WorldWideScience

Sample records for field tracer test

  1. An inexpensive field fluorometer for hydrogeological tracer tests with three tracers and turbidity measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Schnegg, Pierre-André

    2005-01-01

    The Geomagnetism Group of the University of Neuchâtel has recently designed a flow-through field fluorometer with added spectral capabilities for hydrological tracer tests. This instrument is equipped with four optical axes allowing water sample illumination with four independent light sources at different wavelenghs covering the full spectrum from UV to red. As many as three conveniently selected (dye) tracers can be simultaneously measured and separeted from a cocktail. Careful turbidity me...

  2. Heat tracer test in an alluvial aquifer: Field experiment and inverse modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepikova, Maria; Wildemeersch, Samuel; Hermans, Thomas; Jamin, Pierre; Orban, Philippe; Nguyen, Frédéric; Brouyère, Serge; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Using heat as an active tracer for aquifer characterization is a topic of increasing interest. In this study, we investigate the potential of using heat tracer tests for characterization of a shallow alluvial aquifer. A thermal tracer test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River, Belgium. The tracing experiment consisted in simultaneously injecting heated water and a dye tracer in an injection well and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and tracer concentration in the pumping well and in measurement intervals. To get insights in the 3D characteristics of the heat transport mechanisms, temperature data from a large number of observation wells closely spaced along three transects were used. Temperature breakthrough curves in observation wells are contrasted with what would be expected in an ideal layered aquifer. They reveal strongly unequal lateral and vertical components of the transport mechanisms. The observed complex behavior of the heat plume is explained by the groundwater flow gradient on the site and heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity field. Moreover, due to high injection temperatures during the field experiment a temperature-induced fluid density effect on heat transport occurred. By using a flow and heat transport numerical model with variable density coupled with a pilot point approach for inversion of the hydraulic conductivity field, the main preferential flow paths were delineated. The successful application of a field heat tracer test at this site suggests that heat tracer tests is a promising approach to image hydraulic conductivity field. This methodology could be applied in aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) projects for assessing future efficiency that is strongly linked to the hydraulic conductivity variability in the considered aquifer.

  3. Heat tracer test in an alluvial aquifer: field experiment and inverse modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepikova, Maria; Wildemeersch, Samuel; Jamin, Pierre; Orban, Philippe; Hermans, Thomas; Nguyen, Frederic; Brouyère, Serge; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Using heat as an active tracer for aquifer characterization is a topic of increasing interest. In this study, we investigate the potential of using heat tracer tests for characterization of a shallow alluvial aquifer. A thermal tracer test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River, Belgium. The tracing experiment consisted in simultaneously injecting heated water and a dye tracer in a piezometer and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and tracer concentration in the recovery well and in monitoring wells. To get insights in the 3D characteristics of the heat transport mechanisms, temperature data from a large number of observation wells distributed throughout the field site (space-filling arrangement) were used. Temperature breakthrough curves in observation wells are contrasted with what would be expected in an ideal layered aquifer. They reveal strongly unequal lateral and vertical components of the transport mechanisms. The observed complex behavior of the heat plume was explained by the groundwater flow gradient on the site and heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity field. Moreover, due to high injection temperatures during the field experiment a temperature-induced fluid density effect on heat transport occurred. By using a flow and heat transport numerical model with variable density coupled with the pilot point inverse approach, main preferential flow paths were delineated.

  4. The effects of mass transfer rate limitations and NAPL access heterogeneity on nonaqueous phase liquid tracer tests -- A field example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, R.A.; Wilson, D.J.; Christians, G.L.; Williams, S.P.

    1999-07-01

    Nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) tracer tests using combinations of nonpartitioning and partitioning tracers have proven to be an effective means of confirming, delineating, and, under appropriate conditions, quantifying the presence of nonaqueous phase liquids in the subsurface. Some factors that can confound the interpretation of these tests include heterogeneous porosity and permeability distributions, heterogeneous NAPL distributions, diffusion of the tracers into and from low-permeability materials, heterogeneous access to the NAPL by the tracers, and deviations from local equilibrium with respect to mass transfer of the tracers between the aqueous phase and the NAPL phase. NAPL tracer tests conducted with separate injection and extraction wells in an alluvial aquifer at a site near Fort Worth, Texas were affected by these factors with the most notable departures from ideal responses evidently attributable to rate limitations on mass transfer. Positive identification of NAPL presence was achieved by clear separation of the breakthrough curves for partitioning tracers from those of nonpartitioning tracers. A two-dimensional model was used to simulate the observed responses. The model is similar to earlier models of tracer tests of this sort, but includes two significant innovations. First, the model takes into account the kinetics of transport by diffusion of partitioning tracers into and from the NAPL. Second, the model permits the inclusion of porous lenses of low permeability into and from which both partitioning and nonpartitioning tracers can move by diffusion. Visual matching of simulated breakthrough curves to the field data was used to semi-quantitatively estimate the mass of NAPL present. Reasonable but imperfect matches of the simulated breakthrough curves to the field data illustrated the significant effect of a heterogeneous distribution of access to the NAPL by the tracers.

  5. A tracer test at the Beowawe geothermal field, Nevada, using fluorescein and tinopal CBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, P.E.; Adams, M.C. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Benoit, D. [Oxbow Power Services, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An interwell tracer test using fluorescein and tinopal CBS was performed at the Beowawe geothermal field in north-central Nevada in order to assess the effects of recent changes to the injection strategy. Fluorescein return curves established injection-production flow patterns and verified that produced water is being reinjected into a region of the reservoir that is in excellent communication with the production wells. An analysis of the tinopal CBS return curves indicated that tinopal CBS was apparently strongly adsorbed onto the reservoir rock. The fluorescein return curves were used to estimate the overall (fractures and matrix) reservoir volume.

  6. Journal: Efficient Hydrologic Tracer-Test Design for Tracer ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for the determination of basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowledge of the basic hydraulic and geometric parameters desired and the appropriate tracer mass to release. A new efficient hydrologic tracer-test design (EHTD) methodology has been developed to facilitate the design of tracer tests by root determination of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) using a preset average tracer concentration which provides a theoretical basis for an estimate of necessary tracer mass. The method uses basic measured field parameters (e.g., discharge, distance, cross-sectional area) that are combined in functional relatipnships that descrive solute-transport processes related to flow velocity and time of travel. These initial estimates for time of travel and velocity are then applied to a hypothetical continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) as an analog for the hydrological-flow system to develop initial estimates for tracer concentration, tracer mass, and axial dispersion. Application of the predicted tracer mass with the hydraulic and geometric parameters in the ADE allows for an approximation of initial sample-collection time and subsequent sample-collection frequency where a maximum of 65 samples were determined to be necessary for descri

  7. Transport and attenuation of carboxylate-modified latex microspheres in fractured rock laboratory and field tracer tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.W.; Reimus, P.W.; Vilks, P.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding colloid transport in ground water is essential to assessing the migration of colloid-size contaminants, the facilitation of dissolved contaminant transport by colloids, in situ bioremediation, and the health risks of pathogen contamination in drinking water wells. Much has been learned through laboratory and field-scale colloid tracer tests, but progress has been hampered by a lack of consistent tracer testing methodology at different scales and fluid velocities. This paper presents laboratory and field tracer tests in fractured rock that use the same type of colloid tracer over an almost three orders-of-magnitude range in scale and fluid velocity. Fluorescently-dyed carboxylate-modified latex (CML) microspheres (0.19 to 0.98 ??m diameter) were used as tracers in (1) a naturally fractured tuff sample, (2) a large block of naturally fractured granite, (3) a fractured granite field site, and (4) another fractured granite/schist field site. In all cases, the mean transport time of the microspheres was shorter than the solutes, regardless of detection limit. In all but the smallest scale test, only a fraction of the injected microsphere mass was recovered, with the smaller microspheres being recovered to a greater extent than the larger microspheres. Using existing theory, we hypothesize that the observed microsphere early arrival was due to volume exclusion and attenuation was due to aggregation and/or settling during transport. In most tests, microspheres were detected using flow cytometry, which proved to be an excellent method of analysis. CML microspheres appear to be useful tracers for fractured rock in forced gradient and short-term natural gradient tests, but longer residence times may result in small microsphere recoveries.Understanding colloid transport in ground water is essential to assessing the migration of colloid-size contaminants, the facilitation of dissolved contaminant transport by colloids, in situ bioremediation, and the health risks

  8. High-resolution cross-borehole thermal tracer testing in granite: preliminary field results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixel, Bernard; Klepikova, Maria; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Amann, Florian; Loew, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Understanding how heat is transported, stored and exchanged across fractured media is becoming increasingly relevant in our society, as manifested from the growing popularity of modern technologies relying on the subsurface to either source or store heat. One good example is the utilization of heat from deep hydrothermal or petrothermal systems to generate electricity for base load power generation, a technology also known as deep geothermal energy (DGE). While very attractive in principle, the number of geothermal fields producing economical levels of electricity to this day is still very limited - largely due to the difficulty of either locating deep reservoirs that are both sufficiently hot and permeable or, in the absence of the latter, creating them. In this context, the Swiss Competence Center for Energy Research - Supply of Electricity (SCCER - SoE) is carrying out an in situ stimulation and circulation (ISC) experiment at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS), an underground rock lab located in the Aar massif, in the Swiss Alps. The circulation experiment planned for the post-stimulation phase represents one of the key components of this experimental research program, and the outcome of this test is expected to ultimately provide key insights in the factors controlling the performance of enhanced geothermal reservoirs. Therefore, to support the design of this experiment, short-term thermal tracer tests (TTT) were conducted with the objective to (i) assess the feasibility of conducting TTTs in a relatively intact granite (where fluid flow is controlled by a limited number of discrete fractures); (ii) determine optimal experimental setups; and to ultimately (iii) monitor thermal breakthroughs at high spatial and temporal resolution, providing insights on heat transport and complementing the characterization of hydrogeological conditions carried out through conventional means (e.g. hydraulic and/or solute tracer tests). Presented herein are the results of a 10-day

  9. The Art of Tomographic Tracer Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirpka, O. A.; Leven, C.; Doro, K. O.; Sanchez-Leon, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    In tracer tomography several tracer tests are performed within an aquifer and breakthrough curves are observed at multiple observation points. In the analysis, hydraulic conductivity is estimated as spatially variable, 3-D field subject to some smoothness constraint. Coupled flow and transport models using this conductivity fields are requested to meet observed tracer data. The approach can be combined with hydraulic tomography.We have performed hydraulic-tomography and tracer-tomography tests using heat and fluorescein as tracers at a field site close to Tübingen, Germany. The aquifer consists of 8-9m alluvials sands and gravels overlain by 1-2m alluvial fines. The hydraulic setup consists of a forced flow field between an injection/extraction well couple, embedded in the forced flow field of another well couple. By turning injection to extraction wells, and vice versa, two different flow fields were considered. Injection wells were separated into several sections by packers, and water was injected into each section proportional to its transmissivity. The water injected into one of the sections contained the tracer. Multi-level observation wells were equiped with thermometers (for heat-tracer tests), on-line fluoremeters (for teh dye tracers), and pressure transducers. Processing of the breakthrough curves included data cleaning, non-parametric deconvolution, and calculation of temperal moments of the estimated transfer functions.The joint inversion of hydraulic-head measurements and temporal moments of heat-tracer transfer functions was done by the quasi-linear geostatistical approach on a computing cluster. As alternative, we directly invert the time series (without temporal moments) by Ensemble-Kalman filtering.The high diffusion coefficient of temperature diminishes the penetration of the heat-tracer into the aquifer, which can partially be compensated by reverting the flow field and repeating the tracer tests. In tests with fluorscent tracers the signal

  10. Application of ethanol as a geothermal tracer: a field-test in the Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello Hinojosa, Enrique [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Pal Verma, Mahendra [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Suarez Arriaga, Mario C. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Barrera Conzalez, Victor; Sandoval Medina, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    The thermal decomposition rate of ethanol, rhodamine WT and fluoroscein was determined from laboratory data obtained under conditions of temperature and pressure that simulated a geothermal reservoir. It was found that ethylic alcohol had better thermal stability rhodamine and fluoroscein. Using data obtained from de-ionized water experiments after 168 hours and 200 degree centigrade of temperature, the rhodamine WT and fluoroscein presented a degradation of 99.4% and 99.7%, respectively, while for the ethanol the degradation percentage under the same conditions was only of 44.6%. According to this, ethylic alcohol can be used as a conservative tracer up to about 250 degree centigrade, while rhodamine WT and fluoroscein can be used only at less than 200 degree centigrade, and only where the transit return time is expected to be less than 7 days. Ethanol was used as a conservative tracer in a field test in the southern zone of the Los Azufres geothermal field. The highest concentration was detected in a monitoring well in the steam phase 15 days after the injection, and in the liquid phase, or brine, 34 days after the injection. This suggests that alcohol fractionates preferentially in the steam phase and moves or migrates twice as fast than it does in the liquid phase. The tracer speed can be calculated in 176 m/day in the steam phase and 77.5 m/day in the brine. The ethanol presents good enough characteristics to be used as a tracer in both phases in geothermal environments. [Spanish] Se determino la velocidad de descomposicion termica del etanol, la rodamina y la fluoresceina a partir de datos de laboratorio obtenidos bajo condiciones de presion y de temperatura que simulan las de un yacimiento geotermico. Se encontro que el alcohol etilico presenta una mayor estabilidad termica que la rodamina y la fluoresceina. Empleando los datos obtenidos de experimentos con agua de-ionizada despues de 168 horas y a 200 grados centigrados de temperatura, la rodamina y la

  11. Tracer Tests and Field Monitoring of In situ Bioreduction of Cr(VI) Bioreduction at the Hanford 100H Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, P. E.; Newcomer, D. R.; Resch, C. T.; Cantrell, K.; Faybishenko, B.; Hazen, T. C.; Brodie, E.; Joyner, D.; Borglin, S.; Conrad, M.; Tokunaga, T.; Wan, J.; Hubbard, S.; Williams, K. H.; Peterson, J. E.; Firestone, M.; Andersen, G.; Desantis, T.; Hanlon, J.; Willett, A.; Koenigsberg, S.

    2006-05-01

    Tracer tests and field monitoring before, during, and after bio-immobilization of Cr(VI) in groundwater at the Hanford 100H field site have provided key data constraining the geohydrology and biogeochemistry of field- scale bioreduction. A slow release polylactate, Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC), was used to stimulate the in situ bioreduction and removal of Cr(VI) from groundwater. Monitoring included an extensive suite of field and laboratory techniques, as well as five Br-tracer injection tests and four pumping tests. To minimize drilling costs, a three-well system (injection well and upgradient and downgradient monitoring wells) was used for conducting the in situ biostimulation and monitoring. Pre-biostimulation Br-tracer tests demonstrated that low-flow pumping (1.2 to 2.5 l/min) on the down-gradient well was required to ensure capture of groundwater flow lines passing through the injection well (5 m from the downgradient pumping well). Detailed Br breakthrough curves were obtained using field-deployed Br ion-selective electrodes (Instrumentation Northwest, Inc.). We also used a multi-parameter flow cell (Hydrolab H2O Multiprobe) to collect hourly data on temperature, pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity, and dissolved oxygen (DO). Field measurements were used to enable repeat groundwater sampling by pumping through specially designed borehole water samplers. Following the HRC injection, the data demonstrated the temporal relationship between the Br arrival and onset of reducing conditions induced by the injection. For example, redox potential decreased from +240 to -130 mV while conductivity changed from ~510 μS/cm to ~850 μS/cm along with a complete removal of DO and a drop in pH. These changes occurred concomitantly with more than a 2- order of magnitude increase in microbial cell numbers. The pore-water conductivity changes were used to constrain interpretation of the results of cross-borehole radar tomography conducted prior to and after the

  12. Integration of Tracer Test Data to Refine Geostatistical Hydraulic Conductivity Fields Using Sequential Self-Calibration Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bill X Hu; Jiang Xiaowei; Wan Li

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of local measurements of hydraulic conductivity, geostatistical methods have been found to be useful in heterogeneity characterization of a hydraulic conductivity field on a regional scale. However, the methods are not suited to directly integrate dynamic production data, such as,hydraulic head and solute concentration, into the study of conductivity distribution. These data, which record the flow and transport processes in the medium, are closely related to the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity. In this study, a three-dimensional gradient-based inverse method-the sequential self-calibration (SSC) method-is developed to calibrate a hydraulic conductivity field,initially generated by a geostatistical simulation method, conditioned on tracer test results. The SSC method can honor both local hydraulic conductivity measurements and tracer test data. The mismatch between the simulated hydraulic conductivity field and the reference true one, measured by its mean square error (MSE), is reduced through the SSC conditional study. In comparison with the unconditional results, the SSC conditional study creates the mean breakthrough curve much closer to the reference true curve, and significantly reduces the prediction uncertainty of the solute transport in the observed locations. Further, the reduction of uncertainty is spatially dependent, which indicates that good locations, geological structure, and boundary conditions will affect the efficiency of the SSC study results.

  13. Heat as a tracer for understanding transport processes in fractured media: Theory and field assessment from multiscale thermal push-pull tracer tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepikova, Maria V.; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Bour, Olivier; Dentz, Marco; Hochreutener, Rebecca; Lavenant, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    The characterization and modeling of heat transfer in fractured media is particularly challenging as the existence of fractures at multiple scales induces highly localized flow patterns. From a theoretical and numerical analysis of heat transfer in simple conceptual models of fractured media, we show that flow channeling has a significant effect on the scaling of heat recovery in both space and time. The late time tailing of heat recovery under channeled flow is shown to diverge from the T>(t>)∝t-1.5 behavior expected for the classical parallel plate model and follow the scaling T>(t>)∝1/t>(log⁡t>)2 for a simple channel modeled as a tube. This scaling, which differs significantly from known scalings in mobile-immobile systems, is of purely geometrical origin: late time heat transfer from the matrix to a channel corresponds dimensionally to a radial diffusion process, while heat transfer from the matrix to a plate may be considered as a one-dimensional process. This phenomenon is also manifested on the spatial scaling of heat recovery as flow channeling affects the decay of the thermal breakthrough peak amplitude and the increase of the peak time with scale. These findings are supported by the results of a field experimental campaign performed on the fractured rock site of Ploemeur. The scaling of heat recovery in time and space, measured from thermal breakthrough curves measured through a series of push-pull tests at different scales, shows a clear signature of flow channeling. The whole data set can thus be successfully represented by a multichannel model parametrized by the mean channel density and aperture. These findings, which bring new insights on the effect of flow channeling on heat transfer in fractured rocks, show how heat recovery in geothermal tests may be controlled by fracture geometry. In addition, this highlights the interest of thermal push-pull tests as a complement to solute tracers tests to infer fracture aperture and geometry.

  14. Application of 'BIPI' tests employing natural and artificial tracers in water flooded oil fields of the Neuquina Basin (Argentine)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somaruga, C. [Comahue Univ., Engineering Dept., Neuquen (Argentina); Gazzera, C.; Wouterlood, C. [Petrolera Perez Companc SA. Area Entre Lomas., Neuquen (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    A methodology to determine the origin and distribution of bottom water in an oil producing well influenced by several injectors in waterflooding projects is presented. This methodology is complementary of inter-well tracer tests and salinity records analysis and was denominated BIPI (brief interruptions of producing-injecting wells) test. It requires the closing of a well (injector or producer) during a short time and its later re-opening. The original flow pattern in the surroundings of the tested producing well is affected while the well is closed. So the water coming from a dominant injector can move forward invading areas of a layer that have been previously occupied by other waters. Once the well is re-opened, if there is a tracer concentration contrast between the waters, a concentration change is registered. The concentration change was measured and also its recurrence in waters produced during inter-well tracer tests and during waterflooding that are employing different injection water from the formation one. Also it was determined the original flow distribution in the surrounding of the producing well by means of a simple balance of tracer mass. It is presented and analyze here the results from tests that were performed in an oil field of the Neuquina Basin. They allowed to visualizing the current condition of the bottom water flow as well as to make predictions on future performance. (authors)

  15. Tracer tests in geothermal resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelsson G.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal reinjection involves injecting energy-depleted fluid back into geothermal systems, providing an effective mode of waste-water disposal as well as supplementary fluid recharge. Cooling of production boreholes is one of the main disadvantages associated with reinjection, however. Tracer testing is an important tool for reinjection studies because tracer tests actually have a predictive power since tracer transport is orders of magnitude faster than cold-front advancement around reinjection boreholes. A simple and efficient method of tracer test interpretation, assuming specific flow channels connecting reinjection and production boreholes, is available. It simulates tracer return profiles and estimates properties of the flow channels, which are consequently used for predicting the production borehole cooling. Numerous examples are available worldwide on the successful application of tracer tests in geothermal management, many involving the application of this interpretation technique. Tracer tests are also used for general subsurface hydrological studies in geothermal systems and for flow rate measurements in two-phase geothermal pipelines. The tracers most commonly used in geothermal applications are fluorescent dyes, chemical substances and radioactive isotopes. New temperature-resistant tracers have also been introduced and high-tech tracers are being considered.

  16. Tracer tests in geothermal resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson G.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal reinjection involves injecting energy-depleted fluid back into geothermal systems, providing an effective mode of waste-water disposal as well as supplementary fluid recharge. Cooling of production boreholes is one of the main disadvantages associated with reinjection, however. Tracer testing is an important tool for reinjection studies because tracer tests actually have a predictive power since tracer transport is orders of magnitude faster than cold-front advancement around reinj...

  17. Tracer-Test Planning Using the Efficient Hydrologic Tracer-Test Design (Ehtd) Program (2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for establishing flow trajectories and hydrologic connections and for determining basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test ...

  18. Fractal tracer distributions in turbulent field theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. Lundbek; Bohr, Tomas

    1998-01-01

    We study the motion of passive tracers in a two-dimensional turbulent velocity field generated by the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. By varying the direction of the velocity-vector with respect to the field-gradient we can continuously vary the two Lyapunov exponents for the particle motion and t...

  19. Compilation and analyses of results from cross-hole tracer tests with conservative tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjerne, Calle; Nordqvist, Rune; Harrstroem, Johan (Geosigma AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Radionuclide transport in hydrogeological formations is one of the key factors for the safety analysis of a future repository of nuclear waste. Tracer tests have therefore been an important field method within the SKB investigation programmes at several sites since the late 1970's. This report presents a compilation and analyses of results from cross-hole tracer tests with conservative tracers performed within various SKB investigations. The objectives of the study are to facilitate, improve and reduce uncertainties in predictive tracer modelling and to provide supporting information for SKB's safety assessment of a final repository of nuclear waste. More specifically, the focus of the report is the relationship between the tracer mean residence time and fracture hydraulic parameters, i.e. the relationship between mass balance aperture and fracture transmissivity, hydraulic diffusivity and apparent storativity. For 74 different combinations of pumping and injection section at six different test sites (Studsvik, Stripa, Finnsjoen, Aespoe, Forsmark, Laxemar), estimates of mass balance aperture from cross-hole tracer tests as well as transmissivity were extracted from reports or in the SKB database Sicada. For 28 of these combinations of pumping and injection section, estimates of hydraulic diffusivity and apparent storativity from hydraulic interference tests were also found. An empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and transmissivity was estimated, although some uncertainties for individual data exist. The empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and transmissivity presented in this study deviates considerably from other previously suggested relationships, such as the cubic law and transport aperture as suggested by /Dershowitz and Klise 2002/, /Dershowitz et al. 2002/ and /Dershowitz et al. 2003/, which also is discussed in this report. No clear and direct empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and hydraulic

  20. A field test of tracer transport and organic contaminant elution in a stratified aquifer at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (Denver, Colorado, U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorbjarnarson, Kathryn W.; Mackay, Douglas M.

    1997-01-01

    A tracer-elution experiment was conducted in a 9-m-thick alluvial sand aquifer at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Denver, Colorado, within an extensive 1,1,1-trichloroethene and trichloroethene plume. The forced-gradient flow field was controlled by an injection well and an extraction well separated by 8.4 m and aligned in the direction of the natural-gradient flow. Upon extraction, the contaminant-laden water was treated by air stripping and reinjected into the injection well. Iodide tracer was added to the injection flow during the initial 27.5 h of the experiment. Tracer transport and organic contaminant elution were monitored by four 0.15-m-screened drive points and a fully penetrating monitoring well. Relative permeabilities, dispersivities and retardation factors were estimated from tracer breakthrough and contaminant elution curves by the moment method and by curve-fitting with an advection-dispersion model. Tracer transport through the four strata sampled by the drive points indicated a permeability variation of three orders of magnitude. Contaminant elution was not observed in the lowest-permeability stratum monitored during the experiment. In all monitored strata, contaminant elution was controlled primarily by permeability effects on water flow and exhibited minimal retardation or desorption effects. The fully penetrating monitoring well exhibited a tracer response primarily from the more permeable strata with the addition of tracer from the less permeable strata producing an increased breakthrough spreading. This increased spreading or dispersion was reflected in a higher longitudinal dispersivity estimate (1.2 m assuming a homogeneous aquifer) than dispersivity estimates from the drive-point sampler tracer curves (ranging from 5 to 21 cm). Contaminant elution curves from the fully penetrating monitoring well exhibited an initial response primarily from the more permeable strata (rapid elution of contaminants) and provided no insight into the elution

  1. Thermal tracer tomography: from numerical simulation to field implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyvári, Márk; Brauchler, Ralf; Bayer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Choosing heat for subsurface investigations is attractive because changes in temperature can be easily measured, and natural variations are typically slower than the timescale of the experiments. The tomographical setup expands the applicability of such tests to reconstruct the spatial distribution of hydraulic aquifer properties. A new inversion methodology is presented for thermal tracer tomography, using tracer travel times to invert the hydraulic conductivity distribution of the aquifer. If we can assume that heat transport is driven by advection, the travel time of the thermal tracer can be related to the hydraulic parameters of the aquifer. With this assumption other thermal effects such as thermal diffusion or density driven flow appear as noise in the results. To reduce these effects the early time diagnostics of the recorded breakthrough curves are used, focusing on the fastest transport routes between the sources and receivers. The inverse problem of the experiment thus can be formulated as a classical travel time problem, and it can be solved using standard eikonal solver algorithms known from seismic or hydraulic tomography. The method is demonstrated with a high resolution 3-D aquifer analog dataset. The generated 3-D reconstruction reveals the potential of the method, especially in finding the preferential flow paths within the aquifer. Aside from this, the developed method is computationally efficient and can provide results in a fragment of the time required for full-physics model calibration. The method is also tested under field conditions. Four heat tracer injections were performed during a three day field campaign at the Widen field site in northeast Switzerland. Pulse signals were used and the temperature evolution was measured downstream using a distributed measurement system. The preliminary results of the tomographic inversion correspond well with the findings of earlier studies from the field site imaging the same geological features as

  2. Performance Testing of Tracer Gas and Tracer Aerosol Detectors for use in Radionuclide NESHAP Compliance Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lattin, Rebecca Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-28

    The Rad-NESHAP program, part of the Air Quality Compliance team of LANL’s Compliance Programs group (EPC-CP), and the Radiation Instrumentation & Calibration team, part of the Radiation Protection Services group (RP-SVS), frequently partner on issues relating to characterizing air flow streams. This memo documents the most recent example of this partnership, involving performance testing of sulfur hexafluoride detectors for use in stack gas mixing tests. Additionally, members of the Rad-NESHAP program performed a functional trending test on a pair of optical particle counters, comparing results from a non-calibrated instrument to a calibrated instrument. Prior to commissioning a new stack sampling system, the ANSI Standard for stack sampling requires that the stack sample location must meet several criteria, including uniformity of tracer gas and aerosol mixing in the air stream. For these mix tests, tracer media (sulfur hexafluoride gas or liquid oil aerosol particles) are injected into the stack air stream and the resulting air concentrations are measured across the plane of the stack at the proposed sampling location. The coefficient of variation of these media concentrations must be under 20% when evaluated over the central 2/3 area of the stack or duct. The instruments which measure these air concentrations must be tested prior to the stack tests in order to ensure their linear response to varying air concentrations of either tracer gas or tracer aerosol. The instruments used in tracer gas and aerosol mix testing cannot be calibrated by the LANL Standards and Calibration Laboratory, so they would normally be sent off-site for factory calibration by the vendor. Operational requirements can prevent formal factory calibration of some instruments after they have been used in hazardous settings, e.g., within a radiological facility with potential airborne contamination. The performance tests described in this document are intended to demonstrate the reliable

  3. TRAC, a collaborative computer tool for tracer-test interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, A.; Klinka, T.; Thiéry, D.; Buscarlet, E.; Binet, S.; Jozja, N.; Défarge, C.; Leclerc, B.; Fécamp, C.; Ahumada, Y.; Elsass, J.

    2013-05-01

    Artificial tracer tests are widely used by consulting engineers for demonstrating water circulation, proving the existence of leakage, or estimating groundwater velocity. However, the interpretation of such tests is often very basic, with the result that decision makers and professionals commonly face unreliable results through hasty and empirical interpretation. There is thus an increasing need for a reliable interpretation tool, compatible with the latest operating systems and available in several languages. BRGM, the French Geological Survey, has developed a project together with hydrogeologists from various other organizations to build software assembling several analytical solutions in order to comply with various field contexts. This computer program, called TRAC, is very light and simple, allowing the user to add his own analytical solution if the formula is not yet included. It aims at collaborative improvement by sharing the tool and the solutions. TRAC can be used for interpreting data recovered from a tracer test as well as for simulating the transport of a tracer in the saturated zone (for the time being). Calibration of a site operation is based on considering the hydrodynamic and hydrodispersive features of groundwater flow as well as the amount, nature and injection mode of the artificial tracer. The software is available in French, English and Spanish, and the latest version can be downloaded from the web site http://trac.brgm.fr">http://trac.brgm.fr.

  4. Tracer tests - possibilities and limitations. Experience from SKB fieldwork: 1977-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Martin; Crawford, James; Elert, Mark (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-09-15

    Tracer tests have played, and still play, a central role in investigations relating to the understanding of radionuclide retention processes in the field. At present there is a debate within the scientific community concerning how, and to what extent, tracer tests can be used to evaluate large-scale and long-term transport and retardation of radionuclides and other solutes of interest for Safety Assessment of repositories for spent nuclear fuel. In this report the SKB fieldwork on tracer tests performed at Swedish sites from 1977 to 2007 is described and discussed. Furthermore, the knowledge and process understanding evolved during the decades of radionuclide transport experiments and modelling within the SKB programme is summarised. One of the main objectives of this report is to discuss what data and knowledge can be extracted from different in situ tests in a robust fashion. Given the level of complexity associated with transport processes that may occur over the timescale of a tracer test, the utility of tracer tests is considered in the context of evidence-based interpretations of data which we characterise in the form of a sequence of questions of increasing complexity. The complexity of this sequence ranges from whether connection can be confirmed between injection and withdrawal points to whether quantitative data can be extrapolated from a tracer test to be subsequently used in Safety Assessment. The main findings of this report are that: Field scale tracer tests can confirm flow connectivity. Field scale tracer tests confirm the existence of retention. Field scale tracer tests alone can only broadly substantiate our process understanding. However, if performing extensive Site Characterisation and integrating the tracer test results with the full range of geoscientific information available, much support can be given to our process understanding. Field scale tracer tests can deliver the product of the material property group MPG and the F-factor, valid

  5. Evaluation of leakage from fume hoods using tracer gas, tracer nanoparticles and nanopowder handling test methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kevin H; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R; Bennett, James S; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 ft/min) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust airflows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in

  6. Journal: A Review of Some Tracer-Test Design Equations for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of necessary tracer mass, initial sample-collection time, and subsequent sample-collection frequency are the three most difficult aspects to estimate for a proposed tracer test prior to conducting the tracer test. To facilitate tracer-mass estimation, 33 mass-estimation equations are reviewed here, 32 of which were evaluated using previously published tracer-test design examination parameters. Comparison of the results produced a wide range of estimated tracer mass, but no means is available by which one equation may be reasonably selected over the others. Each equation produces a simple approximation for tracer mass. Most of the equations are based primarily on estimates or measurements of discharge, transport distance, and suspected transport times. Although the basic field parameters commonly employed are appropriate for estimating tracer mass, the 33 equations are problematic in that they were all probably based on the original developers' experience in a particular field area and not necessarily on measured hydraulic parameters or solute-transport theory. Suggested sampling frequencies are typically based primarily on probable transport distance, but with little regard to expected travel times. This too is problematic in that tends to result in false negatives or data aliasing. Simulations from the recently developed efficient hydrologic tracer-test design methodology (EHTD) were compared with those obtained from 32 of the 33 published tracer-

  7. HYDROGEL TRACER BEADS: THE DEVELOPMENT, MODIFICATION, AND TESTING OF AN INNOVATIVE TRACER FOR BETTER UNDERSTANDING LNAPL TRANSPORT IN KARST AQUIFERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanda Laskoskie, Harry M. Edenborn, and Dorothy J. Vesper

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this specific research task is to develop proxy tracers that mimic contaminant movement to better understand and predict contaminant fate and transport in karst aquifers. Hydrogel tracer beads are transported as a separate phase than water and can used as a proxy tracer to mimic the transport of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). They can be constructed with different densities, sizes & chemical attributes. This poster describes the creation and optimization of the beads and the field testing of buoyant beads, including sampling, tracer analysis, and quantitative analysis. The buoyant beads are transported ahead of the dissolved solutes, suggesting that light NAPL (LNAPL) transport in karst may occur faster than predicted from traditional tracing techniques. The hydrogel beads were successful in illustrating this enhanced transport.

  8. Journal: A Review of Some Tracer-Test Design Equations for Tracer-Mass Estimation and Sample Collection Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of necessary tracer mass, initial sample-collection time, and subsequent sample-collection frequency are the three most difficult aspects to estimate for a proposed tracer test prior to conducting the tracer test. To facilitate tracer-mass estimation, 33 mass-estima...

  9. Journal: A Review of Some Tracer-Test Design Equations for Tracer-Mass Estimation and Sample Collection Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of necessary tracer mass, initial sample-collection time, and subsequent sample-collection frequency are the three most difficult aspects to estimate for a proposed tracer test prior to conducting the tracer test. To facilitate tracer-mass estimation, 33 mass-estima...

  10. Three-Dimensional Bayesian Geostatistical Aquifer Characterization at the Hanford 300 Area using Tracer Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xingyuan; Murakami, Haruko; Hahn, Melanie S.; Hammond, Glenn E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Zachara, John M.; Rubin, Yoram

    2012-06-01

    Tracer testing under natural or forced gradient flow holds the potential to provide useful information for characterizing subsurface properties, through monitoring, modeling and interpretation of the tracer plume migration in an aquifer. Non-reactive tracer experiments were conducted at the Hanford 300 Area, along with constant-rate injection tests and electromagnetic borehole flowmeter (EBF) profiling. A Bayesian data assimilation technique, the method of anchored distributions (MAD) [Rubin et al., 2010], was applied to assimilate the experimental tracer test data with the other types of data and to infer the three-dimensional heterogeneous structure of the hydraulic conductivity in the saturated zone of the Hanford formation. In this study, the Bayesian prior information on the underlying random hydraulic conductivity field was obtained from previous field characterization efforts using the constant-rate injection tests and the EBF data. The posterior distribution of the conductivity field was obtained by further conditioning the field on the temporal moments of tracer breakthrough curves at various observation wells. MAD was implemented with the massively-parallel three-dimensional flow and transport code PFLOTRAN to cope with the highly transient flow boundary conditions at the site and to meet the computational demands of MAD. A synthetic study proved that the proposed method could effectively invert tracer test data to capture the essential spatial heterogeneity of the three-dimensional hydraulic conductivity field. Application of MAD to actual field data shows that the hydrogeological model, when conditioned on the tracer test data, can reproduce the tracer transport behavior better than the field characterized without the tracer test data. This study successfully demonstrates that MAD can sequentially assimilate multi-scale multi-type field data through a consistent Bayesian framework.

  11. EVALUATION OF LEAKAGE FROM FUME HOODS USING TRACER GAS, TRACER NANOPARTICLES AND NANOPOWDER HANDLING TEST METHODOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Kevin H.; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R.; Bennett, James S.; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tr...

  12. Estimation of Fluorescent Dye Amount in Tracer Dye Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkan, Emrah; Balkan, Erman; Balkan, Emir

    2015-04-01

    Karstic groundwater is more influenced by human than the groundwater that disperse in pores. On the other hand karstic groundwater resources, in addition to providing agricultural needs, livestock breeding, drinking and domestic water in most of the months of the year, they also supply drinking water to the wild life at high altitudes. Therefore sustainability and hydrogeological investigation of karstic resources is critical. Tracing techniques are widely used in hydrologic and hydrogeologic studies to determine water storage, flow rate, direction and protection area of groundwater resources. Karanfil Mountain (2800 m), located in Adana, Turkey, is one of the karstic recharge areas of the natural springs spread around its periphery. During explorations of the caves of Karanfil mountain, a 600 m deep cave was found by the Turkish and Polish cavers. At the bottom of the cave there is an underground river with a flow rate of approximately 0.5 m3/s during August 2014. The main spring is located 8 km far from the cave's entrance and its mean flow rate changes between 3.4 m3/s and 0.21 m3/s in March and September respectively according to a flowrate observation station of Directorate of Water Works of Turkey. As such frequent storms, snowmelt and normal seasonal variations in rainfall have a significant and rapid effect on the volume of this main spring resource. The objective of our research is to determine and estimate dye amount before its application on the field inspired from the previously literature on the subject. This estimation is intended to provide a preliminary application of a tracer test of a karstic system. In this study dye injection, inlet point will be an underground river located inside the cave and the observation station will be the spring that is approximately 8 km far from the cave entrance. On the other hand there is 600 meter elevation difference between cave entrance and outlet spring. In this test Rodamin-WT will be used as tracer and the

  13. Assessment of Average Tracer Concentration Approach for Flow Rate Measurement and Field Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sidauruk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tracer method is one of the methods available for open channel flow rate measurements such as in irrigation canals. Average tracer concentration approach is an instantaneous injection method that based on the average tracer concentrations value at the sampling point. If the procedures are correct and scientific considerations are justified, tracer method will give relatively high accuracy of measurements. The accuracy of the average tracer concentration approach has been assessed both in laboratory and field. The results of accuracy tests of open channel flow that has been conducted at the Center for Application Isotopes and Radiation Laboratory-BATAN showed that the accuracy level of average concentrations approach method was higher than 90% compared to the true value (volumetric flow rate. The accuracy of average tracer concentration approach was also assessed during the application of the method to measure flow rate of Mrican irrigation canals as an effort to perform field calibration of existing weirs. Both average tracer concentration approach and weirs can predict the trend of the flow correctly. However, it was observed that flow discrepancies between weirs measurement and average tracer concentration approach predictions were as high as 27%. The discrepancies might be due to the downgrading performances of the weirs because of previous floods and high sediment contents of the flow

  14. Analysis of Injection-Backflow Tracer Tests in Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocabas, I.; Horne, R.N.

    1987-01-20

    Tracer tests have been an important technique for determining the flow and reservoir characteristics in various rock matrix systems. While the interwell tracer tests are aimed at the characterization of the regions between the wells, single-well injection-backflow tracer tests may be useful tools of preliminary evaluation, before implementing long term interwell tracer tests. This work is concerned with the quantitative evaluation of the tracer return profiles obtained from single well injection-backflow tracer tests. First, two mathematical models of tracer transport through fractures, have been reviewed. These two models are based on two different principles: Taylor Dispersion along the fracture and simultaneous diffusion in and out of the adjacent matrix. Then the governing equations for the transport during the injection-backflow tests have been solved. Finally the results were applied to field data obtained from Raft River and East Mesa geothermal fields. In order to determine the values of the parameters of the models that define the transport mechanisms through fractures a non-linear optimization technique was employed. 26 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Determination of the sediment oxidation capacity by column and field experiments with reactive tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dethlefsen, F.; Bliss, F.; Wachter, T.; Dahmke, A. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften; Meckenstock, R. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    2003-07-01

    The oxidation capacity of ferric iron in column studies was determined by phosphate tracer tests and validated by biodegradation experiments with toluene as a carbon source and the iron(III)-oxide reducing bacterium Geobacter metallireducens as well as with wet chemical extraction. Toluene mass balance, Fe(II) production and tracer test results showed that about 1/3 of the total Fe(III) mass had been reduced during the biodegradation experiment. The redox reactive tracer sulfide is supposed to be more practicable for field purposes, because a sulfide mass or electron balance enables evaluation of the tracer test. In this way, consideration of mineral specific sorption parameters and long residence periods of a sorptive reactive tracer can be avoided. Laboratory column experiments were performed with an artificially composed sediment (quartz sand and ferrihydrite) as well as with natural sediments from the margin of the benzene contaminated RETZINA test site in Zeitz (Germany). Fast reaction kinetics of sulfide with iron(III) minerals allowed the observation of a successive fixation of black iron sulfides in all the glas columns. Depending on the mineral iron content, the sedimentary oxidation capacity of the column material was used up in few days to weeks. Mass of sulfide reacted in the tracer test and sulfide mass recovered by sediment extraction after the experiment were in very good agreement. Evaluation of the column experiments confirmed the calculated ratio that 3 molar equivalents sulfide were used to reduce and fix 2 molar equivalents of Fe(III). Mean Fe(III) content of natural sediment samples (drilling SafZz 28/02 in Zeitz) was 0.35 mg/g sediment determined by laboratory sulfide tracer test and 5 M HCl extractions. Finally, a single well push-pull test was performed at the RETZINA test site Zeitz to test the applicability of the sulfide tracer in a field-scale experiment. (orig.)

  16. Combining 3D Hydraulic Tomography with Tracer Tests for Improved Transport Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-León, E; Leven, C; Haslauer, C P; Cirpka, O A

    2016-07-01

    Hydraulic tomography (HT) is a method for resolving the spatial distribution of hydraulic parameters to some extent, but many details important for solute transport usually remain unresolved. We present a methodology to improve solute transport predictions by combining data from HT with the breakthrough curve (BTC) of a single forced-gradient tracer test. We estimated the three dimensional (3D) hydraulic-conductivity field in an alluvial aquifer by inverting tomographic pumping tests performed at the Hydrogeological Research Site Lauswiesen close to Tübingen, Germany, using a regularized pilot-point method. We compared the estimated parameter field to available profiles of hydraulic-conductivity variations from direct-push injection logging (DPIL), and validated the hydraulic-conductivity field with hydraulic-head measurements of tests not used in the inversion. After validation, spatially uniform parameters for dual-domain transport were estimated by fitting tracer data collected during a forced-gradient tracer test. The dual-domain assumption was used to parameterize effects of the unresolved heterogeneity of the aquifer and deemed necessary to fit the shape of the BTC using reasonable parameter values. The estimated hydraulic-conductivity field and transport parameters were subsequently used to successfully predict a second independent tracer test. Our work provides an efficient and practical approach to predict solute transport in heterogeneous aquifers without performing elaborate field tracer tests with a tomographic layout.

  17. Forced and natural gradient tracer tests in a highly heterogeneous porous aquifer: instrumentation and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, T.; Teutsch, G.

    1994-07-01

    At the Horkheimer Insel experimental field site, several short to intermediate distance forced and natural gradient tracer tests with depth-integrated and multilevel sampling were conducted to characterize the aquifer transport properties. Compared with other test sites, the aquifer at the Horkheimer Insel is highly heterogeneous and highly conductive. Hence, new tracer measurement techniques had to be developed. This paper presents some of the instrumentation developed together with measurements and their initial interpretation. The results demonstrate that for contaminant transport predictions in highly heterogeneous and highly conductive aquifers, investigation techniques with a high resolution in time and space are needed. The aquifer heterogeneity is evident from the spatial variability of peak concentration, transport velocity and longitudinal macrodispersivity values obtained from the tracer tests. Furthermore, the tracer test results indicate that at the observation scale investigated, a complex numerical flow and transport model is needed to describe adequately mass transport within the heterogeneous aquifer.

  18. Asian Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project: Draft Field Work Plan for the Asian Long-Range Tracer Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2007-08-01

    This report provides an experimental plan for a proposed Asian long-range tracer study as part of the international Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project. The TEAM partners are China, Japan, South Korea and the United States. Optimal times of year to conduct the study, meteorological measurements needed, proposed tracer release locations, proposed tracer sampling locations and the proposed durations of tracer releases and subsequent sampling are given. Also given are the activities necessary to prepare for the study and the schedule for completing the preparation activities leading to conducting the actual field operations. This report is intended to provide the TEAM members with the information necessary for planning and conducting the Asian long-range tracer study. The experimental plan is proposed, at this time, to describe the efforts necessary to conduct the Asian long-range tracer study, and the plan will undoubtedly be revised and refined as the planning goes forward over the next year.

  19. Single-well "push-pull" partitioning tracer test for NAPL detection in the subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istok, Jonathan D; Field, Jennifer A; Schroth, Martin H; Davis, Brian M; Dwarakanath, Varadarajan

    2002-06-15

    Previous environmental applications of partitioning tracer tests to detect and quantify nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination in the subsurface have been limited to well-to-well tests. However, theory and numerical modeling suggests that single-well injection-extraction ("push-pull") partitioning tracer tests can also potentially detect and quantify NAPL contamination. In this type of test, retardation factors for injected partitioning tracers are estimated from the increase in apparent dispersion observed in extraction-phase breakthrough curves in the presence of NAPL. A series of laboratory push-pull tests was conducted in physical aquifer models (PAMs) packed with natural aquifer sediment prepared with and without the presence of trichloroethene (TCE) NAPL. Field tests were conducted in an aquifer contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon NAPL. Injected test solutions contained a suite of partitioning and conservative (nonpartitioning) alcohol tracers. Laboratory push-pull partitioning tracer tests were able to detect and quantify sorption of partitioning tracers to aquifer sediment (in the absence of NAPL) and to detect NAPL when it was present. NAPL saturations computed from estimated retardation factors bracketed those computed from known volumes of emplaced NAPL in the sediment pack. However, numerical modeling with assumed homogeneous NAPL distribution and linear equilibrium partitioning of tracers between aqueous and NAPL phases was unable to reproduce all features of observed breakthrough curves. Excavation of the sediment pack after all tests indicated that a portion of the emplaced NAPL had sunk to the bottom of the PAM invalidating the modeling assumption of homogeneous NAPL distribution. Moreover, the apparent dispersion in extraction-phase breakthrough curves decreased when the injection-extraction pumping rate was decreased, suggesting that mass transfer limitations existed during laboratory tests. Field push-pull partitioning tracer tests were

  20. How to chase a tracer - combining conventional salt tracer testing and direct push electrical conductivity profiling for enhanced aquifer characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienken, Thomas; Huber, Emanuel; Kreck, Manuel; Huggenberger, Peter; Dietrich, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Tracer testing is a well-established technique in hydrogeological site characterization. However, certain a priori knowledge of the hydraulic regime is required beforehand to avoid test failure, e.g. miss of tracer. In this study, we propose a novel tracer test concept for the hydraulic characterization of shallow unconsolidated sedimentary deposits when only scarce a priori information on the hydraulic regime is available. Therefore, we combine conventional salt tracer testing with direct push vertical high resolution electrical conductivity logging. The proposed tracer test concept was successfully tested on coarse, braided river deposits of the Tagliamento River, Italy. With limited a priori information available two tracer tests were performed in three days to reliably determine ground water flow direction and velocity allowing on-site decision-making to adaptively install observation wells for reliable breakthrough curve measurements. Furthermore, direct push vertical electrical profiling provided essential information about the plume characteristics with outstanding measurement resolution and efficiency.

