Continuous tailoring activities in software engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Ribaud , Vincent; Saliou , Philippe

    2004-01-01

    International audience; Software activities belong to different processes. Tailoring software processes aims to relate the operational software processes of an organization to the effective project. With the information technology industry moving ever faster, established positions are undergoing constant evolutionary change. The failure of a complex tailoring process of a management information system is reported. There is a need to adopt software processes that can operate under constant cha...

  13. Regional 3-D Modeling of Ground Geoelectric Field for the Northeast United States due to Realistic Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikova, E.; Kruglyakov, M.; Kuvshinov, A. V.; Rastaetter, L.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Ngwira, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    During extreme space weather events electric currents in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere experience large variations, which leads to dramatic intensification of the fluctuating magnetic field at the surface of the Earth. According to Faraday's law of induction, the fluctuating geomagnetic field in turn induces electric field that generates harmful currents (so-called "geomagnetically induced currents"; GICs) in grounded technological systems. Understanding (via modeling) of the spatio-temporal evolution of the geoelectric field during enhanced geomagnetic activity is a key consideration in estimating the hazard to technological systems from space weather. We present the results of ground geoelectric field modeling for the Northeast United States, which is performed with the use of our novel numerical tool based on integral equation approach. The tool exploits realistic regional three-dimensional (3-D) models of the Earth's electrical conductivity and realistic global models of the spatio-temporal evolution of the magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems responsible for geomagnetic disturbances. We also explore in detail the manifestation of the coastal effect (anomalous intensification of the geoelectric field near the coasts) in this region.

  14. Gendered transitions to adulthood by college field of study in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Siqi; Tumin, Dmitry; Qian, Zhenchao

    2016-01-01

    Field of study may influence the timing of transitions to the labor market, marriage, and parenthood among college graduates. Research to date has yet to study how field of study is associated with the interweaving of these transitions in the USA. The current study examines gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. We use Cox proportional hazards models and multinomial logistic regression to examine gendered associations between field of study and the three transitions among college graduates of the NLSY97 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) cohort. Men majoring in STEM achieve early transitions to full-time work, marriage, and parenthood; women majoring in STEM show no significant advantage in finding full-time work and delayed marriage and childbearing; women in business have earlier transitions to full-time work and marriage than women in other fields, demonstrating an advantage similar to that of men in STEM. The contrast between men and women in STEM shows that transition to adulthood remains gendered; the contrast between women in STEM and women in business illustrates that a prestigious career may not necessarily delay family formation.

  15. Gendered transitions to adulthood by college field of study in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Siqi; Tumin, Dmitry; Qian, Zhenchao

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Field of study may influence the timing of transitions to the labor market, marriage, and parenthood among college graduates. Research to date has yet to study how field of study is associated with the interweaving of these transitions in the USA. OBJECTIVE The current study examines gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. METHODS We use Cox proportional hazards models and multinomial logistic regression to examine gendered associations between field of study and the three transitions among college graduates of the NLSY97 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) cohort. RESULTS Men majoring in STEM achieve early transitions to full-time work, marriage, and parenthood; women majoring in STEM show no significant advantage in finding full-time work and delayed marriage and childbearing; women in business have earlier transitions to full-time work and marriage than women in other fields, demonstrating an advantage similar to that of men in STEM. CONCLUSIONS The contrast between men and women in STEM shows that transition to adulthood remains gendered; the contrast between women in STEM and women in business illustrates that a prestigious career may not necessarily delay family formation. PMID:29075146

  16. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit investigative phase and the associated qualitative risk assessment. The 100-HR-2 Operable Unit contains solid waste burial grounds, an ash pit, burn pits, electrical facilities, septic systems, and support facilities. All known and suspected areas of contamination were classified as solid waste burial grounds or low-priority waste sites based on the collective knowledge of the operable unit managers (representatives from the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology during the preparation of the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit Work Plan (DOE-RL 1993f). Solid waste burial grounds were judged to pose sufficient risk(s), through one or more pathways, to require evaluation for an interim remedial measure as per the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (DOE-RL 1991) and negotiations with the Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology. An interim remedial measure is intended to achieve remedies that are likely to lead to a final record of decision. Low-priority sites are those judged not to pose significant risk to require the streamlined evaluation. There were six low-priority waste sites and seven solid waste burial grounds identified. The purpose of this report is to: (1) provide a summary of site investigative activities; (2) refine the conceptual exposure model (as needed); (3) identify chemical- and location-specific corrective action requirements; and 4) provide a human health and ecological QRA associated with solid waste burial grounds

  17. Biological effects of static and low-frequency electromagnetic fields: an overview of United States literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Kaune, W.T.

    1977-04-12

    Results are reviewed from a number of studies on the biological effects of static and low frequency electromagnetic fields on animals. Based on a long history of experience with electric fields by the utility industry, it appears that intermittent and repeated exposures to strong 60-Hz electromagnetic fields from present power transmission systems have no obvious adverse effect on the health of man. It has been recognized recently that this belief must be tested by carefully designed and executed experiments under laboratory conditions where precise control can be exercised over coexisting environmental factors. A number of studies have been initiated in response to this need to evaluate possible effects from both acute and chronic exposures. 100 references.

  18. Identification of Disciplines and Fields. Edis Task I Report, Work Unit 1.4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard Research Co., Arlington, VA.

    This report presents the identification and definitions of subject oriented engineering and scientific disciplines and fields which are included in the EDIS Subject Categories. The discussion is extended to include the mix of subjects with other orientations, such as Item, Mission-Project, Expertise and Data Bank Categories. Sample queries are…

  19. Chronic neural probe for simultaneous recording of single-unit, multi-unit, and local field potential activity from multiple brain sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothof, F.; Bonini, L.; Lanzilotto, M.; Livi, A.; Fogassi, L.; Orban, G. A.; Paul, O.; Ruther, P.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Drug resistant focal epilepsy can be treated by resecting the epileptic focus requiring a precise focus localisation using stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) probes. As commercial SEEG probes offer only a limited spatial resolution, probes of higher channel count and design freedom enabling the incorporation of macro and microelectrodes would help increasing spatial resolution and thus open new perspectives for investigating mechanisms underlying focal epilepsy and its treatment. This work describes a new fabrication process for SEEG probes with materials and dimensions similar to clinical probes enabling recording single neuron activity at high spatial resolution. Approach. Polyimide is used as a biocompatible flexible substrate into which platinum electrodes and leads are integrated with a minimal feature size of 5 μm. The polyimide foils are rolled into the cylindrical probe shape at a diameter of 0.8 mm. The resulting probe features match those of clinically approved devices. Tests in saline solution confirmed the probe stability and functionality. Probes were implanted into the brain of one monkey (Macaca mulatta), trained to perform different motor tasks. Suitable configurations including up to 128 electrode sites allow the recording of task-related neuronal signals. Main results. Probes with 32 and 64 electrode sites were implanted in the posterior parietal cortex. Local field potentials and multi-unit activity were recorded as early as one hour after implantation. Stable single-unit activity was achieved for up to 26 days after implantation of a 64-channel probe. All recorded signals showed modulation during task execution. Significance. With the novel probes it is possible to record stable biologically relevant data over a time span exceeding the usual time needed for epileptic focus localisation in human patients. This is the first time that single units are recorded along cylindrical polyimide probes chronically implanted 22 mm deep into the

  20. Evaluation of the APEX Model to Simulate Runoff Quality from Agricultural Fields in the Southern Region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Avila, John J; Radcliffe, David E; Osmond, Deanna; Bolster, Carl; Sharpley, Andrew; Ortega-Achury, Sandra L; Forsberg, Adam; Oldham, J Larry

    2017-11-01

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model has been widely applied to assess phosphorus (P) loss in runoff water and has been proposed as a model to support practical decisions regarding agricultural P management, as well as a model to evaluate tools such as the P Index. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of APEX to simulate P losses from agricultural systems to determine its potential use for refinement or replacement of the P Index in the southern region of the United States. Uncalibrated and calibrated APEX model predictions were compared against measured water quality data from row crop fields in North Carolina and Mississippi and pasture fields in Arkansas and Georgia. Calibrated models satisfactorily predicted event-based surface runoff volumes at all sites (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency [NSE] > 0.47, |percent bias [PBIAS]| < 34) except Arkansas (NSE < 0.11, |PBIAS| < 50) but did not satisfactory simulate sediment, dissolved P, or total P losses in runoff water. The APEX model tended to underestimate dissolved and total P losses from fields where manure was surface applied. The model also overestimated sediments and total P loads during irrigation events. We conclude that the capability of APEX to predict sediment and P losses is limited, and consequently so is the potential for using APEX to make P management recommendations to improve P Indices in the southern United States. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. A field programmable gate array unit for the diagnosis and control of neoclassical tearing modes on MAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Gorman, T.; Gibson, K. J.; Snape, J. A. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Naylor, G.; Huang, B.; McArdle, G. J.; Scannell, R.; Shibaev, S.; Thomas-Davies, N. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    A real-time system has been developed to trigger both the MAST Thomson scattering (TS) system and the plasma control system on the phase and amplitude of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs), extending the capabilities of the original system. This triggering system determines the phase and amplitude of a given NTM using magnetic coils at different toroidal locations. Real-time processing of the raw magnetic data occurs on a low cost field programmable gate array (FPGA) based unit which permits triggering of the TS lasers on specific amplitudes and phases of NTM evolution. The MAST plasma control system can receive a separate trigger from the FPGA unit that initiates a vertical shift of the MAST magnetic axis. Such shifts have fully removed m/n= 2/1 NTMs instabilities on a number of MAST discharges.

  2. Integrated test plan for the field demonstration of the supported liquid membrane unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunks, K.L.; Hodgson, K.M.

    1995-06-01

    This Integrated Test Plan describes the operation and testing of a hybrid reverse osmosis (RO)/coupled transport (CT) groundwater remediation test unit, also referred to as the Environmental Restoration Technology Demonstrations at the Hanford Site. The SLM will be used to remove uranium, technetium-99, and nitrate from a selected groundwater source at the Hanford Site. The overall purpose of this test is to determine the efficiency of the RO/CT membranes operating in a hybrid unit, the ease of operating and maintaining the SLM, and the amount of secondary waste generated as a result of processing. The goal of the SLM is to develop a RO/CT process that will be applicable for removing contaminants from almost any contaminated water. This includes the effluents generated as part of the day-to-day operation of most any US Department of Energy (DOE) site. The removal of contaminants from the groundwaters before they reach the Columbia River or offsite extraction wells will reduce the risk that the population will be exposed to these compounds and will reduce the cost of subsequent groundwater cleanup

  3. Flavin-catalyzed redox tailoring reactions in natural product biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Robin

    2017-10-15

    Natural products are distinct and often highly complex organic molecules that constitute not only an important drug source, but have also pushed the field of organic chemistry by providing intricate targets for total synthesis. How the astonishing structural diversity of natural products is enzymatically generated in biosynthetic pathways remains a challenging research area, which requires detailed and sophisticated approaches to elucidate the underlying catalytic mechanisms. Commonly, the diversification of precursor molecules into distinct natural products relies on the action of pathway-specific tailoring enzymes that catalyze, e.g., acylations, glycosylations, or redox reactions. This review highlights a selection of tailoring enzymes that employ riboflavin (vitamin B2)-derived cofactors (FAD and FMN) to facilitate unusual redox catalysis and steer the formation of complex natural product pharmacophores. Remarkably, several such recently reported flavin-dependent tailoring enzymes expand the classical paradigms of flavin biochemistry leading, e.g., to the discovery of the flavin-N5-oxide - a novel flavin redox state and oxygenating species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tailor cutting of crystalline solar cells by laser micro jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, F.; Pilat, E.; Piron, P.; Torres, P.; Carron, B.; Richerzhagen, B.; Pirot, M.; Monna, R.

    2012-03-01

    Coupling a laser into a hair thin water micro jet (Laser Micro Jet, LMJ) for cutting applications offers a wide range of processes that are quite unique. As the laser beam is guided by internal reflections inside of a liquid cylinder, the cuts are naturally straight and do not reflect any divergence as otherwise occurs with an unguided laser beam. Furthermore, having a liquid media at the point of contact ensures a fast removal of heat and eventual debris ensuring clean cuts, which are free of any burrs. Many applications have indeed been developed for a large variety of materials, which are as different as e.g. diamond, silicon, aluminum, ceramic and hard metals. The photovoltaic industry has enjoyed in the last decades tremendous growth rates, which are still projected into the future. We focus here on the segment of Building Integrated PV (BIPV), which requests tailored solutions to actual buildings and not-one-fits-it-all standardized modules. Having the option to tailor cut solar cells opens a new field of BIPV applications. For the first time, finished crystalline solar cells have been LMJ cut into predetermined shapes. First results show that the cut is clean and neat. Preliminary solar performance measurements are positive. This opens a new avenue of tailored made modules instead of having to rely on the one-fits-alloy approach used so far.

  5. Tailored nutrition education: is it really effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2012-03-01

    There has been a growing interest in tailored nutrition education over the previous decade, with a number of literature reviews suggesting this intervention strategy holds considerable potential. Nevertheless, the majority of intervention trials undertaken to date have employed subjective self-report outcome measures (such as dietary recalls). The aim of the present review is to further consider the likely true effect of tailored nutrition education by assessing the findings of tailored nutrition education intervention trials where objective outcome measures (such as sales data) have been employed. Four trials of tailored nutrition education employing objective outcome measures were identified: one was undertaken in eight low-cost supermarkets in New Zealand (2010; n 1104); one was an online intervention trial in Australia (2006; n 497); and two were undertaken in US supermarkets (1997 and 2001; n 105 and 296, respectively). Findings from the high-quality New Zealand trial were negative. Findings from the US trials were also generally negative, although reporting was poor making it difficult to assess quality. Findings from the high-quality online trial were positive, although have limited generalisability for public health. Trials employing objective outcome measures strongly suggest tailored nutrition education is not effective as a stand-alone strategy. However, further large, high-quality trials employing objective outcome measures are needed to determine the true effectiveness of this popular nutrition intervention strategy. Regardless, education plays an important role in generating social understanding and acceptance of broader interventions to improve nutrition.

  6. Nanoparticles and their tailoring with laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubenthal, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Monodisperse noble metal nanoparticles are of tremendous interest for numerous applications, such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, catalysis or biosensing. However, preparation of monodisperse metal nanoparticles is still a challenging task, because typical preparation methods yield nanoparticle ensembles with broad shape and/or size distributions. To overcome this drawback, tailoring of metal nanoparticles with laser light has been developed, which is based on the pronounced shape- and size-dependent optical properties of metal nanoparticles. I will demonstrate that nanoparticle tailoring with ns-pulsed laser light is a suitable method to prepare nanoparticle ensembles with a narrow shape and/or size distribution. While irradiation with ns-pulsed laser light during nanoparticle growth permits a precise shape tailoring, post-grown irradiation allows a size tailoring. For example, the initial broad Gaussian size distribution of silver nanoparticles on quartz substrates with a standard deviation of σ= 30% is significantly reduced to as little as σ= 10% after tailoring. This paper addresses teachers of undergraduate and advanced school level as well as students. It assumes some fundamental knowledge in solid-state physics, thermodynamics and resonance vibration.

  7. Full-Color LCD Microdisplay System Based on OLED Backlight Unit and Field-Sequential Color Driving Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Woo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a single-panel LCD microdisplay system using a field-sequential color (FSC driving method and an organic light-emitting diode (OLED as a backlight unit (BLU. The 0.76′′ OLED BLU with red, green, and blue (RGB colors was fabricated by a conventional UV photolithography patterning process and by vacuum deposition of small molecule organic layers. The field-sequential driving frequency was set to 255 Hz to allow each of the RGB colors to be generated without color mixing at the given display frame rate. A prototype FSC LCD microdisplay system consisting of a 0.7′′ LCD microdisplay panel and the 0.76′′ OLED BLU successfully exhibited color display and moving picture images using the FSC driving method.

  8. Challenges and strategies for quantitative and qualitative field research in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Tar-Ching; Zoubeidi, Taoufik; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Blair, Iain

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and public health research depends on factors including national systems, socio-cultural influences, and access to organisations and individuals. As a 'new' country, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has yet to develop strong support for population research. However, there is interest in research. The challenges for quantitative and qualitative research include the varied composition and mobility of the UAE population, with limited health records and disease registries. Long-term follow-up of patients, and tracing foreign workers who may only be in the UAE for a few years, are two major obstacles for longitudinal studies. There can also be a reluctance shown by parts of the population to participate in studies, especially those that require responding to what is perceived as sensitive questions. Successful execution of population research in the UAE requires an understanding of socio-cultural aspects of the study population, and good communication between researchers and participants.

  9. [Managing the basic health unit in tuberculosis control: a field of challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Simone Teresinha; da Silva, Laís Mara Caetano; Palha, Pedro Fredemir; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena; Ruffino-Neto, Antonio; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; de Sá, Lenilde Duarte

    2010-09-01

    In this study we analyzed the management of Basic Health Units in terms of Tuberculosis (TB) control in a city in the interior of São Paulo state. Fourteen managers participated in the study. A closed questionnaire was administered and an open question was also applied. The interview was carried out after obtaining free and informed consent. Data analysis was performed using the Statsoft software Statistica 8.0 and thematic content analysis was used for the qualitative data. It was found there is a clear technical-bureaucratic management, deficient in the activity planning and organization dimensions at the BHU. Hence, health care managers in this study should include management aspects of planning and organization as ways to make TB control feasible.

  10. Cyclone Boiler Field Testing of Advanced Layered NOx Control Technology in Sioux Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc A. Cremer; Bradley R. Adams

    2006-06-30

    A four week testing program was completed during this project to assess the ability of the combination of deep staging, Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MBtu in a cyclone fired boiler. The host site for the tests was AmerenUE's Sioux Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone fired boiler located near St. Louis, MO. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team including AmerenUE, FuelTech Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This layered approach to NOx reduction is termed the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA). Installed RRI and SNCR port locations were guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling conducted by REI. During the parametric testing, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were achieved consistently from overfire air (OFA)-only baseline NOx emissions of 0.25 lb/MBtu or less, when firing the typical 80/20 fuel blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and Illinois No.6 coals. From OFA-only baseline levels of 0.20 lb/MBtu, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were also achieved, but at significantly reduced urea flow rates. Under the deeply staged conditions that were tested, RRI performance was observed to degrade as higher blends of Illinois No.6 were used. NOx emissions achieved with ALTA while firing a 60/40 blend were approximately 0.15 lb/MBtu. NOx emissions while firing 100% Illinois No.6 were approximately 0.165 lb/MBtu. Based on the performance results of these tests, economics analyses of the application of ALTA to a nominal 500 MW cyclone unit show that the levelized cost to achieve 0.15 lb/MBtu is well below 75% of the cost of a state of the art SCR.

  11. Last three millennia Earth's Magnetic field strength in Mesoamerica and southern United States: Implications in geomagnetism and archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Ruiz, Rafael García; Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; Contreras, Juan Julio Morales; Arechalde, Ana María Soler; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2018-06-01

    Earth's Magnetic Field variation strength may provide crucial information to understand the geodynamo mechanism and elucidate the conditions on the physics of the Earth's deep interiors. Aimed to reveal the fine characteristics of the geomagnetic field during the last three millennia in Mesoamerica, we analyzed the available absolute geomagnetic intensities associated to absolute radiometric dating as well some ages provided by historical documents. This analysis is achieved using thermoremanent magnetization carried by volcanic lava flows and burned archaeological artefacts. A total of 106 selected intensities from Mesoamerica and other 100 from the southern part of the United States represent the main core of the dataset to construct the variation curve using both combined bootstrap method and temporal penalized B-spline methods. The obtained intensity paleosecular variation curve for Mesoamerica generally disagrees with the values predicted by the global geomagnetic field models. There is rather firm evidence of eastward drift when compared to similar reference curves in Western Europe, Asia and Pacific Ocean. The recent hypothesis about the relationship between the geomagnetic field strength and paleoclimate is also critically analyzed in the light of this new data compilation.

  12. Spatial distribution of dust in galaxies from the Integral field unit data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Tayyaba; Sophie Dubber, Andrew Hopkins

    2018-01-01

    An important characteristic of the dust is it can be used as a tracer of stars (and gas) and tell us about the composition of galaxies. Sub-mm and infrared studies can accurately determine the total dust mass and its spatial distribution in massive, bright galaxies. However, faint and distant galaxies are hampered by resolution to dust spatial dust distribution. In the era of integral-field spectrographs (IFS), Balmer decrement is a useful quantity to infer the spatial extent of the dust in distant and low-mass galaxies. We conducted a study to estimate the spatial distribution of dust using the Sydney-Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO) Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) galaxies. Our methodology is unique to exploit the potential of IFS and using the spatial and spectral information together to study dust in galaxies of various morphological types. The spatial extent and content of dust are compared with the star-formation rate, reddening, and inclination of galaxies. We find a right correlation of dust spatial extent with the star-formation rate. The results also indicate a decrease in dust extent radius from Late Spirals to Early Spirals.

  13. Survival of Escherichia coli on Lettuce under Field Conditions Encountered in the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel L; Kovac, Jasna; Roof, Sherry; Kent, David J; Tokman, Jeffrey I; Kowalcyk, Barbara; Oryang, David; Ivanek, Renata; Aceituno, Anna; Sroka, Christopher; Wiedmann, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Although wildlife intrusion and untreated manure have been associated with microbial contamination of produce, relatively few studies have examined the survival of Escherichia coli on produce under field conditions following contamination (e.g., via splash from wildlife feces). This experimental study was performed to estimate the die-off rate of E. coli on preharvest lettuce following contamination with a fecal slurry. During August 2015, field-grown lettuce was inoculated via pipette with a fecal slurry that was spiked with a three-strain cocktail of rifampin-resistant nonpathogenic E. coli. Ten lettuce heads were harvested at each of 13 time points following inoculation (0, 2.5, 5, and 24 h after inoculation and every 24 h thereafter until day 10). The most probable number (MPN) of E. coli on each lettuce head was determined, and die-off rates were estimated. The relationship between sample time and the log MPN of E. coli per head was modeled using a segmented linear model. This model had a breakpoint at 106 h (95% confidence interval = 69, 142 h) after inoculation, with a daily decrease of 0.70 and 0.19 log MPN for 0 to 106 h and 106 to 240 h following inoculation, respectively. These findings are consistent with die-off rates obtained in similar studies that assessed E. coli survival on produce following irrigation. Overall, these findings provide die-off rates for E. coli on lettuce that can be used in future quantitative risk assessments.

  14. Horizontal mergers in the United States health field: some practical realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, T P

    2000-08-01

    During the past decade, 'merger mania' has been a striking trend in the US health field as a strategy to improve the integration of services, to reduce expenses, and to increase the ability of providers to manage risk-based payment. However, during the past quarter of a century limited operational and fiscal evidence has been published in both the health and general management literature that strongly supports the efficacy of horizontal mergers. This article further argues that a likely scenario over the next decade, in spite of disappointments among these mergers in effecting significant cost reductions, is for the US health networks to continue acquiring additional providers and insurers. After these alliances gain significant market penetration, they are expected to behave as oligopolists. For these mergers to eventually achieve their earlier projected savings, the health field's leadership will be forced to implement cost-cutting measures such as: more vigorously coordinating the network's key clinical services to reduce competition for revenues among the partners within an alliance, closing superfluous hospitals and centralizing expensive tertiary services, encouraging surplus physicians to relocate to under-served areas, and providing direction to carefully integrate the best elements of what the competitive and regulatory strategies are able to offer to improve access, social equity, quality of care, and to reduce total health expenditures.

  15. The Economy of Persistence: Mario the Tailor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Black

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mario Conte has had a tailor shop in King Street, Newtown since the mid 1960s. Taking an interview with Mario as its point of departure, this article describes the persistence of a skilled worker whose practices and techniques remain the same in a world that has long changed. While inattentive to what rules might be used to decorate a shop window, Mario continues to make and sew in the way that he learnt in post-war Italy. Mario’s persistence could be described as all the skills and other elements that need to be in place to keep him working, in particular the tradition of tailoring techniques he has remained true to over the last fifty years. The hand stitching of his tailoring is like a metronome of that persistence.

  16. Tailoring group velocity by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stainko, Roman; Sigmund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes a systematic method for the tailoring of dispersion properties of slab-based photonic crystal waveguides. The method is based on the topology optimization method which consists in repeated finite element frequency domain analyses. The goal of the optimization process is to come...... up with slow light, zero group velocity dispersion photonic waveguides or photonic waveguides with tailored dispersion properties for dispersion compensation purposes. An example concerning the design of a wide bandwidth, constant low group velocity waveguide demonstrate the e±ciency of the method....

  17. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in United States alfalfa seed fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R R; Pitts-Singer, T L

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a broad geographic survey in the northwestern United States to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata (F.), Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Viable larvae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the end of the season. Most of the rest of the cells contained pollen balls (typified by a provision but no larva; 16.7%), unknown causes of mortality (15.5%), or larvae killed by chalkbrood (8.0%). Prevalence of pollen balls was correlated positively with bee release rates and negatively with alfalfa stand age. The unknown mortality was correlated with the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Plant Hardiness Zone, and thus, some of the mortality may be caused by high temperature extremes, although the nesting season degree-days were not correlated with this mortality. Chalkbrood prevalence was correlated with possible nesting-resource or crowding-related factors, such as the number of bees released per hectare and the number of shelters used, but not with nesting board disinfection practices. Vapona is used to control parasitoids when the parent bees are incubated before release, and use of this fumigant was associated with an increase in both chalkbrood and diapausing offspring, although any reason for these correlations are unknown. This survey quantifies the variation in the quality of alfalfa leafcutting bee cocoons produced across much of the U.S. alfalfa seed production area.

  18. Tailoring Superconductivity with Quantum Dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingda; Song, Qichen; Liu, Te-Huan; Meroueh, Laureen; Mahan, Gerald D; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Chen, Gang

    2017-08-09

    Despite the established knowledge that crystal dislocations can affect a material's superconducting properties, the exact mechanism of the electron-dislocation interaction in a dislocated superconductor has long been missing. Being a type of defect, dislocations are expected to decrease a material's superconducting transition temperature (T c ) by breaking the coherence. Yet experimentally, even in isotropic type I superconductors, dislocations can either decrease, increase, or have little influence on T c . These experimental findings have yet to be understood. Although the anisotropic pairing in dirty superconductors has explained impurity-induced T c reduction, no quantitative agreement has been reached in the case a dislocation given its complexity. In this study, by generalizing the one-dimensional quantized dislocation field to three dimensions, we reveal that there are indeed two distinct types of electron-dislocation interactions. Besides the usual electron-dislocation potential scattering, there is another interaction driving an effective attraction between electrons that is caused by dislons, which are quantized modes of a dislocation. The role of dislocations to superconductivity is thus clarified as the competition between the classical and quantum effects, showing excellent agreement with existing experimental data. In particular, the existence of both classical and quantum effects provides a plausible explanation for the illusive origin of dislocation-induced superconductivity in semiconducting PbS/PbTe superlattice nanostructures. A quantitative criterion has been derived, in which a dislocated superconductor with low elastic moduli and small electron effective mass and in a confined environment is inclined to enhance T c . This provides a new pathway for engineering a material's superconducting properties by using dislocations as an additional degree of freedom.

  19. Variability of pesticide residues in cauliflower units collected from a field trial and market places in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodhan, M D H; Papadakis, Emmanouil-N; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the variability of pesticide residue levels present in cauliflower units, a total of 142 samples were collected from a field trial of a cooperative farmer, and 120 samples were collected from different market places in Thessaloniki, Greece. The collected samples were extracted using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction technique, and the residues were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The developed method was validated by evaluating the accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ). The average recoveries for all the analytes, derived from the data of control samples fortified at 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg, ranged from 74 to 110% with a relative standard deviation of ≤8%. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) was ≥0.997 for all the analytes using matrix-matched calibration standards. The LOD values ranged from 0.001 to 0.003 mg/kg, and the LOQ was determined at 0.01 mg/kg for all the sought analytes. The matrix effect was found to be at a considerable level, especially for cypermethrin and deltamethrin, amounting to +90% and +145%, respectively. For the field samples, the unit-to-unit variability factors (VFs) calculated for cypermethrin and deltamethrin were 2.38 and 2.32, respectively, while the average VF for the market basket samples was 5.11. In the market basket samples, residues of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, and indoxacarb were found at levels ≥LOQ and their respective VFs were 7.12, 5.67, 5.28, and 2.40.

  20. Volcanism at 1.45 Ma within the Yellowstone Volcanic Field, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Tiffany A.; Furlong, Ryan; Vincent, Jaime; Gardiner, Stephanie; Jicha, Brian R.; Schmitz, Mark D.; Lippert, Peter C.

    2018-05-01

    Rhyolitic volcanism in the Yellowstone Volcanic Field has spanned over two million years and consisted of both explosive caldera-forming eruptions and smaller effusive flows and domes. Effusive eruptions have been documented preceding and following caldera-forming eruptions, however the temporal and petrogenetic relationships of these magmas to the caldera-forming eruptions are relatively unknown. Here we present new 40Ar/39Ar dates for four small-volume eruptions located on the western rim of the second-cycle caldera, the source of the 1.300 ± 0.001 Ma Mesa Falls Tuff. We supplement our new eruption ages with whole rock major and trace element chemistry, Pb isotopic ratios of feldspar, and paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analyses. Eruption ages for the effusive Green Canyon Flow (1.299 ± 0.002 Ma) and Moonshine Mountain Dome (1.302 ± 0.003 Ma) are in close temporal proximity to the eruption age of the Mesa Falls Tuff. In contrast, our results indicate a period of volcanism at ca 1.45 Ma within the Yellowstone Volcanic Field, including the eruption of the Bishop Mountain Flow (1.458 ± 0.002 Ma) and Tuff of Lyle Spring (1.450 ± 0.003 Ma). These high-silica rhyolites are chemically and isotopically distinct from the Mesa Falls Tuff and related 1.3 Ma effusive eruptions. The 40Ar/39Ar data from the Tuff of Lyle Spring demonstrate significant antecrystic inheritance, prevalent within the upper welded ash-flow tuff matrix, and minimal within individual pumice. Antecrysts are up to 20 kyr older than the eruption, with subpopulations of grains occurring every few thousand years. We interpret these results as an indicator for the timing of magmatic pulses into a growing magmatic system that would ultimately erupt the Tuff of Lyle Spring, and which we more broadly interpret as the tempo of crustal accumulation associated with bimodal magmatism. We propose a system whereby chemically, isotopically, and temporally distinct, isolated small-volume magma batches are

  1. Application of the graphics processor unit to simulate a near field diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchik, Alexander A.; Topalov, Oleg K.; Muzychenko, Yana B.

    2017-06-01

    For many years, computer modeling program used for lecture demonstrations. Most of the existing commercial software, such as Virtual Lab, LightTrans GmbH company are quite expensive and have a surplus capabilities for educational tasks. The complexity of the diffraction demonstrations in the near zone, due to the large amount of calculations required to obtain the two-dimensional distribution of the amplitude and phase. At this day, there are no demonstrations, allowing to show the resulting distribution of amplitude and phase without much time delay. Even when using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithms diffraction calculation speed in the near zone for the input complex amplitude distributions with size more than 2000 × 2000 pixels is tens of seconds. Our program selects the appropriate propagation operator from a prescribed set of operators including Spectrum of Plane Waves propagation and Rayleigh-Sommerfeld propagation (using convolution). After implementation, we make a comparison between the calculation time for the near field diffraction: calculations made on GPU and CPU, showing that using GPU for calculations diffraction pattern in near zone does increase the overall speed of algorithm for an image of size 2048×2048 sampling points and more. The modules are implemented as separate dynamic-link libraries and can be used for lecture demonstrations, workshops, selfstudy and students in solving various problems such as the phase retrieval task.

  2. Look at Me!! I'm a Tree!: A Literacy-Based Integrated Thematic Unit on Forestry and Conservation Designed for Field Experiences in Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Karen E.

    This paper describes a literacy-based thematic unit on forestry and conservation designed for field experiences in early childhood education. This unit responds to national and state initiatives and serves as a model for enacting reform of science instruction by equipping preservice teachers with the necessary strategies to foster science process…

  3. Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-10-01

    Sixteen previously occupied temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess emissions of volatile organic compounds. The whole trailer emission factors wereevaluated for 36 VOCs including formaldehyde. Indoor sampling was carried out in the THUs located in Purvis staging yard in Mississippi, USA. Indoor temperature andrelative humidity (RH) were also measured in all the trailers during sampling. Indoor temperatures were varied (increased or decreased) in a selection of THUs using theheating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Indoor temperatures during sampling ranged from 14o C to 33o C, and relative humidity (RH) varied between 35percentand 74percent. Ventilation rates were increased in some trailers using bathroom fans and vents during some of the sampling events. Ventilation rates measured during some aselection of sampling events varied from 0.14 to 4.3 h-1. Steady state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 10 mu g-m-3 to 1000 mu g-m-3. The formaldehyde concentrations in the trailers were of toxicological significance. The effects of temperature, humidity and ventilation rates were also studied. A linearregression model was built using log of percentage relative humidity, inverse of temperature (in K-1), and inverse log ACH as continuous independent variables, trailermanufacturer as a categorical independent variable, and log of the chemical emission factors as the dependent variable. The coefficients of inverse temperature, log relativehumidity, log inverse ACH with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. The regression model wasfound to explain about 84percent of the variation in the dependent variable. Most VOC concentrations measured indoors in the Purvis THUs were mostly found to be belowvalues reported in earlier studies by Maddalena et al.,1,2 Hodgson et al.,3 and Hippelein4. Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl products) were found

  4. Tailoring endocrine treatment for early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontein, Duveken Berthe Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes several important aspects of adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-sensitive, early-stage breast cancer. In our ongoing efforts to tailor treatment so as to provide the best possible care to each of our patients, we studied the influence of various

  5. Tinker Tailor Robot Pi -- The Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    Tinker Tailor Robot Pi (TTRP) is an innovative curriculum development project, which started in September 2014. It involves in-service primary and secondary teachers, university academic engineers, business partners and pupils at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3 (ages 5-14). The focus of the work has been to explore how a pedagogy for primary engineering…

  6. LIFE-STYLE SEGMENTATION WITH TAILORED INTERVIEWING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAMAKURA, WA; WEDEL, M

    The authors present a tailored interviewing procedure for life-style segmentation. The procedure assumes that a life-style measurement instrument has been designed. A classification of a sample of consumers into life-style segments is obtained using a latent-class model. With these segments, the

  7. RM12-2703 Advanced Rooftop Unit Control Retrofit Kit Field Demonstration: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebber, I. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dominick, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holland, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    As part of its overall strategy to meet its energy goals, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. This was one of several demonstrations of new and underutilized commercial energy efficiency technologies. The consistent year-round demand for air conditioning and dehumidification in Hawaii provides an advantageous demonstration location for advanced rooftop control (ARC) retrofit kits to packaged rooftop units (RTUs). This report summarizes the field demonstration of ARCs installed on nine RTUs serving a 70,000-ft2 exchange store (large retail) and two RTUs, each serving small office buildings located on Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH).

  8. Field Sampling Plan for the Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 Remedial Action, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wells

    2006-11-14

    This Field Sampling Plan outlines the collection and analysis of samples in support of Phase IV of the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 remedial action. Phase IV addresses the remedial actions to areas with the potential for unexploded ordnance at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. These areas include portions of the Naval Proving Ground, the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range, and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range. The remedial action consists of removal and disposal of ordnance by high-order detonation, followed by sampling to determine the extent, if any, of soil that might have been contaminated by the detonation activities associated with the disposal of ordnance during the Phase IV activities and explosives during the Phase II activities.

  9. A Brief Culturally Tailored Intervention for Puerto Ricans with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Amico, K. R.; Cruz, Noemi; O'Connell, Ann A.; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Kalichman, Seth C.; Wolf, Scott A.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    The information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model of health behavior change informed the design of a brief, culturally tailored diabetes self-care intervention for Puerto Ricans with type 2 diabetes. Participants (n = 118) were recruited from an outpatient, primary care clinic at an urban hospital in the northeast United States. ANCOVA…

  10. Oromucosal multilayer films for tailor-made, controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Sandra; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    The oral mucosa has recently become increasingly important as an alternative administration route for tailor-made, controlled drug delivery. Oromucosal multilayer films, assigned to the monograph oromucosal preparations in the Ph.Eur. may be a promising dosage form to overcome the requirements related to this drug delivery site. Areas covered: We provide an overview of multilayer films as drug delivery tools, and discuss manufacturing processes and characterization methods. We focus on the suitability of characterization methods for particular requirements of multilayer films. A classification was performed covering indication areas and APIs incorporated in multilayer film systems for oromucosal use in order to provide a summary of data published in this field. Expert opinion: The shift in drug development to high molecular weight drugs will influence the field of pharmaceutical development and delivery technologies. For a high number of indication areas, such as hormonal disorders, cardiovascular diseases or local treatment of infections, the flexible layer design of oromucosal multilayer films provides a promising option for tailor-made, controlled delivery of APIs to or through defined surfaces in the oral cavity. However, there is a lack of discriminating or standardized testing methods to assess the quality of multilayer films in a reliable way.

  11. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos, E-mail: triantafillos.koukoulas@npl.co.uk; Piper, Ben [Acoustics Group, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-20

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  12. Vibroacoustic Tailoring of a Rod-Stiffened Composite Fuselage Panel with Multidisciplinary Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Albert R.; Przekop, Adam

    2015-01-01

    An efficient multi-objective design tailoring procedure seeking to improve the vibroacoustic performance of a fuselage panel while maintaining or reducing weight is presented. The structure considered is the pultruded rod stitched efficient unitized structure, a highly integrated composite structure concept designed for a noncylindrical, next-generation flight vehicle fuselage. Modifications to a baseline design are evaluated within a six-parameter design space including spacing, flange width, and web height for both frame and stringer substructure components. The change in sound power radiation attributed to a design change is predicted using finite-element models sized and meshed for analyses in the 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz octave bands. Three design studies are carried out in parallel while considering a diffuse acoustic field excitation and two types of turbulent boundary-layer excitation. Kriging surrogate models are used to reduce the computational costs of resolving the vibroacoustic and weight objective Pareto fronts. The resulting Pareto optimal designs are then evaluated under a static pressurization ultimate load to assess structural strength and stability. Results suggest that choosing alternative configurations within the considered design space can reduce weight and improve vibroacoustic performance without compromising strength and stability of the structure under the static load condition considered, but the tradeoffs are significantly influenced by the spatial characteristics of the assumed excitation field.

  13. fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Arnold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface irrigation, such as flood or furrow, is the predominant form of irrigation in California for agronomic crops. Compared to other irrigation methods, however, it is inefficient in terms of water use; large quantities of water, instead of being used for crop production, are lost to excess deep percolation and tail runoff. In surface-irrigated fields, irrigators commonly cut off the inflow of water when the water advance reaches a familiar or convenient location downfield, but this experience-based strategy has not been very successful in reducing the tail runoff water. Our study compared conventional cutoff practices to a retroactively applied model-based cutoff method in four commercially producing alfalfa fields in Northern California, and evaluated the model using a simple sensor system for practical application in typical alfalfa fields. These field tests illustrated that the model can be used to reduce tail runoff in typical surface-irrigated fields, and using it with a wireless sensor system saves time and labor as well as water.

  14. Perspectives on animal welfare legislation and study considerations for field-oriented studies of raptors in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, C.W.; Wallace, M.C.; Strobel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Concern for the welfare of animals used in research and teaching has increased over the last 50 yr. Animal welfare legislation has resulted in guidelines for the use of animals in research, but the guidelines can be problematic because they focus on animals used in laboratory and agriculture research. Raptor biologists can be constrained by guidelines, restrictions, and oversight that were not intended for field research methods or wild animals in the wild or captivity. Field researchers can be further hampered by not understanding animal welfare legislation, who is subject to oversight, or that oversight is often provided by a committee consisting primarily of scientists who work with laboratory animals. Raptor researchers in particular may experience difficulty obtaining approval due to use of various species-specific trapping and handling methods. We provide a brief review of animal welfare legislation and describe the basic components and responsibilities of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) in the United States. We identify topics in raptor research that are especially problematic to obtaining IACUC approval, and we provide insight on how to address these issues. Finally, we suggest that all raptor researchers, regardless of legal requirements, abide by the spirit of the animal welfare principles. Failure to do so may bring about further regulatory and permitting restrictions. ?? 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  15. Laboratory and field studies of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong.) in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Rachel A.; Duckham, S. Craig; Hewitt, C. Nicholas

    1996-10-01

    Isoprene and monoterpene emission rates were measured from Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong.) with a dynamic flow-through branch enclosure, both in the laboratory and in the field in the United Kingdom. In the laboratory, emission rates of isoprene comprised over 94% of the identified VOC species, and were exponentially related to temperature over a period of 1 day. This exponential relationship broke down at ˜33°C. Field measurements were taken on five sampling days in 1992 and 1993, in Grizedale Forest, Cumbria. Total emission rates were in the range 36-3771 ng g-1 h-1. Relative emissions were more variable than suggested by laboratory measurements, with monoterpenes contributing at least 64% to the total emissions in most cases. There was a significant variation in the basal emission rate both across the growing season and between different ages of vegetation, the causes of which are as yet unknown. Total emission rates, in July 1993, were estimated to be between 0.01 and 0.27% of assimilated carbon.

  16. Tailoring Thermal Radiative Properties with Doped-Silicon Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuomin [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-08-28

    Aligned doped-silicon nanowire (D-SiNW) arrays form a hyperbolic metamaterial in the mid-infrared and have unique thermal radiative properties, such as broadband omnidirectional absorption, low-loss negative refraction, etc. A combined theoretical and experimental investigation will be performed to characterize D-SiNW arrays and other metamaterials for tailoring thermal radiative properties. Near-field thermal radiation between anisotropic materials with hyperbolic dispersions will also be predicted for potential application in energy harvesting. A new kind of anisotropic metamaterial with a hyperbolic dispersion in a broad infrared region has been proposed and demonstrated based on aligned doped-silicon nanowire (D-SiNW) arrays. D-SiNW-based metamaterials have unique thermal radiative properties, such as broadband omnidirectional absorption whose width and location can be tuned by varying the filling ratio and/or doping level. Furthermore, high figure of merit (FOM) can be achieved in a wide spectral region, suggesting that D-SiNW arrays may be used as a negative refraction material with much less loss than other structured materials, such as layered semiconductor materials. We have also shown that D-SiNWs and other nanostructures can significantly enhance near-field thermal radiation. The study of near-field radiative heat transfer between closely spaced objects and the electromagnetic wave interactions with micro/nanostructured materials has become an emerging multidisciplinary field due to its importance in advanced energy systems, manufacturing, local thermal management, and high spatial resolution thermal sensing and mapping. We have performed extensive study on the energy streamlines involving anisotropic metamaterials and the applicability of the effective medium theory for near-field thermal radiation. Graphene as a 2D material has attracted great attention in nanoelectronics, plasmonics, and energy harvesting. We have shown that graphene can be used to

  17. Tailoring the slow light behavior in terahertz metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjappa, Manukumara; Cong, Longqing; Singh, Ranjan, E-mail: ranjans@ntu.edu.sg [Center for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Chiam, Sher-Yi [NUS High School of Math and Science, 20 Clementi Avenue 1, Singapore, Singapore 129957 (Singapore); Bettiol, Andrew A. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Science Drive 3, Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Zhang, Weili [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma State University, 202 Engineering South, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

    2015-05-04

    We experimentally study the effect of near field coupling on the transmission of light in terahertz metasurfaces. Our results show that tailoring the coupling between the resonators modulates the amplitude of resulting electromagnetically induced transmission, probed under different types of asymmetries in the coupled system. Observed change in the transmission amplitude is attributed to the change in the amount of destructive interference between the resonators in the vicinity of strong near field coupling. We employ a two-particle model to theoretically study the influence of the coupling between bright and quasi-dark modes on the transmission properties of the system and we find an excellent agreement with our observed results. Adding to the enhanced transmission characteristics, our results provide a deeper insight into the metamaterial analogues of atomic electromagnetically induced transparency and offer an approach to engineer slow light devices, broadband filters, and attenuators at terahertz frequencies.

  18. Tailoring double Fano profiles with plasmon-assisted quantum interference in hybrid exciton-plasmon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dongxing; Wu, Jiarui; Gu, Ying; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-01-01

    We propose tailoring of the double Fano profiles via plasmon-assisted quantum interference in a hybrid exciton-plasmon system. Tailoring is performed by the interference between two exciton channels interacting with a common localized surface plasmon. Using an applied field of low intensity, the absorption spectrum of the hybrid system reveals a double Fano lineshape with four peaks. For relatively large field intensity, a broad flat window in the absorption spectrum appears which results from the destructive interference between excitons. Because of strong constructive interference, this window vanishes as intensity is further increased. We have designed a nanometer bandpass optical filter for visible light based on tailoring of the optical spectrum. This study provides a platform for quantum interference that may have potential applications in ultracompact tunable quantum devices.

  19. Aeroelastic tailoring of composite aircraft wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila-Andres, Mihai; Larco, Ciprian; Rosu, Paul-Virgil; Rotaru, Constantin

    2017-07-01

    The need of a continuously increasing size and performance of aerospace structures has settled the composite materials as the preferred materials in aircraft structures. Apart from the clear capacity to reduce the structural weight and with it the manufacture cost and the fuel consumption while preserving proper airworthiness, the prospect of tailoring a structure using the unique directional stiffness properties of composite materials allows an aerospace engineer to optimize aircraft structures to achieve particular design objectives. This paper presents a brief review of what is known as the aeroelastic tailoring of airframes with the intent of understanding the evolution of this research topic and at the same time providing useful references for further studies.