  1. Recover Act. Verification of Geothermal Tracer Methods in Highly Constrained Field Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Matthew W. [California State University, Long Beach, CA (United States)

    2014-05-16

    The prediction of the geothermal system efficiency is strong linked to the character of the flow system that connects injector and producer wells. If water flow develops channels or “short circuiting” between injection and extraction wells thermal sweep is poor and much of the reservoir is left untapped. The purpose of this project was to understand how channelized flow develops in fracture geothermal reservoirs and how it can be measured in the field. We explored two methods of assessing channelization: hydraulic connectivity tests and tracer tests. These methods were tested at a field site using two verification methods: ground penetrating radar (GPR) images of saline tracer and heat transfer measurements using distributed temperature sensing (DTS). The field site for these studies was the Altona Flat Fractured Rock Research Site located in northeastern New York State. Altona Flat Rock is an experimental site considered a geologic analog for some geothermal reservoirs given its low matrix porosity. Because soil overburden is thin, it provided unique access to saturated bedrock fractures and the ability image using GPR which does not effectively penetrate most soils. Five boreholes were drilled in a “five spot” pattern covering 100 m2 and hydraulically isolated in a single bedding plane fracture. This simple system allowed a complete characterization of the fracture. Nine small diameter boreholes were drilled from the surface to just above the fracture to allow the measurement of heat transfer between the fracture and the rock matrix. The focus of the hydraulic investigation was periodic hydraulic testing. In such tests, rather than pumping or injection in a well at a constant rate, flow is varied to produce an oscillating pressure signal. This pressure signal is sensed in other wells and the attenuation and phase lag between the source and receptor is an indication of hydraulic connection. We found that these tests were much more effective than constant

  2. Recover Act. Verification of Geothermal Tracer Methods in Highly Constrained Field Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Matthew W. [California State University, Long Beach, CA (United States)

    2014-05-16

    The prediction of the geothermal system efficiency is strong linked to the character of the flow system that connects injector and producer wells. If water flow develops channels or “short circuiting” between injection and extraction wells thermal sweep is poor and much of the reservoir is left untapped. The purpose of this project was to understand how channelized flow develops in fracture geothermal reservoirs and how it can be measured in the field. We explored two methods of assessing channelization: hydraulic connectivity tests and tracer tests. These methods were tested at a field site using two verification methods: ground penetrating radar (GPR) images of saline tracer and heat transfer measurements using distributed temperature sensing (DTS). The field site for these studies was the Altona Flat Fractured Rock Research Site located in northeastern New York State. Altona Flat Rock is an experimental site considered a geologic analog for some geothermal reservoirs given its low matrix porosity. Because soil overburden is thin, it provided unique access to saturated bedrock fractures and the ability image using GPR which does not effectively penetrate most soils. Five boreholes were drilled in a “five spot” pattern covering 100 m2 and hydraulically isolated in a single bedding plane fracture. This simple system allowed a complete characterization of the fracture. Nine small diameter boreholes were drilled from the surface to just above the fracture to allow the measurement of heat transfer between the fracture and the rock matrix. The focus of the hydraulic investigation was periodic hydraulic testing. In such tests, rather than pumping or injection in a well at a constant rate, flow is varied to produce an oscillating pressure signal. This pressure signal is sensed in other wells and the attenuation and phase lag between the source and receptor is an indication of hydraulic connection. We found that these tests were much more effective than constant

  3. Laboratory Testing of Magnetic Tracers for Soil Erosion Measurement*1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guo-Qing; DONG Yuan-Jie; WANG Hui; QIU Xian-Kui; WANG Yan-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Soil erosion, which includes soil detachment, transport, and deposition, is one of the important dynamic land surface processes. The magnetic tracer method is a useful method for studying soil erosion processes. In this study, five types of magnetic tracers were made with fine soil, fly ash, cement, bentonite, and magnetic powder (reduced iron powder) using the method of disk granulation. The tracers were uniformly mixed with soil and tested in the laboratory using simulated rainfall and inflow experiments to simulate the interrill and rill components of soil erosion, in order to select one or more tracers which could be used to study detachment and deposition by the erosive forces of raindrops and surface flow of water on a slope. The results showed that the five types of magnetic tracers with high magnetic susceptibility and a wide range of sizes had a range of 0.99-1.29 gcm-s in bulk density. In the interrill and rill experiments, the tracers FC1 and FC2 which consisted of fly ash and cement at ratios of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively, were transported in phase with soil particles since the magnetic susceptibility of sediment approximated that of the soil which was uneroded and the slopes of the regression equations between the detachment of sediment and magnetic tracers FC1 and FC2 were very close to the expected value of 20, which was the original soil/tracer ratio. The detachment and deposition on slopes could be accurately reflected by the magnetic susceptibility differences. The change in magnetic susceptibility depended on whether deposition or detachment occurred. However, the tracer FS which consisted of fine soil and the tracers FB1 and FB2 which consisted of fly ash and bentonite at ratios of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively, were all unsuitable for soil erosion study since there was no consistent relationship between sediment and tracer detachment for increasing amounts of runoff. Therefore, the tracers FC1 and FC2 could be used to study soil erosion by water.

  4. 76 FR 71610 - Market Test of First-Class Tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... research and development costs incurred in connection with new product development. Id. Statutory authority... product, First- Class Tracer. This document describes the proposed test, addresses procedural aspects of... a market test beginning on or about December 7, 2011, of an experimental market dominant...

  5. Multiple Tracer Tests in Porous Media During Clogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, A.; Banning, A.; Siegmund, J.; Freye, S.; Goekpinar, T.

    2015-12-01

    Transport processes are known to be governed by the physical and chemical heterogeneity of the subsurface. Clogging processes can alter this heterogeneity as function of time and thus can modify transport. To understand transport under clogging conditions and to unravel the potential of multiple tracer tests to characterize such transport process we perform column and sandbox experiments. Our recently developed column and sandbox experiments are used to perform multiple tracer tests during clogging. In a first set of experiments, a cubic cell of 0.1 m x 0.1 m x 0.1 m is used to experimentally estimate flow and transport characteristics of an unconsolidated sediment through Darcy and tracer experiments. The water streaming through the experiment is amended with ammonium sulfate permanently. Salt tracers are added to the streaming water repeatedly, to be detected at micro electrodes at the inflow and the outflow of the cubic cell. Through repeated syringe injections of a barium chloride solution into the center of the cubic cell clogging processes are forced to occur around the mixing zone of the injected and streaming water by precipitation of barium sulfate. In a second set of experiments, a sandbox model including a sediment body of 0.3 m x 0.3 m x 0.1 m is used. Tracer, streaming, and injection water chemistry is kept similar to the cubic cell experiments. However, tracer breakthrough is now detected at nine positions within the experiment and at the inflow and the outflow of the sandbox model. Injection of barium chloride solution is now at two locations around the center of the sandbox model. Flow and transport characteristics of the sediment body are estimated based on Darcy and tracer experiments, which are performed repeatedly. Combined analysis of local and ensemble breakthrough curves and integrated numerical modeling will be used to understand effective and local flow and transport in a in a porous medium during clogging.

  6. Testing fundamentals: The chemical state of geochemical tracers in biominerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, O.; Redfern, S. A. T.; Read, E.; Elderfield, H.

    2015-12-01

    The use of many carbonate-derived geochemical proxies is underpinned by the assumption that tracer elements are incorporated 'ideally' as impurities the mineral lattice, following relatively straightforward kinetic and thermodynamic drives. This allows comparison to inorganic precipitation experiments, and provides a systematic starting point from which to translate geochemical tracers to environmental records. Biomineral carbonates are a prominent source of geochemical proxy material, and are far from an ideal inorganic system. They are structurally and compositionally heterogeneous mineral-organic composites, produced in tightly controlled biological environments, possibly via non-classical crystal growth mechanisms. Biominerals offer numerous opportunities for tracers to be incorporated in a 'non-ideal' state. For instance, tracers could be hosted within the organic component of the structure, in interstitial micro-domains of a separate mineral phase, or in localized high-impurity clusters. If a proxy element is hosted in a non-ideal state, our understanding of its incorporation and preservation is flawed, and the theoretical basis behind the proxies derived from it must be reevaluated. Thus far, the assumption of ideal tracer incorporation has remained largely untested, owing to the spatial resolution and sensitivity limits of available techniques. Developments in high-resolution, high-sensitivity X-ray spectroscopy at Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopes (STXMs) have allowed us to measure trace element coordination in foraminiferal calcite, at length-scales relevant to biomineralisation processes and tracer incorporation. This instrument has allowed us to test the fundamental assumptions behind several geochemical proxy elements. We present a summary of four STXM studies, assessing the chemical state and distribution of Mg (Branson et al, 2014), B (Branson et al, 2015), S and Na (unpub.), and highlight the implications of these data for the use of these

  7. Estimation of Fracture Porosity in an Unsaturated Fractured Welded Tuff Using Gas Tracer Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.M. Freifeild

    2001-10-18

    Kinematic fracture porosity is an important hydrologic transport parameter for predicting the potential of rapid contaminant migration through fractured rock. The transport velocity of a solute moving within a fracture network is inversely related to the fracture porosity. Since fracture porosity is often one or two orders of magnitude smaller than matrix porosity, and fracture permeability is often orders of magnitude greater than matrix permeability, solutes may travel significantly faster in the fracture network than in the surrounding matrix. This dissertation introduces a new methodology for conducting gas tracer tests using a field portable mass spectrometer along with analytical tools for estimating fracture porosity using the measured tracer concentration breakthrough curves. Field experiments were conducted at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, consisting of air-permeability transient testing and gas-tracer-transport tests. The experiments were conducted from boreholes drilled within an underground tunnel as part of an investigation of rock mass hydrological behavior. Air-permeability pressure transients, recorded during constant mass flux injections, have been analyzed using a numerical inversion procedure to identify fracture permeability and porosity. Dipole gas tracer tests have also been conducted from the same boreholes used for air-permeability testing. Mass breakthrough data has been analyzed using a random walk particle-tracking model, with a dispersivity that is a function of the advective velocity. The estimated fracture porosity using the tracer test and air-injection test data ranges from .001 to .015. These values are an order of magnitude greater than the values estimated by others using hydraulically estimated fracture apertures. The estimates of porosity made using air-permeability test data are shown to be highly sensitive to formation heterogeneity. Uncertainty analyses performed on the gas tracer test results show high confidence in the parameter

  8. Characterization of thermal tracer tests and heat exchanges in fractured media

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Bernardie, Jérôme; Bour, Olivier; Guihéneuf, Nicolas; Chatton, Eliot; Labasque, Thierry; Longuevergne, Laurent; Le Lay, Hugo; Koch, Florian; Gerard, Marie-Françoise; Lavenant, Nicolas; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source particularly attractive due to associated low greenhouse gas emission rates. Crystalline rocks are in general considered of poor interest for geothermal applications at shallow depths (loop heat exchanger (standing column well). For doing so, several heat tracer tests have been achieved along a borehole between two connected fractures. The heat tracer tests have been achieved at the experimental site of Ploemeur (H+ observatory network). The tracer tests consist in monitoring the temperature in the upper fracture while injecting hot water in the deeper one thanks to a field boiler. For such an experimental setup, the main difficulty to interpret the data comes from the requirement for separating the temperature advective signal of the tracer test (temperature recovery) from the heat increase due to injection of hot water through the borehole which induces heat losses all along the injection tube in the water column. For doing so, in addition to a double straddle packer used for isolating the injection chamber, the particularity of the experimental set up is the use of fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS); an innovative technology which allows spatial and temporal monitoring of the temperature all along the well. Thanks to this tool, we were able to estimate heat increases coming from diffusion along the injection tube which is found much lower than localized temperature increases resulting from tracer test recovery. With local temperatures probes, separating both effects would not have been feasible. We also show through signal processing how diffusive and advective effects may be differentiated. This allowed us to estimate temperature recovery for different heat tracer durations and setups. In particular we show that temperature recovery is highly dependent on hydraulic configuration such as perfect dipole or fully convergent heat tracer tests.

  9. Saline tracer visualized with three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography: Field-scale spatial moment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Kamini; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-well electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used to monitor the migration of a saline tracer in a two-well pumping-injection experiment conducted at the Massachusetts Military Reservation in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. After injecting 2200 mg/L of sodium chloride for 9 hours, ERT data sets were collected from four wells every 6 hours for 20 days. More than 180,000 resistance measurements were collected during the tracer test. Each ERT data set was inverted to produce a sequence of 3-D snapshot maps that track the plume. In addition to the ERT experiment a pumping test and an infiltration test were conducted to estimate horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity values. Using modified moment analysis of the electrical conductivity tomograms, the mass, center of mass, and spatial variance of the imaged tracer plume were estimated. Although the tomograms provide valuable insights into field-scale tracer migration behavior and aquifer heterogeneity, standard tomographic inversion and application of Archie's law to convert electrical conductivities to solute concentration results in underestimation of tracer mass. Such underestimation is attributed to (1) reduced measurement sensitivity to electrical conductivity values with distance from the electrodes and (2) spatial smoothing (regularization) from tomographic inversion. The center of mass estimated from the ERT inversions coincided with that given by migration of the tracer plume using 3-D advective-dispersion simulation. The 3-D plumes seen using ERT exhibit greater apparent dispersion than the simulated plumes and greater temporal spreading than observed in field data of concentration breakthrough at the pumping well.

  10. Results of an injection test using ethyl alcohol as tracer at Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico; Resultados de una prueba de inyeccion de alcohol empleado como trazador, en el campo geotermico de Los humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto; Lopez Romero, Oscar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    Los Humeros is the third Mexican geothermal field where ethyl alcohol was used as organic tracer to test communication between wells. The first Mexican geothermal field where this kind of test was used Los Azufres, Michoacan. The second was Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur. In both cases, connections between wells were observed. The injection well H-29 is in the north-central sector of Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico. At a depth of 1580 meters, 600 liters of ethyl alcohol was pumped through a 60.35 mm (23/8 inch) diameter tube after 2.7 m{sup 3} of geothermal fluids were displaced, allowing the alcohol to reach the formation. Then, the normal injection process continued with water and condensed steam (130 t/h). On the basis of the experience acquired with similar tests conducted at Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, and with the goal of detecting the tracer, samples of condensed steam were collected in nearby wells (H-15, H-16, H-17, H-30, H-33, H-36 and H-8) and in distant wells-named special samples (H-32, H-1, H-11, H-12, H-19, H-20, H-35, H-37, H-39, H-6 and H-9). Condensed steam samples were collected every 12 hours, the every week and finally every 15 days, making a total of 592 samples. The chemical analysis were done in two stages because of probable with the chromatograph. In the first stage, 441 samples were run and the rest were run in the second stage. No evidence of the tracer was observed in the monitoring wells. The results confirm the existence of a low-to-moderate permeability, as was previously interpreted using pressure log data. [Spanish] Los Humeros es el tercer campo geotermico de Mexico en el que se realiza una prueba de trazadores organicos empleando alcohol etilico con la finalidad principal de conocer si existe comunicacion entre pozos. El primer campo geotermico en el que se realizo esta prueba fue el de Los Azufres, Michoacan y el segundo el de Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur; en ambos casos se encontro

  11. Estimation of longitudinal and transverse dispersivities in the Twin Lake natural gradient tracer tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Seiji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Moltyaner, G.L.

    1998-06-01

    The field scale tracer tests were carried out with a non-reactive tracer of {sup 131}I at Twin Lake on the Chalk River Laboratory (CRL) site in Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). The natural gradient dispersion test such as the Twin Lake tracer test is very few and useful for evaluating mass transport parameters and testing groundwater flow and transport models. In this report, mass transport parameters, velocity, longitudinal and transverse dispersivities, were estimated from the Twin Lake 40 m tracer tests. This estimation was performed to provide dispersion data for 3-D transport modelling in the Lake 233 site scale (600 m in east-west direction and 1400 m in north-south direction). Two different methods were applied to the measured breakthrough curves of {sup 131}I in order to evaluate velocity and longitudinal dispersivity. The first method is the fitting procedure of the 1-D advection-dispersion solution, and the second one is the temporal moments analysis. The effect of applying these methods to field data on transport parameters was discussed in this study. The vertical profiles of {sup 131}I were used in the estimation of transverse dispersivity by fitting the 3-D advection-dispersion solution. This report refereed to the effect of variable velocity on the estimated dispersivities. The correlation between magnitude of both dispersivities and the travel distance up to 40 m was also investigated. (author)

  12. Leak testing of bubble-tight dampers using tracer gas techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagus, P.L. [Lagus Applied Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); DuBois, L.J. [Commonwealth Edison, Zion, IL (United States); Fleming, K.M. [NCS Corporation, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Recently tracer gas techniques have been applied to the problem of measuring the leakage across an installed bubble-tight damper. A significant advantage of using a tracer gas technique is that quantitative leakage data are obtained under actual operating differential pressure conditions. Another advantage is that leakage data can be obtained using relatively simple test setups that utilize inexpensive materials without the need to tear ducts apart, fabricate expensive blank-off plates, and install test connections. Also, a tracer gas technique can be used to provide an accurate field evaluation of the performance of installed bubble-tight dampers on a periodic basis. Actual leakage flowrates were obtained at Zion Generating Station on four installed bubble-tight dampers using a tracer gas technique. Measured leakage rates ranged from 0.01 CFM to 21 CFM. After adjustment and subsequent retesting, the 21 CFM damper leakage was reduced to a leakage of 3.8 CFM. In light of the current regulatory climate and the interest in Control Room Habitability issues, imprecise estimates of critical air boundary leakage rates--such as through bubble-tight dampers--are not acceptable. These imprecise estimates can skew radioactive dose assessments as well as chemical contaminant exposure calculations. Using a tracer gas technique, the actual leakage rate can be determined. This knowledge eliminates a significant source of uncertainty in both radioactive dose and/or chemical exposure assessments.

  13. Estimating kinetic mass transfer by resting-period measurements in flow-interruption tracer tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, R; Lu, C; Wu, W-M; Cheng, H; Gu, B; Watson, D B; Criddle, C S; Kitanidis, P K; Brooks, S C; Jardine, P M; Luo, J

    2010-09-20

    Flow-interruption tracer test is an effective approach to identify kinetic mass transfer processes for solute transport in subsurface media. By switching well pumping and resting, one may alter the dominant transport mechanism and generate special concentration patterns for identifying kinetic mass transfer processes. In the present research, we conducted three-phase (i.e., pumping, resting, and pumping) field-scale flow-interruption tracer tests using a conservative tracer bromide in a multiple-well system installed at the US Department of Energy Site, Oak Ridge, TN. A novel modeling approach based on the resting-period measurements was developed to estimate the mass transfer parameters. This approach completely relied on the measured breakthrough curves without requiring detailed aquifer characterization and solving transport equations in nonuniform, transient flow fields. Additional measurements, including hydraulic heads and tracer concentrations in large pumping wells, were taken to justify the assumption that mass transfer processes dominated concentration change during resting periods. The developed approach can be conveniently applied to any linear mass transfer model. Both first-order and multirate mass transfer models were applied to analyze the breakthrough curves at various monitoring wells. The multirate mass transfer model was capable of jointly fitting breakthrough curve behavior, showing the effectiveness and flexibility for incorporating aquifer heterogeneity and scale effects in upscaling effective mass transfer models.

  14. Testing and comparison of four ionic tracers to measure stream flow loss by multiple tracer injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    An injectate containing lithium, sodium, chloride and bromide was added continuously at five sites along a 507 m study reach of St Kevin Gulch, Lake County, Colorado to determine which sections of the stream were losing water to the stream bed and to ascertain how well the four tracers performed. The acidity of the stream (pH 3.6) made it possible for lithium and sodium, which are normally absorbed by ion exchange with stream bed sediment, to be used as conservative tracers. Net flow losses as low as 0.81 s-1, or 8% of flow, were calculated between measuring sites. By comparing the results of simultaneous injection it was determined whether subsections of the study reach were influent or effluent. Evaluation of tracer concentrations along 116 m of stream indicated that all four tracers behaved conservatively. Discharges measured by Parshall flumes were 4-18% greater than discharges measured by tracer dilution. -from Author

  15. Interpretation of Water Tracer Simulation in the H-1 Segment of the Gullfaks Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moid, Farrukh

    2000-07-01

    This thesis describes the water tracer simulation in the H-1 segment of the Gullfaks field. Three passive water tracer slugs were injected from the two producing wells during water flooding, pressure maintenance and reservoir monitoring program in the Gullfaks field. The same program is considered in this thesis. Computer Modelling Group's (CMG) simulator STARS is used for the general reservoir simulation and a separate module for tracer flow (ITRC-SIM) which is incorporated in the STARS and developed at Institute For Energy (IFE) is used for the tracer simulation. Water cut and tracer concentration data are used in history matching of the field. History matching is performed by changing the transmissibility and permeability of different layers; also the effect of changing saturations near the well bore on history matching is examined. It is noted that water cut is sensitive to transmissibility of the layers and the saturation around the well bore. Tracers are found to be moving in the most permeable layers. The corresponding history matching of water and tracer production shows a severe loss of first tracer injected because of imbibition process. Water phase velocity and areal communication between different wells are determined. Advance numerical features of tracer module ITRC-SIM such as flux limiting scheme and grid refinement scheme are evaluated and are found to be an important tool for reducing the numerical smearing. The effects of dispersion and diffusion on tracer response curve are also evaluated. Dispersion makes the tracer concentration curve smeared. Simulation results of water cut and tracer concentration show a good history match for this reservoir. The improved simulation model and the tracer module for this reservoir can be used for the prediction of future performance of the reservoir and interpretation of the tracer behaviour in the reservoir. (author)

  16. Using predictive uncertainty analysis to optimise tracer test design and data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Ilka; Moore, Catherine; Post, Vincent; Wolf, Leif; Martens, Evelien; Prommer, Henning

    2014-07-01

    Tracer injection tests are regularly-used tools to identify and characterise flow and transport mechanisms in aquifers. Examples of practical applications are manifold and include, among others, managed aquifer recharge schemes, aquifer thermal energy storage systems and, increasingly important, the disposal of produced water from oil and shale gas wells. The hydrogeological and geochemical data collected during the injection tests are often employed to assess the potential impacts of injection on receptors such as drinking water wells and regularly serve as a basis for the development of conceptual and numerical models that underpin the prediction of potential impacts. As all field tracer injection tests impose substantial logistical and financial efforts, it is crucial to develop a solid a-priori understanding of the value of the various monitoring data to select monitoring strategies which provide the greatest return on investment. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of linear predictive uncertainty analysis (i.e. “data worth analysis”) to quantify the usefulness of different tracer types (bromide, temperature, methane and chloride as examples) and head measurements in the context of a field-scale aquifer injection trial of coal seam gas (CSG) co-produced water. Data worth was evaluated in terms of tracer type, in terms of tracer test design (e.g., injection rate, duration of test and the applied measurement frequency) and monitoring disposition to increase the reliability of injection impact assessments. This was followed by an uncertainty targeted Pareto analysis, which allowed the interdependencies of cost and predictive reliability for alternative monitoring campaigns to be compared directly. For the evaluated injection test, the data worth analysis assessed bromide as superior to head data and all other tracers during early sampling times. However, with time, chloride became a more suitable tracer to constrain simulations of physical transport

  17. Inversion of Hydrological Tracer Test Data Using TomogrpahicConstraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, Niklas; Finsterle, Stefan; Hubbard, Susan

    2004-11-11

    A reasonable description of the hydraulic conductivity structure is a prerequisite for modeling contaminant transport. However, formulations of hydrogeological inverse problems utilizing hydrogeological data only often fail to reliably resolve features at a resolution required for accurately predicting transport. Incorporation of geophysical data into the inverse problem offers the potential to increase this resolution. In this study, we invert hydrological tracer test data using the shape and relative magnitude variations derived from geophysical tomographic data to regionalize a hydrogeological inverse problem in order to estimate the hydraulic conductivity structure. Our approach does not require that the petrophysical relationship be known a-priori, but that it is linear and stationary within each geophysical anomaly. However, tomograms are imperfect models of geophysical properties and geophysical properties are not necessarily strongly linked to hydraulic conductivity. Therefore, we focus on synthetic examples where the correlation between radar velocity and hydraulic conductivity, as well as the geophysical data acquisition errors, are varied in order to assess what aspects of the hydraulic conductivity structure we can expect to resolve under different conditions. The results indicate that regularization of the tracer inversion procedure using geophysical data improves estimates of hydraulic conductivity. We find that even under conditions of corrupted geophysical data, we can accurately estimate the effective hydraulic conductivity and areas of high and low hydraulic conductivity. However, given imperfect geophysical data, our results suggest that we cannot expect accurate estimates of the variability of the hydraulic conductivity structure.

  18. Using thermal tracers to estimate flow velocities of shallow flows: laboratory and field experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Rui L.P. de

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of shallow flows is important for hydraulics, hydrology and water resources management. The objective of this paper is to discuss a technique for shallow flow and overland flow velocity estimation that uses infrared thermography. Laboratory flumes and different bare, vegetated and paved field surfaces were used to test the technique. Results show that shallow flow surface velocities estimated using thermal tracers and infrared technology are similar to estimates obtained using the Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter; similar results were also obtained for overland flow velocity estimates using thermography, here comparing with the dye tracer technique. The thermographic approach revealed some potential as a flow visualization technique, and leaves space for future studies and research.

  19. A parameter identifiability study of two chalk tracer tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Mathias

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available As with most fractured rock formations, Chalk is highly heterogeneous. Therefore, meaningful estimates of model parameters must be obtained at a scale comparable with the process of concern. These are frequently obtained by calibrating an appropriate model to observed concentration-time data from radially convergent tracer tests (RCTT. Arguably, an appropriate model should consider radially convergent dispersion (RCD and Fickian matrix diffusion. Such a model requires the estimation of at least four parameters. A question arises as to whether or not this level of model complexity is supported by the information contained within the calibration data. Generally modellers have not answered this question due to the calibration techniques employed. A dual-porosity model with RCD was calibrated to two tracer test datasets from different UK Chalk aquifers. A multivariate sensitivity analysis, which assumed only a priori upper and lower bounds for each model parameter, was undertaken. Rather than looking at measures of uncertainty, the shape of the multivariate objective function surface was used to determine whether a parameter was identifiable. Non-identifiable parameters were then removed and the procedure was repeated until all remaining parameters were identifiable.

    It was found that the single fracture model (SFM (which ignores mechanical dispersion obtained the best mass recovery, excellent model performance and best parameter identifiability in both the tests studied. However, there was no objective evidence suggesting that mechanical dispersion was negligible. Moreover, the SFM (with just two parameters was found to be good at approximating the Single Fracture Dispersion Model SFDM (with three parameters when different, and potentially erroneous parameters, were used. Overall, this study emphasises the importance of adequate temporal sampling of breakthrough curve data prior to peak concentrations, to ensure adequate characterisation of

  20. Quantification of conservative and reactive transport using a single groundwater tracer test in a fractured media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatton, Eliot; Labasque, Thierry; Guillou, Aurélie; Béthencourt, Lorine; de La Bernardie, Jérôme; Boisson, Alexandre; Koch, Florian; Aquilina, Luc

    2017-04-01

    Identification of biogeochemical reactions in aquifers and determining kinetics is important for the prediction of contaminant transport in aquifers and groundwater management. Therefore, experiments accounting for both conservative and reactive transport are essential to understand the biogeochemical reactivity at field scale. This study presents the results of a groundwater tracer test using the combined injection of dissolved conservative and reactive tracers (He, Xe, Ar, Br-, O2 and NO3-) in order to evaluate the transport properties of a fractured media in Brittany, France. Dissolved gas concentrations were continuously monitored in situ with a CF-MIMS (Chatton et al, 2016) allowing a high frequency (1 gas every 2 seconds) multi-tracer analysis (N2, O2, CO2, CH4, N2O, H2, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) over a large resolution (6 orders of magnitude). Along with dissolved gases, groundwater biogeochemistry was monitored through the sampling of major anions and cations, trace elements and microbiological diversity. The results show breakthrough curves allowing the combined quantification of conservative and reactive transport properties. This ongoing work is an original approach investigating the link between heterogeneity of porous media and biogeochemical reactions at field scale. Eliot Chatton, Thierry Labasque, Jérôme de La Bernardie, Nicolas Guihéneuf, Olivier Bour and Luc Aquilina; Field Continuous Measurement of Dissolved Gases with a CF-MIMS: Applications to the Physics and Biogeochemistry of Groundwater Flow; Environmental Science & Technology, in press, 2016.

  1. Borehole flowmeter logging for the accurate design and analysis of tracer tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiricò, Stefano; Crosta, Giovanni B; Frattini, Paolo; Villa, Alberto; Godio, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Tracer tests often give ambiguous interpretations that may be due to the erroneous location of sampling points and/or the lack of flow rate measurements through the sampler. To obtain more reliable tracer test results, we propose a methodology that optimizes the design and analysis of tracer tests in a cross borehole mode by using vertical borehole flow rate measurements. Experiments using this approach, herein defined as the Bh-flow tracer test, have been performed by implementing three sequential steps: (1) single-hole flowmeter test, (2) cross-hole flowmeter test, and (3) tracer test. At the experimental site, core logging, pumping tests, and static water-level measurements were previously carried out to determine stratigraphy, fracture characteristics, and bulk hydraulic conductivity. Single-hole flowmeter testing makes it possible to detect the presence of vertical flows as well as inflow and outflow zones, whereas cross-hole flowmeter testing detects the presence of connections along sets of flow conduits or discontinuities intercepted by boreholes. Finally, the specific pathways and rates of groundwater flow through selected flowpaths are determined by tracer testing. We conclude that the combined use of single and cross-borehole flowmeter tests is fundamental to the formulation of the tracer test strategy and interpretation of the tracer test results.

  2. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Tests for Characterization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Reimus, Paul; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Rose, Peter; Dean, Cynthia A.; Watson, Tom B.; Newell, D.; Leecaster, Kevin; Brauser, Eric

    2013-05-01

    A recent report found that power and heat produced from enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the U.S energy production capability while having a minimal impact on the environment. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distribution, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for the design and commercial development of the geothermal energy of a potential EGS site. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. This project was initially focused on tracer development with the application of perfluorinated tracer (PFT) compounds, non-reactive tracers used in numerous applications from atmospheric transport to underground leak detection, to geothermal systems, and evaluation of encapsulated PFTs that would release tracers at targeted reservoir temperatures. After the 2011 midyear review and subsequent discussions with the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technology Program (GTP), emphasis was shifted to interpretive tool development, testing, and validation. Subsurface modeling capabilities are an important component of this project for both the design of suitable tracers and the interpretation of data from in situ tracer tests, be they single- or multi-well tests. The purpose of this report is to describe the results of the tracer and model development for simulating and conducting tracer tests for characterizing EGS parameters.

  3. Synchrotron Intensity Gradients as Tracers of Interstellar Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarian, A.; Yuen, Ka Ho; Lee, Hyeseung; Cho, J.

    2017-06-01

    On the basis of the modern understanding of MHD turbulence, we propose a new way of using synchrotron radiation: using synchrotron intensity gradients (SIGs) for tracing astrophysical magnetic fields. We successfully test the new technique using synthetic data obtained with 3D MHD simulations and provide the demonstration of the practical utility of the technique by comparing the directions of magnetic fields that are obtained with PLANCK synchrotron intensity data to the directions obtained with PLANCK synchrotron polarization data. We demonstrate that the SIGs can reliably trace magnetic fields in the presence of noise and can provide detailed maps of magnetic field directions. We also show that the SIGs are relatively robust for tracing magnetic fields while the low spatial frequencies of the synchrotron image are removed. This makes the SIGs applicable to the tracing of magnetic fields using interferometric data with single-dish measurement absent. We discuss the synergy of using the SIGs together with synchrotron polarization in order to find the actual direction of the magnetic fields and quantify the effects of Faraday rotation as well as with other ways of studying astrophysical magnetic fields. We test our method in the presence of noise and the resolution effects. We stress the complementary nature of the studies using the SIG technique and those employing the recently introduced velocity gradient techniques that trace magnetic fields using spectroscopic data.

  4. Well ER-6-1 Tracer Test Analysis: Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2006-09-01

    The ER-6-1 multiple-well aquifer test-tracer test (MWAT-TT) investigated groundwater flow and transport processes relevant to the transport of radionuclides from sources on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) through the lower carbonate aquifer (LCA) hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU). The LCA, which is present beneath much of the NTS, is the principal aquifer for much of southern Nevada. This aquifer consists mostly of limestone and dolomite, and is pervasively fractured. Groundwater flow in this aquifer is primarily in the fractures, and the hydraulic properties are primarily related to fracture frequency and fracture characteristics (e.g., mineral coatings, aperture, connectivity). The objective of the multiple-well aquifer test (MWAT) was to determine flow and hydraulic characteristics for the LCA in Yucca Flat. The data were used to derive representative flow model and parameter values for the LCA. The items of specific interest are: Hydraulic conductivity; Storage parameters; Dual-porosity behavior; and Fracture flow characteristics. The objective of the tracer transport experiment was to evaluate the transport properties and processes of the LCA and to derive representative transport parameter values for the LCA. The properties of specific interest are: Effective porosity; Matrix diffusion; Longitudinal dispersivity; Adsorption characteristics; and Colloid transport characteristics. These properties substantially control the rate of transport of contaminants in the groundwater system and concentration distributions. To best support modeling at the scale of the corrective action unit (CAU), these properties must be investigated at the field scale. The processes represented by these parameters are affected by in-situ factors that are either difficult to investigate at the laboratory scale or operate at a much larger scale than can be reproduced in the laboratory. Measurements at the field scale provide a better understanding of the effective average parameter values. The

  5. Velocity Gradients as a Tracer for Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Casanova, Diego F.; Lazarian, A.

    2017-01-01

    Strong Alfvénic turbulence develops eddy-like motions perpendicular to the local direction of magnetic fields. This local alignment induces velocity gradients perpendicular to the local direction of the magnetic field. We use this fact to propose a new technique of studying the direction of magnetic fields from observations, which we call the velocity gradient technique. We test our idea by employing the synthetic observations obtained via 3D magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) numerical simulations for different sonic and Alfvén Mach numbers. We calculate the velocity gradient, {\\boldsymbol{Ω }}, using the velocity centroids. We find that {\\boldsymbol{Ω }} traces the projected magnetic field best for the synthetic maps obtained with sub-Alfvénic simulations and provides good point-wise correspondence between the magnetic field direction and the direction of {\\boldsymbol{Ω }}. The reported alignment is much better than the alignment between the density gradients and the magnetic field, and we demonstrate that it can be used to find the magnetic field strength with an analog of the Chandrasekhar–Fermi method. This new technique does not require dust polarimetry, and our study opens up a new way of studying magnetic fields using spectroscopic data.

  6. Inversion of Hydrological Tracer Test Data Using Tomographic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, N.; Finsterle, S.; Hubbard, S.

    2004-05-01

    Most approaches that utilize geophysical data to determine the permeability structure of the subsurface presuppose a known and stationary petrophysical relationship or assume that such a relationship can be accurately established from laboratory data, borehole data, and sometimes from geophysical attributes at collocated tomographic pixels. In this study, we invert hydrological tracer test data using the shape and relative magnitude variations within the geophysical attribute anomalies derived from tomographic data to regionalize the inverse problem. The approach does not require that the petrophysical relationship be known a-priori, but that it is linear and stationary within each geophysical anomaly. We use the estimated errors associated with the acquisition geometry to define a space-varying measure that describes how large deviations from the background model must be to constitute an anomaly. To avoid interpreting anomalies that do not carry hydrogeological information (such as inversion artifacts), our initial permeability model is constant. Synthetic studies are used to investigate (1) under what conditions the problem is well-posed, (2) how a weak petrophysical relationship affects the results, (3) how much correlation between the geophysical attribute and the permeability is lost through the geophysical inversion process, (4) the effects of errors in the geophysical data acquisition on the inversion results, and (5) how a poor description of the acquisition geometry affects the results. Data from the DOE Hanford, WA and Oyster, VA sites are used to assess the validity and robustness of the approach. In addition to obtaining hydrological estimates through our inversion procedure, the results can be used (1) to estimate a-posteriori the petrophysical relationship; (2) to assess if the relationship is stationary between anomalies; and (3) to compare the results with earlier estimates that did not include the tracer data. The inversion statistics will also be

  7. A Systematic Method For Tracer Test Analysis: An Example Using Beowawe Tracer Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Michael Shook

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of tracer data using moment analysis requires a strict adherence to a set of rules which include data normalization, correction for thermal decay, deconvolution, extrapolation, and integration. If done correctly, the method yields specific information on swept pore volume, flow geometry and fluid velocity, and an understanding of the nature of reservoir boundaries. All calculations required for the interpretation can be done in a spreadsheet. The steps required for moment analysis are reviewed in this paper. Data taken from the literature is used in an example calculation.

  8. Analysis of the migration characteristics of tracers in a heterogeneous flow field through a natural fracture of a domestic granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kum, Y. S.; Park, J. K.; Han, P. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    Tracers migration experiment was performed in a natural fracture of a domestic granite. The scale of rock fracture was 100x60x40(cm). In order to observe the migration characteristics, two kinds of nonsorbing tracers were used; as high molecular organic dyes, Eosine, and NaLS, and as anions, Bromide and Chloride. Tracers was injected in a borehole as a band funtion and collected at the opposite borehole. A variable aperture channel model with particle tracking method was used to characterize the aperture width of the fracture and to simulate solute transport. The heterogeneous flow field was modeled by a variable aperture channel model after characterizing aperture distribution by hydraulic tests through boreholes. The particle tracking method applied effectively in simulating tracers transport through a heterogeneous flow field in the rock fracture. Simulated results show that tracers do not migrate through the shortest straight line between inlet and outlet, but migrate through the paths having lowest flow resistance. that is channeling flow.

  9. Oil industry first field trial of inter-well reservoir nanoagent tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanj, Mazen Y.; Kosynkin, Dmitry V.

    2015-05-01

    This short manuscript highlights the industry's first proven reservoir nanoagents' design and demonstrates a successful multi-well field trial using these agents. Our fundamental nanoparticles tracer template, A-Dots or Arab-D Dots, is intentionally geared towards the harsh but prolific Arab-D carbonate reservoir environment of 100+°C temperature, 150,000+ppm salinity, and an abundant presence of divalent ions in the connate water. Preliminary analyses confirmed nanoparticles' breakthrough at a producer nearly 500m from the injector at the reservoir level; thus, proving the tracer nanoparticles' mobility and transport capability. This is considered industry-first and a breakthrough achievement complementing earlier accomplishments in regard to the nanoagents' reservoir stability with the first successful single well test and ease of scale up with the synthesis of one metric ton of this material. The importance of this accomplishment is not in how sophisticated is the sensing functionalities of this design but rather in its stability, mobility, scalability, and field application potentials. This renders the concept of having active, reactive, and even communicative, in-situ reservoir nanoagents for underground sensing and intervention a well anticipated near-future reality.

  10. Heat Transfer Characterization Using Heat and Solute Tracer Tests in a Shallow Alluvial Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassargues, A.

    2013-12-01

    Very low enthalpy geothermal systems are increasingly considered for heating or cooling using groundwater energy combined with heat pumps. The design and the impact of shallow geothermal systems are often assessed in a semi-empirical way. It is accepted by most of the private partners but not by environmental authorities deploring a lack of rigorous evaluation of the mid- to long-term impact on groundwater. In view of a more rigorous methodology, heat and dye tracers are used for estimating simultaneously heat transfer and solute transport parameters in an alluvial aquifer. The experimental field site, is equipped with 21 piezometers drilled in alluvial deposits composed of a loam layer overlying a sand and gravel layer constituting the alluvial aquifer. The tracing experiment consisted in injecting simultaneously heated water and a dye tracer in a piezometer and monitoring evolution of groundwater temperature and tracer concentration in 3 control panels set perpendicularly to the main groundwater flow. Results showed drastic differences between heat transfer and solute transport due to the main influence of thermal capacity of the saturated porous medium. The tracing experiment was then simulated using a numerical model and the best estimation of heat transfer and solute transport parameters is obtained by calibrating this numerical model using inversion tools. The developed concepts and tests may lead to real projects of various extents that can be now optimized by the use of a rigorous and efficient methodology at the field scale. On the field: view from the injection well in direction of the pumping well through the three monitoring panels Temperature monitoring in the pumping well and in the piezometers of the three panels: heat transfer is faster in the lower part of the aquifer (blue curves) than in the upper part (red curves). Breakthrough curves are also more dispersed in the upper part with longer tailings.

  11. Tracer mass recovery in fractured aquifers estimated from multiple well tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, William E; Cook, Peter G; Robinson, Neville I; Weatherill, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Forced-gradient tracer tests in fractured aquifers often report low mass recoveries. In fractured aquifers, fractures intersected by one borehole may not be intersected by another. As a result (1) injected tracer can follow pathways away from the withdrawal well causing low mass recovery and (2) recovered water can follow pathways not connected to the injection well causing significant tracer dilution. These two effects occur along with other forms of apparent mass loss. If the strength of the connection between wells and the amount of dilution can be predicted ahead of time, tracer tests can be designed to optimize mass recovery and dilution. A technique is developed to use hydraulic tests in fractured aquifers to calculate the conductance (strength of connection) between well pairs and to predict mass recovery and amount of dilution during forced gradient tracer tests. Flow is considered to take place through conduits, which connect the wells to each other and to distant sources or sinks. Mass recovery is related to the proportion of flow leaving the injection well and arriving at the withdrawal well, and dilution is related to the proportion of the flow from the withdrawal well that is derived from the injection well. The technique can be used to choose well pairs for tracer tests, what injection and withdrawal rates to use, and which direction to establish the hydraulic gradient to maximize mass recovery and/or minimize dilution. The method is applied to several tracer tests in fractured aquifers in the Clare Valley, South Australia.

  12. Urban Dispersion Program MSG05 Field Study: Summary of Tracer and Meteorological Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2006-08-09

    The Urban Dispersion Program is a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, to better understand the flow and dispersion of airborne contaminants through and around the deep street canyons of New York City. The first tracer and meteorological field study was a limited study conducted during March 2005 near the Madison Square Garden in midtown Manhattan. Six safe, inert, gaseous perfluorocarbon tracers were released simultaneously at five street-level locations during two experimental days. In addition to collecting tracer data, meteorological data were also collected. Brookhaven National Laboratory conducted the bulk of the tracer and meteorological field efforts with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Stevens Institute of Technology assisting by measuring the vertical profile of winds. The Environmental Protection Agency worked with Brookhaven National Laboratory in accomplishing the personal exposure component of the study. This report presents some results from this analysis. In general, different release locations showed vastly different plume footprints for tracer materials, and the situation was made very complex with upwind and/or crosswind transport of tracer near street-level for the different release locations. Overall wind speeds and directions upwind and over the city were generally constant throughout each of the two experimental periods.

  13. MULTISPECIES REACTIVE TRACER TEST IN A SAND AND GRAVEL AQUIFER, CAPE COD, MASSACHUSETTS: PART 2: TRANSPORT OF CHROMIUM (VI) AND LEAD-, COPPER-, AND ZINC-EDTA TRACERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report discusses the transport of a group of reactive tracers over the course of a large-scale, natural gradient tracer test conducted at the USGS Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Research site, near Falmouth, Massachusetts. The overall objectives of the experiment were ...

  14. Boundary conditions for convergent radial tracer tests and effect of well bore mixing volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Vitaly A.; David Logan, J.

    Convergent radial flow tracer tests have a complex spatial nonaxial transport structure caused by the flow in the vicinity of the injection well and its finite mixing volume. The formulation of the boundary value problem, and especially the treatment of the boundary conditions at the injection well, is nontrivial. Hodgkinson and Lever [1983], Moench [1989, 1991], and Welty and Gelhar [1994] have developed different models and methods for the analysis of breakthrough curves in the extraction well. To extend interpretation techniques to breakthrough curves in the zone between injection and extraction wells, an analysis of conventional transport models is given, and improved boundary conditions are formulated for a convergent radial tracer test problem. The formulation of the boundary conditions is based upon a more detailed analysis of the kinematic flow structure and tracer mass balance in the neighborhood of the injection well. Two practical applications of revised boundary conditions for field data analysis are given. First, the note explains anomalous high well bore mixing volumes of injection wells found by Cady et al. [1993] and allows one to establish the role of mixing versus other processes (retardation, matrix diffusion, etc.). Second, it is shown that the improper use of Moench's [1989] model can produce bias in the characteristics of breakthrough curves in the extraction well under conditions that involve a significant mixing factor in the injection well. A numerical example indicates an error in peak concentrations on a breakthrough curve by as much as 70% and in peak arrival time by 10% for Peclet numbers Pe=102. The effect becomes slightly less significant for Pe=1.

  15. Modeling of CBM production, CO2 injection, and tracer movement at a field CO2 sequestration site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Hema J.; Bowes, Benjamin D.; Bromhal, Grant S.; Gondle, Raj K.; Wells, Arthur W.; Strazisar, Brian R.

    2012-07-01

    Sequestration of carbon dioxide in unmineable coal seams is a potential technology mainly because of the potential for simultaneous enhanced coalbed methane production (ECBM). Several pilot tests have been performed around the globe leading to mixed results. Numerous modeling efforts have been carried out successfully to model methane production and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Sensitivity analyses and history matching along with several optimization tools were used to estimate reservoir properties and to investigate reservoir performance. Geological and geophysical techniques have also been used to characterize field sequestration sites and to inspect reservoir heterogeneity. The fate and movement of injected CO{sub 2} can be determined by using several monitoring techniques. Monitoring of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers is one of these monitoring technologies. As a part of this monitoring technique, a small fraction of a traceable fluid is added to the injection wellhead along with the CO{sub 2} stream at different times to monitor the timing and location of the breakthrough in nearby monitoring wells or offset production wells. A reservoir modeling study was performed to simulate a pilot sequestration site located in the San Juan coal basin of northern New Mexico. Several unknown reservoir properties at the field site were estimated by modeling the coal seam as a dual porosity formation and by history matching the methane production and CO{sub 2} injection. In addition to reservoir modeling of methane production and CO{sub 2} injection, tracer injection was modeled. Tracers serve as a surrogate for determining potential leakage of CO{sub 2}. The tracer was modeled as a non-reactive gas and was injected into the reservoir as a mixture along with CO{sub 2}. Geologic and geometric details of the field site, numerical modeling details of methane production, CO{sub 2} injection, and tracer injection are presented in this paper. Moreover, the numerical

  16. Analysis of field observations of tracer transport in a fractured till.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosakowski, G; Berkowitz, B; Scher, H

    2001-01-01

    We analyze a set of observations from a recently published, field-scale tracer test in a fractured till. These observations demonstrate a dominant, underlying non-Fickian behavior, which cannot be quantified using traditional modeling approaches. We use a continuous time random walk (CTRW) approach which thoroughly accounts for the measurements, and which is based on a physical picture of contaminant motion that is consistent with the geometric and hydraulic characterization of the fractured formation. We also incorporate convolution techniques in the CTRW theory, to consider transport between different regions containing distinct heterogeneity patterns. These results enhance the possibility that limitations in predicting non-Fickian modes of contaminant migration can be overcome.

  17. A spreadsheet program for two-well tracer test data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guoping; Watson, David B; Parker, Jack C; Brooks, Scott C

    2012-01-01

    Two-well tracer tests are often conducted to investigate subsurface solute transport in the field. Analyzing breakthrough curves in extraction and monitoring wells using numerical methods is nontrivial due to highly nonuniform flow conditions. We extended approximate analytical solutions for the advection-dispersion equation for an injection-extraction well doublet in a homogeneous confined aquifer under steady-state flow conditions for equal injection and extraction rates with no transverse dispersion and negligible ambient flow, and implemented the solutions in Microsoft Excel using Visual Basic for Application (VBA). Functions were implemented to calculate concentrations in extraction and monitoring wells at any location due to a step or pulse injection. Type curves for a step injection were compared with those calculated by numerically integrating the solution for a pulse injection. The results from the two approaches are similar when the dispersivity is small. As the dispersivity increases, the latter was found to be more accurate but requires more computing time. The code was verified by comparing the results with published-type curves and applied to analyze data from the literature. The method can be used as a first approximation for two-well tracer test design and data analysis, and to check accuracy of numerical solutions. The code and example files are publicly available.

  18. Optimal sampler siting for atmospheric tracer experiments taking into account uncertainties in the wind field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitovranov, Sergei E.; Federov, Valery V.; Edwards, Leslie L.

    The problem of sampling sites for atmospheric tracer experiments were considered in Federov and Pitorvranov (working paper WP-85-65, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, 1988). There it was assumed that the wind direction during an experimental tracer release could be accurately predetermined and would remain constant for the duration of the experiment. In general, this assumption of a constant wind field is not met. In this work we develop an approach which overcomes this deficiency. The monitoring network design problem is considered for cases which include prior uncertain wind fields during a designed experiment.

  19. Using Tracer Tests to Estimate Vertical Recharge and Evaluate Influencing Factors for Irrigated Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D.; Jin, M.; Brusseau, M.; Ma, B.; Liu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate estimation of vertical groundwater recharge is critical for (semi) arid regions, especially in places such as the North China Plain where vertical recharge comprises the largest portion of recharge. Tracer tests were used to estimate vertical recharge beneath agricultural systems irrigated by groundwater, and to help delineate factors that influence recharge. Bromide solution was applied to trace infiltration in the vadose zone beneath irrigated agricultural fields (rotated winter wheat and summer maize, orchards, and cotton) and non-irrigated woodlands at both piedmont plain (Shijiazhaung) and alluvial and lacustrine plains (Hengshui) in the North China Plain. The tracer tests lasted for more than two years, and were conducted at a total of 37 sites. Tracer solution was injected into the subsurface at a depth of 1.2 m before the rainy season. Soil samples were then collected periodically to observe bromide transport and estimate recharge rates at the point-scale. For these experiments, the only irrigation the fields received was that applied by the landowners. In addition to these tests, a controlled irrigation experiment was conducted at a single wheat and maize site. The results showed that recharge rates were lower for the alluvial and lacustrine plains sites, which comprise finer-textured soils than those present in the piedmont plain. Specifically, the recharge rate ranged between 56-466 mm/a beneath wheat-maize, 110-564 mm/a beneath orchard, and 0-21 mm/a beneath woodlands with an average recharge coefficient of 0.17 for the piedmont plain sites, while the recharge rate ranged between 26-165 mm/a beneath wheat-maize, 6-40 mm/a beneath orchard, 87-319 mm/a beneath cotton, and 0-32 mm/a beneath woodlands with an average recharge coefficient of 0.10 for the alluvial and lacustrine plain sites. Irrigation provided the primary contribution to recharge, with precipitation providing a minor contribution. The results of both the uncontrolled and controlled

  20. Atmospheric tracer monitoring and surface plume development at the ZERT pilot test in Bozeman, Montana, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Arthur [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Strazisar, Brian [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Rodney Diehl, J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2010-03-01

    A controlled release of CO2 was conducted at a field site in Bozeman, Montana, USA in July of 2008 in a multi-laboratory study of near surface transport and detection technologies. The development of a subsurface CO2 plume near the middle packer section of the horizontal release was studied using soil-gas and surface flux measurements of CO2. A perfluorocarbon tracer was added to the CO2 released from this section of the horizontal well, and the development of atmospheric plumes of the tracer was studied under various meteorological conditions using horizontal and vertical grids of monitors containing sorbent material to collect the tracer. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using remote sensing for the ultra low level detection of atmospheric plumes of tracers as means to monitor the near surface leakage of sequestered CO2.

  1. IMAGE Project: Results of Laboratory Tests on Tracers for Supercritical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvoll, Øyvind; Opsahl Viig, Sissel; Nardini, Isabella; Muller, Jiri

    2016-04-01

    The use of tracers is a well-established technique for monitoring dynamic behaviour of water and gas through a reservoir. In geothermal reservoirs special challenges are encountered due to high temperatures and pressures. In this work, tracer candidates for monitoring water at supercritical conditions (temperature > 374°C, pressure ca 218 bar), are tested in laboratory experiments. Testing of tracers at supercritical water conditions requires experimental set-ups which tolerate harsh conditions with respect to high temperature and pressure. In addition stringent HES (health, environment and safety) factors have to be taken into consideration when designing and performing the experiments. The setup constructed in this project consists of a pressure vessel, high pressure pump, instrumentation for pressure and temperature control and instrumentation required for accurate sampling of tracers. In order to achieve accurate results, a special focus has been paid to the development of the tracer sampling technique. Perfluorinated cyclic hydrocarbons (PFCs) have been selected as tracer candidates. This group of compounds is today commonly used as gas tracers in oil reservoirs. According to the literature they are stable at temperatures up to 400°C. To start with, five PFCs have been tested for thermal stability in static experiments at 375°C and 108 bar in the experimental setup described above. The tracer candidates will be further tested for several months at the relevant conditions. Preliminary results indicate that some of the PFC compounds show stability after three months. However, in order to arrive at conclusive results, the experiments have to be repeated over a longer period and paying special attention to more accurate sampling procedures.

  2. Tracer test analysis of the Klamath Falls geothermal resource: a comparison of models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S.E.

    1984-06-01

    Two tracer tests on doublet systems in a fractured geothermal system were carried out in Klamath Falls, Oregon. The purpose of the tests were to obtain data which would lead to information about the reservoir and to test the applicability of current tracer flow models. The results show rapid breakthrough times and indicate fracture flow with vigorous mixing of injector fluid before production of same. This leads to the idea that thermal breakthrough is not directly related to tracer breakthrough in the Klamath Union doublet system. There has been no long-term enthalpy loss from exploiting the resource for 40 years. In order to reduce the data, models were developed to analyze the results. Along with a porous media flow model two mathematical models developed to analyze fractured geothermal systems are used to help decipher the various tracer return curves. The flow of tracers in doublet systems was investigated. A mathematical description is used for tracer flow through fractures as a function of time and various nonlinear parameters which can be found using a curve fitting technique. This allows the reservoir to be qualitatively defined. These models fit the data well, but point to the fact that future improvement needs to be considered for a clearer and more quantitative understanding of fractured geothermal systems. 22 refs., 32 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Hydraulic Conductivity Estimate via Tracer Test and Ensemble Kalman Filter Data Assimilation: Theoretical and Numerical Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, E.; Camporese, M.; Salandin, P.

    2011-12-01

    Hydraulic properties of natural aquifers, such as porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and storativity, exhibit an erratic spatial variability at different scales that is difficult to recognize without expensive in situ sampling campaigns, laboratory analyses, and, when available, spatially distributed pumping tests. Nevertheless, the importance of the heterogeneous structure of natural formations on solute transport is well recognized, being the non-Fickian evolution of contaminant plumes and the relevant dispersive phenomena controlled by the variability of the hydraulic conductivity K at the local scale. Tracer test analyses have been widely adopted to identify the complex distribution of in situ hydraulic properties. In particular, the use of geophysical methods like the borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) have been in rapid increase, due to their potential to accurately describe the spatio-temporal evolution of the injected solute. Under the assumptions that the solute spreads as a passive tracer and with high values of the Peclet number, the plume evolution is controlled by the porosity and the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity. Combining the Lagrangian formulation of transport and the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation technique, the purpose of this study is to infer the spatial distribution of K at the local scale from a sequence of time-lapse concentration imaging. The capabilities of the proposed approach are investigated simulating various assimilation experiments via synthetic tracer tests in a three-dimensional finite domain reproducing a heterogeneous aquifer. In a first scenario, all the available concentration measurements are assimilated and the entire hydraulic conductivity field is updated, while in the remaining scenarios the K values are updated only in a limited number of nodes by assimilating the concentrations in these same nodes, the hydraulic conductivity in the rest of the domain being the result of a

  4. NON-LCL AND TRACER TEST FOR GROUNDWATER FLOW IN A SINGLE FRACTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The validity of Local Cubic Law (LCL) is an important issue to study groundwater flow and transport in fractured media. According to laboratory simulaion tests, the average velocity with a lower gradient in a single fracture is calculated by the LCL, which is compared with the measured average velocity. Then dye tracer test is designed and completed. The evidence for non-LCL is drawn from the results of the simulation tests and the dye tracer tests. Then the Reynolds number of groundwater is calculated, the critical value of Re for laminar flow is discussed in a single fracture under different conditions. The motion types for groundwater flow have been discussed.

  5. Results of an injection test of ethylic alcohol as tracer in the geothermal field Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Resultados de una prueba de inyeccion de alcohol empleado como trazador en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto; Lopez Romero, Oscar (Area de Geoquimica, Residencia Los Humeros, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico))

    1998-05-15

    Los Azufres, Michoacan was the first geothermal field in Mexico where an organic tracer test using ethylic alcohol was conducted to study the hydrologic communication between wells. A similar test was carried out in Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur, obtaining preliminary acceptable results. In Las Tres Virgenes 500 liters of ethylic alcohol were added at the surface to the water injected in the vertical well LV-3. This well is fed by 39.6 ton/h of separated water coming from the directional well LV-4, which was used as monitor. Both wells are located in the same platform. Alcohol was detected twelve hours after the injection and the highest concentration was observed 9 days later.

  6. Characterization of preferential flow paths between boreholes in fractured rock using a nanoscale zero-valent iron tracer test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Po-Yu; Chia, Yeeping; Liou, Ya-Hsuan; Teng, Mao-Hua; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lee, Tsai-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in borehole geophysical techniques have improved characterization of cross-hole fracture flow. The direct detection of preferential flow paths in fractured rock, however, remains to be resolved. In this study, a novel approach using nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI or `nano-iron') as a tracer was developed for detecting fracture flow paths directly. Generally, only a few rock fractures are permeable while most are much less permeable. A heat-pulse flowmeter can be used to detect changes in flow velocity for delineating permeable fracture zones in the borehole and providing the design basis for the tracer test. When nano-iron particles are released in an injection well, they can migrate through the connecting permeable fracture and be attracted to a magnet array when arriving in an observation well. Such an attraction of incoming iron nanoparticles by the magnet can provide quantitative information for locating the position of the tracer inlet. A series of field experiments were conducted in two wells in fractured rock at a hydrogeological research station in Taiwan, to test the cross-hole migration of the nano-iron tracer through permeable connected fractures. The fluid conductivity recorded in the observation well confirmed the arrival of the injected nano-iron slurry. All of the iron nanoparticles attracted to the magnet array in the observation well were found at the depth of a permeable fracture zone delineated by the flowmeter. This study has demonstrated that integrating the nano-iron tracer test with flowmeter measurement has the potential to characterize preferential flow paths in fractured rock.

  7. Characterization of shallow geothermal efficiency in fractured media through thermal tracer tests and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Bernardie, Jérôme; Bour, Olivier; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Guihéneuf, Nicolas; Chatton, Eliot; Labasque, Thierry; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2017-04-01

    Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source particularly attractive due to associated low greenhouse gas emission rates. Crystalline rocks are in general considered of poor interest for geothermal applications at shallow depths (energy storage at these shallow depths is still remaining very challenging because of the low storativity of the medium. Within this framework, the purpose of this study is to test the possibility of efficient thermal energy storage in shallow fractured rocks. For doing so, several heat tracer tests have been carried on in a single well between two connected fractures. We completed this experimental work with numerical modeling of thermal transport in fractures embedded in an impermeable conductive matrix. The thermal tracer tests were achieved in a crystalline rock aquifer at the experimental site of Ploemeur (H+ observatory network). The experimental setup consists in injecting hot water in a fracture isolated by a double straddle packer in the borehole while pumping and monitoring the temperature in a fracture crossing the same borehole at greater elevation. Several tracer tests were achieved at different pumping and injection rates. This experimental set up allowed to estimate temperature breakthrough for different tracer test durations and hydraulic configurations from fully convergent to perfect dipole tracer tests. Thanks to those tests and numerical modeling of heat transport in fractures, we demonstrate that temperature recovery is highly dependent on flow rate and streamlines shape. Thus, thermal storage rate is inversely proportional to flow and is maximized in perfect dipole configuration. These thermal tracer tests and numerical modeling allow to define the most efficient configuration for optimizing shallow geothermal storage in fractured rock.

  8. Doublet tracer tests to determine the contaminant flushing properties of a municipal solid waste landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N. D.; Rees-White, T. C.; Beaven, R. P.; Stringfellow, A. M.; Barker, J. A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes a programme of research investigating horizontal fluid flow and solute transport through saturated municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. The purpose is to inform engineering strategies for future contaminant flushing. Solute transport between injection/abstraction well pairs (doublets) is investigated using three tracers over five separate tests at well separations between 5 m and 20 m. Two inorganic tracers (lithium and bromide) were used, plus the fluorescent dye tracer, rhodamine-WT. There was no evidence for persistent preferential horizons or pathways at the inter-well scale. The time for tracer movement to the abstraction wells varied with well spacing as predicted for a homogeneous isotropic continuum. The time for tracer movement to remote observation wells was also as expected. Mobile porosity was estimated as 0.02 ( 4% of total porosity). Good fits to the tracer breakthrough data were achieved using a dual-porosity model, with immobile regions characterised by block diffusion timescales in the range of about one to ten years. This implies that diffusional exchanges are likely to be very significant for engineering of whole-site contaminant flushing and possibly rate-limiting.

  9. Laboratory testing and modeling to evaluate perfluorocarbon compounds as tracers in geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-21

    The thermal stability and adsorption characteristics of three perfluorinated hydrocarbon compounds were evaluated under geothermal conditions to determine the potential to use these compounds as conservative or thermally-degrading tracers in Engineered (or Enhanced) Geothermal Systems (EGS). The three compounds tested were perfluorodimethyl-cyclobutane (PDCB), perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH), and perfluorotrimethylcyclohexane (PTCH), which are collectively referred to as perfluorinated tracers, or PFTs. Two sets of duplicate tests were conducted in batch mode in gold-bag reactors, with one pair of reactors charged with a synthetic geothermal brine containing the PFTs and a second pair was charged with the brine-PFT mixture plus a mineral assemblage chosen to be representative of activated fractures in an EGS reservoir. A fifth reactor was charged with deionized water containing the three PFTs. The experiments were conducted at {approx}100 bar, with temperatures ranging from 230 C to 300 C. Semi-analytical and numerical modeling was also conducted to show how the PFTs could be used in conjunction with other tracers to interrogate surface area to volume ratios and temperature profiles in EGS reservoirs. Both single-well and cross-hole tracer tests are simulated to illustrate how different suites of tracers could be used to accomplish these objectives. The single-well tests are especially attractive for EGS applications because they allow the effectiveness of a stimulation to be evaluated without drilling a second well.

  10. Monitoring of saline tracer movement with vertically distributed self-potential measurements at the HOBE agricultural test site, Voulund, Denmark

    CERN Document Server

    Jougnot, Damien; Haarder, Eline B; Looms, Majken C

    2015-01-01

    The self-potential (SP) method is sensitive to water fluxes in saturated and partially saturated porous media, such as those associated with rainwater infiltration and groundwater recharge. We present a field-based study at the Voulund agricultural test site, Denmark, that is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to focus on the vertical self-potential distribution prior to and during a saline tracer test. A coupled hydrogeophysical modeling framework is used to simulate the SP response to precipitation and saline tracer infiltration. A layered hydrological model is first obtained by inverting dielectric and matric potential data. The resulting model that compares favorably with electrical resistance tomography models is subsequently used to predict the SP response. The electrokinetic contribution (caused by water fluxes in a charged porous soil) is modeled by an effective excess charge approach that considers both water saturation and pore water salinity. Our results suggest that the effective excess char...

  11. Mapping fracture flow paths with a nanoscale zero-valent iron tracer test and a flowmeter test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Po-Yu; Chia, Yeeping; Chiu, Yung-Chia; Teng, Mao-Hua; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan

    2017-08-01

    The detection of preferential flow paths and the characterization of their hydraulic properties are important for the development of hydrogeological conceptual models in fractured-rock aquifers. In this study, nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles were used as tracers to characterize fracture connectivity between two boreholes in fractured rock. A magnet array was installed vertically in the observation well to attract arriving nZVI particles and identify the location of the incoming tracer. Heat-pulse flowmeter tests were conducted to delineate the permeable fractures in the two wells for the design of the tracer test. The nZVI slurry was released in the screened injection well. The arrival of the slurry in the observation well was detected by an increase in electrical conductivity, while the depth of the connected fracture was identified by the distribution of nZVI particles attracted to the magnet array. The position where the maximum weight of attracted nZVI particles was observed coincides with the depth of a permeable fracture zone delineated by the heat-pulse flowmeter. In addition, a saline tracer test produced comparable results with the nZVI tracer test. Numerical simulation was performed using MODFLOW with MT3DMS to estimate the hydraulic properties of the connected fracture zones between the two wells. The study results indicate that the nZVI particle could be a promising tracer for the characterization of flow paths in fractured rock.

  12. Catchment scale tracer testing from karstic features in a porous limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, L.; Atkinson, T. C.; Williams, A. T.; Barker, J. A.; Farrant, A. R.

    2010-07-01

    SummaryTracer testing was undertaken from sinking streams feeding the Chalk, a porous limestone aquifer characterised by frequent small-scale surface karst features. The objective was to investigate the nature and extent of sub-surface karstic development in the aquifer. Previous tracer testing has demonstrated rapid flow combined with low attenuation of tracer. In this study, at two sites rapid groundwater flow was combined with very high attenuation and at two other sites no tracer was detected at springs within the likely catchment area of the stream sinks tested, suggesting that tracer was totally attenuated along the flowpath. It is proposed that the networks beneath stream sinks in the Chalk and other mildly karstic aquifers distribute recharge into multiple enlarged fractures that divide and become smaller at each division whereas the networks around springs have a predominantly tributary topology that concentrates flow into a few relatively large cavities, a morphology with similarities to that of the early stages of karstification. Tracer attenuation is controlled by the degree to which the two networks are directly connected. In the first state, there is no direct linkage and flow between the two networks is via primary fractures in which tracer attenuation is extreme. The second state is at a percolation threshold in which a single direct link joins the two networks. A very small proportion of tracer reaches the spring rapidly but overall attenuation is very high. In the third state, the recharge and discharge networks are integrated therefore a large fraction of tracer reaches the spring and peak concentrations are relatively high. Despite the large number of stream sinks that recharge the Chalk aquifer, these results suggest that sub-surface conduit development may not always be continuous, with flow down smaller fissures and fractures causing high attenuation of solutes and particulates providing a degree of protection to groundwater outlets that is

  13. Tracer SWIW tests in propped and un-propped fractures: parameter sensitivity issues, revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Sauter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) or 'push-then-pull' tracer methods appear attractive for a number of reasons: less uncertainty on design and dimensioning, and lower tracer quantities required than for inter-well tests; stronger tracer signals, enabling easier and cheaper metering, and shorter metering duration required, reaching higher tracer mass recovery than in inter-well tests; last not least: no need for a second well. However, SWIW tracer signal inversion faces a major issue: the 'push-then-pull' design weakens the correlation between tracer residence times and georeservoir transport parameters, inducing insensitivity or ambiguity of tracer signal inversion w. r. to some of those georeservoir parameters that are supposed to be the target of tracer tests par excellence: pore velocity, transport-effective porosity, fracture or fissure aperture and spacing or density (where applicable), fluid/solid or fluid/fluid phase interface density. Hydraulic methods cannot measure the transport-effective values of such parameters, because pressure signals correlate neither with fluid motion, nor with material fluxes through (fluid-rock, or fluid-fluid) phase interfaces. The notorious ambiguity impeding parameter inversion from SWIW test signals has nourished several 'modeling attitudes': (i) regard dispersion as the key process encompassing whatever superposition of underlying transport phenomena, and seek a statistical description of flow-path collectives enabling to characterize dispersion independently of any other transport parameter, as proposed by Gouze et al. (2008), with Hansen et al. (2016) offering a comprehensive analysis of the various ways dispersion model assumptions interfere with parameter inversion from SWIW tests; (ii) regard diffusion as the key process, and seek for a large-time, asymptotically advection-independent regime in the measured tracer signals (Haggerty et al. 2001), enabling a dispersion-independent characterization of multiple

  14. Interpretations of Tracer Tests Performed in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MEIGS,LUCY C.; BEAUHEIM,RICHARD L.; JONES,TOYA L.

    2000-08-01

    This report provides (1) an overview of all tracer testing conducted in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) site, (2) a detailed description of the important information about the 1995-96 tracer tests and the current interpretations of the data, and (3) a summary of the knowledge gained to date through tracer testing in the Culebra. Tracer tests have been used to identify transport processes occurring within the Culebra and quantify relevant parameters for use in performance assessment of the WIPP. The data, especially those from the tests performed in 1995-96, provide valuable insight into transport processes within the Culebra. Interpretations of the tracer tests in combination with geologic information, hydraulic-test information, and laboratory studies have resulted in a greatly improved conceptual model of transport processes within the Culebra. At locations where the transmissivity of the Culebra is low (< 4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s), we conceptualize the Culebra as a single-porosity medium in which advection occurs largely through the primary porosity of the dolomite matrix. At locations where the transmissivity of the Culebra is high (> 4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s), we conceptualize the Culebra as a heterogeneous, layered, fractured medium in which advection occurs largely through fractures and solutes diffuse between fractures and matrix at multiple rates. The variations in diffusion rate can be attributed to both variations in fracture spacing (or the spacing of advective pathways) and matrix heterogeneity. Flow and transport appear to be concentrated in the lower Culebra. At all locations, diffusion is the dominant transport process in the portions of the matrix that tracer does not access by flow.

  15. Comparison of denitrification activity measurements in groundwater using cores and natural-gradient tracer tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.L.; Garabedian, S.P.; Brooks, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    The transport of many solutes in groundwater is dependent upon the relative rates of physical flow and microbial metabolism. Quantifying rates of microbial processes under subsurface conditions is difficult and is most commonly approximated using laboratory studies with aquifer materials. In this study, we measured in situ rates of denitrification in a nitrate- contaminated aquifer using small-scale, natural-gradient tracer tests and compared the results with rates obtained from laboratory incubations with aquifer core material. Activity was measured using the acetylene block technique. For the tracer tests, co-injection of acetylene and bromide into the aquifer produced a 30 ??M increase in nitrous oxide after 10 m of transport (23-30 days). An advection-dispersion transport model was modified to include an acetylene-dependent nitrous oxide production term and used to simulate the tracer breakthrough curves. The model required a 4-day lag period and a relatively low sensitivity to acetylene to match the narrow nitrous oxide breakthrough curves. Estimates of in situ denitrification rates were 0.60 and 1.51 nmol of N2O produced cm-3 aquifer day-1 for two successive tests. Aquifer core material collected from the tracer test site and incubated as mixed slurries in flasks and as intact cores yielded rates that were 1.2-26 times higher than the tracer test rate estimates. Results with the coring-dependent techniques were variable and subject to the small- scale heterogeneity within the aquifer, while the tracer tests integrated the heterogeneity along a flow path, giving a rate estimate that is more applicable to transport at the scale of the aquifer.

  16. Single well surfactant test to evaluate surfactant floods using multi tracer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheely, Clyde Q.

    1979-01-01

    Data useful for evaluating the effectiveness of or designing an enhanced recovery process said process involving mobilizing and moving hydrocarbons through a hydrocarbon bearing subterranean formation from an injection well to a production well by injecting a mobilizing fluid into the injection well, comprising (a) determining hydrocarbon saturation in a volume in the formation near a well bore penetrating formation, (b) injecting sufficient mobilizing fluid to mobilize and move hydrocarbons from a volume in the formation near the well bore, and (c) determining the hydrocarbon saturation in a volume including at least a part of the volume of (b) by an improved single well surfactant method comprising injecting 2 or more slugs of water containing the primary tracer separated by water slugs containing no primary tracer. Alternatively, the plurality of ester tracers can be injected in a single slug said tracers penetrating varying distances into the formation wherein the esters have different partition coefficients and essentially equal reaction times. The single well tracer method employed is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,623,842. This method designated the single well surfactant test (SWST) is useful for evaluating the effect of surfactant floods, polymer floods, carbon dioxide floods, micellar floods, caustic floods and the like in subterranean formations in much less time and at much reduced cost compared to conventional multiwell pilot tests.

  17. Merging single-well and inter-well tracer tests into one forced-gradient dipole test, at the Heletz site within the MUSTANG project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Horst; Ghergut, Julia; Bensabat, Jac; Niemi, Auli; Licha, Tobias; Ptak, Thomas; Sauter, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Heletz site[1] in Israel was chosen for conducting a CO2 transport experiment within the MUSTANG project[2], whose aim is to demonstrate and validate leading-edge techniques for CCS site characterization, process monitoring and risk assessment. The major CO2 injection experiment at Heletz was supposed to be preceded and accompanied by a sequence of single-well 'push-then-pull' (SW) and inter-well (IW) tracer tests, aimed at characterizing transport properties of the storage formation, in accordance to a number of general and specific principles[3],[4]. - Instead of the rather luxurious {SW1, IW1, SW2, IW2} test sequence described in our previous work[5], we now propose a drastically economized tracer test concept, which lets the sampling stages of SW and IW tests merge into a single fluid production stage, and relies on a forced-gradient dipole flow field at any time of the overall test. Besides cost reduction, this economized design also improves on operational aspects, as well as on issues of parameter ambiguity and of scale disparity between SW and IW flow fields: (i) the new design renders SW test results more representative for the aquifer sector ('angle') actually interrogated by the IW dipole test; (ii) the new design saves time and costs on the SW test (fluid sampling for SW 'pull' now being conducted simultaneously with IW-related sampling and monitoring), while allowing for a considerably longer duration of SW 'pull' signals than had originally been intended, whose late-time tailings help improve the quantification of non-advective processes and parameters, which are of great relevance to mid- and long-term trapping mechanisms ('residual trapping', 'mineral trapping'); (iii) the quasi-simultaneous execution of fluid injection/production for the IW and SW tests considerably reduces the overall hydraulic imbalance that was originally associated with the SW test, thus preventing formation damage and supporting hydrogeomechanical stability; (iv) the new

  18. Predictions of tracer transport in interwell tracer tests at the C-Hole complex. Yucca Mountain site characterization project report milestone 4077

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, P.W.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents predictions of tracer transport in interwell tracer tests that are to be conducted at the C-Hole complex at the Nevada Test Site on behalf of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The predictions are used to make specific recommendations about the manner in which the tracer test should be conducted to best satisfy the needs of the Project. The objective of he tracer tests is to study flow and species transport under saturated conditions in the fractured tuffs near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The potential repository will be located in the unsaturated zone within Yucca Mountain. The saturated zone beneath and around the mountain represents the final barrier to transport to the accessible environment that radionuclides will encounter if they breach the engineered barriers within the repository and the barriers to flow and transport provided by the unsaturated zone. Background information on the C-Holes is provided in Section 1.1, and the planned tracer testing program is discussed in Section 1.2.

  19. The anomaly in a breakthrough curve of a single well "push-pull" tracer test: A density driven effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilfelder, Sarah; Hebig, Klaus; Ito, Narimitsu; Machida, Isao; Scheytt, Traugott; Marui, Atsunao

    2013-04-01

    What method is appropriate to investigate an aquifer when there is only one well available? A single well "push-pull" tracer test (PP Test) may be a suitable method in order to characterize an aquifer and to obtain information about the hydraulic and chemical properties when only one well is available for the investigations. In a PP test, a test solution that contains a known amount of solutes and a conservative tracer is injected into the aquifer ("push") and extracted afterwards ("pull"). Optionally, the test solution is flushed out of the well and the casing with untreated test solution with a so called "chaser" before being extracted. Also between the injection and the extraction phase a drifting time may be included. The breakthrough of the tracer during the extraction phase is measured and used for analyses and interpretation. In the last three years, several PP Test campaigns were conducted at two different test sites in Japan (Hebig et al. 2011, Zeilfelder et al. 2012). The aim was to investigate the applicability of the PP Test method in different geological settings and in different types of aquifers. The latest field campaign thus focussed on the question how variations of the setup are influencing the breakthrough curve of the PP Test in order to develop and enhance this method. Also the standardization of the PP Test was an aim of this study. During the campaign, a total of seven PP Tests were performed, while only single aspects of the setup were varied from test to test. The tests differed in injection and extraction rate, in the salinity of the injected test solution and in the use of a chaser solution. The general shapes of the breakthrough curves were similar and conclusions about the repeatability of the PP Test could be drawn. However, a sharp anomaly was observed in the breakthrough curve of one specific setup type. By repeating this PP test under the same boundary conditions, we were able to recreate the anomaly and could exclude any technical

  20. Final report of the TRUE Block Scale project. 2. Tracer tests in the block scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Peter; Byegaard, Johan [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Winberg, Anders [Conterra AB, Partille (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    The tracer test programme of the TRUE Block Scale Project involved 14 tracer tests campaigns, including performance of 32 tracer injections in 16 different combinations of source and sink sections (flow paths) varying in length between 10 to 130 metres, and involving one or more structures. Average, travel times varied between 1.5 and >2000 hours. Tracer dilution tests performed in conjunction with cross-hole hydraulic pumping tests were found to be a very important part of the pre-tests, where the results were used to identify and screen among possible injection points, and to verify the hydrostructural model valid at a given time. The main problem faced in the block scale tests was to select a test geometry, which gave a sufficiently high mass recovery, and at the same time enabled performance of cross-hole sorbing tracer tests within reasonable time frames. Three different injection methods were applied during the test programme; decaying pulse, finite pulse and forced pulse (unequal dipole). During the later phases of the tracer test programme it was identified that forced injection had to be employed in order to enable detection of tracer at the sink due to strong dilution, and also to avoid problems with artificially induced tailing in the injection signal. Sorbing (reactive) tracers were selected among the radioactive isotopes of the alkali and alkaline earth metals previously used in the TRUE- 1 experiments. It was decided that at least one slightly sorbing tracer and one strongly sorbing tracer should be used in each injection. Non-sorbing tracers were used for conservative reference, e.g., {sup 82}Br{sup -}, {sup 186}ReO{sub 4}, HTO (tritiated water) and {sup 131}I{sup -}. In two of the injections the radioactive non-sorbing tracers were rather short-lived and Uranine and Naphthionate were used as complementary conservative tracers. Surface distribution coefficients, K{sub a}, were evaluated from TRUE-1 and TRUE Block Scale data, making use of the

  1. A Tracer Test to Characterize Treatment of TCE in a Permeable Reactive Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    A tracer test was conducted to characterize the flow of ground water surrounding a permeable reactive barrier constructed with plant mulch (a biowall) at the OU-1 site on Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma. This biowall is intended to intercept and treat ground water contaminated by ...

  2. Testing cosmic ray acceleration with radio relics: a high-resolution study using MHD and tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittor, D.; Vazza, F.; Brüggen, M.

    2017-02-01

    Weak shocks in the intracluster medium may accelerate cosmic-ray protons and cosmic-ray electrons differently depending on the angle between the upstream magnetic field and the shock normal. In this work, we investigate how shock obliquity affects the production of cosmic rays in high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters. For this purpose, we performed a magnetohydrodynamical simulation of a galaxy cluster using the mesh refinement code ENZO. We use Lagrangian tracers to follow the properties of the thermal gas, the cosmic rays and the magnetic fields over time. We tested a number of different acceleration scenarios by varying the obliquity-dependent acceleration efficiencies of protons and electrons, and by examining the resulting hadronic γ-ray and radio emission. We find that the radio emission does not change significantly if only quasi-perpendicular shocks are able to accelerate cosmic-ray electrons. Our analysis suggests that radio-emitting electrons found in relics have been typically shocked many times before z = 0. On the other hand, the hadronic γ-ray emission from clusters is found to decrease significantly if only quasi-parallel shocks are allowed to accelerate cosmic ray protons. This might reduce the tension with the low upper limits on γ-ray emission from clusters set by the Fermi satellite.

  3. Solute dilution at the Borden and Cape Cod groundwater tracer tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierrin, Joseph; Kitanidis, Peter K.

    1994-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the rate of dilution of a conservative nonreactive tracer in two well-known field experiments: The Borden (Ontario, Canada) experiment and the Cape Cod (Massachusetts) experiment. In evaluating the dilution of injected sodium bromide, in addition to computing the second spatial moments, we have used the dilution index and the reactor ratio. The dilution index is a measure of the formation volume occupied by the solute plume, and the reactor ratio is a shape factor, which measures how stretched and deformed the plume is. Unlike the second moments, which may go up or down during an experiment, the dilution index should increase monotonically. The results for both plumes were quite similar. After an initial period the dilution index increased linearly with time, which is macroscopically equivalent to transport in two-dimensional uniform flow. The reactor ratio was relatively constant during the period of the experiments. Their values, about 0.72 for the Borden test and 0.63 for the Cape Cod test, indicate that the Cape Cod plume was more stretched and deformed than the Borden plume. The maximum concentration, which is an alternative to the dilution index for quantifying dilution, was found to be more erratic and more susceptible to sampling error.

  4. Tracer test with arsenic(V) in an iron-reducing environment at the USGS Cape Cod Site (Mass. USA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhn, R.; Isenbeck-Schröter, M.; Niedan, V.

    2001-01-01

    conditions, a small scale con-tinuous tracer test was performed in the zone with iron reduction in a sandy aquifer at the USGS Cape Cod test site. During 4 weeks, a tracer solution containing suboxic water, arsenic (V) (6.7 μmol) and bromide (1.6 mmol) was injected. Downstream the breakthrough of bromide...

  5. B and Li isotopes as intrinsic tracers for injection tests in aquifer storage and recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram, E-mail: w.kloppmann@brgm.fr [BRGM, French Geological Survey, 3 Av. Claude Guillemin B.P. 6009, F-45000 Orleans (France); Chikurel, Haim [Mekorot National Water Company, Tel Aviv (Israel); Picot, Geraldine [BRGM, French Geological Survey, 3 Av. Claude Guillemin B.P. 6009, F-45000 Orleans (France); Guttman, Joseph [Mekorot National Water Company, Tel Aviv (Israel); Pettenati, Marie [BRGM, French Geological Survey, 3 Av. Claude Guillemin B.P. 6009, F-45000 Orleans (France); Aharoni, Avi [Mekorot National Water Company, Tel Aviv (Israel); Guerrot, Catherine; Millot, Romain; Gaus, Irina [BRGM, French Geological Survey, 3 Av. Claude Guillemin B.P. 6009, F-45000 Orleans (France); Wintgens, Thomas [Rheinisch Westfaelische Technische Hochschule, RWTH, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Boron and Li isotopes have been tested as environmental tracers of treated sewage injected into a sandy aquifer (Shafdan reclamation project, Israel). During a 38 days injection test in a newly dug injection well, a conservative artificial tracer (Br{sup -}) was monitored together with {delta}{sup 11}B and {delta}{sup 7}Li in the injectate, in the unsaturated soil zone (porous cup) and an observation well in the aquifer. In spite of B and Li concentrations in the injectate close to background values, significant shifts of the isotope signatures could be observed over the duration of the injection test. Boron isotope ratios show a breakthrough curve delayed with respect to Br{sup -} breakthrough due to some reversible sorption on the aquifer material. No isotope fractionation was observed in the unsaturated or the saturated zone so that B isotopes can be considered as conservative in the investigated part of the aquifer system. Lithium isotopes are strongly fractionated, probably due to sorption processes. Lithium concentrations point to a Li sink in the system, {delta}{sup 7}Li values vary strongly with a tendency of {sup 7}Li depletion in the liquid phase over the duration of the experiment. This is opposite to the expected preferential sorption of {sup 6}Li onto clay minerals. Boron isotopes reveals a valuable tracer of artificial recharge of freshwaters derived from treated sewage, both for short term tracer tests and for long-term monitoring of artificial recharge, even if in aquifers with higher clay contents, sorption-linked isotope fractionation cannot be excluded. More data are needed on Li isotope fractionation in natural groundwater systems to assess the potential of this tracer as monitoring tool.

  6. Solute transport characterization in karst aquifers by tracer injection tests for a sustainable water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, T.; Angulo, B.; Uriarte, J. A.; Olazar, M.; Arandes, J. M.; Antiguedad, I.

    2017-04-01

    Protection of water resources is a major challenge today, given that territory occupation and land use are continuously increasing. In the case of karst aquifers, its dynamic complexity requires the use of specific methodologies that allow establishing local and regional flow and transport patterns. This information is particularly necessary when springs and wells harnessed for water supply are concerned. In view of the present state of the art, this work shows a new approach based on the use of a LiCl based tracer injection test through a borehole for transport characterization from a local to a regional scale. Thus a long term tracer injection test was conducted in a particularly sensitive sector of the Egino karst massif (Basque Country, Spain). The initial displacement of tracer in the vicinity of the injection was monitored in a second borehole at a radial distance of 10.24 m. This first information, assessed by a radial divergent model, allows obtaining transport characteristic parameters in this immediate vicinity during injection. At a larger (regional) scale, the tracer reaches a highly transmissive network with mean traveling velocities to the main springs being from 4.3 to 13.7 m/h. The responses obtained, particularly clear in the main spring used for water supply, and the persistence of part of the tracer in the injection zone, pose reconsidering the need for their protection. Thus, although the test allows establishing the 24-h isochrone, which is the ceiling value in present European vulnerability approaches, the results obtained advise widening the zone to protect in order to guarantee water quality in the springs. Overall, this stimulus-response test allows furthering the knowledge on the dynamics of solute transport in karst aquifers and is a particularly useful tool in studies related to source vulnerability and protection in such a complex medium.

  7. Joint DOE/NRC field study of tracer migration in the unsaturated zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyhan, J.; Polzer, W.; Essington, E.; Cokal, E.; Lane, L.; Lopez, E.; Stallings, E.; Walker, R.

    1986-03-01

    The results of a joint DOE/NRC field experiment to evaluate leaching and transport of solutes in a sandy silt backfill used for shallow land burial operations at Los Alamos are presented for steady-state and unsteady-state flow conditions. The migration of iodide, bromide, and lithium through the backfill material is studied as functions of depth and time and they are compared with one another. The bromide and iodide tracer data are used to estimate the diffusion coefficient, the tortuosity factor, and dispersivity. These values are used to calculate effective dispersion coefficients for subsequent analyses of the retardation factor and the distribution coefficient for lithium using least squares procedures. The results of the tracer migration study are discussed relative to challenges facing the waste management community, and chemical transport modeling opportunities are presented for a modeling workshop to be held in FY86.

  8. Southeast Geyers Cooperative Tracer Evaluation and Testing Program for the Purpose of Estimating The Efficiency of Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.L. (Bill) Smith

    2001-02-12

    The Southeast Geysers Cooperative Tracer Evaluation Program has been a joint project located in the SE part of the Geysers geothermal field, in Lake and Sonoma Counties, California. A new generation of environmentally benign vapor-phase tracers has been used to estimate the varying degrees to which injectate is being recovered following the significant increase of injected volumes within the Southeast Geysers.

  9. Ensemble Kalman filter versus ensemble smoother for assessing hydraulic conductivity via tracer test data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Crestani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity K in natural aquifers is important for predicting the transport of dissolved compounds. Especially in the nonreactive case, the plume evolution is mainly controlled by the heterogeneity of K. At the local scale, the spatial distribution of K can be inferred by combining the Lagrangian formulation of the transport with a Kalman-filter-based technique and assimilating a sequence of time-lapse concentration C measurements, which, for example, can be evaluated on site through the application of a geophysical method. The objective of this work is to compare the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF and the ensemble smoother (ES capabilities to retrieve the hydraulic conductivity spatial distribution in a groundwater flow and transport modeling framework. The application refers to a two-dimensional synthetic aquifer in which a tracer test is simulated. Moreover, since Kalman-filter-based methods are optimal only if each of the involved variables fit to a Gaussian probability density function (pdf and since this condition may not be met by some of the flow and transport state variables, issues related to the non-Gaussianity of the variables are analyzed and different transformation of the pdfs are considered in order to evaluate their influence on the performance of the methods. The results show that the EnKF reproduces with good accuracy the hydraulic conductivity field, outperforming the ES regardless of the pdf of the concentrations.

  10. Field studies of streamflow generation using natural and injected tracers on Bickford and Walker Branch Watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genereux, D.; Hemond, H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Mulholland, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Field studies of streamflow generation were undertaken on two forested watersheds, the West Road subcatchment of Bickford Watershed in central Massachusetts and the West Fork of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee. A major component of the research was development of a two-stage methodology for the use of naturally-occurring {sup 222}Rn as a tracer. The first of the two stages was solving a mass-balance equation for {sup 222}Rn around a stream reach of interest in order to calculate Rn{sub q}, the {sup 222}Rn content of the lateral inflow to the reach; a conservative tracer (chloride) and a volatile tracer (propane) were injected into the study stream to account for lateral inflow to, and volatilization from, the study reach. The second stage involved quantitative comparison of Rn{sub q} to the measured {sup 222}Rn concentrations of different subsurface waters in order to assess how important these waters were in contributing lateral inflow to the stream reach.

  11. MULTISPECIES REACTIVE TRACER TEST IN A SAND AND GRAVEL AQUIFER, CAPE COD, MASSACHUSETTS: PART 1: EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND TRANSPORT OF BROMIDE AND NICKEL-EDTA TRACERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this report, we summarize a portion of the results of a large-scale tracer test conducted at the U. S. Geological Survey research site on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The site is located on a large sand and gravel glacial outwash plain in an unconfined aquifer. In April 1993, ab...

  12. Optimizing the configuration of a clearwell by integrating pilot and full-scale tracer testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wenjun; DU Zhipeng; JIN Junwei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the main factors impacting the plug flow pattern of a clearwell were investigated by integrating pilot-scale,full-scale clearwell tracer testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation.It was found that pilot tracer testing,full-scale tracer testing and CFD simulation all demonstrated that the correlation between the ratio of t10/T and L/W can be approximately expressed by:t10/T= 0.189 41n(L/W)-0.049 4.This study confirmed that the installation of baffles within clearwells is an efficient way to optimize their configuration.In addition,the inlet velocity has a minimal contribution to the ratio of t10/T.However,the ratio of turning channel width to charmel width (d/W)significantly contributes to the ratio of t10/T.The optimal ratio of d/W is 0.8-1.2 for maintaining better plug flow pattern.The number of turning channels is one of the main factors that impact the ratio of t10/T.When increasing the number of turning channels,a lower ratio of t10/T is obtained.

  13. Are single-well "push-pull" tests suitable tracer methods for aquifer characterization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebig, Klaus; Zeilfelder, Sarah; Ito, Narimitsu; Machida, Isao; Scheytt, Traugott; Marui, Atsunao

    2013-04-01

    Recently, investigations were conducted for geological and hydrogeological characterisation of the sedimentary coastal basin of Horonobe (Hokkaido, Japan). Coastal areas are typical geological settings in Japan, which are less tectonically active than the mountain ranges. In Asia, and especially in Japan, these areas are often densely populated. Therefore, it is important to investigate the behaviour of solutes in such unconsolidated aquifers. In such settings sometimes only single boreholes or groundwater monitoring wells are available for aquifer testing for various reasons, e.g. depths of more than 100 m below ground level and slow groundwater velocities due to density driven flow. A standard tracer test with several involved groundwater monitoring wells is generally very difficult or even not possible at these depths. One of the most important questions in our project was how we can obtain information about chemical and hydraulic properties in such aquifers. Is it possible to characterize solute transport behaviour parameters with only one available groundwater monitoring well or borehole? A so-called "push-pull" test may be one suitable method for aquifer testing with only one available access point. In a push-pull test a known amount of several solutes including a conservative tracer is injected into the aquifer ("push") and afterwards extracted ("pull"). The measured breakthrough curve during the pumping back phase can then be analysed. This method has already been used previously with various aims, also in the recent project (e.g. Hebig et al. 2011, Zeilfelder et al. 2012). However, different test setups produced different tracer breakthrough curves. As no systematic evaluation of this aquifer tracer test method was done so far, nothing is known about its repeatability. Does the injection and extraction rate influence the shape of the breakthrough curve? Which role plays the often applied "chaser", which is used to push the test solution out from the

  14. Using seismic reflection to locate a tracer testing complex south of Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryder, Levi

    Tracer testing in the fractured volcanic aquifer near Yucca Mountain, and in the alluvial aquifer south of Yucca Mountain, Nevada has been conducted in the past to determine the flow and transport properties of groundwater in those geologic units. However, no tracer testing has been conducted across the alluvium/volcanic interface. This thesis documents the investigative process and subsequent analysis and interpretations used to identify a location suitable for installation of a tracer testing complex, near existing Nye County wells south of Yucca Mountain. The work involved evaluation of existing geologic data, collection of wellbore seismic data, and a detailed surface seismic reflection survey. Borehole seismic data yielded useful information on alluvial P-wave velocities. Seismic reflection data were collected over a line of 4.5-km length, with a 10-m receiver and shot spacing. Reflection data were extensively processed to image the alluvium/volcanic interface. A location for installation of an alluvial/volcanic tracer testing complex was identified based on one of the reflectors imaged in the reflection survey; this site is located between existing Nye County monitoring wells, near an outcrop of Paintbrush Tuff. Noise in the reflection data (due to some combination of seismic source signal attenuation, poor receiver-to-ground coupling, and anthropogenic sources) were sources of error that affected the final processed data set. In addition, in some areas low impedance contrast between geologic units caused an absence of reflections in the data, complicating the processing and interpretation. Forward seismic modeling was conducted using Seismic Un*x; however, geometry considerations prevented direct comparison of the modeled and processed data sets. Recommendations for additional work to address uncertainties identified during the course of this thesis work include: drilling additional boreholes to collect borehole seismic and geologic data; reprocessing a

  15. The in-situ decontamination of sand and gravel aquifers by chemically enhanced solubilization of multiple-compound DNAPLs with surfactant solutions: Phase 1 -- Laboratory and pilot field-scale testing and Phase 2 -- Solubilization test and partitioning and interwell tracer tests. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-24

    Laboratory, numerical simulation, and field studies have been conducted to assess the potential use of micellar-surfactant solutions to solubilize chlorinated solvents contaminating sand and gravel aquifers. Ninety-nine surfactants were screened for their ability to solubilize trichloroethene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and carbon tetrachloride (CTET). The field test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer which is located 20 to 30 meters beneath a vapor degreasing operation at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. This aquifer has become contaminated with TCE due to leakage of perhaps 40,000 liters of TCE, which has generated a plume of dissolved TCE extending throughout an area of approximately 3 km{sup 2} in the aquifer. Most of the TCE is believed to be present in the overlying lacustrine deposits and in the aquifer itself as a dense, non-aqueous phase liquid, or DNAPL. The objective of the field test was to assess the efficacy of the surfactant for in situ TCE solubilization. Although the test demonstrated that sorbitan monooleate was unsuitable as a solubilizer in this aquifer, the single-well test was demonstrated to be a viable method for the in situ testing of surfactants or cosolvents prior to proceeding to full-scale remediation.

  16. Field tracer investigation of unsaturated zone flow paths and mechanisms in agricultural soils of northwestern Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, K.S.; Nimmo, J.R.; Rose, C.E.; Coupe, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    In many farmed areas, intensive application of agricultural chemicals and withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation have led to water quality and supply issues. Unsaturated-zone processes, including preferential flow, play a major role in these effects but are not well understood. In the Bogue Phalia basin, an intensely agricultural area in the Delta region of northwestern Mississippi, the fine-textured soils often exhibit surface ponding and runoff after irrigation and rainfall as well as extensive surface cracking during prolonged dry periods. Fields are typically land-formed to promote surface flow into drainage ditches and streams that feed into larger river ecosystems. Downward flow of water below the root zone is considered minimal; regional groundwater models predict only 5% or less of precipitation recharges the heavily used alluvial aquifer. In this study transport mechanisms within and below the root zone of a fallow soybean field were assessed by performing a 2-m ring infiltration test with tracers and subsurface monitoring instruments. Seven months after tracer application, 48 continuous cores were collected for tracer extraction to define the extent of water movement and quantify preferential flow using a mass-balance approach. Vertical water movement was rapid below the pond indicating the importance of vertical preferential flow paths in the shallow unsaturated zone, especially to depths where agricultural disturbance occurs. Lateral flow of water at shallow depths was extensive and spatially non-uniform, reaching up to 10. m from the pond within 2. months. Within 1. month, the wetting front reached a textural boundary at 4-5. m between the fine-textured soil and sandy alluvium, now a potential capillary barrier which, prior to extensive irrigation withdrawals, was below the water table. Within 10. weeks, tracer was detectable at the water table which is presently about 12. m below land surface. Results indicate that 43% of percolation may be through

  17. Experimental study of the effect of test-well arrangement for partitioning interwell tracer test on the estimation of NAPL saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B.; Kim, Y.; Yeo, I.; Yongcheol Kim, In Wook Yeo

    2011-12-01

    Partitioning interwell tracer test (PITT) is a method to quantify and qualify a contaminated site with NAPLs through a degree of retardation of partitioning tracers compared to a conservative one. Although PITT is known to be a more effective method to measure the saturation of spatially-distributed NAPL contaminant than the point investigation method, the saturation estimation from PITT is reported to be underestimated due to various factors including heterogeneity of the media, adsorption, source zone NAPL architecture, and long tailing in breakthrough curves of partitioning tracers. Analytical description of PITT assumes that the injection-pumping well pair is on the line of ambient groundwater flow direction, but the test-well pair could easily be off the line in the field site, which could be another erroneous factor in analyzing PITT data. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of the angle of the test-well pair to ambient groundwater flow direction based on the result from PITT. The experiments were conducted in a small-scale 3D sandbox with dimensions of 0.5 m × 0.4 m × 0.15 m (LWH) of stainless steel. The surface is covered and sealed with a plexiglass plate to make the physical model a confined aquifer. Eight full-screened wells of Teflon material were installed along the perimeter of a 50 mm circle with 45 degree intervals in the middle of the physical model. Both ends of the sand box are connected to constant head reservoirs. The physical model was wet-packed with sieved and washed sand. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and bromide were used as the contaminant and the conservative tracer, respectively. Hexanol, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol and 6-methyl-2-heptanol were used as partitioning tracers. Before the injection of TCE, a PITT was conducted to measure adsorption coefficient of partitioning tracers to the sand material. TCE of 4.5 mL, dyed with Sudan IV, was injected into the inner part of the circle of the wells. PITTs using the test-well pair

  18. Characterization of Anomalous Contaminant Transport via Push-Pull Tracer Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S. K.; Vesselinov, V. V.; Berkowitz, B.