  20. Tailored information about cancer risk and screening: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, A.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Bensing, J.M.; Dulmen, S. van

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study interventions that provide people with information about cancer risk and about screening that is tailored to their personal characteristics. We assess the tailoring characteristics, theory base and effects on risk perception, knowledge and screening behavior of these

  1. Tailored Trustworthy Spaces: Solutions for the Smart Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The NITRD workshop on Tailored Trustworthy Spaces: Solutions for the Smart Grid was conceived by the Federal government to probe deeper into how Tailored Trustworthy...

  2. Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Castaneda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2012-01-01

    Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay…

  3. Process Design of Aluminum Tailor Heat Treated Blanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kahrimanidis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In many industrials field, especially in the automotive sector, there is a trend toward lightweight constructions in order to reduce the weight and thereby the CO2 and NOx emissions of the products. An auspicious approach within this context is the substitution of conventional deep drawing steel by precipitation hardenable aluminum alloys. However, based on the low formability, the application for complex stamping parts is challenging. Therefore, at the Institute of Manufacturing Technology, an innovative technology to enhance the forming limit of these lightweight materials was invented. The key idea of the so-called Tailor Heat Treated Blanks (THTB is optimization of the mechanical properties by local heat treatment before the forming operation. An accurate description of material properties is crucial to predict the forming behavior of tailor heat treated blanks by simulation. Therefore, within in this research project, a holistic approach for the design of the THTB process in dependency of the main influencing parameters is presented and discussed in detail. The capability of the approach for the process development of complex forming operations is demonstrated by a comparison of local blank thickness of a tailgate with the corresponding results from simulation.

  4. Integrated Reservoir Modeling of CO2-EOR Performance and Storage Potential in the Farnsworth Field Unit, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah, W.; Balch, R. S.; Cather, M.; Dai, Z.

    2017-12-01

    We present a performance assessment methodology and storage potential for CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in partially depleted reservoirs. A three dimensional heterogeneous reservoir model was developed based on geological, geophysics and engineering data from Farnsworth field Unit (FWU). The model aided in improved characterization of prominent rock properties within the Pennsylvanian aged Morrow sandstone reservoir. Seismic attributes illuminated previously unknown faults and structural elements within the field. A laboratory fluid analysis was tuned to an equation of state and subsequently used to predict the thermodynamic minimum miscible pressure (MMP). Datasets including net-to-gross ratio, volume of shale, permeability, and burial history were used to model initial fault transmissibility based on Sperivick model. An improved history match of primary and secondary recovery was performed to set the basis for a CO2 flood study. The performance of the current CO2 miscible flood patterns was subsequently calibrated to historical production and injection data. Several prediction models were constructed to study the effect of recycling, addition of wells and /or new patterns, water alternating gas (WAG) cycles and optimum amount of CO2 purchase on incremental oil production and CO2 storage in the FWU. The history matching study successfully validated the presence of the previously undetected faults within FWU that were seen in the seismic survey. The analysis of the various prediction scenarios showed that recycling a high percentage of produced gas, addition of new wells and a gradual reduction in CO2 purchase after several years of operation would be the best approach to ensure a high percentage of recoverable incremental oil and sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 within the Morrow reservoir. Larger percentage of stored CO2 were dissolved in residual oil and less amount existed as supercritical free CO2. The geomechanical analysis on the caprock proved to an

  5. Folding kinetics of WW domains with the united residue force field for bridging microscopic motions and experimental measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rui; Maisuradze, Gia G; Suñol, David; Todorovski, Toni; Macias, Maria J; Xiao, Yi; Scheraga, Harold A; Czaplewski, Cezary; Liwo, Adam

    2014-12-23

    To demonstrate the utility of the coarse-grained united-residue (UNRES) force field to compare experimental and computed kinetic data for folding proteins, we have performed long-time millisecond-timescale canonical Langevin molecular dynamics simulations of the triple β-strand from the Formin binding protein 28 WW domain and six nonnatural variants, using UNRES. The results have been compared with available experimental data in both a qualitative and a quantitative manner. Complexities of the folding pathways, which cannot be determined experimentally, were revealed. The folding mechanisms obtained from the simulated folding kinetics are in agreement with experimental results, with a few discrepancies for which we have accounted. The origins of single- and double-exponential kinetics and their correlations with two- and three-state folding scenarios are shown to be related to the relative barrier heights between the various states. The rate constants obtained from time profiles of the fractions of the native, intermediate, and unfolded structures, and the kinetic equations fitted to them, correlate with the experimental values; however, they are about three orders of magnitude larger than the experimental ones for most of the systems. These differences are in agreement with the timescale extension derived by scaling down the friction of water and averaging out the fast degrees of freedom when passing from all-atom to a coarse-grained representation. Our results indicate that the UNRES force field can provide accurate predictions of folding kinetics of these WW domains, often used as models for the study of the mechanisms of proein folding.

  6. Changes in water budgets and sediment yields from a hypothetical agricultural field as a function of landscape and management characteristics--A unit field modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jason L.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Crop agriculture occupies 13 percent of the conterminous United States. Agricultural management practices, such as crop and tillage types, affect the hydrologic flow paths through the landscape. Some agricultural practices, such as drainage and irrigation, create entirely new hydrologic flow paths upon the landscapes where they are implemented. These hydrologic changes can affect the magnitude and partitioning of water budgets and sediment erosion. Given the wide degree of variability amongst agricultural settings, changes in the magnitudes of hydrologic flow paths and sediment erosion induced by agricultural management practices commonly are difficult to characterize, quantify, and compare using only field observations. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model was used to simulate two landscape characteristics (slope and soil texture) and three agricultural management practices (land cover/crop type, tillage type, and selected agricultural land management practices) to evaluate their effects on the water budgets of and sediment yield from agricultural lands. An array of sixty-eight 60-year simulations were run, each representing a distinct natural or agricultural scenario with various slopes, soil textures, crop or land cover types, tillage types, and select agricultural management practices on an isolated 16.2-hectare field. Simulations were made to represent two common agricultural climate regimes: arid with sprinkler irrigation and humid. These climate regimes were constructed with actual climate and irrigation data. The results of these simulations demonstrate the magnitudes of potential changes in water budgets and sediment yields from lands as a result of landscape characteristics and agricultural practices adopted on them. These simulations showed that variations in landscape characteristics, such as slope and soil type, had appreciable effects on water budgets and sediment yields. As slopes increased, sediment yields increased in both the arid and

  7. Unit-cell design for two-dimensional phase-field simulation of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjia Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase-field simulation serves as an effective tool for quantitative characterization of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification nowadays. The classic unit cell is either limited to γ dendrites along crystal orientation or too ideal to cover complex morphologies for γ dendrites. An attempt to design the unit cell for two-dimensional (2-D phase-field simulations of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification was thus performed by using the MICRESS (MICRostructure Evolution Simulation Software in the framework of the multi-phase-field (MPF model, and demonstrated in a commercial TMS-113 superalloy. The coupling to CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram thermodynamic database was realized via the TQ interface and the experimental diffusion coefficients were utilized in the simulation. Firstly, the classic unit cell with a single γ dendrite along crystal orientation was employed for the phase-field simulation in order to reproduce the microstructure features. Then, such simple unit cell was extended into the cases with two other different crystal orientations, i.e., and . Thirdly, for crystal orientations, the effect of γ dendritic orientations and unit cell sizes on microstructure and microsegregation was comprehensively studied, from which a new unit cell with multiple γ dendrites was proposed. The phase-field simulation with the newly proposed unit cell was further performed in the TMS-113 superalloy, and the microstructure features including the competitive growth of γ dendrites, microsegregation of different solutes and distribution of γ′ grains, can be nicely reproduced.

  8. Field Campaign Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, J. W. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Chapman, L. A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  9. Field measurement and analysis of climatic factors affecting dune mobility near Grand Falls on the Navajo Nation, southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, Rian; Redsteer, Margaret Hiza; Vogel, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Aeolian sand covers extensive areas of the Navajo Nation in the southwestern United States. Much of this sand is currently stabilized by vegetation, although many drier parts of these Native lands also have active and partly active dunes. Current prolonged drought conditions that started in the mid-1990s are producing significant changes in dune mobility. Reactivation of regional aeolian deposits due to drought or increasing aridity from rising temperatures resulting from climate change could have serious consequences for human and animal populations, agriculture, grazing, and infrastructure. To understand and document the current and future potential for mobility, seasonally repeated surveys were used to track the location of multiple active barchan dunes. By utilizing Real-Time Kinematic GPS field surveys and simultaneously collecting in-situ meteorological data, it is possible to examine climatic parameters and seasonal variations that affect dune mobility and their relative influences. Through analysis of the recorded data, we examined the fit of various climate parameters, and demonstrate that under the current prolonged drought, wind power is the dominant factor controlling dune mobility.

  10. SDSS-IV MaNGA: identification of active galactic nuclei in optical integral field unit surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Drory, Niv; Andrews, Brett H.; Merloni, Andrea; Thomas, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate 2727 galaxies observed by MaNGA as of 2016 June to develop spatially resolved techniques for identifying signatures of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We identify 303 AGN candidates. The additional spatial dimension imposes challenges in identifying AGNs due to contamination from diffuse ionized gas, extraplanar gas and photoionization by hot stars. We show that the combination of spatially resolved line diagnostic diagrams and additional cuts on H α surface brightness and H α equivalent width can distinguish between AGN-like signatures and high-metallicity galaxies with low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions-like spectra. Low-mass galaxies with high specific star formation rates are particularly difficult to diagnose and routinely show diagnostic line ratios outside of the standard star formation locus. We develop a new diagnostic - the distance from the standard diagnostic line in the line-ratio space - to evaluate the significance of the deviation from the star formation locus. We find 173 galaxies that would not have been selected as AGN candidates based on single-fibre spectral measurements but exhibit photoionization signatures suggestive of AGN activity in the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO resolved observations, underscoring the power of large integral field unit surveys. A complete census of these new AGN candidates is necessary to understand their nature and probe the complex co-evolution of supermassive black holes and their hosts.

  11. Tailoring of magnetic anisotropy of Fe-rich microwires by stress induced anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, A.; Zhukova, V.; Larin, V.; Gonzalez, J.

    2006-01-01

    We report on tailoring of magnetic properties and GMI of Fe 69 B 12 Si 14 C 5 glass-coated microwires by stress annealing. The induced magnetic anisotropy field depend on temperature and time of annealing and applied stress. At certain conditions considerable GMI effect (up to 65%) has been achieved. Application of the tensile stress drastically affects the shape of the hysteresis loop of stress-annealed sample and its GMI effect. In this way the shape of the hysteresis loop and GMI effect can by tailored by controllable way

  12. Advances in Precision Medicine: Tailoring Individualized Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Kyle B; Lynam-Lennon, Niamh; Watson, R William; Brown, James A L

    2017-10-25

    The traditional bench-to-bedside pipeline involves using model systems and patient samples to provide insights into pathways deregulated in cancer. This discovery reveals new biomarkers and therapeutic targets, ultimately stratifying patients and informing cohort-based treatment options. Precision medicine (molecular profiling of individual tumors combined with established clinical-pathological parameters) reveals, in real-time, individual patient's diagnostic and prognostic risk profile, informing tailored and tumor-specific treatment plans. Here we discuss advances in precision medicine presented at the Irish Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, highlighting examples where personalized medicine approaches have led to precision discovery in individual tumors, informing customized treatment programs.

  13. Functions of myosin motors tailored for parasitism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Christina; Graindorge, Arnault; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Myosin motors are one of the largest protein families in eukaryotes that exhibit divergent cellular functions. Their roles in protozoans, a diverse group of anciently diverged, single celled organisms with many prominent members known to be parasitic and to cause diseases in human and livestock......, are largely unknown. In the recent years many different approaches, among them whole genome sequencing, phylogenetic analyses and functional studies have increased our understanding on the distribution, protein architecture and function of unconventional myosin motors in protozoan parasites. In Apicomplexa......, myosins turn out to be highly specialized and to exhibit unique functions tailored to accommodate the lifestyle of these parasites....

  14. Expanding the TRI Network for Doctoral Researchers in the Fields of Terrorism, Political Violence and Armed Conflict to the United States of America and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Alex P. Schmid; Gordon Clubb; Jason Rineheart; Yulia  Netesova

    2011-01-01

    In September 2011, the Terrorism Research Initiative (TRI) announced the creation of a post-graduate terrorism research network in the United Kingdom. The idea was to compile a list of post-graduates conducting research in the UK in the overlapping fields of terrorism, political violence, and armed conflict. While much research is conducted in these three overlapping fields, those involved in research are often unsure what is going on outside their own university department. They also wonder ...

  15. How to conduct a qualitative meta-analysis: Tailoring methods to enhance methodological integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M

    2018-05-01

    Although qualitative research has long been of interest in the field of psychology, meta-analyses of qualitative literatures (sometimes called meta-syntheses) are still quite rare. Like quantitative meta-analyses, these methods function to aggregate findings and identify patterns across primary studies, but their aims, procedures, and methodological considerations may vary. This paper explains the function of qualitative meta-analyses and their methodological development. Recommendations have broad relevance but are framed with an eye toward their use in psychotherapy research. Rather than arguing for the adoption of any single meta-method, this paper advocates for considering how procedures can best be selected and adapted to enhance a meta-study's methodological integrity. Through the paper, recommendations are provided to help researchers identify procedures that can best serve their studies' specific goals. Meta-analysts are encouraged to consider the methodological integrity of their studies in relation to central research processes, including identifying a set of primary research studies, transforming primary findings into initial units of data for a meta-analysis, developing categories or themes, and communicating findings. The paper provides guidance for researchers who desire to tailor meta-analytic methods to meet their particular goals while enhancing the rigor of their research.

  16. Fast optoelectric printing of plasmonic nanoparticles into tailored circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, José A.

    2017-04-01

    Plasmonic nanoparticles are able to control light at nanometre-scale by coupling electromagnetic fields to the oscillations of free electrons in metals. Deposition of such nanoparticles onto substrates with tailored patterns is essential, for example, in fabricating plasmonic structures for enhanced sensing. This work presents an innovative micro-patterning technique, based on optoelectic printing, for fast and straightforward fabrication of curve-shaped circuits of plasmonic nanoparticles deposited onto a transparent electrode often used in optoelectronics, liquid crystal displays, touch screens, etc. We experimentally demonstrate that this kind of plasmonic structure, printed by using silver nanoparticles of 40 nm, works as a plasmonic enhanced optical device allowing for polarized-color-tunable light scattering in the visible. These findings have potential applications in biosensing and fabrication of future optoelectronic devices combining the benefits of plasmonic sensing and the functionality of transparent electrodes.

  17. Tunable Laser Plasma Accelerator based on Longitudinal Density Tailoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shiraishi, Satomi; Sokollik, Thomas; Benedetti, Carlo; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-15

    Laser plasma accelerators have produced high-quality electron beams with GeV energies from cm-scale devices and are being investigated as hyperspectral fs light sources producing THz to {gamma}-ray radiation and as drivers for future high-energy colliders. These applications require a high degree of stability, beam quality and tunability. Here we report on a technique to inject electrons into the accelerating field of a laser-driven plasma wave and coupling of this injector to a lower-density, separately tunable plasma for further acceleration. The technique relies on a single laser pulse powering a plasma structure with a tailored longitudinal density profile, to produce beams that can be tuned in the range of 100-400 MeV with percent-level stability, using laser pulses of less than 40 TW. The resulting device is a simple stand-alone accelerator or the front end for a multistage higher-energy accelerator.

  18. Tailor-Made Additives for Morphology Control in Molecular Bulk-Heterojunction Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Graham, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-09

    Tailor-made additives, which are molecules that share the same molecular structure as a parent molecule with only slight structural variations, have previously been demonstrated as a useful means to control crystallization dynamics in solution. For example, tailor-made additives can be added to solutions of a crystallizing parent molecule to alter the crystal growth rate, size, and shape. We apply this strategy as a means to predictably control morphology in molecular bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic cells. Through the use of an asymmetric oligomer substituted with a bulky triisobutylsilyl end group, the morphology of BHJ blends can be controlled resulting in a near doubling (from 1.3 to 2.2%) in power conversion efficiency. The use of tailor-made additives provides promising opportunities for controlling crystallization dynamics, and thereby film morphologies, for many organic electronic devices such as photovoltaics and field-effect transistors. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. Tailor-Made Additives for Morphology Control in Molecular Bulk-Heterojunction Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Graham, Kenneth R.; Stalder, Romain; Wieruszewski, Patrick M.; Patel, Dinesh G.; Salazar, Danielle H.; Reynolds, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Tailor-made additives, which are molecules that share the same molecular structure as a parent molecule with only slight structural variations, have previously been demonstrated as a useful means to control crystallization dynamics in solution. For example, tailor-made additives can be added to solutions of a crystallizing parent molecule to alter the crystal growth rate, size, and shape. We apply this strategy as a means to predictably control morphology in molecular bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic cells. Through the use of an asymmetric oligomer substituted with a bulky triisobutylsilyl end group, the morphology of BHJ blends can be controlled resulting in a near doubling (from 1.3 to 2.2%) in power conversion efficiency. The use of tailor-made additives provides promising opportunities for controlling crystallization dynamics, and thereby film morphologies, for many organic electronic devices such as photovoltaics and field-effect transistors. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Shape-Tailorable Graphene-Based Ultra-High-Rate Supercapacitor for Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Binghe; Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Zhexu; Zou, Peichao; Lin, Ziyin; Shi, Gaoquan; Yang, Quanhong; Kang, Feiyu; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-06-23

    With the bloom of wearable electronics, it is becoming necessary to develop energy storage units, e.g., supercapacitors that can be arbitrarily tailored at the device level. Although gel electrolytes have been applied in supercapacitors for decades, no report has studied the shape-tailorable capability of a supercapacitor, for instance, where the device still works after being cut. Here we report a tailorable gel-based supercapacitor with symmetric electrodes prepared by combining electrochemically reduced graphene oxide deposited on a nickel nanocone array current collector with a unique packaging method. This supercapacitor with good flexibility and consistency showed excellent rate performance, cycling stability, and mechanical properties. As a demonstration, these tailorable supercapacitors connected in series can be used to drive small gadgets, e.g., a light-emitting diode (LED) and a minimotor propeller. As simple as it is (electrochemical deposition, stencil printing, etc.), this technique can be used in wearable electronics and miniaturized device applications that require arbitrarily shaped energy storage units.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of hindfoot involvement in patients with spondyloarthritides: Comparison of low-field and high-field strength units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshed, Iris; Althoff, Christian E. [Department of Radiology, Charite Medical School, Berlin (Germany); Feist, Eugen [Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Charite Medical School, Berlin (Germany); Minden, Kirsten [Helios Clinics, 2nd Children' s Hospital Berlin-Buch, Rheumatology Unit, Berlin (Germany); German Rheumatology Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Schink, Tania [Department of Medical Biometry, Charite Medical School, Berlin (Germany); Hamm, Bernd [Department of Radiology, Charite Medical School, Berlin (Germany); Hermann, Kay-Geert A. [Department of Radiology, Charite Medical School, Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: kgh@charite.de

    2008-01-15

    Objective: To compare MRI evaluation of a painful hindfoot of patients with spondyloarthritides (SpA) on low-field (0.2 T) versus high-field (1.5 T) MRI. Materials and methods: Patients with SpA and hindfoot pain were randomly referred to either high-field or low-field MRI. Twenty-seven patients were evaluated (male/female: 17:10; mean age: 39 {+-} 1.4 years). Fifteen patients were examined by low-field and 12 by high-field MRI. Two patients (evaluated by high-field MRI) were excluded. Images were separately read by two radiologists who later reached a consensus. In each patient the prevalence of erosions, fluid, synovitis or bone marrow edema of the hindfoot joints, tendinosis or tenosynovitis of tendons, enthesitis of the plantar fascia and Achilles tendon and retrocalcaneal bursitis were recorded. Clinical and demographic parameters were comparable between both groups. Results: MRI evaluation of joints and tendons of the hindfoot revealed no significant differences in patients with SpA groups for all parameters. Analyzing all joints or tendons together, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: Low-field and high-field MRI provide comparable information for evaluation of inflammatory hindfoot involvement. Thus, low-field MRI can be considered as a reliable diagnostic tool for the detection of hindfoot abnormalities in SpA patients.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of hindfoot involvement in patients with spondyloarthritides: Comparison of low-field and high-field strength units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshed, Iris; Althoff, Christian E.; Feist, Eugen; Minden, Kirsten; Schink, Tania; Hamm, Bernd; Hermann, Kay-Geert A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare MRI evaluation of a painful hindfoot of patients with spondyloarthritides (SpA) on low-field (0.2 T) versus high-field (1.5 T) MRI. Materials and methods: Patients with SpA and hindfoot pain were randomly referred to either high-field or low-field MRI. Twenty-seven patients were evaluated (male/female: 17:10; mean age: 39 ± 1.4 years). Fifteen patients were examined by low-field and 12 by high-field MRI. Two patients (evaluated by high-field MRI) were excluded. Images were separately read by two radiologists who later reached a consensus. In each patient the prevalence of erosions, fluid, synovitis or bone marrow edema of the hindfoot joints, tendinosis or tenosynovitis of tendons, enthesitis of the plantar fascia and Achilles tendon and retrocalcaneal bursitis were recorded. Clinical and demographic parameters were comparable between both groups. Results: MRI evaluation of joints and tendons of the hindfoot revealed no significant differences in patients with SpA groups for all parameters. Analyzing all joints or tendons together, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: Low-field and high-field MRI provide comparable information for evaluation of inflammatory hindfoot involvement. Thus, low-field MRI can be considered as a reliable diagnostic tool for the detection of hindfoot abnormalities in SpA patients

  3. The Influence of User Characteristics and a Periodic Email Prompt on Exposure to an Internet-Delivered Computer-Tailored Lifestyle Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, F.; van Osch, L.; Schulz, D.N.; Kremers, S.P.J.; de Vries, H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Internet is a promising medium in the field of health promotion for offering tailored and targeted lifestyle interventions applying computer-tailored (CT) techniques to the general public. Actual exposure to CT interventions is not living up to its high expectations, as only a

  4. The MaNGA integral field unit fiber feed system for the Sloan 2.5 m telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drory, N. [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); MacDonald, N.; Byler, N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580 Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bershady, M. A.; Smith, M.; Tremonti, C. A.; Wake, D. A.; Eigenbrot, A.; Jaehnig, K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bundy, K. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of The Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Japan 277-8583 (Japan); Gunn, J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Law, D. R.; Cherinka, B. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Stoll, R. [C Technologies, Inc., 757 Route 202/206, Bridgewater, NJ 08807 (United States); Yan, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, 40506-0055 (United States); Weijmans, A. M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Cope, F.; Holder, D.; Huehnerhoff, J. [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Harding, P., E-mail: drory@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We describe the design, manufacture, and performance of bare-fiber integral field units (IFUs) for the SDSS-IV survey Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) on the the Sloan 2.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory. MaNGA is a luminosity-selected integral-field spectroscopic survey of 10{sup 4} local galaxies covering 360–1030 nm at R∼2200. The IFUs have hexagonal dense packing of fibers with packing regularity of 3 μm (rms), and throughput of 96 ± 0.5% from 350 nm to 1 μm in the lab. Their sizes range from 19 to 127 fibers (3–7 hexagonal layers) using Polymicro FBP 120:132:150 μm core:clad:buffer fibers to reach a fill fraction of 56%. High throughput (and low focal-ratio degradation (FRD)) is achieved by maintaining the fiber cladding and buffer intact, ensuring excellent surface polish, and applying a multi-layer anti-reflection (AR) coating of the input and output surfaces. In operations on-sky, the IFUs show only an additional 2.3% FRD-related variability in throughput despite repeated mechanical stressing during plate plugging (however other losses are present). The IFUs achieve on-sky throughput 5% above the single-fiber feeds used in SDSS-III/BOSS, attributable to equivalent performance compared to single fibers and additional gains from the AR coating. The manufacturing process is geared toward mass-production of high-multiplex systems. The low-stress process involves a precision ferrule with a hexagonal inner shape designed to lead inserted fibers to settle in a dense hexagonal pattern. The ferrule ID is tapered at progressively shallower angles toward its tip and the final 2 mm are straight and only a few microns larger than necessary to hold the desired number of fibers. Our IFU manufacturing process scales easily to accommodate other fiber sizes and can produce IFUs with substantially larger fiber counts. To assure quality, automated testing in a simple and inexpensive system enables complete characterization of

  5. The MaNGA integral field unit fiber feed system for the Sloan 2.5 m telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drory, N.; MacDonald, N.; Byler, N.; Bershady, M. A.; Smith, M.; Tremonti, C. A.; Wake, D. A.; Eigenbrot, A.; Jaehnig, K.; Bundy, K.; Gunn, J.; Law, D. R.; Cherinka, B.; Stoll, R.; Yan, R.; Weijmans, A. M.; Cope, F.; Holder, D.; Huehnerhoff, J.; Harding, P.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the design, manufacture, and performance of bare-fiber integral field units (IFUs) for the SDSS-IV survey Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) on the the Sloan 2.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory. MaNGA is a luminosity-selected integral-field spectroscopic survey of 10 4 local galaxies covering 360–1030 nm at R∼2200. The IFUs have hexagonal dense packing of fibers with packing regularity of 3 μm (rms), and throughput of 96 ± 0.5% from 350 nm to 1 μm in the lab. Their sizes range from 19 to 127 fibers (3–7 hexagonal layers) using Polymicro FBP 120:132:150 μm core:clad:buffer fibers to reach a fill fraction of 56%. High throughput (and low focal-ratio degradation (FRD)) is achieved by maintaining the fiber cladding and buffer intact, ensuring excellent surface polish, and applying a multi-layer anti-reflection (AR) coating of the input and output surfaces. In operations on-sky, the IFUs show only an additional 2.3% FRD-related variability in throughput despite repeated mechanical stressing during plate plugging (however other losses are present). The IFUs achieve on-sky throughput 5% above the single-fiber feeds used in SDSS-III/BOSS, attributable to equivalent performance compared to single fibers and additional gains from the AR coating. The manufacturing process is geared toward mass-production of high-multiplex systems. The low-stress process involves a precision ferrule with a hexagonal inner shape designed to lead inserted fibers to settle in a dense hexagonal pattern. The ferrule ID is tapered at progressively shallower angles toward its tip and the final 2 mm are straight and only a few microns larger than necessary to hold the desired number of fibers. Our IFU manufacturing process scales easily to accommodate other fiber sizes and can produce IFUs with substantially larger fiber counts. To assure quality, automated testing in a simple and inexpensive system enables complete characterization of throughput

  6. Biomedical imaging and therapy with physically and physiologically tailored magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandhar, Amit Praful

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) are emerging imaging and therapy approaches that have the potential to improve diagnostic safety and disease management of heart disease and cancer - the number 1 and 2 leading causes of deaths in the United States. MPI promises real-time, tomographic and quantitative imaging of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) tracers distributed in vivo, and is targeted to offer a safer angiography alternative for its first clinical application. MFH uses ac-fields to dissipate heat from SPIONs that can be delivered locally to promote hyperthermia therapy (~42°C) in cancer cells. Both technologies use safe radiofrequency magnetic fields to exploit the fundamental magnetic relaxation properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), which must be tailored for optimal imaging in the case of MPI, and maximum hyperthermia potency in the case of MFH. Furthermore, the magnetic core and shell of SPIONs are both central to the optimization process; the shell, in particular, bridges the translational gap between the optimized core and its safe and effective use in the physiological environment. Unfortunately, existing SPIONs that were originally designed as MRI contrast agents lack the basic physical properties that enable the clinical translation of MPI and MFH. In this work, the core and shell of monodisperse SPIONs were optimized in concert to accomplish two equally important objectives: (1) biocompatibility, and (2) MPI and MFH efficacy of SPIONs in physiological environments. Critically, it was found that the physical and physiological responses of SPIONs are coupled, and impacting one can have consequences on the other. It was shown that the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based shell when properly optimized reduced protein adsorption to SPION surface and phagocytic uptake in macrophages - both prerequisites for designing long-circulating SPIONs. In MPI, tailoring the surface coating

  7. Deep Drawing of High-Strength Tailored Blanks by Using Tailored Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mennecart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In most forming processes based on tailored blanks, the tool material remains the same as that of sheet metal blanks without tailored properties. A novel concept of lightweight construction for deep drawing tools is presented in this work to improve the forming behavior of tailored blanks. The investigations presented here deal with the forming of tailored blanks of dissimilar strengths using tailored dies made of two different materials. In the area of the steel blank with higher strength, typical tool steel is used. In the area of the low-strength steel, a hybrid tool made out of a polymer and a fiber-reinforced surface replaces the steel half. Cylindrical cups of DP600/HX300LAD are formed and analyzed regarding their formability. The use of two different halves of tool materials shows improved blank thickness distribution, weld-line movement and pressure distribution compared to the use of two steel halves. An improvement in strain distribution is also observed by the inclusion of springs in the polymer side of tools, which is implemented to control the material flow in the die. Furthermore, a reduction in tool weight of approximately 75% can be achieved by using this technique. An accurate finite element modeling strategy is developed to analyze the problem numerically and is verified experimentally for the cylindrical cup. This strategy is then applied to investigate the thickness distribution and weld-line movement for a complex geometry, and its transferability is validated. The inclusion of springs in the hybrid tool leads to better material flow, which results in reduction of weld-line movement by around 60%, leading to more uniform thickness distribution.

  8. Configuration of the mudstones, gray- and coffee-colored shale lithologic units, zones of silica and epidote, and their relation to the tectonics of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobo R, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Based on well cuttings, five lithological units have been recognized within the area of what is now the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. These five units are described. Differences in origin, mineralogy, grading, color, compaction, etc., are shown.

  9. The Gothic shale of the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation Greater Aneth Field (Aneth Unit) Southeastern Utah U.S.A.: Seal for Hydrocarbons and Carbon Dioxide Storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chidsey, Thomas C. [Utah Geoglogical Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Carney, Stephanie M. [Utah Geoglogical Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bereskin, S. R. [Bereskin and Associates, Salt Lake City (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Greater Aneth oil field, Utah’s largest oil producer, was discovered in 1956 and has produced over 483 million barrels of oil. Located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, Greater Aneth is a stratigraphic trap producing from the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. Because Greater Aneth is a mature, major oil field in the western U.S., and has a large carbonate reservoir, it was selected to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery and carbon dioxide storage. The Aneth Unit in the northwestern part of the field has produced over 160 million barrels of the estimated 386 million barrels of original oil in place—a 42% recovery rate. The large amount of remaining oil made the Aneth Unit ideal to enhance oil recovery by carbon dioxide flooding and demonstrate carbon dioxide storage capacity.

  10. Engineering tailored nanoparticles with microbes: quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ram; Pandey, Rishikesh; Barman, Ishan

    2016-01-01

    In the quest for less toxic and cleaner methods of nanomaterials production, recent developments in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles have underscored the important role of microorganisms. Their intrinsic ability to withstand variable extremes of temperature, pressure, and pH coupled with the minimal downstream processing requirements provide an attractive route for diverse applications. Yet, controlling the dispersity and facile tuning of the morphology of the nanoparticles of desired chemical compositions remains an ongoing challenge. In this Focus Review, we critically review the advances in nanoparticle synthesis using microbes, ranging from bacteria and fungi to viruses, and discuss new insights into the cellular mechanisms of such formation that may, in the near future, allow complete control over particle morphology and functionalization. In addition to serving as paradigms for cost-effective, biocompatible, and eco-friendly synthesis, microbes hold the promise for a unique template for synthesis of tailored nanoparticles targeted at therapeutic and diagnostic platform technologies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Computer-Tailored Intervention for Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVESQUE, DEBORAH A.; JOHNSON, JANET L.; WELCH, CAROL A.; PROCHASKA, JANICE M.; FERNANDEZ, ANNE C.

    2012-01-01

    Studies assessing the efficacy of juvenile justice interventions show small effects on recidivism and other outcomes. This paper describes the development of a prototype of a multimedia computer-tailored intervention (“Rise Above Your Situation”or RAYS) that relies on an evidence-based model of behavior change, the Transtheoretical Model, and expert system technology to deliver assessments, feedback, printed reports, and counselor reports with intervention ideas. In a feasibility test involving 60 system-involved youths and their counselors, evaluations of the program were favorable: 91.7% of youths agreed that the program could help them make positive changes, and 86.7% agreed that the program could give their counselor helpful information about them. PMID:23264754

  12. Optimizing Tailored Health Promotion for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus-Varwijk, Anne Esther; Koopmans, Marg; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Seidell, Jacob C.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Smits, Carolien H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study explores older adults’ perspectives on healthy living, and their interactions with professionals regarding healthy living. This perspective is necessary for health professionals when they engage in tailored health promotion in their daily work routines. Method: In a qualitative study, 18 semi-structured interviews were carried out with older adults (aged 55-98) living in the Netherlands. The framework analysis method was used to analyze the transcripts. Results: Three themes emerged from the data—(a) healthy living: daily routines and staying active, (b) enacting healthy living: accepting and adapting, (c) interaction with health professionals with regard to healthy living: autonomy and reciprocity. Discussion: Older adults experience healthy living in a holistic way in which they prefer to live active and independent lives. Health professionals should focus on building an equal relationship of trust and focus on positive health outcomes, such as autonomy and self-sufficiency when communicating about healthy living. PMID:28138485

  13. Tailoring CSR Strategy to Company Size?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra ZBUCHEA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR is one of the most debated topics in the academic and professional business literature, being analyzed in a myriad of perspectives, from philosophy, to marketing, management practice, managerial strategies or financial impact. The very term of CSR implies that involving with society in a structural way that is part of a business DNA is or should be understood as a characteristic of big size companies (e.g. ‘corporations’. Academic literature and financial reports show a direct relationship between a company size and its CSR budget, therefore some conclusions have been taken that CSR is effective mostly in cases of big budgets and, consequently, of big companies. Academic research also tends to favor large corporations. Most of the literature on CSR is dedicated to large companies. Nevertheless, in the past decade, increasingly more studies have investigated the social responsibility assumed by other types of companies (such as SMEs, by public institutions or by nonprofit organizations. Our present empirical analysis based on structured academic literature review (comprehensive selection of relevant international papers and content analysis demonstrates that CSR should go beyond the classical understanding of the ‘corporation’ concept and that it should be tailored to SMEs as well. Innovation and top management support are the drivers of effective CSR adoption by SMEs, for positive results meeting specific business model requirements, as well as for society. Going beyond social responsibility as a philosophical duty, correctly tailored CSR strategies can be efficient for small and medium enterprises in meeting strategic business objectives.

  14. Synroc tailored waste forms for actinide immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, Daniel J.; Vance, Eric R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee (Australia). ANSTOsynroc, Inst. of Materials Engineering

    2017-07-01

    Since the end of the 1970s, Synroc at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has evolved from a focus on titanate ceramics directed at PUREX waste to a platform waste treatment technology to fabricate tailored glass-ceramic and ceramic waste forms for different types of actinide, high- and intermediate level wastes. The particular emphasis for Synroc is on wastes which are problematic for glass matrices or existing vitrification process technologies. In particular, nuclear wastes containing actinides, notably plutonium, pose a unique set of requirements for a waste form, which Synroc ceramic and glass-ceramic waste forms can be tailored to meet. Key aspects to waste form design include maximising the waste loading, producing a chemically durable product, maintaining flexibility to accommodate waste variations, a proliferation resistance to prevent theft and diversion, and appropriate process technology to produce waste forms that meet requirements for actinide waste streams. Synroc waste forms incorporate the actinides within mineral phases, producing products which are much more durable in water than baseline borosilicate glasses. Further, Synroc waste forms can incorporate neutron absorbers and {sup 238}U which provide criticality control both during processing and whilst within the repository. Synroc waste forms offer proliferation resistance advantages over baseline borosilicate glasses as it is much more difficult to retrieve the actinide and they can reduce the radiation dose to workers compared to borosilicate glasses. Major research and development into Synroc at ANSTO over the past 40 years has included the development of waste forms for excess weapons plutonium immobilization in collaboration with the US and for impure plutonium residues in collaboration with the UK, as examples. With a waste loading of 40-50 wt.%, Synroc would also be considered a strong candidate as an engineered waste form for used nuclear fuel and highly

  15. Molecular tailoring approach for exploring structures, energetics and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Keywords. Molecular clusters; linear scaling methods; molecular tailoring approach (MTA); Hartree– ..... energy decomposition analysis also performed and which clearly ... through molecular dynamics simulation furnished by. Takeguchi,. 46.

  16. Promoting a Culture of Tailoring for Systems Engineering Policy Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Van A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed an integrated systems engineering approach to promote a culture of tailoring for program and project policy requirements. MSFC's culture encourages and supports tailoring, with an emphasis on risk-based decision making, for enhanced affordability and efficiency. MSFC's policy structure integrates the various Agency requirements into a single, streamlined implementation approach which serves as a "one-stop-shop" for our programs and projects to follow. The engineers gain an enhanced understanding of policy and technical expectations, as well as lesson's learned from MSFC's history of spaceflight and science missions, to enable them to make appropriate, risk-based tailoring recommendations. The tailoring approach utilizes a standard methodology to classify projects into predefined levels using selected mission and programmatic scaling factors related to risk tolerance. Policy requirements are then selectively applied and tailored, with appropriate rationale, and approved by the governing authorities, to support risk-informed decisions to achieve the desired cost and schedule efficiencies. The policy is further augmented by implementation tools and lifecycle planning aids which help promote and support the cultural shift toward more tailoring. The MSFC Customization Tool is an integrated spreadsheet that ties together everything that projects need to understand, navigate, and tailor the policy. It helps them classify their project, understand the intent of the requirements, determine their tailoring approach, and document the necessary governance approvals. It also helps them plan for and conduct technical reviews throughout the lifecycle. Policy tailoring is thus established as a normal part of project execution, with the tools provided to facilitate and enable the tailoring process. MSFC's approach to changing the culture emphasizes risk-based tailoring of policy to achieve increased flexibility, efficiency

  17. Expanding the TRI Network for Doctoral Researchers in the Fields of Terrorism, Political Violence and Armed Conflict to the United States of America and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In September 2011, the Terrorism Research Initiative (TRI announced the creation of a post-graduate terrorism research network in the United Kingdom. The idea was to compile a list of post-graduates conducting research in the UK in the overlapping fields of terrorism, political violence, and armed conflict. While much research is conducted in these three overlapping fields, those involved in research are often unsure what is going on outside their own university department. They also wonder how their own work relates to current research developments elsewhere. To address these concerns, TRI has been inviting UK researchers to complete a profile form

  18. Human Motion Capture Data Tailored Transform Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junhui Hou; Lap-Pui Chau; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia; Ying He

    2015-07-01

    Human motion capture (mocap) is a widely used technique for digitalizing human movements. With growing usage, compressing mocap data has received increasing attention, since compact data size enables efficient storage and transmission. Our analysis shows that mocap data have some unique characteristics that distinguish themselves from images and videos. Therefore, directly borrowing image or video compression techniques, such as discrete cosine transform, does not work well. In this paper, we propose a novel mocap-tailored transform coding algorithm that takes advantage of these features. Our algorithm segments the input mocap sequences into clips, which are represented in 2D matrices. Then it computes a set of data-dependent orthogonal bases to transform the matrices to frequency domain, in which the transform coefficients have significantly less dependency. Finally, the compression is obtained by entropy coding of the quantized coefficients and the bases. Our method has low computational cost and can be easily extended to compress mocap databases. It also requires neither training nor complicated parameter setting. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of compression performance and speed.

  19. Tailorable software architectures in the accelerator control system environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejuev, Igor; Kumagai, Akira; Kadokura, Eiichi

    2001-01-01

    Tailoring is further evolution of an application after deployment in order to adapt it to requirements that were not accounted for in the original design. End-user tailorability has been extensively researched in applied computer science from HCl and software engineering perspectives. Tailorability allows coping with flexibility requirements, decreasing maintenance and development costs of software products. In general, dynamic or diverse software requirements constitute the need for implementing end-user tailorability in computer systems. In accelerator physics research the factor of dynamic requirements is especially important, due to frequent software and hardware modifications resulting in correspondingly high upgrade and maintenance costs. In this work we introduce the results of feasibility study on implementing end-user tailorability in the software for accelerator control system, considering the design and implementation of distributed monitoring application for 12 GeV KEK Proton Synchrotron as an example. The software prototypes used in this work are based on a generic tailoring platform (VEDICI), which allows decoupling of tailoring interfaces and runtime components. While representing a reusable application-independent framework, VEDICI can be potentially applied for tailoring of arbitrary compositional Web-based applications

  20. Deep drawing simulations of tailored blanks and experimental verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, Vincent T.; van den Berg, Albert; Huetink, Han

    2000-01-01

    Tailored Blanks are increasingly used in the automotive industry. A combination of different materials, thickness, and coatings can be welded together to form a blank for stamping car body panels. The main advantage of using Tailored Blanks is to have specific characteristics at particular parts of

  1. Tailoring self-assembled monolayers at the electrochemical interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    (SAMs) for functionalisation with different receptors, catalytic materials, biomolecules, enzymes, anti- gen-antibody, etc for various applications. ... and tailoring of SAMs by incorporation of suitable recognition elements. ... compatible with most organic functional groups and ...... the interfacial architecture can be tailored using.

  2. What’s in a Surname? Physique, Aptitude, and Sports Type Comparisons between Tailors and Smiths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Rieder, Stephan; Stieger, Stefan; Swami, Viren

    2015-01-01

    Combined heredity of surnames and physique, coupled with past marriage patterns and trade-specific physical aptitude and selection factors, may have led to differential assortment of bodily characteristics among present-day men with specific trade-reflecting surnames (Tailor vs. Smith). Two studies reported here were partially consistent with this genetic-social hypothesis, first proposed by Bäumler (1980). Study 1 (N = 224) indicated significantly higher self-rated physical aptitude for prototypically strength-related activities (professions, sports, hobbies) in a random sample of Smiths. The counterpart effect (higher aptitude for dexterity-related activities among Tailors) was directionally correct, but not significant, and Tailor-Smith differences in basic physique variables were nil. Study 2 examined two large total-population-of-interest datasets (Austria/Germany combined, and UK: N = 7001 and 20532) of men’s national high-score lists for track-and-field events requiring different physiques. In both datasets, proportions of Smiths significantly increased from light-stature over medium-stature to heavy-stature sports categories. The predicted counterpart effect (decreasing prevalences of Tailors along these categories) was not supported. Related prior findings, the viability of possible alternative interpretations of the evidence (differential positive selection for trades and occupations, differential endogamy and assortative mating patterns, implicit egotism effects), and directions for further inquiry are discussed in conclusion. PMID:26161803

  3. What's in a Surname? Physique, Aptitude, and Sports Type Comparisons between Tailors and Smiths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Rieder, Stephan; Stieger, Stefan; Swami, Viren

    2015-01-01

    Combined heredity of surnames and physique, coupled with past marriage patterns and trade-specific physical aptitude and selection factors, may have led to differential assortment of bodily characteristics among present-day men with specific trade-reflecting surnames (Tailor vs. Smith). Two studies reported here were partially consistent with this genetic-social hypothesis, first proposed by Bäumler (1980). Study 1 (N = 224) indicated significantly higher self-rated physical aptitude for prototypically strength-related activities (professions, sports, hobbies) in a random sample of Smiths. The counterpart effect (higher aptitude for dexterity-related activities among Tailors) was directionally correct, but not significant, and Tailor-Smith differences in basic physique variables were nil. Study 2 examined two large total-population-of-interest datasets (Austria/Germany combined, and UK: N = 7001 and 20,532) of men's national high-score lists for track-and-field events requiring different physiques. In both datasets, proportions of Smiths significantly increased from light-stature over medium-stature to heavy-stature sports categories. The predicted counterpart effect (decreasing prevalences of Tailors along these categories) was not supported. Related prior findings, the viability of possible alternative interpretations of the evidence (differential positive selection for trades and occupations, differential endogamy and assortative mating patterns, implicit egotism effects), and directions for further inquiry are discussed in conclusion.

  4. What's in a Surname? Physique, Aptitude, and Sports Type Comparisons between Tailors and Smiths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Voracek

    Full Text Available Combined heredity of surnames and physique, coupled with past marriage patterns and trade-specific physical aptitude and selection factors, may have led to differential assortment of bodily characteristics among present-day men with specific trade-reflecting surnames (Tailor vs. Smith. Two studies reported here were partially consistent with this genetic-social hypothesis, first proposed by Bäumler (1980. Study 1 (N = 224 indicated significantly higher self-rated physical aptitude for prototypically strength-related activities (professions, sports, hobbies in a random sample of Smiths. The counterpart effect (higher aptitude for dexterity-related activities among Tailors was directionally correct, but not significant, and Tailor-Smith differences in basic physique variables were nil. Study 2 examined two large total-population-of-interest datasets (Austria/Germany combined, and UK: N = 7001 and 20,532 of men's national high-score lists for track-and-field events requiring different physiques. In both datasets, proportions of Smiths significantly increased from light-stature over medium-stature to heavy-stature sports categories. The predicted counterpart effect (decreasing prevalences of Tailors along these categories was not supported. Related prior findings, the viability of possible alternative interpretations of the evidence (differential positive selection for trades and occupations, differential endogamy and assortative mating patterns, implicit egotism effects, and directions for further inquiry are discussed in conclusion.

  5. Bayesian framework for prediction of future number of failures from a single group of units in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Nader

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers prediction of unknown number of failures in a future inspection of a group of in-service units based on number of failures observed from an earlier inspection. We develop a flexible Bayesian model and calculate Bayesian estimator for this unknown number and other quantities of interest. The paper also includes an illustration of our method in an example about heat exchanger. A main advantage of our approach is in its nonparametric nature. By nonparametric here we simply mean that no assumption is required about the failure time distribution of a unit

  6. Unit-specific calibration of Actigraph accelerometers in a mechanical setup - is it worth the effort? The effect on random output variation caused by technical inter-instrument variability in the laboratory and in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Niels C; Korsholm, Lars; Kristensen, Peter L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potentially, unit-specific in-vitro calibration of accelerometers could increase field data quality and study power. However, reduced inter-unit variability would only be important if random instrument variability contributes considerably to the total variation in field data. Therefor...