    2015-12-01

    Push-pull (single-well-injection-withdrawal) tracer tests are widely used as an economical means of characterizing field-scale solute transport properties such as sorption and dispersion. Typically, these are analyzed by means of analytic solutions that assume transport obeys the radial advection-dispersion equation. We revisit this approach as: (1) Recognition of the ubiquity of anomalous transport and its impact on contaminant remediation necessitates the use of new methods to characterize it, and (2) Improved computational power and numerical methods have rendered reliance on analytical solutions obsolete. Here, we present a technique for characterizing diffusion-driven anomalous transport (i.e., anomalous transport driven by a "trapping" process whose trapping and release statistics are independent of the groundwater flow velocity). Examples include diffusion into low permeability zones, kinetic sorption, and matrix diffusion. Using field observations, we simultaneously calibrate an exponential probability distribution for time spent on a single sojourn in the mobile domain and a truncated power law probability distribution for time spent on a single sojourn in the immobile domain via a stochastic global optimization technique. The calibrated distributions, being independent of the flow regime, are applicable to the same domain under any flow conditions, including linear flow. In the context of the continuous time random walk (CTRW), one may simply define a transition to represent a single trap-and-release cycle, and directly compute the spatiotemporal transition distribution that defines the CTRW from the two calibrated distributions and the local seepage velocity (so that existing CTRW transport theory applies). A test of our methodology against a push-pull test from the MADE site demonstrated fitting performance comparable to that of a 3-D MODFLOW/MT3DMS model with a variety of hydraulic conductivity zones and explicit treatment of mobile-immobile mass

  19. Ensemble Kalman filter versus ensemble smoother for assessing hydraulic conductivity via tracer test data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Crestani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The significance of estimating the spatial variability of the hydraulic conductivity K in natural aquifers is relevant to the possibility of defining the space and time evolution of a non-reactive plume, since the transport of a solute is mainly controlled by the heterogeneity of K. At the local scale, the spatial distribution of K can be inferred by combining the Lagrangian formulation of the transport with a Kalman filter-based technique and assimilating a sequence of time-lapse concentration C measurements, which, for example, can be evaluated on-site through the application of a geophysical method. The objective of this work is to compare the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF and the ensemble smoother (ES capabilities to retrieve the hydraulic conductivity spatial distribution in a groundwater flow and transport modeling framework. The application refers to a two-dimensional synthetic aquifer in which a tracer test is simulated. Moreover, since Kalman filter-based methods are optimal only if each of the involved variables fit to a Gaussian probability density function (pdf and since this condition may not be met by some of the flow and transport state variables, issues related to the non-Gaussianity of the variables are analyzed and different transformation of the pdfs are considered in order to evaluate their influence on the performance of the methods. The results show that the EnKF reproduces with good accuracy the hydraulic conductivity field, outperforming the ES regardless of the pdf of the concentrations.

  20. Analysis of three sets of SWIW tracer test data using a two-population complex fracture model for matrix diffusion and sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, Christine; Chin-Fu Tsang (Earth Sciences Div., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States))

    2009-03-15

    This study has been undertaken to obtain a better understanding of the processes underlying retention of radionuclides in fractured rock by using different model conceptualisations when interpreting SWIW tests. In particular the aim is to infer the diffusion and sorption parameters from the SWIW test data by matching tracer breakthrough curves (BTC) with a complex fracture model. The model employs two populations for diffusion and sorption. One population represents the semi-infinite rock matrix and the other represents finite blocks that can become saturated, thereafter accepting no further diffusion or sorption. For the non-sorbing tracer uranine, both the finite and the semi-infinite populations play a distinct role in controlling BTC. For the sorbing tracers Cs and Rb the finite population does not saturate, but acts essentially semi-infinite, thus the BTC behaviour is comparable to that obtained for a model containing only a semi-infinite rock matrix. The ability to match BTC for both sorbing and non-sorbing tracers for these three different SWIW data sets demonstrates that the two-population complex fracture model may be useful to analyze SWIW tracer test data in general. One of the two populations should be the semi-infinite rock matrix and the other finite blocks that can saturate. The latter can represent either rock blocks within the fracture, a fracture skin zone or stagnation zones. Three representative SWIW tracer tests recently conducted by SKB have been analyzed with a complex fracture model employing two populations for diffusion and sorption, one population being the semi-infinite rock matrix and the other, finite blocks. The results show that by adjusting diffusion and sorption parameters of the model, a good match with field data is obtained for BTC of both conservative and non-conservative tracers simultaneously. For non-sorbing tracer uranine, both the finite and the semi-infinite populations play a distinct role in controlling BTC. At early

  1. Numerical evaluation of apparent transport parameters from forced-gradient tracer tests in statistically anisotropic heterogeneous formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, D.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.; Bolster, D.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Benson, D.

    2012-04-01

    For risk assessment and adequate decision making regarding remediation strategies in contaminated aquifers, solute fate in the subsurface must be modeled correctly. In practical situations, hydrodynamic transport parameters are obtained by fitting procedures, that aim to mathematically reproduce solute breakthrough (BTC) observed in the field during tracer tests. In recent years, several methods have been proposed (curve-types, moments, nonlocal formulations) but none of them combine the two main characteristic effects of convergent flow tracer tests (which are the most used tests in the practice): the intrinsic non-stationarity of the convergent flow to a well and the ubiquitous multiscale hydraulic heterogeneity of geological formations. These two effects separately have been accounted for by a lot of methods that appear to work well. Here, we investigate both effects at the same time via numerical analysis. We focus on the influence that measurable statistical properties of the aquifers (such as the variance and the statistical geometry of correlation scales) have on the shape of BTCs measured at the pumping well during convergent flow tracer tests. We built synthetic multigaussian 3D fields of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields with variable statistics. A well is located in the center of the domain to reproduce a forced gradient towards it. Constant-head values are imposed on the boundaries of the domains, which have 251x251x100 cells. Injections of solutes take place by releasing particles at different distances from the well and using a random walk particle tracking scheme with constant local coefficient of dispersivity. The results show that BTCs partially display the typical anomalous behavior that has been commonly referred to as the effect of heterogeneity and connectivity (early and late arrival times of solute differ from the one predicted by local formulations). Among the most salient features, the behaviors of BTCs after the peak (the slope

  2. Tracer experiment results during the Long-Term Flow Test of the Fenton Hill reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, N.E.V. (CSM Associates, Rosemanowes, Penryn, Cornwall (United Kingdom)); Robinson, B.A.; Counce, D.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Three chemical tracer experiments and one extended injection of fluid low in concentration of dissolved species have been carried out during the Long Term Flow Test (LTFT) of the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) reservoir. The tracer tests,results illustrate the dynamic nature of the flow system, with more fluid traveling through longer residence time paths as heat is extracted. The total fracture volumes calculated from these tests allow us to determine the fate of unrecovered injection fluid, examine the pressure-dependence of fracture volume, and, through a comparison to the hydraulic performance, postulate a model for the nature of the pressure drops through the system. The Fresh Water Flush (FWF) test showed that while no dissolved specie behavior is truly conservative (no sources or sinks), several breakthrough curves are well explained with a pore fluid displacement model. Other dissolved components are clearly influenced by dissolution or precipitation reactions. Finally, the transient response of the chemistry during the FWF to an increase in production well pressure showed that some fractures connected to the production well preferentially open when pressure is raised.

  3. Characterization of reactive tracers for C-wells field experiments 1: Electrostatic sorption mechanism, lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, H.R.; Polzer, W.L.; Essington, E.H.; Newman, B.D.

    1989-11-01

    Lithium (Li{sup +}) was introduced as lithium bromide (LiBr), as a retarded tracer for experiments in the C-wells complex at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The objective was to evaluate the potential of lithium to sorb predominately by physical forces. lithium was selected as a candidate tracer on the basis of high solubility, good chemical and biological stability, and relatively low sorptivity; lack of bioaccumulation and exclusion as a priority pollutant in pertinent federal environmental regulations; good analytical detectability and low natural background concentrations; and a low cost Laboratory experiments were performed with suspensions of Prow Pass cuttings from drill hole UE-25p{number_sign}1 at depths between 549 and 594 m in J-13 water at a pH of approximately 8 and in the temperature range of 25{degree}C to 45{degree}C. Batch equilibrium and kinetics experiments were performed; estimated thermodynamic constants, relative behavior between adsorption and desorption, and potentiometric studies provided information to infer the physical nature of lithium sorption.

  4. Insight from simulations of single-well injection-withdrawal tracer tests on simple and complex fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, C.-F.; Doughty, C.

    2009-08-06

    The single-well injection withdrawal (SWIW) test, a tracer test utilizing only one well, is proposed as a useful contribution to site characterization of fractured rock, as well as providing parameters relevant to tracer diffusion and sorption. The usual conceptual model of flow and solute transport through fractured rock with low matrix permeability involves solute advection and dispersion through a fracture network coupled with diffusion and sorption into the surrounding rock matrix. Unlike two-well tracer tests, results of SWIW tests are ideally independent of advective heterogeneity, channeling and flow dimension, and, instead, focus on diffusive and sorptive characteristics of tracer (solute) transport. Thus, they can be used specifically to study such characteristics and evaluate the diffusive parameters associated with tracer transport through fractured media. We conduct simulations of SWIW tests on simple and complex fracture models, the latter being defined as having two subfractures with altered rock blocks in between and gouge material in their apertures. Using parameters from the Aspo site in Sweden, we calculate and study SWIW tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) from a test involving four days of injection and then withdrawal. By examining the peak concentration C{sub pk} of the SWIW BTCs for a variety of parameters, we confirm that C{sub pk} is largely insensitive to the fracture advective flow properties, in particular to permeability heterogeneity over the fracture plane or to subdividing the flow into two subfractures in the third dimension orthogonal to the fracture plane. The peak arrival time t{sub pk} is not a function of fracture or rock properties, but is controlled by the time schedule of the SWIW test. The study shows that the SWIW test is useful for the study of tracer diffusion-sorption processes, including the effect of the so-called flow-wetted surface (FWS) of the fracture. Calculations with schematic models with different FWS values are

  5. Downscale cascades in tracer transport test cases: an intercomparison of the dynamical cores in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kent

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The accurate modelling of cascades to unresolved scales is an important part of the tracer transport component of dynamical cores of weather and climate models. This paper aims to investigate the ability of the advection schemes in the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5 to model this cascade. In order to quantify the effects of the different advection schemes in CAM5, four two-dimensional tracer transport test cases are presented. Three of the tests stretch the tracer below the scale of coarse resolution grids to ensure the downscale cascade of tracer variance. These results are compared with a high resolution reference solution, which is simulated on a resolution fine enough to resolve the tracer during the test. The fourth test has two separate flow cells, and is designed so that any tracer in the Western Hemisphere should not pass into the Eastern Hemisphere. This is to test whether the diffusion in transport schemes, often in the form of explicit hyper-diffusion terms or implicit through monotonic limiters, contains unphysical mixing.

    An intercomparison of three of the dynamical cores of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Atmosphere Model version 5 is performed. The results show that the finite-volume (CAM-FV and spectral element (CAM-SE dynamical cores model the downscale cascade of tracer variance better than the semi-Lagrangian transport scheme of the Eulerian spectral transform core (CAM-EUL. Each scheme tested produces unphysical mass in the Eastern Hemisphere of the separate cells test.

  6. Downscale cascades in tracer transport test cases: an intercomparison of the dynamical cores in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kent

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The accurate modeling of cascades to unresolved scales is an important part of the tracer transport component of dynamical cores of weather and climate models. This paper aims to investigate the ability of the advection schemes in the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5 to model this cascade. In order to quantify the effects of the different advection schemes in CAM5, four two-dimensional tracer transport test cases are presented. Three of the tests stretch the tracer below the scale of coarse resolution grids to ensure the downscale cascade of tracer variance. These results are compared with a high resolution reference solution, which is simulated on a resolution fine enough to resolve the tracer during the test. The fourth test has two separate flow cells, and is designed so that any tracer in the western hemisphere should not pass into the eastern hemisphere. This is to test whether the diffusion in transport schemes, often in the form of explicit hyper-diffusion terms or implicit through monotonic limiters, contains unphysical mixing.

    An intercomparison of three of the dynamical cores of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Atmosphere Model version 5 is performed. The results show that the finite-volume (CAM-FV and spectral element (CAM-SE dynamical cores model the downscale cascade of tracer variance better than the semi-Lagrangian transport scheme of the Eulerian spectral transform core (CAM-EUL. Each scheme tested produces unphysical mass in the eastern hemisphere of the separate cells test.

  7. Tracer test for the measurement of gas diffusion and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) saturation in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Steene, Joke; Höhener, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    During soil bioremediation, the diffusion of oxygen into the soil is an important prerequisite for aerobic biodegradation, and the decrease of petroleum products is the ultimate goal. Both processes need to be monitored. The aim of this work was to develop a gas tracer test that yields information on both, gas diffusion and residual saturation with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in unsaturated soil heaps. One conservative tracer (methane) and 4 partitioning gas tracers (diethylether, methyl tert-butyl ether, chloroform and n-heptane) were injected as vapors into laboratory columns filled with unsaturated sand with increasing NAPL saturation. Breakthrough curves of gaseous compounds were measured at two points and compared to analytical solutions of an analytical diffusive-reactive transport equation. By fitting of methane data, robust results for effective diffusivity (tortuosity) were obtained. NAPL saturation was most accurately measured by the moderately water soluble tracers (ethers and chloroform). The hydrophobic tracer n-heptane did not partition into water-immersed NAPL. An easy and accurate way to assess air-NAPL partitioning constants from gas chromatography retention times is furthermore reported. It is concluded that gas tracer tests have the potential for measuring two important properties in soil bioremediation systems easily and quickly.

  8. Hydrodispersive characterization of a sandy porous medium by tracer tests carried out in laboratory on undisturbed soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Aldo Pedro; Fallico, Carmine; Rios, Ana C.; Fernanda Rivera, Maria; Santillan, Patricio; Salazar, Mario

    2013-04-01

    The contamination of large areas and correspondent aquifers often imposes to implement some recovery operations which are generally complex and very expensive. Anyway, these interventions necessarily require the preventive characterization of the aquifers to be reclaimed and in particular the knowledge of the relevant hydrodispersive parameters. The determination of these parameters requires the implementation tracer tests for the specific site (Sauty JP, 1978). To reduce cost and time that such test requires tracer tests on undisturbed soil samples, representative of the whole aquifer, can be performed. These laboratory tests are much less expensive and require less time, but the results are certainly less reliable than those obtained by field tests for several reasons, including the particular scale of investigation. In any case the hydrodispersive parameters values, obtained by tests carried out in laboratory, can provide useful information on the considered aquifer, allowing to carry out initial verifications on the transmission and propagation of the pollutants in the aquifer considered. For this purpose, tracer tests with inlet of short time were carried out in the Soil Physics Laboratory of the Department of Soil Protection (University of Calabria), on a series of sandy soil samples with six different lengths, repeating each test with three different water flow velocities (5 m/d; 10 m/s and 15 m/d) (J. Feyen et al., 1998). The lengths of the samples taken into account are respectively 15 cm, 24 cm, 30 cm, 45 cm, 60 cm and 75 cm, while the solution used for each test was made of 100 ml of water and NaCl with a concentration of this substance corresponding to 10 g/L. For the porous medium taken into consideration a particle size analysis was carried out, resulting primarily made of sand, with total porosity equal to 0.33. Each soil sample was placed in a flow cell in which was inlet the tracer from the bottom upwards, measuring by a conductivimeter the

  9. Cyclotron Lines: From Magnetic Field Strength Estimators to Geometry Tracers in Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chandreyee Maitra

    2017-09-01

    With forty years since the discovery of the first cyclotron line in Her X-1, there have been remarkable advancements in the field related to the study of the physics of accreting neutron stars – cyclotron lines have been a major torchbearer in this regard, from being the only direct estimator of the magnetic field strength, a tracer of accretion geometry and an indicator of the emission beam in these systems. The main flurry of activities have centred around studying the harmonic separations, luminosity dependence, pulse phase dependence and more recently, the shapes of the line and the trend for long-term evolution in the line energy. This article visits the important results related to cyclotron lines since its discovery and reviews their significance. An emphasis is laid on pulse phase resolved spectroscopy and the important clues a joint timing and spectral study in this context can provide, to build a complete picture for the physics of accretion and hence X-ray emission in accreting neutron stars.

  10. Comparison of AERMOD to EIAA with Respect to the Latest Tracer Field Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duo-Xing Yang; Ka-Hing Yau; Shi-Bei Li; Xiao-Hong Zhao; Jesse Thé

    2005-01-01

    The USEPA proposed AERMOD for short-range dispersion modeling and simultaneous deletion of ISC. In contrast, the regulatory model of China is a traditional Gaussian plume model similar to ISC. This paper demonstrates the advantage of AERMOD over the regulatory model of China by comparing their predicted ground level concentrations (GLC) along downwind distance to the Alaska tracer field data. The field experiment features buoyant release of effluent at elevated height over flat terrain and local flows influenced by building downwash. AERMOD shows significantly better space-time correlation and probability distribution than the China regulatory model, which frequently underestimates the GLC for effluent released with significant plume rise in stable atmospheric conditions. The performance of AERMOD is greatly enhanced by incorporating the state-of-the-art knowledge of boundary layer meteorology. In particular, AERMOD employs similarity theory in replacement of the discrete Pasquill-Gilford stability class; PDF modeling of asymmetric vertical diffusion of convective plumes; partial plume penetration across mixing height ceiling; and the PRIMEmodel for building downwash.

  11. Reactivity of Hontomín carbonate rocks to acidic solution injection: reactive "push-pull" tracer tests results

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gaspari, Francesca; Cabeza, Yoar; Luquot, Linda; Rötting, Tobias; Saaltink, Maarten W.; Carrera, Jesus

    2014-05-01

    Several field tests will be carried out in order to characterize the reservoir for CO2 injection in Hontomín (Burgos, Spain) as part of the Compostilla project of "Fundación Ciudad de la Energía" (CIUDEN). Once injected, the dissolution of the CO2 in the resident brine will increase the acidity of the water and lead to the dissolution of the rocks, constituted mainly by carbonates. This mechanism will cause changes in the aquifer properties such as porosity and permeability. To reproduce the effect of the CO2 injection, a reactive solution with 2% of acetic acid is going to be injected in the reservoir and extracted from the same well (reactive "push-pull" tracer tests) to identify and quantify the geochemical reactions occurring into the aquifer. The reactivity of the rock will allow us also to evaluate the changes of its properties. Previously, theoretical calculations of Damkhöler numbers were done to determine the acid concentrations and injection flow rates needed to generate ramified-wormholes patterns, during theses "push-pull" experiments. The aim of this work is to present the results and a preliminary interpretation of the field tests.

  12. Deep groundwater flow systems and their characterization in single-well settings by ''push-pull'' tracer tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebig-Schubert, Klaus

    2014-11-21

    This thesis demonstrates the growing importance of deep groundwater research and the increasing demand for the development of suitable single-well test methods. At the forefront of the research on groundwater in the deep underground, radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories, CO{sub 2} storage, geothermal energy supply, and aquifer storage and recovery systems (ASR) are on the agenda. The developments of suitable methods for investigating these resources are a main target. Currently available methods show considerable limitations. Accordingly, comprehensive methods for the hydraulic and hydrochemical characterization of deeper aquifers with single-well access are needed. Therefore, the goal of this PhD thesis was to identify, test, and enhance potentially suitable single-well methods for characterization of groundwater flow and solute transport in such settings. For this, several Single-Well Injection-Withdrawal (''push-pull'') tracer tests were applied at the Hamasato field site (Horonobe, Japan) in a ∝100 m deep groundwater monitoring well. Aim was to characterize the impact of a dynamic saltwater-freshwater interface on a coastal aquifer. Based on the experiences of the first methodological test, a second field campaign was conducted. This campaign focused on a systematic evaluation of the push-pull tracer test method for the first time at all. The experiments focused on the investigation of the so-called ''chaser'' and its impact on the test results. The chaser is a specific part of many push-pull tracer tests setups. From these experiments, a specific test design for the investigation of the saltwater-freshwater interface in a single-well setting was developed. The application of this design on questions regarding different fluids within the same system, e.g. different mineralized fluids (saltwater-freshwater-interface, ASR) or temperatures (geothermal research), are promising future approaches for

  13. Measuring gene flow from two birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) field trials using transgenes as tracer markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, F; Bellucci, M; Arcioni, S

    2003-06-01

    Genetic engineering is becoming a useful tool in the improvement of plants but concern has been expressed about the potential environmental risks of releasing genetically modified (GM) organisms into the environment. Attention has focused on pollen dispersal as a major issue in the risk assessment of transgenic crop plants. In this study, pollen-mediated dispersal of transgenes via cross-fertilization was examined. Plants of Lotus corniculatus L. transformed with either the Escherichia coli asparagine synthetase gene asnA or the beta-glucuronidase gene uidA, were used as the pollen donor. Nontransgenic plants belonging to the species L. corniculatus L., L. tenuis Waldst. and Kit. ex Willd, and L. pedunculatus Cav., were utilized as recipients. Two experimental fields were established in two areas of central Italy. Plants carrying the uidA gene were partially sterile, therefore only the asnA gene was used as a tracer marker. No transgene flow between L. corniculatus transformants and the nontransgenic L. tenuis and L. pedunculatus plants was detected. As regards nontransgenic L. corniculatus plants, in one location flow of asnA transgene was detected up to 18 m from the 1.8 m2 donor plot. In the other location, pollen dispersal occurred up to 120 m from the 14 m2 pollinating plot.

  14. Push-pull tracer tests: Their information content and use for characterizing non-Fickian, mobile-immobile behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K.; Berkowitz, Brian; Vesselinov, Velimir V.; O'Malley, Daniel; Karra, Satish

    2016-12-01

    Path reversibility and radial symmetry are often assumed in push-pull tracer test analysis. In reality, heterogeneous flow fields mean that both assumptions are idealizations. To understand their impact, we perform a parametric study which quantifies the scattering effects of ambient flow, local-scale dispersion, and velocity field heterogeneity on push-pull breakthrough curves and compares them to the effects of mobile-immobile mass transfer (MIMT) processes including sorption and diffusion into secondary porosity. We identify specific circumstances in which MIMT overwhelmingly determines the breakthrough curve, which may then be considered uninformative about drift and local-scale dispersion. Assuming path reversibility, we develop a continuous-time-random-walk-based interpretation framework which is flow-field-agnostic and well suited to quantifying MIMT. Adopting this perspective, we show that the radial flow assumption is often harmless: to the extent that solute paths are reversible, the breakthrough curve is uninformative about velocity field heterogeneity. Our interpretation method determines a mapping function (i.e., subordinator) from travel time in the absence of MIMT to travel time in its presence. A mathematical theory allowing this function to be directly "plugged into" an existing Laplace-domain transport model to incorporate MIMT is presented and demonstrated. Algorithms implementing the calibration are presented and applied to interpretation of data from a push-pull test performed in a heterogeneous environment. A successful four-parameter fit is obtained, of comparable fidelity to one obtained using a million-node 3-D numerical model. Finally, we demonstrate analytically and numerically how push-pull tests quantifying MIMT are sensitive to remobilization, but not immobilization, kinetics.

  15. Delineation of Groundwater Flow Pathway in Fractured Bedrock Using Nano-Iron Tracer Test in the Sealed Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Po-Yu; Chia, Yeeping; Chiu, Yung-Chia; Liou, Ya-Hsuan; Teng, Mao-Hua; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lee, Tsai-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Deterministic delineation of the preferential flow paths and their hydraulic properties are desirable for developing hydrogeological conceptual models in bedrock aquifers. In this study, we proposed using nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) as a tracer to characterize the fractured connectivity and hydraulic properties. Since nZVI particles are magnetic, we designed a magnet array to attract the arriving nZVI particles in the observation well for identifying the location of incoming tracer. This novel approach was examined at two experiment wells with well hydraulic connectivity in a hydrogeological research station in the fractured aquifer. Heat-pulse flowmeter test was used to detect the vertical distribution of permeable zones in the borehole, providing the design basis of tracer test. Then, the less permeable zones in the injection well were sealed by casing to prevent the injected nZVI particles from being stagnated at the bottom hole. Afterwards, hydraulic test was implemented to examine the hydraulic connectivity between two wells. When nZVI slurry was released in the injection well, they could migrate through connected permeable fractures to the observation well. A breakthrough curve was obtained by the fluid conductivity sensor in the observation well, indicating the arrival of nZVI slurry. The iron nanoparticles that were attracted to the magnets in the observation well provide the quantitative information to locate the position of tracer inlet, which corroborates well with the depth of a permeable zone delineated by the flowmeter. Finally, the numerical method was utilized to simulate the process of tracer migration. This article demonstrates that nano-iron tracer test can be a promising approach for characterizing connectivity patterns and transmissivities of the flow paths in the fractured rock.

  16. Inter-comparison of Aermod and ISC3 modeling results to the Alaska tracer field experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AERMOD is an advanced plume model that incorporates updated treatments of the boundary layer theory, understanding of turbulence and dispersion, and includes handling of terrain interactions as well as the PRIME downwash algorithm. It was reported that the US EPA approved AERMOD for short-range dispersion modeling. It was the high time that AERMOD would replace ISC3. ISC3 is a traditional Gaussian plume model regarded as the regulatory model of US EPA with the capacity of building downwash similar to that of AERMOD. In this paper, the authors describe the advantages of AERMOD over the regulatory model of ISC3 by comparing their predicted ground level concentrations (GLC) along downwind distance to the Alaska tracer field data. The field experiment features buoyant release of effluent at elevated height over a flat terrain and local flows influenced by building downwash. Three measures to compare the observed and simulated concentration data, such as linear regression, quantile-quantile (QQ) and residual box are utilized. To sum up, AERMOD shows significantly better space-time correlation and probability distribution than the ISC3, which frequently overestimates the GLC for effluent released with significant plume rise under stable atmospheric conditions. The performance of AERMOD is greatly enhanced by introducing the state-of-the-art knowledge of boundary layer meteorology as well as the turbulence parameterization method. In particular, AERMOD takes into account the meander effect on coherent plume in stable condition with current state-of-the-art Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) parameterizations, while ISC3 is not capable of producing such important effect. Generally speaking, 1.17 is the overall predicted-to-observed ratio for short-term averages using AERMOD. 1.94 is the overall predicted-to-observed ratio for short-term averages using ISC3.

  17. A forced-gradient tracer test on the Hansrivier Dyke: Beaufort West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-16

    Feb 16, 2011 ... ability. Furthermore, diffusion of a tracer into fractures and rock matrix has a universal ... Location map for the Beaufort West study area ... the ground surface in the Beaufort West region, particularly ... effects, these dykes have caused fracturing of adjacent rocks .... The volume of both the tracer and chase.

  18. Impact of non-idealities in gas-tracer tests on the estimation of reaeration, respiration, and photosynthesis rates in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Julia L A; Osenbrück, Karsten; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2015-10-15

    Estimating respiration and photosynthesis rates in streams usually requires good knowledge of reaeration at the given locations. For this purpose, gas-tracer tests can be conducted, and reaeration rate coefficients are determined from the decrease in gas concentration along the river stretch. The typical procedure for analysis of such tests is based on simplifying assumptions, as it neglects dispersion altogether and does not consider possible fluctuations and trends in the input signal. We mathematically derive the influence of these non-idealities on estimated reaeration rates and how they are propagated onto the evaluation of aerobic respiration and photosynthesis rates from oxygen monitoring. We apply the approach to field data obtained from a gas-tracer test using propane in a second-order stream in Southwest Germany. We calculate the reaeration rate coefficients accounting for dispersion as well as trends and uncertainty in the input signals and compare them to the standard approach. We show that neglecting dispersion significantly underestimates reaeration, and results between sections cannot be compared if trends in the input signal of the gas tracer are disregarded. Using time series of dissolved oxygen and the various estimates of reaeration, we infer respiration and photosynthesis rates for the same stream section, demonstrating that the bias and uncertainty of reaeration using the different approaches significantly affects the calculation of metabolic rates.

  19. A Case Study of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model Applied to the Joint Urban 2003 Tracer Field Experiment. Part 2: Gas Tracer Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew A.; Brown, Michael J.; Halverson, Scot A.; Bieringer, Paul E.; Annunzio, Andrew; Bieberbach, George; Meech, Scott

    2016-12-01

    The Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) atmospheric transport, and dispersion modelling, system was evaluated against the Joint Urban 2003 tracer-gas measurements. This was done using the wind and turbulence fields computed by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We compare the simulated and observed plume transport when using WRF-model-simulated wind fields, and local on-site wind measurements. Degradation of the WRF-model-based plume simulations was cased by errors in the simulated wind direction, and limitations in reproducing the small-scale wind-field variability. We explore two methods for importing turbulence from the WRF model simulations into the QUIC system. The first method uses parametrized turbulence profiles computed from WRF-model-computed boundary-layer similarity parameters; and the second method directly imports turbulent kinetic energy from the WRF model. Using the WRF model's Mellor-Yamada-Janjic boundary-layer scheme, the parametrized turbulence profiles and the direct import of turbulent kinetic energy were found to overpredict and underpredict the observed turbulence quantities, respectively. Near-source building effects were found to propagate several km downwind. These building effects and the temporal/spatial variations in the observed wind field were often found to have a stronger influence over the lateral and vertical plume spread than the intensity of turbulence. Correcting the WRF model wind directions using a single observational location improved the performance of the WRF-model-based simulations, but using the spatially-varying flow fields generated from multiple observation profiles generally provided the best performance.

  20. Testing cosmic-ray acceleration with radio relics: a high-resolution study using MHD and tracers

    CERN Document Server

    Wittor, Denis; Brüggen, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Weak shocks in the intracluster medium may accelerate cosmic-ray protons and cosmic-ray electrons differently depending on the angle between the upstream magnetic field and the shock normal. In this work, we investigate how shock obliquity affects the production of cosmic rays in high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters. For this purpose, we performed a magneto-hydrodynamical simulation of a galaxy cluster using the mesh refinement code \\enzo. We use Lagrangian tracers to follow the properties of the thermal gas, the cosmic rays and the magnetic fields over time. We tested a number of different acceleration scenarios by varying the obliquity-dependent acceleration efficiencies of protons and electrons, and by examining the resulting hadronic $\\gamma$-ray and radio emission. We find that the radio emission does not change significantly if only quasi-perpendicular shocks are able to accelerate cosmic-ray electrons. Our analysis suggests that radio emitting electrons found in relics have been typically sho...

  1. Tracer tests and image analysis of biological clogging in a two-dimentsional sandbox experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildsgaard, J.; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional flow experiment on biological clogging was carried out by biostimulating a sandbox packed with sand inoculated with bacteria. Biostimulation. consisted of continuously injecting nutrients (acetate and nitrate). Clogging was visualized by frequently carrying out colored tracer...

  2. A field measurement perspective on the current and future use of carbonyl sulphide as a carbon cycle tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseyk, Kadmiel; Sun, Wu; Lett, Celine; Juarez, Sabrina; Seibt, Ulli

    2015-04-01

    Carbonyl sulphide (COS) is gaining increasing traction as a tracer to constrain gross terrestrial biosphere-atmosphere CO2 fluxes, due to the close coupling between photosynthesis and COS uptake by plants. Results from laboratory, field and atmospheric measurements, combined with modeling analyses, have all confirmed the potential of COS, but as with any new approach, many details still remain to be resolved. Drawing on results from our field campaigns that include component (branch and soil) and ecosystem COS flux measurements in a range of environments, I will provide a view on what we have learned about using COS as a carbon cycle tracer. These measurements support the view that ecosystem COS fluxes are typically dominated by canopy uptake, and have provided insight into carbon cycle processes not available from CO2 measurements alone. They have also provided some interesting surprises that suggest COS data may also provide information on other biogeochemical and plant processes such as phenology. Our results support the addition of COS to our measurement arsenal to improve our understanding and monitoring of the terrestrial biosphere, but moving forward will require addressing some key uncertainties. These include the role of the soil and the variation in the leaf-level COS to CO2 uptake ratio in different environments. Combining COS with stable isotope tracers, particularly CO2, can provide a powerful way with which to both improve our understanding of COS biogeochemistry and constrain our estimates of terrestrial CO2 fluxes.

  3. Velocity fields as a tracer from magnetic fields in sub-alfv\\'enic regimes: The Velocity Gradient Technique

    CERN Document Server

    González-Casanova, Diego F

    2016-01-01

    Strong Alfv\\'enic turbulence develops eddy-like motions perpendicular to the local direction of magnetic fields. This local alignment induces velocity gradients perpendicular to the local direction of the magnetic field. We use this fact to propose a new technique of studying the direction of magnetic fields from observations, the Velocity Gradient Technique. We test our idea by employing the synthetic observations obtained via 3D MHD numerical simulations for different sonic and Alfv\\'en Mach numbers. We calculate the velocity gradient, $\\mathbf{\\Omega}$, using the velocity centroids. We find that $\\mathbf{\\Omega}$ traces the projected magnetic field best for the synthetic maps obtained with sub-Alfv\\'enic simulations providing good point-wise correspondence between the magnetic field direction and that of $\\mathbf{\\Omega}$. The reported alignment is much better than the alignment between the density gradients and the magnetic field and we demonstrated that it can be used to find the magnetic field strength ...

  4. Nitrogen use efficiency evaluation of aerobic rice under field capacity water potential using {sup 15}N isotopic tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahid, Ahmad Nazrul Abd, E-mail: a-nazrul@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahim, Sahibin Abd, E-mail: haiyan@ukm.edu.my [Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahim, Khairuddin Abdul; Harun, Abdul Rahim [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency use of the nitrogen fertilizer on aerobic rice varieties MR219-4 and MR219-9 which were grown aerobically under field capacity water potential at the controlled environment area or shield house. Direct {sup 15}N isotope tracer method was used in this study, whereby the {sup 15}N isotope was utilized as a tracer for nitrogen nutrient uptake. {sup 15}N isotope presence in the samples is determined by using emission spectrometer analysis and percentage of total nitrogen is determined by using Kjeldahl method. {sup 15}N atom access value contained in the sample will be used in determining the effectiveness of the use of nitrogen in fertilizers through the specific calculation formulas. In this work, the data several data of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff), total nitrogen, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency was obtained.

  5. Nitrogen use efficiency evaluation of aerobic rice under field capacity water potential using 15N isotopic tracer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Ahmad Nazrul Abd; Rahim, Sahibin Abd; Rahim, Khairuddin Abdul; Harun, Abdul Rahim

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency use of the nitrogen fertilizer on aerobic rice varieties MR219-4 and MR219-9 which were grown aerobically under field capacity water potential at the controlled environment area or shield house. Direct 15N isotope tracer method was used in this study, whereby the 15N isotope was utilized as a tracer for nitrogen nutrient uptake. 15N isotope presence in the samples is determined by using emission spectrometer analysis and percentage of total nitrogen is determined by using Kjeldahl method. 15N atom access value contained in the sample will be used in determining the effectiveness of the use of nitrogen in fertilizers through the specific calculation formulas. In this work, the data several data of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff), total nitrogen, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency was obtained.

  6. Field studies of transport and dispersion of atmospheric tracers in nocturnal drainage flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Ferber, G.J.; Fowler, M.M.; Eberhard, W.L.; Fosberg, M.A.; Knuth, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    A series of tracer experiments were carried out as part of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program to evaluate pollutant transport and dispersion characteristics of nocturnal drainage flows within a valley in northern California. The results indicate that the degree of interaction of the drainage flows with the larger scale regional flows are strongly dependent on how well the shallow drainage flows are shielded by the surrounding topography from the external environment. For the valley under study, the drainage flows from about mid-slope elevations and below were generally decoupled from the externally generated flows; as evidenced by the similarity of the surface tracer distribution produced during widely varying regional flow conditions. However, tracers released immediately above the drainage flows near the ridge top did reveal considerable mixing between the transition layer flows and the underlying surface drainage flows. Likewise, the transport and dispersion of the tracers at elevated heights within the valley basin were extremely dependent on the influences of the regional scale flows on the valley circulation. The dispersion rates associated with the transition layer flows were dependent on topographic constraints but were appreciably higher than those reported for homogeneous flat terrain situations.

  7. Quantifying heterogeneous transport of a tracer and a degradable contaminant in the field, with snowmelt and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schotanus

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To examine the persistence of preferential flow paths in a field soil, and to compare the leaching of a degradable contaminant with the leaching of a tracer, two field experiments were performed using a multi-compartment sampler (MCS. The first experiment was carried out during the snowmelt period in early spring, characterized by high infiltration fluxes from snowmelt. The second experiment was carried out in early summer with irrigation to mimic homogeneous rainfall. During the second experiment, the soil was warmer and degradation of the degradable contaminant was observed. For both experiments, the highest tracer concentrations were found in the same area of the sampler, but the leached tracer masses of the individual locations were not highly correlated. Thus, the preferential flow paths were stable between the two experiments. With a lower infiltration rate, in the second experiment, more isolated peaks in the drainage and the leached masses were found than in the first experiment. Therefore, it is concluded that the soil heterogeneity is mainly caused by local differences in the soil hydraulic properties, and not by macropores. With higher infiltration rates, the high and low leaching cells were more clustered. The leached masses of the degradable contaminant were lower than the leached masses of the tracer, but the masses were highly correlated. The first-order degradation rate and the dispersivity were fitted with CXTFIT; the first-order degradation rate was 0.02 d−1, and the dispersivity varied between 1.9 and 7.1 cm. The persistence of the flow paths during the experiments suggests soil heterogeneity as the driver for heterogeneous flow and solute transport in this soil. At the MCS scale, heterogeneous snowmelt did not seem to have much influence on the flow and solute paths.

  8. Hydraulic contacts identification in the aquifers of limestone ridges: tracer tests in the Montelago pilot area (Central Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Tazioli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigated area, located in the inner part of the Marche region (central Italy and belonging to the carbonate Umbria- Marche ridges in the central Apennines, is characterised by very complex geo-structural setting and widespread karst phenomena that make difficult the definition of the relation among the aquifers basing only on the hydrogeological survey. Hence, the presence of different flowpaths among aquifers of the Umbria-Marche hydrostratigraphic sequence and of tectonic contacts among the different structures is verified using tracer tests. In particular, the tests showed that the Calcare Massiccio and the Maiolica aquifers are connected under certain tectonic conditions. A new tracer given by a single stranded DNA molecule and traditional fluorescent dyes have been injected into the Montelago sinkhole in different periods (during the recharge and during the discharge and recovered in several points along the expected hydrogeological basin, using either manual and automatic sampling. Fluorescent traps were positioned in creeks, rivers and springs. The DNA molecule is useful to trace surface water and groundwater, is detectable even at very low concentrations, no significant change in water density and viscosity can be observed and its use is not dangerous for the environment. The results stress the suitability of DNA as hydrogeological tracer, capable to identify connections among aquifers and study different flowpaths even in high flow conditions when traditional tracers are more and more diluted. Moreover, fluorescein tracer allowed for the transport parameter determination, giving mean velocities ranging from 100 to 3000 m/day and mean residence time from some tens to hundreds of hours, and determining the aquifer volumes.

  9. Constraining performance assessment models with tracer test results: a comparison between two conceptual models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Sean A.; Selroos, Jan-Olof

    Tracer tests are conducted to ascertain solute transport parameters of a single rock feature over a 5-m transport pathway. Two different conceptualizations of double-porosity solute transport provide estimates of the tracer breakthrough curves. One of the conceptualizations (single-rate) employs a single effective diffusion coefficient in a matrix with infinite penetration depth. However, the tracer retention between different flow paths can vary as the ratio of flow-wetted surface to flow rate differs between the path lines. The other conceptualization (multirate) employs a continuous distribution of multiple diffusion rate coefficients in a matrix with variable, yet finite, capacity. Application of these two models with the parameters estimated on the tracer test breakthrough curves produces transport results that differ by orders of magnitude in peak concentration and time to peak concentration at the performance assessment (PA) time and length scales (100,000 years and 1,000 m). These differences are examined by calculating the time limits for the diffusive capacity to act as an infinite medium. These limits are compared across both conceptual models and also against characteristic times for diffusion at both the tracer test and PA scales. Additionally, the differences between the models are examined by re-estimating parameters for the multirate model from the traditional double-porosity model results at the PA scale. Results indicate that for each model the amount of the diffusive capacity that acts as an infinite medium over the specified time scale explains the differences between the model results and that tracer tests alone cannot provide reliable estimates of transport parameters for the PA scale. Results of Monte Carlo runs of the transport models with varying travel times and path lengths show consistent results between models and suggest that the variation in flow-wetted surface to flow rate along path lines is insignificant relative to variability in

  10. Tracer tomography (in) rocks!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyvári, Márk; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Jimenez Parras, Santos; Bayer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Physical behavior of fractured aquifers is rigorously controlled by the presence of interconnected conductive fractures, as they represent the main pathways for flow and transport. Ideally, they are simulated as a discrete fracture network (DFN) in a model to capture the role of fracture system geometry, i.e. fracture length, height, and width (aperture/transmissivity). Such network may be constrained by prior geological information or direct data resources such as field mapping, borehole logging and geophysics. With the many geometric features, however, calibration of a DFN to measured data is challenging. This is especially the case when spatial properties of a fracture network need to be calibrated to flow and transport data. One way to increase the insight in a fractured rock is by combining the information from multiple field tests. In this study, a tomographic configuration that combines multiple tracer tests is suggested. These tests are conducted from a borehole with different injection levels that act as sources. In a downgradient borehole, the tracer is recorded at different levels or receivers, in order to maximize insight in the spatial heterogeneity of the rock. As tracer here we chose heat, and temperature breakthrough curves are recorded. The recorded tracer data is inverted using a novel stochastic trans-dimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure. An initial DFN solution is generated and sequentially modified given available geological information, such as expected fracture density, orientation, length distribution, spacing and persistency. During this sequential modification, the DFN evolves in a trans-dimensional inversion space through adding and/or deleting fracture segments. This stochastic inversion algorithm requires a large number of thousands of model runs to converge, and thus using a fast and robust forward model is essential to keep the calculation efficient. To reach this goal, an upwind coupled finite difference method is employed

  11. Solute movement in drained fen peat: a field tracer study in a Somerset (UK) wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Andrew J.; Gaffney, Simon W.

    2000-10-01

    Little is known about solute transport in peats, despite the obvious importance of solute transport on eco-hydrological processes in both managed and natural peatlands. To address this lack of knowledge, we investigated solute transport processes in an agricultural fen peat using a conservative KBr tracer. The main aim of the study was to elucidate solute transport behaviour in general in this peat, with a more specific aim of investigating whether preferential or bypassing flow occurred. The tracer moved through the peat more rapidly than expected, and the pattern of movement showed clear evidence of plot-scale bypassing flow. The data also provide evidence that bypassing flow occurs in pores at smaller scales. The implications of this study for management of wetland pastures in the Somerset Moors in south-west England are discussed.

  12. Database dictionary for the results of groundwater tracer tests using tritiated water, conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Huff, D.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1997-05-01

    In 1977, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted two tracer tests at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using tritiated water to study the relative importance of bedding-plane openings on shallow groundwater flow. Through a cooperative agreement between the USGS and the US Department of Energy (DOE), the data were made available to researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), who organized the data into a data management format. The results of these groundwater tracer tests have been compiled into a collection of four SAS data sets. This report documents these SAS data sets, including their structure, methodology, and content. The SAS data sets include information on precipitation, tritium, water levels, and well construction for wells at or near ORNL radioactive waste burial grounds 4, 5, and 6.

  13. Interpretation of tracer tests performed in fractured rock of the Lange Bramke basin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloszewski, Piotr; Herrmann, Andreas; Zuber, Andrzej

    Two multitracer tests performed in one of the major cross-fault zones of the Lange Bramke basin (Harz Mountains, Germany) confirm the dominant role of the fault zone in groundwater flow and solute transport. Tracers having different coefficients of molecular diffusion (deuterium, bromide, uranine, and eosine) yielded breakthrough curves that can only be explained by a model that couples the advective-dispersive transport in the fractures with the molecular diffusion exchange in the matrix. For the scale of the tests (maximum distance of 225m), an approximation was used in which the influence of adjacent fractures is neglected. That model yielded nearly the same rock and transport parameters for each tracer, which means that the single-fracture approximation is acceptable and that matrix diffusion plays an important role. The hydraulic conductivity of the fault zone obtained from the tracer tests is about 1.5×10-2m/s, whereas the regional hydraulic conductivity of the fractured rock mass is about 3×10-7m/s, as estimated from the tritium age and the matrix porosity of about 2%. These values show that the hydraulic conductivity along the fault is several orders of magnitude larger than that of the remaining fractured part of the aquifer, which confirms the dominant role of the fault zones as collectors of water and conductors of fast flow. Résumé Deux multitraçages ont été réalisés dans l'une des zones principales de failles du bassin de Lange Bramke (massif du Harz, Allemagne); les résultats confirment le rôle prédominant de la zone de failles pour l'écoulement souterrain et le transport de soluté. Les traceurs, possédant des coefficients de diffusion différents (deutérium, bromure, uranine et éosine), ont fourni des courbes de restitution qui ne peuvent être expliquées que par un modèle qui associe un transport advectif-dispersif dans les fractures à un échange par diffusion moléculaire dans la matrice. A l'échelle des expériences (distance

  14. Design and analysis of a natural-gradient ground-water tracer test in a freshwater tidal wetland, West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    A natural-gradient ground-water tracer test was designed and conducted in a tidal freshwater wetland at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The objectives of the test were to characterize solute transport at the site, obtain data to more accurately determine the ground-water velocity in the upper wetland sediments, and to compare a conservative, ionic tracer (bromide) to a volatile tracer (sulfur hexafluoride) to ascertain whether volatilization could be an important process in attenuating volatile organic compounds in the ground water. The tracer test was conducted within the upper peat unit of a layer of wetland sediments that also includes a lower clayey unit; the combined layer overlies an aquifer. The area selected for the test was thought to have an above-average rate of ground-water discharge based on ground-water head distributions and near-surface detections of volatile organic compounds measured in previous studies. Because ground-water velocities in the wetland sediments were expected to be slow compared to the underlying aquifer, the test was designed to be conducted on a small scale. Ninety-seven ?-inch-diameter inverted-screen stainless-steel piezometers were installed in a cylindrical array within approximately 25 cubic feet (2.3 cubic meters) of wetland sediments, in an area with a vertically upward hydraulic gradient. Fluorescein dye was used to qualitatively evaluate the hydrologic integrity of the tracer array before the start of the tracer test, including verifying the absence of hydraulic short-circuiting due to nonnatural vertical conduits potentially created during piezometer installation. Bromide and sulfur hexafluoride tracers (0.139 liter of solution containing 100,000 milligrams per liter of bromide ion and 23.3 milligrams per liter of sulfur hexafluoride) were co-injected and monitored to generate a dataset that could be used to evaluate solute transport in three dimensions. Piezometers were sampled 2 to 15 times

  15. Atmospheric Tracer Depletion Testing for Unfiltered Air In-Leakage Determination at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wilke, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vignato, G. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric Tracer Depletion tests were conducted at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant to quantify the unfiltered in-leakage (UI) into the Control Room (CR), Control Building (CB), and Equipment Rooms (ER) at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant. Wolf Creek has two independent charcoal filter Emergency Ventilation Systems (EVS) that can be used to purify air entering the control building and control room. The Bravo System contains a filtration system in Room 1501 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02B) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Alpha system contains a filtration system in Room 1512 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02A) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Atmospheric Tracer Depletion (ATD) test is a technique to measure in-leakage using the concentration of perfluorocarbon compounds that have a constant atmospheric background. These levels are present in the Control Room and Control Building under normal operating conditions. When air is supplied by either of the EVS, most of the PFTS are removed by the charcoal filters. If the concentrations of the PFTs measured in protected areas are the same as the levels at the output of the EVS, the in-leakage of outside air into the protected area would be zero. If the concentration is higher in the protected area than at the output of the filter system, there is in-leakage and the in-leakage can be quantified by the difference. Sampling was performed using state-of-the-art Brookhaven Atmospheric Tracer Samplers (BATS) air sampling equipment and analysis performed on Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) dedicated PFT analytical systems. In the Alpha test two tracers PMCH and mcPDCH were used to determine in-leakage into the control building. The analytical system was tuned to maximize sensitivity after initial analysis of the Alpha test. The increased sensitivity permitted accurate quantification of

  16. Atmospheric Tracer Depletion Testing for Unfiltered Air In-Leakage Determination at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wilke, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vignato, G. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric Tracer Depletion tests were conducted at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant to quantify the unfiltered in-leakage (UI) into the Control Room (CR), Control Building (CB), and Equipment Rooms (ER) at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant. Wolf Creek has two independent charcoal filter Emergency Ventilation Systems (EVS) that can be used to purify air entering the control building and control room. The Bravo System contains a filtration system in Room 1501 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02B) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Alpha system contains a filtration system in Room 1512 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02A) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building.The Atmospheric Tracer Depletion (ATD) test is a technique to measure in-leakage using the concentration of perfluorocarbon compounds that have a constant atmospheric background. These levels are present in the Control Room and Control Building under normal operating conditions. When air is supplied by either of the EVS, most of the PFTS are removed by the charcoal filters. If the concentrations of the PFTs measured in protected areas are the same as the levels at the output of the EVS, the in-leakage of outside air into the protected area would be zero. If the concentration is higher in the protected area than at the output of the filter system, there is in-leakage and the in-leakage can be quantified by the difference.Sampling was performed using state-of-the-art Brookhaven Atmospheric Tracer Samplers (BATS) air sampling equipment and analysis performed on Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) dedicated PFT analytical systems. In the Alpha test two tracers PMCH and mcPDCH were used to determine in-leakage into the control building. The analytical system was tuned to maximize sensitivity after initial analysis of the Alpha test. The increased sensitivity permitted accurate quantification of five

  17. Report of Field Test Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Regional Instructional Materials Center for Handicapped Children and Youth.