  7. Tailoring Agility: Promiscuous Pair Story Authoring and Value Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendon, Steve

    This chapter describes how a multi-national software organization created a business plan involving business units from eight countries that followed an agile way, after two previously failed attempts with traditional approaches. The case is told by the consultant who initiated implementation of agility into requirements gathering, estimation and planning processes in an international setting. The agile approach was inspired by XP, but then tailored to meet the peculiar requirements. Two innovations were critical. The first innovation was promiscuous pair story authoring, where user stories were written by two people (similarly to pair programming), and the pairing changed very often (as frequently as every 15-20 minutes) to achieve promiscuity and cater for diverse point of views. The second innovation was an economic value evaluation (and not the cost) which was attributed to stories. Continuous recalculation of the financial value of the stories allowed to assess the projects financial return. In this case implementation of agility in the international context allowed the involved team members to reach consensus and unanimity of decisions, vision and purpose.

  8. Tailored Surfaces/Assemblies for Molecular Plasmonics and Plasmonic Molecular Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Jean-Christophe; Martin, Pascal; Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2017-06-12

    Molecular plasmonics uses and explores molecule-plasmon interactions on metal nanostructures for spectroscopic, nanophotonic, and nanoelectronic devices. This review focuses on tailored surfaces/assemblies for molecular plasmonics and describes active molecular plasmonic devices in which functional molecules and polymers change their structural, electrical, and/or optical properties in response to external stimuli and that can dynamically tune the plasmonic properties. We also explore an emerging research field combining molecular plasmonics and molecular electronics.

  9. Does tailoring really make a difference? : the development and evaluation of tailored interventions aimed at benzodiazepine cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolde, Geeske Brecht ten

    2008-01-01

    Because of the problems associated with chronic benzodiazepine use, there is impetus to prevent and reduce chronic benzodiazepine use. The overall aim was to develop a 'tailor-made' intervention in order to reduce chronic use. Before developing tailored patient education, it is first of all

  10. Ceramic laminates with tailored residual stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudín, C.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe environments imposed by new technologies demand new materials with better properties and ensured reliability. The intrinsic brittleness of ceramics has forced scientists to look for new materials and processing routes to improve the mechanical behaviour of ceramics in order to allow their use under severe thermomechanical conditions. The laminate approach has allowed the fabrication of a new family of composite materials with strength and reliability superior to those of monolithic ceramics with microstructures similar to those of the constituent layers. The different ceramic laminates developed since the middle 1970´s can be divided in two large groups depending on whether the development of residual stresses between layers is the main design tool. This paper reviews the developments in the control and tailoring of residual stresses in ceramic laminates. The tailoring of the thickness and location of layers in compression can lead to extremely performing structures in terms of strength values and reliability. External layers in compression lead to the strengthening of the structure. When relatively thin and highly compressed layers are located inside the material, threshold strength, crack bifurcation and crack arrest during fracture occur.

    Las severas condiciones de trabajo de las nuevas aplicaciones tecnológicas exigen el uso de materiales con mejores propiedades y alta fiabilidad. La potencialidad de uso de materiales frágiles, como los cerámicos, en estas aplicaciones exige el desarrollo de nuevos materiales y métodos de procesamiento que mejoren su comportamiento mecánico. El concepto de material laminado ha permitido la fabricación de una nueva familia de materiales con tensiones de fractura y fiabilidad superiores a las de materiales monolíticos con microestructuras similares a las de las láminas que conforman el laminado. Los distintos materiales laminados desarrollados desde mediados de los años 70 se pueden

  11. Thin tailored composite wing for civil tiltrotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud

    1994-01-01

    The tiltrotor aircraft is a flight vehicle which combines the efficient low speed (i.e., take-off, landing, and hover) characteristics of a helicopter with the efficient cruise speed of a turboprop airplane. A well-known example of such vehicle is the Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey. The high cruise speed and range constraints placed on the civil tiltrotor require a relatively thin wing to increase the drag-divergence Mach number which translates into lower compressibility drag. It is required to reduce the wing maximum thickness-to-chord ratio t/c from 23% (i.e., V-22 wing) to 18%. While a reduction in wing thickness results in improved aerodynamic efficiency, it has an adverse effect on the wing structure and it tends to reduce structural stiffness. If ignored, the reduction in wing stiffness leads to susceptibility to aeroelastic and dynamic instabilities which may consequently cause a catastrophic failure. By taking advantage of the directional stiffness characteristics of composite materials the wing structure may be tailored to have the necessary stiffness, at a lower thickness, while keeping the weight low. The goal of this study is to design a wing structure for minimum weight subject to structural, dynamic and aeroelastic constraints. The structural constraints are in terms of strength and buckling allowables. The dynamic constraints are in terms of wing natural frequencies in vertical and horizontal bending and torsion. The aeroelastic constraints are in terms of frequency placement of the wing structure relative to those of the rotor system. The wing-rotor-pylon aeroelastic and dynamic interactions are limited in this design study by holding the cruise speed, rotor-pylon system, and wing geometric attributes fixed. To assure that the wing-rotor stability margins are maintained a more rigorous analysis based on a detailed model of the rotor system will need to ensue following the design study. The skin-stringer-rib type architecture is used for the wing

  12. Tailored Polyproteins Using Sequential Staple and Cut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Surbhi; Singaraju, Gayathri Sindhuri; Yengkhom, Sunanda; Rakshit, Sabyasachi

    2018-04-30

    Polyproteins, individual protein units joined covalently in tandem, have evolved as a promising tool for measuring the dynamic folding of biomacromolecules in single-molecule force spectroscopy. However, the synthetic routes to prepare polyproteins have been a bottleneck, and urge development of in vitro methods to knit individual protein units covalently into polyprotein. Employing two enzymes of orthogonal functionalities periodically in sequence, we synthesized monodispersed polyproteins on a solid surface. We used Sortase A (SrtA), the enzyme known for sequence specific transpeptidation, to staple protein units covalently through peptide bonds. Exploiting the sequence-specific peptide cleaving ability of TEV protease, we controlled the progress of the reaction to one attachment at a time. Finally, with unique design of the unit proteins we control the orientation of proteins in polyprotein. This simple conjugation has the potential to staple proteins with different functionalities and from different expression systems, in any number in the polyprotein and, above all, via irreversible peptide bonds. Multiple chimeric constructs can also be synthesized with interchangeable protein units.

  13. Tailoring magnetism by light-ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, J; Ravelosona, D; Samson, Y

    2004-01-01

    Owing to their reduced dimensions, the magnetic properties of ultrathin magnetic films and multilayers, e.g. magnetic anisotropies and exchange coupling, often depend strongly on the surface and interface structure. In addition, chemical composition, crystallinity, grain sizes and their distribution govern the magnetic behaviour. All these structural properties can be modified by light-ion irradiation in an energy range of 5-150 keV due to the energy loss of the ions in the solid along their trajectory. Consequently the magnetic properties can be tailored by ion irradiation. Similar effects can also be observed using Ga + ion irradiation, which is the common ion source in focused ion beam lithography. Examples of ion-induced modifications of magnetic anisotropies and exchange coupling are presented. This review is limited to radiation-induced structural changes giving rise to a modification of magnetic parameters. Ion implantation is discussed only in special cases. Due to the local nature of the interaction, magnetic patterning without affecting the surface topography becomes feasible, which may be of interest in applications. The main patterning technique is homogeneous ion irradiation through masks. Focused ion beam and ion projection lithography are usually only relevant for larger ion masses. The creation of magnetic feature sizes below 50 nm is shown. In contrast to topographic nanostructures the surrounding area of these nanostructures can be left ferromagnetic, leading to new phenomena at their mutual interface. Most of the material systems discussed here are important for technological applications. The main areas are magnetic data storage applications, such as hard magnetic media with a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy or patterned media with an improved signal to noise ratio and magnetic sensor elements. It will be shown that light-ion irradiation has many advantages in the design of new material properties and in the fabrication technology of

  14. Heavy metal multilayers for switching of magnetic unit via electrical current without magnetic field, method and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qinli; Li, Yufan; Chien, Chia-ling

    2018-02-20

    Provided is an electric-current-controllable magnetic unit, including: a substrate, an electric-current channel disposed on the substrate, the electric-current channel including a composite heavy-metal multilayer comprising at least one heavy-metal; a capping layer disposed over the electric-current channel; and at least one ferromagnetic layer disposed between the electric-current channel and the capping layer.

  15. Evaluation Of Open, Wedge Filtered And Half Block Profile For Single And Plan Parallel Field For 60Co Teletherapy Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heru-Prasetio; Nasukha; Soejoko, Djarwani S

    2003-01-01

    TPS shall be evaluated with experimental data before it is used for patient treatment. This experiment was performed using small water phantom, at the depth of 10 cm, SSD technique for single beam and 16 cm, SAD technique for plan parallel beam. Measuring device used in this experiment is Farmer 2571 detector. It was found differences between experiment and TPS iSis are not significant. Single field experiment and TPS differences of 0.6%, 3.6% and 0.1% for open, wedge filter and half-blocked field, for plan parallel experiment and TPS differences are 2.1%, 2% and 2.4% for open, wedge filter and half-blocked field. (author)

  16. Automatically producing tailored web materials for public administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colineau, Nathalie; Paris, Cécile; Vander Linden, Keith

    2013-06-01

    Public administration organizations commonly produce citizen-focused, informational materials describing public programs and the conditions under which citizens or citizen groups are eligible for these programs. The organizations write these materials for generic audiences because of the excessive human resource costs that would be required to produce personalized materials for everyone. Unfortunately, generic materials tend to be longer and harder to understand than materials tailored for particular citizens. Our work explores the feasibility and effectiveness of automatically producing tailored materials. We have developed an adaptive hypermedia application system that automatically produces tailored informational materials and have evaluated it in a series of studies. The studies demonstrate that: (1) subjects prefer tailored materials over generic materials, even if the tailoring requires answering a set of demographic questions first; (2) tailored materials are more effective at supporting subjects in their task of learning about public programs; and (3) the time required to specify the demographic information on which the tailoring is based does not significantly slow down the subjects in their information seeking task.

  17. Defect driven tailoring of colossal dielectricity of Reduced Graphene Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, S.; Mondal, A. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Dey, K. [Department of Solid State Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Ray, R., E-mail: juphyruma@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxides (RGO) are prepared by two chemical routes. • Defects in RGO are characterized by Raman, FTIR and XPS studies. • Defects tailor colossal dielectricity in RGO. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is prepared in two different chemical routes where reduction of graphene oxide is performed by hydrazine hydrate and through high pressure in hydrothermal reactor. Samples are characterized by X-ray powdered diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and tunneling electron microscopy (TEM). Types of defects are probed by Raman, FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). UV–vis absorption reveals different optical band gaps of the two RGOs. Conductivity mechanism is studied through I–V measurements displaying different characteristic features which are addressed due to the presence of defects appeared in different synthesis. Significantly high value (∼10{sup 4}) of dielectric permittivity at 10 MHz is attractive for technological application which could be tuned by the defects present in RGO.

  18. Tailoring the magnetic properties of cobalt-ferrite nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, A. Estrada de la; Garza-Navarro, M. A., E-mail: marco.garzanr@uanl.edu.mx; Durán-Guerrero, J. G.; Moreno Cortez, I. E.; Lucio-Porto, R.; González-González, V. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica (Mexico)

    2016-01-15

    In this contribution, we report on the tuning of magnetic properties of cobalt-ferrite nanoclusters. The cobalt-ferrite nanoclusters were synthesized from a two-step approach that consists of the synthesis of cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles in organic media, followed by their dispersion into aqueous dissolution to form an oil-in-water emulsion. These emulsions were prepared at three different concentrations of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), in order to control the size and clustering density of the nanoparticles in the nanoclusters. The synthesized samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and their related techniques, such as bright-field and Z-contrast imaging, electron diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry; as well as static magnetic measures. The experimental evidence indicates that the size, morphology, and nanoparticles clustering density in the nanoclusters is highly dependent of the cobalt-ferrite:CTAB molar ratio that is used in their synthesis. In addition, due to the clustering of the nanoparticles into the nanoclusters, their magnetic moments are blocked to relax cooperatively. Hence, the magnetic response of the nanoclusters can be tailored by controlling the size and nanoparticles clustering density.

  19. Unraveling spurious properties of interaction networks with tailored random networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Bialonski

    Full Text Available We investigate interaction networks that we derive from multivariate time series with methods frequently employed in diverse scientific fields such as biology, quantitative finance, physics, earth and climate sciences, and the neurosciences. Mimicking experimental situations, we generate time series with finite length and varying frequency content but from independent stochastic processes. Using the correlation coefficient and the maximum cross-correlation, we estimate interdependencies between these time series. With clustering coefficient and average shortest path length, we observe unweighted interaction networks, derived via thresholding the values of interdependence, to possess non-trivial topologies as compared to Erdös-Rényi networks, which would indicate small-world characteristics. These topologies reflect the mostly unavoidable finiteness of the data, which limits the reliability of typically used estimators of signal interdependence. We propose random networks that are tailored to the way interaction networks are derived from empirical data. Through an exemplary investigation of multichannel electroencephalographic recordings of epileptic seizures--known for their complex spatial and temporal dynamics--we show that such random networks help to distinguish network properties of interdependence structures related to seizure dynamics from those spuriously induced by the applied methods of analysis.

  20. Field evaluations of leaf spot resistance and yield in peanut genotypes in the United States and Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted in 2002-2006 to characterize yield potential and disease resistance to Cercospora arachidicola (early leaf spot) and Cercosporidium personatum (late leaf spot) in the Bolivian peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cultivar, Bayo Grande, and breeding lines developed from crosses ...

  1. Semiconductor quantum optics with tailored photonic nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laucht, Arne

    2011-01-01

    the understanding of coupling phenomena between excitons in self-assembled quantum dots and optical modes of tailored photonic nanostructures realized on the basis of two-dimensional photonic crystals. While we highlight the potential for advanced applications in the direction of quantum optics and quantum computation, we also identify some of the challenges which will need to be overcome on the way. (orig.)

  2. [Tailored cranioplasty using CAD-CAM technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanovics, Dusán; Major, Ottó; Lovas, László; Banczerowski, Péter

    2014-11-30

    The majority of cranial defects are results of surgical intervention. The defect must be covered within resonable period of time usually after 4-6 week given the fact that the replacement of bone improve the brain circulation. Number of surgical techniques and materials are available to perform cranioplasty. Due to favorable properties we chosed ultra high molecular weight polyethylene as material. In this paper the authors show a procedure which allows tailored artificial bone replacement using state of art medical and engineering techniques. between 2004 and 2012, 19 patients were operated on cranial bone defect and a total of 22 3D custom-designed implants were implanted. The average age of patients was 35.4 years. In 12 patients we performed primary cranioplasty, while seven patients had the replacement at least once. Later the implants had to be removed due to infection or other causes (bone necrosis, fracture). All patients had native and bone-windowed 1 mm resolution CT. The 3D design was made using the original CT images and with design program. Computer controlled lathe was used to prepare a precise-fitting model. During surgery, the defect was exposed and the implant was fixed to normal bone using mini titanium plates and screws. All of our patients had control CT at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery and at the same time neurological examination. Twenty-one polyethylene and one titanium implants were inserted. The average follow-up of the patients was 21.5 months, ranged from two to 96 months. We follow 12 patients (63.15%) more than one year. No intraoperative implant modifications had to be made. Each of the 22 implant exactly matched the bone defect proved by CT scan. No one of our patients reported aesthetic problems and we did not notice any kind of aesthetic complication. We had short term complication in three cases due to cranioplasty, subdural, epidural haemorrhage and skin defect. Polyethylene is in all respects suitable for primary and secondary

  3. Semiconductor quantum optics with tailored photonic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laucht, Arne

    2011-06-15

    single photon emission into the waveguide. The results obtained during the course of this thesis contribute significantly to the understanding of coupling phenomena between excitons in self-assembled quantum dots and optical modes of tailored photonic nanostructures realized on the basis of two-dimensional photonic crystals. While we highlight the potential for advanced applications in the direction of quantum optics and quantum computation, we also identify some of the challenges which will need to be overcome on the way. (orig.)

  4. Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, G.J.; Jana, S.

    2012-03-30

    The overall goal of the project, Tailored Materials for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines, is to enable the implementation of new combustion strategies, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), that have the potential to significantly increase the energy efficiency of current diesel engines and decrease fuel consumption and environmental emissions. These strategies, however, are increasing the demands on conventional engine materials, either from increases in peak cylinder pressure (PCP) or from increases in the temperature of operation. The specific objective of this project is to investigate the application of a new material processing technology, friction stir processing (FSP), to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of engine components. The concept is to modify the surfaces of conventional, low-cost engine materials. The project focused primarily on FSP in aluminum materials that are compositional analogs to the typical piston and head alloys seen in small- to mid-sized CIDI engines. Investigations have been primarily of two types over the duration of this project: (1) FSP of a cast hypoeutectic Al-Si-Mg (A356/357) alloy with no introduction of any new components, and (2) FSP of Al-Cu-Ni alloys (Alloy 339) by physically stirring-in various quantities of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers or carbon fibers. Experimental work to date on aluminum systems has shown significant increases in fatigue lifetime and stress-level performance in aluminum-silicon alloys using friction processing alone, but work to demonstrate the addition of carbon nanotubes and fibers into aluminum substrates has shown mixed results due primarily to the difficulty in achieving porosity-free, homogeneous distributions of the particulate. A limited effort to understand the effects of FSP on steel materials was also undertaken during the course of this project. Processed regions were created in high-strength, low-alloyed steels up to 0.5 in

  5. Fe-Ag nanocomposites tailored by multilayer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, J.; Kaptas, D.; Kiss, L. F.; Csontos, M.; Mihaly, G.; Temst, K.; Van Haesendonck, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Besides the usual co-deposition methods, thin films of Fe-Ag granular composites can be prepared by alternate deposition of the constituents [1] in the form of granular multilayers when the magnetic layer is discontinuous. The discontinuous Fe layers show superparamagnetic properties that can be tailored [2] by the thickness of both the magnetic and the spacer layers and their magnetization tends to align perpendicular to the sample plain at low temperatures. With following the blocking transition of the superparamagnetic particles by Moessbauer spectroscopy, it was recently shown [2] that continuous magnetic layers can be inserted into the granular multilayer structure without modifying the average magnetic grain size and the almost perpendicular magnetic alignment of the granular layers. The possibility of a simultaneous control over the superparamagnetic grain size, the amount and the stacking sequence of the continuous ferromagnetic layers makes these heterostructures suitable model materials for investigating the role of interactions among the magnetically different elements in nanocomposites. Moessbauer spectroscopy is an effective tool for studying the magnetic properties of the granular and the continuous layers selectively. Comparing the temperature and applied magnetic field dependence of the measured hyperfine fields to the bulk magnetization we found [2] that varying the stacking sequence of the different layers affected the low field magnetic susceptibility of the ferromagnetic layers more significantly than that of the superparamagnetic ones. The magnetoresistance was also shown to depend sensitively [3] on the layer sequence. Interleaved ferromagnetic layers change the shape of the magnetoresistance curves exhibiting a linear variation in small magnetic fields and effect the temperature dependence of the magnetoresistance measured in high magnetic fields. [1] J. Balogh, D. Kaptas, T. Kemeny, L. F. Kiss, T. Pusztai, and I. Vincze, Hyperfine

  6. Terms and definitions in the field of radiological technique. Dose quantities and units. Begriffe und Benennungen in der radiologischen Technik. Dosisgroessen und Dosiseinheiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The standard gives the terms and definitions of concepts, dose quantities and units. The radiation field condition 'secondary electron equilibrium', which forms part of the definition of standard ion dose, is given more precisely. The term 'free in air' is used in its original meaning, i.e. characterization of measuring conditions excluding avoidable stray radiation, which deviates from DIN 6814, part 3/06.72. Dosemeters for measurement of standard ion dose of air kerma are calibrated 'free in air', but this calibration condition is not part of the quantity definition. The quantities standard ion dose or air kerma therefore can also be measured in any other material. The qunatitative relationships between standard ion dose and the quantities 'exposure' and air kerma, as given in the ICRU publication 33 'Quantities and Units' (1980), are explained. The standard introduces the SI units Gray (for energy dose), Sievert (for dose equivalent), and Becquerel (for the activity of a radioactive substance). As the change to the SI units conceals the approximated equality of the numerical values of the standrd ion dose of photon radiation in roentgen, of the energy dose for soft tissue in rad, and of the dose equivalent in rem, new definitions are given in accordance with ICRU 33 for the quantities specified dose rate, dose rate constant, and area exposure product. These definitions use the terms 'energy dose' and 'kerma'. The dose concepts applied in the field of radiation protection, especially ambient dose and individual dose, are defined as dose equivalents in compliance with the Radiation Protection Ordinance. The relevant sections present information on the conversion of standard ion dose values to the corresponding values of kerma, energy dose, or dose equivalent.

  7. United States Department of Energy Field Office, Richland, Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, November 9, 1990--November 9, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasch, R.A.

    1991-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), General Environmental Protection Program, establishes environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities to ensure that DOE operations are in compliance with applicable federal, state and local environmental protection laws and regulations, executive orders, and internal department policies. Chapter 3 of DOE Order 5400.1 requires that each field organization prepare a plan for implementing the requirements of this order and update this plan annually. Therefore, this update to the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, initially prepared November 9, 1989, is being issued. Responsibility for coordinating preparation of the annual update of this plan is assigned to the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland, Safety and Environment Division's Environmental Oversight Branch

  8. Notes from the Field: Splenomegaly of Unknown Etiology in Congolese Refugees Applying for Resettlement to the United States - Uganda, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goers, Matthew; Ope, Maurice O; Samuels, Aaron; Gitu, Natalia; Akandwanaho, Saul; Nabwami, Gladys; Nyoka, Raymond; Cetron, Martin S; Dalal, Warren; Conroy, Andrea L; Cantey, Paul; John, Chandy; Naoum, Marwan; Weinberg, Michelle; Marano, Nina; Stauffer, William

    2016-09-09

    Approximately 70,000-90,000 refugees are resettled to the United States each year, and during the next 5 years, 50,000 Congolese refugees are expected to arrive in the United States. The International Organization for Migration (IOM) performs refugee medical examinations overseas for the U.S. Refugee Resettlement Program. In 2014, IOM reported that a large number of U.S.-bound Congolese refugees from Uganda had spleens that were enlarged on examination. During two evaluations of refugee populations in western Uganda in March and July 2015, refugees with splenomegaly on physical examination were offered additional assessment and treatment, including abdominal ultrasonography and laboratory testing. Among 987 persons screened, 145 (14.7%) had splenomegaly and received further testing. Among the 145 patients with splenomegaly, 63.4% were aged 5-17 years (median = 14.8 years). There was some evidence of family clustering, with 33 (22.7%) of the 145 cases occurring in families.

  9. Field measurement of the piping system vibration of Ko-Ri unit 4 during the load-following operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Tae-Young; Hong, Sung-Yull; Kim, Bum-Nyun.

    1989-01-01

    During the load-following operation of nuclear power plants, flow rate, temperature, and pressure in the piping system can be varied by changing the electric power output level, and these variations can cause different vibration phenomena in the piping system. The piping system vibration is important because it is directly related to the dynamic stress of the piping system and can affect the life of the piping system through structural fatigue. An assessment of vibration levels for the classes II and III piping systems of the Ko-Ri Unit 4950-MW nuclear power plant was performed according to the given pattern of the load-following operation to study its feasibility from the viewpoint of piping system vibration. The classes II and III piping system vibration of the Ko-Ri Unit 4 may not cause any potential problem under the given pattern of the load-following operation; however, it is recommended that long-term operation in the 85 to 95% power range be avoided as much as possible

  10. Can Deterrence Be Tailored? Strategic Forum, Number 225, January 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunn, M. E

    2007-01-01

    .... The Bush administration has outlined a concept for tailored deterrence to address the distinctive challenges posed by advanced military competitors, regional powers armed with weapons of mass destruction (WMD...

  11. Effects of tailoring ingredients in auditory persuasive health messages on fruit and vegetable intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah P.; Dijkstra, Arie; Rozema, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Health messages can be tailored by applying different tailoring ingredients, among which personalisation, feedback and adaptation. This experiment investigated the separate effects of these tailoring ingredients on behaviour in auditory health persuasion. Furthermore, the moderating

  12. Tailored silver grid as transparent electrodes directly written by femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Ren, Xue-Liang [Laboratory of Organic NanoPhotonics and Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interface Science, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 29, Zhongguancun East Road, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 29, Zhongguancun East Road, Beijing 100190 (China); Zheng, Mei-Ling, E-mail: zhengmeiling@mail.ipc.ac.cn, E-mail: xmduan@mail.ipc.ac.cn; Dong, Xian-Zi; Jin, Feng; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng [Laboratory of Organic NanoPhotonics and Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interface Science, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 29, Zhongguancun East Road, Beijing 100190 (China); Duan, Xuan-Ming, E-mail: zhengmeiling@mail.ipc.ac.cn, E-mail: xmduan@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Laboratory of Organic NanoPhotonics and Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interface Science, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 29, Zhongguancun East Road, Beijing 100190 (China); Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 266 Fangzheng Ave., Shuitu Technology Development Zone, Beibei District, Chongqing 400714 (China)

    2016-05-30

    We present the design and realization of silver grid transparent electrodes (SGTEs) easily fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of silver aqueous solution. The fabricated SGTEs with a sheet resistance down to 47 Ω/□ and optical transmittance up to 93% are demonstrated. These sheet resistance and transmittance values are comparable to commercially available indium tin oxide. High uniform morphology of the directly written SGTEs results in the ultra-stable tailored performance parameter at electronic and optical fields. The sheet resistance and transmittance can be tailored precisely by manipulating the filling fraction of the uniform SGTEs. This study provides an approach for creating SGTEs in a controllable fashion, and the SGTEs exhibit high transmittance and low sheet resistance, which could open up new avenues towards widespread application in electronics, photovoltaics, and optoelectronics.

  13. Field application of the Numobag as a portable disposable isolation unit and for treating chemical, radiological or biologically induced wounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Keith A.; Felton, Robert; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Numotech Inc. has developed the Numobag{trademark}, a disposable, lightweight, wound healing device which produces Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT). The Numobag{trademark} is cost effective and has been clinically validated to heal large skin lesions rapidly and has proven to arrest wound advancement from several insidious forms of biological attack including dermal anthrax, small pox, necrotizing fasciitis etc. The Numobag{trademark} can treat mass casualties wounded by chemical/radiological burns or damaging biological exposures. The Numobag{trademark} can be a frontline tool as an isolation unit, reducing cross-contamination and infection of medical personnel. The heightened oxygen content kills organisms on the skin and in the wound, avoids expensive hospital trash disposal procedures, and helps the flesh heal. The Numobag{trademark} requires high purity oxygen. Numotech Inc. is teaming with Sandia National Laboratories and Spektr Conversion in Russia to develop a cost effective, portable, low power oxygen generator.

  14. Tailoring of EIA-649-1: Definition of Major (Class I) Engineering Change Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER TAILORING TAILORING OF EIA -649-1: DEFINITION OF MAJOR (CLASS I) ENGINEERING CHANGE PROPOSAL APPROVED FOR...PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED 1 Tailoring of EIA -649-1: Definition of Major (Class I) ECP. 1. Intent of this Tailoring Document...This tailoring document remedies a requirements gap in the industry consensus standard, EIA -649-1: 2015. Specifically, this tailoring provides a

  15. United States Department of Energy Richland Field Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, November 9, 1991--November 9, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), General Environmental Protection Program, establishes environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities to ensure that DOE operations are in compliance with applicable Federal, State and local environmental protection laws and regulations, executive orders, and internal department policies. Chapter 3 of DOE Order 5400.1 requires that each DOE Field Office prepare a plan for implementing the requirements of this order and update the plan annually. Therefore, this update to the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1989a), initially prepared November 9, 1989, is being issued

  16. United States Department of Energy Richland Field Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, November 9, 1992--November 9, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), General Environmental Protection Program, establishes environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities to ensure that DOE operations are in compliance with applicable Federal, State and local environmental protection laws and regulations, executive orders, and internal department policies. Chapter 3 of DOE Order 5400.1 requires that each DOE Field Office prepare a plan for implementing the requirements of this order and update the plan annually. This update to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1989a), initially prepared November 9, 1989, is being issued to comply with the order

  17. Faster, higher, stronger, older: Relative age effects are most influential during the youngest age grade of track and field athletics in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Philip E; Hayes, Philip R; Nevill, Alan

    2018-03-07

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a common phenomenon in youth sport, whereby children born early in the selection year are more likely to experience success and to sustain participation. There is a lack of research investigating variables which influence RAEs within track and field athletics. Such information is vital to guide policies in relation to competition structure, youth development squads and coach education. A database of competition results was analysed to determine the extent to which RAEs were present in track and field athletics in the United Kingdom. Subsequent analyses examined whether age, sex, event and skill level influenced the RAE. Examination of 77,571 records revealed that RAEs were widespread, but most pronounced during Under 13 (U13) competitions; that is, during athletes' first exposure to formal track and field competition. Sex, event and skill level further influenced the existence and magnitude of RAEs at different age grades. Relative age is a key influencing factor within track and field athletics, especially at the youngest age category. Consequently, national governing bodies need to consider what administrative and stakeholder initiatives are necessary to minimise the effects of RAEs on young athletes' early experiences of competition.

  18. Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Le; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Xunbo; Liu, Boyang; Liu, Li; Yang, Shenwu; Yan, Binbin; Du, Jingyan; Gao, Chao

    2018-05-01

    A 54-inch horizontal-parallax only light-field display based on the light-emitting diode (LED) panel and the micro-pinhole unit array (MPUA) is demonstrated. Normally, the perceived 3D effect of the three-dimensional (3D) display with smooth motion parallax and abundant light-field information can be enhanced with increasing the density of viewpoints. However, the density of viewpoints is inversely proportional to the spatial display resolution for the conventional integral imaging. Here, a special MPUA is designed and fabricated, and the displayed 3D scene constructed by the proposed horizontal light-field display is presented. Compared with the conventional integral imaging, both the density of horizontal viewpoints and the spatial display resolution are significantly improved. In the experiment, A 54-inch horizontal light-field display with 42.8° viewing angle based on the LED panel with the resolution of 1280 × 720 and the MPUA is realized, which can provide natural 3D visual effect to observers with high quality.

  19. Stratigraphy, facies analysis and depositional environments of the Upper Unit of Abu Roash "E" member in the Abu Gharadig field, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewaidy, Abdel Galil; Elshahat, O. R.; Kamal, Samy

    2018-03-01

    Abu Roach "E" member is of an important hydrocarbon reservoir-producing horizon in the Abu Gharadig Field (north Western Desert, Egypt). This study is used to build facies analysis and depositional environments model for the Upper Unit of the Abu Roash "E" member in Abu Gharadig Field. This target has been achieved throughout the sedimentological, wire line logs, lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic analyses of more than 528 feet cores. The high-resolution biostratigraphic analysis provides a calibration for the paleo-bathymetry and depositional environmental interpretations. Biozonation and lithostratigraphic markers are used to constrain stratigraphic correlation. Integration between the core description and petorographic microfacies analysis by microscope examination provide an excellent indication for the rock types and depositional environments. Five depositional facies types are detected including carbonate inner ramp, tidal flats, tidal channels, supra-tidal and tide dominated delta facies. This model helps in the understanding of the Upper Unit of Abu Roash "E" member reservoir distribution as well as lateral and vertical facies changes that contribute to the development strategy for the remaining hydrocarbon reserves for this important oil reservoir.

  20. Field tests for the comparative evaluation of heat and enthalpy exchangers in compact ventilation units; Feldvergleich von Waerme- und Enthalpieuebertragern in Kompakt-Lueftungsgeraeten - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, B.

    2007-07-01

    In an efficiency review on low energy buildings promoted by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, low air humidity has been measured during thousands of annual hours. Modern compact ventilation units are being increasingly offered with transmission of heat and moisture. One possibility to raise the air humidity level is an enthalpy exchanger with steam-permeable membranes. With an enthalpy exchanger you can not only recover heat but also a good part of the humidity of the return air. In a comparative field study alternate applications with enthalpy or heat exchangers have been analysed at four different locations. Also calculations have been made to estimate how a rotating heat exchanger with ion-exchange resin would have performed. The comparative field study has shown that the enthalpy exchanger is able to raise the humidity level. Conditions for this are internal humidity loads, balanced air volume rates which correspond to occupancy as well as low leakages of the ventilation unit. Over-moistening due to the system with enthalpy exchanger was not found. The measurements have been affected by a sequence of winter months which have been partially warmer than usual. Otherwise the difference between enthalpy and heat exchangers would have been more significant. (author)

  1. Field-Metered Data from Portable Unit Dehumidifiers in the U.S. Residential Sector: Initial Results of a Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Beraki, Bereket [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Burke, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Melody, Moya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Nagaraju, Mythri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Pratt, Stacy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Dominique Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-01-29

    The work described herein is intended to enrich the body of literature regarding dehumidifiers in residential settings—in particular the hours of use and energy consumption of various types of dehumidifiers. In the United States, portable unit dehumidifiers most commonly are used in basements during humid summer days in northern climates. Dehumidifier energy consumption differs among households depending on settings selected by the user, frequency of use, and conditions of operation. Although some estimates of dehumidifier use have been developed, and a few metering studies performed, there remains a paucity of metered data collected from individual households that use dehumidifiers. For this study we obtained field data on the energy consumption of dehumidifiers to supplement currently available analyses. Our goal was to obtain data from a pilot study that we could use to develop initial distributions describing the capacities and applications of dehumidifiers used in individual homes. More precisely characterizing the use of dehumidifiers in real-world applications will enable a more accurate estimate of the range of energy use in various operational modes. Our pilot field-metering exercise was aimed at compiling real-time data on the energy consumption of portable dehumidifiers in residential households in the New England and Mid-Atlantic areas. Our analysis furthers the process of developing a more precise estimate of dehumidifier energy use, which will support the evaluation of the potential energy savings and attendant costs associated with more energy efficient dehumidifiers.

  2. Downscaling with a nested regional climate model in near-surface fields over the contiguous United States: WRF dynamical downscaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiali [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois USA; Kotamarthi, Veerabhadra R. [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois USA

    2014-07-27

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used for dynamic downscaling of 2.5 degree National Centers for Environmental Prediction-U.S. Department of Energy Reanalysis II (NCEP-R2) data for 1980-2010 at 12 km resolution over most of North America. The model's performance for surface air temperature and precipitation is evaluated by comparison with high-resolution observational data sets. The model's ability to add value is investigated by comparison with NCEP-R2 data and a 50 km regional climate simulation. The causes for major model bias are studied through additional sensitivity experiments with various model setup/integration approaches and physics representations. The WRF captures the main features of the spatial patterns and annual cycles of air temperature and precipitation over most of the contiguous United States. However, simulated air temperatures over the south central region and precipitation over the Great Plains and the Southwest have significant biases. Allowing longer spin-up time, reducing the nudging strength, or replacing the WRF Single-Moment 6-class microphysics with Morrison microphysics reduces the bias over some subregions. However, replacing the Grell-Devenyi cumulus parameterization with Kain-Fritsch shows no improvement. The 12 km simulation does add value above the NCEP-R2 data and the 50 km simulation over mountainous and coastal zones.

  3. A Structural Finite Element Model for Lamellar Unit of Aortic Media Indicates Heterogeneous Stress Field After Collagen Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunes, James R.; Pal, Siladitya; Fortunato, Ronald N.; Phillippi, Julie A.; Gleason, Thomas G.; Vorp, David A.; Maiti, Spandan

    2016-01-01

    Incorporation of collagen structural information into the study of biomechanical behavior of ascending thoracic aortic (ATA) wall tissue should provide better insight into the pathophysiology of ATA. Structurally motivated constitutive models that include fiber dispersion and recruitment can successfully capture overall mechanical response of the arterial wall tissue. However, these models cannot examine local microarchitectural features of the collagen network, such as the effect of fiber disruptions and interaction between fibrous and non-fibrous components, which may influence emergent biomechanical properties of the tissue. Motivated by this need, we developed a finite element based three-dimensional structural model of the lamellar units of the ATA media that directly incorporates the collagen fiber microarchitecture. The fiber architecture was computer generated utilizing network features, namely fiber orientation distribution, intersection density and areal concentration, obtained from image analysis of multiphoton microscopy images taken from human aneurysmal ascending thoracic aortic media specimens with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) phenotype. Our model reproduces the typical J-shaped constitutive response of the aortic wall tissue. We found that the stress state in the non-fibrous matrix was homogeneous until the collagen fibers were recruited, but became highly heterogeneous after that event. The degree of heterogeneity was dependent upon local network architecture with high stresses observed near disrupted fibers. The magnitude of non-fibrous matrix stress at higher stretch levels was negatively correlated with local fiber density. The localized stress concentrations, elucidated by this model, may be a factor in the degenerative changes in aneurysmal ATA tissue. PMID:27113538

  4. Escherichia coli transfer from simulated wildlife feces to lettuce during foliar irrigation: A field study in the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel L; Kovac, Jasna; Kent, David J; Roof, Sherry; Tokman, Jeffrey I; Mudrak, Erika; Kowalcyk, Barbara; Oryang, David; Aceituno, Anna; Wiedmann, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Wildlife intrusion has been associated with pathogen contamination of produce. However, few studies have examined pathogen transfer from wildlife feces to pre-harvest produce. This study was performed to calculate transfer coefficients for Escherichia coli from simulated wildlife feces to field-grown lettuce during irrigation. Rabbit feces inoculated with a 3-strain cocktail of non-pathogenic E. coli were placed in a lettuce field 2.5-72 h before irrigation. Following irrigation, the E. coli concentration on the lettuce was determined. After exclusion of an outlier with high E. coli levels (Most Probable Number = 5.94*10 8 ), the average percent of E. coli in the feces that transferred to intact lettuce heads was 0.0267% (Standard Error [SE] = 0.0172). Log-linear regression showed that significantly more E. coli transferred to outer leaves compared to inner leaves (Effect = 1.3; 95% Confidence Interval = 0.4, 2.1). Additionally, the percent of E. coli that transferred from the feces to the lettuce decreased significantly with time after fecal placement, and as the distance between the lettuce and the feces, and the lettuce and the sprinklers increased. These findings provide key data that may be used in future quantitative risk assessments to identify potential intervention strategies for reducing food safety risks associated with fresh produce. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Employee Perceptions of Workplace Health Promotion Programs: Comparison of a Tailored, Semi-Tailored, and Standardized Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Tamara D; Lacey, Sarah J

    2018-04-28

    In the design of workplace health promotion programs (WHPPs), employee perceptions represent an integral variable which is predicted to translate into rate of user engagement (i.e., participation) and program loyalty. This study evaluated employee perceptions of three workplace health programs promoting nutritional consumption and physical activity. Programs included: (1) an individually tailored consultation with an exercise physiologist and dietitian; (2) a semi-tailored 12-week SMS health message program; and (3) a standardized group workshop delivered by an expert. Participating employees from a transport company completed program evaluation surveys rating the overall program, affect, and utility of: consultations ( n = 19); SMS program ( n = 234); and workshops ( n = 86). Overall, participants’ affect and utility evaluations were positive for all programs, with the greatest satisfaction being reported in the tailored individual consultation and standardized group workshop conditions. Furthermore, mode of delivery and the physical presence of an expert health practitioner was more influential than the degree to which the information was tailored to the individual. Thus, the synergy in ratings between individually tailored consultations and standardized group workshops indicates that low-cost delivery health programs may be as appealing to employees as tailored, and comparatively high-cost, program options.

  6. Tailoring the chirality of light emission with spherical Si-based antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrana-Puyalto, Xavier; Bonod, Nicolas

    2016-05-21

    Chirality of light is of fundamental importance in several enabling technologies with growing applications in life sciences, chemistry and photodetection. Recently, some attention has been focused on chiral quantum emitters. Consequently, optical antennas which are able to tailor the chirality of light emission are needed. Spherical nanoresonators such as colloids are of particular interest to design optical antennas since they can be synthesized at a large scale and they exhibit good optical properties. Here, we show that these colloids can be used to tailor the chirality of a chiral emitter. To this purpose, we derive an analytic formalism to model the interaction between a chiral emitter and a spherical resonator. We then compare the performances of metallic and dielectric spherical antennas to tailor the chirality of light emission. It is seen that, due to their strong electric dipolar response, metallic spherical nanoparticles spoil the chirality of light emission by yielding achiral fields. In contrast, thanks to the combined excitation of electric and magnetic modes, dielectric Si-based particles feature the ability to inhibit or to boost the chirality of light emission. Finally, it is shown that dual modes in dielectric antennas preserve the chirality of light emission.

  7. Evaluating the predictability of distance race performance in NCAA cross country and track and field from high school race times in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusa, Jamie L

    2017-12-30

    Successful recruiting for collegiate track & field athletes has become a more competitive and essential component of coaching. This study aims to determine the relationship between race performances of distance runners at the United States high school and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) levels. Conditional inference classification tree models were built and analysed to predict the probability that runners would qualify for the NCAA Division I National Cross Country Meet and/or the East or West NCAA Division I Outdoor Track & Field Preliminary Round based on their high school race times in the 800 m, 1600 m, and 3200 m. Prediction accuracies of the classification trees ranged from 60.0 to 76.6 percent. The models produced the most reliable estimates for predicting qualifiers in cross country, the 1500 m, and the 800 m for females and cross country, the 5000 m, and the 800 m for males. NCAA track & field coaches can use the results from this study as a guideline for recruiting decisions. Additionally, future studies can apply the methodological foundations of this research to predicting race performances set at different metrics, such as national meets in other countries or Olympic qualifications, from previous race data.

  8. Mechanism of tailored magnetic anisotropy in amorphous Co{sub 68}Fe{sub 24}Zr{sub 8} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yu, E-mail: yu.fu@uni-due.de, E-mail: cangcangzhulin@gmail.com; Meckenstock, R.; Farle, M. [Fakultät für Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Barsukov, I., E-mail: ibarsuko@uci.edu [Fakultät für Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Lindner, J. [Fakultät für Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Raanaei, H. [Department of Physics, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hjörvarsson, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516 SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-02-17

    The mechanism of tailored magnetic anisotropy in amorphous Co{sub 68}Fe{sub 24}Zr{sub 8} thin films was investigated by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) on samples deposited without an applied magnetic field, with an out-of-plane field and an in-plane field. Analysis of FMR spectra profiles, high frequency susceptibility calculations, and statistical simulations using a distribution of local uniaxial magnetic anisotropy reveal the presence of atomic configurations with local uniaxial anisotropy, of which the direction can be tailored while the magnitude remains at an intrinsically constant value of 3.0(2) kJ/m{sup 3}. The in-plane growth field remarkably sharpens the anisotropy distribution and increases the sample homogeneity. The results benefit designing multilayer spintronic devices based on highly homogeneous amorphous layers with tailored magnetic anisotropy.

  9. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.

    2016-01-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  10. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammendola, R. [INFN Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Bauce, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Biagioni, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Fantechi, R. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Fiorini, M. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Giagu, S. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Gianoli, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Lamanna, G., E-mail: gianluca.lamanna@cern.ch [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Lonardo, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Messina, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); and others

    2016-07-11

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  11. Shape-Tailored Features and their Application to Texture Segmentation

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Naeemullah

    2014-04-01

    Texture Segmentation is one of the most challenging areas of computer vision. One reason for this difficulty is the huge variety and variability of textures occurring in real world, making it very difficult to quantitatively study textures. One of the key tools used for texture segmentation is local invariant descriptors. Texture consists of textons, the basic building block of textures, that may vary by small nuisances like illumination variation, deformations, and noise. Local invariant descriptors are robust to these nuisances making them beneficial for texture segmentation. However, grouping dense descriptors directly for segmentation presents a problem: existing descriptors aggregate data from neighborhoods that may contain different textured regions, making descriptors from these neighborhoods difficult to group, leading to significant errors in segmentation. This work addresses this issue by proposing dense local descriptors, called Shape-Tailored Features, which are tailored to an arbitrarily shaped region, aggregating data only within the region of interest. Since the segmentation, i.e., the regions, are not known a-priori, we propose a joint problem for Shape-Tailored Features and the regions. We present a framework based on variational methods. Extensive experiments on a new large texture dataset, which we introduce, show that the joint approach with Shape-Tailored Features leads to better segmentations over the non-joint non Shape-Tailored approach, and the method out-performs existing state-of-the-art.

  12. Tailored model abstraction in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs) are likely to be one of the most significant parts of making safety cases for the continued development and licensing of geologic repositories for the disposal of spent fuel and HLW. Thus, it is critical that the TSPA model capture the 'essence' of the physical processes relevant to demonstrating the appropriate regulation is met. But how much detail about the physical processes must be modeled and understood before there is enough confidence that the appropriate essence has been captured? In this summary the level of model abstraction that is required is discussed. Approaches for subsystem and total system performance analyses are outlined, and the role of best estimate models is examined. It is concluded that a conservative approach for repository performance, based on limited amount of field and laboratory data, can provide sufficient confidence for a regulatory decision

  13. Tailoring reablement: A grounded theory study of establishing reablement in a community setting in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Cathrine; Brinchmann, Berit Støre

    2018-01-01

    Reablement is an interprofessional, home-based rehabilitation service that aims to enable senior residents to cope with everyday life and to prevent functional impairments. Systematic accounts of what practitioners actually do when establishing reablement are lacking. This study aims to generate a grounded theory of practitioners' patterns of action when establishing reablement. The study is located in Norway, and grounded theory is the methodological approach. Data were collected from January 2014 to August 2016 through participant observations, focus group interviews and individual interviews. Informants are municipal healthcare employees in different organisational areas associated with the process of establishing reablement services (managers of conventional home care and representatives from the administration and service-provider offices). Altogether, 17 individuals are interviewed. The empirical data are analysed several times using open, selective and theoretical coding. The grounded theory, "tailoring reablement," includes three phases-replicating, adapting and establishing-and the strategies of collaborating, developing knowledge, habituating and filtering. The theory of tailoring reablement also includes the impact of the contextual factors. The study seeks to bridge the gap between research and practice. The theory of tailoring reablement emerges from an inductive approach and theorises participants' actions. The theory focuses on the phases from innovation to implementation. Establishing a new service model in a complex welfare setting requires a wide range of actors and agencies. Tailoring reablement also requires flexibility and professional autonomy. It is important to create terms and conditions for this within a stringent health and care service. The insights of this study have implications for practice development of reablement and can fit other public sector fields. © 2017 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community Published by John

  14. Building Tailorable Hypermedia Systems: The embedded-interpreter approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Malhotra, Jawahar

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach for developing dynamically tailorable hypermedia systems in an object-oriented environment. The approach is aimed at making applications developed in compiled languages like Beta and C++ tailorable at run-time. The approach is based on use of: 1) a hypermedia...... application framework (DEVISE Hyper-media), and 2) an embeddable interpreter for the framework language. A specific hypermedia system is instantiated from the framework with the interpreter embedded in the executable. The specific hypermedia system has a number of “open points” which can be filled via......-type. The paper describes the framework and illustrates how the interpreter is integrated. It describes steps involved in tailoring a specific hypermedia system with a new drawing media-type, where graphical objects can be endpoints for links. Since the hypermedia framework uses a persistent object...

  15. Continuous fields of land cover for the conterminous United States using Landsat data: First results from the Web-Enabled Landsat Data (WELD) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, M.C.; Egorov, Alexey; Roy, David P.; Potapov, P.; Ju, J.; Turubanova, S.; Kommareddy, I.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF) layers of 30 m percent tree cover, bare ground, other vegetation and probability of water were derived for the conterminous United States (CONUS) using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data sets from the Web-Enabled Landsat Data (WELD) project. Turnkey approaches to land cover characterization were enabled due to the systematic WELD Landsat processing, including conversion of digital numbers to calibrated top of atmosphere reflectance and brightness temperature, cloud masking, reprojection into a continental map projection and temporal compositing. Annual, seasonal and monthly WELD composites for 2008 were used as spectral inputs to a bagged regression and classification tree procedure using a large training data set derived from very high spatial resolution imagery and available ancillary data. The results illustrate the ability to perform Landsat land cover characterizations at continental scales that are internally consistent while retaining local spatial and thematic detail.

  16. Creating a knowledge-based economy in the United Arab Emirates: realising the unfulfilled potential of women in the science, technology and engineering fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal Aswad, Noor; Vidican, Georgeta; Samulewicz, Diana

    2011-12-01

    As the United Arab Emirates (UAE) moves towards a knowledge-based economy, maximising the participation of the national workforce, especially women, in the transformation process is crucial. Using survey methods and semi-structured interviews, this paper examines the factors that influence women's decisions regarding their degree programme and their attitudes towards science, technology and engineering (STE). The findings point to the importance of adapting mainstream policies to the local context and the need to better understand the effect of culture and society on the individual and the economy. There is a need to increase interest in STE by raising awareness of what the fields entail, potential careers and their suitability with existing cultural beliefs. Also suggested is the need to overcome negative stereotypes of engineering, implement initiatives for further family involvement at the higher education level, as well as the need to ensure a greater availability of STE university programmes across the UAE.

  17. THE BRECCE DELLA RENGA FORMATION: AGE AND SEDIMENTOLOGY OF A SYN-TECTONIC CLASTIC UNIT IN THE UPPER MIOCENE OF CENTRAL APENNINES. INSIGHTS FROM FIELD GEOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONE FABBI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the NE Simbruini Mountains, the “Brecce della Renga Fm.” is a clastic unit documenting sedimentation controlled by late Miocene extensional tectonics.The unit has been subdivided into three lithofacies and six sublithofacies, based on the arenite/rudite/pelite ratio. Massive and coarser (up to megablock size intervals are interpreted as rockfall deposits (likely induced by earthquakes at the toe of steep submarine escarpments. By contrast, finer levels are interpreted as having been sedimented through avalanching and turbidity flows in more distal settings, and are partly lateral to basinal hemipelagites and siliciclastic turbidites. Pelite lenses, found at various stratigraphic levels, are the result of ponded sedimentation along the clastic margin. Calcareous nannofossils analyses have been performed for age determinations on 60 fossiliferous samples, which were collected in each sublithofacies of the “Brecce della Renga Fm.”. The unit ranges from early Tortonian (MNN8b to early Messinian (MNN11c. The age and field geometries of the older breccias document the existence of a Tortonian extensional phase, which predated the late Messinian thrusting. A progradation of the clastic wedge can be observed in the Tortonian, while Messinian deposits show a fining upwards trend. The distribution curve of clastics over time can, given the number of synsedimentary faults mapped in the area, be put in relation with the seismicity induced by the activity along such faults, which after reaching an acme in the Tortonian gradually reached a quiescent state in the early Messinian, causing the backstepping of clastic facies.

  18. Shape-tailored polymer colloids on the road to become structural motifs for hierarchically organized materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plüisch, Claudia Simone; Wittemann, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Anisometric polymer colloids are likely to behave differently when compared with centrosymmetric particles. Their study may not only shine new light on the organization of matter; they may also serve as building units with specific symmetries and complexity to build new materials from them. Polymer colloids of well-defined complex geometries can be obtained by packing a limited number of spherical polymer particles into clusters with defined configurations. Such supracolloidal architectures can be fabricated at larger scales using narrowly dispersed emulsion droplets as templates. Assemblies built from at least two different types of particles as elementary building units open perspectives in selective targeting of colloids with specific properties, aiming for mesoscale building blocks with tailor-made morphologies and multifunctionality. Polymer colloids with defined geometries are also ideal to study shape-dependent properties such as the diffusion of complex particles. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The effect of the two tailored femtosecond laser pulses in the enhancement of methane dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadighi-Bonabi, R.; Dehghani, Z.; Irani, E.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Based on the gradient optimization method a useful approach for dissociation of the methane molecule is introduced. This analytical model produces an optimized two tailored rectangular laser pulses which dissociates the molecular ion CH 4 + with maximum probability of 1. In this approach the field assisted dissociation is used by a semi-classical view. It is assumed that only the selective dissociative bond is in direction of the laser electric field are effective. Saturation is found for dissociation of the mentioned molecular bond, where the first pulse should have higher intensity than the second pulse. In addition to that, the sensitivity of the dissociation probability to the initial bond length and the control of the desired product channel by variation of the laser intensity and its duration of laser field is presented.

  20. Stress concentrations at structural discontinuities in active fault zones in the western United States: Implications for permeability and fluid flow in geothermal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Drew; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Faulds, James E.

    2018-01-01

    Slip can induce concentration of stresses at discontinuities along fault systems. These structural discontinuities, i.e., fault terminations, fault step-overs, intersections, bends, and other fault interaction areas, are known to host fluid flow in ore deposition systems, oil and gas reservoirs, and geothermal systems. We modeled stress transfer associated with slip on faults with Holocene-to-historic slip histories at the Salt Wells and Bradys geothermal systems in western Nevada, United States. Results show discrete locations of stress perturbation within discontinuities along these fault systems. Well field data, surface geothermal manifestations, and subsurface temperature data, each a proxy for modern fluid circulation in the fields, indicate that geothermal fluid flow is focused in these same areas where stresses are most highly perturbed. These results suggest that submeter- to meter-scale slip on these fault systems generates stress perturbations that are sufficiently large to promote slip on an array of secondary structures spanning the footprint of the modern geothermal activity. Slip on these secondary faults and fractures generates permeability through kinematic deformation and allows for transmission of fluids. Still, mineralization is expected to seal permeability along faults and fractures over time scales that are generally shorter than either earthquake recurrence intervals or the estimated life span of geothermal fields. This suggests that though stress perturbations resulting from fault slip are broadly important for defining the location and spatial extent of enhanced permeability at structural discontinuities, continual generation and maintenance of flow conduits throughout these areas are probably dependent on the deformation mechanism(s) affecting individual structures.

  1. Zooming into local active galactic nuclei: the power of combining SDSS-IV MaNGA with higher resolution integral field unit observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Schnorr Müller, Allan; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Greene, Jenny E.; Müller-Sánchez, Francisco; Kelly, Michael; Liu, Guilin; Law, David R.; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Thomas, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Ionized gas outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are ubiquitous in high-luminosity AGN with outflow speeds apparently correlated with the total bolometric luminosity of the AGN. This empirical relation and theoretical work suggest that in the range Lbol ˜ 1043-45 erg s-1 there must exist a threshold luminosity above which the AGN becomes powerful enough to launch winds that will be able to escape the galaxy potential. In this paper, we present pilot observations of two AGN in this transitional range that were taken with the Gemini North Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit (IFU). Both sources have also previously been observed within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV (SDSS) Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. While the MaNGA IFU maps probe the gas fields on galaxy-wide scales and show that some regions are dominated by AGN ionization, the new Gemini IFU data zoom into the centre with four times better spatial resolution. In the object with the lower Lbol we find evidence of a young or stalled biconical AGN-driven outflow where none was obvious at the MaNGA resolution. In the object with the higher Lbol we trace the large-scale biconical outflow into the nuclear region and connect the outflow from small to large scales. These observations suggest that AGN luminosity and galaxy potential are crucial in shaping wind launching and propagation in low-luminosity AGN. The transition from small and young outflows to galaxy-wide feedback can only be understood by combining large-scale IFU data that trace the galaxy velocity field with higher resolution, small-scale IFU maps.

  2. Microstructural gradients in thin hard coatings -- tailor-made

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Oettel, Heinrich

    1998-01-01

    ) alternating sputtering with and without substrate voltage and (c) pulsed bias voltage. On the basis of X-ray diffraction measurements, it is demonstrated that residual stress gradients and texture gradients can be designed tailor-made. Furthermore, results of microhardness measurements and scratch tests...

  3. Tailorable Trimethyl chitosans as adjuvant for intranasal immunization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Tailorable Trimethyl Chitosans as Adjuvant for Intranasal Immunization Active vaccination has proven to be the most (cost) effective tool in the fight against infectious diseases. Nowadays, most vaccines are administered via parenteral injection. However, the risk of contaminated needles and need

  4. Enabling Tailored Music Programs in Elementary Schools: An Australian Exemplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina Skewes; Crooke, Alexander Hew Dale

    2014-01-01

    Participation in meaningful school music programs is the right of all children. Although music education is widely supported by policy, significant gaps exist in practice in most developed Western countries. These gaps mean the extrinsic and intrinsic benefits associated with participation in tailored programs are not equally available to all…

  5. Tailored Cloze: Improved with Classical Item Analysis Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    1988-01-01

    The reliability and validity of a cloze procedure used as an English-as-a-second-language (ESL) test in China were improved by applying traditional item analysis and selection techniques. The 'best' test items were chosen on the basis of item facility and discrimination indices, and were administered as a 'tailored cloze.' 29 references listed.…

  6. Comparing tailored and untailored text messages for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, L S; Ringgaard, L W; Dalum, P

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were...... of text messages increases quit rates among young smokers....

  7. Tailoring Dispersion properties of photonic crystal waveguides by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stainko, Roman; Sigmund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    based design updates. The goal of the optimization process is to come up with slow light, zero group velocity dispersion photonic waveguides or photonic waveguides with tailored dispersion properties for dispersion compensation purposes. Two examples concerning reproduction of a specific dispersion...

  8. Excellent bonding behaviour of novel surface-tailored fibre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    tured completely before pull-out, leading to full utilization of its tensile strength, and ... Composite rods; surface tailoring; cementitious matrix; pull-out test; bonding characteristics. 1. ... machine (Lloyd LR50K) at a speed of 0∙5 mm/min with a.

  9. Promotion of Active Aging using a tailored recommendation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrita, M.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    Active Aging deals with the support and integration of the elderly population in a society focusing on improving physical and mental well-being. Persuasive technology provides solutions for tailored interventions aiming at maintaining an active lifestyle. The present paper introduces the initial

  10. Understanding the impact of graphene sheet tailoring on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tailoring the channel decreases mobility and transmission probability to a great ... AGNR was used throughout the text so N denotes the number of dimer lines. Figure 2. .... ber of dimer lines and z is a positive integer) and through local density ...

  11. Application-Tailored I/O with Streamline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, W.J.; Bos, H.J.; Bal, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Streamline is a stream-based OS communication subsystem that spans from peripheral hardware to userspace processes. It improves performance of I/O-bound applications (such as webservers and streaming media applications) by constructing tailor-made I/O paths through the operating system for each

  12. Analysis, design and elastic tailoring of composite rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfield, Lawrence W.; Atilgan, Ali R.

    1987-01-01

    The development of structural models for composite rotor blades is summarized. The models are intended for use in design analysis for the purpose of exploring the potential of elastic tailoring. The research was performed at the Center for Rotary Wing Aircraft Technology.

  13. Tailor-made blanks for the aircraft industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zad Poor, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tailor-Made Blanks (TMBs) are hybrid assemblies made of sheet metals with different materials and/or thicknesses that are joined together prior to forming. Alternatively, a monolithic sheet can be machined to create required thickness variations (machined TMBs). The possibility of having several

  14. Tailoring Small IT Projects in the Project Planning Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhearn, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Project management (PM) and systems engineering (SE) are essential skills in information technology (IT). There is an abundance of information available detailing the comprehensive bodies of knowledge, standards, and best practices. Despite the volume of information, there is surprisingly little information about how to tailor PM and SE tasks for…

  15. Aerodynamic tailoring of the Learjet Model 60 wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Reuben M.; Hawke, Veronica M.; Hinson, Michael L.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Madson, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    The wing of the Learjet Model 60 was tailored for improved aerodynamic characteristics using the TRANAIR transonic full-potential computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. A root leading edge glove and wing tip fairing were shaped to reduce shock strength, improve cruise drag and extend the buffet limit. The aerodynamic design was validated by wind tunnel test and flight test data.

  16. The Promise of Tailoring Incentives for Healthy Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullgren, Jeffrey T; Williams, Geoffrey C; Resnicow, Kenneth; An, Lawrence C; Rothberg, Amy; Volpp, Kevin G; Heisler, Michele

    2016-01-01

    To describe how tailoring financial incentives for healthy behaviors to employees' goals, values, and aspirations might improve the efficacy of incentives. We integrate insights from self-determination theory (SDT) with principles from behavioral economics in the design of financial incentives by linking how incentives could help meet an employee's life goals, values, or aspirations. Tailored financial incentives could be more effective than standard incentives in promoting autonomous motivation necessary to initiate healthy behaviors and sustain them after incentives are removed. Previous efforts to improve the design of financial incentives have tested different incentive designs that vary the size, schedule, timing, and target of incentives. Our strategy for tailoring incentives builds on strong evidence that difficult behavior changes are more successful when integrated with important life goals and values. We outline necessary research to examine the effectiveness of this approach among at-risk employees. Instead of offering simple financial rewards for engaging in healthy behaviors, existing programs could leverage incentives to promote employees' autonomous motivation for sustained health improvements. Effective application of these concepts could lead to programs more effective at improving health, potentially at lower cost. Our approach for the first time integrates key insights from SDT, behavioral economics, and tailoring to turn an extrinsic reward for behavior change into an internalized, self-sustaining motivator for long-term engagement in risk-reducing behaviors.

  17. Anti-Mullerian hormone-tailored stimulation protocols improve outcomes whilst reducing adverse effects and costs of IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, A P; Rustamov, O; Roberts, S A; Lim, H Y N; Pemberton, P W; Smith, A; Nardo, L G

    2011-09-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is increasingly used to quantify ovarian reserve, but it has not yet realized its full clinical potential in assisted reproduction technology. We investigated the possible benefits of using novel, stratified ovarian hyperstimulation protocols, tailored to individual AMH levels, compared with conventional stimulation. Retrospective data were collected from 769 women (first cycle of IVF, using fresh embryos), in a UK tertiary care unit: 346 women using conventional stimulation protocols; 423 women treated under new AMH-tailored protocols. Embryo transfer rates increased significantly (79-87%: P= 0.002) after the introduction of AMH-tailored stimulation protocols. Pregnancy rate per cycle started and live birth rate also increased significantly compared with conventionally treated women (17.9-27.7%, P= 0.002 and 15.9-23.9%, P = 0.007, respectively). Moreover, in the AMH group, the incidence of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) fell significantly (6.9-2.3%, P = 0.002) and failed fertilization fell from 7.8 to 4.5%. The cost of fertility drug treatment fell by 29% per patient and the overall cost of clinical management of OHSS fell by 43% in the AMH group. GnRH antagonist protocols, introduced as part of AMH-tailored treatment, may have contributed to the observed improvements: however, within the AMH-tailored group, the live birth rate was not significantly different between agonist and antagonist-treated groups. Although large, prospective, multicentre studies are indicated, we have clearly demonstrated that individualized, AMH-guided, controlled ovarian hyperstimulation protocols significantly improved positive clinical outcomes, reduced the incidence of complications and reduced the financial burden associated with assisted reproduction.

  18. Identifying Possible Pheromones of Cerambycid Beetles by Field Testing Known Pheromone Components in Four Widely Separated Regions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Jocelyn G; Mitchell, Robert F; Mongold-Diers, Judith A; Zou, Yunfan; Bográn, Carlos E; Fierke, Melissa K; Ginzel, Matthew D; Johnson, Crawford W; Meeker, James R; Poland, Therese M; Ragenovich, Iral; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2018-02-09

    The pheromone components of many cerambycid beetles appear to be broadly shared among related species, including species native to different regions of the world. This apparent conservation of pheromone structures within the family suggests that field trials of common pheromone components could be used as a means of attracting multiple species, which then could be targeted for full identification of their pheromones. Here, we describe the results of such field trials that were conducted in nine states in the northeastern, midwestern, southern, and western United States. Traps captured 12,742 cerambycid beetles of 153 species and subspecies. Species attracted in significant numbers to a particular treatment (some in multiple regions) included 19 species in the subfamily Cerambycinae, 15 species in the Lamiinae, one species in the Prioninae, and two species in the Spondylidinae. Pheromones or likely pheromones for many of these species, such as 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and syn- and anti-2,3-hexanediols for cerambycine species, and fuscumol and/or fuscumol acetate for lamiine species, had already been identified. New information about attractants (in most cases likely pheromone components) was found for five cerambycine species (Ancylocera bicolor [Olivier], Elaphidion mucronatum [Say], Knulliana cincta cincta [Drury], Phymatodes aeneus LeConte, and Rusticoclytus annosus emotus [Brown]), and five lamiine species (Ecyrus dasycerus dasycerus [Say], Lepturges symmetricus [Haldeman], Sternidius misellus [LeConte], Styloleptus biustus biustus [LeConte], and Urgleptes signatus [LeConte]). Consistent attraction of some species to the same compounds in independent bioassays demonstrated the utility and reliability of pheromone-based methods for sampling cerambycid populations across broad spatial scales. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. 200-BP-11 operable unit and 216-B-3 main pond work/closure plan, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Volume 1: Field investigation and sampling strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document coordinates a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) past-practice work plan for the 200-BP-11 Operable Unit and a RCRA closure/postclosure plan for the 216-B-3 Main Pond and 216-B-3-3 Ditch [treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit]. Both RCRA TSD and past-practice waste management units are contained within the 200-BP-11 Operable Unit. The 200-BP-11 Operable Unit is a source operable unit located on the east side of the B Plant Source Aggregate Area in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The operable unit lies just east of the 200 East Area perimeter fence and encompass approximately 476 hectares (1,175 acres). Source operable units include waste management units that are potential sources of radioactive and/or hazardous substance contamination. Source waste management units are categorized in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order as either RCRA TSD, RCRA past-practice, or Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) past-practice. As listed below and in the Tri-Party Agreement, the 200-BP-11 Operable Unit contains five RCRA past-practice and five RCRA TSD waste management units. Additionally, for RCRA TSD permitting purposes, the RCRA TSD waste management units are subdivided into two RCRA TSD units

  20. Multi-parameter Nonlinear Gain Correction of X-ray Transition Edge Sensors for the X-ray Integral Field Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchetti, E.; Eckart, M. E.; Peille, P.; Porter, F. S.; Pajot, F.; Pointecouteau, E.

    2018-04-01

    With its array of 3840 Transition Edge Sensors (TESs), the Athena X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) will provide spatially resolved high-resolution spectroscopy (2.5 eV up to 7 keV) from 0.2 to 12 keV, with an absolute energy scale accuracy of 0.4 eV. Slight changes in the TES operating environment can cause significant variations in its energy response function, which may result in systematic errors in the absolute energy scale. We plan to monitor such changes at pixel level via onboard X-ray calibration sources and correct the energy scale accordingly using a linear or quadratic interpolation of gain curves obtained during ground calibration. However, this may not be sufficient to meet the 0.4 eV accuracy required for the X-IFU. In this contribution, we introduce a new two-parameter gain correction technique, based on both the pulse-height estimate of a fiducial line and the baseline value of the pixels. Using gain functions that simulate ground calibration data, we show that this technique can accurately correct deviations in detector gain due to changes in TES operating conditions such as heat sink temperature, bias voltage, thermal radiation loading and linear amplifier gain. We also address potential optimisations of the onboard calibration source and compare the performance of this new technique with those previously used.

  1. Effect of field-of-view size on gray values derived from cone-beam computed tomography compared with the Hounsfield unit values from multidetector computed tomography scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Abbas; Ramezani, Leila; Bidgoli, Mohsen; Akbarzadeh, Mahdi; Ghazikhanlu-Sani, Karim; Fallahi-Sichani, Hamed

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of field-of-view (FOV) size on the gray values derived from conebeam computed tomography (CBCT) compared with the Hounsfield unit values from multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scans as the gold standard. A radiographic phantom was designed with 4 acrylic cylinders. One cylinder was filled with distilled water, and the other 3 were filled with 3 types of bone substitute: namely, Nanobone, Cenobone, and Cerabone. The phantom was scanned with 2 CBCT systems using 2 different FOV sizes, and 1 MDCT system was used as the gold standard. The mean gray values (MGVs) of each cylinder were calculated in each imaging protocol. In both CBCT systems, significant differences were noted in the MGVs of all materials between the 2 FOV sizes ( P <.05) except for Cerabone in the Cranex3D system. Significant differences were found in the MGVs of each material compared with the others in both FOV sizes for each CBCT system. No significant difference was seen between the Cranex3D CBCT system and the MDCT system in the MGVs of bone substitutes on images obtained with a small FOV. The size of the FOV significantly changed the MGVs of all bone substitutes, except for Cerabone in the Cranex3D system. Both CBCT systems had the ability to distinguish the 3 types of bone substitutes based on a comparison of their MGVs. The Cranex3D CBCT system used with a small FOV had a significant correlation with MDCT results.

  2. Mapping the Information Trace in Local Field Potentials by a Computational Method of Two-Dimensional Time-Shifting Synchronization Likelihood Based on Graphic Processing Unit Acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Fang; Li, Xue-Zhu; Wan, You

    2017-12-01

    The local field potential (LFP) is a signal reflecting the electrical activity of neurons surrounding the electrode tip. Synchronization between LFP signals provides important details about how neural networks are organized. Synchronization between two distant brain regions is hard to detect using linear synchronization algorithms like correlation and coherence. Synchronization likelihood (SL) is a non-linear synchronization-detecting algorithm widely used in studies of neural signals from two distant brain areas. One drawback of non-linear algorithms is the heavy computational burden. In the present study, we proposed a graphic processing unit (GPU)-accelerated implementation of an SL algorithm with optional 2-dimensional time-shifting. We tested the algorithm with both artificial data and raw LFP data. The results showed that this method revealed detailed information from original data with the synchronization values of two temporal axes, delay time and onset time, and thus can be used to reconstruct the temporal structure of a neural network. Our results suggest that this GPU-accelerated method can be extended to other algorithms for processing time-series signals (like EEG and fMRI) using similar recording techniques.

  3. Highly tailorable thiol-ene based emulsion-templated monoliths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, J. P.; Kutter, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    The attractive surface properties of thiol-ene polymers combined with their ease of processing make them ideal substrates in many bioanalytical applications. We report the synthesis of highly tailorable emulsion-templated porous polymers and beads in microfluidic devices based on off-stoichiometr......The attractive surface properties of thiol-ene polymers combined with their ease of processing make them ideal substrates in many bioanalytical applications. We report the synthesis of highly tailorable emulsion-templated porous polymers and beads in microfluidic devices based on off......-stoichiometry thiolene chemistry. The method allows monolith synthesis and anchoring inside thiol-ene microchannels in a single step. Variations in the monomer stoichiometric ratios and/or amount of porogen used allow for the creation of extremely varied polymer morphologies, from foam-like materials to dense networks...

  4. FSW of Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks across Machine Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Upadhyay, Piyush; Carlson, Blair; Szymanski, Robert; Luzanski, Tom; Marshall, Dustin

    2015-02-16

    Development and characterization of friction stir welded aluminum tailor welded blanks was successfully carried out on three separate machine platforms. Each was a commercially available, gantry style, multi-axis machine designed specifically for friction stir welding. Weld parameters were developed to support high volume production of dissimilar thickness aluminum tailor welded blanks at speeds of 3 m/min and greater. Parameters originally developed on an ultra-high stiffness servo driven machine where first transferred to a high stiffness servo-hydraulic friction stir welding machine, and subsequently transferred to a purpose built machine designed to accommodate thin sheet aluminum welding. The inherent beam stiffness, bearing compliance, and control system for each machine were distinctly unique, which posed specific challenges in transferring welding parameters across machine platforms. This work documents the challenges imposed by successfully transferring weld parameters from machine to machine, produced from different manufacturers and with unique control systems and interfaces.

  5. PULSED MODE LASER CUTTING OF SHEETS FOR TAILORED BLANKS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes how the laser cutting process can be optimised in such a way that the cut sheets can subsequently be used to laser weld tailored blanks. In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the effect of cutting speed, assist gas pressure, average laser power and pulse energy...... item for parameter optimisation of laser cut sheets used for tailored blanks. It was concluded that high quality cut edges with a squareness as small as 0.015 mm may be obtained. Such edges are well suited for subsequent laser welding....... was analysed. For quality assessment the squareness, roughness and dross attachment of laser cut blanks were measured. In all tests, the medium strength steel GA 260 with a thickness of 1.8 mm was used. In this work it has been successfully demonstrated that the squareness of a cut can be used as a quality...

  6. Quantum condensation from a tailored exciton population in a microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, P. R.; Phillips, R. T.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment is proposed on the coherent quantum dynamics of a semiconductor microcavity containing quantum dots. Modeling the experiment using a generalized Dicke model, we show that a tailored excitation pulse can create an energy-dependent population of excitons, which subsequently evolves to a quantum condensate of excitons and photons. The population is created by a generalization of adiabatic rapid passage and then condenses due to a dynamical analog of the BCS instability.

  7. Towards collaborative filtering recommender systems for tailored health communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, Benjamin M; Adams, Roy J; Sadasivam, Rajani; Houston, Thomas K

    2013-01-01

    The goal of computer tailored health communications (CTHC) is to promote healthy behaviors by sending messages tailored to individual patients. Current CTHC systems collect baseline patient "profiles" and then use expert-written, rule-based systems to target messages to subsets of patients. Our main interest in this work is the study of collaborative filtering-based CTHC systems that can learn to tailor future message selections to individual patients based explicit feedback about past message selections. This paper reports the results of a study designed to collect explicit feedback (ratings) regarding four aspects of messages from 100 subjects in the smoking cessation support domain. Our results show that most users have positive opinions of most messages and that the ratings for all four aspects of the messages are highly correlated with each other. Finally, we conduct a range of rating prediction experiments comparing several different model variations. Our results show that predicting future ratings based on each user's past ratings contributes the most to predictive accuracy.

  8. A porous ceramic membrane tailored high-temperature supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; He, Benlin; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qunwei

    2018-03-01

    The supercapacitor that can operate at high-temperature are promising for markedly increase in capacitance because of accelerated charge movement. However, the state-of-the-art polymer-based membranes will decompose at high temperature. Inspired by solid oxide fuel cells, we present here the experimental realization of high-temperature supercapacitors (HTSCs) tailored with porous ceramic separator fabricated by yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and nickel oxide (NiO). Using activated carbon electrode and supporting electrolyte from potassium hydroxide (KOH) aqueous solution, a category of symmetrical HTSCs are built in comparison with a conventional polymer membrane based device. The dependence of capacitance performance on temperature is carefully studied, yielding a maximized specific capacitance of 272 F g-1 at 90 °C for the optimized HTSC tailored by NiO/YSZ membrane. Moreover, the resultant HTSC has relatively high durability when suffer repeated measurement over 1000 cycles at 90 °C, while the polymer membrane based supercapacitor shows significant reduction in capacitance at 60 °C. The high capacitance along with durability demonstrates NiO/YSZ membrane tailored HTSCs are promising in future advanced energy storage devices.

  9. Manufacturing of tailored tubes with a process integrated heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordych, Illia; Boiarkin, Viacheslav; Rodman, Dmytro; Nürnberger, Florian

    2017-10-01

    The usage of work-pieces with tailored properties allows for reducing costs and materials. One example are tailored tubes that can be used as end parts e.g. in the automotive industry or in domestic applications as well as semi-finished products for subsequent controlled deformation processes. An innovative technology to manufacture tubes is roll forming with a subsequent inductive heating and adapted quenching to obtain tailored properties in the longitudinal direction. This processing offers a great potential for the production of tubes with a wide range of properties, although this novel approach still requires a suited process design. Based on experimental data, a process simulation is being developed. The simulation shall be suitable for a virtual design of the tubes and allows for gaining a deeper understanding of the required processing. The model proposed shall predict microstructural and mechanical tube properties by considering process parameters, different geometries, batch-related influences etc. A validation is carried out using experimental data of tubes manufactured from various steel grades.

  10. Feasibility of tailoring of press formed thermoplastic composite parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, J.

    2018-05-01

    The Tailor Made Blank concept is widely accepted in the production of sheet metal parts. By joining, adding and subtracting materials, and sometimes even applying different alloys, parts can be produced more efficiently by cost and/or weight, and new design options have been discovered. This paper is about the manufacture of press formed parts of Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastics and the evaluation whether the Tailoring concept, though adapted to the material behavior of FRTP, can be applied to these composites as well. From research, the first results and ideas are presented. One of the ideas is the multistep forming process, creating parts with thickness variations and combinations of fibre orientations that are usually not feasible using common press forming strategies. Another idea is the blending of different prepreg materials in one component. This might be useful in case of specific details, like for areas of mechanical fastening or to avoid carbon/metal contact, otherwise resulting in severe corrosion. In a brief overview, future perspectives of the potential of the Tailoring concept are presented.

  11. Are we there yet? An examination of online tailored health communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, L Suzanne; McIntyre, Chris

    2009-04-01

    Increasingly, the Internet is playing an important role in consumer health and patient-provider communication. Seventy-three percent of American adults are now online, and 79% have searched for health information on the Internet. This study provides a baseline understanding of the extent to which health consumers are able to find tailored communication online. It describes the current behavioral focus, the channels being used to deliver the tailored content, and the level of tailoring in online-tailored communication. A content analysis of 497 health Web sites found few examples of personalized, targeted, or tailored health sites freely available online. Tailored content was provided in 13 Web sites, although 15 collected individual data. More health risk assessment (HRA) sites included tailored feedback than other topics. The patterns that emerged from the analysis demonstrate that online health users can access a number of Web sites with communication tailored to their needs.

  12. The Senior Companion Program Plus: A culturally tailored psychoeducational training program (innovative practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Noelle L; Xu, Ling; Richardson, Virginia E; Parekh, Rupal; Ivey, Dorothea; Feinhals, Gretchen; Calhoun, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    A purposive sample of African American Senior Companions ( N = 23) participated in a 5-day, 20-hour psychoeducational training designed to address the unique cultural needs of African American dementia caregivers. Previous studies have not utilized lay caregiver volunteers such as Senior Companions in dementia research in the United States. Pre- and post-tests were administered to determine whether African American Senior Companions increased their knowledge of Alzheimer's disease after participating in the Senior Companion Program Plus. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data suggest that participants improved their understanding of Alzheimer's disease. Findings from the Senior Companion Program Plus pilot warrant further study for its potential as cost effective, culturally tailored training for Senior Companions who serve persons with dementia and their family caregivers.

  13. Tailoring automatic exposure control toward constant detectability in digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvagnini, Elena; Bosmans, Hilde; Struelens, Lara; Marshall, Nicholas W

    2015-07-01

    The automatic exposure control (AEC) modes of most full field digital mammography (FFDM) systems are set up to hold pixel value (PV) constant as breast thickness changes. This paper proposes an alternative AEC mode, set up to maintain some minimum detectability level, with the ultimate goal of improving object detectability at larger breast thicknesses. The default "opdose" AEC mode of a Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration FFDM system was assessed using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) of thickness 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 mm to find the tube voltage and anode/filter combination programmed for each thickness; these beam quality settings were used for the modified AEC mode. Detectability index (d'), in terms of a non-prewhitened model observer with eye filter, was then calculated as a function of tube current-time product (mAs) for each thickness. A modified AEC could then be designed in which detectability never fell below some minimum setting for any thickness in the operating range. In this study, the value was chosen such that the system met the achievable threshold gold thickness (Tt) in the European guidelines for the 0.1 mm diameter disc (i.e., Tt ≤ 1.10 μm gold). The default and modified AEC modes were compared in terms of contrast-detail performance (Tt), calculated detectability (d'), signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), and mean glandular dose (MGD). The influence of a structured background on object detectability for both AEC modes was examined using a CIRS BR3D phantom. Computer-based CDMAM reading was used for the homogeneous case, while the images with the BR3D background were scored by human observers. The default opdose AEC mode maintained PV constant as PMMA thickness increased, leading to a reduction in SDNR for the homogeneous background 39% and d' 37% in going from 20 to 70 mm; introduction of the structured BR3D plate changed these figures to 22% (SDNR) and 6% (d'), respectively. Threshold gold thickness (0.1 mm diameter disc) for the default

  14. Tailoring automatic exposure control toward constant detectability in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvagnini, Elena, E-mail: elena.salvagnini@uzleuven.be [Department of Imaging and Pathology, Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, KUL, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000, Belgium and SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, Mol 2400 (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde [Department of Imaging and Pathology, Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, KUL, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000, Belgium and Department of Radiology, UZ Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000 (Belgium); Struelens, Lara [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, Mol 2400 (Belgium); Marshall, Nicholas W. [Department of Radiology, UZ Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000 (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The automatic exposure control (AEC) modes of most full field digital mammography (FFDM) systems are set up to hold pixel value (PV) constant as breast thickness changes. This paper proposes an alternative AEC mode, set up to maintain some minimum detectability level, with the ultimate goal of improving object detectability at larger breast thicknesses. Methods: The default “OPDOSE” AEC mode of a Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration FFDM system was assessed using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) of thickness 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 mm to find the tube voltage and anode/filter combination programmed for each thickness; these beam quality settings were used for the modified AEC mode. Detectability index (d′), in terms of a non-prewhitened model observer with eye filter, was then calculated as a function of tube current-time product (mAs) for each thickness. A modified AEC could then be designed in which detectability never fell below some minimum setting for any thickness in the operating range. In this study, the value was chosen such that the system met the achievable threshold gold thickness (T{sub t}) in the European guidelines for the 0.1 mm diameter disc (i.e., T{sub t} ≤ 1.10 μm gold). The default and modified AEC modes were compared in terms of contrast-detail performance (T{sub t}), calculated detectability (d′), signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), and mean glandular dose (MGD). The influence of a structured background on object detectability for both AEC modes was examined using a CIRS BR3D phantom. Computer-based CDMAM reading was used for the homogeneous case, while the images with the BR3D background were scored by human observers. Results: The default OPDOSE AEC mode maintained PV constant as PMMA thickness increased, leading to a reduction in SDNR for the homogeneous background 39% and d′ 37% in going from 20 to 70 mm; introduction of the structured BR3D plate changed these figures to 22% (SDNR) and 6% (d′), respectively

  15. Direct synthesis of antimicrobial coatings based on tailored bi-elemental nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Benetti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrathin coatings based on bi-elemental nanoparticles (NPs are very promising to limit the surface-related spread of bacterial pathogens, particularly in nosocomial environments. However, tailoring the synthesis, composition, adhesion to substrate, and antimicrobial spectrum of the coating is an open challenge. Herein, we report on a radically new nanostructured coating, obtained by a one-step gas-phase deposition technique, and composed of bi-elemental Janus type Ag/Ti NPs. The NPs are characterized by a cluster-in-cluster mixing phase with metallic Ag nano-crystals embedded in amorphous TiO2 and present a promising antimicrobial activity including also multidrug resistant strains. We demonstrate the flexibility of the method to tune the embedded Ag nano-crystals dimension, the total relative composition of the coating, and the substrate type, opening the possibility of tailoring the dimension, composition, antimicrobial spectrum, and other physical/chemical properties of such multi-elemental systems. This work is expected to significantly spread the range of applications of NPs coatings, not only as an effective tool in the prevention of healthcare-associated infections but also in other technologically relevant fields like sensors or nano-/micro joining.

  16. Control of core structure in MgB{sub 2} wire through tailoring boron powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Minoru, E-mail: maeda.minoru70@nihon-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Uchiyama, Daisuke [Department of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Ma, Zongqing [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Shahabuddin, Mohammed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Kim, Jung Ho, E-mail: jhk@uow.edu.au [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia)

    2015-07-05

    Highlights: • The typical void structure in the wire is obtained by using large-sized B powder. • In contrast, void alignment can be achieved by using fine B powder. • The sintering at lower temperatures improves the critical current density in fields. - Abstract: A common fabrication process for MgB{sub 2} wire, namely, the in situ powder-in-tube process, forms numerous voids within the wire core, and void formation cannot be completely avoided. The orientation is, however, known to be aligned more or less along the current-flow direction when ductile coarse magnesium powder is used as a precursor, and further tailoring approaches could open up the way to improving the transport critical current density. Herein, we have used boron powders with different particle sizes, in combination with the coarse magnesium powder, and evaluated their size effects on the phase composition, microstructure, and transport properties. A mixture of the coarse magnesium powder with large-sized boron powder in the wire core, after cold working and sintering, forms a granular morphology. In contrast, an aligned core appears during the reduction process for wire which is prepared by using fine boron powder. The sintering process, especially at a low temperature, where magnesium evaporation hardly occurs, yields an aligned structure, mainly consisting of MgB{sub 2} phase, along the wire direction. These findings demonstrate that the initial size of the starting materials is critical for the tailored structure.

  17. Direct synthesis of antimicrobial coatings based on tailored bi-elemental nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Giulio; Cavaliere, Emanuele; Canteri, Adalberto; Landini, Giulia; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Pallecchi, Lucia; Chiodi, Mirco; Van Bael, Margriet J.; Winckelmans, Naomi; Bals, Sara; Gavioli, Luca

    2017-03-01

    Ultrathin coatings based on bi-elemental nanoparticles (NPs) are very promising to limit the surface-related spread of bacterial pathogens, particularly in nosocomial environments. However, tailoring the synthesis, composition, adhesion to substrate, and antimicrobial spectrum of the coating is an open challenge. Herein, we report on a radically new nanostructured coating, obtained by a one-step gas-phase deposition technique, and composed of bi-elemental Janus type Ag/Ti NPs. The NPs are characterized by a cluster-in-cluster mixing phase with metallic Ag nano-crystals embedded in amorphous TiO2 and present a promising antimicrobial activity including also multidrug resistant strains. We demonstrate the flexibility of the method to tune the embedded Ag nano-crystals dimension, the total relative composition of the coating, and the substrate type, opening the possibility of tailoring the dimension, composition, antimicrobial spectrum, and other physical/chemical properties of such multi-elemental systems. This work is expected to significantly spread the range of applications of NPs coatings, not only as an effective tool in the prevention of healthcare-associated infections but also in other technologically relevant fields like sensors or nano-/micro joining.

  18. A field-based characterization of conductivity in areas of minimal alteration: A case example in the Cascades of northwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Susan M; Zheng, Lei; Hayslip, Gretchen; Flaherty, Colleen M

    2018-08-15

    The concentration of salts in streams is increasing world-wide making freshwater a declining resource. Developing thresholds for freshwater with low specific conductivity (SC), a measure of dissolved ions in water, may protect high quality resources that are refugia for aquatic life and that dilute downstream waters. In this case example, methods are illustrated for estimating protective levels for streams with low SC. The Cascades in the Pacific Northwest of the United States of America was selected for the case study because a geophysical model indicated that the SC of freshwater streams was likely to be very low. Also, there was an insufficient range in the SC data to accurately derive a criterion using the 2011, US Environmental Protection Agency field-based extirpation concentration distribution method. Instead, background and a regression model was used to estimate chronic and acute SC levels that could extirpate 5% of benthic invertebrate genera. Background SC was estimated at the 25th centile (33μS/cm) of the measured data and used as the independent variable in a least squares empirical background-to-criteria (B-C) model. Because no comparison could be made with effect levels estimated from a paired SC and biological data set from the Cascades, the lower 50% prediction limit (PL) was identified as an example chronic water quality criterion (97μS/cm). The maximum exposure threshold was estimated at the 90th centile SC of streams meeting the chronic SC level. The example acute SC level was 190μS/cm. Because paired aquatic life and SC data are often sparse, the B-C method is useful for developing SC criteria for other systems with limited data. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Transition-Edge Sensor Pixel Parameter Design of the Microcalorimeter Array for the X-Ray Integral Field Unit on Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Betancourt-Martinez, G. L.; Chervenak, J. A.; Chiao, M. P.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The focal plane of the X-ray integral field unit (X-IFU) for ESA's Athena X-ray observatory will consist of approximately 4000 transition edge sensor (TES) x-ray microcalorimeters optimized for the energy range of 0.2 to 12 kiloelectronvolts. The instrument will provide unprecedented spectral resolution of approximately 2.5 electronvolts at energies of up to 7 kiloelectronvolts and will accommodate photon fluxes of 1 milliCrab (90 counts per second) for point source observations. The baseline configuration is a uniform large pixel array (LPA) of 4.28 arcseconds pixels that is read out using frequency domain multiplexing (FDM). However, an alternative configuration under study incorporates an 18 by × 18 small pixel array (SPA) of 2 arcseconds pixels in the central approximately 36 arcseconds region. This hybrid array configuration could be designed to accommodate higher fluxes of up to 10 milliCrabs (900 counts per second) or alternately for improved spectral performance (less than 1.5 electronvolts) at low count-rates. In this paper we report on the TES pixel designs that are being optimized to meet these proposed LPA and SPA configurations. In particular we describe details of how important TES parameters are chosen to meet the specific mission criteria such as energy resolution, count-rate and quantum efficiency, and highlight performance trade-offs between designs. The basis of the pixel parameter selection is discussed in the context of existing TES arrays that are being developed for solar and x-ray astronomy applications. We describe the latest results on DC biased diagnostic arrays as well as large format kilo-pixel arrays and discuss the technical challenges associated with integrating different array types on to a single detector die.

  20. Transition-edge sensor pixel parameter design of the microcalorimeter array for the x-ray integral field unit on Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Betancourt-Martinez, G. L.; Chervenak, J. A.; Chiao, M. P.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Miniussi, A. R.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Sakai, K.; Wakeham, N. A.; Wassell, E. J.; Yoon, W.; Bennett, D. A.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Morgan, K. M.; Pappas, C. G.; Reintsema, C. N.; Swetz, D. S.; Ullom, J. N.; Irwin, K. D.; Akamatsu, H.; Gottardi, L.; den Hartog, R.; Jackson, B. D.; van der Kuur, J.; Barret, D.; Peille, P.

    2016-07-01

    The focal plane of the X-ray integral field unit (X-IFU) for ESA's Athena X-ray observatory will consist of 4000 transition edge sensor (TES) x-ray microcalorimeters optimized for the energy range of 0.2 to 12 keV. The instrument will provide unprecedented spectral resolution of 2.5 eV at energies of up to 7 keV and will accommodate photon fluxes of 1 mCrab (90 cps) for point source observations. The baseline configuration is a uniform large pixel array (LPA) of 4.28" pixels that is read out using frequency domain multiplexing (FDM). However, an alternative configuration under study incorporates an 18 × 18 small pixel array (SPA) of 2" pixels in the central 36" region. This hybrid array configuration could be designed to accommodate higher fluxes of up to 10 mCrab (900 cps) or alternately for improved spectral performance (< 1.5 eV) at low count-rates. In this paper we report on the TES pixel designs that are being optimized to meet these proposed LPA and SPA configurations. In particular we describe details of how important TES parameters are chosen to meet the specific mission criteria such as energy resolution, count-rate and quantum efficiency, and highlight performance trade-offs between designs. The basis of the pixel parameter selection is discussed in the context of existing TES arrays that are being developed for solar and x-ray astronomy applications. We describe the latest results on DC biased diagnostic arrays as well as large format kilo-pixel arrays and discuss the technical challenges associated with integrating different array types on to a single detector die.

  1. Computer experimental analysis of the CHP performance of a 100 kW e SOFC Field Unit by a factorial design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calì, M.; Santarelli, M. G. L.; Leone, P.