    Reported by the Great Lakes Region Special Education Instructional Materials Center are field test evaluation of 18 auditory instructional materials for use with handicapped children who learn best through the auditory modality. Among materials evaluated are a taped program on use of the abacus and a cassette audiotape on bird habits and sounds.…

  18. Analysis of tracer tests with multirate diffusion models: recent results and future directions within the WIPP project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, S.A.; Meigs, L.C.; Altman, S.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haggerty, R. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A series of single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) and two-well convergent-flow (TWCF) tracer tests were conducted in the Culebra dolomite at the WIPP site in late 1995 and early 1996. Modeling analyses over the past year have focused on reproducing the observed mass-recovery curves and understanding the basis physical processes controlling tracer transport in SWIW and TWCF tests. To date, specific modeling efforts have focused on five SWIW tests and one TWCF pathway at each of two different locations. An inverse parameter-estimation procedure was implemented to model the SWIW and TWCF tests with both traditional and multirate double-porosity formulations. The traditional model assumes a single diffusion rate while the multirate model uses a first-order approximation to model a continuous distribution of diffusion coefficients. Conceptually, the multirate model represents variable matrix block sizes within the Culebra as observed in geologic investigations and also variability in diffusion rates within the matrix blocks as observed with X-ray imaging in the laboratory. Single-rate double-porosity models cannot provide an adequate match to the SWIW data. Multirate double-porosity models provide excellent fits to all five SWIW mass-recovery curves. Models of the TWCF tests show that, at one location, the tracer test can be modeled with both single-rate and multirate double-porosity models. At the other location, only the multi-rate double-porosity model is capable of explaining the test results 8 refs, 3 figs

  19. Analysis of Tracer Tests with Multirate Diffusion Models: Recent Results and Future Directions within the WIPP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALTMAN, SUSAN J.; HAGGERTY, ROY; MCKENNA, SEAN A.; MEIGS, LUCY C.

    1999-10-01

    A series of single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) and two-well convergent-flow (TWCF) tracer tests were conducted in the Culebra dolomite at the WIPP site in late 1995 and early 1996. Modeling analyses over the past year have focused on reproducing the observed mass-recovery curves and understanding the basic physical processes controlling tracer transport in SWIW and TWCF tests. To date, specific modeling efforts have focused on five SWIW tests and one TWCF pathway at each of two different locations (H-11 and H-19 hydropads). An inverse parameter-estimation procedure was implemented to model the SWIW and TWCF tests with both traditional and multirate double-porosity formulations. The traditional model assumes a single diffusion rate while the multirate model uses a first-order approximation to model a continuous distribution of diffusion coefficients. Conceptually, the multirate model represents variable matrix block sizes within the Culebra as observed in geologic investigations and also variability in diffusion rates within the matrix blocks as observed with X-ray imaging in the laboratory. Single-rate double-porosity models cannot provide an adequate match to the SWIW data. Multirate double-porosity models provide excellent fits to all five SWIW mass-recovery curves. Models of the TWCF tests show that, at one location, the tracer test can be modeled with both single-rate and multirate double-porosity models. At the other location, only the multi-rate double-porosity model is capable of explaining the test results.

  20. Remote field eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Y. M.; Jung, H. K.; Huh, H.; Lee, Y. S.; Shim, C. M

    2001-03-01

    The state-of-art technology of the remote field eddy current, which is actively developed as an electromagnetic non-destructive testing tool for ferromagnetic tubes, is described. The historical background and recent R and D activities of remote-field eddy current technology are explained including the theoretical development of remote field eddy current, such as analytical and numerical approach, and the results of finite element analysis. The influencing factors for actual applications, such as the effect of frequency, magnetic permeability, receiving sensitivity, and difficulties of detection and classification of defects are also described. Finally, two examples of actual application, 1) the gap measurement between pressure tubes and calandria tube in CANDU reactor and, 2) the detection of defects in the ferromagnetic heat exchanger tubes, are described. The future research efforts are also included.

  1. Tidal volume single breath washout of two tracer gases--a practical and promising lung function test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Singer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small airway disease frequently occurs in chronic lung diseases and may cause ventilation inhomogeneity (VI, which can be assessed by washout tests of inert tracer gas. Using two tracer gases with unequal molar mass (MM and diffusivity increases specificity for VI in different lung zones. Currently washout tests are underutilised due to the time and effort required for measurements. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple technique for a new tidal single breath washout test (SBW of sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6 and helium (He using an ultrasonic flowmeter (USFM. METHODS: The tracer gas mixture contained 5% SF(6 and 26.3% He, had similar total MM as air, and was applied for a single tidal breath in 13 healthy adults. The USFM measured MM, which was then plotted against expired volume. USFM and mass spectrometer signals were compared in six subjects performing three SBW. Repeatability and reproducibility of SBW, i.e., area under the MM curve (AUC, were determined in seven subjects performing three SBW 24 hours apart. RESULTS: USFM reliably measured MM during all SBW tests (n = 60. MM from USFM reflected SF(6 and He washout patterns measured by mass spectrometer. USFM signals were highly associated with mass spectrometer signals, e.g., for MM, linear regression r-squared was 0.98. Intra-subject coefficient of variation of AUC was 6.8%, and coefficient of repeatability was 11.8%. CONCLUSION: The USFM accurately measured relative changes in SF(6 and He washout. SBW tests were repeatable and reproducible in healthy adults. We have developed a fast, reliable, and straightforward USFM based SBW method, which provides valid information on SF(6 and He washout patterns during tidal breathing.

  2. In-service leak testing of district heating systems using dissolved tracer gas. Final report; Betriebsbegleitende Lecksuche mit geloestem Tracergas in Fernwaermesystemen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergarten, A.; Althaus, W. [eds.

    1997-07-31

    The feasibility of in-service leak detection with dissolved tracer gas was investigated. Helium was selected as tracer gas because of its good diffusion characteristics, selective detectability at very low concentrations, inert and unproblematic behaviour within the district heating system, and good environmental compatibility. For a systematic investigation of the influencing parameters governing practical applications, a pipeline test field comprising about 240 m of KMR district heating pipelines and 61 controllable simulation leaks was constructed, and experiments using the new method were carried out. The required helium concentration amounts to a few grams of helium per cubic metre of district heating water. The water can be charged in the water preparation or feeding stage, and commercial detectors can be used. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Zur Entwicklung einer betriebsbegleitenden Lecksuchmethode fuer erdverlegte Rohrleitungen wurden in einem Feasbility-Test die Machbarkeit der Tracergassuche mittels geloestem Spuergas bestaetigt. Als Tracergas wurde Helium aufgrund seines guenstigen Diffusionsverhaltens, seiner selektiven Nachweisbarkeit bei kleinsten Konzentrationen, seines inerten, unproblematischen Verhaltens im Fernwaermenetz und seiner guten Umweltvertraeglichkeit ausgewaehlt. Zur systematischen Untersuchung der Einflussparameter bei der Anwendung der Methode unter praxisnahen Bedingungen wurde ein Rohrleitungsversuchsfeld mit ca. 240 m KMR-Fernwaermeleitung und 61 regelbaren Simulationsleckagen aufgebaut und die neue Lecksuchmethode eingehend experimentell getestet. Die einzustellende Heliumkonzentration im Fernwaermewasser ist mit wenigen Gramm Helium je Kubikmeter Fernwaermewasser gering. Eine Vorrichtung fuer die empfohlene Beladung des gesamten Netzwasserinhalts kann in Wasseraufbereitung oder Nachspeisung des Netzes eingebunden werden. Zur Detektion koennen, marktverfuegbare Messgeraete verwendet werden. (orig./GL)

  3. Service oriented architecture for scientific analysis at W7-X. An example of a field line tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozhenkov, S.A., E-mail: boz@ipp.mpg.de; Geiger, J.; Grahl, M.; Kißlinger, J.; Werner, A.; Wolf, R.C.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We briefly overview available web-service protocols, and explain why SOAP standards are chosen. • We explain the basics of the SOAP technology and give both the usage and development patterns with corresponding examples. • We develop a new W7-X field line tracing service. • The service can calculate Poincaré maps, connection lengths, magnetic coordinates, heat fluxes, etc. with a realistic device geometry. • With the tracer service, we model the influence of 1/1 error field on the W7-X divertor heat loads. -- Abstract: Service oriented architecture based on web-services is a universal method of combining software components. SOAP web-services chosen for W7-X are characterized by strong standards and readily available tools. In this paper the SOAP technology is explained and is illustrated with a new service for field line tracing. The field line tracing package consists of a C++ library and a web-service interface. It features a flexible structure and can handle a realistic machine geometry. The following problems can be solved: getting a field line; making Poincaré maps; calculating flux surface characteristics; calculating heat fluxes to the wall; constructing magnetic coordinates, etc. The service is applied to estimate W7-X divertor loads with an 1/1 error field.

  4. A tracer test to determine subsurface outflow of a karst catchment along the Lauchert-Graben, Swabian Alb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöll, Paul; Scheytt, Traugott

    2017-04-01

    During a severe flood event in 2013 it was hypothesised that a significant amount of flood water from the lower course of the Lauchert infiltrated into the karst system, flowing towards the Danube catchment. The Lauchert, a tributary of the river Danube is a perennial stream in the Swabian Alb, southern Germany. Its catchment is entirely comprised of Upper Jurassic karstified carbonate rocks, slightly dipping south-east. The river mainly flows in the so called Lauchert-Graben except for the lower course. An artificial dye tracer experiment was conducted in August 2016 to examine a connection of the Lauchert and Danube catchment. 4 kg of Uranine were injected into the unsaturated zone of the Lauchert surface catchment, approximately 200 m west of the eastern main fault of the Lauchert-Graben. Close to the injection point the Lauchert is crossing this fault. A total of 7 observation points were monitored, among those the river Lauchert and 6 springs in the Danube valley. 3 of the springs were monitored with field fluorimeters while the other observation points were monitored by regular sampling for 5 days. A tracer breakthrough was detected at 3 springs in the Danube valley, showing a southward flow direction with a maximum transport velocity of 81 m/h. Tracer breakthrough curves were analysed using the CXTFIT code implemented in Stanmod. This experiment proved a preferential hydraulic connection from the Lauchert valley to springs in the Danube valley in the vicinity of the Lauchert-Graben and revealed a flow towards the Danube catchment. The monitored springs in the Danube valley are at least partly fed by groundwater originating in the Lauchert catchment. Augmented flow of flood water through the karst system becomes very likely if an inundation reaches outcropping karst structures flanking the Lauchert flood plain.

  5. Characterization of an alluvial aquifer with thermal tracer tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyvári, Márk; Bayer, Peter

    2017-04-01

    In the summer of 2015, a series of thermal tracer tests was performed at the Widen field site in northeast Switzerland. At this site numerous hydraulic, tracer, geophysical and hydrogeophysical field tests have been conducted in the past to investigate a shallow alluvial aquifer. The goals of the campaign in 2015 were to design a cost-effective thermal tracer tomography setup and to validate the concept of travel time-based thermal tracer tomography under field conditions. Thermal tracer tomography uses repeated thermal tracer injections with different injection depths and distributed temperature measurements to map the hydraulic conductivity distribution of a heterogeneous aquifer. The tracer application was designed with minimal experimental time and cost. Water was heated in inflatable swimming pools using direct sunlight of the warm summer days, and it was injected as low temperature pulses in a well. Because of the small amount of injected heat, no long recovery times were required between the repeated heat tracer injections and every test started from natural thermal conditions. At Widen, four thermal tracer tests were performed during a period of three days. Temperatures were measured in one downgradient well using a distributed temperature measurement system installed at seven depth points. Totally 12 temperature breakthrough curves were collected. Travel time based tomographic inversion assumes that thermal transport is dominated by advection and the travel time of the thermal tracer can be related to the hydraulic conductivities of the aquifer. This assumption is valid in many shallow porous aquifers where the groundwater flow is fast. In our application, the travel time problem was treated by a tomographic solver, analogous to seismic tomography, to derive the hydraulic conductivity distribution. At the test site, a two-dimensional cross-well hydraulic conductivity profile was reconstructed with the travel time based inversion. The reconstructed profile

  6. Solute transport processes in a karst vadose zone characterized by long-term tracer tests (the cave system of Postojnska Jama, Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogovsek, Janja; Petric, Metka

    2014-11-01

    The processes influencing the solute transport in the karst vadose zone were studied by long-term tracer tests with artificial tracers. The results of three successive tracer tests with different modes of injection were compared. Tracer breakthrough curves were monitored at three drips of different hydrological types inside one of the cave galleries of the system of Postojnska Jama over several years. Comparison of the results indicates the highly significant influence of preceding hydrological conditions (dry vs wet), injection mode (artificial flushing vs natural infiltration by subsequent rainfall, and on a bare rock vs on an overlying layer) and geologic heterogeneities within the vadose zone on solute transport in the karst vadose zone. Injection with artificial flushing resulted in rapid infiltration and the tracer traversed almost one hundred meters of bedrock in hours. However, the majority of tracer can be stored within less permeable parts of the vadose zone and then gradually flushed out after additional abundant and intensive precipitation in the period of several years. Long-continued sampling in each of the tests proved to be important for reliable characterization of the long-term solute transport dynamics.

  7. Tracer attenuation in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  8. Determining concentration fields of tracer plumes for layered porous media in flow-tank experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhongbo; Schwartz, Franklin W.

    In the laboratory, computer-assisted image analysis provides an accurate and efficient way to monitor tracer experiments. This paper describes the determination of detailed temporal concentration distributions of tracers in a flow-tank experiment by analyzing photographs of plumes of Rhodamine dye through the glass wall of the tank. The methodology developed for this purpose consists of four steps: (1) digitally scanning black and white negatives obtained from photographs of the flow-tank experiment; (2) calibrating and normalizing each digitized image to a standard optical-density scale by determining the relation between the optical density and pixel value for each image; (3) constructing standard curves relating the concentration in an optical density from five experimental runs with predetermined concentrations (2-97mg/L) and (4) converting the optical density to concentration. The spatial distribution of concentration for two photographs was determined by applying these calibration and conversion procedures to all pixels of the digitized images. This approach provides an efficient way to study patterns of plume evolution and transport mechanisms. Résumé Au laboratoire, l'analyse d'images assistée par ordinateur est un moyen précis et efficace pour suivre certaines expériences de traçage. Ce papier présente comment sont déterminées dans le détail les distributions temporelles de la concentration en traceur au cours d'une expérience d'écoulement en réservoir au moyen de l'analyse de photographies de panaches de rhodamine à travers la paroi de verre du réservoir. La méthodologie développée dans cette expérience suit quatre étapes: (1) digitalisation par balayage des négatifs noir et blanc des prises de vue de l'expérience d'écoulement en réservoir (2) calibration et normalisation de chaque image digitalisée par rapport à une échelle étalon de densité optique en déterminant la relation entre la densité optique et la valeur des pixels

  9. Environmental Tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Elliot

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tracers continue to provide an important tool for understanding the source, flow and mixing dynamics of water resource systems through their imprint on the system or their sensitivity to alteration within it. However, 60 years or so after the first isotopic tracer studies were applied to hydrology, the use of isotopes and other environmental tracers are still not routinely necessarily applied in hydrogeological and water resources investigations where appropriate. There is therefore a continuing need to promote their use for developing sustainable management policies for the protection of water resources and the aquatic environment. This Special Issue focuses on the robustness or fitness-for-purpose of the application and use of environmental tracers in addressing problems and opportunities scientifically, to promote their wider use and to address substantive issues of vulnerability, sustainability, and uncertainty in (groundwater resources systems and their management.

  10. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING BYPASSED OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS AND FRACTURED RESERVOIRS USING PARTITIONING TRACERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2003-08-01

    We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling partitioning interwell tracer tests in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Specifically, we utilize the unique features of streamline models to develop an efficient approach for interpretation and history matching of field tracer response. A critical aspect here is the underdetermined and highly ill-posed nature of the associated inverse problems. We have adopted an integrated approach whereby we combine data from multiple sources to minimize the uncertainty and non-uniqueness in the interpreted results. For partitioning interwell tracer tests, these are primarily the distribution of reservoir permeability and oil saturation distribution. A novel approach to multiscale data integration using Markov Random Fields (MRF) has been developed to integrate static data sources from the reservoir such as core, well log and 3-D seismic data. We have also explored the use of a finite difference reservoir simulator, UTCHEM, for field-scale design and optimization of partitioning interwell tracer tests. The finite-difference model allows us to include detailed physics associated with reactive tracer transport, particularly those related with transverse and cross-streamline mechanisms. We have investigated the potential use of downhole tracer samplers and also the use of natural tracers for the design of partitioning tracer tests. Finally, the behavior of partitioning tracer tests in fractured reservoirs is investigated using a dual-porosity finite-difference model.

  11. Evaluation of modelling of the TRUE-1 radially converging tests with sorbing tracers. The Aespoe task force on modelling of groundwater flow and transport of solutes. Tasks 4E and 4F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elert, M.; Svensson, Haakan [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-05-01

    The Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes is a forum for the international organisations supporting the Aespoe HRL Project. The purpose of the Task Force is to interact in the area of conceptual and numerical modelling of groundwater flow and solute transport in fractured rock. Task 4 of the Aespoe Modelling Task Force consists of modelling exercises in support of the TRUE-1 tracer tests. In this report, the modelling work performed within Tasks 4E and 4F is evaluated, which comprised predictive modelling of the tracer tests (STT-1, STT-1b and STT-2) performed within the TRUE-1 project using sorbing and non-sorbing tracers. The tests were made between packed off boreholes penetrating a water-conducting geological feature with a simple structure (Feature A). Nine modelling teams representing eight organisations have performed predictive modelling of the tracer tests using different modelling approaches and models. The modelling groups were initially given data from the site characterisation, data from preliminary tracer tests performed with non-sorbing tracers and data on the experimental set-up of the sorbing tracer tests. Based on this information, model predictions were made of drawdown, tracer mass recovery and tracer breakthrough. For the predictions of the STT-1b and STT-2 tests results from previous tracer tests with sorbing tracer were also available. The predictions of the sorbing tracer breakthrough in the initial tracer test (STT-1) generally underestimated the breakthrough time, suggesting the need to include additional processes and evaluate the application of the laboratory data. As a result of model calibration and modification the predictions were considerably improved for the latter tracer tests (STT-1b and STT-2). Task 4E and 4F have proved to be very valuable in increasing the understanding of non-sorbing tracer transport in fractured rock. There is a general consensus on the major processes responsible for

  12. Evaluating bedload transport with RFID and accelerometer tracers, airborne LiDAR, and HEC-GeoRAS modeling: field experiments in Reynolds Creek, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinde, L.; Johnson, J. P.; Pierson, F. B.

    2012-12-01

    Relationships between bedload transport, channel geometry, and bed topography in upland channels are not well understood due in part to a lack of quantitative field data. With this motivation, we are performing field experiments related to (i) bedload travel distances within and between transport events, (ii) style of bedload motion during transport events, and (iii) channel characteristics of depositional areas. To address these objectives, we deployed gravel and cobble Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and accelerometer tracers, installed permanent RFID antennas, utilized airborne LiDAR, and conducted stream surveys in Reynolds Creek, Idaho. This gauged coarse alluvial stream is located at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed within the Owyhee Mountains. Flood discharges generally consist of occasional flashy winter rain-on-snow flows spanning less than a day, large spring snowmelt events lasting several weeks, and no high summer discharges during our experiments. Through repeat surveys of tracer clast positions, to date we have quantified travel distances of 800 RFID particles. Spring 2011 discharge transported RFID tracers nearly seven kilometers while the shorter Spring 2012 flow only displaced particles up to approximately three kilometers. During Winter 2011 rain-on-snow events, tracers moved a maximum of 200 meters. Statistical distributions of transport distances vary with deployment location and season- uniform distributions fit some datasets best while gamma distributions fit others better. Permanent cross-stream RFID antennas constrain periods of bedload motion and rest. In Spring 2012, antennas recorded significant RFID tracer motion initiating just when discharge began to rise due to snowmelt, travel times between antennas decreasing as flow increased, and RFID particles no longer passing almost immediately after the hydrograph peaked. Accelerometer tracers deployed in Spring 2012 expanded bedload motion

  13. Field study of time-dependent selenium partitioning in soils using isotopically enriched stable selenite tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Tullo, Pamela, E-mail: pamela.ditullo@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement (LCABIE), Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour/CNRS, UMR 5254, IPREM, Hélioparc, 2 Avenue du Président Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Andra, Research and Development Division, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Pannier, Florence, E-mail: florence.pannier@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement (LCABIE), Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour/CNRS, UMR 5254, IPREM, Hélioparc, 2 Avenue du Président Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Thiry, Yves, E-mail: yves.thiry@andra.fr [Andra, Research and Development Division, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Le Hécho, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.lehecho@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement (LCABIE), Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour/CNRS, UMR 5254, IPREM, Hélioparc, 2 Avenue du Président Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Bueno, Maïté, E-mail: maite.bueno@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement (LCABIE), Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour/CNRS, UMR 5254, IPREM, Hélioparc, 2 Avenue du Président Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France)

    2016-08-15

    A better understanding of selenium fate in soils at both short and long time scales is mandatory to consolidate risk assessment models relevant for managing both contamination and soil fertilization issues. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate Se retention processes and their kinetics by monitoring time-dependent distribution/speciation changes of both ambient and freshly added Se, in the form of stable enriched selenite-77, over a 2-years field experiment. This study clearly illustrates the complex reactivity of selenium in soil considering three methodologically defined fractions (i.e. soluble, exchangeable, organic). Time-dependent redistribution of Se-77 within solid-phases having different reactivity could be described as a combination of chemical and diffusion controlled processes leading to its stronger retention. Experimental data and their kinetic modeling evidenced that transfer towards less labile bearing phases are controlled by slow processes limiting the overall sorption of Se in soils. These results were used to estimate time needed for {sup 77}Se to reach the distribution of naturally present selenium which may extend up to several decades. Ambient Se speciation accounted for 60% to 100% of unidentified species as function of soil type whereas {sup 77}Se(IV) remained the more abundant species after 2-years field experiment. Modeling Se in the long-term without taking account these slow sorption kinetics would thus result in underestimation of Se retention. When using models based on K{sub d} distribution coefficient, they should be at least reliant on ambient Se which is supposed to be at equilibrium.

  14. In-Situ Characterization of Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Using Partitioning Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary A. Pope; Daene C. McKinney; Akhil Datta Gupta; Richard E. Jackson; Minquan Jin

    2000-03-20

    Majors advances have been made during the past three years in our research on interwell partitioning tracers tests (PITTs). These advances include (1) progress on the inverse problem of how to estimate the three-dimensional distribution of NAPL in aquifers from the tracer data, (2) the first ever partitioning tracer experiments in dual porosity media, (3) the first modeling of partitioning tracers in dual porosity media (4) experiments with complex NAPLs such as coal tar, (5) the development of an accurate and simple method to predict partition coefficients using the equivalent alkane carbon number approach, (6) partitioning tracer experiments in large model aquifers with permeability layers, (7) the first ever analysis of partitioning tracer data to estimate the change in composition of a NAPL before and after remediation (8) the first ever analysis of partitioning tracer data after a field demonstration of surfactant foam to remediate NAPL and (9) experiments at elevated temperatures .

  15. High resolution aquifer characterization using crosshole GPR full-waveform tomography: Comparison with direct-push and tracer test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueting, Nils; Vienken, Thomas; Klotzsche, Anja; van der Kruk, Jan; Vanderborght, Jan; Caers, Jef; Vereecken, Harry; Englert, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Limited knowledge about the spatial distribution of aquifer properties typically constrains our ability to predict subsurface flow and transport. Here we investigate the value of using high resolution full-waveform inversion of cross-borehole ground penetrating radar (GPR) data for aquifer characterization. By stitching together GPR tomograms from multiple adjacent crosshole planes, we are able to image, with a decimeter scale resolution, the dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity of an alluvial aquifer along cross sections of 50 m length and 10 m depth. A logistic regression model is employed to predict the spatial distribution of lithological facies on the basis of the GPR results. Vertical profiles of porosity and hydraulic conductivity from direct-push, flowmeter and grain size data suggest that the GPR predicted facies classification is meaningful with regard to porosity and hydraulic conductivity, even though the distributions of individual facies show some overlap and the absolute hydraulic conductivities from the different methods (direct-push, flowmeter, grain size) differ up to approximately one order of magnitude. Comparison of the GPR predicted facies architecture with tracer test data suggests that the plume splitting observed in a tracer experiment was caused by a hydraulically low-conductive sand layer with a thickness of only a few decimeters. Because this sand layer is identified by GPR full-waveform inversion but not by conventional GPR ray-based inversion we conclude that the improvement in spatial resolution due to full-waveform inversion is crucial to detect small-scale aquifer structures that are highly relevant for solute transport.

  16. Reconstruction of an atmospheric tracer source in Fusion Field Trials: Analyzing resolution features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Turbelin, Gregory; Issartel, Jean-Pierre; Kumar, Pramod; Feiz, Amir Ali

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction of unknown atmospheric releases using measured concentrations is an ill-posed inverse problem. Due to insufficient measurements and dispersion model uncertainties, reliable interpretation of a retrieved source is limited by lack of resolution, nonuniqueness, and instability in the inverse solution. The study presents an optimality analysis, in terms of resolution, stability, and reliability, of an inverse solution given by a recently proposed inversion technique, called as renormalization. The inversion technique is based on an adjoint source-receptor framework and construction of a weight function which interprets a priori information about the unknown release apparent to the monitoring network. The properties of weight function provide a perfect data resolution, maximum model resolution, and minimum variance (or stability) for the retrieved source. The reliability of the retrieved source is interpreted in view of the information derived from the geometry of the monitoring network. The inversion technique and resolution features are evaluated for a point source reconstruction using measurements from a recent dispersion experiment (Fusion Field Trials 2007) conducted at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. With the real measurements, the point release is reconstructed within an average distance of 23 m from the true release where the average distance of the nearest receptor from the true source was 32 m. In all the trials, the point release is retrieved within 3-60 m Euclidean distance from their true location. The source strength is retrieved within a factor of 1.5 to the true release mass. The posterior uncertainty in the release parameters is observed to be within 20% of their mean value. The source localization features are resolved to its maximum extent feasible with the design of the monitoring network. The sensitivity studies are conducted to highlight the importance of receptors reporting zero concentration measurements and variations in the

  17. On the use of flow-storage repartitions derived from artificial tracer tests for geothermal reservoir characterization in the Malm-Molasse basin: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Dina Silvia; Osaigbovo Enomayo, Augustine; Mohsin, Rizwan; Karmakar, Shyamal; Ghergut, Julia; Sauter, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Flow-storage repartition (FSR) analysis (Shook 2003) is a versatile tool for characterizing subsurface flow and transport systems. FSR can be derived from measured signals of inter-well tracer tests, if certain requirements are met - basically, the same as required for equivalence between fluid residence time distribution (RTD) and a measured inter-well tracer signal (pre-processed and de-convolved if necessary). Nominally, a FSR is derived from a RTD as a trajectory in normalized {1st, 0th}-order statistical moment space; more intuitively, as a parametric plot of 0th-order against 1st-order statistical moments of RTD truncated at time t, with t as a parameter running from the first tracer input to the latest available tracer sampling; 0th-order moments being normalized by the total tracer recovery, and 1st-order moments by the mean RT. Fracture-dominated systems plot in the upper left (high F , low S) region of FSR diagrams; a homogeneous single-continuum with no dispersion (infinite Peclet number) displays a straight line from {F ,S}={0,0} to {F ,S}={1,1}. This analysis tool appears particularly attractive for characterizing markedly-heterogeneous, porous-fissured-fractured (partly karstified) formations like those targeted by geothermal exploration in the Malm-Molasse basin in Southern Germany, and especially for quantifying flow and transport contributions from contrasting facies types ('reef' versus 'bedded'). However, tracer tests conducted in such systems with inter-well distances of some hundreds of metres (as required by economic considerations on geothermal reservoir sizing) face the problem of very long residence times - and thus the need to deal with incomplete (truncated) signals. For the geothermal well triplet at the Sauerlach site near Munich, tracer peak arrival times exceeding 2 years have been predicted, and signal tails decreasing by less than 50% over >10 years, which puts great uncertainty on the (extrapolation-based) normalizing factors

  18. Sonde for Downhole Measurement of Water Turbidity and Dye Tracer Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Schnegg, Pierre-André; Bossy, F.

    2005-01-01

    A new flow-through field fluorometer sonde has been designed for use in downhole tracer tests in 2’’ boreholes. The instrument is capable of determining the partial concentration of two dye tracers present simultaneously in the water. In addition, turbidity can be measured if the water is free of tracers. Although the sonde is aimed at boreholed hydrological investigations, it can also be used in surface waters.

  19. Final Progress Report for Project Entitled: Quantum Dot Tracers for Use in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Peter [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bartl, Michael [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Reimus, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mella, Mike [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-09-12

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate a new class of tracers that offer great promise for use in characterizing fracture networks in EGS reservoirs. From laboratory synthesis and testing through numerical modeling and field demonstrations, we have demonstrated the amazing versatility and applicability of quantum dot tracers. This report summarizes the results of four years of research into the design, synthesis, and characterization of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) for use as geothermal tracers.

  20. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Dong Soon; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Choon; Lee, Doo Sung; Cho, Yong Suk; Shin, Sung Kuan

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  1. Fractured-rock hydrogeophysics with electrically conductive and neutrally buoyant tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakas, A.; Linde, N.; Baron, L.; Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Lavenant, N.; Gerard, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Artificial tracer tests help to characterize and understand the dynamics of groundwater systems. This remains a challenging task, especially when dealing with highly heterogeneous formations in which flow can be very localized and the interpretation of tracer breakthrough curves may be ambiguous. As a complement to tracer tests, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography can map the space-time migration of electrically conductive tracers. In hydrogeophysics, the most common tracer is dissolved table salt in water. However, conventional salt tracers lead to density effects that are often ignored. Even less than 1% density variations can have a dramatic effect on transport behavior and affect tracer tests in complex ways. Such effects have been demonstrated in our previous experiments that used single-hole GPR to monitor saline push-pull tests in fractured granite. It is possible to model density effects, but this leads to computational complexity and field dynamics that are not necessarily representative of the natural responses of the system. To minimize density effects, we performed a new set of push-pull tests using a neutrally buoyant and electrically conductive tracer at the same test site located close to Ploemeur, France. This novel tracer consists of a mixture of salt (NaCl), water and pure ethanol. Ethanol has a density of 789 g/L at 20° C and is used to counter-act the salt-induced density increase. Our GPR time-lapse images and tracer breakthrough data indicate a largely reversible transport process that confirms the neutral buoyancy of the tracer. Ethanol is biodegradable and does not pose significant environmental issues. Furthermore, calibration of the neutral-buoyant mixture is straightforward to perform in the field using Archimedes principle. Based on these results, we argue that neutrally buoyant ethanol-salt-water mixtures are ideal for a wide variety of hydrogeophysical tracer tests in porous or fractured media.

  2. Field Test of Enhanced Remedial Amendment Delivery Using a Shear-Thinning Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Adamson, David; Oostrom, Martinus; Zhong, Lirong; Mackley, Rob D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Horner, Jacob A.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Thomle, Jonathan N.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Johnson, Christian D.; Rysz, Michal; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Newell, Charles J.

    2015-03-01

    Heterogeneity of hydraulic properties in aquifers may lead to contaminants residing in lower-permeability zones where it is difficult to deliver remediation amendments using conventional injection processes. The focus of this effort is to examine use of a shear-thinning fluid (STF) to improve the uniformity of remedial amendment distribution within a heterogeneous aquifer. Previous studies have demonstrated the significant potential of STFs for improving remedial amendment delivery in heterogeneous aquifers, but quantitative evaluation of these improvements from field applications are lacking. A field-scale test was conducted that compares data from successive injection of a tracer in water followed by injection of a tracer in a STF to evaluate the impact of the STF on tracer distribution uniformity in the presence of permeability contrasts within the targeted injection zone. Data from tracer breakthrough at multiple depth-discrete monitoring intervals and electrical resistivity tomography showed that inclusion of STF in the injection solution slowed movement in high-permeability pathways, improved delivery of amendment to low-permeability materials, and resulted in better uniformity in injected fluid distribution within the targeted treatment zone.

  3. Inter-well chemical tracer testing at the Rittershoffen geothermal site (Alsace, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjuan, Bernard; Scheiber, Julia; Gal, Frédérick; Touzelet, Stéphane; Genter, Albert; Villadangos, Guerric

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The ECOGI Company develops a project of deep geothermal energy located in the Rittershoffen site, in Alsace, in the Upper Rhine Graben area, 50 km north of Strasbourg and 10 km east from the Soultz EGS site, in order to produce steam for the industrial drying of starch from a well doublet (injection and production wells). The first geothermal well, GRT-1, with a vertical depth of about 2,550 m (drilled length of about 2,580 m) was drilled in 2012, and tested and succes...

  4. CHARM Facility Test Area Radiation Field Description

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Specification document summarising the radiation field of the CHARM facility test area. This will act as a guide to any potential users of the facility as to what they can expect in terms of radiation, given in the form of radiation spectra information and fluence for each test position, along with general radiation maps for the test area and Montrac test location.

  5. Test fields cannot destroy extremal black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natário, José; Queimada, Leonel; Vicente, Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    We prove that (possibly charged) test fields satisfying the null energy condition at the event horizon cannot overspin/overcharge extremal Kerr-Newman or Kerr-Newman-anti de Sitter black holes, that is, the weak cosmic censorship conjecture cannot be violated in the test field approximation. The argument relies on black hole thermodynamics (without assuming cosmic censorship), and does not depend on the precise nature of the fields. We also discuss generalizations of this result to other extremal black holes.

  6. A field experiment and numerical modeling of a tracer at a gravel beach in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiaona; Li, Hailong; Boufadel, Michel C.; Liu, Jin

    2014-12-01

    Oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill persists in many gravel beaches in Prince William Sound (Alaska, USA), despite great remedial efforts. A tracer study using lithium at a gravel beach on Knight Island, Prince William Sound, during the summer of 2008 is reported. The tracer injection and transport along a transect were simulated using the two-dimensional numerical model MARUN. Model results successfully reproduced the tracer concentrations observed at wells along the transect. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the estimated parameters are well determined. The simulated spatial distribution of tracer indicated that nutrients applied along the transect for bioremediation purposes would be washed to the sea very quickly (within a semi-diurnal tidal cycle) by virtue of the combination of the two-layered beach structure, the tidal fluctuation and the freshwater flow from inland. Thus, pore-water samples in the transect were found to be clean due to factors other than bioremediation. This may explain why the oil did not persist within the transect.

  7. Sinks for nitrogen inputs in terrestrial ecosystems: a meta-analysis of 15N tracer field studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, P.H.; Mack, M.C.; Chapin, F. S.; Christenson, L.M.; Compton, J.E.; Crook, H.D.; Currie, W.S.; Curtis, C.J.; Dail, D.B.; D'Antonio, C. M.; Emmett, B.A.; Epstein, H.E.; Goodale, C.L.; Gundersen, P.; Hobbie, S.E.; Holland, K.; Hooper, D.U.; Hungate, B.A.; Lamontagne, S.; Nadelhoffer, K.J.; Osenberg, C.W.; Perakis, S.S.; Schleppi, P.; Schimel, J.; Schmidt, I.K.; Sommerkorn, M.; Spoelstra, J.; Tietema, A.; Wessel, W.W.; Zak, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Effects of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition and the ability of terrestrial ecosystems to store carbon (C) depend in part on the amount of N retained in the system and its partitioning among plant and soil pools. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies at 48 sites across four continents that used enriched 15N isotope tracers in order to synthesize information about total ecosystem N retention (i.e., total ecosystem 15N recovery in plant and soil pools) across natural systems and N partitioning among ecosystem pools. The greatest recoveries of ecosystem 15N tracer occurred in shrublands (mean, 89.5%) and wetlands (84.8%) followed by forests (74.9%) and grasslands (51.8%). In the short term (15N tracer application), total ecosystem 15N recovery was negatively correlated with fine-root and soil 15N natural abundance, and organic soil C and N concentration but was positively correlated with mean annual temperature and mineral soil C:N. In the longer term (3–18 months after 15N tracer application), total ecosystem 15N retention was negatively correlated with foliar natural-abundance 15N but was positively correlated with mineral soil C and N concentration and C: N, showing that plant and soil natural-abundance 15N and soil C:N are good indicators of total ecosystem N retention. Foliar N concentration was not significantly related to ecosystem 15N tracer recovery, suggesting that plant N status is not a good predictor of total ecosystem N retention. Because the largest ecosystem sinks for 15N tracer were below ground in forests, shrublands, and grasslands, we conclude that growth enhancement and potential for increased C storage in aboveground biomass from atmospheric N deposition is likely to be modest in these ecosystems. Total ecosystem 15N recovery decreased with N fertilization, with an apparent threshold fertilization rate of 46 kg N·ha-1·yr-1 above which most ecosystems showed net losses of applied 15N tracer in response to N fertilizer addition.

  8. Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Dunbar, N.W. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)); Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr, with lesser amounts of [sup 6O]Co, [sup 241]Am, and [sup 239,240]Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the [sup 137]Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of [sup 90]Sr, [sup 241]Am, or [sup 239,240]Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500[degrees]C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms.

  9. Sinks for nitrogen inputs in terrestrial ecosystems: a meta-analysis of 15N tracer field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, P H; Mack, M C; Chapin, F S; Christenson, L M; Compton, J E; Crook, H D; Currie, W S; Curtis, C J; Dail, D B; D'Antonio, C M; Emmett, B A; Epstein, H E; Goodale, C L; Gundersen, P; Hobbie, S E; Holland, K; Hooper, D U; Hungate, B A; Lamontagne, S; Nadelhoffer, K J; Osenberg, C W; Perakis, S S; Schleppi, P; Schimel, J; Schmidt, I K; Sommerkorn, M; Spoelstra, J; Tietema, A; Wessel, W W; Zak, D R

    2012-08-01

    Effects of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition and the ability of terrestrial ecosystems to store carbon (C) depend in part on the amount of N retained in the system and its partitioning among plant and soil pools. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies at 48 sites across four continents that used enriched 15N isotope tracers in order to synthesize information about total ecosystem N retention (i.e., total ecosystem 15N recovery in plant and soil pools) across natural systems and N partitioning among ecosystem pools. The greatest recoveries of ecosystem 15N tracer occurred in shrublands (mean, 89.5%) and wetlands (84.8%) followed by forests (74.9%) and grasslands (51.8%). In the short term (ecosystem 15N recovery was negatively correlated with fine-root and soil 15N natural abundance, and organic soil C and N concentration but was positively correlated with mean annual temperature and mineral soil C:N. In the longer term (3-18 months after 15N tracer application), total ecosystem 15N retention was negatively correlated with foliar natural-abundance 15N but was positively correlated with mineral soil C and N concentration and C:N, showing that plant and soil natural-abundance 15N and soil C:N are good indicators of total ecosystem N retention. Foliar N concentration was not significantly related to ecosystem 15N tracer recovery, suggesting that plant N status is not a good predictor of total ecosystem N retention. Because the largest ecosystem sinks for 15N tracer were below ground in forests, shrublands, and grasslands, we conclude that growth enhancement and potential for increased C storage in aboveground biomass from atmospheric N deposition is likely to be modest in these ecosystems. Total ecosystem 15N recovery decreased with N fertilization, with an apparent threshold fertilization rate of 46 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1) above which most ecosystems showed net losses of applied 15N tracer in response to N fertilizer addition.

  10. Tracer Tests in a Fractured Dolomite: 3. Analysis of Mass Transfer in Single-Well Injection-Withdrawal Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggerty, R.; Fleming, S.W.; Meigs, L.C.; McKenna, S.A.

    1999-03-04

    We investigated multiple-rate diffusion as a possible explanation for observed behavior in a suite of single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tests conducted in a fractured dolomite. We first investigated the ability of a conventional double-porosity model and a multirate diffusion model to explain the data. This revealed that the multirate diffusion hypothesis/model is most consistent with all available data, and is the only model to date that is capable of matching each of the recovery curves entirely. Second, we studied the sensitivity of the SWIW recovery curves to the distribution of diffusion rate coefficients and other parameters. We concluded that the SWIW test is very sensitive to the distribution of rate coefficients, but is relatively insensitive to other flow and transport parameters such as advective porosity and dispersivity. Third, we examined the significance of the constant double-log late-time slopes ({minus}2. 1 to {minus}2.8), which are present in several data sets. The observed late-time slopes are significantly different than would be predicted by either conventional double-porosity or single-porosity media, and are found to be a distinctive feature of multirate diffusion under SWIW test conditions. Fourth, we found that the estimated distributions of diffusion rate coefficients are very broad, with the distributions spanning a range of at least 3.6 to 5.7 orders of magnitude.

  11. Tracer transport in fractured crystalline rock: Evidence of nondiffusive breakthrough tailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.W.; Shapiro, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Extended tailing of tracer breakthrough is often observed in pulse injection tracer tests conducted in fractured geologic media. This behavior has been attributed to diffusive exchange of tracer between mobile fluids traveling through channels in fractures and relatively stagnant fluid between fluid channels, along fracture walls, or within the bulk matrix. We present a field example where tracer breakthrough tailing apparently results from nondiffusive transport. Tracer tests were conducted in a fractured crystalline rock using both a convergent and weak dipole injection and pumping scheme. Deuterated water, bromide, and pentafluorobenzoic acid were selected as tracers for their wide range in molecular diffusivity. The late time behavior of the normalized breakthrough curves were consistent for all tracers, even when the pumping rate was changed. The lack of separation between tracers of varying diffusivity indicates that strong breakthrough tailing in fractured geologic media may be caused by advective transport processes. This finding has implications for the interpretation of tracer tests designed to measure matrix diffusion in situ and the prediction of contaminant transport in fractured rock.

  12. Analysis of tracer and thermal transients during reinjection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocabas, I.

    1989-10-01

    This work studied tracer and thermal transients during reinjection in geothermal reserviors and developed a new technique which combines the results from interwell tracer tests and thermal injection-backflow tests to estimate the thermal breakthrough times. Tracer tests are essential to determine the degree of connectivity between the injection wells and the producing wells. To analyze the tracer return profiles quantitatively, we employed three mathematical models namely, the convection-dispersion (CD) model, matrix diffusion (MD) model, and the Avodnin (AD) model, which were developed to study tracer and heat transport in a single vertical fracture. We considered three types of tracer tests namely, interwell tracer tests without recirculation, interwell tracer tests with recirculation, and injection-backflow tracer tests. To estimate the model parameters, we used a nonlinear regression program to match tracer return profiles to the solutions.

  13. Field Guide to Interferometric Optical Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, Eric P

    2006-01-01

    A distillation of Dr. Wyant's course at the University of Arizona, this Field Guide covers the key fundamentals of interferometry, types of interferometers and interferograms, concepts of phase-shifting interferometry, long-wavelength interferometry, testing of aspheric surfaces, measurement of surface microstructure, flat and curved surface testing, and absolute measurements.

  14. Rapid Field Toxicity Test for Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-28

    of trichothecenes (2). The correlation of the novel method with the Mysid trichothecenes paper described a perfect qualitative shrimp test, using fresh...test designed for human or animal consumption. organisms in a standard time LED light emitting diode CONCLUSION ml milliliter ppm parts per million A...potassium. of Trichothecenes ," Naval Research Laboratory Memorwdm Report 5738 (March 1986) Logistics dictate a day or so to test field samples in the

  15. Using a Gas-Phase Tracer Test to Characterize the Impact of Landfill Gas Generation on Advective-Dispersive Transport of VOCs in the Vadose Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, Gregg R; Duncan, Candice Morrison; Brusseau, Mark L

    2014-12-01

    A gas-phase tracer test (GTT) was conducted at a landfill in Tucson, AZ, to help elucidate the impact of landfill gas generation on the transport and fate of chlorinated aliphatic volatile organic contaminants (VOCs). Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was used as the non-reactive gas tracer. Gas samples were collected from a multiport monitoring well located 15.2 m from the injection well, and analyzed for SF6, CH4, CO2, and VOCs. The travel times determined for SF6 from the tracer test are approximately two to ten times smaller than estimated travel times that incorporate transport by only gas-phase diffusion. In addition, significant concentrations of CH4 and CO2 were measured, indicating production of landfill gas. Based on these results, it is hypothesized that the enhanced rates of transport observed for SF6 are caused by advective transport associated with landfill gas generation. The rates of transport varied vertically, which is attributed to multiple factors including spatial variability of water content, refuse mass, refuse permeability, and gas generation.

  16. Driven tracers in narrow channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cividini, J.; Mukamel, D.; Posch, H. A.

    2017-01-01

    Steady-state properties of a driven tracer moving in a narrow two-dimensional (2D) channel of quiescent medium are studied. The tracer drives the system out of equilibrium, perturbs the density and pressure fields, and gives the bath particles a nonzero average velocity, creating a current in the channel. Three models in which the confining effect of the channel is probed are analyzed and compared in this study: the first is the simple symmetric exclusion process (SSEP), for which the stationary density profile and the pressure on the walls in the frame of the tracer are computed. We show that the tracer acts like a dipolar source in an average velocity field. The spatial structure of this 2D strip is then simplified to a one-dimensional (1D) SSEP, in which exchanges of position between the tracer and the bath particles are allowed. Using a combination of mean-field theory and exact solution in the limit where no exchange is allowed gives good predictions of the velocity of the tracer and the density field. Finally, we show that results obtained for the 1D SSEP with exchanges also apply to a gas of overdamped hard disks in a narrow channel. The correspondence between the parameters of the SSEP and of the gas of hard disks is systematic and follows from simple intuitive arguments. Our analytical results are checked numerically.

  17. Background field coils for the High Field Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbasnik, J.P.; Cornish, D.N.; Scanlan, R.M.; Jewell, A.M.; Leber, R.L.; Rosdahl, A.R.; Chaplin, M.R.