    Gas Turbine Technologies (GTT) and Politecnico di Torino, both located in Torino (Italy), have been involved in the design and installation of a SOFC laboratory in order to analyse the operation, in cogenerative configuration, of the CHP 100 kW e SOFC Field Unit, built by Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC), which is at present (May 2005) starting its operation and which will supply electric and thermal power to the GTT factory. In order to take the better advantage from the analysis of the on-site operation, and especially to correctly design the scheduled experimental tests on the system, we developed a mathematical model and run a simulated experimental campaign, applying a rigorous statistical approach to the analysis of the results. The aim of this work is the computer experimental analysis, through a statistical methodology (2 k factorial experiments), of the CHP 100 performance. First, the mathematical model has been calibrated with the results acquired during the first CHP100 demonstration at EDB/ELSAM in Westerwoort. After, the simulated tests have been performed in the form of computer experimental session, and the measurement uncertainties have been simulated with perturbation imposed to the model independent variables. The statistical methodology used for the computer experimental analysis is the factorial design (Yates' Technique): using the ANOVA technique the effect of the main independent variables (air utilization factor U ox, fuel utilization factor U F, internal fuel and air preheating and anodic recycling flow rate) has been investigated in a rigorous manner. Analysis accounts for the effects of parameters on stack electric power, thermal recovered power, single cell voltage, cell operative temperature, consumed fuel flow and steam to carbon ratio. Each main effect and interaction effect of parameters is shown with particular attention on generated electric power and stack heat recovered.

  2. Floquet Engineering of Optical Solenoids and Quantized Charge Pumping along Tailored Paths in Two-Dimensional Chern Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Botao; Ünal, F. Nur; Eckardt, André

    2018-06-01

    The insertion of a local magnetic flux, as the one created by a thin solenoid, plays an important role in gedanken experiments of quantum Hall physics. By combining Floquet engineering of artificial magnetic fields with the ability of single-site addressing in quantum gas microscopes, we propose a scheme for the realization of such local solenoid-type magnetic fields in optical lattices. We show that it can be employed to manipulate and probe elementary excitations of a topological Chern insulator. This includes quantized adiabatic charge pumping along tailored paths inside the bulk, as well as the controlled population of edge modes.

  3. Hardware Tailored Linear Algebra for Implicit Integrators in Embedded NMPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frison, Gianluca; Quirynen, Rien; Zanelli, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    . In the case of stiff or implicitly defined dynamics, implicit integration schemes are typically preferred. This paper proposes a tailored implementation of the necessary linear algebra routines (LU factorization and triangular solutions), in order to allow for a considerable computational speedup...... of such integrators. In particular, the open-source BLASFEO framework is presented as a library of efficient linear algebra routines for small to medium-scale embedded optimization applications. Its performance is illustrated on the nonlinear optimal control example of a chain of masses. The proposed library allows...

  4. Tailored solar optics for maximal optical tolerance and concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Alex [Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); Gordon, Jeffrey M. [Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); The Pearlstone Center for Aeronautical Engineering Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheva (Israel)

    2011-02-15

    Recently identified fundamental classes of dual-mirror double-tailored nonimaging optics have the potential to satisfy the pragmatic exigencies of concentrator photovoltaics. Via a comprehensive survey of their parameter space, including raytrace verification, we identify champion high-concentration high-efficiency designs that offer unprecedented optical tolerance (i.e., sensitivity to off-axis orientation) - a pivotal figure-of-merit with a basic bound that depends on concentration, exit angle, and effective solar angular radius. For comparison, results for the best corresponding dual-mirror aplanatic concentrators are also presented. (author)

  5. Tailoring spin-orbit torque in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang; Wang, Xuhui; Doǧan, Fatih; Manchon, Aurelien

    2013-01-01

    We study the spin orbit torque arising from an intrinsic linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in a single layer III-V diluted magnetic semiconductor. We investigate the transport properties and spin torque using the linear response theory, and we report here: (1) a strong correlation exists between the angular dependence of the torque and the anisotropy of the Fermi surface; (2) the spin orbit torque depends nonlinearly on the exchange coupling. Our findings suggest the possibility to tailor the spin orbit torque magnitude and angular dependence by structural design.

  6. Tailoring silver nanoparticle construction using dendrimer templated silica networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaojun; Kakkar, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    We have examined the role of the internal environment of dendrimer templated silica networks in tailoring the construction of silver nanoparticle assemblies. Silica networks from which 3,5-dihydroxybenzyl alcohol based dendrimer templates have been completely removed, slowly wet with an aqueous solution of silver acetate. The latter then reacts with internal silica silanol groups, leading to chemisorption of silver ions, followed by the growth of silver oxide nanoparticles. Silica network constructed using generation 4 dendrimer contains residual dendrimer template, and mixes with aqueous silver acetate solution easily. Upon chemisorption, silver ions get photolytically reduced to silver metal under a stabilizing dendrimer environment, leading to the formation of silver metal nanoparticles

  7. Design of an aeroelastically tailored 10 MW wind turbine rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahle, Frederik; Tibaldi, Carlo; Pavese, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an integrated multidisciplinary wind turbine optimization framework utilizing state-of-the-art aeroelastic and structural tools, capable of simultaneous design of the outer geometry and internal structure of the blade. The framework is utilized to design a 10 MW rotor constrained...... not to exceed the design loads of an existing reference wind turbine. The results show that through combined geometric tailoring of the internal structure and aerodynamic shape of the blade it is possible to achieve significant passive load alleviation that allows for a 9% longer blade with an increase in AEP...

  8. Tailoring spin-orbit torque in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang

    2013-05-16

    We study the spin orbit torque arising from an intrinsic linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in a single layer III-V diluted magnetic semiconductor. We investigate the transport properties and spin torque using the linear response theory, and we report here: (1) a strong correlation exists between the angular dependence of the torque and the anisotropy of the Fermi surface; (2) the spin orbit torque depends nonlinearly on the exchange coupling. Our findings suggest the possibility to tailor the spin orbit torque magnitude and angular dependence by structural design.

  9. Tailoring the wettability of nanocrystalline TiO 2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiyu; Chen, Yan; Fan, Yuzun; Hu, Yong; Wu, Yuedong; Zhao, Ziqiang; Meng, Qingbo

    2012-01-01

    The water contact angle (WCA) of nanocrystalline TiO2 films was adjusted by fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) modification and photocatalytic lithography. FAS modification made the surface hydrophobic with the WCA up to ∼156°, while ultraviolet (UV) irradiation changed surface to hydrophilic with the WCA down to ∼0°. Both the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity were enhanced by surface roughness. The wettability can be tailored by varying the concentration of FAS solution and soaking time, as well as the UV light intensity and irradiation time. Additionally, with the help of photomasks, hydrophobic-hydrophilic micropatterns can be fabricated and manifested via area-selective deposition of polystyrene particles.

  10. The Levi-Civita Tensor and Identities in Vector Analysis. Vector Field Identities. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Unit 427.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Chang-li; Wilde, Carroll O.

    Vector analysis is viewed to play a key role in many branches of engineering and the physical sciences. This unit is geared towards deriving identities and establishing "machinery" to make derivations a routine task. It is noted that the module is not an applications unit, but has as its primary objective the goal of providing science,…

  11. On the accuracy of self-made dose planning system based on the static field measurements of cobalt unit Theratron 780C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treer, T.; Polgar, I.

    1995-01-01

    In connection with the installation of the new Theratron 780C cobalt unit the authors demonstrate that the planning program developed in Pecs 8 years ago can be used even for the new cobalt unit. The computed results are in good agreement with the measurements made by the PTW MP3 water phantom using the Mephysto program. (N.T.) 3 refs., 4 figs

  12. Robustness of an artificially tailored fisheye imaging system with a curvilinear image surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil Ju; Nam, Won Il; Song, Young Min

    2017-11-01

    Curved image sensors inspired by animal and insect eyes have provided a new development direction in next-generation digital cameras. It is known that natural fish eyes afford an extremely wide field of view (FOV) imaging due to the geometrical properties of the spherical lens and hemispherical retina. However, its inherent drawbacks, such as the low off-axis illumination and the fabrication difficulty of a 'dome-like' hemispherical imager, limit the development of bio-inspired wide FOV cameras. Here, a new type of fisheye imaging system is introduced that has simple lens configurations with a curvilinear image surface, while maintaining high off-axis illumination and a wide FOV. Moreover, through comparisons with commercial conventional fisheye designs, it is determined that the volume and required number of optical elements of the proposed design is practical while capturing the fundamental optical performances. Detailed design guidelines for tailoring the proposed optic system are also discussed.

  13. Highly ordered porous alumina with tailor-made pore structures fabricated by pulse anodization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woo; Kim, Jae-Cheon

    2010-01-01

    A new anodization method for the preparation of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with pattern-addressed pore structure was developed. The approach is based on pulse anodization of aluminum employing a series of potential waves that consist of two or more different pulses with designated periods and amplitudes, and provides unique tailoring capability of the internal pore structure of anodic alumina. Pores of the resulting AAOs exhibit a high degree of directional coherency along the pore axes without branching, and thus are suitable for fabricating novel nanowires or nanotubes, whose diameter modulation patterns are predefined by the internal pore geometry of AAO. It is found from microscopic analysis on pulse anodized AAOs that the effective electric field strength at the pore base is a key controlling parameter, governing not only the size of pores, but also the detailed geometry of the barrier oxide layer.

  14. Cardiac MRI in mice at 9.4 Tesla with a transmit-receive surface coil and a cardiac-tailored intensity-correction algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnovik, David E; Dai, Guangping; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Rosen, Bruce R; Seethamraju, Ravi

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the use of a transmit-receive surface (TRS) coil and a cardiac-tailored intensity-correction algorithm for cardiac MRI in mice at 9.4 Tesla (9.4T). Fast low-angle shot (FLASH) cines, with and without delays alternating with nutations for tailored excitation (DANTE) tagging, were acquired in 13 mice. An intensity-correction algorithm was developed to compensate for the sensitivity profile of the surface coil, and was tailored to account for the unique distribution of noise and flow artifacts in cardiac MR images. Image quality was extremely high and allowed fine structures such as trabeculations, valve cusps, and coronary arteries to be clearly visualized. The tag lines created with the surface coil were also sharp and clearly visible. Application of the intensity-correction algorithm improved signal intensity, tissue contrast, and image quality even further. Importantly, the cardiac-tailored properties of the correction algorithm prevented noise and flow artifacts from being significantly amplified. The feasibility and value of cardiac MRI in mice with a TRS coil has been demonstrated. In addition, a cardiac-tailored intensity-correction algorithm has been developed and shown to improve image quality even further. The use of these techniques could produce significant potential benefits over a broad range of scanners, coil configurations, and field strengths. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. 3D stratigraphic forward modelling of Shu'aiba Platform stratigraphy in the Bu Hasa Field, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Lokier, S. W.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the results of three dimensional sequence stratigraphic forward modelling of the Aptian age Shu'aiba Formation from Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The Shu'aiba Formation lies within the uppermost part of the Lower Cretaceous Thamama Group and forms one of the most prolific hydrocarbon reservoir intervals of the Middle East with production dating back to the 1960's. The Shu'aiba Formation developed as a series of laterally-extensive shallow-water carbonate platforms in an epeiric sea that extended over the northern margin of the African-Arabian Plate. This shallow sea was bounded by the Arabian Shield to the west and the passive margin with the Neo-Tethys Ocean towards the north and east (Droste, 2010). The exposed Arabian Shield acted as a source of siliciclastic sediments to westernmost regions, however, more offshore areas were dominated by shallow-water carbonate deposition. Carbonate production was variously dominated by Lithocodium-Baccinella, orbitolinid foraminifera and rudist bivalves depending on local conditions. While there have been numerous studies of this important stratigraphic interval (for examples see van Buchem et al., 2010), there has been little attempt to simulate the sequence stratigraphic development of the formation. During the present study modelling was undertaken utilising the CARBONATE-3D stratigraphic forward modelling software (Warrlich et al., 2008; Warrlich et al., 2002)) thus allowing for the control of a diverse range of internal and external parameters on carbonate sequence development. This study focuses on platform development in the onshore Bu Hasa Field - the first giant oilfield to produce from the Shu'aiba Formation in Abu Dhabi. The carbonates of the Bu Hasa field were deposited on the southwest slope of the intra-shelf Bab Basin, siliciclastic content is minor. Initially these carbonates were algal dominated with rudist mounds becoming increasingly important over time (Alsharhan, 1987

  16. Syntheses, characterizations, and catalytic activities of mesostructured aluminophosphates with tailorable acidity assembled with various preformed zeolite nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Suo, Hongri

    2015-02-25

    © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. A series of ordered hexagonal mesoporous zeolites have been successfully synthesized by the assembly of various preformed aluminosilicates zeolite (MFI, FAU, BEA etc.) with surfactants (cetyltrimethylammonium chloride) under hydrothermal conditions. These unique samples were further characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption, infrared spectroscopy. Characterization results showed that these samples contain primary and secondary structural building units of various zeolites, which may be responsible for their distinguished acidic strength, suggesting that the acidic strength of these mesoporous silicoaluminophosphates could be tailored and controlled. Furthermore, the prepared samples were catalytically active in the cracking of cumene.

  17. Radiative properties tailoring of grating by comb-drive microactuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Y.; Liu, L.H.; Liu, L.J.; Hsu, P.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-scale grating structures are widely researched in recent years. Although micro-scale fabrication technology is highly advanced today, with grating aspect ratio greater than 25:1 being achievable some fabrication requirements, such as fine groove processing, are still challenging. Comb-drive microactuator is proposed in this paper to be utilized on simple binary grating structures for tailoring or modulating spectral radiation properties by active adjustment. The rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) is used to calculate the absorptance of proposed structures and to investigate the impacts brought by the geometry and displacement of comb-drive microactuator. The results show that the utilization of comb-drive microactuator on grating improves the absorptance of simple binary grating while avoiding the difficulty fine groove processing. Spectral radiation property tailoring after gratings are fabricated becomes possible with the comb-drive microactuator structure. - Highlights: • A microscale grating structure with comb-driven microactuator is proposed. • The movement of microactuator changes peak absorptance resonance wavelength. • Geometric and displacement effects of comb finger on absorptance are investigated. • Both RCWA and LC circuit models are developed to predict the resonance wavelength. • Resonance frequency equations of LC circuits allow quick design analysis

  18. Sasang constitutional medicine as a holistic tailored medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Yeol; Pham, Duong Duc

    2009-09-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique traditional Korean therapeutic alternative form of medicine. Based on the Yin and Yang theory and on Confucianism, humans are classified into four constitutions. These differ in terms of (i) sensitivity to certain groups of herbs and medicines, (ii) equilibrium among internal organic functions, (iii) physical features and (iv) psychological characteristics. We propose that two main axes in the physiopathology of SCM (food intake/waste discharge and consuming/storing Qi and body fluids) are equivalent to the process of internal-external exchange and catabolism/anabolism in modern physiology, respectively. We then used this hypothesis to discuss the physiological and pathological principles of SCM. Constitution-based medicine is based on the theory that some medicinal herbs and remedies are only appropriate for certain constitutions and can cause adverse effects in others. The constitutional approach of SCM share the same vision as tailored medicine; an individualized therapy that can minimize the risk of adverse reaction while increasing the efficacy and an individualized self-regulation that can help prevent specific susceptible chronic disease and live healthily. There is still a long way to this goal for both SCM and tailored medicine, but we may benefit from systems approaches such as systems biology. We suggest that constitutional perspective of SCM and our hypothesis of two main processes may provide a novel insight for further studies.

  19. Sasang Constitutional Medicine as a Holistic Tailored Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yeol Kim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a unique traditional Korean therapeutic alternative form of medicine. Based on the Yin and Yang theory and on Confucianism, humans are classified into four constitutions. These differ in terms of (i sensitivity to certain groups of herbs and medicines, (ii equilibrium among internal organic functions, (iii physical features and (iv psychological characteristics. We propose that two main axes in the physiopathology of SCM (food intake/waste discharge and consuming/storing Qi and body fluids are equivalent to the process of internal–external exchange and catabolism/anabolism in modern physiology, respectively. We then used this hypothesis to discuss the physiological and pathological principles of SCM. Constitution-based medicine is based on the theory that some medicinal herbs and remedies are only appropriate for certain constitutions and can cause adverse effects in others. The constitutional approach of SCM share the same vision as tailored medicine; an individualized therapy that can minimize the risk of adverse reaction while increasing the efficacy and an individualized self-regulation that can help prevent specific susceptible chronic disease and live healthily. There is still a long way to this goal for both SCM and tailored medicine, but we may benefit from systems approaches such as systems biology. We suggest that constitutional perspective of SCM and our hypothesis of two main processes may provide a novel insight for further studies.

  20. Tailoring thermal conductivity via three-dimensional porous alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Begoña; Maiz, Jon; Ruiz-Clavijo, Alejandra; Caballero-Calero, Olga; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2016-12-09

    Three-dimensional anodic alumina templates (3D-AAO) are an astonishing framework with open highly ordered three-dimensional skeleton structures. Since these templates are architecturally different from conventional solids or porous templates, they teem with opportunities for engineering thermal properties. By establishing the mechanisms of heat transfer in these frameworks, we aim to create materials with tailored thermal properties. The effective thermal conductivity of an empty 3D-AAO membrane was measured. As the effective medium theory was not valid to extract the skeletal thermal conductivity of 3D-AAO, a simple 3D thermal conduction model was developed, based on a mixed series and parallel thermal resistor circuit, giving a skeletal thermal conductivity value of approximately 1.25 W·m -1 ·K -1 , which matches the value of the ordinary AAO membranes prepared from the same acid solution. The effect of different filler materials as well as the variation of the number of transversal nanochannels and the length of the 3D-AAO membrane in the effective thermal conductivity of the composite was studied. Finally, the thermal conductivity of two 3D-AAO membranes filled with cobalt and bismuth telluride was also measured, which was in good agreement with the thermal model predictions. Therefore, this work proved this structure as a powerful approach to tailor thermal properties.

  1. Supporting Multiple Cognitive Processing Styles Using Tailored Support Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan Q. Tran; Karen M. Feigh; Amy R. Pritchett

    2007-01-01

    According to theories of cognitive processing style or cognitive control mode, human performance is more effective when an individual's cognitive state (e.g., intuition/scramble vs. deliberate/strategic) matches his/her ecological constraints or context (e.g., utilize intuition to strive for a 'good-enough' response instead of deliberating for the 'best' response under high time pressure). Ill-mapping between cognitive state and ecological constraints are believed to lead to degraded task performance. Consequently, incorporating support systems which are designed to specifically address multiple cognitive and functional states e.g., high workload, stress, boredom, and initiate appropriate mitigation strategies (e.g., reduce information load) is essential to reduce plant risk. Utilizing the concept of Cognitive Control Models, this paper will discuss the importance of tailoring support systems to match an operator's cognitive state, and will further discuss the importance of these ecological constraints in selecting and implementing mitigation strategies for safe and effective system performance. An example from the nuclear power plant industry illustrating how a support system might be tailored to support different cognitive states is included

  2. Broadband energy harvesting using acoustic black hole structural tailoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Liuxian; Semperlotti, Fabio; Conlon, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of an acoustic black hole (ABH) as a main design framework for performing dynamic structural tailoring of mechanical systems for vibration energy harvesting applications. The ABH is an integral feature embedded in the host structure that allows for a smooth reduction of the phase velocity, theoretically approaching zero, while minimizing the reflected energy. This mechanism results in structural areas with high energy density that can be effectively exploited to develop enhanced vibration-based energy harvesting. Fully coupled electro-mechanical models of an ABH tapered structure with surface mounted piezo-transducers are developed to numerically simulate the response of the system to both steady state and transient excitations. The design performances are numerically evaluated using structural intensity data as well as the instantaneous voltage/power and energy output produced by the piezo-transducer network. Results show that the dynamically tailored structural design enables a drastic increase in the harvested energy as compared to traditional structures, both under steady state and transient excitation conditions. (papers)

  3. Tailoring thermal conductivity via three-dimensional porous alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Begoña; Maiz, Jon; Ruiz-Clavijo, Alejandra; Caballero-Calero, Olga; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional anodic alumina templates (3D-AAO) are an astonishing framework with open highly ordered three-dimensional skeleton structures. Since these templates are architecturally different from conventional solids or porous templates, they teem with opportunities for engineering thermal properties. By establishing the mechanisms of heat transfer in these frameworks, we aim to create materials with tailored thermal properties. The effective thermal conductivity of an empty 3D-AAO membrane was measured. As the effective medium theory was not valid to extract the skeletal thermal conductivity of 3D-AAO, a simple 3D thermal conduction model was developed, based on a mixed series and parallel thermal resistor circuit, giving a skeletal thermal conductivity value of approximately 1.25 W·m−1·K−1, which matches the value of the ordinary AAO membranes prepared from the same acid solution. The effect of different filler materials as well as the variation of the number of transversal nanochannels and the length of the 3D-AAO membrane in the effective thermal conductivity of the composite was studied. Finally, the thermal conductivity of two 3D-AAO membranes filled with cobalt and bismuth telluride was also measured, which was in good agreement with the thermal model predictions. Therefore, this work proved this structure as a powerful approach to tailor thermal properties. PMID:27934930

  4. The Effectiveness of a Web-Based Computer-Tailored Intervention on Workplace Sitting: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cocker, Katrien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-05-31

    Effective interventions to influence workplace sitting are needed, as office-based workers demonstrate high levels of continued sitting, and sitting too much is associated with adverse health effects. Therefore, we developed a theory-driven, Web-based, interactive, computer-tailored intervention aimed at reducing and interrupting sitting at work. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of this intervention on objectively measured sitting time, standing time, and breaks from sitting, as well as self-reported context-specific sitting among Flemish employees in a field-based approach. Employees (n=213) participated in a 3-group randomized controlled trial that assessed outcomes at baseline, 1-month follow-up, and 3-month follow-up through self-reports. A subsample (n=122) were willing to wear an activity monitor (activPAL) from Monday to Friday. The tailored group received an automated Web-based, computer-tailored intervention including personalized feedback and tips on how to reduce or interrupt workplace sitting. The generic group received an automated Web-based generic advice with tips. The control group was a wait-list control condition, initially receiving no intervention. Intervention effects were tested with repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance. The tailored intervention was successful in decreasing self-reported total workday sitting (time × group: Pleisure time sitting (time × group: P=.03), and in increasing objectively measured breaks at work (time × group: P=.07); this was not the case in the other conditions. The changes in self-reported total nonworkday sitting, sitting during transport, television viewing, and personal computer use, objectively measured total sitting time, and sitting and standing time at work did not differ between conditions. Our results point out the significance of computer tailoring for sedentary behavior and its potential use in public health promotion, as the effects of the tailored condition

  5. Direct and Lead Units During Preparation for the Battle (Battlefield Function 19) as Accomplished by a Direct Support Field Artillery Battalion. Volume 2: Assessment Package

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mullen, William

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the overall research program was to document the synchronization required by command and control tasks performed within the armored brigade, to include combat support and combat service support units...

  6. Optimization of current waveform tailoring for magnetically driven isentropic compression experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waisman, E. M.; Reisman, D. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Stygar, W. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Haill, T. A.; Davis, J.-P.; Brown, J. L.; Seagle, C. T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Spielman, R. B. [Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho 83201 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The Thor pulsed power generator is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The design consists of up to 288 decoupled and transit time isolated capacitor-switch units, called “bricks,” that can be individually triggered to achieve a high degree of pulse tailoring for magnetically driven isentropic compression experiments (ICE) [D. B. Reisman et al., Phys. Rev. Spec. Top.–Accel. Beams 18, 090401 (2015)]. The connecting transmission lines are impedance matched to the bricks, allowing the capacitor energy to be efficiently delivered to an ICE strip-line load with peak pressures of over 100 GPa. Thor will drive experiments to explore equation of state, material strength, and phase transition properties of a wide variety of materials. We present an optimization process for producing tailored current pulses, a requirement for many material studies, on the Thor generator. This technique, which is unique to the novel “current-adder” architecture used by Thor, entirely avoids the iterative use of complex circuit models to converge to the desired electrical pulse. We begin with magnetohydrodynamic simulations for a given material to determine its time dependent pressure and thus the desired strip-line load current and voltage. Because the bricks are connected to a central power flow section through transit-time isolated coaxial cables of constant impedance, the brick forward-going pulses are independent of each other. We observe that the desired equivalent forward-going current driving the pulse must be equal to the sum of the individual brick forward-going currents. We find a set of optimal brick delay times by requiring that the L{sub 2} norm of the difference between the brick-sum current and the desired forward-going current be a minimum. We describe the optimization procedure for the Thor design and show results for various materials of interest.

  7. Tailored implementation of evidence-based practice for patients with chronic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Wensing

    Full Text Available When designing interventions and policies to implement evidence based healthcare, tailoring strategies to the targeted individuals and organizations has been recommended. We aimed to gather insights into the ideas of a variety of people for implementing evidence-based practice for patients with chronic diseases, which were generated in five European countries.A qualitative study in five countries (Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, United Kingdom was done, involving overall 115 individuals. A purposeful sample of four categories of stakeholders (healthcare professionals, quality improvement officers, healthcare purchasers and authorities, and health researchers was involved in group interviews in each of the countries to generate items for improving healthcare in different chronic conditions per country: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, depression in elderly people, multi-morbidity, obesity. A disease-specific standardized list of determinants of practice in these conditions provided the starting point for these groups. The content of the suggested items was categorized in a pre-defined framework of 7 domains and specific themes in the items were identified within each domain.The 115 individuals involved in the study generated 812 items, of which 586 addressed determinants of practice. These largely mapped onto three domains: individual health professional factors, patient factors, and professional interactions. Few items addressed guideline factors, incentives and resources, capacity of organizational change, or social, political and legal factors. The relative numbers of items in the different domains were largely similar across stakeholder categories within each of the countries. The analysis identified 29 specific themes in the suggested items across countries.The type of suggestions for improving healthcare practice was largely similar across different stakeholder groups, mainly addressing healthcare

  8. IPTEKS BAGI MASYARAKAT USAHA JASA TAILOR DI KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Endah Wahyuningsih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan kegiatan Ipteks bagi Masyarakat (IbM ini adalah untuk menyelesaikan permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh industri kecil jasa penjahitan busana pria dan wanita di Kecamatan Gajah Mungkur, Kota Semarang. Ada dua usaha jasa tailor yang diprioritaskan menjadi mitra IbM, yaitu Bapak Mamiek Slamet dan Ibu Sri Astuti Yudhaningrum dengan dua aspek permasalahan yang akan ditangani, yaitu aspek produksi dan aspek manajemen. Target khusus yang ingin dicapai adalah, dalam aspek produksi : 1 Dihasilkan 2 sofware pemrograman data pelanggan purnama dan dara tailor mengenai : identitas pelanggan, jenis dan ukuran pelanggan untuk model kebaya, kemeja, jas, celana dan rok, serta ongkos jahit 2 pelatihan Penggunaan mesin high speed untu produksi celana, kemeja maupun blazer 3 Menambah peralatan produksi, antara mesin jahit industri 4 Tempat material dan produk lebih tertata sehingga lebih nyaman, aman bersih, dan rapi. Dalam aspek manajemen: 1 Pembukuan data identitas, ukuran dan model baju pesanan tersimpan dalam komputer sehingga lebih cepat mencari dan mempercepat layanan lebih baik , pencatatan ongkos jahit dan keuangan lebih tertib 2 Terdapat nota sesuai identitas dan kartu nama tempat produksi. Sebagai tim pelaksana kegiatan ini melibatkan dosen dan mahasiswa dengan bidang keahlian yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan lapangan. Dalam pelaksanaan dipakai beberapa metode yang saling mendukung, antara lain dengan ceramah/ penyuluhan untuk materi yang bersifat teori dan motivasi, demonstrasi/peragaan untuk menyampaikan materi praktek/keterampilan, praktek langsung oleh mitra, dan pendampingan kegiatan. Luaran pengabdian dalam aspek produksi : 1 Dihasilkan 2 sofware pemrograman data pelanggan purnama dan dara tailor mengenai : identitas pelanggan, jenis dan ukuran pelanggan untuk model kebaya, kemeja, jas, celana dan rok, serta ongkos jahit 2 pelatihan Penggunaan mesin high speed untu produksi celana, kemeja maupun blazer 3 Menambah peralatan produksi, antara mesin

  9. Jahn-Teller and Non-Jahn-Teller Systems Involving CuF64- Units: Role of the Internal Electric Field in Ba2ZnF6:Cu2+ and Other Insulating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aramburu, J. A.; Garcia-Fernandez, P.; García Lastra, Juan Maria

    2017-01-01

    transitions for CuF64- units formed in Cu2+-doped the tetragonal Ba2ZnF6 host lattice. While the experimental d-d transitions cannot be reproduced through the isolated CuF64- unit at the equilibrium geometry, a reasonable agreement is reached adding in the calculation the internal electric field, ER...... it is pointed out that a quasi-JT situation can however happen for a d9 ion in a cubic lattice under a strain of ∼10-3 in agreement with experimental data. The present results stress the key role played by the internal electric fields for a quantitative understanding of compounds with transition metal cations...

  10. Evaluation of end-user satisfaction among employees participating in a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosbergen, Sandra; Laan, Eva K; Colkesen, Ersen B; Niessen, Maurice A J; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Peek, Niels

    2012-10-30

    Web technology is increasingly being used to provide individuals with health risk assessments (HRAs) with tailored feedback. End-user satisfaction is an important determinant of the potential impact of HRAs, as this influences program attrition and adherence to behavioral advice. The aim of this study was to evaluate end-user satisfaction with a web-based HRA with tailored feedback applied in worksite settings, using mixed (quantitative and qualitative) methods. Employees of seven companies in the Netherlands participated in a commercial, web-based, HRA with tailored feedback. The HRA consisted of four components: 1) a health and lifestyle assessment questionnaire, 2) a biometric evaluation, 3) a laboratory evaluation, and 4) tailored feedback consisting of a personal health risk profile and lifestyle behavior advice communicated through a web portal. HRA respondents received an evaluation questionnaire after six weeks. Satisfaction with different parts of the HRA was measured on 5-point Likert scales. A free-text field provided the opportunity to make additional comments. In total, 2289 employees participated in the HRA program, of which 637 (27.8%) completed the evaluation questionnaire. Quantitative analysis showed that 85.6% of the respondents evaluated the overall HRA positively. The free-text field was filled in by 29.7 % of the respondents (189 out of 637), who made 315 separate remarks. Qualitative evaluation of these data showed that these respondents made critical remarks. Respondents felt restricted by the answer categories of the health and lifestyle assessment questionnaire, which resulted in the feeling that the corresponding feedback could be inadequate. Some respondents perceived the personal risk profile as unnecessarily alarming or suggested providing more explanations, reference values, and a justification of the behavioral advice given. Respondents also requested the opportunity to discuss the feedback with a health professional. Most people

  11. A study to determine the differences between the displayed dose values for two full-field digital mammography units and values calculated using a range of Monte-Carlo-based techniques: A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, M.; Badr, I.; Royle, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Modern full-field digital mammography (FFDM) units display the mean glandular dose (MGD) and the entrance or incident air kerma (K) to the breast following each exposure. Information on how these values are calculated is limited and knowing how displayed MGD values compare and correlate to conventional Monte-Carlo-based methods is useful. From measurements done on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms, it has been shown that displayed and calculated MGD values are similar for thin to medium thicknesses and appear to differ with larger PMMA thicknesses. As a result, a multiple linear regression analysis on the data was performed to generate models by which displayed MGD values on the two FFDM units included in the study may be converted to the Monte-Carlo values calculated by conventional methods. These models should be a useful tool for medical physicists requiring MGD data from FFDM units included in this paper and should reduce the survey time spent on dose calculations. (authors)

  12. Textual healing: tailor-made kabbalistic therapeutics in Jerusalem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmen-Carmeli, Shlomo; Sharabi, Asaf

    2017-10-30

    This paper, based on fieldwork conducted in a Jerusalem yeshiva, describes how the yeshiva, a traditional institute of religious studies, also serves as an institution of healing and personal therapy in which sacred religious texts assume a central place. The article focuses on personal sessions between the rabbi who heads the yeshiva, and his audience of believers who turn to him for help in coping with personal hardships and tribulations. The paper contextualizes and elaborates upon the concept of 'deep healing' to describe how the rabbi uses his regular 'tool kit' to diagnose the problems of the person facing him and to offer optimal, personalized therapy. The rabbi uses religious texts to create textual deep healing processes that are tailor-made for the individual supplicant and are intended to accompany supplicants for a long period of time.

  13. Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Lars; Wiechers, Carlos; Wittmann, Christoffer; Elser, Dominique; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim

    2010-10-01

    The peculiar properties of quantum mechanics allow two remote parties to communicate a private, secret key, which is protected from eavesdropping by the laws of physics. So-called quantum key distribution (QKD) implementations always rely on detectors to measure the relevant quantum property of single photons. Here we demonstrate experimentally that the detectors in two commercially available QKD systems can be fully remote-controlled using specially tailored bright illumination. This makes it possible to tracelessly acquire the full secret key; we propose an eavesdropping apparatus built from off-the-shelf components. The loophole is likely to be present in most QKD systems using avalanche photodiodes to detect single photons. We believe that our findings are crucial for strengthening the security of practical QKD, by identifying and patching technological deficiencies.

  14. Targeting the Fanconi Anemia Pathway to Identify Tailored Anticancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Jenkins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fanconi Anemia (FA pathway consists of proteins involved in repairing DNA damage, including interstrand cross-links (ICLs. The pathway contains an upstream multiprotein core complex that mediates the monoubiquitylation of the FANCD2 and FANCI heterodimer, and a downstream pathway that converges with a larger network of proteins with roles in homologous recombination and other DNA repair pathways. Selective killing of cancer cells with an intact FA pathway but deficient in certain other DNA repair pathways is an emerging approach to tailored cancer therapy. Inhibiting the FA pathway becomes selectively lethal when certain repair genes are defective, such as the checkpoint kinase ATM. Inhibiting the FA pathway in ATM deficient cells can be achieved with small molecule inhibitors, suggesting that new cancer therapeutics could be developed by identifying FA pathway inhibitors to treat cancers that contain defects that are synthetic lethal with FA.

  15. The tinker, tailor, soldier in intracellular B12 trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ruma; Gherasim, Carmen; Padovani, Dominique

    2009-10-01

    The recognition of eight discrete genetic complementation groups among patients with inherited cobalamin disorders provided early insights into the complexity of a cofactor-processing pathway that supports only two known B(12)-dependent enzymes in mammals. With the identification of all eight genes now completed, biochemical interrogations of their functions have started and are providing novel insights into a trafficking pathway involving porters that tinker with and tailor the active cofactor forms and editors that ensure the fidelity of the cofactor loading process. The principles of sequestration and escorted delivery of a rare and reactive organometallic cofactor that are emerging from studies on B(12) might be of general relevance to other cofactor trafficking pathways.

  16. Personalized persuasion: tailoring persuasive appeals to recipients' personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Jacob B; Kang, Sonia K; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2012-06-01

    Persuasive messages are more effective when they are custom-tailored to reflect the interests and concerns of the intended audience. Much of the message-framing literature has focused on the advantages of using either gain or loss frames, depending on the motivational orientation of the target group. In the current study, we extended this research to examine whether a persuasive appeal's effectiveness can be increased by aligning the message framing with the recipient's personality profile. For a single product, we constructed five advertisements, each designed to target one of the five major trait domains of human personality. In a sample of 324 survey respondents, advertisements were evaluated more positively the more they cohered with participants' dispositional motives. These results suggest that adapting persuasive messages to the personality traits of the target audience can be an effective way of increasing the messages' impact, and highlight the potential value of personality-based communication strategies.

  17. Controlling semiconductor nanoparticle size distributions with tailored ultrashort pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergenroeder, R; Miclea, M; Hommes, V

    2006-01-01

    The laser generation of size-controlled semiconductor nanoparticle formation under gas phase conditions is investigated. It is shown that the size distribution can be changed if picosecond pulse sequences of tailored ultra short laser pulses (<200 fs) are employed. By delivering the laser energy in small packages, a temporal energy flux control at the target surface is achieved, which results in the control of the thermodynamic pathway the material takes. The concept is tested with silicon and germanium, both materials with a predictable response to double pulse sequences, which allows deduction of the materials' response to complicated pulse sequences. An automatic, adaptive learning algorithm was employed to demonstrate a future strategy that enables the definition of more complex optimization targets such as particle size on materials less predictable than semiconductors

  18. Biological fabrication of cellulose fibers with tailored properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalio, Filipe; Fuchs, Regina; Cohen, Sidney R.; Leitus, Gregory; Fritz-Popovski, Gerhard; Paris, Oskar; Kappl, Michael; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-09-01

    Cotton is a promising basis for wearable smart textiles. Current approaches that rely on fiber coatings suffer from function loss during wear. We present an approach that allows biological incorporation of exogenous molecules into cotton fibers to tailor the material’s functionality. In vitro model cultures of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) are incubated with 6-carboxyfluorescein-glucose and dysprosium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-glucose, where the glucose moiety acts as a carrier capable of traveling from the vascular connection to the outermost cell layer of the ovule epidermis, becoming incorporated into the cellulose fibers. This yields fibers with unnatural properties such as fluorescence or magnetism. Combining biological systems with the appropriate molecular design offers numerous possibilities to grow functional composite materials and implements a material-farming concept.

  19. [Medical treatment of breast cancer: chemotherapy and tailored therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalenc, Florence

    2013-12-01

    The utility of adjuvant chemotherapy is clearly demonstrated because she significantly improved relapse and mortality. Globally, we report a one-third breast cancer mortality reduction. Nevertheless, the absolute or individual benefit is uncertain and the final decision depends on benefit-risk balance, integrating tumor biologic characteristics and comorbidities. The most effective regimen must contain an anthracycline and a taxane. This regimen must be proposed if chemotherapy indication is considered: this concerns the majority of triple-negative and HER2-positive cancer For hormone-receptor-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer, the decision of adjuvant or not (in addition to hormonal therapy) is most difficult, particularly for grade 2 tumors. The trastuzumab is an essential treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer, because this tailored therapy has considerably improved the prognosis.

  20. Design and Implementation of Company Tailored Automated Material Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Bilberg, Arne

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the problems of analysing automation of material handling systems in order to develop an efficient automated solution that is specifically tailored to the company. The research has resulted in development of new methods for evaluating factory automation from design...... to implementation. The goals of the research were to analyse and evaluate automation in order to obtain an advantageous combination of human and automated resources. The idea is to asses different solutions in a virtual environment, where experiments and analyses can be performed so that the company can justify...... for their application with computer aided information processing tools. The framework is named the "Automated Material Handling (AMH) Preference GuideLine". The research has been carried out in close co-operation with Danish and European industry, where implementations of automation can be referred to. It is our...

  1. Aeroelastic Tailoring of a Plate Wing with Functionally Graded Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Peter D.; Stanford, Bret K.; Kim, H. Alicia; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    This work explores the use of functionally graded materials for the aeroelastic tailoring of a metallic cantilevered plate-like wing. Pareto trade-off curves between dynamic stability (flutter) and static aeroelastic stresses are obtained for a variety of grading strategies. A key comparison is between the effectiveness of material grading, geometric grading (i.e., plate thickness variations), and using both simultaneously. The introduction of material grading does, in some cases, improve the aeroelastic performance. This improvement, and the physical mechanism upon which it is based, depends on numerous factors: the two sets of metallic material parameters used for grading, the sweep of the plate, the aspect ratio of the plate, and whether the material is graded continuously or discretely.

  2. Tailoring cyanobacterial cell factory for improved industrial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Guodong; Lu, Xuefeng

    Photosynthetic biomanufacturing provides a promising solution for sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals. Cyanobacteria are among the most promising microbial platforms for the construction of photosynthetic cell factories. Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has enabled effective photosynthetic synthesis of diverse natural or non-natural metabolites, while commercialization of photosynthetic biomanufacturing is usually restricted by process and economic feasibilities. In actual outdoor conditions, active cell growth and product synthesis is restricted to narrow light exposure windows of the day-night cycles and is threatened by diverse physical, chemical, and biological environmental stresses. For biomass harvesting and bioproduct recovery, energy and cost consuming processing and equipment is required, which further decreases the economic and environmental competitiveness of the entire process. To facilitate scaled photosynthetic biomanufacturing, lots of efforts have been made to engineer cyanobacterial cell properties required by robust & continual cultivation and convenient & efficient recovery. In this review, we specifically summarized recently reported engineering strategies on optimizing industrial properties of cyanobacterial cells. Through systematically re-editing the metabolism, morphology, mutualism interaction of cyanobacterial chassis cells, the adaptabilities and compatibilities of the cyanobacterial cell factories to the industrial process could be significantly improved. Cell growth and product synthesis of the tailored cyanobacterial cells could be expanded and maintained at night and in stressful environments, while convenient biomass harvesting could also be expected. For developing more feasible cyanobacterial photosynthetic biomanufacturing in large scale, we here propose the importance of tailoring industrial properties of cyanobacteria and outline the directions that should be exploited in the future. Copyright © 2018

  3. Organisation Development through Management Development: The United Biscuits Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Andrew; Winterburn, Den

    1988-01-01

    The success of the strategic management program developed by United Biscuits (United Kingdom) for senior managers resulted from (1) tailoring the program to organizational and individual needs; (2) using company-specific material; (3) involving top management; and (4) using a follow-up program. (JOW)

  4. Terms and definitions in the field of radiological technique. Dose quantities and units. Draft. Begriffe und Benennungen in der radiologischen Technik. Dosisgroessen und Dosiseinheiten. Entwurf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-01

    This draft standard contains the definitions of the terms, quantities, and units important in dosimetry, while the methods of measurement and calculation are dealt with in other standards. Other than the standard of June 1972, this revised draft standard introduces the SI units of the energy dose, the Gray, and of the activity of a radioactive substance, the Becquerel. Important new measuring quantities are the standard energy dose and the dose equivalent index. The terms local dose and personnel dose are redefined in agreement with the Radiation Protection Ordinance of October 13, 1976.

  5. Terms and definitions in the field of radiological technique. Dose quantities and units. Draft. Begriffe und Benennungen in der radiologischen Technik. Dosisgroessen und Dosiseinheiten. Entwurf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-01

    The standard contains the definitions of terms, quantities and units important in dosimetry, while other standards deal with the measurement and calculation methods. As against the June 1972 edition, this amended standard introduces the SI units of the energy dose, the Gray (Gy), and of the activity of a radioactive substance, the Becquerel (Bq). Important new measuring quantities are the standard energy dose and the equivalent dose index. The terms local dose and personnel dose are redefined in accordance with the Radiation Protection Ordinance of Oct. 13th, 1976.

  6. Control of water infiltration into near surface low-level waste disposal units. Final report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O'Donnell, E.

    1997-09-01

    This study''s objective was to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work was carried out in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (70 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration were investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management

  7. Cluster Dynamics: Laying the Foundation for Tailoring the Design of Cluster ASSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-25

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0081 CLUSTER DYNAMICS: LAYING THE FOUNDATION FOR TAILORING THE DESIGN OF CLUSTER ASSE Albert Castleman PENNSYLVANIA STATE...15-10-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CLUSTER DYNAMICS: LAYING THE FOUNDATION FOR TAILORING THE DESIGN OF CLUSTER ASSEMBLED NANOSCALE MATERIALS 5a... clusters as the building blocks of new materials with tailored properties that are beneficial to the AFOSR. Our continuing program is composed of two

  8. Effects of tailoring ingredients in auditory persuasive health messages on fruit and vegetable intake

    OpenAIRE

    Elbert, Sarah P.; Dijkstra, Arie; Rozema, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Health messages can be tailored by applying different tailoring ingredients, among which personalisation, feedback and adaptation. This experiment investigated the separate effects of these tailoring ingredients on behaviour in auditory health persuasion. Furthermore, the moderating effect of self-efficacy was assessed.Design: The between-participants design consisted of four conditions. A generic health message served as a control condition; personalisation was applied using the r...

  9. Tailored functional materials with controlled thermal expansion and excellent thermal conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korb, G.; Sebo, P.

    1997-01-01

    Engineering materials are mainly used for structures. Therefore high-strength, stiffness and sufficient toughness are of prime importance. For a long time engineers thought first in terms of metals. Material scientists developed alloys tailored to the needs of industry. Ceramics are known to be brittle and therefore not suitable in the first place for structural application under stress. Polymers with their low modulus became attractive when reinforced with high-strength fibres. Composites processed by polymer, metal or ceramic matrices and high-strength reinforcements have been introduced into many sectors of industry. Engineering materials for structural applications fulfil a function: they withstand high stresses, temperatures, fatigue, creep etc. But usually we do not call them functional materials. Functional materials serve applications apart from classical engineering fields. Electricity conducting materials, semi conductors, memory alloys and many others are called functional materials. Because of the fact that the basic physical properties cannot be changed in single-phase materials, the combination of two and more materials with different properties lead to components with new and tailored properties. A few techniques for preparation are described as powder metallurgy, infiltration of prepegs and compaction of precoated fibres/particles. The lecture is focusing on carbon fibre/particle reinforced Metal Matrix Materials. The achievable properties, in particular the thermal conductivity originating from the base materials is depending on the orientation of the fibres and interfacial contacts in the composite. The carefully controlled expansion behaviour is the most important property to use the material as a heat sink in electronic assemblies. (author)

  10. Improvement of thick a-Si radiation detectors by field profile tailoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewery, J.S.; Cho, G.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Mireshghi, A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Wildermuth, D.

    1992-04-01

    Application of thick (∼50 μm) a-Si p-i-n diodes as a direct radiation detector for minimum ionizing particles is hampered by the need to apply large bias voltages in order fully to deplete the detecting intrinsic layer, which typically contains 5 - 10 x 10 14 ionizable dangling bonds per CM 3 . By insertion of thin p-type layers at intervals within the intrinsic layer, the required depletion voltage can be reduced by a factor of at least 1/(n+l) where n is the number of layers inserted. This principle is demonstrated for devices approximately 12μm in thickness. It is shown that electron losses within the p type layer can be kept to minimum by choice of a low doping concentration for the introduced players

  11. Characterization for fusion first-wall damage studies of using tailored D-T neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, R.; Emigh, C.R.