    1980-09-22

    The High Field Test Facility (HFTF), presently under construction at LLNL, is a set of superconducting coils that will be used to test 1-m-o.d. coils of prototype conductors for fusion magnets in fields up to 12 T. The facility consists of two concentric sets of coils; the outer set is a stack of Nb-Ti solenoids, and the inner set is a pair of solenoids made of cryogenically-stabilized, multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor, developed for use in mirror-fusion magnets. The HFTF system is designed to be parted along the midplane to allow high-field conductors, under development for Tokamak fusion machines, to be inserted and tested. The background field coils were wound pancake-fashion, with cold-welded joints at both the inner and outer diameters. Turn-to-turn insulation was fabricated at LLNL from epoxy-fiberglass strip. The coils were assembled and tested in our 2-m-diam cryostat to verify their operation.

  18. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cautley, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bohac, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Francisco, P. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Shen, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gloss, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015.

  19. Analysis of Conservative Tracer Tests in the Bullfrog, Tram, and Prow Pass Tuffs, 1996 to 1998, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, Amjad; Fahy, Michael F.; Earle, John D.; Tucci, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the potential for transport of radionuclides in ground water from the proposed high-level nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, conservative (nonsorbing) tracer tests were conducted among three boreholes, known as the C-hole Complex, and values for transport (or flow) porosity, storage (or matrix) porosity, longitudinal dispersivity, and the extent of matrix diffusion were obtained. The C-holes are completed in a sequence of Miocene tuffaceous rock, consisting of nonwelded to densely welded ash-flow tuff with intervals of ash-fall tuff and volcaniclastic rocks, covered by Quaternary alluvium. The lower part of the tuffaceous-rock sequence includes the Prow Pass, Bullfrog, and Tram Tuffs of the Crater Flat Group. The rocks are pervaded by tectonic and cooling fractures. Paleozoic limestone and dolomite underlie the tuffaceous rocks. Four radially convergent and one partially recirculating conservative (nonsorbing) tracer tests were conducted at the C-hole Complex from 1996 to 1998 to establish values for flow porosity, storage porosity, longitudinal dispersivity, and extent of matrix diffusion in the Bullfrog and Tram Tuffs and the Prow Pass Tuff. Tracer tests included (1) injection of iodide into the combined Bullfrog-Tram interval; (2) injection of 2,6 difluorobenzoic acid into the Lower Bullfrog interval; (3) injection of 3-carbamoyl-2-pyridone into the Lower Bullfrog interval; and (4) injection of iodide and 2,4,5 trifluorobenzoic acid, followed by 2,3,4,5 tetrafluorobenzoic acid, into the Prow Pass Tuff. All tracer tests were analyzed by the Moench single- and dual-porosity analytical solutions to the advection-dispersion equation or by superposition of these solutions. Nonlinear regression techniques were used to corroborate tracer solution results, to obtain optimal parameter values from the solutions, and to quantify parameter uncertainty resulting from analyzing two of the three radially convergent conservative tracer tests

  20. Some Tests on Heather Field Moraine Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mogens B.; Jacobsen, Moust

    This report deals with oedometer tests on three samples of moraine clay from the Heather Field in the English part of the North Sea. The tests have been carried out in the very unelastic apparatus used in Denmark and with special test procedures differing from the ones used elsewhere. In Denmark...... the English North Sea moraine clays with the corresponding Danish Moraine Clays. The Danish test procedures are explained in details and some comments are given in the hope that they may not be banalities all of them....

  1. Bayesian inference of cosmic density fields from non-linear, scale-dependent, and stochastic biased tracers

    CERN Document Server

    Ata, Metin; Müller, Volker

    2014-01-01

    We present a Bayesian reconstruction algorithm to generate unbiased samples of the underlying dark matter field from galaxy redshift data. Our new contribution consists of implementing a non-Poisson likelihood including a deterministic non-linear and scale-dependent bias. In particular we present the Hamiltonian equations of motions for the negative binomial (NB) probability distribution function. This permits us to efficiently sample the posterior distribution function of density fields given a sample of galaxies using the Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique implemented in the Argo code. We have tested our algorithm with the Bolshoi N-body simulation, inferring the underlying dark matter density field from a subsample of the halo catalogue. Our method shows that we can draw closely unbiased samples (compatible within 1-$\\sigma$) from the posterior distribution up to scales of about k~1 h/Mpc in terms of power-spectra and cell-to-cell correlations. We find that a Poisson likelihood yields reconstructions with p...

  2. Nanoparticle tracers in calcium carbonate porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan Vivian

    2014-07-15

    Tracers are perhaps the most direct way of diagnosing subsurface fluid flow pathways for ground water decontamination and for natural gas and oil production. Nanoparticle tracers could be particularly effective because they do not diffuse away from the fractures or channels where flow occurs and thus take much less time to travel between two points. In combination with a chemical tracer they can measure the degree of flow concentration. A prerequisite for tracer applications is that the particles are not retained in the porous media as the result of aggregation or sticking to mineral surfaces. By screening eight nanoparticles (3-100 nm in diameter) for retention when passed through calcium carbonate packed laboratory columns in artificial oil field brine solutions of variable ionic strength we show that the nanoparticles with the least retention are 3 nm in diameter, nearly uncharged, and decorated with highly hydrophilic polymeric ligands. The details of these column experiments and the tri-modal distribution of zeta potential of the calcite sand particles in the brine used in our tests suggests that parts of the calcite surface have positive zeta potential and the retention of negatively charged nanoparticles occurs at these sites. Only neutral nanoparticles are immune to at least some retention. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

  3. Numerical simulations of capillary barrier field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C.E. [Univ. of Wollongong (Australia); Stormont, J.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Numerical simulations of two capillary barrier systems tested in the field were conducted to determine if an unsaturated flow model could accurately represent the observed results. The field data was collected from two 7-m long, 1.2-m thick capillary barriers built on a 10% grade that were being tested to investigate their ability to laterally divert water downslope. One system had a homogeneous fine layer, while the fine soil of the second barrier was layered to increase its ability to laterally divert infiltrating moisture. The barriers were subjected first to constant infiltration while minimizing evaporative losses and then were exposed to ambient conditions. The continuous infiltration period of the field tests for the two barrier systems was modelled to determine the ability of an existing code to accurately represent capillary barrier behavior embodied in these two designs. Differences between the field test and the model data were found, but in general the simulations appeared to adequately reproduce the response of the test systems. Accounting for moisture retention hysteresis in the layered system will potentially lead to more accurate modelling results and is likely to be important when developing reasonable predictions of capillary barrier behavior.

  4. Field test of nuclide migration in bentonite-based materials at aerated zone. Cooperative research program on field migration test between CIRP and JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Zhiwen; Cui Anxi; Gu Cunli [China Inst. for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China)] [and others

    2002-03-01

    A field test was jointly conducted by China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to explore moisture movement with Br{sup -} and migration of radioactive tracer {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 90}Sr in bentonite-based materials at aerated zone. The test ran under two rainfall conditions, the artificial rainfall with sprinkling density of 15 mm/d and 5 mm/hr, and the natural rainfall. Tracing test of Br{sup -} implies that there does have water going through the bentonite specimen. However, the curves are very complex and further work need be conducted to quantify this movement. {sup 238}Pu has no observable movement during the test period under either rainfall conditions, and {sup 237}Np has very short movement dominated by diffusion. Bentonite-based materials are effective to retard nuclide migration. (author)

  5. Field test of a lidar wind profiler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Atmospheric eddies, which have slightly different properties than their environment and are believed to be transported by the wind (Taylor's hypothesis), are used as tracers for remote wind measurements with a fast incoherent lidar. Horizontal measurements, parallel with the wind, have shown that

  6. Field testing driver night vision devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Kolletzki, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the available methodologies to field test driver night vision devices ranging from vehicle mounted camera’s to head-mounted NVG’s. As in flight trials, a formidable challenge is to collect meaningful performance measures. Night vision systems for land and air systems show many

  7. Trip Report-Produced-Water Field Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted field testing of a produced-water pretreatment apparatus with assistance from faculty at the Texas A&M University (TAMU) protein separation sciences laboratory located on the TAMU main campus. The following report details all of the logistics surrounding the testing. The purpose of the test was to use a new, commercially-available filter media housing containing modified zeolite (surfactant-modified zeolite or SMZ) porous medium for use in pretreatment of oil and gas produced water (PW) and frac-flowback waters. The SMZ was tested previously in October, 2010 in a lab-constructed configuration ('old multicolumn system'), and performed well for removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from PW. However, a less-expensive, modular configuration is needed for field use. A modular system will allow the field operator to add or subtract SMZ filters as needed to accommodate site specific conditions, and to swap out used filters easily in a multi-unit system. This test demonstrated the use of a commercial filter housing with a simple flow modification and packed with SMZ for removing BTEX from a PW source in College Station, Texas. The system will be tested in June 2012 at a field site in Pennsylvania for treating frac-flowback waters. The goals of this test are: (1) to determine sorption efficiency of BTEX in the new configuration; and (2) to observe the range of flow rates, backpressures, and total volume treated at a given flow rate.

  8. Modeling field-scale multiple tracer injection at a low-level waste disposal site in fractured rocks: Effect of multiscale heterogeneity and source term uncertainty on conceptual understanding of mass transfer processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwo, Jin-Ping; Jardine, Philip M.; Sanford, William E.

    2005-03-01

    Multiple factors may affect the scale-up of laboratory multi-tracer injection into structured porous media to the field. Under transient flow conditions and with multiscale heterogeneities in the field, previous attempts to scale-up laboratory experiments have not answered definitely the questions about the governing mechanisms and the spatial extent of the influence of small-scale mass transfer processes such as matrix diffusion. The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of multiscale heterogeneity, mechanistic and site model conceptualization, and source term density effect on elucidating and interpreting tracer movement in the field. Tracer release and monitoring information previously obtained in a field campaign of multiple, conservative tracer injection under natural hydraulic gradients at a low-level waste disposal site in eastern Tennessee, United States, is used for the research. A suite of two-pore-domain, or fracture-matrix, groundwater flow and transport models are calibrated and used to conduct model parameter and prediction uncertainty analyses. These efforts are facilitated by a novel nested Latin-hypercube sampling technique. Our results verify, at field scale, a multiple-pore-domain, multiscale mechanistic conceptual model that was used previously to interpret only laboratory observations. The results also suggest that, integrated over the entire field site, mass flux rates attributable to small-scale mass transfer are comparable to that of field-scale solute transport. The uncertainty analyses show that fracture spacing is the most important model parameter and model prediction uncertainty is relatively higher at the interface between the preferred flow path and its parent bedrock. The comparisons of site conceptual models indicate that the effect of matrix diffusion may be confined to the immediate neighborhood of the preferential flow path. Finally, because the relatively large amount of tracer needed for field studies, it is

  9. Uncertainty in deterministic groundwater transport models due to the assumption of macrodispersive mixing: evidence from the Cape Cod (Massachusetts, U.S.A.) and Borden (Ontario, Canada) tracer tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, Charles R.

    1996-06-01

    Deterministic transport models based on the advection-dispersion equation are widely used to simulate groundwater contaminant transport. Only the largest heterogeneities and velocity field variations are explicitly modeled by the advection part of such models because subsurface explorations allow limited understanding of the distribution of heterogeneity and velocities. Smaller heterogeneities and associated velocity field variations are not incorporated in the modeled velocity field, but their overall mixing effect is represented implicitly as macrodispersion. As a result, such models do not replicate the complex small-scale variation of actual concentration distributions, but instead simulate a smoother concentration distribution. This discrepancy causes significant uncertainty in modeled concentrations. In this paper, such uncertainty is quantified for the detailed concentration distribution data sets of the Cape Cod and Borden natural-gradient tracer tests. Models of these tests could be made with relatively little uncertainty about the source distribution, large-scale flow field, and apparent macrodispersitivities. As earlier moment analyses reveal, the ensemble-average bromide migration in both tests was approximately consistent with classical advection-dispersion theory. Therefore, the reported uncertainties are primarily due to the use of macrodispersivity to represent mixing caused by small-scale velocity field variations. Analytic three-dimensional transport models were used to simulate the migration of bromide, a non-reactive tracer. The distribution of log(ca/cm), where ca is actual concentration and cm is modeled concentration at the same point, had a standard deviation of ∼0.70 for both tests. The distribution of vertically-averaged concentration predictions, log(Σca/Σcm), where the summation is over each multi-level sampler, had a standard deviation of ∼0.45 for both tests. Comparing the peak actual concentration to the peak modeled

  10. Development of a Pediatric Visual Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marco A; Henson, David B; Fenerty, Cecilia; Biswas, Susmito; Aslam, Tariq

    2016-12-01

    We describe a pediatric visual field (VF) test based on a computer game where software and hardware combine to provide an enjoyable test experience. The test software consists of a platform-based computer game presented to the central VF. A storyline was created around the game as was a structure surrounding the computer monitor to enhance patients' experience. The patient is asked to help the central character collect magic coins (stimuli). To collect these coins a series of obstacles need to be overcome. The test was presented on a Sony PVM-2541A monitor calibrated from a central midpoint with a Minolta CS-100 photometer placed at 50 cm. Measurements were performed at 15 locations on the screen and the contrast calculated. Retinal sensitivity was determined by modulating stimulus in size. To test the feasibility of the novel approach 20 patients (4-16 years old) with no history of VF defects were recruited. For the 14 subjects completing the study, 31 ± 15 data points were collected on 1 eye of each patient. Mean background luminance and stimulus contrast were 9.9 ± 0.3 cd/m(2) and 27.9 ± 0.1 dB, respectively. Sensitivity values obtained were similar to an adult population but variability was considerably higher - 8.3 ± 9.0 dB. Preliminary data show the feasibility of a game-based VF test for pediatric use. Although the test was well accepted by the target population, test variability remained very high. Traditional VF tests are not well tolerated by children. This study describes a child-friendly approach to test visual fields in the targeted population.

  11. Determination of stream reaeration coefficients by use of tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, F.A.; Rathbun, R.E.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro; Parker, G.W.; DeLong, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    Stream reaeration is the physical absorption of oxygen from the atmosphere by a flowing stream. This is the primary process by which a stream replenishes the oxygen consumed in the biodegradation of organic wastes. Prior to 1965, reaeration rate coefficients could be estimated only by indirect methods. In 1965, a direct method of measuring stream reaeration coefficients was developed whereby a radioactive tracer gas was injected into a stream-the principle being that the tracer gas would be desorbed from the stream inversely to how oxygen would be absorbed. The technique has since been modified by substituting hydrocarbon gases for the radioactive tracer gas. This manual describes the slug-injection and constant-rate-injection methods of measuring gas-tracer desorption. Emphasis is on the use of rhodamine WT dye as a relatively conservative tracer and propane as the nonconservative gas tracer, on planning field tests, on methods of injection, sampling, and analysis, and on techniques for computing desorption and reaeration coefficients.

  12. Dissolved gas dynamics in wetland soils: Root-mediated gas transfer kinetics determined via push-pull tracer tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Matthew C.; Pal, David S.; Jaffé, Peter R.

    2015-09-01

    Gas transfer processes are fundamental to the biogeochemical and water quality functions of wetlands, yet there is limited knowledge of the rates and pathways of soil-atmosphere exchange for gases other than oxygen and methane (CH4). In this study, we use a novel push-pull technique with sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and helium (He) as dissolved gas tracers to quantify the kinetics of root-mediated gas transfer, which is a critical efflux pathway for gases from wetland soils. This tracer approach disentangles the effects of physical transport from simultaneous reaction in saturated, vegetated wetland soils. We measured significant seasonal variation in first-order gas exchange rate constants, with smaller spatial variations between different soil depths and vegetation zones in a New Jersey tidal marsh. Gas transfer rates for most biogeochemical trace gases are expected to be bracketed by the rate constants for SF6 and He, which ranged from ˜10-2 to 2 × 10-1 h-1 at our site. A modified Damköhler number analysis is used to evaluate the balance between biochemical reaction and root-driven gas exchange in governing the fate of environmental trace gases in rooted, anaerobic soils. This approach confirmed the importance of plant gas transport for CH4, and showed that root-driven transport may affect nitrous oxide (N2O) balances in settings where N2O reduction rates are slow.

  13. Deep Borehole Field Test Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This report documents conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), including test packages (simulated waste packages, not containing waste) and a system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the planned Field Test Borehole (FTB). For the DBFT to have demonstration value, it must be based on conceptualization of a deep borehole disposal (DBD) system. This document therefore identifies key options for a DBD system, describes an updated reference DBD concept, and derives a recommended concept for the DBFT demonstration. The objective of the DBFT is to confirm the safety and feasibility of the DBD concept for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. The conceptual design described in this report will demonstrate equipment and operations for safe waste handling and downhole emplacement of test packages, while contributing to an evaluation of the overall safety and practicality of the DBD concept. The DBFT also includes drilling and downhole characterization investigations that are described elsewhere (see Section 1). Importantly, no radioactive waste will be used in the DBFT, nor will the DBFT site be used for disposal of any type of waste. The foremost performance objective for conduct of the DBFT is to demonstrate safe operations in all aspects of the test.

  14. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WALKER, PAMELA K.; RODACY, PHILIP J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue.

  15. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hietala, J. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wendland, R.D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Collins, F. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-07-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  16. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Hietala, J. (Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)); Wendland, R.D. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Collins, F. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  17. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cautley, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bohac, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Francisco, P. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Shen, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gloss, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-11-05

    "9Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  18. PROOF OF CONCEPT TEST OF A UNIQUE GASEOUS PERFLUROCARBON TRACER SYSTEM FOR VERIFICATION AND LONG TERM MONITORING OF CAPS AND COVER SYSTEMS CONDUCTED AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE BENTONITE MAT TEST FACILITY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEISER,J.; SULLIVAN,T.; SERRATO,M.

    2002-02-24

    be used as a non-invasive method (if injection ports are emplaced prior to cover emplacement) on new covers or a minimally invasive method on existing covers. PFT verification will be useful at all buried waste sites using a cover system (e.g., treated or untreated chemical waste landfills) including DOE, commercial, and private sector sites. This paper discusses the initial field trial of the PFT cover monitoring system performed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in FY01. The experiments provided a successful proof-of-principle test of the PFT technology in monitoring caps and covers. An injection and sampling array was installed in the Bentomat test cap at the SRS Caps Test Facility. This system contained 6 feet of sandy soil beneath a 1/2 inch geosynthetic clay liner covered by an HDPE liner which was covered by 2 feet of clayey top soil. PFTs were injected into the sandy soil though a pre-existing system of access pipes below the cap and soil gas samples were taken on top of the cap. Mid-way into the injection period a series of 1 1/2 inch holes were punched into the cap (through the geomembrane) to provide a positive breach in the cap. Data will be presented that shows the initial cap was fairly tight and leak free and that the artificially induced leaks were detectable within two hours of occurrence.

  19. Deep Borehole Field Test Laboratory and Borehole Testing Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gardner, W. Payton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jang, Je-Hun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Daley, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Freifeld, Barry M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spane, Frank A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    Deep Borehole Disposal (DBD) of high-level radioactive wastes has been considered an option for geological isolation for many years (Hess et al. 1957). Recent advances in drilling technology have decreased costs and increased reliability for large-diameter (i.e., ≥50 cm [19.7”]) boreholes to depths of several kilometers (Beswick 2008; Beswick et al. 2014). These advances have therefore also increased the feasibility of the DBD concept (Brady et al. 2009; Cornwall 2015), and the current field test design will demonstrate the DBD concept and these advances. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013) specifically recommended developing a research and development plan for DBD. DOE sought input or expression of interest from States, local communities, individuals, private groups, academia, or any other stakeholders willing to host a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT). The DBFT includes drilling two boreholes nominally 200m [656’] apart to approximately 5 km [16,400’] total depth, in a region where crystalline basement is expected to begin at less than 2 km depth [6,560’]. The characterization borehole (CB) is the smaller-diameter borehole (i.e., 21.6 cm [8.5”] diameter at total depth), and will be drilled first. The geologic, hydrogeologic, geochemical, geomechanical and thermal testing will take place in the CB. The field test borehole (FTB) is the larger-diameter borehole (i.e., 43.2 cm [17”] diameter at total depth). Surface handling and borehole emplacement of test package will be demonstrated using the FTB to evaluate engineering feasibility and safety of disposal operations (SNL 2016).

  20. A new method of field MRTD test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibin; Song, Yan; Liu, Xianhong; Xiao, Wenjian

    2014-09-01

    MRTD is an important indicator to measure the imaging performance of infrared camera. In the traditional laboratory test, blackbody is used as simulated heat source which is not only expensive and bulky but also difficult to meet field testing requirements of online automatic infrared camera MRTD. To solve this problem, this paper introduces a new detection device for MRTD, which uses LED as a simulation heat source and branded plated zinc sulfide glass carved four-bar target as a simulation target. By using high temperature adaptability cassegrain collimation system, the target is simulated to be distance-infinite so that it can be observed by the human eyes to complete the subjective test, or collected to complete objective measurement by image processing. This method will use LED to replace blackbody. The color temperature of LED is calibrated by thermal imager, thereby, the relation curve between the LED temperature controlling current and the blackbody simulation temperature difference is established, accurately achieved the temperature control of the infrared target. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the device in field testing of thermal imager MRTD can be limited within 0.1K, which greatly reduces the cost to meet the project requirements with a wide application value.

  1. Evaluation of tracer tests completed in 1999 and 2000 on the upper Santa Clara River, Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Marisa H.; Mendez, Gregory O.; Kratzer, Charles R.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of surface water and hyporheic water along the Santa Clara River in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California, was evaluated by conducting tracer tests and analyzing water-quality data under different flow conditions in October 1999 and May 2000. Tracer and water-quality samples were collected at multiple river and hyporheic sites as well as at the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts Saugus and Valencia Water Reclamation Plants. These water reclamation plants provide the main source of base flow in the river. Rhodamine WT dye was injected into the river to determine river traveltimes and to indicate when Lagrangian water-quality sampling could be performed at each site. Sodium bromide was injected into the river at a constant rate at the water reclamation plants to evaluate the surface-water and shallow ground-water interactions in the hyporheic zone. In the upper reach of the study area, which extends 2.9 river miles downstream from the Saugus Water Reclamation Plant, traveltime was 3.2 hours during May 2000. In the lower reach, which extends 14.1 river miles downstream from the Valencia Water Reclamation Plant, traveltime was 9.6 hours during October 1999 and 7.1 hours during May 2000. The sodium bromide tracer was detected at both hyporheic locations sampled during October 1999, and at two of the three hyporheic locations sampled during May 2000. On the basis of Rhodamine dye tests, flow curves were constructed from the discharge measurements in the Valencia reach. Flow-curve results indicate net gains in flow throughout most, but not all, of the upper parts of the reach and net losses in flow at the lower part of the reach. Lagrangian water-quality sampling provides information on the changes in chemistry as the water flows downstream from the water reclamation plants. Along both reaches there is an increase in sulfate (40-60 mg/L in the Saugus reach and 160 mg/L in the Valencia reach) and a decrease in chloride (about 45 mg/L in the

  2. Preliminary assessment of halogenated alkanes as vapor-phase tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael C.; Moore, Joseph N.; Hirtz, Paul

    1991-01-01

    New tracers are needed to evaluate the efficiency of injection strategies in vapor-dominated environments. One group of compounds that seems to meet the requirements for vapor-phase tracing are the halogenated alkanes (HCFCs). HCFCs are generally nontoxic, and extrapolation of tabulated thermodynamic data indicate that they will be thermally stable and nonreactive in a geothermal environment. The solubilities and stabilities of these compounds, which form several homologous series, vary according to the substituent ratios of fluorine, chlorine, and hydrogen. Laboratory and field tests that will further define the suitability of HCFCs as vapor-phase tracers are under way.

  3. Performance Test of CCTV in a Test Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyung Min [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    On April 12-13, 2010, US President Obama hosted a Nuclear Security Summit in Washington, DC, to enhance international cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism, an issue which he has identified as the most immediate and extreme threat to global security. The Summit focused on the security of nuclear materials, nonproliferation, disarmament, and peaceful nuclear energy. At the summit, the Republic of Korea was chosen as the host of the next Summit in 2012. This series of events reflects the growing global interest on 'Nuclear Security' and as the host country of the next Nuclear Summit it is the time for Korea to strengthen the physical protection regime for nuclear facilities as a first step of securing its nuclear security capability. KINAC has been operating Test field as a mean of preparing solid backup data for reviewing and revising DBT (Design Basis Threat) and to test components of the conventional physical protection system. CCTV is a key component which is used worldwide for the assessment measure of alarms. In terms of performance test of CCTV, there are several elements such as image quality, coverage and mechanical features (speed of zoom-in-out, capture, angle shift etc.). Speaking of image quality acquired by the CCTV, the quality is subject to resolution, monitor specification, camera housing, camera mounting and lightening. Thus it is clear that performance tests on image quality should consider those factors and vary the factors respectively in order to verify the influence and the interaction among those. Nevertheless due to the restrictions of the current Test field, this paper focuses on the image quality through resolution test under the various lightening conditions

  4. Preliminary Results of Field Emission Cathode Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovey, James S.; Kovaleski, Scott D.

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary screening tests of field emission cathodes such as chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, textured pyrolytic graphite, and textured copper were conducted at background pressures typical of electric thruster test facilities to assess cathode performance and stability. Very low power electric thrusters which provide tens to hundreds micronewtons of thrust may need field emission neutralizers that have a capability of tens to hundreds of microamperes. From current voltage characteristics, it was found that the CVD diamond and textured metals cathodes clearly satisfied the Fowler-Nordheim emission relation. The CVD diamond and a textured copper cathode had average current densities of 270 and 380 mA/sq cm, respectively, at the beginning-of-life. After a few hours of operation the cathode emission currents degraded by 40 to 75% at background pressures in the 10(exp -5) Pa to 10(exp -4) Pa range. The textured pyrolytic graphite had a modest current density at beginning-of-life of 84 mA/sq cm, but this cathode was the most stable of all. Extended testing of the most promising cathodes is warranted to determine if current degradation is a burn-in effect or whether it is a long-term degradation process. Preliminary experiments with ferroelectric emission cathodes, which are ceramics with spontaneous electric polarization, were conducted. Peak current densities of 30 to 120 mA/sq cm were obtained for pulse durations of about 500 ns in the 10(exp -4) Pa pressure range.

  5. Quantifying methane emission from fugitive sources by combining tracer release and downwind measurements – A sensitivity analysis based on multiple field surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob; Samuelsson, Jerker; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Using a dual species methane/acetylene instrument based on cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS), the dynamic plume tracer dispersion method for quantifying the emission rate of methane was successfully tested in four measurement campaigns: (1) controlled methane and trace gas release with different...... trace gas configurations, (2) landfill with unknown emission source locations, (3) landfill with closely located emission sources, and (4) comparing with an Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) instrument using multiple trace gasses for source separation. The new real-time, high precision...... instrument can measure methane plumes more than 1.2km away from small sources (about 5kgh−1) in urban areas with a measurement frequency allowing plume crossing at normal driving speed. The method can be used for quantification of total methane emissions from diffuse area sources down to 1kg per hour and can...

  6. In Situ Field Testing of Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Wang

    2001-12-14

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR.

  7. Analysis of single-hole and cross-hole tracer tests conducted at the Nye County early warning drilling program well complex, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, A.; Earle, J.D.; Fahy, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the effort to understand the flow and transport characteristics downgradient from the proposed high-level radioactive waste geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, single- and cross-hole tracer tests were conducted from December 2004 through October 2005 in boreholes at the Nye County 22 well complex. The results were analyzed for transport properties using both numerical and analytical solutions of the governing advection dispersion equation. Preliminary results indicate effective flow porosity values ranging from 1.0 ?? 10-2 for an individual flow path to 2.0 ?? 10 -1 for composite flow paths, longitudinal dispersivity ranging from 0.3 to 3 m, and a transverse horizontal dispersivity of 0.03 m. Individual flow paths identified from the cross-hole testing indicate some solute diffusion into the stagnant portion of the alluvial aquifer.

  8. 3X-100 blade field test.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas, Jose R.; Johnson, Wesley D.

    2008-03-01

    In support of a Work-For-Other (WFO) agreement between the Wind Energy Technology Department at Sandia National Laboratories and 3TEX, one of the three Micon 65/13M wind turbines at the USDA Agriculture Research Service (ARS) center in Bushland, Texas, has been used to test a set of 9 meter wind turbine blades, manufactured by TPI composites using the 3TEX carbon material for the spar cap. Data collected from the test has been analyzed to evaluate both the aerodynamic performance and the structural response from the blades. The blades aerodynamic and structural performance, the meteorological inflow and the wind turbine structural response has been monitored with an array of 57 instruments: 15 to characterize the blades, 13 to characterize inflow, and 15 to characterize the time-varying state of the turbine. For the test, data was sampled at a rate of 40 Hz using the ATLAS II (Accurate GPS Time-Linked Data Acquisition System) data acquisition system. The system features a time-synchronized continuous data stream and telemetered data from the turbine rotor. This paper documents the instruments and infrastructure that have been developed to monitor these blades, turbines and inflow, as well as both modeling and field testing results.

  9. IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S.Y. YANG

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes REV 02. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in REV 02 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what

  10. The fluorescent tracer experiment on Holiday Beach near Mugu Canyon, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, Nicole; Xu, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    After revisiting sand tracer techniques originally developed in the 1960s, a range of fluorescent coating formulations were tested in the laboratory. Explicit steps are presented for the preparation of the formulation evaluated to have superior attributes, a thermoplastic pigment/dye in a colloidal mixture with a vinyl chloride/vinyl acetate copolymer. In September 2010, 0.59 cubic meters of fluorescent tracer material was injected into the littoral zone about 4 kilometers upcoast of Mugu submarine canyon in California. The movement of tracer was monitored in three dimensions over the course of 4 days using manual and automated techniques. Detailed observations of the tracer's behavior in the coastal zone indicate that this tracer successfully mimicked the native beach sand and similar methods could be used to validate models of tracer movement in this type of environment. Recommendations including how to time successful tracer studies and how to scale the field of view of automated camera systems are presented along with the advantages and disadvantages of the described tracer methodology.

  11. Evaluation of modelling of the TRUE-1 radially converging and dipole tests with conservative tracers. The Aespoe task force on modelling of groundwater flow and transport of solutes. Tasks 4C and 4D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elert, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-05-01

    The `Aespoe task force on modelling of groundwater flow and transport of solutes` is a forum for the international organisations supporting the Aespoe HRL Project. The purpose of the Task Force is to interact in the area of conceptual and numerical modelling of groundwater flow and solute transport in fractured rock. Task 4 of the Aespoe Modelling Task Force consists of modelling exercises in support of the TRUE-1 tracer tests. In this report, the modelling work performed within Tasks 4C and 4D is evaluated, which comprised predictive modelling of the radially converging tracer tests and dipole tracer tests performed within the TRUE-1 tests using non-sorbing tracers. The tests were performed between packed off boreholes penetrating a water-conducting geological feature with a simple structure (Feature A). These tests are to a great extent preparatory steps for the subsequent tests with sorbing radioactive tracers. In Tasks 4E and 4F of the Aespoe Modelling Task Force predictive modelling of the sorbing tracer tests is performed. Eight modelling teams representing seven organisations have performed predictive modelling using different modelling approaches and models. The modelling groups were initially given data from the site characterisation and data on the experimental set-up of the tracer tests. Based on this information model predictions were performed of drawdown, tracer mass recovery and tracer breakthrough. The performed predictions shows that the concept of Feature A as a singular well-connected feature with limited connectivity to its surroundings is quite adequate for predictions of drawdown in boreholes and conservative tracer breakthrough. Reasonable estimates were obtained using relatively simple models. However, more elaborate models with calibration or conditioning of transmissivities and transport apertures are required for more accurate predictions. The general flow and transport processes are well understood, but the methodology to derive the

  12. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Behavior in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Reimus, P. W.; Newell, D.; Watson, Tom B.

    2010-06-01

    A recent report found that power and heat produced from engineered (or enhanced) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the United States while incurring minimal environmental impacts. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distributions, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for commercial development of geothermal energy. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. Modeling capabilities are being developed as part of this project to support laboratory and field testing to characterize engineered geothermal systems in single- and multi-well tests using tracers. The objective of this report is to describe the simulation plan and the status of model development for simulating tracer tests for characterizing EGS.

  13. FIELD TEST OF THE FLAME QUALITY INDICATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, Andrew M; Butcher, Thomas; Troost, Henry

    2003-02-04

    The flame quality indicator concept was developed at BNL specifically to monitor the brightness of the flame in a small oil burner and to provide a ''call for service'' notification when the brightness has changed from its setpoint, either high or low. In prior development work BNL has explored the response of this system to operational upsets such as excess air changes, fouled atomizer nozzles, poor fuel quality, etc. Insight Technologies, Inc. and Honeywell, Inc. have licensed this technology from the U.S. Department of Energy and have been cooperating to develop product offerings which meet industry needs with an optimal combination of function and price. Honeywell has recently completed the development of the Flame Quality Monitor (FQM or Honeywell QS7100F). This is a small module which connects via a serial cable to the burners primary operating control. Primary advantages of this approach are simplicity, cost, and ease of installation. Call-for-service conditions are output in the form of front panel indicator lights and contact closure which can trigger a range of external communication options. Under this project a field test was conducted of the FQM in cooperation with service organizations in Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut. At total of 83 field sites were included. At each site the FQM was installed in parallel with another embodiment of this concept--the Insight AFQI. The AFQI incorporates a modem and provides the ability to provide detailed information on the trends in the flame quality over the course of the two year test period. The test site population was comprised of 79.5% boilers, 13.7% warm air furnaces, and 6.8% water heaters. Nearly all were of residential size--with firing rates ranging from 0.6 gallons of oil per hour to 1.25. During the course of the test program the monitoring equipment successfully identified problems including: plugged fuel lines, fouled nozzles, collapsed combustion

  14. Cooperative field test program for wind systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollmeier, W.S. II; Dodge, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    The objectives of the Federal Wind Energy Program, managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), are (1) to assist industry and utilities in achieving a multi-regional US market penetration of wind systems, and (2) to establish the United States as the world leader in the development of advanced wind turbine technology. In 1984, the program conducted a series of planning workshops with representatives from the wind energy industry to obtain input on the Five-Year Research Plan then being prepared by DOE. One specific suggestion that came out of these meetings was that the federal program should conduct cooperative research tests with industry to enhance the technology transfer process. It was also felt that the active involvement of industry in DOE-funded research would improve the state of the art of wind turbine technology. DOE established the Cooperative Field Test Program (CFTP) in response to that suggestion. This program was one of the first in DOE to feature joint industry-government research test teams working toward common objectives.

  15. Assessing preferential flow by simultaneously injecting nanoparticle and chemical tracers

    KAUST Repository

    Subramanian, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    The exact manner in which preferential (e.g., much faster than average) flow occurs in the subsurface through small fractures or permeable connected pathways of other kinds is important to many processes but is difficult to determine, because most chemical tracers diffuse quickly enough from small flow channels that they appear to move more uniformly through the rock than they actually do. We show how preferential flow can be assessed by injecting 2 to 5 nm carbon particles (C-Dots) and an inert KBr chemical tracer at different flow rates into a permeable core channel that is surrounded by a less permeable matrix in laboratory apparatus of three different designs. When the KBr tracer has a long enough transit through the system to diffuse into the matrix, but the C-Dot tracer does not, the C-Dot tracer arrives first and the KBr tracer later, and the separation measures the degree of preferential flow. Tracer sequestration in the matrix can be estimated with a Peclet number, and this is useful for experiment design. A model is used to determine the best fitting core and matrix dispersion parameters and refine estimates of the core and matrix porosities. Almost the same parameter values explain all experiments. The methods demonstrated in the laboratory can be applied to field tests. If nanoparticles can be designed that do not stick while flowing through the subsurface, the methods presented here could be used to determine the degree of fracture control in natural environments, and this capability would have very wide ranging value and applicability.

  16. Statistical analysis and mathematical modeling of a tracer test on the Santa Clara River, Ventura County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Izbicki, John A.; Reichard, Eric G.

    1998-01-01

    To better understand flow processes, solute-transport processes, and ground-water/surface-water interactions on the Santa Clara River in Ventura County, California, a 24-hour fluorescent-dye tracer study was performed under steady-state flow conditions on a 28-mile reach of the river. The study reach includes perennial (uppermost and lowermost) subreaches and ephemeral subreaches of the lower Piru Creek and the middle Santa Clara River. Dye was injected at a site on Piru Creek, and fluorescence of river water was measured continuously at four sites and intermittently at two sites. Discharge measurements were also made at the six sites. The time of travel of the dye, peak dye concentration, and time-variance of time-concentration curves were obtained at each site. The long tails of the time-concentration curves are indicative of sources/sinks within the river, such as riffles and pools, or transient bank storage. A statistical analysis of the data indicates that, in general, the transport characteristics follow Fickian theory. These data and previously collected discharge data were used to calibrate a one-dimensional flow model (DAFLOW) and a solute-transport model (BLTM). DAFLOW solves a simplified form of the diffusion-wave equation and uses empirical relations between flow rate and cross-sectional area, and flow rate and channel width. BLTM uses the velocity data from DAFLOW and solves the advection-dispersion transport equation, including first-order decay. The simulations of dye transport indicated that (1) ground-water recharge explains the loss of dye mass in the middle, ephemeral, subreaches, and (2) ground-water recharge does not explain the loss of dye mass in the uppermost and lowermost, perennial, subreaches. This loss of mass was simulated using a linear decay term. The loss of mass in the perennial subreaches may be caused by a combination of photodecay or adsorption/desorption.

  17. Field operational tests of Smartway in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Kanazawa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Efforts are underway in Japan to promote “Smartway” next-generation roadways, which provide a variety of services through the use of advanced ITS technologies. In recent years, the National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management (NILIM, part of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT, has conducted public–private joint research on next-generation road services using ITS technologies. Field operational tests (FOTs of services including forward obstacle information provision and merging assistance using 5.8 GHz dedicated short range communication (DSRC were conducted on the Tokyo Metropolitan Expressway through FY2007. In FY2008–2009, FOTs were conducted in three major metropolitan areas—Tokyo, Nagoya, and Keihanshin (Kyoto, Osaka, and Kobe—to promote future deployment nationwide. These included tests of information provision services to alert drivers to forward obstacles hidden beyond the crest of an incline and prevent excessive speed on sharp curves. This paper presents an overview of these FOTs conducted by NILIM in recent years and their results.

  18. Combining Push Pull Tracer Tests and Microbial DNA and mRNA Analysis to Assess In-Situ Groundwater Nitrate Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, W.; Graham, W. D.; Huang, L.; Ogram, A.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen transformation mechanisms in the Upper Floridan Aquifer (UFA) are still poorly understood because of karst aquifer complexity and spatiotemporal variability in nitrate and carbon loading. Transformation rates have not been directly measured in the aquifer. This study quantifies nitrate-nitrogen transformation potential in the UFA using single well push-pull tracer injection (PPT) experiments combined with microbial characterization of extracted water via qPCR and RT-qPCR of selected nitrate reduction genes. Tracer tests with chloride and nitrate ± carbon were executed in two wells representing anoxic and oxic geochemical end members in a spring groundwater contributing area. A significant increase in number of microbes with carbon addition suggests stimulated growth. Increases in the activities of denitrification genes (nirK and nirS) as measured by RT-qPCR were not observed. However, only microbes suspended in the tracer were obtained, ignoring effects of aquifer material biofilms. Increases in nrfA mRNA and ammonia concentrations were observed, supporting Dissimilatory Reduction of Nitrate to Ammonia (DNRA) as a reduction mechanism. In the oxic aquifer, zero order nitrate loss rates ranged from 32 to 89 nmol /L*hr with no added carbon and 90 to 240 nmol /L*hr with carbon. In the anoxic aquifer, rates ranged from 18 to 95 nmol /L*hr with no added carbon and 34 to 207 nmol /L*hr with carbon. These loss rates are low; 13 orders of magnitude less than the loads applied in the contributing area each year, however they do indicate that losses can occur in oxic and anoxic aquifers with and without carbon. These rates may include, ammonia adsorption, uptake, or denitrification in aquifer material biofilms. Rates with and without carbon addition for both aquifers were similar, suggesting aquifer redox state and carbon availability alone are insufficient to predict response to nutrient additions without characterization of microbial response. Surprisingly, these

  19. Monitoring percolation of a conductive tracer, as a proxy for nitrate transport, through glacial till and fractured sandstone in the vadose zone underlying a potato field, using 3D cross-hole electrical resistivity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Butler, K. E.; Serban, D.; Petersen, B.; Grimmett, M.

    2016-12-01

    the ERI survey, conveyed tracer downward to a zone near top of weathered rock, which became more conductive over time. After 16 months, there is no ERI evidence of tracer migrating deeper than 8 m depth - a finding corroborated by the absence of any significant anomalies in a water conductivity logs measured 10 m downgradient of the tracer test site.

  20. PET tracers for somatostatin receptor imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnbeck, Camilla Bardram; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjær, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors have shown rising incidence mainly due to higher clinical awareness and better diagnostic tools over the last 30 years. Functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors with PET tracers is an evolving field that is continuously refining the affinity of new tracers in the search...... these PET tracers further....

  1. Analysis of a Multi-Well Tracer Test at a Bank Filtration Site in an Arid Environment of El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, A. N.; Langford, R.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Sheng, Z.

    2005-12-01

    River bank filtered water is an important component of the drinking water production in many areas of the world. In riverbank filtration, the removal of pathogens is an important task for the production of good quality drinking water. The hydrogeological factors and spatial changes in the water's microbiology during the transport from the river to the aquifer have important implications on the quality of the produced water. The goal of this study was to investigate riverbank infiltration effectiveness in arid environments such as that of El Paso, Texas. The hydrostratigraphic units and hydrogeologic conditions were characterized with lithologic samples obtained from all boreholes collected during the construction of twelve observation wells and one production well in the site, which were constructed near the artificial stream to provide geologic and hydrologic information. The shallow aquifer is composed of three unites: high hydraulic conductivity layers on the top and bottom, and low conductivity layer in the middle. In this study advective transport of microspheres was compared with a conservative tracer such as bromide. Bromide was injected into an observation well at the channel margin. Simultaneously, 1, 6 and 10 micron-diameter fluorescent microspheres equivalent to Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and bacteria sizes were injected into the stream bottom and two observation wells to assess the suitability of microspheres as abiotic analogs in future investigations involving the physical aspects of bacteria and protozoa transport behavior. The 17.8 day-tracer test provided valuable results that are relevant to the transport of pathogens through the subsurface under riverbank filtration conditions. The 1 micron-size microspheres were abundant in the pumping and observation wells and showed multiple peaks similar to the bromide results. Microspheres from the three injection sites had distinctly different transport paths and rates. The 6 and 10 micron-size microspheres

  2. Ground-penetrating radar images of a dye tracer test within the unsaturated zone at the Susquehanna-Shale Hills CZO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Lacey M.

    Dye tracer and time-lapse ground-penetrating radar (GPR) were used to image preferential flow paths in the shallow, unsaturated zone on hillslopes in two adjacent watersheds within the Susquehanna-Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (CZO). At each site we injected about 50 L of water mixed with brilliant blue dye (4 g/L) into a trench cut perpendicular to the slope (˜1.0 m long by ˜0.20 m wide by ˜0.20 m deep) to create a line of infiltration. GPR (800 MHz antennae with constant offset) was used to monitor the movement of the dye tracer downslope on a 1.0 m x 2.0 m grid with a 0.05 m line spacing. The site was then excavated and the stained pathways photographed to document the dye movement. We saw a considerable difference in the pattern of shallow preferential flow between the two sites despite similar soil characteristics and slope position. Both sites showed dye penetrating down to saprolite (˜0.40 m); however, lateral flow migration between the two sites was different. At the Missed Grouse field site, the lateral migration was ˜0.55 m as an evenly dispersed plume, but at distance of 0.70 m a finger of dye was observed. At the Shale Hills field site, the total lateral flow was ˜0.40 m, dye was barely visible until the excavation reached ˜0.10 m, and there was more evidence of distinct fingering in the vertical direction. Based on laboratory and field experiments as well as processing of the radargrams, the following conclusions were drawn: 1) time-lapse GPR successfully delineated the extent of lateral flow, but the GPR resolution was insufficient to detect small fingers of dye; 2) there was not a distinct GPR reflection at the regolith-saprock boundary, but this interface could be estimated from the extent of signal attenuation; 3) the preliminary soil moisture conditions may explain differences in the extent of infiltration at the two sites; 4) rapid infiltration into the underlying saprock limited the extent of shallow lateral flow at both sites and

  3. Top Zika Vaccine Candidate Moves Closer to Field Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161274.html Top Zika Vaccine Candidate Moves Closer to Field Testing DNA- ... MONDAY, Oct. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The leading Zika vaccine candidate should be ready for field testing ...

  4. Field Testing of Environmentally Friendly Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Burnett

    2009-05-31

    The Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program addresses new low-impact technology that reduces the footprint of drilling activities, integrates light weight drilling rigs with reduced emission engine packages, addresses on-site waste management, optimizes the systems to fit the needs of a specific development sites and provides stewardship of the environment. In addition, the program includes industry, the public, environmental organizations, and elected officials in a collaboration that addresses concerns on development of unconventional natural gas resources in environmentally sensitive areas. The EFD program provides the fundamentals to result in greater access, reasonable regulatory controls, lower development cost and reduction of the environmental footprint associated with operations for unconventional natural gas. Industry Sponsors have supported the program with significant financial and technical support. This final report compendium is organized into segments corresponding directly with the DOE approved scope of work for the term 2005-2009 (10 Sections). Each specific project is defined by (a) its goals, (b) its deliverable, and (c) its future direction. A web site has been established that contains all of these detailed engineering reports produced with their efforts. The goals of the project are to (1) identify critical enabling technologies for a prototype low-impact drilling system, (2) test the prototype systems in field laboratories, and (3) demonstrate the advanced technology to show how these practices would benefit the environment.

  5. Results of the fourth Hanna field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covell, J. R.; Wojdac, L. F.; Barbour, F. A.; Gardner, G. W.; Glass, R.; Hommert, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The second phase (Hanna IVB) of a coal gasification experiment near Hanna, Wyoming, was completed in September 1979. The experiment attempted to link and gasify coal between process wells spaced 34.3 meters apart. Intermediate wells were positioned between the process wells so that the link could be relayed over shorter distances. Reverse combustion linking was attempted over a 22.9-meter and a 11.4-meter distance of the total well spacing. Thermal activity was generally noted in the upper 3 meters of the coal seam during the link. Two attempts to gasify over the 34.3-meter distance resulted in the propagation of the burn front at the coal overburden interface. Post-burn evaluation indicates fractures as major influencing factors of the combustion process. The Hanna IVB field test provided much insight into influence that geologic features have on in situ coal combustion. The influence of these faults, permeable zones, and cleats, on the air flow patterns can drastically change the overall results of a gasification experiment and should be studied further. The overall results of Hanna IVB were discouraging because of the rapid decline in the heating values for the production gas and the amount of coal gasified. With more complete geologic characerization prior to experimentation and proper well completions, it is believed that most of the subsurface operational problems encountered during Hanna IV could have been avoided.

  6. Field Test Results on Natural Field IP Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the authors propose the natural field induced polarization (IP) method and present the way to pick up IP effect. The relations between the object and anomaly are studied by taking field experiments as examples. The effectiveness and usability of the method are testified.

  7. Tracers for Characterizing Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen Wright; George Redden; Carl D. Palmer; Harry Rollins; Mark Stone; Mason Harrup; Laurence C. Hull

    2010-02-01

    Information about the times of thermal breakthrough and subsequent rates of thermal drawdown in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is necessary for reservoir management, designing fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting economic return. Thermal breakthrough in heterogeneous porous media can be estimated using conservative tracers and assumptions about heat transfer rates; however, tracers that undergo temperature-dependent changes can provide more detailed information about the thermal profile along the flow path through the reservoir. To be effectively applied, the thermal reaction rates of such temperature sensitive traces must be well characterized for the range of conditions that exist in geothermal systems. Reactive tracers proposed in the literature include benzoic and carboxylic acids (Adams) and organic esters and amides (Robinson et al.); however, the practical temperature range over which these tracers can be applied (100-275°C) is somewhat limited. Further, for organic esters and amides, little is known about their sorption to the reservoir matrix and how such reactions impact data interpretation. Another approach involves tracers where the reference condition is internal to the tracer itself. Two examples are: 1) racemization of polymeric amino acids, and 2) mineral thermoluminescence. In these cases internal ratios of states are measured rather than extents of degradation and mass loss. Racemization of poly-L-lactic acid (for example) is temperature sensitive and therefore can be used as a temperature-recording tracer depending on the rates of racemization and stability of the amino acids. Heat-induced quenching of thermoluminescence of pre-irradiated LiF can also be used. To protect the tracers from alterations (extraneous reactions, dissolution) in geothermal environments we are encapsulating the tracers in core-shell colloidal structures that will subsequently be tested for their ability to be transported and to protect the

  8. Tracers for Characterizing Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen Wright; George Redden; Carl D. Palmer; Harry Rollins; Mark Stone; Mason Harrup; Laurence C. Hull

    2010-02-01

    Information about the times of thermal breakthrough and subsequent rates of thermal drawdown in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is necessary for reservoir management, designing fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting economic return. Thermal breakthrough in heterogeneous porous media can be estimated using conservative tracers and assumptions about heat transfer rates; however, tracers that undergo temperature-dependent changes can provide more detailed information about the thermal profile along the flow path through the reservoir. To be effectively applied, the thermal reaction rates of such temperature sensitive traces must be well characterized for the range of conditions that exist in geothermal systems. Reactive tracers proposed in the literature include benzoic and carboxylic acids (Adams) and organic esters and amides (Robinson et al.); however, the practical temperature range over which these tracers can be applied (100-275°C) is somewhat limited. Further, for organic esters and amides, little is known about their sorption to the reservoir matrix and how such reactions impact data interpretation. Another approach involves tracers where the reference condition is internal to the tracer itself. Two examples are: 1) racemization of polymeric amino acids, and 2) mineral thermoluminescence. In these cases internal ratios of states are measured rather than extents of degradation and mass loss. Racemization of poly-L-lactic acid (for example) is temperature sensitive and therefore can be used as a temperature-recording tracer depending on the rates of racemization and stability of the amino acids. Heat-induced quenching of thermoluminescence of pre-irradiated LiF can also be used. To protect the tracers from alterations (extraneous reactions, dissolution) in geothermal environments we are encapsulating the tracers in core-shell colloidal structures that will subsequently be tested for their ability to be transported and to protect the

  9. Transport of microbial tracers in clean and organically contaminated silica sand in laboratory columns compared with their transport in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Louise, E-mail: louise.weaver@esr.cri.nz; Sinton, Lester W.; Pang, Liping; Dann, Rod; Close, Murray

    2013-01-15

    Waste disposal on land and the consequent transport of bacterial and viral pathogens in soils and aquifers are of major concern worldwide. Pathogen transport can be enhanced in the presence of organic matter due to occupation of attachment sites in the aquifer materials thus preventing pathogen attachment leading to their faster transport for longer distances. Laboratory column studies were carried out to investigate the effect of organic matter, in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), on the transport of Escherichia coli and MS2 phage in saturated clean silica sand. Transport rates of these microbial tracers were also studied in a contaminated field site. Laboratory column studies showed that low concentrations (0.17 mg L{sup −1}) of DOC had little effect on E. coli J6-2 removal and slightly reduced the attachment of MS2 phage. After progressive conditioning of the column with DOC (1.7 mg L{sup −1} and 17 mg L{sup −1}), neither E. coli J6-2 nor MS2 phage showed any attachment and recovery rates increased dramatically (up to 100%). The results suggest that DOC can affect the transport rates of microbial contaminants. For E. coli J6-2 the predominant effect appeared to be an increase in the secondary energy minimum leading to an increase in E. coli attachment initially. However, after 17 mg L{sup −1} DOC conditioning of the silica sand no attachment of E. coli was observed as the DOC took up attachment sites in the porous media. MS2 phage appeared to be affected predominantly by out-competition of binding sites in the clean silica sand and a steady reduction in attachment was observed as the DOC conditioning increased. Field study showed a high removal of both E. coli and MS2 phage, although E. coli was removed at a lower rate than MS2 phage. In the field it is likely that a combination of effects are seen as the aquifer material will be heterogeneous in its surface nanoscale properties, demonstrated by the differing removal of E. coli and MS2 phage

  10. Characterisation of a DNAPL source zone in a porous aquifer using the Partitioning Interwell Tracer Test and an inverse modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Lotfi; Pollet, Ingrid; Razakarisoa, Olivier; Schäfer, Gerhard

    2009-06-26

    In this paper, we discuss the results of a Partitioning Interwell Tracer Test (PITT) performed in a large scale experiment with a well-defined TCE spill, and present a novel combined analytical-numerical inverse modelling approach using measured concentration profiles within a TCE plume to predict the distribution of the DNAPL in a virtual vertical plane of the source. The proposed inverse modelling approach assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium of the distribution of TCE between the NAPL phase and the aqueous phase and no decay or sorption of the dissolved TCE concentrations downstream of the spill area. The analytical part of the inverse modelling approach contains two steps. As a first step, the location of the contaminant in a virtual vertical plane of a porous medium is fixed by using measured concentration profiles and considering the dissolution of the organic phase under equilibrium conditions. In the second step, the volume of contaminant entrapped in the source cells is estimated. A multiphase advective-dispersive transport model is used in the final step to adjust the volumes quantified in the second step. The predictions are highly dependent on the quantity and quality of the data in space and time. From the PITT-breakthrough curves measured at the pumping well, a mean TCE saturation in the sweep zone of 0.0004 was derived, which is very low compared to that determined at the local scale. In a second analysis, tracer breakthrough curves available at measuring points placed closely downstream and upstream of the presumed source zone, were used to explain why the globally obtained DNAPL saturation was very low compared to the "real", locally evaluated TCE saturations in the source zone. This was principally caused by the overall travel time compared to the short travel time of the tracers in the source zone. Another reason is that due to bypassing, only part of the volume of tracer injected had been in contact and had eventually interacted with the

  11. Interactive Diagnostic Testing: Field Trial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, David L.; Cabello, Beverly

    A diagnostic testing system managed by microcomputer was evaluated in actual use at the upper elementary level. Two tests specifically designed to yield diagnostic indicators of erroneous performance were utilized, one a test of pronoun usage, the other a test of reading comprehension. The results are interpreted from the standpoint of the…

  12. Application of neutron activation tracer sediment technique on environmental science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YinYi; ZhongWei-Ni; 等

    1997-01-01

    Field and laboratory inverstigations were carried out to study the transport and dispersion law of polluted sediments near wastewater outlet using neutron activation tracer technique.The direction of transport and dispersion of polluted sediments,dispersion amount in different directions,sedimentary region of polluted sediment and evaluation of polluted risk are given.This provided a new test method for the study of environmental science and added a new forecasted content for the evaluation of environmental influence.

  13. Analysis of multicomopnent groundwater flow in karst aquifer by CFC, tritium, tracer test and modelling, case study at Skaistkalnes vicinity, Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikshe, Janis; Babre, Alise; Delina, Aija; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater in karst environments tends to have difficulties to distinguish multiple flows if several sources of water are present. Skaistkalne vicinity faces with such situation where old groundwater, fresh groundwater and inflow from river Iecava occurs. Attempts were made to distinguish groundwater residence time of multiple components of water applying CFC and tritium dating techniques supplied by tracer test and numerical model of study area. Study area covers territory between two rivers Iecava and Memele with water level difference of 7 meters and horizontal distance of 2.2 kilometres between both. Study area consists of karst affected Devonian gypsum and carbonaceous rocks covered by Quaternary low to high permeable deposits. Confined groundwater at depth of 10-25 meters where analysed by CFC's and tritium. At this depth groundwater exhibits anoxic reducing environment that has caused degradation of CFC's at similar degree in all samples. Taking it into account, mean residence time based on CFC piston flow model is 22 - 42 years and 28 - 34 years based on binary mixing model. Tritium results show signs of incensement of groundwater residence time towards discharge area. CFC combined with tritium proved increased vertical velocity in middle part between the rivers likely caused by hydrogeological window in Quaternary deposits created by karst processes. Numerical model (Delina et al. 2012) was applied and calculations yielded groundwater flow velocity rate at 0.3 - 1 m/day in area between the rivers. Investigation of CFC data resulted in possible groundwater flow rate of at a minimum of 0.2 m/day although it's not applicable to all sampled wells due to specific hydrogeological conditions. Tracer test was made between the rivers in order to distinguish main water flow paths and flow velocity. Results showed that very high permeable conduits connect rivers and karst lakes with velocity rates of 800 - 1300 m/day. Complex investigation leads to conclude that

  14. Packet Tracer network simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Jesin, A

    2014-01-01

    A practical, fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to successfully create networks and simulate them using Packet Tracer.Packet Tracer Network Simulator is aimed at students, instructors, and network administrators who wish to use this simulator to learn how to perform networking instead of investing in expensive, specialized hardware. This book assumes that you have a good amount of Cisco networking knowledge, and it will focus more on Packet Tracer rather than networking.

  15. The four-meter confrontation visual field test.

    OpenAIRE

    Kodsi, S R; Younge, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    The 4-m confrontation visual field test has been successfully used at the Mayo Clinic for many years in addition to the standard 0.5-m confrontation visual field test. The 4-m confrontation visual field test is a test of macular function and can identify small central or paracentral scotomas that the examiner may not find when the patient is tested only at 0.5 m. Also, macular sparing in homonymous hemianopias and quadrantanopias may be identified with the 4-m confrontation visual field test....

  16. Test of Nonlocality with an Atom-Field Entangled State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2002-01-01

    We propose a scheme for the test of nonlocality with atom-field entanglement. An atom is sent through a cavity filled with a coherent field with a small amplitude. The dispersive interaction leads to atom-field entanglement.Then the field is driven by a classical current. The Bell inequality can be tested by the joint measurement of the parity of the field and the atomic state.

  17. Field Accuracy Test of Rpas Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, P.; Coakley, R.

    2013-08-01

    Baseline Surveys Ltd is a company which specialises in the supply of accurate geospatial data, such as cadastral, topographic and engineering survey data to commercial and government bodies. Baseline Surveys Ltd invested in aerial drone photogrammetric technology and had a requirement to establish the spatial accuracy of the geographic data derived from our unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry before marketing our new aerial mapping service. Having supplied the construction industry with survey data for over 20 years, we felt that is was crucial for our clients to clearly understand the accuracy of our photogrammetry so they can safely make informed spatial decisions, within the known accuracy limitations of our data. This information would also inform us on how and where UAV photogrammetry can be utilised. What we wanted to find out was the actual accuracy that can be reliably achieved using a UAV to collect data under field conditions throughout a 2 Ha site. We flew a UAV over the test area in a "lawnmower track" pattern with an 80% front and 80% side overlap; we placed 45 ground markers as check points and surveyed them in using network Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK GPS). We specifically designed the ground markers to meet our accuracy needs. We established 10 separate ground markers as control points and inputted these into our photo modelling software, Agisoft PhotoScan. The remaining GPS coordinated check point data were added later in ArcMap to the completed orthomosaic and digital elevation model so we could accurately compare the UAV photogrammetry XYZ data with the RTK GPS XYZ data at highly reliable common points. The accuracy we achieved throughout the 45 check points was 95% reliably within 41 mm horizontally and 68 mm vertically and with an 11.7 mm ground sample distance taken from a flight altitude above ground level of 90 m.The area covered by one image was 70.2 m × 46.4 m, which equals 0.325 Ha. This finding has shown

  18. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rossi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra. In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  19. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P.; Dörfliger, N.; Kennedy, K.; Müller, I.; Aragno, M.

    Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra). In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  20. Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) Hardware Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Reed, Dave; Wang, Chung; Stuckey, Bob; Cox, Dave

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study are threefold: (1) Provide insight into water delivery in microgravity and determine optimal germination paper wetting for subsequent seed germination in microgravity; (2) Observe the behavior of water exposed to a strong localized magnetic field in microgravity; and (3) Simulate the flow of fixative (using water) through the hardware. The Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) is a new piece of hardware slated to fly on the Space Shuttle in early 2001. MFA is designed to expose plant tissue to magnets in a microgravity environment, deliver water to the plant tissue, record photographic images of plant tissue, and deliver fixative to the plant tissue.

  1. Field Cone Penetration Tests with Various Penetration Rates - Test Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The test site is located at Nordre Ringgade near the town called Dronninglund in the northern Jutland in Denmark. The site area is relatively flat, and was chosen because it has a size of approximately 3 ha and contains a relatively thick deposit of silty soils. Furthermore the groundwater...... was encountered at approximately 0.2-0.6 m below the ground level. The soil stratigraphy of the test site was before test start identified by geotechnical borings results. The geotechnical borings indicated that the site contains of sandy silt with clay stripes from approx. 4.0 to 10 m. In the top the silty soil...... is very sandy with few clay stripes, and gradually the clay stripes increases wherefore the soil from approx. 10 m contains of clay with sandy silt stripes. Large soil sample was also collected from the test site in order to determine basic soil properties in the laboratory....

  2. Tracer-based prediction of thermal reservoir lifetime: scope, limitations, and the role of thermosensitive tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergut, I.; Behrens, H.; Karmakar, S.; Licha, T.; Nottebohm, M.; Sauter, M.

    2012-04-01

    Thermal-lifetime prediction is a traditional endeavour of inter-well tracer tests conducted in geothermal reservoirs. Early tracer test signals (detectable within the first few years of operation) are expected to correlate with late-time production temperature evolutions ('thermal breakthrough', supposed to not occur before some decades of operation) of a geothermal reservoir. Whenever a geothermal reservoir can be described as a single-fracture system, its thermal lifetime will, ideally, be determined by two parameters (say, fracture aperture and porosity), whose inversion from conservative-tracer test signals is straightforward and non-ambiguous (provided that the tracer tests, and their interpretation, are performed in accordance to the rules of the art). However, as soon as only 'few more' fractures are considered, this clear-cut correlation is broken. A given geothermal reservoir can simultaneously feature a single-fracture behaviour, in terms of heat transport, and a multiple-fracture behaviour, in terms of solute tracer transport (or vice-versa), whose effective values of fracture apertures, spacings, and porosities are essentially uncorrelated between heat and solute tracers. Solute transport parameters derived from conservative-tracer tests will no longer characterize the heat transport processes (and thus temperature evolutions) taking place in the same reservoir. Parameters determining its thermal lifetime will remain 'invisible' to conservative tracers in inter-well tests. We demonstrate this issue at the example of a five-fracture system, representing a deep-geothermal reservoir, with well-doublet placement inducing fluid flow 'obliquely' to the fractures. Thermal breakthrough in this system is found to strongly depend on fracture apertures, whereas conservative-solute tracer signals from inter-well tests in the same system do not show a clear-cut correlation with fracture apertures. Only by using thermosensitive substances as tracers, a reliable

  3. Testing fine sediment connectivity hypotheses using fallout radionuclide tracers in a small catchment with badlands. Vallcebre Research Catchments (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart, Francesc; Latron, Jérôme; Vuolo, Diego; Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Pérez-Gallego, Nuria; Ferrer, Laura; Estrany, Joan

    2016-04-01

    . Indeed, long residence time of stream bed sediments allowing FRN accumulation is suggested by (i) fine in-stream sediment activities higher than those measured at their sources and (ii) increasing activities downstream. Results showed a more intricate behaviour than expected. Pbx-210 activities of fine bed and suspended sediments were usually below detectable levels or had large uncertainty bounds, confirming that they come mainly from fresh rocks but making difficult the hypotheses testing. Fine sediments on the stream beds had low activities in contradiction with hypothesis 2. Activities of in-stream suspended sediments partly followed hypothesis 1 but they decreased with the increasing capacity of runoff events to mobilise low-activity sediments from the stream bed. Shorter-lived Be-7 activity was detectable only on badland regoliths and suspended sediments, with activities increasing downstream; this cannot be attributed to the accumulation of FRN in old sediments, because of the short life of Be-7. Instead, fine bed sediments might be brought into suspension by raindrop impacts, and most of the FRN content of these raindrops would be flushed with the suspended sediment, impeding its accumulation on bed sediments and disabling hypothesis 2. Overall, several lines of evidence suggest that FRNs were quickly sequestered by the more dynamic sediment particles, preventing its accumulation on coarser sediment particles and surfaces exposed to overland or stream flow.

  4. Using Tracer Technology to Characterize Contaminated Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maresca, Joseph, W., Jr., Ph.D.; Bratton, Wesley, L., Ph.D., P.E.; Dickerson, Wilhelmina; Hales, Rochelle

    2005-12-30

    The Pipeline Characterization Using Tracers (PCUT) technique uses conservative and partitioning, reactive or other interactive tracers to remotely determine the amount of contaminant within a run of piping or ductwork. The PCUT system was motivated by a method that has been successfully used to characterize subsurface soil contaminants and is similar in operation to that of a gas chromatography column. By injecting a ?slug? of both conservative and partitioning tracers at one end (or section) of the piping and measuring the time history of the concentration of the tracers at the other end (or another section) of the pipe, the presence, location, and amount of contaminant within the pipe or duct can be determined. The tracers are transported along the pipe or duct by a gas flow field, typically air or nitrogen, which has a velocity that is slow enough so that the partitioning tracer has time to interact with the contaminant before the tracer slug completely passes over the contaminate region. PCUT not only identifies the presence of contamination, it also can locate the contamination along the pipeline and quantify the amount of residual. PCUT can be used in support of deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of piping and ducts that may have been contaminated with hazardous chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, radioactive materials, or heavy metals, such as mercury.

  5. An uncertainty inclusive un-mixing model to identify tracer non-conservativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Franks, Stewart; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Phil; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.

    2015-04-01

    uncertainty was only marginally impacted by the corrupted tracer. Improvement of uncertainty resulted from increasing the number of tracers in both the perfect and corrupted datasets. FR2000 was capable of detecting non-conservative tracer behaviour within the range of mean source values, therefore, it provided a more sensitive screening technique than assessing target values against source data. Non-conservative behaviour was identified in field data however only at a significant degree of corruption. Whilst further testing is required to determine the impact of individual and combined uncertainty components on synthetic, controlled experiments and field data, this study provides a framework for future assessment of uncertainty in un-mixing models.

  6. Applicability of slug interference tests under Hanford Site test conditions: Analytical assessment and field test evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    Slug interference testing may be a useful technique for characterizing the hydraulic properties of high conductivity formations where problems associated with disposal of contaminated ground water make pumping tests undesirable. The suitability of the slug interference method for characterizing the unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site was evaluated in a two-phase investigation. The first phase consisted of an analytical assessment. Slug interference responses were predicted over the range of conditions expected for the aquifer. The effects of partial penetration, delayed-yield and aquifer anisotropy on expected test results were also evaluated and possible analytical corrections are presented. The field test evaluation was conducted at a site with two observation wells and a stress well. Results verified the analytical evaluation and gave reasonable values of hydraulic conductivity and storativity. Test design considerations that optimize the observed response are discussed.

  7. Development and characterization of food-grade tracers for the global grain tracing and recall system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Armstrong, Paul R; Thomasson, J Alex; Sui, Ruixiu; Casada, Mark; Herrman, Timothy J

    2010-10-27

    Tracing grain from the farm to its final processing destination as it moves through multiple grain-handling systems, storage bins, and bulk carriers presents numerous challenges to existing record-keeping systems. This study examines the suitability of coded caplets to trace grain, in particular, to evaluate methodology to test tracers' ability to withstand the rigors of a commercial grain handling and storage systems as defined by physical properties using measurement technology commonly applied to assess grain hardness and end-use properties. Three types of tracers to dispense into bulk grains for tracing the grain back to its field of origin were developed using three food-grade substances [processed sugar, pregelatinized starch, and silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC)] as a major component in formulations. Due to a different functionality of formulations, the manufacturing process conditions varied for each tracer type, resulting in unique variations in surface roughness, weight, dimensions, and physical and spectroscopic properties before and after coating. The applied two types of coating [pregelatinized starch and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)] using an aqueous coating system containing appropriate plasticizers showed uniform coverage and clear coating. Coating appeared to act as a barrier against moisture penetration, to protect against mechanical damage of the surface of the tracers, and to improve the mechanical strength of tracers. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests showed the type of tracer, coating material, conditioning time, and a theoretical weight gain significantly influenced the morphological and physical properties of tracers. Optimization of these factors needs to be pursued to produce desirable tracers with consistent quality and performance when they flow with bulk grains throughout the grain marketing channels.

  8. Field tests of the mobile robot Sherpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaucourt, P. de; Garrec, P.; Morganti, P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes et Systemes Avances; Trouville, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France); Lucibello, P.; Nobile, M. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Direzione Studi

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes recent demonstrations of the transport capabilities, inside nuclear buildings, of the six egged robot SHERPA, developed by the CEA (Atomic Energy Commission) robotic team. Results of the tests carried out at Chooz-B and Trino Vercellesse Nuclear Power Plants, respectively in June 1993 and in January 1994, in the framework of the European Community TELEMAN Programme, are presented. (authors). 10 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Collective Protection (ColPro) Field Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing...data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this... meiosis level, as defined by the test item specification. The ppbRAE®-like instruments may have a detection range of 1 to 9,999 mg/m3, accurate within

  10. Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangiacomo, L.A.

    1999-05-28

    The Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box is a seal assembly for polished rod pumping installations commonly used in oil and gas pumping well installations to contain produced well fluids. The improved stuffing box was developed and patented by Harold H. Palmour of The Palmour Group of Livingston, TX. The stuffing box is designed to reduce the incidence of seal leakage and to utilize an environmentally safe fluid, so that if there is any leakage, environmental damage is reduced or eliminated. The unit was tested on two wells at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. During the test period, the performance of the stuffing box was measured by monitoring the pressure on the tubing and the inner chamber with a Barton Two-pen recorder. The amount of safe fluid consumed, fluid leakage at the top of the stuffing box, pressure supplied from the nitrogen bottle, ambient temperature, and polish rod temperature was recorded. The stuffing box is capable of providing a better seal between well fluids an d the environment than conventional stuffing boxes. It allows the polished rod to operate cooler and with lubrication, extending the life of the packing elements, and reducing the amount of attention required to prevent leakage.

  11. Development of Radon-222 as Natural Tracer for Monitoring the Remediation of NAPL in the Subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian M. Davis; Lewis Semprini; Jonathan Istok

    2003-02-27

    Naturally occurring 222-radon in ground water can potentially be used as an in situ partitioning tracer to characterize dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) saturations. The static method involves comparing radon concentrations in water samples from DNAPL-contaminated and non-contaminated portions of an aquifer. During a push-pull test, a known volume of test solution (radon-free water containing a conservation tracer) is first injected (''pushed'') into a well; flow is then reversed and the test solution/groundwater mixture is extracted (''pulled'') from the same well. In the presence of NAPL radon transport is retarded relative to the conservative tracer. Assuming linear equilibrium partitioning, retardation factors for radon can be used to estimate NAPL saturations.The utility of this methodology was evaluated in laboratory and field settings.

  12. Performance analysis in Japanese field test program; Field test data kara no chiiki hatsuden kaiseki hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, H.; Kurokawa, K.; Uchida, D. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Otani, K.; Sakuta, K.; Tsuda, I. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Oshiro, T.; Sakamoto, K. [Japan Quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Power generation characteristics are investigated using data collected in photovoltaic power generation field tests being undertaken by NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization). The photovoltaic power generation system performance is evaluated by examining loss factors leading to degradation in system performance, with weather conditions such as variation in insolation and air temperature, inverter performance, and shadows cast by surrounding buildings taken into consideration. As the result, it is found that the important loss factors are degradation in module performance due to elevated temperature, drift in the maximum output control, degraded inverter performance due to input power variation, effect of shadows, etc. It is learned that system is greatly affected by degradation in module performance due to increased temperature in summer and by shadows in winter, the two being responsible for the output coefficient dropping to approximately 75% throughout the year. The output coefficient frequency distribution charts for the 75 test sites confirm that the rate is as low as 70-80% at many sites. As for the system operating time, it tends to be longer in West Japan where the annual insolation rate is higher. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Residual-oil-saturation-technology test, Bell Creek Field, Montana. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    A field test was conducted of the technology available to measure residual oil saturation following waterflood secondary oil recovery processes. The test was conducted in a new well drilled solely for that purpose, located immediately northwest of the Bell Creek Micellar Polymer Pilot. The area where the test was conducted was originally drilled during 1968, produced by primary until late 1970, and was under line drive waterflood secondary recovery until early 1976, when the area was shut in at waterflood depletion. This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine waterflood residual oil saturation in the Muddy Sandstone reservoir. The engineering techniques used to determine the magnitude and distribution of the remaining oil saturation included both pressure and sidewall cores, conventional well logs (Dual Laterolog - Micro Spherically Focused Log, Dual Induction Log - Spherically Focused Log, Borehole Compensated Sonic Log, Formation Compensated Density-Compensated Neutron Log), Carbon-Oxygen Logs, Dielectric Logs, Nuclear Magnetism Log, Thermal Decay Time Logs, and a Partitioning Tracer Test.

  14. Transformationally decoupling clustering and tracer bias

    CERN Document Server

    Neyrinck, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Gaussianizing transformations are used statistically in many non-cosmological fields, but in cosmology, we are only starting to apply them. Here I explain a strategy of analyzing the 1-point function (PDF) of a spatial field, together with the 'essential' clustering statistics of the Gaussianized field, which are invariant to a local transformation. In cosmology, if the tracer sampling is sufficient, this achieves two important goals. First, it can greatly multiply the Fisher information, which is negligible on nonlinear scales in the usual $\\delta$ statistics. Second, it decouples clustering statistics from a local bias description for tracers such as galaxies.

  15. Brahms Mobile Agents: Architecture and Field Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Kaskiris, Charis; vanHoof, Ron

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a model-based, distributed architecture that integrates diverse components in a system designed for lunar and planetary surface operations: an astronaut's space suit, cameras, rover/All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV), robotic assistant, other personnel in a local habitat, and a remote mission support team (with time delay). Software processes, called agents, implemented in the Brahms language, run on multiple, mobile platforms. These mobile agents interpret and transform available data to help people and robotic systems coordinate their actions to make operations more safe and efficient. The Brahms-based mobile agent architecture (MAA) uses a novel combination of agent types so the software agents may understand and facilitate communications between people and between system components. A state-of-the-art spoken dialogue interface is integrated with Brahms models, supporting a speech-driven field observation record and rover command system (e.g., return here later and bring this back to the habitat ). This combination of agents, rover, and model-based spoken dialogue interface constitutes a personal assistant. An important aspect of the methodology involves first simulating the entire system in Brahms, then configuring the agents into a run-time system.

  16. Karst Groundwater Tracer Test and Analysis of Peak Forest Plain Area in Eastern Guilin%桂林东区峰林平原岩溶地下水示踪试验与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王开然; 姜光辉; 郭芳; 周文亮; 陈国富; 梁毅

    2013-01-01

    In order to find out the groundwater system structure characteristics of Peak Forest plain, based on the karst hydrogeology survey, and through the artificial sampling and using high resolution field fluorescence spectrometer, the reception of the injected tracer sodium fluorescein in Peak Forest plain of eastern Guilin was detected. The results showed as follows. The plain area of groundwater was exposed mainly in ditches, lakes and wells; and the injected tracer of the number 1 point appeared after 22 days; the maximum flow rate was 19. 5 m/d, with an average flow rate of 4. 9 m/d; in this test section the groundwater runoff belonged to typical face-like flow pattern, and the karst aquifer media was developed even. The district had a high karstification degree of karst aquifer structure, presenting network-like; there was a uniform water level, and karst development was relatively uniform, as well as large fissures or even large-scale pipelines and underground river system, easy for the formation of karst groundwater preferential flow.%为查明桂林东区峰林平原地下水系统的结构特征,在岩溶水文地质调查的基础上,通过人工取样并采用高分辨率野外荧光仪,对桂林东区峰林平原区投放的示踪剂荧光素钠的接收情况进行检测.结果表明:峰林平原区地下水的出露比较多,主要以沟渠、湖塘、民井等为主,其中1号点初现时间为第22天,最大视流速为19.5 m/d,平均视流速4.9 m/d,说明本试验段内地下径流为典型的面状流态,岩溶含水介质比较均匀.峰林平原区岩溶含水层结构岩溶化程度很高,呈网络状,存在统一的地下水位,岩溶发育较均一,同时也存在较大的裂隙甚至较大规模的管道和地下河系统,容易形成岩溶地下水优先流.

  17. Test of QED at critical field strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bula, C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In a new experiment at the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC, a low-emittance 46.6 GeV electron beam is brought into collisions with terawatt pulses of 1054 nm or 527 nm wavelength from a Nd:glass laser. Peak laser intensities of 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} have been achieved corresponding to a value of 0.6 for the parameter {eta} = e{epsilon}/m{omega}{sub 0}c. In this case, an electron that crosses the center of the laser pulse has near-unit interaction probability. Results are presented for multiphoton Compton scattering in which an electron interacts with up to four laser photons, in agreement with theoretical calculations.

  18. Tracer diffusion inside fibrinogen layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Michał; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Sagués, Francesc; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the obstructed motion of tracer (test) particles in crowded environments by carrying simulations of two-dimensional Gaussian random walk in model fibrinogen monolayers of different orientational ordering. The fibrinogen molecules are significantly anisotropic and therefore they can form structures where orientational ordering, similar to the one observed in nematic liquid crystals, appears. The work focuses on the dependence between level of the orientational order (degree of environmental crowding) of fibrinogen molecules inside a layer and non-Fickian character of the diffusion process of spherical tracer particles moving within the domain. It is shown that in general particles motion is subdiffusive and strongly anisotropic, and its characteristic features significantly change with the orientational order parameter, concentration of fibrinogens, and radius of a diffusing probe.

  19. Tracer diffusion inside fibrinogen layers

    CERN Document Server

    Cieśla, Michał; Sagués, Francesc; Sokolov, Igor M

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the motion of tracer (test) particles in crowded environments by carrying simulations of two-dimensional Gaussian random walk in model fibrinogen monolayers of different orientational ordering. The fibrinogen molecules are significantly anisotropic and therefore they can form structures where orientational ordering, similar to the one observed in nematic liquid crystals, appears. The work focuses on the dependence between level of the orientational order (degree of environmental crowding) of fibrinogen molecules inside a layer and non-Fickian character of the diffusion process of spherical tracer particles moving within the domain. It is shown that in general particles motion is subdiffusive and strongly anisotropic, and its characteristic features significantly change with the orientational order parameter, concentration of fibrinogens and radius of a diffusing probe.

  20. REAL-TIME TRACER MONITORING OF RESERVOIR STIMULATION PROCEDURES VIA ELECTRONIC WIRELINE AND TELEMETRY DATA TRANSMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Scott III

    2003-08-01

    Ongoing Phase 2-3 work comprises the final development and field-testing of two complementary real-time reservoir technologies; a stimulation process and a tracer fracturing diagnostic system. Initial DE-FC26-99FT40129 project work included research, development, and testing of the patented gamma tracer fracturing diagnostic system. This process was field-proven to be technically useful in providing tracer measurement of fracture height while fracturing; however, technical licensing restrictions blocked Realtimezone from fully field-testing this real-time gamma diagnostic system, as originally planned. Said restrictions were encountered during Phase 2 field test work as result of licensing limitations and potential conflicts between service companies participating in project work, as related to their gamma tracer logging tool technology. Phase 3 work principally demonstrated field-testing of Realtimezone (RTZ) and NETL's Downhole-mixed Reservoir Stimulation process. Early on, the simplicity of and success of downhole-mixing was evident from well tests, which were made commercially productive. A downhole-mixed acid stimulation process was tested successfully and is currently commercially used in Canada. The fourth well test was aborted due to well bore conditions, and an alternate test project is scheduled April, 2004. Realtimezone continues to effectuate ongoing patent protection in the United States and foreign markets. In 2002, Realtimezone and the NETL licensed their United States patent to Halliburton Energy Services (HES). Additional licensing arrangements with other industry companies are anticipated in 2004-2005. Ongoing Phase 2 and Phase 3 field-testing continues to confirm applications of both real-time technologies. Technical data transfer to industry is ongoing via Internet tech-transfer and various industry presentations and publications including Society of Petroleum Engineers. These real-time enhanced stimulation procedures should significantly

  1. Role of energy systems in two intermittent field tests in women field hockey players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Visscher, Susan H.

    2006-01-01

    The energetics of 2 field tests that reflect physical performance in intermittent sports (i.e., the Interval Shuttle Sprint Test [ISST] and the Interval Shuttle Run Test [ISRT]) were examined in 21 women field hockey players. The ISST required the players to perform 10 shuttle sprints starting every

  2. Test-field method for mean-field coefficients with MHD background

    CERN Document Server

    Rheinhardt, M

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The test-field method for computing turbulent transport coefficients from simulations of hydromagnetic flows is extended to the regime with a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) background. Methods: A generalized set of test equations is derived using both the induction equation and a modified momentum equation. By employing an additional set of auxiliary equations, we derive linear equations describing the response of the system to a set of prescribed test fields. Purely magnetic and MHD backgrounds are emulated by applying an electromotive force in the induction equation analogously to the ponderomotive force in the momentum equation. Both forces are chosen to have Roberts flow-like geometry. Results: Examples with an MHD background are studied where the previously used quasi-kinematic test-field method breaks down. In cases with homogeneous mean fields it is shown that the generalized test-field method produces the same results as the imposed-field method, where the field-aligned component of the actual electr...

  3. Toward a model for field-testing patient decision-support technologies : a qualitative field-testing study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, R.; Elwyn, G.; Edwards, A.; Watson, E.; Austoker, J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Field-testing is a quality assurance criterion in the development of patient decision-support technologies (PDSTs), as identified in the consensus statement of the International Patient Decision Aids Standards Collaboration. We incorporated field-testing into the development of a Web-bas

  4. Atmospheric monitoring of a perfluorocarbon tracer at the 2009 ZERT Center experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekney, Natalie; Wells, Arthur; Rodney Diehl, J.; McNeil, Matthew; Lesko, Natalie; Armstrong, James; Ference, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Field experiments at Montana State University are conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Zero Emissions Research and Technology Center (ZERT) to test and verify monitoring techniques for carbon capture and storage (CCS). A controlled release of CO 2 with an added perfluorocarbon tracer was conducted in July 2009 in a multi-laboratory study of atmospheric transport and detection technologies. Tracer plume dispersion was measured with various meteorological conditions using a tethered balloon system with Multi-Tube Remote Samplers (MTRS) at elevations of 10 m, 20 m, and 40 m above ground level (AGL), as well as a ground-based portable tower with monitors containing sorbent material to collect the tracer at 1 m, 2 m, 3 m, and 4 m AGL. Researchers designed a horizontal grid of sampling locations centered at the tracer plume source, with the tower positioned at 10 m and 30 m in both upwind and downwind directions, and the MTRS spaced at 50 m and 90 m downwind and 90 m upwind. Tracer was consistently detected at elevated concentrations at downwind sampling locations. With very few exceptions, higher tracer concentrations correlated with lower elevations. Researchers observed no statistical difference between sampling at 50 m and 90 m downwind at the same elevation. The US EPA AERMOD model applied using site-specific information predicted transport and dispersion of the tracer. Model results are compared to experimental data from the 2009 ZERT experiment. Successful characterization of the tracer plume simulated by the ZERT experiment is considered a step toward demonstrating the feasibility of remote sampling with unmanned aerial systems (UAS's) at future sequestration sites.

  5. ROPS performance during field upset and static testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J R; McKenzie, E A; Etherton, J R; Cantis, D M; Ronaghi, M

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture remains one of the most hazardous occupations in the U.S. By conservative estimates, tractor overturns alone claim 120 lives annually. A rollover protective structure (ROPS) and a seatbelt are a highly effective engineering safety control that can prevent many of these fatalities and reduce the severity of injuries associated with tractor overturn. SAE J2194 is a consensus performance standard established for agricultural ROPS. According to this standard, satisfactory ROPS performance can be demonstrated through static testing, field upset testing, or impact testing. A previous modeling study suggested that static testing may underpredict the strain induced in a ROPS during afield upset. In the current study, field upset testing and laboratory static testing results were compared. Field upset testing included six rear and six side upset tests performed according to SAE J2194 guidelines. Additionally, static testing was performed on a ROPS of the same model. The results support findings from the modeling study. Near the lowest sections of the ROPS, the plastic strain resulting from rear upset testing exceeded the plastic strain from static testing for 18 of 24 data points. Conversely, the ROPS plastic strain from side upset testing was typically less than plastic strain from laboratory static testing. However, data indicate that the side upset test may not be very repeatable. This study suggests that the longitudinal loading energy criterion for static testing might not be a conservative predictor of rear upset ROPS response.

  6. Experiences with the use of conservative tracers as an aid in transferring lysimeter results to the open field; Erfahrungen beim Einsatz von konservativen Tracern als Hilfsmittel zur Uebertragung von Lysimeterergebnissen auf Freilandflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, J.; Meissner, R.; Rupp, H. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Falkenberg (Germany). Lysimeterstation; Mueller, L.; Eulenstein, F. [Zentrum fuer Agrarlandschafts- und Landnutzungsforschung e.V. (ZALF), Muencheberg (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    Four lysimeter trials performed on an IS-type soil yielded an almost constant range of displacement of a tracer front (NO{sub 3} front) of 4.0 to 4.5 mm / l of seepage water (referred to a surface area of 1 m-2 and a depth of 1 m). This was experimental confirmation of a tentatively formulated simplified relationship between seepage water volume, vertical tracer displacement, and field capacity. The results were also in very good agreement with those of a control study in the open field carried out under similar hydrological, pedological, and agrotechnical conditions using lysimeters and Cl tracers for determining quantities of seepage water formation. As the present lysimeter trials mirror soil hydrological processes in the open field with sufficient accuracy, they appear well suited to take the place of the so often lacking territorial data as a means of validating mathematical models describing seepage-water-bound material export. [Deutsch] Auf der Basis von 4 Lysimeterversuchen konnte fuer die Bodenart IS ein nahezu konstanter Wertebereich fuer die Verlagerung einer Tracerfront (NO{sub 3}-Front) in Hoehe von 4,0 bis 4,5 mm/l Sickerwasser (bezogen auf eine Oberflaeche von 1 m{sup 2} und eine Tiefe von 1 m) ermittelt werden. Damit konnte die vereinfachte Beziehung zwischen Sickerwassermenge, Tracerverlagerungstiefe und Feldkapazitaet experimentell bestaetigt werden. Ein Vergleich zur Bestimmung der Sickerwassermengenbildung mit Hilfe von Lysimetern und durch Einsatz von Cl-Tracern unter aehnlich hydrologischen, pedologischen und agrotechnischen Bedingungen im Freiland wies eine hohe Uebereinstimmung auf. Da die hier durchgefuehrten Lysimeteruntersuchungen bodenhydrologische Prozesse von Freilandflaechen mit ausreichender Genauigkeit widerspieglen, erscheinen sie anstelle oft fehlender Gebietskenndaten zur Validierung von mathematischen Modellen zur Beschreibung sickerwassergebundener Stoffaustraege gut geeignet. (orig.)

  7. Probe Station and Near-Field Scanner for Testing Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Afroz; Lee, Richard Q.; Darby, William G.; Barr, Philip J.; Miranda, Felix A.; Lambert, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    A facility that includes a probe station and a scanning open-ended waveguide probe for measuring near electromagnetic fields has been added to Glenn Research Center's suite of antenna-testing facilities, at a small fraction of the cost of the other facilities. This facility is designed specifically for nondestructive characterization of the radiation patterns of miniaturized microwave antennas fabricated on semiconductor and dielectric wafer substrates, including active antennas that are difficult to test in traditional antenna-testing ranges because of fragility, smallness, or severity of DC-bias or test-fixture requirements. By virtue of the simple fact that a greater fraction of radiated power can be captured in a near-field measurement than in a conventional far-field measurement, this near-field facility is convenient for testing miniaturized antennas with low gains.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of environmentally friendly fluorescent particle tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Porfiri, Maurizio; Rapiti, Emiliano; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    Tracers are widely used in experimental fluid mechanics and hydrology to investigate complex flows and water cycle processes. Commonly used tracers include dyes, artificial tracers, naturally occurring isotopes and chemicals, microorganisms, and DNA-based systems. Tracers should be characterized by low detection limits and high accuracy in following water paths and flow structures. For natural studies, tracers are also expected to be nontoxic and with low sorption affinity to natural substrates to minimize losses in the environment. In this context, while isotopes are completely natural, their use in field studies is limited by their ubiquity and, therefore, by the high uncertainty in data processing methodologies. Further, the use of dyes and artificial tracers can be hampered by extremely low detection limits due to dilution in natural streams and microorganisms, while DNA-based system may require physical sampling and time-consuming functionalization and detection procedures. In this work, we present the synthesis and characterization of fluorescent beads incorporating an eco-compatible fluorophore for environmental and laboratory applications. The particles are synthesized from natural beeswax through an inexpensive thermal procedure and can be engineered to present variable densities and diameters. A thorough characterization of their surface morphology at the nanoscale, crystal structure and size, chemical composition, and dye incorporation into the beeswax matrix is described by using a wide array of microscopy techniques. In addition, the particle fluorescence response is studied by performing excitation and emission scans on melted beeswax bead samples. The feasibility of using the synthesized particles in environmental settings is assessed through the design of ad-hoc weathering agent experiments where the beads are exposed to high energy radiation and hot water. Further, a proof of concept test is described to understand the particles' potential as a

  9. Quantitative Analysis of the Source and the Effect of Turbidity in Karst River on Tracer Test%岩溶地下河浊度来源及对示踪试验影响的定量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵良杰; 夏日元; 易连兴; 杨杨; 王喆; 卢海平

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative tracer technique is an important method for analysis of geometrical and hydraulic characteristics of karst aquifer. Turbidity is the key factor for accuracy of tracer test although its source and relationship to tracers remain unclear. Three tracer tests under different hydrodynamic conditions were conducted for typical southwest karst underground rivers. Actual measurement data on turbidity, discharge and tracer concentration were analyzed to discuss the source and the effect of turbidity on tracers. During the test, the upper and lower critical discharge was proved to be existent, which caused the gradual transition from the laminar to turbulence and the transition of the main source of turbidity from resuspended origin to allochthonous origin. The values of upper and lower critical discharge were inferred to be 0.7 and 0.4 m3/s, respectively. The result shows that there is a negative correlation between turbidity and tracer concentration when the value of turbidity is greater than 25. With the increasing turbidity, the impact on the tracer concentration becomes greater. Finally, the karst conduit parameters were estimated by the first test which was relatively insignificantly influenced by the turbidity. The results achieved by the authors provide the basis for further water resource evaluation.%定量示踪技术是分析岩溶含水层水力特征和岩溶水系统结构的重要手段,地下河浊度是制约定量示踪试验精确性的关键因素。针对西南典型岩溶地下河,以三次不同水动力条件下示踪试验为研究对象,通过对比分析浊度、流量及示踪剂浓度变化探讨浊度来源及其对示踪剂和管道参数的影响。试验过程中,确定存在上、下临界流量使水流从层流过渡为紊流状态,浊度主要来源从管道内部再悬浮颗粒过渡为外源悬浮物,计算上、下临界流量分别为0.7 m3/s和0.4 m3/s。通过浊度与示踪剂的相关关系研究浊度

  10. Tracer monitoring of enhanced oil recovery projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleven R.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In enhanced oil recovery (EOR, chemicals are injected into the oil reservoir, either to increase macroscopic sweep efficiency, or to reduce remaining oil saturation in swept zones. Tracers can be used to identify reservoirs that are specifically suited for EOR operations. Injection of a selection of partitioning tracers, combined with frequent sample analysis of produced fluids, provides information suited for estimation of residual oil saturation. Tracers can also be used to evaluate and optimize the application of EOR chemicals in the reservoir. Suitable tracers will follow the EOR chemicals and assist in evaluation of retention, degradation or trapping. In addition to field applications, tracers also have a large potential as a tool to perform mechanistic studies of EOR chemicals in laboratory experiments. By labelling EOR chemicals with radioactive isotopes of elements such as H, C and S, detailed studies of transport mechanisms can be carried out. Co-injection of labelled compounds in dynamic flooding experiments in porous media will give information about retention or separation of the unique compounds constituting the chemical formulation. Separation of such compounds may be detrimental to obtaining the EOR effect expected. The paper gives new information of specific methods, and discusses current status for use of tracers in EOR operations.

  11. CXTFIT/Excel-A modular adaptable code for parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis and uncertainty analysis for laboratory or field tracer experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guoping; Mayes, Melanie A.; Parker, Jack C.; Jardine, Philip M.

    2010-09-01

    We implemented the widely used CXTFIT code in Excel to provide flexibility and added sensitivity and uncertainty analysis functions to improve transport parameter estimation and to facilitate model discrimination for multi-tracer experiments on structured soils. Analytical solutions for one-dimensional equilibrium and nonequilibrium convection dispersion equations were coded as VBA functions so that they could be used as ordinary math functions in Excel for forward predictions. Macros with user-friendly interfaces were developed for optimization, sensitivity analysis, uncertainty analysis, error propagation, response surface calculation, and Monte Carlo analysis. As a result, any parameter with transformations (e.g., dimensionless, log-transformed, species-dependent reactions, etc.) could be estimated with uncertainty and sensitivity quantification for multiple tracer data at multiple locations and times. Prior information and observation errors could be incorporated into the weighted nonlinear least squares method with a penalty function. Users are able to change selected parameter values and view the results via embedded graphics, resulting in a flexible tool applicable to modeling transport processes and to teaching students about parameter estimation. The code was verified by comparing to a number of benchmarks with CXTFIT 2.0. It was applied to improve parameter estimation for four typical tracer experiment data sets in the literature using multi-model evaluation and comparison. Additional examples were included to illustrate the flexibilities and advantages of CXTFIT/Excel. The VBA macros were designed for general purpose and could be used for any parameter estimation/model calibration when the forward solution is implemented in Excel. A step-by-step tutorial, example Excel files and the code are provided as supplemental material.

  12. [A literature analysis of power frequency electric field testing data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suli; Guo, Zehua; Yu, Xintian; Ding, Yan; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the literature on power frequency electric field testing data and to propose views and suggestions for current testing. The literature on power frequency electric field testing data published in the previous years was searched to identify 306 articles involving 193 valid testing data. Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon W test were used for analyzing the testing data. The classification of data was carried out according to one quarter of occupational exposure limit (1.25 kV/m), one half of the exposure limit (2.5 kV/m), and the exposure limit (5 kV/m). The structure of testing data showed a significant difference between the non-power facility group and the power facility group (Pelectric field is extensive. However, the power frequency electric field testing data in actual workplaces except high-voltage power facilities are far less than the occupational exposure limit with little harmfulness. There is a phenomenon of excessive testing at present.

  13. Field-based physiological testing of wheelchair athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Leicht, Christof A

    2013-02-01

    The volume of literature on field-based physiological testing of wheelchair sports, such as basketball, rugby and tennis, is considerably smaller when compared with that available for individuals and team athletes in able-bodied (AB) sports. In analogy to the AB literature, it is recognized that performance in wheelchair sports not only relies on fitness, but also sport-specific skills, experience and technical proficiency. However, in contrast to AB sports, two major components contribute towards 'wheeled sports' performance, which are the athlete and the wheelchair. It is the interaction of these two that enable wheelchair propulsion and the sporting movements required within a given sport. Like any other athlete, participants of wheelchair sports are looking for efficient ways to train and/or analyse their technique and fitness to improve their performance. Consequently, laboratory and/or field-based physiological monitoring tools used at regular intervals at key time points throughout the year must be considered to help with training evaluation. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess wheelchair sports fitness in a field-based environment, with special attention on outcome variables, validity and reliability issues, and non-physiological influences on performance. It also lays out the context of field-based testing by providing details about the Paralympic court sports and the impacts of a disability on sporting performance. Due to the limited availability of specialized equipment for testing wheelchair-dependent participants in the laboratory, the adoption of field-based testing has become the preferred option by team coaches of wheelchair athletes. An obvious advantage of field-based testing is that large groups of athletes can be tested in less time. Furthermore, athletes are tested in their natural environment (using their normal sports wheelchair set-up and floor surface), potentially making the results of such testing

  14. Field Testing Research at the NWTC (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) has extensive field testing capabilities that have been used in collaboration with the wind industry to accelerate wind technology development and deployment for more than 30 years.