    1979-01-01

    The approximation required to apply the Bullough-Haynes results to the present calculations is somewhat crude and may imply that the details of the results contain considerable error. However, when the results for each neutron source are viewed in a relative context, several valid and important observations can be made. The almost identical swelling results obtained for the intense neutron source (INS) with a standard blanket and the fusion first wall are most striking. A further comparison with a fusion reactor shows that even the spatial and energy distributions of the neutron flux are similar. In both the INS with blanket and at the first wall of a fusion reactor, there is a radial source flux component of 14-MeV neutrons and a more or less isotropic flux component of low energy (< 14-MeV) neutrons. One must therefore conclude that from the point-of-view of neutron radiation damage, the INS with a blanket, unlike all other types of neutron sources, is not a simulation environment. It is, in fact, a small scale fusion device, and data obtained from INS irradiation experiments would represent fusion reactor results. Such data could then be used to develop correlative procedures for applying data obtained from other simulation sources to fusion reactor conditions

  12. Creating a Knowledge-Based Economy in the United Arab Emirates: Realising the Unfulfilled Potential of Women in the Science, Technology and Engineering Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswad, Noor Ghazal; Vidican, Georgeta; Samulewicz, Diana

    2011-01-01

    As the United Arab Emirates (UAE) moves towards a knowledge-based economy, maximising the participation of the national workforce, especially women, in the transformation process is crucial. Using survey methods and semi-structured interviews, this paper examines the factors that influence women's decisions regarding their degree programme and…

  13. What Predicts Whether Foreign Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Institutions Stay in the United States: Foreign Doctorate Recipients in Science and Engineering Fields from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jin-Young

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Survey of Earned Doctorates by the National Science Foundation, this study examines factors influencing foreign doctorate recipients' decisions to stay in the United States after they complete their degrees. This study expands the existing literature on human capital theory on migration decision by exploring the variables that…

  14. Challenges, coping strategies, and recommendations related to the HIV services field in the HAART era: a systematic literature review of qualitative studies from the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Miller, Katye R; Galos, Dylan; Love, Randi; Poole, Charles

    2013-02-01

    Qualitative research methods have been utilized to study the nature of work in the HIV services field. Yet current literature lacks a Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment (HAART) era compendium of qualitative research studying challenges and coping strategies in the field. This study systematically reviewed challenges and coping strategies that qualitative researchers observed in the HIV services field during the HAART era, and their recommendations to organizations. Four online databases were searched for peer-reviewed research that utilized qualitative methods, were published from January 1998 to February 2012, utilized samples of individuals in the HIV services field; occurred in the U.S. or Canada, and contained information related to challenges and/or coping strategies. Abstracts were identified (n=846) and independently read and coded for inclusion by at least two of the four first authors. Identified articles (n=26) were independently read by at least two of the four first authors who recorded the study methodology, participant demographics, challenges and coping strategies, and recommendations. A number of challenges affecting those in the HIV services field were noted, particularly interpersonal and organizational issues. Coping strategies were problem- and emotion-focused. Summarized research recommendations called for increased support, capacity-building, and structural changes. Future research on challenges and coping strategies must provide up-to-date information to the HIV services field while creating, implementing, and evaluating interventions to manage current challenges and reduce the risk of burnout.

  15. Integration Process for the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tracy; Merbitz, Jerad; Kennedy, Kriss; Tri, Terry; Howe, A. Scott

    2010-01-01

    The Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) is an experimental exploration habitat technology and architecture test platform designed for analog demonstration activities The HDU project has required a team to integrate a variety of contributions from NASA centers and outside collaborators and poses a challenge in integrating these disparate efforts into a cohesive architecture To complete the development of the HDU from conception in June 2009 to rollout for operations in July 2010, a cohesive integration strategy has been developed to integrate the various systems of HDU and the payloads, such as the Geology Lab, that those systems will support The utilization of interface design standards and uniquely tailored reviews have allowed for an accelerated design process Scheduled activities include early fit-checks and the utilization of a Habitat avionics test bed prior to equipment installation into HDU A coordinated effort to utilize modeling and simulation systems has aided in design and integration concept development Modeling tools have been effective in hardware systems layout, cable routing and length estimation, and human factors analysis Decision processes on the shell development including the assembly sequence and the transportation have been fleshed out early on HDU to maximize the efficiency of both integration and field operations Incremental test operations leading up to an integrated systems test allows for an orderly systems test program The HDU will begin its journey as an emulation of a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) for 2010 field testing and then may evolve to a Pressurized Core Module (PCM) for 2011 and later field tests, depending on agency architecture decisions The HDU deployment will vary slightly from current lunar architecture plans to include developmental hardware and software items and additional systems called opportunities for technology demonstration One of the HDU challenges has been designing to be prepared for the integration of

  16. Optimization of production in the oil field through the study of the problem of location of wells and production units; Otimizacao da producao em campo de petroleo pelo estudo do problema de localizacao de pocos e unidades de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Roberta G.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Rosa, Vinicius R. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This project provides a process for determining the best location of well and production units in an oil field in order to optimize the reservoir performance and the volume of recovered oil, maximizing the profitability. The process uses various statistical analyses presented in the reservoir simulation results, under considerations and parameters. Sensibility analysis and response surface methodology is also applied to a better understanding of how each well influence the total production and the location of the platform and/or manifold can be changed to optimize the production. The method is shown being applied on a field scale with synthetic data. It aims to be a new way of guiding decision-making on a project to develop a field production. (author)

  17. Systematic tailoring for the implementation of guideline recommendations for anxiety and depressive disorders in general practice: perceived usefulness of tailored interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinnema, H.; Terluin, B.; Wensing, M.; Volker, D.; Franx, G.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; de Lange, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The uptake of guideline recommendations in general practice can potentially be improved by designing implementation interventions that are tailored to prospectively identify barriers. However, there is insufficient evidence regarding the most effective and efficient approaches to

  18. Systematic tailoring for the implementation of guideline recommendations for anxiety and depressive disorders in general practice: perceived usefulness of tailored interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinnema, H.; Terluin, B.; Wensing, M.; Volker, D.; Franx, G.; Balkom, A. van; Lange, J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The uptake of guideline recommendations in general practice can potentially be improved by designing implementation interventions that are tailored to prospectively identify barriers. However, there is insufficient evidence regarding the most effective and efficient approaches to

  19. Demonstration and validation of automated agricultural field extraction from multi-temporal Landsat data for the majority of United States harvested cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The spatial distribution of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and the location and extent of fields is important to establish the area of land utilized for agricultural yield prediction, resource allocation, and for economic planning, and may be indicative of the degree of agricultural capital investment, mechanization, and labor intensity. To date, field objects have not been extracted from satellite data over large areas because of computational constraints, the complexity of the extraction task, and because consistently processed appropriate resolution data have not been available or affordable. A recently published automated methodology to extract agricultural crop fields from weekly 30 m Web Enabled Landsat data (WELD) time series was refined and applied to 14 states that cover 70% of harvested U.S. cropland (USDA 2012 Census). The methodology was applied to 2010 combined weekly Landsat 5 and 7 WELD data. The field extraction and quantitative validation results are presented for the following 14 states: Iowa, North Dakota, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, Texas, South Dakota, Missouri, Indiana, Ohio, Wisconsin, Oklahoma and Michigan (sorted by area of harvested cropland). These states include the top 11 U.S states by harvested cropland area. Implications and recommendations for systematic application to global coverage Landsat data are discussed.

  20. Source evaluation report phase 2 investigation: Limited field investigation. Final report: United States Air Force Environmental Restoration Program, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the limited field investigation work done to address issues and answer unresolved questions regarding a collection of potential contaminant sources at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), near Fairbanks, Alaska. These sources were listed in the Eielson AFB Federal Facility Agreement supporting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of the base. The limited field investigation began in 1993 to resolve all remaining technical issues and provide the data and analysis required to evaluate the environmental hazard associated with these sites. The objective of the limited field investigation was to allow the remedial project managers to sort each site into one of three categories: requiring remedial investigation/feasibility study, requiring interim removal action, or requiring no further remedial action.

  1. A lightweight, biological structure with tailored stiffness: The feather vane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Tarah N; Pissarenko, Andreï; Herrera, Steven A; Kisailus, David; Lubarda, Vlado A; Meyers, Marc A

    2016-09-01

    The flying feathers of birds are keratinous appendages designed for maximum performance with a minimum weight penalty. Thus, their design contains ingenious combinations of components that optimize lift, stiffness, aerodynamics, and damage resistance. This design involves two main parts: a central shaft that prescribes stiffness and lateral vanes which allows for the capture of air. Within the feather vane, barbs branch from the shaft and barbules branch from barbs, forming a flat surface which ensures lift. Microhooks at the end of barbules hold barbs tightly together, providing the close-knit, unified structure of the feather vane and enabling a repair of the structure through the reattachment of un-hooked junctions. Both the shaft and barbs are lightweight biological structures constructed of keratin using the common motif of a solid shell and cellular interior. The cellular core increases the resistance to buckling with little added weight. Here we analyze the detailed structure of the feather barb and, for the first time, explain its flexural stiffness in terms of the mechanics of asymmetric foam-filled beams subjected to bending. The results are correlated and validated with finite element modeling. We compare the flexure of single barbs as well as arrays of barbs and find that the interlocking adherence of barbs to one another enables a more robust structure due to minimized barb rotation during deflection. Thus, the flexure behavior of the feather vane can be tailored by the adhesive hooking between barbs, creating a system that mitigates damage. A simplified three-dimensional physical model for this interlocking mechanism is constructed by additive manufacturing. The exceptional architecture of the feather vane will motivate the design of bioinspired structures with tailored and unique properties ranging from adhesives to aerospace materials. Despite its importance to bird flight, literature characterizing the feather vane is extremely limited. The feather

  2. Nanosecond laser-induced synthesis of nanoparticles with tailorable magneticanisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, H.; Gangopadhyay, A.K.; Strader, J.; Kalyanaraman, R.

    2011-01-01

    Controlling the magnetic orientation of nanoparticles is important for many applications. Recently, it has been shown that single domain ferromagnetic hemispherical Co nanoparticles prepared by nanosecond laser-induced self-organization, show magnetic orientation that was related to the negative sign of the magnetostrictive coefficient λ S [J. Appl. Phys. v103, p073902, 2008]. Here we have extended this work to the Fe 50 Co 50 alloy, which has a positive λ S and Ni, which has a negative λ S . Patterned arrays of ferromagnetic nanoparticles of Fe 50 Co 50 , Ni, (and Co) were synthesized from their ultrathin metal films on SiO 2 substrate by nanosecond laser-induced self-organization. The morphology, nanostructure, and magnetic behavior of the nanoparticle arrays were investigated by a combination of electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and magnetic force microscopy techniques. Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed a granular polycrystalline nanostructure, with the number of grains inside the nanoparticle increasing with their diameter. Magnetic force measurements showed that the magnetization direction of the hemispherical Co and Ni nanoparticles was predominantly out-of-plane while those for the Fe 50 Co 50 alloy was in the plane of the substrate. Finite element analysis was used to estimate the average residual strain in the nanoparticles, following laser processing. The difference in behavior is due to the dominating influence of magnetostrictive energy on the magnetization as a result of residual thermal strain following fast laser processing. Since λ S is negative for polycrystalline Co and Ni, and positive for Fe 50 Co 50 , the tensile residual strain forces the magnetization direction to out-of-plane and in-plane, respectively. This work demonstrates a cost-effective non-epitaxial technique for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with tailored magnetization orientations. - Research Highlights: → Pulsed laser self

  3. Tailored sequential drug release from bilayered calcium sulfate composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orellana, Bryan R.; Puleo, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The current standard for treating infected bony defects, such as those caused by periodontal disease, requires multiple time-consuming steps and often multiple procedures to fight the infection and recover lost tissue. Releasing an antibiotic followed by an osteogenic agent from a synthetic bone graft substitute could allow for a streamlined treatment, reducing the need for multiple surgeries and thereby shortening recovery time. Tailorable bilayered calcium sulfate (CS) bone graft substitutes were developed with the ability to sequentially release multiple therapeutic agents. Bilayered composite samples having a shell and core geometry were fabricated with varying amounts (1 or 10 wt.%) of metronidazole-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles embedded in the shell and simvastatin directly loaded into either the shell, core, or both. Microcomputed tomography showed the overall layered geometry as well as the uniform distribution of PLGA within the shells. Dissolution studies demonstrated that the amount of PLGA particles (i.e., 1 vs. 10 wt.%) had a small but significant effect on the erosion rate (3% vs. 3.4%/d). Mechanical testing determined that introducing a layered geometry had a significant effect on the compressive strength, with an average reduction of 35%, but properties were comparable to those of mandibular trabecular bone. Sustained release of simvastatin directly loaded into CS demonstrated that changing the shell to core volume ratio dictates the duration of drug release from each layer. When loaded together in the shell or in separate layers, sequential release of metronidazole and simvastatin was achieved. By introducing a tunable, layered geometry capable of releasing multiple drugs, CS-based bone graft substitutes could be tailored in order to help streamline the multiple steps needed to regenerate tissue in infected defects. - Highlights: • Bilayered CS composites were fabricated as potential bone graft substitutes. • The shell

  4. Tailored sequential drug release from bilayered calcium sulfate composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orellana, Bryan R.; Puleo, David A., E-mail: puleo@uky.edu

    2014-10-01

    The current standard for treating infected bony defects, such as those caused by periodontal disease, requires multiple time-consuming steps and often multiple procedures to fight the infection and recover lost tissue. Releasing an antibiotic followed by an osteogenic agent from a synthetic bone graft substitute could allow for a streamlined treatment, reducing the need for multiple surgeries and thereby shortening recovery time. Tailorable bilayered calcium sulfate (CS) bone graft substitutes were developed with the ability to sequentially release multiple therapeutic agents. Bilayered composite samples having a shell and core geometry were fabricated with varying amounts (1 or 10 wt.%) of metronidazole-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles embedded in the shell and simvastatin directly loaded into either the shell, core, or both. Microcomputed tomography showed the overall layered geometry as well as the uniform distribution of PLGA within the shells. Dissolution studies demonstrated that the amount of PLGA particles (i.e., 1 vs. 10 wt.%) had a small but significant effect on the erosion rate (3% vs. 3.4%/d). Mechanical testing determined that introducing a layered geometry had a significant effect on the compressive strength, with an average reduction of 35%, but properties were comparable to those of mandibular trabecular bone. Sustained release of simvastatin directly loaded into CS demonstrated that changing the shell to core volume ratio dictates the duration of drug release from each layer. When loaded together in the shell or in separate layers, sequential release of metronidazole and simvastatin was achieved. By introducing a tunable, layered geometry capable of releasing multiple drugs, CS-based bone graft substitutes could be tailored in order to help streamline the multiple steps needed to regenerate tissue in infected defects. - Highlights: • Bilayered CS composites were fabricated as potential bone graft substitutes. • The shell

  5. SU-F-SPS-01: Accuracy of the Small Field Dosimetry Using Acuros XB and AAA Dose Calculation Algorithms of Eclipse Treatment Planning System Within and Beyond Heterogeneous Media for Trubeam 2.0 Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codel, G; Serin, E; Pacaci, P; Sanli, E; Cebe, M; Mabhouti, H; Doyuran, M; Kucukmorkoc, E; Kucuk, N; Altinok, A; Canoglu, D; Acar, H; Caglar Ozkok, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the comparison of dosimetric accuracy of Acuros XB and AAA algorithms were investigated for small radiation fields incident on homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries Methods: Small open fields of Truebeam 2.0 unit (1×1, 2×2, 3×3, 4×4 fields) were used for this study. The fields were incident on homogeneous phantom and in house phantom containing lung, air, and bone inhomogeneities. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtaine dusing Trubeam 2.0 for 6 MV, 6 FFF, 10 MV, 10 FFF, 15 MV energies by delivering 0- 800 cGy. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. The dosimetric accuracy of Acuros XB and AAA algorithms in the presence of the inhomogeneities was compared against EBT3 film dosimetry Results: Open field tests in a homogeneous phantom showed good agreement betweent wo algorithms and measurement. For Acuros XB, minimum gamma analysis passin grates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 99.3% and 98.1% for homogeneousand inhomogeneous fields in thecase of lung and bone respectively. For AAA, minimum gamma analysis passingrates were 99.1% and 96.5% for homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields respectively for all used energies and field sizes.In the case of the air heterogeneity, the differences were larger for both calculations algorithms. Over all, when compared to measurement, theAcuros XB had beter agreement than AAA. Conclusion: The Acuros XB calculation algorithm in the TPS is an improvemen tover theexisting AAA algorithm. Dose discrepancies were observed for in the presence of air inhomogeneities.

  6. SU-F-SPS-01: Accuracy of the Small Field Dosimetry Using Acuros XB and AAA Dose Calculation Algorithms of Eclipse Treatment Planning System Within and Beyond Heterogeneous Media for Trubeam 2.0 Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codel, G; Serin, E; Pacaci, P; Sanli, E; Cebe, M; Mabhouti, H; Doyuran, M; Kucukmorkoc, E; Kucuk, N; Altinok, A; Canoglu, D; Acar, H; Caglar Ozkok, H [Medipol University, Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In this study, the comparison of dosimetric accuracy of Acuros XB and AAA algorithms were investigated for small radiation fields incident on homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries Methods: Small open fields of Truebeam 2.0 unit (1×1, 2×2, 3×3, 4×4 fields) were used for this study. The fields were incident on homogeneous phantom and in house phantom containing lung, air, and bone inhomogeneities. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtaine dusing Trubeam 2.0 for 6 MV, 6 FFF, 10 MV, 10 FFF, 15 MV energies by delivering 0- 800 cGy. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. The dosimetric accuracy of Acuros XB and AAA algorithms in the presence of the inhomogeneities was compared against EBT3 film dosimetry Results: Open field tests in a homogeneous phantom showed good agreement betweent wo algorithms and measurement. For Acuros XB, minimum gamma analysis passin grates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 99.3% and 98.1% for homogeneousand inhomogeneous fields in thecase of lung and bone respectively. For AAA, minimum gamma analysis passingrates were 99.1% and 96.5% for homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields respectively for all used energies and field sizes.In the case of the air heterogeneity, the differences were larger for both calculations algorithms. Over all, when compared to measurement, theAcuros XB had beter agreement than AAA. Conclusion: The Acuros XB calculation algorithm in the TPS is an improvemen tover theexisting AAA algorithm. Dose discrepancies were observed for in the presence of air inhomogeneities.

  7. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F.; Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [es

  8. Tailorable thiolated trimethyl chitosans for covalently stabilized nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Rolf J; van der Wal, Steffen; Hennink, Wim E

    2010-08-09

    A novel four-step method is presented to synthesize partially thiolated trimethylated chitosan (TMC) with a tailorable degree of quaternization and thiolation. First, chitosan was partially N-carboxylated with glyoxylic acid and sodium borohydride. Next, the remaining amines were quantitatively dimethylated with formaldehyde and sodium borohydride and then quaternized with iodomethane in NMP. Subsequently, these partially carboxylated TMCs dissolved in water were reacted with cystamine at pH 5.5 using EDC as coupling agent. After addition of DTT and dialysis, thiolated TMCs were obtained, varying in degree of quaternization (25-54%) and degree of thiolation (5-7%), as determined with (1)H NMR and Ellman's assay. Gel permeation chromatography with light scattering detection indicated limited intermolecular cross-linking. All thiolated TMCs showed rapid oxidation to yield disulfide cross-linked TMC at pH 7.4, while the thiolated polymers were rather stable at pH 4.0. When Calu-3 cells were used, XTT and LDH cell viability tests showed a slight reduction in cytotoxicity for thiolated TMCs as compared to the nonthiolated polymers with similar DQs. Positively charged nanoparticles loaded with fluorescently labeled ovalbumin were made from thiolated TMCs and thiolated hyaluronic acid. The stability of these particles was confirmed in 0.8 M NaCl, in contrast to particles made from nonthiolated polymers that dissociated under these conditions, demonstrating that the particles were held together by intermolecular disulfide bonds.

  9. Tailoring properties of reduced graphene oxide by oxygen plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratowicz, Izabela; Nadolska, Małgorzata; Şahin, Samet; Łapiński, Marcin; Prześniak-Welenc, Marta; Sawczak, Mirosław; Yu, Eileen H.; Sadowski, Wojciech; Żelechowska, Kamila

    2018-05-01

    We report an easily controllable, eco-friendly method for tailoring the properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by means of oxygen plasma. The effect of oxygen plasma treatment time (1, 5 and 10 min) on the surface properties of rGO was evaluated. Physicochemical characterization using microscopic, spectroscopic and thermal techniques was performed. The results revealed that different oxygen-containing groups (e.g. carboxyl, hydroxyl) were introduced on the rGO surface enhancing its wettability. Furthermore, upon longer treatment time, other functionalities were created (e.g. quinones, lactones). Moreover, external surface of rGO was partially etched resulting in an increase of the material surface area and porosity. Finally, the oxygen plasma-treated rGO electrodes with bilirubin oxidase were tested for oxygen reduction reaction. The study showed that rGO treated for 10 min exhibited twofold higher current density than untreated rGO. The oxygen plasma treatment may improve the enzyme adsorption on rGO electrodes by introduction of oxygen moieties and increasing the porosity.

  10. Tailorable stimulated Brillouin scattering in nanoscale silicon waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heedeuk; Qiu, Wenjun; Jarecki, Robert; Cox, Jonathan A; Olsson, Roy H; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale modal confinement is known to radically enhance the effect of intrinsic Kerr and Raman nonlinearities within nanophotonic silicon waveguides. By contrast, stimulated Brillouin-scattering nonlinearities, which involve coherent coupling between guided photon and phonon modes, are stifled in conventional nanophotonics, preventing the realization of a host of Brillouin-based signal-processing technologies in silicon. Here we demonstrate stimulated Brillouin scattering in silicon waveguides, for the first time, through a new class of hybrid photonic-phononic waveguides. Tailorable travelling-wave forward-stimulated Brillouin scattering is realized-with over 1,000 times larger nonlinearity than reported in previous systems-yielding strong Brillouin coupling to phonons from 1 to 18 GHz. Experiments show that radiation pressures, produced by subwavelength modal confinement, yield enhancement of Brillouin nonlinearity beyond those of material nonlinearity alone. In addition, such enhanced and wideband coherent phonon emission paves the way towards the hybridization of silicon photonics, microelectromechanical systems and CMOS signal-processing technologies on chip.

  11. Engineering a CTL-Tailored Replicon RNA Vaccine against PRRSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welner, Simon; Werder, Simea; Nielsen, Morten

    The development of vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been hampered by the high mutation rate and the multiple immunoevasive strategies of the virus. With the overall aim of designing a broad coverage vaccine that induces an effective CTL response aga...... will be available for IVIS. This study exemplifies how bioinformatics epitope prediction, recombinant SLA molecules and RNA virus replicon design can be used to engineer a replicating non-propagating vaccine tailored to deliver conserved and immunogenic CTL epitopes....... against PRRSV, we have used a bioinformatics approach to identify common PRRSV type 2 epitopes predicted to react broadly with predominant swine MHC (SLA) alleles. All possible 9- and 10-mer peptides derived from 104 wild-type strains were analyzed in silico for their predicted binding affinity to 3...... cloned into a classical swine fever virus (CSFV)-derived replicon vector. Virus replicon particles (VRP) were rescued by transfection of a complementing cell line with replicon RNA. Polyepitope expression and subsequent proteasomal degradation was confirmed indirectly by increased FLAG-tagged protein...

  12. Bioprinting of hybrid tissue constructs with tailorable mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuurman, W; Khristov, V; Pot, M W; Dhert, W J A; Malda, J; Van Weeren, P R

    2011-01-01

    Tissue/organ printing aims to recapitulate the intrinsic complexity of native tissues. For a number of tissues, in particular those of musculoskeletal origin, adequate mechanical characteristics are an important prerequisite for their initial handling and stability, as well as long-lasting functioning. Hence, organized implants, possessing mechanical characteristics similar to the native tissue, may result in improved clinical outcomes of regenerative approaches. Using a bioprinter, grafts were constructed by alternate deposition of thermoplastic fibers and (cell-laden) hydrogels. Constructs of different shapes and sizes were manufactured and mechanical properties, as well as cell viability, were assessed. This approach yields novel organized viable hybrid constructs, which possess favorable mechanical characteristics, within the same range as those of native tissues. Moreover, the approach allows the use of multiple hydrogels and can thus produce constructs containing multiple cell types or bioactive factors. Furthermore, since the hydrogel is supported by the thermoplastic material, a broader range of hydrogel types can be used compared to bioprinting of hydrogels alone. In conclusion, we present an innovative and versatile approach for bioprinting, yielding constructs of which the mechanical stiffness provided by thermoplastic polymers can potentially be tailored, and combined specific cell placement patterns of multiple cell types embedded in a wide range of hydrogels. (communication)

  13. Bioprinting of hybrid tissue constructs with tailorable mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuurman, W; Khristov, V; Pot, M W; Dhert, W J A; Malda, J [Department of Orthopaedics, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Van Weeren, P R, E-mail: j.malda@umcutrecht.nl [Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Department of Equine Sciences, Utrecht University (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    Tissue/organ printing aims to recapitulate the intrinsic complexity of native tissues. For a number of tissues, in particular those of musculoskeletal origin, adequate mechanical characteristics are an important prerequisite for their initial handling and stability, as well as long-lasting functioning. Hence, organized implants, possessing mechanical characteristics similar to the native tissue, may result in improved clinical outcomes of regenerative approaches. Using a bioprinter, grafts were constructed by alternate deposition of thermoplastic fibers and (cell-laden) hydrogels. Constructs of different shapes and sizes were manufactured and mechanical properties, as well as cell viability, were assessed. This approach yields novel organized viable hybrid constructs, which possess favorable mechanical characteristics, within the same range as those of native tissues. Moreover, the approach allows the use of multiple hydrogels and can thus produce constructs containing multiple cell types or bioactive factors. Furthermore, since the hydrogel is supported by the thermoplastic material, a broader range of hydrogel types can be used compared to bioprinting of hydrogels alone. In conclusion, we present an innovative and versatile approach for bioprinting, yielding constructs of which the mechanical stiffness provided by thermoplastic polymers can potentially be tailored, and combined specific cell placement patterns of multiple cell types embedded in a wide range of hydrogels. (communication)

  14. Tailoring the Immune Response via Customization of Pathogen Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runco, Lisa M; Stauft, Charles B; Coleman, J Robert

    2014-01-01

    The majority of studies focused on the construction and reengineering of bacterial pathogens have mainly relied on the knocking out of virulence factors or deletion/mutation of amino acid residues to then observe the microbe's phenotype and the resulting effect on the host immune response. These knockout bacterial strains have also been proposed as vaccines to combat bacterial disease. Theoretically, knockout strains would be unable to cause disease since their virulence factors have been removed, yet they could induce a protective memory response. While knockout strains have been valuable tools to discern the role of virulence factors in host immunity and bacterial pathogenesis, they have been unable to yield clinically relevant vaccines. The advent of synthetic biology and enhanced user-directed gene customization has altered this binary process of knockout, followed by observation. Recent studies have shown that a researcher can now tailor and customize a given microbe's gene expression to produce a desired immune response. In this commentary, we highlight these studies as a new avenue for controlling the inflammatory response as well as vaccine development.

  15. Tailorable stimulated Brillouin scattering in nanoscale silicon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heedeuk; Qiu, Wenjun; Jarecki, Robert; Cox, Jonathan A.; Olsson, Roy H.; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale modal confinement is known to radically enhance the effect of intrinsic Kerr and Raman nonlinearities within nanophotonic silicon waveguides. By contrast, stimulated Brillouin-scattering nonlinearities, which involve coherent coupling between guided photon and phonon modes, are stifled in conventional nanophotonics, preventing the realization of a host of Brillouin-based signal-processing technologies in silicon. Here we demonstrate stimulated Brillouin scattering in silicon waveguides, for the first time, through a new class of hybrid photonic–phononic waveguides. Tailorable travelling-wave forward-stimulated Brillouin scattering is realized—with over 1,000 times larger nonlinearity than reported in previous systems—yielding strong Brillouin coupling to phonons from 1 to 18 GHz. Experiments show that radiation pressures, produced by subwavelength modal confinement, yield enhancement of Brillouin nonlinearity beyond those of material nonlinearity alone. In addition, such enhanced and wideband coherent phonon emission paves the way towards the hybridization of silicon photonics, microelectromechanical systems and CMOS signal-processing technologies on chip. PMID:23739586

  16. Tailoring nanocrystalline diamond coated on titanium for osteoblast adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareta, Rajesh; Yang, Lei; Kothari, Abhishek; Sirinrath, Sirivisoot; Xiao, Xingcheng; Sheldon, Brian W; Webster, Thomas J

    2010-10-01

    Diamond coatings with superior chemical stability, antiwear, and cytocompatibility properties have been considered for lengthening the lifetime of metallic orthopedic implants for over a decade. In this study, an attempt to tailor the surface properties of diamond films on titanium to promote osteoblast (bone forming cell) adhesion was reported. The surface properties investigated here included the size of diamond surface features, topography, wettability, and surface chemistry, all of which were controlled during microwave plasma enhanced chemical-vapor-deposition (MPCVD) processes using CH4-Ar-H2 gas mixtures. The hardness and elastic modulus of the diamond films were also determined. H2 concentration in the plasma was altered to control the crystallinity, grain size, and topography of the diamond coatings, and specific plasma gases (O2 and NH3) were introduced to change the surface chemistry of the diamond coatings. To understand the impact of the altered surface properties on osteoblast responses, cell adhesion tests were performed on the various diamond-coated titanium. The results revealed that nanocrystalline diamond (grain sizes diamond and, thus, should be further studied for improving orthopedic applications. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2010.

  17. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Udell, Kent S.; Bruton, Carol J.; Carrigan, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  18. Tailoring electronic properties of multilayer phosphorene by siliconization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyi, Oleksandr I.; Sopiha, Kostiantyn V.; Radchenko, Ihor; Wu, Ping; Persson, Clas

    Controlling a thickness dependence of electronic properties for two-dimensional (2d) materials is among primary goals for their large-scale applications. Herein, employing a first-principles computational approach, we predict that Si interaction with multilayer phosphorene (2d-P) can result in the formation of highly stable 2d-SiP and 2d-SiP$_2$ compounds with a weak interlayer interaction. Our analysis demonstrates that these systems are semiconductors with band gap energies that can be governed by varying the thickness and stacking order. Specifically, siliconization of phosphorene allows to design 2d-SiP$_x$ materials with significantly weaker thickness dependence of electronic properties than that in 2d-P and to develop ways for their tailoring. We also reveal the spatial dependence of electronic properties for 2d-SiP$_x$ highlighting difference in effective band gaps for different layers. Particularly, our results show that central layers in the multilayer 2d systems determine overall electronic properties, while the role of the outermost layers is noticeably smaller.

  19. Milk protein tailoring to improve functional and biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEAN-MARC CHOBERT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are involved in every aspects of life: structure, motion, catalysis, recognition and regulation. Today's highly sophisticated science of the modifications of proteins has ancient roots. The tailoring of proteins for food and medical uses precedes the beginning of what is called biochemistry. Chemical modification of proteins was pursued early in the twentieth century as an analytical procedure for side-chain amino acids. Later, methods were developed for specific inactivation of biologically active proteins and titration of their essential groups. Enzymatic modifications were mainly developed in the seventies when many more enzymes became economically available. Protein engineering has become a valuable tool for creating or improving proteins for practical use and has provided new insights into protein structure and function. The actual and potential use of milk proteins as food ingredients has been a popular topic for research over the past 40 years. With today's sophisticated analytical, biochemical and biological research tools, the presence of compounds with biological activity has been demonstrated. Improvements in separation techniques and enzyme technology have enabled efficient and economic isolation and modification of milk proteins, which has made possible their use as functional foods, dietary supplements, nutraceuticals and medical foods. In this review, some chemical and enzymatic modifications of milk proteins are described, with particular focus on their functional and biological properties.

  20. Active coatings technologies for tailorable military coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, J. L., III

    2007-04-01

    The main objective of the U.S. Army's Active Coatings Technologies Program is to develop technologies that can be used in combination to tailor coatings for utilization on Army Materiel. The Active Coatings Technologies Program, ACT, is divided into several thrusts, including the Smart Coatings Materiel Program, Munitions Coatings Technologies, Active Sensor packages, Systems Health Monitoring, Novel Technology Development, as well as other advanced technologies. The goal of the ACT Program is to conduct research leading to the development of multiple coatings systems for use on various military platforms, incorporating unique properties such as self repair, selective removal, corrosion resistance, sensing, ability to modify coatings' physical properties, colorizing, and alerting logistics staff when tanks or weaponry require more extensive repair. A partnership between the U.S. Army Corrosion Office at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ along with researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, NJ, Clemson University, SC, University of New Hampshire, NH, and University of Massachusetts (Lowell), MA, are developing the next generation of Smart Coatings Materiel via novel technologies such as nanotechnology, Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS), meta-materials, flexible electronics, electrochromics, electroluminescence, etc. This paper will provide the reader with an overview of the Active Coatings Technologies Program, including an update of the on-going Smart Coatings Materiel Program, its progress thus far, description of the prototype Smart Coatings Systems and research tasks as well as future nanotechnology concepts, and applications for the Department of Defense.

  1. Adult-onset offenders: Is a tailored theory warranted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Amber L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate M.; Mcgee, Tara Renae; Morgan, Nick; Schroeder, Felix; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe official adult-onset offenders, investigate their antisocial histories and test hypotheses about their origins. Methods We defined adult-onset offenders among 931 Dunedin Study members followed to age 38, using criminal-court conviction records. Results Official adult-onset offenders were 14% of men, and 32% of convicted men, but accounted for only 15% of convictions. As anticipated by developmental theories emphasizing early-life influences on crime, adult-onset offenders’ histories of antisocial behavior spanned back to childhood. Relative to juvenile-offenders, during adolescence they had fewer delinquent peers and were more socially inhibited, which may have protected them from conviction. As anticipated by theories emphasizing the importance of situational influences on offending, adult-onset offenders, relative to non-offenders, during adulthood more often had schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and alcohol-dependence, had weaker social bonds, anticipated fewer informal sanctions, and self-reported more offenses. Contrary to some expectations, adult-onset offenders did not have high IQ or high socioeconomic-status families protecting them from juvenile conviction. Conclusions A tailored theory for adult-onset offenders is unwarranted because few people begin crime de novo as adults. Official adult-onset offenders fall on a continuum of crime and its correlates, between official non-offenders and official juvenile-onset offenders. Existing theories can accommodate adult-onset offenders. PMID:27134318

  2. Improvement of hydroforming processes using tailored semi-finished tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, R.; Chatti, S.; Homberg, W.; Kleiner, M.; Shankar, R. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Forming Technology and Lightweight Construction

    2005-07-01

    The manufacturing of curved tubular workpieces with complex geometry by hydroforming is a well known process. The formability of workpieces is limited by the overall amount of expansion, which always has to start with the smallest perimeter. Especially workpieces with a high ratio between the smallest and widest diameter are critical with regard to their manufacture. To improve the capability the hydroforming process, a new concept using tailored semi-finished tubes with a variable cross-section has been developed. Instead of only expanding a tube with the smallest diameter, the diameter of a tube with middle-sized cross-section is reduced locally by a spinning process so that only the critical regions left have to be expanded. Due to the fact that usually the pre-form has to be bent to assure that it fits into the tool, an additional specialized tube-bending process has been developed to realize the bending of tubes with variable diameter. In this article, the investigation and optimization of this process chain is presented. The capabilities of the process have been improved regarding the behavior of the workpieces in the hydroforming process by manufacturing a complex structural part originating from automotive industry. (orig.)

  3. A systematic methodology for design of tailor-made blended products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti; Gernaey, Krist; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    A systematic methodology for design of tailor-made blended products has been developed. In tailor-made blended products, one identifies the product needs and matches them by blending different chemicals. The systematic methodology has four main tasks. First, the design problem is defined: the pro......, the methodology is highlighted through two case studies involving gasoline blends and lubricant base oils....

  4. Technical knowledge and skills development in the informal sector in Kenya: The case of custom tailors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apunda, Edwinah Amondi; de Klerk, Helena M.; Ogina, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    Custom tailors working in the informal sector in Nairobi, Kenya, mainly acquire technical skills through undertaking traditional apprenticeships (TAs). However, most of these tailors are semi-skilled, produce low-quality products and are often poorer than their formally trained counterparts. This qualitative case study explores the aspects of technical skills and knowledge which tailoring apprentices develop, and the factors which influence these outcomes. The findings show that apprentices do acquire basic technical skills for immediate application to ongoing tailoring activities (such as how to take body measurements, draft patterns, and cut, sew and finish constructed garments). However, apprentices do not acquire the technical knowledge that underpins the trade. Most master tailors who have completed TAs lack technical knowledge and have no access to technical skills upgrading. This perpetuates the cycle of basic and limited technical skills transfer to apprentices, poor performance and poverty among tailors. Both apprentices and master tailors expressed concern over knowledge limitations in TAs and a need to access further training to improve skills and acquire knowledge of the trade. The authors of this article argue that, technically and pedagogically, skilled master tailors are critical to improving training quality. Complementary training in theoretical knowledge is also important in improving apprentices' technical skills and understanding of the trade. Inclusion of TAs in government policy may help ensure sustainable improvement of skills.

  5. Risk identication of tailorable context-aware systems: a case study and lessons learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarifi Eslami, Mohammed; Sapkota, Brahmananda; Zarghami, Alireza; Vriezekolk, E.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Wieringa, P.A.

    In this paper, we discuss possible risks posed by the application of tailorable context-aware systems in real-life practices. We use a tailorable context-aware system in the homecare domain as a case study to identify and analyse such risks. Next, we discuss which of these risks can be generalized

  6. Technical Knowledge and Skills Development in the Informal Sector in Kenya: The Case of Custom Tailors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apunda, Edwinah Amondi; de Klerk, Helena M.; Ogina, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Custom tailors working in the informal sector in Nairobi, Kenya, mainly acquire technical skills through undertaking traditional apprenticeships (TAs). However, most of these tailors are semi-skilled, produce low-quality products and are often poorer than their formally trained counterparts. This qualitative case study explores the aspects of…

  7. Working mechanisms of computer-tailored health education : evidence from smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.

    2005-01-01

    To further develop tailored interventions, their working mechanisms must be identified. In the present study, three tailored messages that each contained one potential working mechanism-personalization, adaptation or feedback-were compared with a standard information condition. Two hundred and two

  8. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  9. Developing Strategies for Waste Reduction by Means of Tailored Interventions in Santiago De Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert; Brugger, Adrian; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to tailoring behavior-change campaigns to target populations using the example of solid waste reduction in Santiago de Cuba. Tailoring is performed in the following steps: (1) Psychological constructs are selected to detect problems in performing the target behavior, and data are gathered on these constructs.…

  10. Addressing medication nonadherence by mobile phone: development and delivery of tailored messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatwood, Justin; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Erickson, Steven R; An, Lawrence C; Piette, John D; Farris, Karen B

    2014-01-01

    Medication nonadherence remains a significant public health problem, and efforts to improve adherence have shown only limited impact. The tailoring of messages has become a popular method of developing communication to influence specific health-related behaviors but the development and impact of tailored text messages on medication use is poorly understood. The aim of this paper is to describe an approach to developing theory-based tailored messages for delivery via mobile phone to improve medication adherence among patients with diabetes. Kreuter's five-step tailoring process was followed to create tailored messages for mobile phone delivery. Two focus group sessions, using input from 11 people, and expert review of message content were used to adapt the survey instrument on which the messages were tailored and edit the developed messages for the target population. Following established tailoring methods a library of 168 theory-driven and 128 medication-specific tailored messages were developed and formatted for automated delivery to mobile phones. Concepts from the Health Belief Model and Self-Determination Theory were used to craft the messages and an algorithm was applied to determine the order and timing of messages with the aim of progressively influencing disease and treatment-related beliefs driving adherence to diabetes medication. The process described may be applied to future investigations aiming to improve medication adherence in patients with diabetes and the effectiveness of the current messages will be tested in a planned analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Overview--Development of a geodatabase and conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units beneath Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin D.

    2004-01-01

    Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS–JRB) at Fort Worth, Tex., constitute a contractor-owned, government-operated facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants from the 3,600-acre facility, primarily volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metals, have entered the ground-water-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites and from manufacturing processes. Environmental data collected at AFP4 and NAS–JRB during 1993–2002 created the need for consolidation of the data into a comprehensive temporal and spatial geodatabase. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center Environmental Management Directorate, developed a comprehensive geodatabase of temporal and spatial environmental data associated with the hydrogeologic units beneath the facility. A three-dimensional conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units integrally linked to the geodatabase was designed concurrently. Three hydrogeologic units—from land surface downward, the alluvial aquifer, the GoodlandWalnut confining unit, and the Paluxy aquifer—compose the subsurface of interest at AFP4 and NAS–JRB. The alluvial aquifer consists primarily of clay and silt with sand and gravel channel deposits that might be interconnected or interfingered. The Goodland-Walnut confining unit directly underlies the alluvial aquifer and consists of limestone, marl, shale, and clay. The Paluxy aquifer is composed of dense mudstone and fine- to coarse-grained sandstone

  12. Why are Tailored Messages More Effective? A Multiple Mediation Analysis of a Breast Cancer Screening Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob D; King, Andy J; Carcioppolo, Nicholas; Davis, LaShara

    2012-10-01

    Past research has found that tailoring increases the persuasive effectiveness of a message. However, the observed effect has been small and the explanatory mechanism remains unknown. To address these shortcomings, a tailoring software program was created that personalized breast cancer screening pamphlets according to risk, health belief model constructs, and visual preference. Women aged 40 and older ( N = 119) participated in a 2 (tailored vs. stock message) × 2 (charts/graphs vs. illustrated visuals) × 3 (nested replications of the visuals) experiment. Participants provided with tailored illustrated pamphlets expressed greater breast cancer screening intentions than those provided with other pamphlets. In a test of 10 different mediators, perceived message relevance was found to fully mediate the tailoring × visual interaction.

  13. Electrodynamic tailoring of self-assembled three-dimensional electrospun constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Tiago C.; Correia, Ilídio J.; Aguiar-Ricardo, Ana

    2013-07-01

    The rational design of three-dimensional electrospun constructs (3DECs) can lead to striking topographies and tailored shapes of electrospun materials. This new generation of materials is suppressing some of the current limitations of the usual 2D non-woven electrospun fiber mats, such as small pore sizes or only flat shaped constructs. Herein, we pursued an explanation for the self-assembly of 3DECs based on electrodynamic simulations and experimental validation. We concluded that the self-assembly process is driven by the establishment of attractive electrostatic forces between the positively charged aerial fibers and the already collected ones, which tend to acquire a negatively charged network oriented towards the nozzle. The in situ polarization degree is strengthened by higher amounts of clustered fibers, and therefore the initial high density fibrous regions are the preliminary motifs for the self-assembly mechanism. As such regions increase their in situ polarization electrostatic repulsive forces will appear, favoring a competitive growth of these self-assembled fibrous clusters. Highly polarized regions will evidence higher distances between consecutive micro-assembled fibers (MAFs). Different processing parameters - deposition time, electric field intensity, concentration of polymer solution, environmental temperature and relative humidity - were evaluated in an attempt to control material's design.The rational design of three-dimensional electrospun constructs (3DECs) can lead to striking topographies and tailored shapes of electrospun materials. This new generation of materials is suppressing some of the current limitations of the usual 2D non-woven electrospun fiber mats, such as small pore sizes or only flat shaped constructs. Herein, we pursued an explanation for the self-assembly of 3DECs based on electrodynamic simulations and experimental validation. We concluded that the self-assembly process is driven by the establishment of attractive

  14. Definite existence of subphases with eight- and ten-layer unit cells as studied by complementary methods, electric-field-induced birefringence and microbeam resonant x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhengyu; Chandani Perera, A D L; Fukuda, Atsuo; Vij, Jagdish K; Ishikawa, Ken; Iida, Atsuo; Takanishi, Yoichi

    2017-07-01

    A mixture of two selenium-containing compounds, 80 wt. % AS657 and 20 wt. % AS620, are studied with two complementary methods, electric-field-induced birefringence (EFIB) and microbeam resonant x-ray scattering (μRXS). The mixture shows the typical phase sequence of Sm-C_{A}^{*}-1/3-1/2-Sm-C^{*}-Sm-C_{α}^{*}-Sm-A, where 1/3 and 1/2 are two prototypal ferrielectric and antiferroelectric subphases with three- and four-layer unit cells, respectively. Here we designate the subphase as its q_{T} number defined by the ratio of [F]/([F]+[A]), where [F] and [A] are the numbers of synclinic ferroelectric and anticlinic antiferroelectric orderings in the unit cell, respectively. The electric field vs temperature phase diagram with EFIB contours indicates the emergence of three additional subphases, an antiferroelectric one between Sm-C_{A}^{*} and 1/3 and antiferroelectric and apparently ferrielectric ones between 1/3 and 1/2. The simplest probable q_{T}'s for these additional subphases are 1/4, 2/5, and 3/7, respectively, in the order of increasing temperature. The μRXS profiles indicate that antiferroelectric 1/4 and 2/5 approximately have the eight-layer (FAAAFAAA) and ten-layer (FAFAAFAFAA) Ising unit cells, respectively. The remaining subphase may be ferrielectric 3/7 with a seven-layer unit cell, although the evidence is partial. These experimental results are compared with the phenomenological Landau model [P. V. Dolganov and E. I. Kats, Liq. Cryst. Rev. 1, 127 (2014)2168-039610.1080/21680396.2013.869667] and the quasimolecular model [A. V. Emelyanenko and M. A. Osipov, Phys. Rev. E 68, 051703 (2003)1063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.68.051703].

  15. SU-F-SPS-02: Accuracy of the Small Field Dosimetry Using the Monte Carlo and Sequential Dose Calculation Algorithms of Multiplan Treatment Planning System Within and Beyond Heterogeneous Media for Cyberknife M6 Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serin, E.; Codel, G.; Mabhouti, H.; Cebe, M.; Sanli, E.; Pacaci, P.; Kucuk, N.; Kucukmorkoc, E.; Doyuran, M.; Canoglu, D.; Altinok, A.; Acar, H.; Caglar Ozkok, H. [Medipol University, Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In small field geometries, the electronic equilibrium can be lost, making it challenging for the dose-calculation algorithm to accurately predict the dose, especially in the presence of tissue heterogeneities. In this study, dosimetric accuracy of Monte Carlo (MC) advanced dose calculation and sequential algorithms of Multiplan treatment planning system were investigated for small radiation fields incident on homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries. Methods: Small open fields of fixed cones of Cyberknife M6 unit 100 to 500 mm2 were used for this study. The fields were incident on in house phantom containing lung, air, and bone inhomogeneities and also homogeneous phantom. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtained using CK with the 60 mm fixed cone by delivering 0- 800 cGy. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. The dosimetric accuracy of MC and sequential algorithms in the presence of the inhomogeneities was compared against EBT3 film dosimetry Results: Open field tests in a homogeneous phantom showed good agreement between two algorithms and film measurement For MC algorithm, the minimum gamma analysis passing rates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 99.7% and 98.3% for homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields in the case of lung and bone respectively. For sequential algorithm, the minimum gamma analysis passing rates were 98.9% and 92.5% for for homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields respectively for used all cone sizes. In the case of the air heterogeneity, the differences were larger for both calculation algorithms. Overall, when compared to measurement, the MC had better agreement than sequential algorithm. Conclusion: The Monte Carlo calculation algorithm in the Multiplan treatment planning system is an improvement over the existing sequential algorithm. Dose discrepancies were observed for in the presence of air inhomogeneities.

  16. SU-F-SPS-02: Accuracy of the Small Field Dosimetry Using the Monte Carlo and Sequential Dose Calculation Algorithms of Multiplan Treatment Planning System Within and Beyond Heterogeneous Media for Cyberknife M6 Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serin, E.; Codel, G.; Mabhouti, H.; Cebe, M.; Sanli, E.; Pacaci, P.; Kucuk, N.; Kucukmorkoc, E.; Doyuran, M.; Canoglu, D.; Altinok, A.; Acar, H.; Caglar Ozkok, H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In small field geometries, the electronic equilibrium can be lost, making it challenging for the dose-calculation algorithm to accurately predict the dose, especially in the presence of tissue heterogeneities. In this study, dosimetric accuracy of Monte Carlo (MC) advanced dose calculation and sequential algorithms of Multiplan treatment planning system were investigated for small radiation fields incident on homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries. Methods: Small open fields of fixed cones of Cyberknife M6 unit 100 to 500 mm2 were used for this study. The fields were incident on in house phantom containing lung, air, and bone inhomogeneities and also homogeneous phantom. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtained using CK with the 60 mm fixed cone by delivering 0- 800 cGy. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. The dosimetric accuracy of MC and sequential algorithms in the presence of the inhomogeneities was compared against EBT3 film dosimetry Results: Open field tests in a homogeneous phantom showed good agreement between two algorithms and film measurement For MC algorithm, the minimum gamma analysis passing rates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 99.7% and 98.3% for homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields in the case of lung and bone respectively. For sequential algorithm, the minimum gamma analysis passing rates were 98.9% and 92.5% for for homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields respectively for used all cone sizes. In the case of the air heterogeneity, the differences were larger for both calculation algorithms. Overall, when compared to measurement, the MC had better agreement than sequential algorithm. Conclusion: The Monte Carlo calculation algorithm in the Multiplan treatment planning system is an improvement over the existing sequential algorithm. Dose discrepancies were observed for in the presence of air inhomogeneities.

  17. CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery: Bald Unit Test Site, Mumford Hills Oil Field, Posey County, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frailey, Scott M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Krapac, Ivan G. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Damico, James R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Okwen, Roland T. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); McKaskle, Ray W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-03-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a small-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in a sandstone within the Clore Formation (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) in order to gauge the large-scale CO2 storage that might be realized from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of mature Illinois Basin oil fields via miscible liquid CO2 flooding.

  18. Development of a geodatabase and conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units beneath air force plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin D.

    2004-01-01

    Air Force Plant 4 and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field at Fort Worth, Texas, constitute a government-owned, contractor-operated facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants from AFP4, primarily volatile organic compounds and metals, have entered the ground-water-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites and from manufacturing processes. The U.S. Geological Survey developed a comprehensive geodatabase of temporal and spatial environmental information associated with the hydrogeologic units (alluvial aquifer, Goodland-Walnut confining unit, and Paluxy aquifer) beneath the facility and a three-dimensional conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units integrally linked to the geodatabase. The geodatabase design uses a thematic layer approach to create layers of feature data using a geographic information system. The various features are separated into relational tables in the geodatabase on the basis of how they interact and correspond to one another. Using the geodatabase, geographic data at the site are manipulated to produce maps, allow interactive queries, and perform spatial analyses. The conceptual model for the study area comprises computer-generated, three-dimensional block diagrams of the hydrogeologic units. The conceptual model provides a platform for visualization of hydrogeologic-unit sections and surfaces and for subsurface environmental analyses. The conceptual model is based on three structural surfaces and two thickness configurations of the study area. The three structural surfaces depict the altitudes of the tops of the three hydrogeologic units. The two thickness configurations are those of the alluvial aquifer and the Goodland-Walnut confining unit. The surface of the alluvial aquifer was created using a U.S. Geological Survey 10-meter digital elevation model. The 2,130 point altitudes of the top of the Goodland-Walnut unit were compiled from lithologic logs from existing wells, available soil

  19. Facile synthesis of B-type carbonated nanoapatite with tailored microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti, E-mail: magdalena.gualtieri@unimore.it [Dipartimento Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari”, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Romagnoli, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.romagnoli@unimore.it [Dipartimento Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari”, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Hanuskova, Miriam, E-mail: Miriam.hanuskova@unimore.it [Dipartimento Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari”, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Fabbri, Elena, E-mail: Elena.fabbri@unimore.it [Dipartimento Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari”, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Gualtieri, Alessandro F., E-mail: Alessandro.gualtieri@unimore.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41121 Modena (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Nanolime and a phosphate-based chelating agent were used to synthesize B-type carbonated apatite. Developed Rietveld refinement strategies allowed one to determine process yield, product crystallinity as well as structural (unit cell) and microstructural (size, strain) parameters. The effect of synthesis temperature (20–60 °C) as well as Ca/P ratio (1.5–2.5) and solid content (10–30 wt%) of the starting batch on these properties were investigated. FTIR, TEM and gas adsorption data provided supporting evidence. The process yield was 42–60 wt% and found to be governed by the Ca/P ratio. The purified products had high specific surface area (107–186 m{sup 2}/g) and crystallinity (76–97%). The unit cell parameters, correlated to the degree of structural carbonate, were sensitive to the Ca/P ratio. Instead, temperature governed the microstructural parameters. Less strained and larger crystals were obtained at higher temperatures. Long-term aging up to 6 months at 20 °C compensated for higher crystal growth kinetics at higher temperature. - Graphical abstract: Controlled synthesis of carbonated apatite at moderate temperatures using nanolime and sodiumhexametaphosphate as starting reagent. - Highlights: • Chemical synthesis of nano-sized apatite with tailored microstructure was performed. • Colloidal Ca(OH){sub 2} and a phosphorus-based chelating agents were used as reagents. • The method is simple and reproducible which facilitate industrial process scale-up. • Rietveld refinement strategies for product characterization were developed. • Rietveld analyses provided yield, microstructural and structure information.

  20. Facile synthesis of B-type carbonated nanoapatite with tailored microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti; Romagnoli, Marcello; Hanuskova, Miriam; Fabbri, Elena; Gualtieri, Alessandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Nanolime and a phosphate-based chelating agent were used to synthesize B-type carbonated apatite. Developed Rietveld refinement strategies allowed one to determine process yield, product crystallinity as well as structural (unit cell) and microstructural (size, strain) parameters. The effect of synthesis temperature (20–60 °C) as well as Ca/P ratio (1.5–2.5) and solid content (10–30 wt%) of the starting batch on these properties were investigated. FTIR, TEM and gas adsorption data provided supporting evidence. The process yield was 42–60 wt% and found to be governed by the Ca/P ratio. The purified products had high specific surface area (107–186 m 2 /g) and crystallinity (76–97%). The unit cell parameters, correlated to the degree of structural carbonate, were sensitive to the Ca/P ratio. Instead, temperature governed the microstructural parameters. Less strained and larger crystals were obtained at higher temperatures. Long-term aging up to 6 months at 20 °C compensated for higher crystal growth kinetics at higher temperature. - Graphical abstract: Controlled synthesis of carbonated apatite at moderate temperatures using nanolime and sodiumhexametaphosphate as starting reagent. - Highlights: • Chemical synthesis of nano-sized apatite with tailored microstructure was performed. • Colloidal Ca(OH) 2 and a phosphorus-based chelating agents were used as reagents. • The method is simple and reproducible which facilitate industrial process scale-up. • Rietveld refinement strategies for product characterization were developed. • Rietveld analyses provided yield, microstructural and structure information

  1. Molecular tailoring of interfaces for thin film on substrate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Martha Elizabeth

    Thin film on substrate systems appear most prevalently within the microelectronics industry, which demands that devices operate in smaller and smaller packages with greater reliability. The reliability of these multilayer film systems is strongly influenced by the adhesion of each of the bimaterial interfaces. During use, microelectronic components undergo thermo-mechanical cycling, which induces interfacial delaminations leading to failure of the overall device. The ability to tailor interfacial properties at the molecular level provides a mechanism to improve thin film adhesion, reliability and performance. This dissertation presents the investigation of molecular level control of interface properties in three thin film-substrate systems: photodefinable polyimide films on passivated silicon substrates, self-assembled monolayers at the interface of Au films and dielectric substrates, and mechanochemically active materials on rigid substrates. For all three materials systems, the effect of interfacial modifications on adhesion is assessed using a laser-spallation technique. Laser-induced stress waves are chosen because they dynamically load the thin film interface in a precise, noncontacting manner at high strain rates and are suitable for both weak and strong interfaces. Photodefinable polyimide films are used as dielectrics in flip chip integrated circuit packages to reduce the stress between silicon passivation layers and mold compound. The influence of processing parameters on adhesion is examined for photodefinable polyimide films on silicon (Si) substrates with three different passivation layers: silicon nitride (SiNx), silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy), and the native silicon oxide (SiO2). Interfacial strength increases when films are processed with an exposure step as well as a longer cure cycle. Additionally, the interfacial fracture energy is assessed using a dynamic delamination protocol. The high toughness of this interface (ca. 100 J/m2) makes it difficult

  2. Public Housing: A Tailored Approach to Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Conlin, F. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Podorson, D. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Alaigh, K. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Davis, T. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-02-18

    Over one million HUD-supported public housing units provide rental housing for eligible low-income families across the country. A survey of over 100 public housing authorities (PHAs) across the country indicated that there is a high level of interest in developing low-cost solutions that improve energy efficiency and can be seamlessly included in the refurbishment process. Further, PHAs, have incentives (both internal and external) to reduce utility bills. ARIES worked with four PHAs to develop packages of energy efficiency retrofit measures the PHAs can cost-effectively implement with their own staffs in the normal course of housing operations at the time when units are refurbished between occupancies. The energy efficiency turnover protocols emphasized air infiltration reduction, duct sealing, and measures that improve equipment efficiency. ARIES documented implementation in 18 housing units. Reductions in average air leakage were 16% and duct leakage reductions averaged 23%. Total source energy consumption savings due to implemented measures was estimated at 3-10% based on BEopt modeling with a simple payback of 1.6 to 2.5 years. Implementation challenges were encountered mainly related to required operational changes and budgetary constraints. Nevertheless, simple measures can feasibly be accomplished by PHA staff at low or no cost. At typical housing unit turnover rates, these measures could impact hundreds of thousands of units per year nationally.

  3. Public Housing: A Tailored Approach to Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Conlin, Francis [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Podorson, David [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Alaigh, Kunal [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    More than 1 million HUD-supported public housing units provide rental housing for eligible low-income families across the country. A survey of over 100 public housing authorities (PHAs) across the country indicated that there is a high level of interest in developing low-cost solutions that improve energy efficiency and can be seamlessly included in the refurbishment process. Further, PHAs, have incentives (both internal and external) to reduce utility bills. ARIES worked with two PHAs to develop packages of energy efficiency retrofit measures the PHAs can cost effectively implement with their own staffs in the normal course of housing operations when units are refurbished between occupancies. The energy efficiency turnover protocols emphasized air infiltration reduction, duct sealing and measures that improve equipment efficiency. ARIES documented implementation 10 ten housing units. Total source energy consumption savings was estimated at 6%-10% based on BEopt modeling with a simple payback of 1.7 to 2.2 years. At typical housing unit turnover rates, these measures could impact hundreds of thousands of units per year nationally.

  4. Public Housing: A Tailored Approach to Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Podorson, D.; Alaigh, K.

    2014-06-01

    Over one million HUD-supported public housing units provide rental housing for eligible low-income families across the country. A survey of over 100 PHAs across the country indicated that there is a high level of interest in developing low cost solutions that improve energy efficiency and can be seamlessly included in the refurbishment process. Further, PHAs, have incentives (both internal and external) to reduce utility bills. ARIES worked with two public housing authorities (PHAs) to develop packages of energy efficiency retrofit measures the PHAs can cost effectively implement with their own staffs in the normal course of housing operations at the time when units are refurbished between occupancies. The energy efficiency turnover protocols emphasized air infiltration reduction, duct sealing and measures that improve equipment efficiency. ARIES documented implementation in ten housing units. Reductions in average air leakage were 16-20% and duct leakage reductions averaged 38%. Total source energy consumption savings was estimated at 6-10% based on BEopt modeling with a simple payback of 1.7 to 2.2 years. Implementation challenges were encountered mainly related to required operational changes and budgetary constraints. Nevertheless, simple measures can feasibly be accomplished by PHA staff at low or no cost. At typical housing unit turnover rates, these measures could impact hundreds of thousands of unit per year nationally.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of tailored nanostructured polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixin

    With recent advancements in the synthesis and characterization of polymeric materials, scientists are able to create multi-scale novel polymers with various cases of chemical functionalities, diversified topologies, as well as cross-linking networks. Due to those remarkable achievements, there are a broad range of possible applications of smart polymers in catalysis, in environmental remediation, and especially in drug-delivery. Because of rising interest in developing therapeutic drug binding to specific treating target, polymer chemists are in particular interests in design and engineering the drug delivery materials to be not only bio-compatible, but also to be capable of self-assembly at various in-vivo physiological stimulus. Both experimental and theoretical work indicate that the thermodynamic properties relating to the hydrophobic effect play an important role in determining self-assembly process. At the same time, computational simulation and modeling are powerful instruments to contribute to microscopic thermodynamics' understanding toward self-assembly phenomenon. Along with statistical approaches, constructing empirical model based on simulation results would also help predict for further development of tailored nano-structured materials. My Research mainly focused on investigating physical and chemical characteristics of polymer materials through molecular dynamics simulation and probing the fundamental thermodynamic driving force of self-assembly behavior. We tried to surmount technological obstacles in computational chemistry and build an efficient scheme to identify the physical and chemical Feature of molecules, to reproduce underlying properties, to understand the origin of thermodynamic signatures, and to speed up current trial and error process in screening new materials.

  6. Development of tailor-made silica fibres for TL dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.A.; Abdul Sani, Siti F.; Alalawi, Amani I.; Jafari, S.M.; Noor, Noramaliza M.; Hairul Azhar, A.R.; Mahdiraji, Ghafour Amouzad; Tamchek, Nizam; Ghosh, S.; Paul, M.C.; Alzimami, Khalid S.; Nisbet, A.; Maah, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Ge dopant in commercially available silica optical fibres gives rise to appreciable thermoluminscence (TL), weight-for-weight offering sensitivity to MV X-rays several times that of the LiF dosimeter TLD100. The response of these fibres to UV radiation, X-rays, electrons, protons, neutrons and alpha particles, with doses from a fraction of 1 Gy up to 10 kGy, have stimulated further investigation of the magnitude of the TL signal for intrinsic and doped SiO 2 fibres. We represent a consortium effort between Malaysian partners and the University of Surrey, aimed at production of silica fibres with specific TL dosimetry applications, utilizing modified chemical vapour deposition (MCVD) doped silica–glass production and fibre-pulling facilities. The work is informed by defect and dopant concentration and various production dependences including pulling parameters such as temperature, speed and tension; the fibres also provide for spatial resolutions down to <10 µm, confronting many limitations faced in use of conventional (TL) dosimetry. Early results are shown for high spatial resolution (∼0.1 mm) single-core Ge-doped TL sensors, suited to radiotherapy applications. Preliminary results are also shown for undoped flat optical fibres of mm dimensions and Ge-B doped flat optical fibres of sub-mm dimensions, with potential for measurement of doses in medical diagnostic applications. - Highlights: • Optical fibres tailor-made for TL dosimetry. • Sensitive to diagnostic as well as therapy doses in medicine. • Preform and fibre pulling facilities. • Relative TL and EPR measurements

  7. Universal versus tailored solutions for alleviating disruptive behavior in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman-Kishony, Talia; Shvarts, Shifra

    2015-01-01

    Disruptive behavior among hospital staff can negatively affect quality of care. Motivated by a standard on disruptive behavior issued by The Joint Commission (LD 3.10), as well as the desire to improve patient care, minimize liability, and improve staff retention, hospitals are setting policies to prevent and resolve disruptive behaviors. However, it is unknown whether uniform conflict management tools are equally effective among different hospital settings. We surveyed residents and nurses to identify similarities and differences among hospital departments in the antecedents, characteristics, and outcomes of disruptive behaviors, and in the effectiveness of conflict management tools. We used a quantitative questionnaire-based assessment to examine conflict perceptions in eight different hospital departments at Rambam Medical Center in Haifa, Israel. Most participants (89 %) reported witnessing disruptive behavior either directly or in other parties; the most significant causes were identified as intense work, miscommunication, and problematic personalities. The forms of these behaviors, however, varied significantly between departments, with some more prone to expressed conflicts, while others were characterized by hidden disruptive behaviors. These outcomes were correlated by the antecedents to disruptive behavior, which in turn affected the effectiveness of alleviating strategies and tools. Some tools, such as processes for evaluating complaints, teamwork and conflict management courses, and introducing a behavioral mission statement, are effective across many antecedents. Other tools, however, are antecedent-specific, falling into two principal categories: tools directly removing a specific problem and tools that offer a way to circumvent the problem. Conflict resolution tools and strategies, based on residents and nurse perceptions, may be more effective if tailored to the specific situation, rather than using a "one-size-fits-all" approach.

  8. Toward tailored disease management for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elissen, Arianne M J; Duimel-Peeters, Inge G P; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M

    2012-10-01

    To assess the differentiated effects of population-based disease management programs (DMPs) for type 2 diabetes on intermediary clinical outcomes in The Netherlands. Data covering a period from 20 to 24 months between January 2008 and December 2010 were collected from 18 Dutch care groups (primary care provider networks that have bundled payment contracts for delivery of diabetes DMPs). Meta-analysis and meta-regression methods were used to conduct differentiated analyses of these programs' effects over time on 4 clinical indicators: glycated hemoglobin, lowdensity lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index. Heterogeneous average results were stratified according to various patient and process characteristics to investigate whether differences in these features could explain variation in outcomes. Between 56% and 71% of patients (N = 105,056) had valid first- and second-year measurements of the study outcomes. Although average changes in these measures over time were small, stratified analyses demonstrated that clinically relevant improvements were achieved in patients with poor first-year health values. Interactions with age, disease duration, comorbidity, and smoking status were not consistent across outcomes; nonetheless, heterogeneity in results decreased considerably when simultaneously correcting for known patient characteristics. Positive effects tended to diminish with longer length of follow-up, while greater measurement frequency was associated with improved results, especially in patients with poor health. Our data suggest that tailored disease management, in which not only evidencebased guidelines but also patient characteristics directly determine care processes, including self-management support, has great potential to improve the cost-effectiveness of current chronic care delivery.

  9. Steam saving during maintenance of the 50-MW Unit 7 at Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan; Ahorro de vapor durante el mantenimiento de la Unidad 7 de 50 MW en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina Barajas, Elvia Nohemi; Ruiz Lemus, Alejandro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia de Los Azufres, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: elvia-medina@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-07-15

    Commercial-steam production in the southern area of Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico, Geothermal Field began in 1982 with the operation of Unit 2, the backpressure 5-MW unit, and continued in 1988 when the 50-MW condensing Unit 7 was commissioned. Today to supply steam to Unit 7, it is necessary to gather steam from 15 production wells, amounting 450 tons per hour (t/h) under operating conditions. During maintenance periods for Unit 7, production wells are removed from the steam-supply system but continue producing steam that is discharged to the atmosphere-a loss affecting the economic life of the geothermal reservoir. Therefore several actions have been proposed and tried to save the steam and preserve the geothermal resource. This paper presents the results of the actions and the technical and economic benefits obtained from them. [Spanish] La produccion de vapor con fines comerciales en la zona sur del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico, empezo en 1982 con la puesta en marcha de la Unidad 2 de 5 MW a contrapresion, para continuar en 1988 con la Unidad 7 de 50 MW a condensacion. Para cumplir con el suministro de vapor a la U-7, a la fecha es necesario integrar la produccion de 15 pozos productores, que producen un total de 450 toneladas por hora (t/h) a condiciones de operacion. Durante los periodos de mantenimiento de la U-7 los pozos son desintegrados del sistema de suministro, pero continuan produciendo vapor, el cual es descargado a la atmosfera sin ningun provecho, lo que representa una perdida que afecta la vida util del yacimiento geotermico. Por ello se han propuesto y aplicado diversas acciones operativas en cada uno de esos pozos con el objetivo de ahorrar vapor y preservar el recurso geotermico. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de esas acciones y los beneficios tecnicos y economicos obtenidos.

  10. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units - Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, Edward [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Ridky, Robert W [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Schulz, Robert K [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The study's objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters (75x45x10') at Beltsville, MD, and results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated. They are: 1) resistive layer barrier, 2) conductive layer barrier, and 3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g., clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover. Remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier, or perhaps even better, a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. This latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste and without institutional care. As mentioned in the preceding paragraph, a bioengineering management cover might well be the cover of choice during tho active subsidence phase of a waste disposal unit. Some maintenance is required during that period. Final

  11. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units - Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, Edward; Ridky, Robert W.; Schulz, Robert K.

    1992-01-01

    The study's objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters (75x45x10') at Beltsville, MD, and results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated. They are: 1) resistive layer barrier, 2) conductive layer barrier, and 3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g., clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover. Remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier, or perhaps even better, a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. This latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste and without institutional care. As mentioned in the preceding paragraph, a bioengineering management cover might well be the cover of choice during tho active subsidence phase of a waste disposal unit. Some maintenance is required during that period. Final

  12. Clinical Utility and Safety of a Model-Based Patient-Tailored Dose of Vancomycin in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Stéphanie; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Biran, Valérie; Lopez, Emmanuel; Madeleneau, Doriane; Wallon, Camille; Zana-Taïeb, Elodie; Virlouvet, Anne-Laure; Rioualen, Stéphane; Zhao, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacokinetic modeling has often been applied to evaluate vancomycin pharmacokinetics in neonates. However, clinical application of the model-based personalized vancomycin therapy is still limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility and safety of a model-based patient-tailored dose of vancomycin in neonates. A model-based vancomycin dosing calculator, developed from a population pharmacokinetic study, has been integrated into the routine clinical care in 3 neonatal intensive care units (Robert Debré, Cochin Port Royal, and Clocheville hospitals) between 2012 and 2014. The target attainment rate, defined as the percentage of patients with a first therapeutic drug monitoring serum vancomycin concentration achieving the target window of 15 to 25 mg/liter, was selected as an endpoint for evaluating the clinical utility. The safety evaluation was focused on nephrotoxicity. The clinical application of the model-based patient-tailored dose of vancomycin has been demonstrated in 190 neonates. The mean (standard deviation) gestational and postnatal ages of the study population were 31.1 (4.9) weeks and 16.7 (21.7) days, respectively. The target attainment rate increased from 41% to 72% without any case of vancomycin-related nephrotoxicity. This proof-of-concept study provides evidence for integrating model-based antimicrobial therapy in neonatal routine care. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units. Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland: Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.

    1995-04-01

    This study's objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (75 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g., clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover, and remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier or, perhaps even better, by a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. The latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste without institutional care

  14. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units: Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.

    1996-08-01

    This study's objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (70 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g., clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover, and remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier or, perhaps even better, by a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. The latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste without institutional care

  15. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units-progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.; Ridky, R.W.; Schulz, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    The study's objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters (75'x45'x10') at Beltsville, MD, and results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated. They are: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover. Remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier, or perhaps even better, a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. This latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste and without institutional care

  16. Variations of radiation intensity as a function of position in radiation field of a mammographic unit of 760 mm SID with Mo anode and 20 μm Mo added filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Jamal

    2001-01-01

    There are many effects that contribute to radiation field nonuniformity in mammography, including the heel effect and shorter source to image distance (SID), inverse square law and different photon path lengths through various attenuating media (the x-ray tube beryllium window, the added filter, the mirror, and the compression paddle) throughout the field. Variations of radiation intensity was investigated as a function of position in the radiation field (with compression paddle in place)of a mammographic unit in 760 mm SID with Mo anode and 20 μm Mo added filter. Reduction in radiation intensity along central axis of up to 19.40%, 19.13% and 19.34% were noted at 24, 26 and 28 kVp respectively. Radiation intensity also drops off to the left and right of the central axis. As a function of position in the field, we also found that the variations of optical density correlate well with the measured radiation intensity changes. (Author)

  17. Tailoring diffraction technique Rietveld method on residual stress measurements of cold-can oiled 304 stainless steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikin; Killen, P.; Anis, M.

    2003-01-01

    Tailoring of diffraction technique-Rietveld method on residual stress measurements of cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates assuming the material is isotopic, the residual stress measurements using X-ray powder diffraction is just performed for a plane lying in a large angle. For anisotropic materials, the real measurements will not be represented by the methods. By Utilizing of all diffraction peaks in the observation region, tailoring diffraction technique-Rietveld analysis is able to cover the limitations. The residual stress measurement using X-ray powder diffraction tailored by Rietveld method, in a series of cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates deforming; 0, 34, 84, 152, 158, 175, and 196 % reduction in thickness, have been reported. The diffraction data were analyzed by using Rietveld structure refinement method. Also, for all cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates cuplikans, the diffraction peaks are broader than the uncanailed one, indicating that the strains in these cuplikans are inhomogeneous. From an analysis of the refined peak shape parameters, the average root-mean square strain, which describes the distribution of the inhomogeneous strain field, was calculated. Finally, the average residual stresses in cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates were shown to be a combination effect of hydrostatic stresses of martensite particles and austenite matrix. The average residual stresses were evaluated from the experimentally determined average lattice strains in each phase. It was found the tensile residual stress in a cuplikan was maximum, reaching 442 MPa, for a cuplikan reducing 34% in thickness and minimum for a 196% cuplikan

  18. Comparing Homeless Persons’ Care Experiences in Tailored Versus Nontailored Primary Care Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Steward, Jocelyn L.; Jones, Richard N.; Roth, David L.; Stringfellow, Erin; Gordon, Adam J.; Kim, Theresa W.; Austin, Erika L.; Henry, Stephen Randal; Kay Johnson, N.; Shanette Granstaff, U.; O’Connell, James J.; Golden, Joya F.; Young, Alexander S.; Davis, Lori L.; Pollio, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We compared homeless patients’ experiences of care in health care organizations that differed in their degree of primary care design service tailoring. Methods. We surveyed homeless-experienced patients (either recently or currently homeless) at 3 Veterans Affairs (VA) mainstream primary care settings in Pennsylvania and Alabama, a homeless-tailored VA clinic in California, and a highly tailored non-VA Health Care for the Homeless Program in Massachusetts (January 2011-March 2012). We developed a survey, the “Primary Care Quality-Homeless Survey," to reflect the concerns and aspirations of homeless patients. Results. Mean scores at the tailored non-VA site were superior to those from the 3 mainstream VA sites (P < .001). Adjusting for patient characteristics, these differences remained significant for subscales assessing the patient–clinician relationship (P < .001) and perceptions of cooperation among providers (P = .004). There were 1.5- to 3-fold increased odds of an unfavorable experience in the domains of the patient–clinician relationship, cooperation, and access or coordination for the mainstream VA sites compared with the tailored non-VA site; the tailored VA site attained intermediate results. Conclusions. Tailored primary care service design was associated with a superior service experience for patients who experienced homelessness. PMID:24148052

  19. Metal flow of a tailor-welded blank in deep drawing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi; Guo, Ruiquan

    2005-01-01

    Tailor welded blanks were used in the automotive industry to consolidate parts, reduce weight, and increase safety. In recent years, this technology was developing rapidly in China. In Chinese car models, tailor welded blanks had been applied in a lot of automobile parts such as rail, door inner, bumper, floor panel, etc. Concerns on the properties of tailor welded blanks had become more and more important for automobile industry. A lot of research had shown that the strength of the welded seam was higher than that of the base metal, such that the weld failure in the aspect of strength was not a critical issue. However, formability of tailor welded blanks in the stamping process was complex. Among them, the metal flow of tailor welded blanks in the stamping process must be investigated thoroughly in order to reduce the scrap rate during the stamping process in automobile factories. In this paper, the behavior of metal flow for tailor welded blanks made by the laser welding process with two types of different thickness combinations were studied in the deep drawing process. Simulations and experiment verification of the movement of weld line for tailor welded blanks were discussed in detail. Results showed that the control on the movement of welded seam during stamping process by taking some measures in the aspect of blank holder was effective.

  20. eHealth and the use of individually tailored information: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Nicholas; Webster, Clare; Smith, Blair; Wake, Deborah

    2017-09-01

    Tailored messages are those that specifically target individuals following an assessment of their unique characteristics. This systematic review assesses the evidence regarding the effectiveness of tailoring within eHealth interventions aimed at chronic disease management. OVID Medline/Embase databases were searched for randomised control trials, controlled clinical, trials, before -after studies, and time series analyses from inception - May 2014. Objectively measured clinical processes/outcomes were considered. Twenty-two papers were eligible for inclusion: 6/22 used fully tailored messaging and 16/22 used partially tailored messages. Two studies isolated tailoring as the active component. The remainder compared intervention with standard care. In all, 12/16 studies measuring clinical processes and 2/6 studies reporting clinical outcomes showed improvements, regardless of target group. Study quality was low and design did not allow for identification of interventions' active component. Heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. This review has demonstrated that there is a lack of evidence to suggest that tailoring within an eHealth context confers benefit over non-tailored eHealth interventions.

  1. Tailoring a psychophysical discrimination experiment upon assessment of the psychometric function: Predictions and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardi, Andrea; Tabarelli, Davide; Ricci, Leonardo

    2015-02-01

    Decision making is a widespread research topic and plays a crucial role in neuroscience as well as in other research and application fields of, for example, biology, medicine and economics. The most basic implementation of decision making, namely binary discrimination, is successfully interpreted by means of signal detection theory (SDT), a statistical model that is deeply linked to physics. An additional, widespread tool to investigate discrimination ability is the psychometric function, which measures the probability of a given response as a function of the magnitude of a physical quantity underlying the stimulus. However, the link between psychometric functions and binary discrimination experiments is often neglected or misinterpreted. Aim of the present paper is to provide a detailed description of an experimental investigation on a prototypical discrimination task and to discuss the results in terms of SDT. To this purpose, we provide an outline of the theory and describe the implementation of two behavioural experiments in the visual modality: upon the assessment of the so-called psychometric function, we show how to tailor a binary discrimination experiment on performance and decisional bias, and to measure these quantities on a statistical base. Attention is devoted to the evaluation of uncertainties, an aspect which is also often overlooked in the scientific literature.

  2. Supersonic cluster beams: a powerful method for the deposition of nanostructured thin films with tailored properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, P.

    2002-01-01

    By using a pulsed micro-plasma cluster source and by exploiting aero-dynamical effects typical of supersonic beams it is possible to obtain very high deposition rates with a control on neutral cluster mass distribution, allowing the deposition of thin films with controlled nanostructure. Due to high deposition rates, high lateral resolution, low temperature processing supersonic cluster beams can also be used for the micro and nano-patterning of cluster-assembled films when little or no post-growth manipulation or assembly is required. For example the nano and meso-structure of films obtained by carbon cluster beam deposition can be controlled by selecting in the beam the elemental building blocks, moreover functional properties such as field emission can be controlled and tailored. The use of supersonic cluster beams opens also new perspectives for the production of nano-structured films with novel physico-chemical and topological properties such as nano-structured carbon matrices containing carbide and transition metal particles. (Author)

  3. EBS modelling for the development of repository concepts tailored to siting environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, K.; Ueda, H.; Wakasugi, K.; Sakabe, Y.; Kitayama, K.; Umeki, H.; Takase, H.

    2007-01-01

    The Japanese siting approach for a HLW repository calls for volunteer host municipalities and thereby places particular emphasis on design flexibility. In particular, the repository concept needs to be tailored to the specific site characteristics. Starting from the H12 repository concept, NUMO has been examining a range of possible repository design options, including the EBS. In this paper. the requirements and strategy for the development of models for performance assessment and process understanding are discussed, taking into account the step-wise, iterative process of developing repository concepts. The areas requiring further development of models and databases in the long-term R and D programme have been identified as a 'wish list' that relates to the evaluation of a range of potential repository concepts, focusing on the near-field for the early stages of the development process. Among the issues on the list, NUMO has started the development of a flexible computer code for modelling three-dimensional mass transport to evaluate the impacts of various design options and components of the EBS. This tool has been applied to the analysis of the barrier effects of the tunnel plugs located in fractured rock. (authors)

  4. Tailoring the Oxygen Content of Graphite and Reduced Graphene Oxide for Specific Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Naoki; Kubo, Takuya; Nishina, Yuta

    2016-02-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is widely recognized as a promising material in a variety of fields, but its structure and composition has yet to be fully controlled. We have developed general strategies to control the oxidation degree of graphene-like materials via two methods: oxidation of graphite by KMnO4 in H2SO4 (oGO), and reduction of highly oxidized GO by hydrazine (rGO). Even though the oxygen content may be the same, oGO and rGO have different properties, for example the adsorption ability, oxidation ability, and electron conductivity. These differences in property arise from the difference in the underlying graphitic structure and the type of defect present. Our results can be used as a guideline for the production of tailor-made graphitic carbons. As an example, we show that rGO with 23.1 wt% oxygen showed the best performance as an electrode of an electric double-layer capacitor.

  5. Personalized Medicine Applied to Forensic Sciences: New Advances and Perspectives for a Tailored Forensic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurro, Alessandro; Vullo, Anna Maria; Borro, Marina; Gentile, Giovanna; La Russa, Raffaele; Simmaco, Maurizio; Frati, Paola; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    Personalized medicine (PM), included in P5 medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, Participative and Precision medicine) is an innovative approach to the patient, emerging from the need to tailor and to fit the profile of each individual. PM promises to dramatically impact also on forensic sciences and justice system in ways we are only beginning to understand. The application of omics (genomic, transcriptomics, epigenetics/imprintomics, proteomic and metabolomics) is ever more fundamental in the so called "molecular autopsy". Emerging fields of interest in forensic pathology are represented by diagnosis and detection of predisposing conditions to fatal thromboembolic and hypertensive events, determination of genetic variants related to sudden death, such as congenital long QT syndromes, demonstration of lesions vitality, identification of biological matrices and species diagnosis of a forensic trace on crime scenes without destruction of the DNA. The aim of this paper is to describe the state-of-art in the application of personalized medicine in forensic sciences, to understand the possibilities of integration in routine investigation of these procedures with classical post-mortem studies and to underline the importance of these new updates in medical examiners' armamentarium in determining cause of death or contributing factors to death. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Tailored biodegradable triblock copolymer coatings obtained by MAPLE: a parametric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajnicov, S.; Neacsu, P.; Moldovan, A.; Marascu, V.; Bonciu, A.; Ion, R.; Dinca, V.; Cimpean, A.; Dinescu, M.

    2017-11-01

    Biocompatible and biodegradable coatings with controllable and tailored chemical and physical characteristics (i.e. morphology and roughness) are of great interest in bone related research applications. Within this research direction, in this work, a series of novel biodegradable coatings based on triblock copolymers poly(lactide- co-caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene-glycol)-block-poly(lactide- co-caprolactone) (PLCL-PEG-PLCL) were obtained by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) and their morphological characteristics and roughness were modulated by varying target composition and laser fluence. The coatings were used for preliminary in vitro testing with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. It was found that for a specific range of fluences, the main functional groups in the MAPLE-deposited thin films, as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, are similar to the molecular structures of the initial material. Depending on the deposition parameters, significant changes in morphologies, i.e. material accumulation in the form of droplets, wrinkles, or carpet-like structures were revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy. The optimized coating characteristics were further correlated to MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts response. The ability to control the morphology and to maintain unaltered the chemistry of the deposited material through MAPLE is an important step in creating functional bio-interfaces in the field of biomedical research and tissue engineering.

  7. Tailoring the Oxygen Content of Graphite and Reduced Graphene Oxide for Specific Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Naoki; Kubo, Takuya; Nishina, Yuta

    2016-02-25

    Graphene oxide (GO) is widely recognized as a promising material in a variety of fields, but its structure and composition has yet to be fully controlled. We have developed general strategies to control the oxidation degree of graphene-like materials via two methods: oxidation of graphite by KMnO4 in H2SO4 (oGO), and reduction of highly oxidized GO by hydrazine (rGO). Even though the oxygen content may be the same, oGO and rGO have different properties, for example the adsorption ability, oxidation ability, and electron conductivity. These differences in property arise from the difference in the underlying graphitic structure and the type of defect present. Our results can be used as a guideline for the production of tailor-made graphitic carbons. As an example, we show that rGO with 23.1 wt% oxygen showed the best performance as an electrode of an electric double-layer capacitor.

  8. SU-C-BRC-01: A Monte Carlo Study of Out-Of-Field Doses From Cobalt-60 Teletherapy Units Intended for Historical Correlations of Dose to Normal Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroccia, H [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Olguin, E [Gainesville, FL (United States); Culberson, W [University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Bednarz, B [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mendenhall, N [UF Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Bolch, W [University Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Innovations in radiotherapy treatments, such as dynamic IMRT, VMAT, and SBRT/SRS, result in larger proportions of low-dose regions where normal tissues are exposed to low doses levels. Low doses of radiation have been linked to secondary cancers and cardiac toxicities. The AAPM TG Committee No.158 entitled, ‘Measurements and Calculations of Doses outside the Treatment Volume from External-Beam Radiation Therapy’, has been formed to review the dosimetry of non-target and out-of-field exposures using experimental and computational approaches. Studies on historical patients can provide comprehensive information about secondary effects from out-of-field doses when combined with long-term patient follow-up, thus providing significant insight into projecting future outcomes of patients undergoing modern-day treatments. Methods: We present a Monte Carlo model of a Theratron-1000 cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, which historically treated patients at the University of Florida, as a means of determining doses located outside the primary beam. Experimental data for a similar Theratron-1000 was obtained at the University of Wisconsin’s ADCL to benchmark the model for out-of-field dosimetry. An Exradin A12 ion chamber and TLD100 chips were used to measure doses in an extended water phantom to 60 cm outside the primary field at 5 and 10 cm depths. Results: Comparison between simulated and experimental measurements of PDDs and lateral profiles show good agreement for in-field and out-of-field doses. At 10 cm away from the edge of a 6×6, 10×10, and 20×20 cm2 field, relative out-of-field doses were measured in the range of 0.5% to 3% of the dose measured at 5 cm depth along the CAX. Conclusion: Out-of-field doses can be as high as 90 to 180 cGy assuming historical prescription doses of 30 to 60 Gy and should be considered when correlating late effects with normal tissue dose.

  9. What's nu? A re-examination of Maxwell's 'ratio-of-units' argument, from the mechanical theory of the electromagnetic field to 'On the elementary relations between electrical measurements'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Daniel Jon

    This re-examination of the earliest version of Maxwell's most important argument for the electromagnetic theory of light-the equality between the speed of wave propagation in the electromagnetic ether and the ratio of electrostatic to electromagnetic measures of electrical quantity-establishes unforeseen connections between Maxwell's theoretical electrical metrology and his mechanical theory of the electromagnetic field. Electrical metrology was not neutral with respect to field-theoretic versus action-at-a-distance conceptions of electro-magnetic interaction. Mutual accommodation between these conceptions was reached by Maxwell on the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) Committee on Electrical Standards by exploiting the measurement of the medium parameters-electric inductive capacity and magnetic permeability-on an arbitrary scale. While he always worked within this constraint in developing the 'ratio-of-units' argument mathematically, I maintain that Maxwell came to conceive of the ratio 'as a velocity' by treating the medium parameters as physical quantities that could be measured absolutely, which was only possible via the correspondences between electrical and mechanical quantities established in the mechanical theory. I thereby correct two closely-related misconceptions of the ratio-of-units argument-the counterintuitive but widespread notion that the ratio is naturally a speed, and the supposition that Maxwell either inferred or proved this from its dimensional formula. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Tailoring the mode of information presentation: Effects on younger and older adults’ attention and recall of online information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, M.H.; van Weert, J.C.M.; Bol, N.; Loos, E.F.; Tytgat, K.M.A.J.; van de Ven, A.W.H.; Smets, E.M.A.

    Previous studies have mainly focused on tailoring message content to match individual characteristics and preferences. Additional strategies, such as tailoring to individual preferences for the mode of information presentation, are proposed to increase message effectiveness. This study investigates

  11. Unique water-water coordination tailored by a metal surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiros, T.; Andersson, Klas Jerker; MacNaughton, J.

    2013-01-01

    (2006)]. Using x-ray absorption spectroscopy we find an anomalous low-energy resonance at ~533.1 eV which, based on density functional theory spectrum simulations, we assign to an unexpected configuration of water units whose uncoordinated O-H bonds directly face those of their neighbors...

  12. Tailored Communication to Enhance Adaptation Across the Breast Cancer Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Manager Geary, Shannon Health Educator Gillespie, Kathleen Research Study Assistant Ginsberg, Barbara Assistant Director Glenn, Melanie Project...Kandadai, Venk Student Intern Kimenour, James Unit Aide Klein , Margaret Health Educator II LaMonica, Stephen Project Manager Leber, Elva Health Educator

  13. Public Housing: A Tailored Approach to Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Conlin, F. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Podorson, D. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Alaigh, K. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Davis, T. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States)

    2016-02-23

    The Building America research team Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES) worked with four public housing authorities (PHAs) to develop packages of energy-efficiency retrofit measures that the PHAs can cost-effectively implement with their own staffs during the normal course of housing operations when units are refurbished between occupancies.

  14. Tailored Working Fluids for Enhanced Binary Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Ahmad [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2013-01-29

    United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology and the National Institute of Standards and Technology will evaluate and develop fundamental and component level models, conduct experiments and generate data to support the use of mixed or enhanced working fluids for geothermal power generation applications.

  15. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units. Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland: Volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O'Donnell, E.

    1994-12-01

    The project objective is to assess means for controlling waste infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large scale lysimeters (70 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, MD and results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of LLW, uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three concepts are under investigation: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and bioengineering water management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earth (clay). The conductive layer barrier is a special case of the capillary barrier and it requires a flow layer (e.g. fine sandy loam) over a capillary break. As long as unsaturated conditions are maintained water is conducted by the flow layer to below the waste. This barrier is most efficient at low flow rates and is thus best placed below a resistive layer barrier. Such a combination of the resistive layer over the conductive layer barrier promises to be highly effective provided there is no appreciable subsidence. Bioengineering water management is a surface cover that is designed to accommodate subsidence. It consists of impermeable panels which enhance run-off and limit infiltration. Vegetation is planted in narrow openings between panels to transpire water from below the panels. This system has successfully dewatered two lysimeters thus demonstrating that this procedure could be used for remedial action (drying out) existing water-logged disposal sites at low cost

  16. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units - progress report on field experiments at a Humid Region Site, Beltsville, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.; Ridky, R.W.; Schulz, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated. They are: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g. clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover. Remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier, or perhaps even better, a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. This latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry to waste and without institutional care. These various concepts are being assessed in six large (70 x 45 x 10 each) lysimeters at Beltsville, Maryland. 6 refs., 21 figs

  17. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ying; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Ni, Xinzhi; Head, Graham P; Price, Paula A; Meagher, Robert L; Kerns, David; Levy, Ronnie; Yang, Xiangbing; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-07-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target pest of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established using single-pair mating of field individuals collected from seven locations in four states of the southern U.S.: Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, and Florida. The objective of the investigation was to detect resistance alleles in field populations to Cry2Ab2, a common Bt protein produced in transgenic maize and cotton. For each F2 family, 128 F2 neonates were screened on leaf tissue of Cry2Ab2 maize plants in the laboratory. A conservative estimate of the frequency of major Cry2Ab2 resistance alleles in S. frugiperda from the four states was 0.0023 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0003-0.0064. In addition, six families were considered to likely possess minor resistance alleles at a frequency of 0.0082 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0033-0.0152. One F2 family from Georgia (GA-15) was confirmed to possess a major resistance allele to the Cry2Ab2 protein. Larvae from this family survived well on whole maize plants expressing Cry2Ab2 protein and demonstrated a significant level (>15-fold) of resistance when fed with the same protein incorporated in a meridic diet. The detection of the major resistance allele along with the relatively abundant minor resistance alleles revealed in this study may have important implications for resistance management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Double-tailored nonimaging reflector optics for maximum-performance solar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Alex; Gordon, Jeffrey M

    2010-09-01

    A nonimaging strategy that tailors two mirror contours for concentration near the étendue limit is explored, prompted by solar applications where a sizable gap between the optic and absorber is required. Subtle limitations of this simultaneous multiple surface method approach are derived, rooted in the manner in which phase space boundaries can be tailored according to the edge-ray principle. The fundamental categories of double-tailored reflective optics are identified, only a minority of which can pragmatically offer maximum concentration at high collection efficiency. Illustrative examples confirm that acceptance half-angles as large as 30 mrad can be realized at a flux concentration of approximately 1000.

  19. A methodology for generating a tailored implementation blueprint: an exemplar from a youth residential setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C; Scott, Kelli; Marriott, Brigid R

    2018-05-16

    Tailored implementation approaches are touted as more likely to support the integration of evidence-based practices. However, to our knowledge, few methodologies for tailoring implementations exist. This manuscript will apply a model-driven, mixed methods approach to a needs assessment to identify the determinants of practice, and pilot a modified conjoint analysis method to generate an implementation blueprint using a case example of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) implementation in a youth residential center. Our proposed methodology contains five steps to address two goals: (1) identify the determinants of practice and (2) select and match implementation strategies to address the identified determinants (focusing on barriers). Participants in the case example included mental health therapists and operations staff in two programs of Wolverine Human Services. For step 1, the needs assessment, they completed surveys (clinician N = 10; operations staff N = 58; other N = 7) and participated in focus groups (clinician N = 15; operations staff N = 38) guided by the domains of the Framework for Diffusion [1]. For step 2, the research team conducted mixed methods analyses following the QUAN + QUAL structure for the purpose of convergence and expansion in a connecting process, revealing 76 unique barriers. Step 3 consisted of a modified conjoint analysis. For step 3a, agency administrators prioritized the identified barriers according to feasibility and importance. For step 3b, strategies were selected from a published compilation and rated for feasibility and likelihood of impacting CBT fidelity. For step 4, sociometric surveys informed implementation team member selection and a meeting was held to identify officers and clarify goals and responsibilities. For step 5, blueprints for each of pre-implementation, implementation, and sustainment phases were generated. Forty-five unique strategies were prioritized across the 5 years and three phases

  20. Tailoring a Human Reliability Analysis to Your Industry Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Companies at risk of accidents caused by human error that result in catastrophic consequences include: airline industry mishaps, medical malpractice, medication mistakes, aerospace failures, major oil spills, transportation mishaps, power production failures and manufacturing facility incidents. Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) is used to analyze the inherent risk of human behavior or actions introducing errors into the operation of a system or process. These assessments can be used to identify where errors are most likely to arise and the potential risks involved if they do occur. Using the basic concepts of HRA, an evolving group of methodologies are used to meet various industry needs. Determining which methodology or combination of techniques will provide a quality human reliability assessment is a key element to developing effective strategies for understanding and dealing with risks caused by human errors. There are a number of concerns and difficulties in "tailoring" a Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) for different industries. Although a variety of HRA methodologies are available to analyze human error events, determining the most appropriate tools to provide the most useful results can depend on industry specific cultures and requirements. Methodology selection may be based on a variety of factors that include: 1) how people act and react in different industries, 2) expectations based on industry standards, 3) factors that influence how the human errors could occur such as tasks, tools, environment, workplace, support, training and procedure, 4) type and availability of data, 5) how the industry views risk & reliability, and 6) types of emergencies, contingencies and routine tasks. Other considerations for methodology selection should be based on what information is needed from the assessment. If the principal concern is determination of the primary risk factors contributing to the potential human error, a more detailed analysis method may be employed

  1. Birth weight curves tailored to maternal world region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Joel G; Sgro, Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Glazier, Richard H; Bocking, Alan; Hilliard, Robert; Urquia, Marcelo L

    2012-02-01

    Newborns of certain immigrant mothers are smaller at birth than those of domestically born mothers. Contemporary, population-derived percentile curves for these newborns are lacking, as are estimates of their risk of being misclassified as too small or too large using conventional rather than tailored birth weight curves. We completed a population-based study of 766 688 singleton live births in Ontario from 2002 to 2007. Smoothed birth weight percentile curves were generated for males and females, categorized by maternal world region of birth: Canada (63.5%), Europe/Western nations (7.6%), Africa/Caribbean (4.9%), Middle East/North Africa (3.4%), Latin America (3.4%), East Asia/Pacific (8.1%), and South Asia (9.2%). We determined the likelihood of misclassifying an infant as small for gestational age (≤ 10th percentile for weight) or as large for gestational age (≥ 90th percentile for weight) on a Canadian-born maternal curve versus one specific to maternal world region of origin. Significantly lower birth weights were seen at gestation-specific 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles among term infants born to mothers from each world region, with the exception of Europe/Western nations, compared with those for infants of Canadian-born mothers. For example, for South Asian babies born at 40 weeks' gestation, the absolute difference at the 10th percentile was 198 g (95% CI 183 to 212) for males and 170 g (95% CI 161 to 179) for females. Controlling for maternal age and parity, South Asian males had an odds ratio of 2.60 (95% CI 2.53 to 2.68) of being misclassified as small for gestational age, equivalent to approximately 116 in 1000 newborns; for South Asian females the OR was 2.41 (95% CI 2.34 to 2.48), equivalent to approximately 106 per 1000 newborns. Large for gestational age would be missed in approximately 61 per 1000 male and 57 per 1000 female South Asian newborns if conventional rather than ethnicity-specific birth weight curves were used. Birth weight curves

  2. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  3. Modification of the water-level control system at the Unit 12 of Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Modificacion del sistema de control de nivel de agua en la Unidad 12 del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello Hinojosa, Raul; Aburto Huerta, S. Ramon; Mendoza Covarrubias, Hector M [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: raul.tello@cfe.gob.mx

    2007-01-15

    Unit 12 of the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field is a binary cycle unit of 1.45 MW, installed at the pad of production well Az-22. There are two separators on this pad. One separates the mix extracted from well Az-22 and the other from adjacent wells. The separated brine from both separators is gathered in a horizontal tank and sent to Unit 12. The steam is sent to Unit 7, which generates 50 MW. Once some interference occurred affecting the power generation of Unit 7 when Unit 12 was off line. This was caused by the original flow arrangement and water-level control system. To avoid interference, a water-level control system was designed and installed in the separators. The system operates independently of Unit 12, with tanks in each separator connected by a pipe. Regulation of the water level is accomplished by three motor valves and a level sensor. To ensure permanent feeding of electrical power to the valves, an automatic system was installed from transmission lines of 23 and 115 kV. In case both lines fail, there is an uninterrupted power supply (UPS) unit. At the beginning of 2005, Unit 12 was again online with a modified water-level control system that has operated satisfactorily since then. Its short periods offline have not affected Unit 7. [Spanish] La Unidad 12 del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., es una unidad de ciclo binario de 1.45 MW, instalada en la plataforma del pozo productor Az-22. En esta plataforma hay dos separadores, uno de los cuales separa la mezcla extraida del pozo Az-22 y el otro la de varios pozos aledanos. El agua separada de ambos se concentra en un tanque horizontal y de este pasa a la Unidad 12, mientras que el vapor se envia a la Unidad 7, de 50 MW. Por el tipo de arreglo original de flujo y control de nivel de agua en los equipos, ocurrian interferencias que provocaban que cuando la Unidad 12 se disparaba se afectara la generacion en la Unidad 7. Para evitar esta interferencia se diseno e instalo un sistema de control de

  4. Identification of the G143A mutation associated with QoI resistance in Cercospora beticola field isolates from Michigan, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Melvin D; Rivera, Viviana; Secor, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), caused by the fungus Cercospora beticola, is the most serious foliar disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) worldwide. Disease control is mainly achieved by timely fungicide applications. In 2011, CLS control failures were reported in spite of application of quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicide in several counties in Michigan, United States. The purpose of this study was to confirm the resistant phenotype and identify the molecular basis for QoI resistance of Michigan C. beticola isolates. Isolates collected in Michigan in 1998 and 1999 that had no previous exposure to the QoI fungicides trifloxystrobin or pyraclostrobin exhibited QoI EC(50) values of ≤ 0.006 µg mL(-1) . In contrast, all isolates obtained in 2011 exhibited EC(50) values of > 0.92 µg mL(-1) to both fungicides and harbored a mutation in cytochrome b (cytb) that led to an amino acid exchange from glycine to alanine at position 143 (G143A) compared with baseline QoI-sensitive isolates. Microsatellite analysis of the isolates suggested that QoI resistance emerged independently in multiple genotypic backgrounds at multiple locations. A real-time PCR assay utilizing dual-labeled fluorogenic probes was developed to detect and differentiate QoI-resistant isolates harboring the G143A mutation from sensitive isolates. The G143A mutation in cytb is associated with QoI resistance in C. beticola. Accurate monitoring of this mutation will be essential for fungicide resistance management in this pathosystem. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Possible Sediment Mixing and the Disparity between Field Measurements and Paleolimnological Inferences in Shallow Iowa Lakes in the Midwestern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger W. Bachmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Field measurements of water quality in Iowa lakes contradict paleolimnological studies that used 210Pb dating techniques in 33 lakes to infer accelerating eutrophication and sediment accumulation in recent decades. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing a series of water quality measurements taken in 24 of these lakes during the period 1972–2010. There was little change in the trophic state variables. Total phosphorus and algal chlorophylls did not increase, and Secchi depths did not decrease with no evidence that the lakes had become more eutrophic. Changes in daily sediment loads in the Raccoon River also did not match the paleolimnological inferred rates of soil erosion for the period 1905–2005, and an independent estimate of soil erosion rates showed a decline of 40% in the 1977 to 2012 period rather than an increase. We hypothesized that sediment mixing by benthivorous fish could be responsible for violating the basic assumption of 210Pb sediment dating that the sediments are not disturbed once they are laid down. We developed a mathematical model that demonstrated that sediment mixing could lead to false inferences about sediment dates and sediment burial rates. This study raises the possibility that sediment mixing in Iowa lakes and similar shallow, eutrophic lakes with benthivorous fish may cause significant sediment mixing that can compromise dating using 210Pb dating of sediment cores.

  6. SPECTRAL TYPING OF LATE-TYPE STELLAR COMPANIONS TO YOUNG STARS FROM LOW-DISPERSION NEAR-INFRARED INTEGRAL FIELD UNIT DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Lewis C.; Beichman, Charles A.; Burruss, Rick; Ligon, E. Robert; Lockhart, Thomas G.; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Shao, Michael [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Rice, Emily L.; Brenner, Douglas; Oppenheimer, Ben R. [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Crepp, Justin R.; Dekany, Richard G.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Hinkley, Sasha [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); King, David; Parry, Ian R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Metchev, Stanimir [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Remi, E-mail: lewis.c.roberts@jpl.nasa.gov [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2012-07-15

    We used the Project 1640 near-infrared coronagraph and integral field spectrograph to observe 19 young solar-type stars. Five of these stars are known binary stars and we detected the late-type secondaries and were able to measure their JH spectra with a resolution of R {approx} 30. The reduced, extracted, and calibrated spectra were compared to template spectra from the IRTF spectral library. With this comparison, we test the accuracy and consistency of spectral-type determination with the low-resolution near-infrared spectra from P1640. Additionally, we determine effective temperature and surface gravity of the companions by fitting synthetic spectra calculated with the PHOENIX model atmosphere code. We also present several new epochs of astrometry of each of the systems. Together, these data increase our knowledge and understanding of the stellar make up of these systems. In addition to the astronomical results, the analysis presented helps validate the Project 1640 data reduction and spectral extraction processes and the utility of low-resolution, near-infrared spectra for characterizing late-type companions in multiple systems.

  7. Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit a Spray Dryer and Fabric Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjostrom, Sharon; Amrhein, Jerry

    2009-04-30

    -generation continuous emissions monitors for mercury (Hg-CEMs) to allow automatic feedback control on outlet mercury emissions. This was accomplished and the plant can now be operated to control carbon injection based on either the overall mercury removal or an outlet mercury emission rate. By integrating these systems, it was determined that the plant could reduce powdered activated carbon consumption, especially at low load, because, at Hardin, native mercury capture increases from less than 20% to about 50% at low load and the carbon injection rate can be decreased accordingly. Currently, the plant is operating to automatically control emissions to below 0.9 lb/TBtu (pounds of mercury per million British thermal units) at carbon loadings of 0.5 to 1.5 lb/MMacf. During the final phase of the Long-Term test, the ACI system was operated by plant personnel. The estimated O&M cost for a single Hg-CEM system is $15,500/yr. The Hg-CEMs performed well throughout the project. This project began shortly after Thermo Fisher first offered the Mercury Freedom System™ on a commercial basis and progressed though several iterations, improvements, and upgrades to the hardware and software. Indeed, there was a ten-fold increase in the precision and accuracy of the units during the course of the project due to several successful upgrades. In their present condition, the Hg-CEMs measure mercury to a precision of about ± 0.05 μg/wscm (micrograms of mercury per wet standard cubic meter of gas), and only require occasional fine-tuning of the calibration coefficients. The quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) protocol required to keep the units operating at their optimal performance was also developed and perfected during the course of the project. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) developed a daily calibration procedure that surpasses the requirements specified in the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), and a weekly diagnostic program that ensures that the systems are operating properly and receive the

  8. Single point incremental forming of tailored blanks produced by friction stir welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, M.B.; Skjødt, Martin; Vilaca, P.

    2009-01-01

    fromthe rotating single point-forming tool. Formability of the tailor welded blanks (TWB) is evaluated by means of benchmark tests carried out on truncated conical and pyramidal shapes and results are compared with similar tests performed on conventional reference blanks of the same material. Results show......This paper is focused on the single point incremental forming (SPIF) of tailored welded blanks produced by friction stirwelding (FSW). Special emphasis is placed on the know-how for producing the tailored blanks and on the utilization of innovative forming strategies to protect thewelding joint...... that the combination of SPIF with tailored welded blanks produced by FSW seems promising in the manufacture of complex sheet metal parts with high depths....

  9. Tailored preconceptional dietary and lifestyle counselling in a tertiary outpatient clinic in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammiche, F.; Laven, J.S.E.; Mil, van N.; Cock, M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Lindemans, J.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adverse reproductive performance has been linked to unhealthy dietary intake and lifestyles. Our objectives were to investigate the prevalence of unhealthy dietary intake and lifestyles before conception and to evaluate whether tailored preconception counselling modifies these behaviours.

  10. GIS tailored questionnaires for assisting health care management in distributing resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A tailored questionnaire focuses on dynamic generation of items and questions according to the location where the questionnaire is used. The approach is connected to the management of resources and the support of decision making processes which...

  11. Tailoring atomic structure to control the electronic transport in zigzag graphene nanoribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Hui; Zhao, Jun; Wei, Jianwei; Zeng, Xianliang; Xu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We have performed ab initio density functional theory calculation to study the electronic transport properties of the tailored zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) with particular electronic transport channels. Our results demonstrated that tailoring the atomic structure had significantly influenced the electronic transport of the defective nanostructures, and could lead to the metal-semiconducting transition when sufficient atoms are tailored. The asymmetric I–V characteristics as a result of symmetry breaking have been exhibited, which indicates the route to utilize GNR as a basic component for novel nanoelectronics. -- Highlights: ► M–S transition induced by tailoring nanostructure. ► Asymmetric I–V curve due to symmetry breaking. ► Controllable electron transport by designing nanofiguration.

  12. Tailoring atomic structure to control the electronic transport in zigzag graphene nanoribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Hui [College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei 434023 (China); Zhao, Jun, E-mail: zhaojun@yangtzeu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei 434023 (China); Wei, Jianwei [College of Optoelectronic Information, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Zeng, Xianliang [College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei 434023 (China); Xu, Yang [Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)

    2012-10-01

    We have performed ab initio density functional theory calculation to study the electronic transport properties of the tailored zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) with particular electronic transport channels. Our results demonstrated that tailoring the atomic structure had significantly influenced the electronic transport of the defective nanostructures, and could lead to the metal-semiconducting transition when sufficient atoms are tailored. The asymmetric I–V characteristics as a result of symmetry breaking have been exhibited, which indicates the route to utilize GNR as a basic component for novel nanoelectronics. -- Highlights: ► M–S transition induced by tailoring nanostructure. ► Asymmetric I–V curve due to symmetry breaking. ► Controllable electron transport by designing nanofiguration.

  13. 48 CFR 2912.302 - Tailoring of provisions and clauses for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tailor terms inconsistent with customary commercial practice must be documented in a written justification by the contracting officer, and may be approved by the HCA on an individual or class basis. ...

  14. Aeroelastic Tailoring of Transport Aircraft Wings: State-of-the-Art and Potential Enabling Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Christine; Stanford, Bret K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the state-of-the-art for aeroelastic tailoring of subsonic transport aircraft and offers additional resources on related research efforts. Emphasis is placed on aircraft having straight or aft swept wings. The literature covers computational synthesis tools developed for aeroelastic tailoring and numerous design studies focused on discovering new methods for passive aeroelastic control. Several new structural and material technologies are presented as potential enablers of aeroelastic tailoring, including selectively reinforced materials, functionally graded materials, fiber tow steered composite laminates, and various nonconventional structural designs. In addition, smart materials and structures whose properties or configurations change in response to external stimuli are presented as potential active approaches to aeroelastic tailoring.

  15. Improving occupational physicians' adherence to a practice guideline : feasibility and impact of a tailored implementation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Margot C. W.; van Beurden, Karlijn M.; Terluin, Berend; van Weeghel, Jaap; Brouwers, Evelien P. M.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although practice guidelines are important tools to improve quality of care, implementation remains challenging. To improve adherence to an evidence-based guideline for the management of mental health problems, we developed a tailored implementation strategy targeting barriers perceived

  16. Predicting Porosity and Permeability for the Canyon Formation, SACROC Unit (Kelly-Snyder Field), Using the Geologic Analysis via Maximum Likelihood System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinaldo Gonzalez; Scott R. Reeves; Eric Eslinger

    2007-01-01

    -based, probabilistic clustering analysis procedure is successfully applied to generate a high-resolution reservoir characterization outcome. The approach was applied in the Pennsylvanian-Permian reef carbonates (Cisco and Canyon Formations) of a subregion of the SACROC Unit, Horseshoe Atoll, Permian Basin, Texas, and acknowledged as a highly complex carbonate reservoir. Due to the modest results achieved with the application of soft-computing methodologies to the available information (no crosswell data at hand), the original project target about creating a data-driven device relating surface seismic information, crosswell seismic attributes, geophysical logs and core parameters for the prediction of core-scale porosity and permeability profiles in locations where only 3D surface seismic data was available, had to be reformulated. It was shown that 3D seismic information was not capable of capturing the degree of vertical variability of SACROC. As a consequence, available seismic information was unincorporated from posterior reservoir characterization tasks, and a combination of data-driven procedures and geostatistical methods was utilized for reservoir characterization purposes. A selected area within the SACROC Unit platform was used for this study. The suitable logs for the creation of an 'intelligent' log-to-core device were not present for all wells. These logs were gamma ray (GR), neutron porosity (NPHI), bulk density (RHOB), and delta time (DT). It was necessary to create a first 'intelligent' tool, a log-to-log model to provide synthetic logs of RHOB and DT (or eventually of acoustic impedance derived from them) at well locations where only GR and NPHI were available (the most common situation in this reservoir). Once the 'ideal' logs were completed, a second model, a log-to-core device, provides core scale estimates of porosity and permeability (P and P). The validity of these soft-computing devices was checked using 'holdout' wells. In this way, 'core' parameter profiles

  17. Evaluating the relationship between biomass, percent groundcover and remote sensing indices across six winter cover crop fields in Maryland, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakara, Kusuma; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Gregory W.

    2015-07-01

    Winter cover crops are an essential part of managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural lands. Cover crops lessen sedimentation by reducing erosion, and the accumulation of nitrogen in aboveground biomass results in reduced nutrient runoff. Winter cover crops are planted in the fall and are usually terminated in early spring, making them susceptible to senescence, frost burn, and leaf yellowing due to wintertime conditions. This study sought to determine to what extent remote sensing indices are capable of accurately estimating the percent groundcover and biomass of winter cover crops, and to analyze under what critical ranges these relationships are strong and under which conditions they break down. Cover crop growth on six fields planted to barley, rye, ryegrass, triticale or wheat was measured over the 2012-2013 winter growing season. Data collection included spectral reflectance measurements, aboveground biomass, and percent groundcover. Ten vegetation indices were evaluated using surface reflectance data from a 16-band CROPSCAN sensor. Restricting analysis to sampling dates before the onset of prolonged freezing temperatures and leaf yellowing resulted in increased estimation accuracy. There was a strong relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percent groundcover (r2 = 0.93) suggesting that date restrictions effectively eliminate yellowing vegetation from analysis. The triangular vegetation index (TVI) was most accurate in estimating high ranges of biomass (r2 = 0.86), while NDVI did not experience a clustering of values in the low and medium biomass ranges but saturated in the higher range (>1500 kg/ha). The results of this study show that accounting for index saturation, senescence, and frost burn on leaves can greatly increase the accuracy of estimates of percent groundcover and biomass for winter cover crops.

  18. Multiple soliton self-frequency shift cancellations in a temporally tailored photonic crystal fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lai; Kang, Zhe; Li, Qing; Gao, Xuejian; Qin, Guanshi, E-mail: qings@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: wpqin@jlu.edu.cn; Qin, Weiping, E-mail: qings@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: wpqin@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Liao, Meisong; Hu, Lili [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Ohishi, Yasutake [Research Center for Advanced Photon Technology, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2014-11-03

    We report the generation of multiple soliton self-frequency shift cancellations in a temporally tailored tellurite photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The temporally regulated group velocity dispersion (GVD) is generated in the fiber by soliton induced optical Kerr effect. Two red-shifted dispersive waves spring up when two Raman solitons meet their own second zero-dispersion-wavelengths in the PCF. These results show how, through temporally tailored GVD, nonlinearities can be harnessed to generate unexpected effects.

  19. Context, confidentiality, and consent in tailored health communications: a cautionary note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orleans, C T

    1999-01-01

    This article highlights key contextual factors that emerge when the evolution of tailored health communications is viewed against the backdrop of dynamic changes in the nation's health care system--including the shift from fee-for-service medicine to managed care and the proliferation of direct-to-consumer and tailored marketing strategies in the pharmaceutical industry. It focuses on contextual variables with potential to significantly mediate the impact of personally tailored health advice--including those related to confidentiality, privacy, and informed consent and to the perceived aims, intents, and sources of tailored health messages. To protect the future of tailored health messages, more research attention must be given to defining these contextual factors and understanding the roles that they play and the ways in which they can be controlled to assure the best outcomes. Such research could point the way towards a set of empirical and ethical "best practices" based on a scientific understanding of how to maximize the benefits, and minimize the potential harms, of the widescale use of tailored health communications.

  20. Paradise lost: A study of the decline of institutions and the restructuring of organizational fields in the United States power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sine, Wesley David

    Institutional theorists have a long tradition of examining the persistence organizational forms and practices. Most institutional analysis, however, fails to discuss change in organizational forms and practices that at one time were highly taken for granted. This dissertation presents three papers that explore questions of institutional change in the context of the evolving power industry. The first paper, Dimensions of Institutional Resistance to Change, examines the qualities that make institutions more or less resistant to change. This paper surveys the literature on institutional change and suggests four institutional qualities for indexing institutional change: taken for grantedness, diffuseness, symbolic value, and integrativeness. I argue that these qualities can be used to measure the extent to which an institution is resistant to change, thus providing a means for studying and predicting the life spans of institutions. The second paper, From Hierarchies to Markets: The Deregulation of the Electric Generating Industry, uses the dimensions proposed in the first paper to understand the structural changes in the electric utility industry between 1935 and 1978. It theorizes that crisis catalyzes both organizational scrutiny, which erodes institutional symbolic value and taken-for-grantedness, and search processes for solutions, which redefine fringe alternatives within an institutional field as possible solutions. The net result is the delegitimation of incumbent institutions and the recognition of alternative solutions, creating a solution bazaar, where solutions compete to solve organizational inefficiencies made relevant by the crisis. The third paper, The Institutional Context of Founding Variation in the Emerging Independent Power Industry, presents and tests a theory of the effects of institutional structures on the genesis, development, and variation of organizational forms in a newborn industry created by radical regulatory change. Nascent industries

  1. Tailoring Charge Recombination in Photoelectrodes Using Oxide Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iandolo, Beniamino; Wickman, Björn; Svensson, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing semiconductor devices for solar energy conversion requires an explicit control of the recombination of photogenerated electron−hole pairs. Here we show how the recombination of charge carriers can be controlled in semiconductor thin films by surface patterning with oxide nanodisks....... The control mechanism relies on the formation of dipole-like electric fields at the interface that, depending on the field direction, attract or repel minority carriers from underneath the disks. The charge recombination rate can be controlled through the choice of oxide material and the surface coverage...... of nanodisks. We provide proof-of-principle demonstration of this approach by patterning the surface of Fe2O3, one of the most studied semiconductors for light-driven water splitting, with TiO2 and Cu2O nanodisks. We expect this method to be generally applicable to a range of semiconductor-based solar energy...

  2. Quantum confinement effect in Bi anti-dot thin films with tailored pore wall widths and thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Fukumura, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Nakao, S.; Xu, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated quantum confinement effects in Bi anti-dot thin films grown on anodized aluminium oxide templates. The pore wall widths (w Bi ) and thickness (t) of the films were tailored to have values longer or shorter than Fermi wavelength of Bi (λ F  = ∼40 nm). Magnetoresistance measurements revealed a well-defined weak antilocalization effect below 10 K. Coherence lengths (L ϕ ) as functions of temperature were derived from the magnetoresistance vs field curves by assuming the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model. The anti-dot thin film with w Bi and t smaller than λ F showed low dimensional electronic behavior at low temperatures where L ϕ (T) exceed w Bi or t

  3. Quantum confinement effect in Bi anti-dot thin films with tailored pore wall widths and thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y., E-mail: youngok@chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hirose, Y.; Fukumura, T.; Hasegawa, T. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); CREST, JST, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakao, S. [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); CREST, JST, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Xu, J. [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2014-01-13

    We investigated quantum confinement effects in Bi anti-dot thin films grown on anodized aluminium oxide templates. The pore wall widths (w{sub Bi}) and thickness (t) of the films were tailored to have values longer or shorter than Fermi wavelength of Bi (λ{sub F} = ∼40 nm). Magnetoresistance measurements revealed a well-defined weak antilocalization effect below 10 K. Coherence lengths (L{sub ϕ}) as functions of temperature were derived from the magnetoresistance vs field curves by assuming the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model. The anti-dot thin film with w{sub Bi} and t smaller than λ{sub F} showed low dimensional electronic behavior at low temperatures where L{sub ϕ}(T) exceed w{sub Bi} or t.

  4. Testing a Dutch web-based tailored lifestyle programme among adults: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Osch Liesbeth ADM

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking, high alcohol consumption, unhealthy eating habits and physical inactivity often lead to (chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Tailored online interventions have been proven to be effective in changing health behaviours. The aim of this study is to test and compare the effectiveness of two different tailoring strategies for changing lifestyle compared to a control group using a multiple health behaviour web-based approach. Methods In our Internet-based tailored programme, the five lifestyle behaviours of smoking, alcohol intake, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, and physical activity are addressed. This randomized controlled trial, conducted among Dutch adults, includes two experimental groups (i.e., a sequential behaviour tailoring condition and a simultaneous behaviour tailoring condition and a control group. People in the sequential behaviour tailoring condition obtain feedback on whether their lifestyle behaviours meet the Dutch recommendations. Using a step-by-step approach, they are stimulated to continue with a computer tailored module to change only one unhealthy behaviour first. In the course of the study, they can proceed to change a second behaviour. People in the simultaneous behaviour tailoring condition receive computer tailored feedback about all their unhealthy behaviours during their first visit as a stimulation to change all unhealthy behaviours. The experimental groups can re-visit the website and can then receive ipsative feedback (i.e., current scores are compared to previous scores in order to give feedback about potential changes. The (difference in effectiveness of the different versions of the programme will be tested and compared to a control group, in which respondents only receive a short health risk appraisal. Programme evaluations will assess satisfaction with and appreciation and personal relevance of the intervention among the respondents. Finally

  5. Jahn-Teller and Non-Jahn-Teller Systems Involving CuF64- Units: Role of the Internal Electric Field in Ba2ZnF6:Cu2+ and Other Insulating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aramburu, J. A.; Garcia-Fernandez, P.; García Lastra, Juan Maria

    2017-01-01

    The applicability of the Jahn-Teller (JT) framework to 6-fold coordinated d9 ions whose local symmetry is not strictly octahedral is explored by means of first principle calculations. Our results contradict much of the existing literature where these systems are analyzed within the quasi-JT regime...... transitions for CuF64- units formed in Cu2+-doped the tetragonal Ba2ZnF6 host lattice. While the experimental d-d transitions cannot be reproduced through the isolated CuF64- unit at the equilibrium geometry, a reasonable agreement is reached adding in the calculation the internal electric field, ER...... state with the hole in the a1g(∼ 3z2-r2) level while it is always placed in the b1g(∼ x2-y2) level for MX6 complexes (M = Cu2+, Ag2+, NiΤ; X = F--, Cl-) in cubic lattices displaying a static JT effect. While the experimental results of CuF64- in Ba2ZnF6 cannot be understood within the JT framework...

  6. Giant Electrocaloric Effect in Ferroelectrics with Tailored Polaw-Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiming [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2015-06-24

    Electrocaloric effect (ECE) is the temperature and/or entropy change in a dielectric material caused by an electric field induced polarization change. Although ECE has been studied since 1930s, the very small ECE observed in earlier studies in bulk materials before 2007 makes it not attractive for practical cooling applications. The objectives of this DOE program are to carry out a systematical scientific research on the entropy change and ECE in polar-dielectrics, especially ferroelectrics based on several fundamental hypotheses and to search for answers on a few scientific questions. Especially, this research program developed a series of polar-dielectric materials with controlled nano- and meso-structures and carried out studies on how these structures affect the polar-ordering, correlations, energy landscapes, and consequently the entropy states at different phases and ECE. The key hypotheses of the program include: (i) Whether a large ECE can be obtained near the ferroelectric-paraelectric (FE-PE) transition in properly designed ferroelectrics which possess large polarization P and large ß (the coefficient in the thermodynamic Landau theory where the Gibbs free energy G = G = G0+ ½ a P2 +1/4 b P4 + 1/6 c P6 – EP, and a = ß (T-Tc), where b,c,ß and Tc are constants)? (ii) What determines/determine ß? Whether a ferroelectric material with built-in disorders, which disrupt the polar-correlations and enabling a large number of local polar-states, such as a properly designed ferroelectric relaxor, can achieve a large ECE? (iii) How to design a ferroelectric material which has flat energy landscape so that the energy barriers for switching among different phases are vanishingly small? What are the necessary conditions to maximize the number of coexisting phases? (iv) How to design ferroelectric materials with a large tunable dielectric response? That is, at zero electric field, the material possesses very

  7. U.S. Coal Fields

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This data set shows the coal fields of Alaska and the conterminous United States. Most of the material for the conterminous United States was collected from James...

  8. Intracellular performance of tailored nanoparticle tracers in magnetic particle imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arami, Hamed; Krishnan, Kannan M., E-mail: kannanmk@uw.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, P.O. Box 352120, Seattle, Washington 98195-2120 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a quantitative mass-sensitive, tracer-based imaging technique, with potential applications in various cellular imaging applications. The spatial resolution of MPI, in the first approximation, improves by decreasing the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the field-derivative of the magnetization, dm/dH of the nanoparticle (NP) tracers. The FWHM of dm/dH depends critically on NPs’ size, size distribution, and their environment. However, there is limited information on the MPI performance of the NPs after their internalization into cells. In this work, 30 to 150 μg of the iron oxide NPs were incubated in a lysosome-like acidic buffer (0.2 ml, 20 mM citric acid, pH 4.7) and investigated by vibrating sample magnetometry, magnetic particle spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The FWHM of the dm/dH curves of the NPs increased with incubation time and buffer to NPs ratio, consistent with a decrease in the median core size of the NPs from ∼20.1 ± 0.98 to ∼18.5 ± 3.15 nm. Further, these smaller degraded NPs formed aggregates that responded to the applied field by hysteretic reversal at higher field values and increased the FWHM. The rate of core size decrease and aggregation were inversely proportional to the concentration of the incubated NPs, due to their slower biodegradation kinetics. The results of this model experiment show that the MPI performance of the NPs in the acidic environments of the intracellular organelles (i.e., lysosomes and endosomes) can be highly dependent on their rate of internalization, residence time, and degradation.

  9. Recent developments in drug eluting devices with tailored interfacial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Rexach, Eva; Meaurio, Emilio; Sarasua, Jose-Ramon

    2017-11-01

    Drug eluting devices have greatly evolved during past years to become fundamental products of great marketing importance in the biomedical field. There is currently a large diversity of highly specialized devices for specific applications, making the development of these devices an exciting field of research. The replacement of the former bare metal devices by devices loaded with drugs allowed the sustained and controlled release of drugs, to achieve the desired local therapeutic concentration of drug. The newer devices have been "engineered" with surfaces containing micro- and nanoscale features in a well-controlled manner, that have shown to significantly affect cellular and subcellular function of various biological systems. For example, the topography can be structured to form an antifouling surface mimicking the defense mechanisms found in nature, like the skin of the shark. In the case of bone implants, well-controlled nanostructured interfaces can promote osteoblast differentiation and matrix production, and enhance short-term and long-term osteointegration. In any case, the goal of current research is to design implants that induce controlled, guided, and rapid healing. This article reviews recent trends in the development of drug eluting devices, as well as recent developments on the micro/nanotechnology scales, and their future challenges. For this purpose medical devices have been divided according to the different systems of the body they are focused to: orthopedic devices, breathing stents, gastrointestinal and urinary systems, devices for cardiovascular diseases, neuronal implants, and wound dressings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Local normal vector field formulation for periodic scattering problems formulated in the spectral domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beurden, M.C.; Setija, Irwan

    2017-01-01

    We present two adapted formulations, one tailored to isotropic media and one for general anisotropic media, of the normal vector field framework previously introduced to improve convergence near arbitrarily shaped material interfaces in spectral simulation methods for periodic scattering geometries.

  11. Dopant concentration and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of tailor-made Ge-doped SiO2 fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahaimi, Nurul Arina; Ooi Abdullah, Mohd Haris Ridzuan; Zin, Hafiz; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Lutfi; Hashim, Suhairul; Saripan, Mohd Iqbal; Paul, Mukul Chandra; Bradley, D.A.; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Taufek

    2014-01-01

    Study focuses on characterisation of diverse concentrations of Ge-doped SiO 2 fibre as a potential thermoluminescence (TL) system for radiotherapy dosimetry. Irradiations were made using a linear accelerator providing 6 MV and 10 MV photon beams. Investigation has been done on various doped core diameter Ge-doped SiO 2 glass fibres such as commercial telecommunication fibres of 8 µm and 9 µm (CorActive High Tech, Canada), tailor-made fibres of 23 and 50 µm produced by the Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute Kolkata, and tailor-made fibres of 11 µm produced by the University of Malaya Photonics Research Centre. The fibres have been characterised for TL sensitivity, reproducibility, dose- and energy-dependence. The area under the TL glow curve increases with increasing core diameter. For repeat irradiations at a fixed dose the dosimeter produces a flat response better than 4% (1SD) of the mean of the TL distribution. Minimal TL signal fading was found, less than 0.5% per day post irradiation. Linearity of TL has been observed with a correlation coefficient (r 2 ) of better than 0.980 (at 95% confidence level). For particular dopant concentrations, the least square fits show the change in TL yield, in counts per second per unit mass, obtained from 50 µm core diameter fibres irradiated at 6 MV of photon to be 8 times greater than that of 8 µm core diameter fibre. With respect to energy response, the TL yield at 10 MV decreases by∼5% compared to that at 6 MV, primarily due to the lower mass energy absorption coefficient at higher photon energy. These early results indicate that selectively screened fibres can be developed into a promising TL system, offering high spatial resolution capability and, with this, verification of complex radiotherapy dose distributions. - Highlights: • We examined the TL glow curve intensity for various diameter sizes of germanium doped silica glass fibre. • TL sensitivity increased with the increase of fibre core

  12. Flexible graphene/carbon nanotube hybrid papers chemical-reduction-tailored by gallic acid for high-performance electrochemical capacitive energy storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Zhou, Chao; Hu, Nantao; Hu, Jing; Hong, Min; Zhang, Liying; Zhang, Yafei

    2018-03-01

    Mechanically robust graphene papers with both high gravimetric and volumetric capacitances are desired for high-performance energy storages. However, it's still a challenge to tailor the structure of graphene papers in order to meet this requirement. In this work, a kind of chemical-reduction-tailored mechanically-robust reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid paper has been reported for high-performance electrochemical capacitive energy storages. Gallic acid (GA), as an excellent reducing agent, was used to reduce graphene oxide. Through vacuum filtration of gallic acid reduced graphene oxide (GA-rGO) and carboxylic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) aqueous suspensions, mechanically robust GA-rGO/MWCNTs hybrid papers were obtained. The resultant hybrid papers showed high gravimetric capacitance of 337.6 F g-1 (0.5 A g-1) and volumetric capacitance of 151.2 F cm-3 (0.25 A cm-3). In addition, the assembled symmetric device based on the hybrid papers exhibited high gravimetric capacitance of 291.6 F g-1 (0.5 A g-1) and volumetric capacitance of 136.6 F cm-3 (0.25 A cm-3). Meanwhile, it exhibited excellent rate capability and cycling stability. Above all, this chemical reduction tailoring technique and the resultant high-performance GA-rGO/MWCNTs hybrid papers give an insight for designing high-performance electrodes and hold a great potential in the field of energy storages.

  13. Developing a culturally-tailored stroke prevention walking program for Korean immigrant seniors: A focus group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ivy; Chang, Emiley; Araiza, Daniel; Thorpe, Carol Lee; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for stroke. Korean immigrant seniors are one of the most sedentary ethnic groups in the United States. Objectives To gain better understanding of (i) Beliefs and knowledge about stroke; (ii) Attitudes about walking for stroke prevention; and (iii) Barriers and facilitators to walking among Korean seniors for the cultural tailoring of a stroke prevention walking program. Design An explorative study using focus group data. Twenty-nine Korean immigrant seniors (64–90 years of age) who had been told by a doctor at least once that their blood pressure was elevated participated in 3 focus groups. Each focus group consisted of 8–11 participants. Methods Focus group audio tapes were transcribed and analyzed using standard content analysis methods. Results Participants identified physical and psychological imbalances (e.g., too much work and stress) as the primary causes of stroke. Restoring ‘balance’ was identified as a powerful means of stroke prevention. A subset of participants expressed that prevention may be beyond human control. Overall, participants acknowledged the importance of walking for stroke prevention, but described barriers such as lack of personal motivation and unsafe environment. Many participants believed that providing opportunities for socialization while walking and combining walking with health information sessions would facilitate participation in and maintenance of a walking program. Conclusions Korean immigrant seniors believe strongly that imbalance is a primary cause of stroke. Restoring balance as a way to prevent stroke is culturally special among Koreans and provides a conceptual base in culturally tailoring our stroke prevention walking intervention for Korean immigrant seniors. Implications for practice A stroke prevention walking program for Korean immigrant seniors may have greater impact by addressing beliefs about stroke causes and prevention such as physical and

  14. On Chudnovsky-Based Arithmetic Algorithms in Finite Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Atighehchi, Kevin; Ballet, Stéphane; Bonnecaze, Alexis; Rolland, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Thanks to a new construction of the so-called Chudnovsky-Chudnovsky multiplication algorithm, we design efficient algorithms for both the exponentiation and the multiplication in finite fields. They are tailored to hardware implementation and they allow computations to be parallelized while maintaining a low number of bilinear multiplications. We give an example with the finite field ${\\mathbb F}_{16^{13}}$.

  15. Tailored motivational message generation: A model and practical framework for real-time physical activity coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op den Akker, Harm; Cabrita, Miriam; Op den Akker, Rieks; Jones, Valerie M; Hermens, Hermie J

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive and practical framework for automatic generation of real-time tailored messages in behavior change applications. Basic aspects of motivational messages are time, intention, content and presentation. Tailoring of messages to the individual user may involve all aspects of communication. A linear modular system is presented for generating such messages. It is explained how properties of user and context are taken into account in each of the modules of the system and how they affect the linguistic presentation of the generated messages. The model of motivational messages presented is based on an analysis of existing literature as well as the analysis of a corpus of motivational messages used in previous studies. The model extends existing 'ontology-based' approaches to message generation for real-time coaching systems found in the literature. Practical examples are given on how simple tailoring rules can be implemented throughout the various stages of the framework. Such examples can guide further research by clarifying what it means to use e.g. user targeting to tailor a message. As primary example we look at the issue of promoting daily physical activity. Future work is pointed out in applying the present model and framework, defining efficient ways of evaluating individual tailoring components, and improving effectiveness through the creation of accurate and complete user- and context models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tailorable and Wearable Textile Devices for Solar Energy Harvesting and Simultaneous Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Zhisheng; Zhang, Nannan; Sun, Peng; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Chuanxi; Fan, Hong Jin; Fan, Xing; Mai, Wenjie

    2016-10-05

    The pursuit of harmonic combination of technology and fashion intrinsically points to the development of smart garments. Herein, we present an all-solid tailorable energy textile possessing integrated function of simultaneous solar energy harvesting and storage, and we call it tailorable textile device. Our technique makes it possible to tailor the multifunctional textile into any designed shape without impairing its performance and produce stylish smart energy garments for wearable self-powering system with enhanced user experience and more room for fashion design. The "threads" (fiber electrodes) featuring tailorability and knittability can be large-scale fabricated and then woven into energy textiles. The fiber supercapacitor with merits of tailorability, ultrafast charging capability, and ultrahigh bending-resistance is used as the energy storage module, while an all-solid dye-sensitized solar cell textile is used as the solar energy harvesting module. Our textile sample can be fully charged to 1.2 V in 17 s by self-harvesting solar energy and fully discharged in 78 s at a discharge current density of 0.1 mA.

  17. Energy conservation through behavioral change. Examining the effectiveness of a tailor-made approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamse, W.

    2007-12-06

    Households constitute an important target group when it comes to encouraging energy conservation. This dissertation provides an overview of the effectiveness of interventions aimed at encouraging households to reduce their energy use through behavioral changes. It also provides more insight into the factors related to household energy use and conservation. Tailored interventions in particular appear to be effective in reducing energy consumption. Households were given tailored information about energy saving measures they could apply. They were asked to try and save 5% energy and the website indicated how much energy they could save with each measure to attain that goal. Households also received feedback about their energy savings. Households who received the combination of tailored information, goal setting and tailored feedback via the Internet saved 5%, while households in a control group used more energy. Households had adopted more energy-saving measures and had more knowledge of energy conservation, compared to the control group. Also, household energy consumption appeared to be mainly related to socio-demographic variables, such as income and household size. Energy savings appeared to be mainly related to individual factors like perceived behavioral control. If the aim is to encourage households to adopt more sustainable lifestyles, it is important to provide them with more insight into which energy saving options are most effective for them to conserve energy. In view of the annual energy reduction targets set by the Dutch government, a tailor-made approach via the Internet can be an important step in that direction.

  18. Tailoring particle translocation via dielectrophoresis in pore channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji; Tsutsui, Makusu; Theodore, Hu; Yuhui, He; Arima, Akihide; Tsuji, Tetsuro; Doi, Kentaro; Kawano, Satoyuki; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling electrophoretic motions of nanoscopic objects in fluidic channels are a central challenge in developing nanopore technology for molecular analyses. Although progress has been made in slowing the translocation velocity to meet the requirement for electrical detections of analytes via picoampere current measurements, there exists no method useful for regulating particle flows in the transverse directions. Here, we report the use of dielectrophoresis to manipulate the single-particle passage through a solid-state pore. We created a trap field by applying AC voltage between electrodes embedded in a low-aspect-ratio micropore. We demonstrated a traffic control of particles to go through center or near side surface via the voltage frequency. We also found enhanced capture efficiency along with faster escaping speed of particles by virtue of the AC-mediated electroosmosis. This method is compatible with nanopore sensing and would be widely applied for reducing off-axis effects to achieve single-molecule identification. PMID:27527126

  19. FELIN: tailored optronics and systems solutions for dismounted combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcent, A. M.

    2009-05-01

    The FELIN French modernization program for dismounted combat provides the Armies with info-centric systems which dramatically enhance the performances of the soldier and the platoon. Sagem now has available a portfolio of various equipments, providing C4I, data and voice digital communication, and enhanced vision for day and night operations, through compact high performance electro-optics. The FELIN system provides the infantryman with a high-tech integrated and modular system which increases significantly their detection, recognition, identification capabilities, their situation awareness and information sharing, and this in any dismounted close combat situation. Among the key technologies used in this system, infrared and intensified vision provide a significant improvement in capability, observation performance and protection of the ground soldiers. This paper presents in detail the developed equipments, with an emphasis on lessons learned from the technical and operational feedback from dismounted close combat field tests.

  20. Tailoring Functional Chitosan-based Composites for Food Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cláudia; Coimbra, Manuel A; Ferreira, Paula

    2018-03-08

    Chitosan-based functional materials are emerging for food applications. The covalent bonding of molecular entities demonstrates to enhance resistance to the typical acidity of food assigning mechanical and moisture/gas barrier properties. Moreover, the grafting to chitosan of some functional molecules, like phenolic compounds or essential oils, gives antioxidant, antimicrobial, among others properties to chitosan. The addition of nanofillers to chitosan and other biopolymers improves the already mentioned required properties for food applications and can attribute electrical conductivity and magnetic properties for active and intelligent packaging. Electrical conductivity is a required property for the processing of food at low temperature using electric fields or for sensors application. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.