  15. Field tests and commercialization of natural gas leak detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, D.S.; Jeon, J.S.; Kim, K.D.; Cho, Y.A. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives - (1) fields test of industrial gas leak detection monitoring system. (2) commericialization of residential gas leak detector. Contents - (1) five sets of gas leak detection monitoring system were installed at natural gas transmition facilities and tested long term stability and their performance. (2) improved residential gas leak detector was commercialised. Expected benefits and application fields - (1) contribution to the improvement of domestic gas sensor technology. (2) localization of fabrication technology for gas leak detectors. 23 refs., 126 figs., 37 tabs.

  16. Geologic flow characterization using tracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R. D.; Tyner, C. E.; Hertel, Jr., E. S.

    1981-04-01

    A new tracer flow-test system has been developed for in situ characterization of geologic formations. This report describes two sets of test equipment: one portable and one for testing in deep formations. Equations are derived for in situ detector calibration, raw data reduction, and flow logging. Data analysis techniques are presented for computing porosity and permeability in unconfined isotropic media, and porosity, permeability and fracture characteristics in media with confined or unconfined two-dimensional flow. The effects of tracer pulse spreading due to divergence, dispersion, and porous formations are also included.

  17. Enhanced Oil Recovery: Aqueous Flow Tracer Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rovani; John Schabron

    2009-02-01

    A low detection limit analytical method was developed to measure a suite of benzoic acid and fluorinated benzoic acid compounds intended for use as tracers for enhanced oil recovery operations. Although the new high performance liquid chromatography separation successfully measured the tracers in an aqueous matrix at low part per billion levels, the low detection limits could not be achieved in oil field water due to interference problems with the hydrocarbon-saturated water using the system's UV detector. Commercial instrument vendors were contacted in an effort to determine if mass spectrometry could be used as an alternate detection technique. The results of their work demonstrate that low part per billion analysis of the tracer compounds in oil field water could be achieved using ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

  18. Testing of a one dimensional model for Field II calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Willatzen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    to the calibrated Field II program for 1, 4, and 10 cycle excitations. Two parameter sets were applied for modeling, one real valued Pz27 parameter set, manufacturer supplied, and one complex valued parameter set found in literature, Alguer´o et al. [11]. The latter implicitly accounts for attenuation. Results show......Field II is a program for simulating ultrasound transducer fields. It is capable of calculating the emitted and pulse-echoed fields for both pulsed and continuous wave transducers. To make it fully calibrated a model of the transducer’s electro-mechanical impulse response must be included. We...... examine an adapted one dimensional transducer model originally proposed by Willatzen [9] to calibrate Field II. This model is modified to calculate the required impulse responses needed by Field II for a calibrated field pressure and external circuit current calculation. The testing has been performed...

  19. The Accurate Particle Tracer Code

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yulei; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for large-scale particle simulations on dynamical systems. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and non-linear problems. Under the well-designed integrated and modularized framework, APT serves as a universal platform for researchers from different fields, such as plasma physics, accelerator physics, space science, fusion energy research, computational mathematics, software engineering, and high-performance computation. The APT code consists of seven main modules, including the I/O module, the initialization module, the particle pusher module, the parallelization module, the field configuration module, the external force-field module, and the extendible module. The I/O module, supported by Lua and Hdf5 projects, provides a user-friendly interface for both numerical simulation and data analysis. A series of new geometric numerical methods...

  20. Comparison of fluid-fluid interfacial areas measured with X-ray microtomography and interfacial partitioning tracer tests for the same samples: COMPARISON OF FLUID-FLUID INTERFACIAL AREAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Kieran [Soil, Water, and Environmental Science Department, University of Arizona, Tucson Arizona USA; Carroll, Kenneth C. [Department of Plant & Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces New Mexico USA; Brusseau, Mark L. [Soil, Water, and Environmental Science Department, University of Arizona, Tucson Arizona USA; Hydrology and Water Resources Department, University of Arizona, Tucson Arizona USA

    2016-07-01

    Two different methods are currently used for measuring interfacial areas between immiscible fluids within 3-D porous media, high-resolution microtomographic imaging and interfacial partitioning tracer tests (IPTT). Both methods were used in this study to measure nonwetting/wetting interfacial areas for a natural sand. The microtomographic imaging was conducted on the same packed columns that were used for the IPTTs. This is in contrast to prior studies comparing the two methods, for which in all cases different samples were used for the two methods. In addition, the columns were imaged before and after the IPTTs to evaluate the potential impacts of the tracer solution on fluid configuration and attendant interfacial area. The interfacial areas measured using IPTT are ~5 times larger than the microtomographic-measured values, which is consistent with previous work. Analysis of the image data revealed no significant impact of the tracer solution on NAPL configuration or interfacial area. Other potential sources of error were evaluated, and all were demonstrated to be insignificant. The disparity in measured interfacial areas between the two methods is attributed to the limitation of the microtomography method to characterize interfacial area associated with microscopic surface roughness due to resolution constraints.

  1. Study with liquid and steam tracers at the Tejamaniles area, Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Estudio con trazadores de liquido y vapor en el area Tejamaniles del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: iglesias@iie.org.mx; Flores Armenta, Magaly [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Torres, Rodolfo J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Reyes Delgado, Lisette [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    The Mexican Federal Commission for Electricity injects brines produced by nearby geothermal wells into well Az-08, located in the Tejamaniles area, in the southwestern portion of Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field. The main goals of this study are to determine whether or not the injected fluid recharges nine producing wells in the area, and if so, to estimate the fraction of the injected fluid recharging each producing well. Five of the selected wells produce mixes of liquid and steam and the rest produce only steam. For this reason, we designed this study with simultaneous injections of liquid- and steam-tracers. The nine selected producing wells detected the steam-tracer, and the five wells producing mixes detected the liquid-phase tracer. The residence curves of both tracers present a series of peaks reflecting the known fractured nature of the reservoir. The results show the feeding areas of the nine selected wells are recharged by the fluid injected into well Az-08. When this paper was written, the arrival of steam-tracers in all wells was completed, but the wells producing mixes of liquid and steam continued to record the arrival of the liquid-tracer. Until 407 days after injecting the tracer, the total percentage recovery of liquid phase tracer in the five wells producing mixes of liquid and steam was 3.5032%. The arrival of the steam tracer ended in all nine wells 205 days after the tracer was injected, with an overall recovery rate of 2.1553 x 10-2%. The recovery rates imply the recharge rates of the monitored wells by the injector Az-08 are modest, but it appears the amounts of the recovered liquid-phase tracer will increase significantly. The modest recovery rates suggest most of the fluid injected into the well Az-08 disperses in the reservoir, contributing to recharge and maintaining the pressure. Results reveal that: (i) the injected fluid is heated at depths from 700 to over 1000 m, where it boils and rises to reach the feeding areas of the

  2. Contrast sensivity in test field with bright surround.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1965-01-01

    A set of curves and two empirical formulas have been derived which represent the contrast sensivity of the human eye when both the test-object and the test-field luminance are considerable lower than the adaption level. Although derived to be used for the lighting of traffic tunnels, the data may be

  3. Field testing of high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D. (Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken a field test to quantify the performance of high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration. The initial work on this project was presented in EPRI report CU-6268 Supermarket Refrigeration Modeling and Field Demonstration.'' The information given here was generated through continued testing at the field test site. The field test was conducted at a supermarket owned by Safeway Stores, Inc., that was located in Menlo Park, CA. Testing was performed with the existing conventional refrigeration system and a high-efficiency multiplex refrigeration system that was installed for these tests. The results of the testing showed that the high-efficiency multiplex system reduced refrigeration energy consumption by 23.9% and peak electric demand for refrigeration by 30.0%. Analyses of these savings showed that the largest portion was due to the use of high-efficiency compressors (29.5% of total saving). Floating head pressure control, ambient and mechanical subcooling, compressor multiplexing and hot gas defrost accounted for 50% of total savings. The remainder of the savings (20.5%) were attributed to the use of an evaporative condenser. Tests were also conducted with several retrofit technologies. The most promising results were obtained with external liquid-suction heat exchangers installed at the outlets of the display cases. Favorable paybacks were calculated for these exchangers when they were used with very low and low temperature refrigeration.

  4. Differential Gender Performance on the Major Field Test-Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka; Brown, F. William

    2013-01-01

    The Major Field Test in Business (MFT-B), a standardized assessment test of business knowledge among undergraduate business seniors, is widely used to measure student achievement. Many previous studies analyzing scores on the MFT-B report gender differences on the exam even after controlling for student's aptitude, general intellectual ability,…

  5. HOW AUTOMATED TESTING TOOLS ARE SHOWING ITS IMPACT IN THE FIELD OF SOFTWARE TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Gaur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As, we know that Software testing is a very vast field inSoftware development life cycle. In this paper, we describethat how automated testing tools are very much convenientand easy to use which also makes testing faster and moreeffective in less time. Actually the world of technologyrevolves at fast pace today and among all Testing tools onlyautomated testing tools makes Software testing moresignificant and effective.

  6. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  7. Permeation Dispersal of Treatment Agents for In Situ Remediation in Low Permeability Media: 1. Field Studies in Unconfined Test Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Smuin, D.R.; Korte, N.E.; Greene, D.W.; Pickering, D.A.; Lowe, K.S.; Strong-Gunderson, J.

    2000-08-01

    Chlorocarbons like trichloroethylene (TCE) are common contaminants of concern at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and industrial sites across the US and abroad. These contaminants of concern are present in source areas and in soil and ground water plumes as dissolved or sorbed phase constituents as well as dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs). These DNAPL compounds can be released to the environment through a variety of means including leaks in storage tanks and transfer lines, spills during transportation, and land treatment of wastes. When DNAPL compounds are present in low permeability media (LPM) like silt and clay layers or deposits, there are major challenges with assessment of their behavior and implementation of effective in situ remediation technologies. This report describes a field demonstration that was conducted at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) Clean Test Site (CTS) to evaluate the feasibility of permeation and dispersal of reagents into LPM. Various reagents and tracers were injected at seven test cells primarily to evaluate the feasibility of delivery, but also to evaluate the effects of the injected reagents on LPM. The various reagents and tracers were injected at the PORTS CTS using a multi-port injection system (MPIS) developed and provided by Hayward Baker Environmental, Inc.

  8. Testing of Photomultiplier Tubes in a Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Zachary; A1 Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The A1 collaboration at MAMI in Mainz, Germany has designed a neutron detector that can be used in experiments to measure the electric form factor of the neutron. They will measure elastic scattering from the neutron, using the polarized electron beam from MAMI at A1's experimental hall. The detector will be composed of two walls of staggered scintillator bars which will be read out by photomultiplier tubes (PMT), connected to both ends of each scintillator via light guides. The experiment requires a magnetic field with strength of 1 Tesla, 2m away from the first scintillator wall. The resulting fringe field is sufficient to disrupt the PMTs, despite the addition of Mu Metal shielding. The effects of the fringe field on these PMTs was tested to optimize the amplification of the PMTs. A Helmholtz Coil was designed to generate a controlled magnetic field with equivalent strength to the field that the PMTs will encounter. The PMTs were read out using a multi-channel analyzer, were tested at various angles relative to the magnetic field in order to determine the optimal orientation to minimize signal disruption. Tests were also performed to determine: the neutron detector response to cosmic radiation; and the best method for measuring a magnetic field's strength in two dimensions. National Science Foundation Grant No. IIA-1358175.

  9. DOE Field Operations Program EV and HEV Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward; Slezak, L. A.

    2001-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) Field Operations Program tests advanced technology vehicles (ATVs) and disseminates the testing results to provide fleet managers and other potential ATV users with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance. The ATVs (including electric, hybrid, and other alternative fuel vehicles) are tested using one or more methods - Baseline Performance Testing (EVAmerica and Pomona Loop), Accelerated Reliability Testing, and Fleet Testing. The Program (http://ev.inel.gov/sop) and its nine industry testing partners have tested over 30 full-size electric vehicle (EV) models and they have accumulated over 4 million miles of EV testing experience since 1994. In conjunction with several original equipment manufacturers, the Program has developed testing procedures for the new classes of hybrid, urban, and neighborhood EVs. The testing of these vehicles started during 2001. The EVS 18 presentation will include (1) EV and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) test results, (2) operating experience with and performance trends of various EV and HEV models, and (3) experience with operating hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Data presented for EVs will include vehicle efficiency (km/kWh), average distance driven per charge, and range testing results. The HEV data will include operating considerations, fuel use rates, and range testing results.

  10. Interim Report of Field Test of Expedient Pavement Repairs (Test Items 1-15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    OF FIELD TEST OFEXPEDIENT PAVEMENT REPAIRS ( TEST ITEMS 1-15). RAYMONDS.4OLLINGS lWGINE E :AH1 DIVISION .I MARŜ 6 // il) JNTEIM REPUT TiJUL1077...Pavement Repairs ( Test Items 1-15) 6 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(&) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) Raymond S. Rollings 9. PERFORMING...21 Item 14 Test Results .................... 33 22 Density Results, Item 15....................34 23 Summary of Test Items ......................37 24

  11. Electrical Imaging of Tracer Migration at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, K.; Binley, A. M.; Gorelick, S. M.

    2002-12-01

    Accurately characterizing flow and solute transport in groundwater systems is a critical problem in hydrology. Given the large volume of data required to develop an accurate model of subsurface flow, and the cost of direct sampling, the use of geophysical methods can contribute significantly to information about the subsurface. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is examined as a method to provide spatially continuous information about aquifer properties. The primary goal of this study is to use ERT to map subsurface flow paths in detail. High-resolution images of the movement of a tracer in two- and three-dimensions help delineate aquifer heterogeneity. Field data were acquired at the U.S. Geological Survey research site at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod during the summer of 2002. ERT was used to track the flow and transport of an electrically conductive sodium chloride tracer introduced over 9 hours during a two-well tracer test. Three hundred and fifty 2-D data sets were collected between four corner-point wells for 20 days following the injection, combining to form approximately sixty 3-D data sets. Concentrations were measured at a multilevel sampler centrally located within the ERT array and at the production well. The tomograms indicate the movement of the saline tracer that correspond well with measured concentration data, and the resistivity inversions serve as an appropriate surrogate for concentration measurements that are otherwise impossible to obtain. Under reasonable assumptions, groundwater velocity estimates and hydraulic conductivity can be obtained by tracking the tracer.

  12. Field tests-low input, side-wall vented boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litzke, W.L.; Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Fan Atomized Burner (FAB) was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of the Oil Heat Combustion Equipment Technology Program to provide a practical low-firing rate technology leading to new, high efficiency oil-fired appliances. The development of the burner design and results of application testing have been presented in prior oil heat conferences over the past several years. This information is also summarized in a more comprehensive BNL report. The first field trial of a prototype unit was initiated during the 1994-95 heating season. This paper presents the results of the second year of testing, during the 1995-96 heating season. The field tests enable the demonstration of the reliability and performance of the FAB under practical, typical operating conditions. Another important objective of the field test was to demonstrate that the low input is adequate to satisfy the heating and hot water demands of the household. During the first field trial it was shown that at a maximum input rate of 0.4 gph (55,000 Btu/hr) the burner was able to heat a home with over 2,000 square feet of conditioned living space and provide adequate supply of domestic hot water for a family of six. The test is located in Long Island, NY.

  13. Study of liquid and steam tracers at the Maritaro - La Cumbre area of the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mich.; Estudio con trazadores de liquido y vapor en la zona Maritaro - La Cumbre del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico)]. E-mail: iglesias@iie.org.mx; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Quijano Leon, Jose Luis; Torres Rodriguez, Marco A [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Torres, Rodolfo J; Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    We ran two simultaneous tracer tests in the Maritaro-La Cumbre area of the Los Azufres geothermal field in Mexico. We wished to determine whether or not fluids injected in well Az-15 recharged the productive areas of six production wells and to estimate the fractions of injected fluid recovered in them, if any. Because only three of the wells produce water and all of them produce steam, two tracers were used, sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) for the gas phase and 1,3,6 naphthalene trisulfonate (1,3,6-nts) for the liquid phase. All of the observation wells recorded SF{sub 6}, and the three water-producing wells recorded 1,3,6-nts, proving that fluids injected in well Az-15 do recharge the area of interest. When sampling was suspended, the three water-producing wells were still producing 1,3,6-nts at significant rates. The total recovery of 1,3,6-nts at wells Az-65D, Az-04 and Az-28, 279 days after injection when sampling was halted, were, respectively, 6.1%, 0.90% y 0.16%, for a total of 7.61%. We concluded that these quantities constitute the lower boundaries for the respective recovery factors. When sampling was halted, wells Az-65D, Az-66D and Az-30 were still producing some SF{sub 6} at lower rates, and the rest of the wells were no longer recording the gas phase tracer. The total recovery of SF{sub 6} at wells Az-65D, Az-04, Az-41, Az-30, Az-28 and Az-66D were, respectively, 4.82 e-02%, 1.37 e-03%, 1.48 e-03%, 6.38 e-04%, 1.38 e-03% y 4.31 e-04%, for a total of 5.35 e-02%. The liquid recharge occurred in orders of magnitude greater than the steam. [Spanish] Se efectuaron dos pruebas simultaneas en la zona Maritaro-La Cumbre del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico. Los objetivos de estas pruebas fueron determinar si la salmuera de desecho inyectada en el pozo Az-15 recarga las zonas de alimentacion de seis pozos productores designados por CFE, y estimar que fraccion de lo inyectado recarga dichos pozos productores. Debido a que solo tres de los pozos

  14. U.S. field testing programs and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, G.G.

    2000-06-09

    The United States has been active in four major international in-situ or field testing programs over the past two decades, involving the burial of simulated high-level waste forms and package components. These programs are designed to supplement laboratory testing studies in order to obtain the most complete and realistic picture possible of waste glass behavior under realistic repository-relevant conditions.

  15. Sequential accelerated tests: Improving the correlation of accelerated tests to module performance in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Thomas; Gambogi, William; Stika, Katherine; Yu, Bao-Ling; Bradley, Alex; Hu, Hongjie; Garreau-Iles, Lucie; Trout, T. John

    2016-09-01

    DuPont has been working steadily to develop accelerated backsheet tests that correlate with solar panels observations in the field. This report updates efforts in sequential testing. Single exposure tests are more commonly used and can be completed more quickly, and certain tests provide helpful predictions of certain backsheet failure modes. DuPont recommendations for single exposure tests are based on 25-year exposure levels for UV and humidity/temperature, and form a good basis for sequential test development. We recommend a sequential exposure of damp heat followed by UV then repetitions of thermal cycling and UVA. This sequence preserves 25-year exposure levels for humidity/temperature and UV, and correlates well with a large body of field observations. Measurements can be taken at intervals in the test, although the full test runs 10 months. A second, shorter sequential test based on damp heat and thermal cycling tests mechanical durability and correlates with loss of mechanical properties seen in the field. Ongoing work is directed toward shorter sequential tests that preserve good correlation to field data.

  16. Yucca Mountain site characterization: The field testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.R.; Matthusen, A.C.

    1994-12-31

    The Yucca Mountain area was first considered as a site for possible characterization as a high level waste repository in 1977. Since that time preliminary field testing and Congressional directive recommended continued testing and determined in 1987 that Yucca Mountain would be the only site characterized. Following environmental assessment, the development of a site characterization plan, and litigation with the State of Nevada testing from both surface-based perspective and underground in the Exploratory Studies Facility is underway. Data and analyses from the comprehensive testing program will be evaluated on a periodic basis of two year cycles to provide direction to the testing program. The entire testing program will culminate in a determination of site suitability near the end of the twentieth century.

  17. On the linearity of tracer bias around voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollina, Giorgia; Hamaus, Nico; Dolag, Klaus; Weller, Jochen; Baldi, Marco; Moscardini, Lauro

    2017-07-01

    The large-scale structure of the Universe can be observed only via luminous tracers of the dark matter. However, the clustering statistics of tracers are biased and depend on various properties, such as their host-halo mass and assembly history. On very large scales, this tracer bias results in a constant offset in the clustering amplitude, known as linear bias. Towards smaller non-linear scales, this is no longer the case and tracer bias becomes a complicated function of scale and time. We focus on tracer bias centred on cosmic voids, i.e. depressions of the density field that spatially dominate the Universe. We consider three types of tracers: galaxies, galaxy clusters and active galactic nuclei, extracted from the hydrodynamical simulation Magneticum Pathfinder. In contrast to common clustering statistics that focus on auto-correlations of tracers, we find that void-tracer cross-correlations are successfully described by a linear bias relation. The tracer-density profile of voids can thus be related to their matter-density profile by a single number. We show that it coincides with the linear tracer bias extracted from the large-scale auto-correlation function and expectations from theory, if sufficiently large voids are considered. For smaller voids we observe a shift towards higher values. This has important consequences on cosmological parameter inference, as the problem of unknown tracer bias is alleviated up to a constant number. The smallest scales in existing data sets become accessible to simpler models, providing numerous modes of the density field that have been disregarded so far, but may help to further reduce statistical errors in constraining cosmology.

  18. Test chambers for cell culture in static magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinka, Marek, E-mail: mag@iq.pl [Research and Development Centre of Electrical Machines. 188 Rozdzienskiego Street, 40-203 Katowice (Poland); Gawron, Stanisław, E-mail: s.gawron@komel.katowice.pl [Research and Development Centre of Electrical Machines. 188 Rozdzienskiego Street, 40-203 Katowice (Poland); Sieroń, Aleksander, E-mail: sieron1@tlen.pl [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Pawłowska–Góral, Katarzyna, E-mail: kgoral@sum.edu.pl [Department of Food and Nutrition in Sosnowiec. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 8 Jednosci Street, 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland); Cieślar, Grzegorz, E-mail: cieslar1@tlen.pl [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Sieroń–Stołtny, Karolina [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland)

    2013-04-15

    Article presents a test chamber intended to be used for in vitro cell culture in homogenous constant magnetic field with parametrically variable magnitude. We constructed test chambers with constant parameters of control homeostasis of cell culture for the different parameters of static magnetic field. The next step was the computer calculation of 2D and 3D simulation of the static magnetic field distribution in the chamber. The analysis of 2D and 3D calculations of magnetic induction in the cells' exposition plane reveals, in comparison to the detection results, the greater accuracy of 2D calculations (Figs. 9 and 10). The divergence in 2D method was 2–4% and 8 to 10% in 3D method (reaching 10% only out of the cells′ cultures margins). -- Highlights: ► We present test chamber to be used for in vitro cell culture in static magnetic field. ► The technical data of the chamber construction was presented. ► 2D versus 3D simulation of static magnetic field distribution in chamber was reported. ► We report the accuracy of 2D calculation than 3D.

  19. INTERMITTENT VERSUS CONTINUOUS INCREMENTAL FIELD TESTS: ARE MAXIMAL VARIABLES INTERCHANGEABLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorival J. Carminatti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR and the Vameval test (T-VAM, characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat, volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE at peak test velocities (PV. No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h-1 and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm. During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm. However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04 (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s with a low correlation (r = 0.41. The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l-1. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs.

  20. The virtual fields method applied to spalling tests on concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierron, F.; Forquin, P.

    2012-08-01

    For one decade spalling techniques based on the use of a metallic Hopkinson bar put in contact with a concrete sample have been widely employed to characterize the dynamic tensile strength of concrete at strain-rates ranging from a few tens to two hundreds of s-1. However, the processing method mainly based on the use of the velocity profile measured on the rear free surface of the sample (Novikov formula) remains quite basic and an identification of the whole softening behaviour of the concrete is out of reach. In the present paper a new processing method is proposed based on the use of the Virtual Fields Method (VFM). First, a digital high speed camera is used to record the pictures of a grid glued on the specimen. Next, full-field measurements are used to obtain the axial displacement field at the surface of the specimen. Finally, a specific virtual field has been defined in the VFM equation to use the acceleration map as an alternative `load cell'. This method applied to three spalling tests allowed to identify Young's modulus during the test. It was shown that this modulus is constant during the initial compressive part of the test and decreases in the tensile part when micro-damage exists. It was also shown that in such a simple inertial test, it was possible to reconstruct average axial stress profiles using only the acceleration data. Then, it was possible to construct local stress-strain curves and derive a tensile strength value.

  1. Intermittent versus Continuous Incremental Field Tests: Are Maximal Variables Interchangeable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminatti, Lorival J; Possamai, Carlos A P; de Moraes, Marcelo; da Silva, Juliano F; de Lucas, Ricardo D; Dittrich, Naiandra; Guglielmo, Luiz G A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR) and the Vameval test (T-VAM)), characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat), volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE) at peak test velocities (PV). No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h(-1)) and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm). During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm). However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04) (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s) with a low correlation (r = 0.41). The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l(-1)). Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs. Key pointsT-CAR is an intermittent shuttle run test that predicts the maximal aerobic speed with accuracy, hence, test results could be interchangeable with continuous straight-line tests.T-CAR provides valid field data for evaluating aerobic fitness.In comparison with T-VAM, T-CAR may be a more favourable way to prescribe intermittent training using a shuttle-running protocol.

  2. Lorentz breaking Effective Field Theory and observational tests

    CERN Document Server

    Liberati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Analogue models of gravity have provided an experimentally realizable test field for our ideas on quantum field theory in curved spacetimes but they have also inspired the investigation of possible departures from exact Lorentz invariance at microscopic scales. In this role they have joined, and sometime anticipated, several quantum gravity models characterized by Lorentz breaking phenomenology. A crucial difference between these speculations and other ones associated to quantum gravity scenarios, is the possibility to carry out observational and experimental tests which have nowadays led to a broad range of constraints on departures from Lorentz invariance. We shall review here the effective field theory approach to Lorentz breaking in the matter sector, present the constraints provided by the available observations and finally discuss the implications of the persisting uncertainty on the composition of the ultra high energy cosmic rays for the constraints on the higher order, analogue gravity inspired, Lore...

  3. Atmospheric dispersion of an elevated release in a rural environment: Comparison between field SF 6 tracer measurements and computations of Briggs and ADMS models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, O.; Leroy, C.; Derkx, F.; Maro, D.; Hébert, D.; Roupsard, P.; Rozet, M.

    2011-12-01

    The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), in collaboration with VEOLIA (French environmental services company), conducted experimental campaigns to study atmospheric dispersion around an Energy Recycling Unit (EUR). The objectives were to study dispersion for an elevated release in a rural environment and to compare results with those of models. The atmospheric dispersion was studied by SF 6 tracer injection into a 40 m high stack. Maximum values of experimental Atmospheric Transfer Coefficients (ATC max) and horizontal dispersion standard deviations ( σh) were compared to predictions from a first generation Briggs gaussian model as well as results from the latest generation ADMS 4.1 gaussian model. In neutral atmospheric conditions, the Briggs and ADMS models are in good agreement with experimental data in terms of ATC and σh. In unstable condition, for σh, both ADMS and Briggs models slightly overestimate the data for winter and summer conditions. In unstable conditions, ADMS and Briggs models overestimated ATC max. The statistical evaluation of the models versus experimental data shows neither models ever meets all of the criteria for good performance. However, statistical evaluation indicates that the ADMS model is more suitable for neutral condition, and that the Briggs model is more reliable for summer unstable conditions.

  4. Acceptance test report: Field test of mixer pump for 241-AN-107 caustic addition project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1997-05-16

    The field acceptance test of a 75 HP mixer pump (Hazleton serial number N-20801) installed in Tank 241-AN-107 was conducted from October 1995 thru February 1996. The objectives defined in the acceptance test were successfully met, with two exceptions recorded. The acceptance test encompassed field verification of mixer pump turntable rotation set-up and operation, verification that the pump instrumentation functions within established limits, facilitation of baseline data collection from the mixer pump mounted ultrasonic instrumentation, verification of mixer pump water flush system operation and validation of a procedure for its operation, and several brief test runs (bump) of the mixer pump.

  5. Comparison of two field tests to estimate maximum aerobic speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoin, S; Gerbeaux, M; Turpin, E; Guerrin, F; Lensel-Corbeil, G; Vandendorpe, F

    1994-08-01

    The measurement of maximal aerobic speed (MAS) and the prediction of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) by means of field tests were carried out on 17 students studying physical education. The subjects underwent a continuous multi-stage track test (Léger and Boucher, 1980), shuttle test (Léger et al., 1984) and VO2 max measurement on a treadmill. The VO2 max values estimated using the track test (56.8 +/- 5.8 ml kg-1 min-1) were not significantly different from the values measured in the treadmill test (56.8 +/- 7.1 ml kg-1 min-1), but were higher than those estimated using the shuttle test (51.1 +/- 5.9 ml kg-1 min-1). The maximal nature of the tests was checked by measurement of heart rate and lactate concentration, taken within 2 min post-test. The means of the MAS observed in the track test (15.8 +/- 1.9 km h-1) and in the treadmill test (15.9 +/- 2.6 km h-1) were not significantly different (P > 0.10). The mean of the shuttle test MAS (13.1 +/- 1 km h-1) was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those of the other tests. However, the MAS of the shuttle test and track test are linked. The equation for linear regression between MAS values in these two tests is MAStrack = 1.81 x MASshuttle -7.86 (r = 0.91), allowing estimation of one of these MAS values when the other is known. Thus these values may be used within diversified training.

  6. The Fourth Gravity Test and Quintessence Matter Field

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Molin; Yu, Fei; Gui, Yuanxing

    2010-01-01

    After the previous work on gravitational frequency shift, light deflection (arXiv:1003.5296) and perihelion advance (arXiv:0812.2332), we calculate carefully the fourth gravity test, i.e. radar echo delay in a central gravity field surrounded by static free quintessence matter, in this paper. Through the Lagrangian method, we find the influence of the quintessence matter on the time delay of null particle is presence by means of an additional integral term. When the quintessence field vanishes, it reduces to the usual Schwarzschild case naturally. Meanwhile, we also use the data of the Viking lander from the Mars and Cassini spacecraft to Saturn to constrain the quintessence field. For the Viking case, the field parameter $\\alpha$ is under the order of $10^{-9}$. However, $\\alpha$ is under $10^{-18}$ for the Cassini case.

  7. The fourth gravity test and quintessence matter field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Molin; Yu, Benhai [Xinyang Normal University, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinyang (China); Yu, Fei; Gui, Yuanxing [Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian (China)

    2010-06-15

    After the previous work on gravitational frequency shift, light deflection (Eur. Phys. J. C 59: 107-116, 2009) and perihelion advance (Eur. Phys. J. C 60: 175-179, 2009), we calculate carefully the fourth gravity test, i.e. radar echo delay in a central gravity field surrounded by static free quintessence matter, in this paper. Through the Lagrangian method, we find the influence of the quintessence matter on the time delay of null particle is presence by means of an additional integral term. When the quintessence field vanishes, it reduces to the usual Schwarzschild case naturally. Meanwhile, we also use the data of the Viking lander from the Mars and Cassini spacecraft to Saturn to constrain the quintessence field. For the Viking case, the field parameter {alpha} is under the order of 10{sup -9}. However, {alpha} is under 10{sup -18} for the Cassini case. (orig.)

  8. Test field for airborne laser scanning in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahokas, E.; Kaartinen, H.; Kukko, A.; Litkey, P.

    2014-11-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is a widely spread operational measurement tool for obtaining 3D coordinates of the ground surface. There is a need for calibrating the ALS system and a test field for ALS was established at the end of 2013. The test field is situated in the city of Lahti, about 100 km to the north of Helsinki. The size of the area is approximately 3.5 km × 3.2 km. Reference data was collected with a mobile laser scanning (MLS) system assembled on a car roof. Some streets were measured both ways and most of them in one driving direction only. The MLS system of the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) consists of a navigation system (NovAtel SPAN GNSS-IMU) and a laser scanner (FARO Focus3D 120). In addition to the MLS measurements more than 800 reference points were measured using a Trimble R8 VRS-GNSS system. Reference points are along the streets, on parking lots, and white pedestrian crossing line corners which can be used as reference targets. The National Land Survey of Finland has already used this test field this spring for calibrating their Leica ALS-70 scanner. Especially it was easier to determine the encoder scale factor parameter using this test field. Accuracy analysis of the MLS points showed that the point height RMSE is 2.8 cm and standard deviation is 2.6 cm. Our purpose is to measure both more MLS data and more reference points in the test field area to get a better spatial coverage. Calibration flight heights are planned to be 1000 m and 2500 m above ground level. A cross pattern, southwest-northeast and northwest-southeast, will be flown both in opposite directions.

  9. Deep Borehole Field Test Research Activities at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsang, Chin-Fu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kneafsey, Timothy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borglin, Sharon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piceno, Yvette [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Andersen, Gary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nakagawa, Seiji [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nihei, Kurt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reagan, Matthew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition’s (UFD) Deep Borehole Field Test is to drill two 5 km large-diameter boreholes: a characterization borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 8.5 inches and a field test borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 17 inches. These boreholes will be used to demonstrate the ability to drill such holes in crystalline rocks, effectively characterize the bedrock repository system using geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological techniques, and emplace and retrieve test waste packages. These studies will be used to test the deep borehole disposal concept, which requires a hydrologically isolated environment characterized by low permeability, stable fluid density, reducing fluid chemistry conditions, and an effective borehole seal. During FY16, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists conducted a number of research studies to support the UFD Deep Borehole Field Test effort. This work included providing supporting data for the Los Alamos National Laboratory geologic framework model for the proposed deep borehole site, conducting an analog study using an extensive suite of geoscience data and samples from a deep (2.5 km) research borehole in Sweden, conducting laboratory experiments and coupled process modeling related to borehole seals, and developing a suite of potential techniques that could be applied to the characterization and monitoring of the deep borehole environment. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  10. Latex agglutination test for field diagnosis of haemorrhagic septicaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Natalia

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is bacterial pathogens that cause haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS in cattle and buffaloes. Various tests have been used to differentiate types of P. multocida, as well as to diagnose this specific disease. A latex agglutination test has been developed for the detection of P. multocida B:2 which is the causal agent of HS. This test is a rapid and simple test suitable for local laboratorium to diagnose HS cases in the field. A heat stable antigen consisting of mainly lipopolysaccharide (LPS extract of formalin killed P. multocida 0019 was used to produce specific antibody against P. multocida B:2. The antiboy was then used to sensitise latex particles. Latex agglutination test have been used to screen some P. multocida field isolates and this test have been proven to be specific, simple and easy to be used in detecting P. multocida B:2. The specificity is due to antibodies recognising LPS or LPS protein complexes. Sensitised latex was stable at 4° C for at least12 months. This test should be used as an aid to diagnosis and employed principally to confirm and support clinical and post mortem findings of HS.

  11. Field Tests and Simulation of Lion-Head River Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Min Fang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lion-Head River Bridge is a twin bridge in parallel position. The east-bounded was designed and constructed as a traditional prestress concrete box girder bridge with pot bearings; and the west-bounded was installed with seismic isolation devices of lead rubber bearings. The behavior of the isolated bridge is compared with that of the traditional bridge through several field tests including the ambient vibration test, the force vibration test induced by shakers, the free vibration test induced by a push and fast release system, and the truck test. The bridges suffered from various extents of damage due to the Chi-Chi and the Chi-I earthquakes of great strength during the construction and had been retrofitted. The damage was reflected by the change of the bridges' natural frequencies obtained from the ambient vibration tests. The models of the two bridges are simulated by the finite element method based on the original design drawings. Soil-structure interaction was also scrutinized in this study. The simulation was then modified based on the results from the field tests. Dynamic parameters of bridges are identified and compared with those from theoretical simulation. The efficiency is also verified to be better for an isolated bridge.

  12. The effect of performance feedback on cardiorespiratory fitness field tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsios, G S; Flouris, A D; Koutedakis, Y; Theodorakis, Y

    2006-06-01

    We investigated the effects of performance feedback (PF) on predicting maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) using the 20 m Multistage Shuttle Run Test (MST) and 20 m Square Shuttle Test (SST). The agreement between these two field tests in relation to laboratory VO2 max was also examined. Forty healthy males (age: 21.5+/-2.3; BMI: 23.7+/-2.0) randomly performed four indirect VO2 max tests; that is the MST and SST, as well as a modified version of MST (MSTMD) and SST (SSTMD). During MST and SST subjects received PF with respect to both test stage and running pace. In contrast, MSTMD and SSTMD incorporated auditory feedback which solely emitted signals regulating the running pace. Participants also performed a laboratory VO2 max treadmill test (TT). ANOVA demonstrated significant mean predicted VO2 max decrements in both MSTMD (pmax, the '95% limits of agreement' analysis indicated errors equal to 3.6+/-9.6 and 1.4+/-10.3 ml kg-1 min-1 with coefficients of variation of +/-10.0% and +/-10.9%, for MST and MSTMD, respectively. The corresponding '95% limits of agreement' values for SST and SSTMD were 0.1+/-5.0 and -1.1+/-6.1 ml kg-1 min-1 with coefficients of variation of +/-5.4% and +/-6.7%, respectively. It is concluded that the application of PF leads to superior field testing performances.

  13. Field Testing of a Portable Radiation Detector and Mapping System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Hayes, D.W.; Eakle, R.F.

    1998-03-01

    Researchers at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have developed a man- portable radiation detector and mapping system (RADMAPS) which integrates the accumulation of radiation information with precise ground locations. RADMAPS provides field personnel with the ability to detect, locate, and characterize nuclear material at a site or facility by analyzing the gamma or neutron spectra and correlating them with position. the man-portable field unit records gamma or neutron count rate information and its location, along with date and time, using an embedded Global Positioning System (GPS). RADMAPS is an advancement in data fusion, integrating several off-the-shelf technologies with new computer software resulting in a system that is simple to deploy and provides information useful to field personnel in an easily understandable form. Decisions on subsequent actions can be made in the field to efficiently use available field resources. The technologies employed in this system include: recording GPS, radiation detection (typically scintillation detectors), pulse height analysis, analog-to-digital converters, removable solid-state (Flash or SRAM) memory cards, Geographic Information System (GIS) software and personal computers with CD-ROM supporting digital base maps. RADMAPS includes several field deployable data acquisition systems designed to simultaneously record radiation and geographic positions. This paper summarizes the capabilities of RADMAPS and some of the results of field tests performed with the system.

  14. TRACER STUDY OF RTU GRADUATES: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma L. Ramirez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to determine if the field of specialization in the different colleges of RTU graduates and their academic-acquired skills and competencies are related to their present occupations. A modified Graduate Tracer Study (GTS instrument was utilized to gather the quantitative data. Out of 500 questionnaires administered, there were 250 graduates returned answered questionnaires representing the three Colleges: Education, Arts and Sciences, Business and Entrepreneurial Technology. A face to face interview was also conducted in order to support the gathered data. The SPSS was used to generate results from the acquired quantitative data using the frequency counts, percentage and the Chi-square goodness of fit test. The findings revealed that the graduates claimed that their knowledge, academic-acquired skills and competencies contributed greatly in their job performance. The Chi-square goodness of fit proved that there is a significant relationship between the graduates’ fields of specialization and their occupations after graduation. Likewise, the academic-acquired skills and competencies of the graduates are relevant to their chosen occupations. The results further proved that RTU produces marketable and appropriately trained graduates with the majority landing in course-related jobs within a short period after graduation. The study also indicates that the RTU graduates possess the skills and competencies necessary to succeed in this competitive world. However eexpansion of tie-ups with private business entities is made to at least maintain the high employability level of the graduates.

  15. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT); Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.L. [ed.; Buscheck, T.; Carlson, R.; Daily, W.; Lee, K.; Lin, Wunan; Mao, Nai-hsien; Ueng, Tzou-Shin; Wang, H.; Watwood, D.

    1991-08-01

    This final report represents a summary of data and interpretations obtained from the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT) performed in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test Site. The PEBSFT was conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures developed for future field tests that will be conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. The primary objective of the test was to provide a basis for determining whether tests planned for the ESF have the potential to be successful. Chapter 1 on high frequency electromagnetic tomography discusses the rock mass electromagnetic permittivity and attenuation rate changes that were measured to characterize the water distribution in the near field of a simulated waste container. The data are used to obtain quantitative estimates of how the moisture content in the rock mass changes during heating and to infer properties of the spatial variability of water distribution, leading to conclusions about the role of fractures in the system. Chapter 2 discusses the changes in rock moisture content detected by the neutron logging probe. Chapter 3 permeability tests discusses the characterization of the in-situ permeability of the fractured tuff around the borehole. The air permeability testing apparatus, the testing procedures, and the data analysis are presented. Chapter 4 describes the moisture collection system installed in the heater borehole to trap and measure the moisture volumes. Chapter 5 describes relative humidity measurements made with the thermocouple psychrometer and capacitance sensors. Chapter 6 discusses gas pressure measurements in the G-Tunnel, addressing the calibration and installation of piezoresistive-gaged transducers. Chapter 7 describes the calibration and installation of thermocouples for temperature measurements. Chapter 8 discusses the results of the PEBSFT.

  16. Comparison of two aerobic field tests in young tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargeas-Gluck, Marie-Agnès; Léger, Luc A

    2012-11-01

    This study compares the maximal responses of a new aerobic tennis field test, the NAVTEN to a known aerobic field test, often used with young tennis players, that is, the continuous multistage 20-m shuttle run test (20-m SRT). The NAVTEN is an intermittent (1-minute/1-minute) multistage test with side-to-side displacements and ball hitting. Ten young elite tennis players aged 12.9 ± 0.3 (mean ± SD) randomly performed both tests and were continuously monitored for heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) using the Vmax ST (Sensormedics). The 20-m SRT and NAVTEN show similar HRpeak (202 ± 6.1 vs. 208 ± 9.5, respectively) and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (54.2 ± 5.9 vs. 54.9 ± 6.0 ml·kg·min). Pearson correlations between both tests were 0.88 and 0.92 for V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak and maximal speed, respectively. The NAVTEN yielded V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak values that are typical for active subjects of that age and are similar to the 20-m SRT supporting its use to measure aerobic fitness of young tennis players in specific and entertaining field conditions. The fact that two-thirds of the tennis players achieved a different ranking (±1 rank) with the NAVTEN and the 20-m SRT suggests that the NAVTEN may be more specific than the 20-m SRT to assess aerobic fitness of tennis players. From a practical point of view, the NAVTEN test is more specific and pedagogical for young tennis players even though both tests yield similar maximal values.

  17. Toxicity of fluorescent tracers and their degradation byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Gombert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracer tests are frequently used to delineate catchment area of water supply springs in karstic zones. In the karstic chalk of Normandy, the main tracers used are fluorescent: uranine, sulforhodamine B, naphtionate, and Tinopal®. In this area, a statistical analysis shows that less than half of the injected tracers joins the monitored restitution points and enters the drinking water system where they undergo chlorination. Most of the injected tracers is absorbed in the rock matrix or is thrown out of the aquifer via karstic springs: then it can join superficial waters where it is degraded due to the sun and air action. The paper presents firstly the laboratory degradation of a first batch of fluorescent tracers in contact with chlorine, in order to simulate their passage through a water treatment system for human consumption. A second batch of the same tracers is subjected to agents of natural degradation: ultraviolet illumination, sunlight and air sparging. Most tracers is degraded, and toxicity and ecotoxicity tests (on rats, daphniae and algae are performed on degradation byproducts. These tests do not show any acute toxicity but a low to moderate ecotoxicity. In conclusion, the most used fluorescent tracers of the Normandy karstic chalk and their artificial and natural degradation byproducts do not exhibit significant toxicity to humans and the aquatic environment, at the concentrations generally noted at the restitution points.

  18. A new aquifer assessment tool using reactive tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, D.; Smalley, A. L.; Banwart, S. A.; Lerner, D. N.; Thomson, N. R.; Thornton, S. F.; Wilson, R. D.

    2003-04-01

    A major obstacle to making informed decisions about trigger levels for restoration and choosing remediation options is that current Site Investigation (SI) practice fails to make optimal use of available SI techniques resulting in poor value for money in conceptual site models. Often it is simply too expensive to obtain the type of site data required to build the case for natural attenuation, even though this restoration option may be relatively cheaper than a pump-and-treat system. In particular, aquifer property measurement techniques for groundwater transport and reactions are too costly and this results in over-reliance on literature values or model assumptions. This results in overly uncertain predictions of in situ performance and therefore unnecessarily cautious risk assessment and costly remediation strategies. Therefore, cost-effective SI tools that have the capability of producing high quality characterisation data are required. The dipole flow test which circulates groundwater between isolated injection (source) and extraction (sink) chambers within a single borehole has been used successfully by others to delineate heterogeneous hydraulic properties in both highly permeable and fractured rock aquifers. We propose to extend this approach by adding a suite of reactive tracers into a dipole flow field to assess the geochemical properties and biodegradation potential of aquifers. If successful this will provide a method to ascertain site-specific parameters for use in appropriate reactive transport models. The initial phase of this project involves the construction of a laboratory-scale physical model of a dipole probe to investigate the utility of the dipole flow and reactive tracer test (DFRTT) as an aquifer assessment tool. This phase will also serve as the developmental stage between mathematical theory and a host of planned field trials. The development of the laboratory-scale DFRTT including initial scoping calculations, numerical simulation results

  19. A PILOT STUDY COMPARING TWO FIELD TESTS WITH THE TREADMILL RUN TEST IN SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Aziz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the performances obtained during soccer-specific field tests of the 20 m multistage shuttle run test (MST and the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (YIET, with the measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max obtained in both field tests as well as that obtained in the traditional test of running to exhaustion on a treadmill (TRT, in young trained soccer players. Twenty-one National-level youth players performed, in random order, the MST and YIET to determine the relationship between the two field tests. From these, eight randomly chosen players performed their field tests as well as a TRT, equipped with an ambulatory gas exchange measurement device. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis showed that the players' performance (i.e. distance covered in the MST and YIET was correlated (r = 0.65, p 0.05. In contrast, significant correlations were observed between the players' performance in the MST with the measured VO2max obtained in the same MST and in the YIET (both p < 0.05; and attained almost statistical significance with the measured VO2max in the TRT (p = 0.06. The lack of association between distances covered in the YIET with all the measured VO2max values suggest that measured VO2max per se may not be suitable to characterize soccer players' intermittent endurance performance. In comparison with the MST, the YIET may be a more favourable field-based assessment of soccer player's endurance performance

  20. A possible field test for marine cloud brightening geoengineering. A possible field test for marine cloud brightening geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadian, A.; Wood, R.; Coe, H.; Latham, J.

    2011-12-01

    A possible field test for marine cloud brightening geoengineering. Abstract: The Marine Cloud Brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique (Latham et al 2008) hypothesizes that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre seawater particles can enhance the cloud droplet number concentration and increase cloud albedo. Here, we propose a set of field tests to critically assess the efficacy of the MCB geoengineering proposal over a limited area. The tests are de minimus with respect to their climate effects. The tests involve three phases, with increasing logistical complexity, each of which is designed to test one or more important components of the cloud brightening scheme. Each involves the introduction and monitoring of controlled aerosol perturbations from one or more ship-based seeding platforms up to a limited area of 100x100 km2. A suite of observational platforms of increasing number and complexity, including aircraft, ships and satellites, will observe the aerosol plume and in the later experiments the cloud and albedo responses to the aerosol perturbations. These responses must include the necessary cloud physical and chemical processes which determine the efficacy of the cloud brightening scheme. Since these processes are also central to the broader problem of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions, such field tests would have significant benefits for climate science in addition to providing a critical test of the MCB hypothesis. Such field experiments should be designed and conducted in an objective manner within the framework of emerging geoengineering research governance structures. Reference: Latham J. et al.. (2008) Global temperature stabilization via controlled albedo enhancement of low-level maritime clouds. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A doi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0137

  1. Large Field Photogrammetry Techniques in Aircraft and Spacecraft Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.

    2010-01-01

    The Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR) at NASA Langley Research Center is a 240 ft. high A-frame structure which is used for full-scale crash testing of aircraft and rotorcraft vehicles. Because the LandIR provides a unique capability to introduce impact velocities in the forward and vertical directions, it is also serving as the facility for landing tests on full-scale and sub-scale Orion spacecraft mass simulators. Recently, a three-dimensional photogrammetry system was acquired to assist with the gathering of vehicle flight data before, throughout and after the impact. This data provides the basis for the post-test analysis and data reduction. Experimental setups for pendulum swing tests on vehicles having both forward and vertical velocities can extend to 50 x 50 x 50 foot cubes, while weather, vehicle geometry, and other constraints make each experimental setup unique to each test. This paper will discuss the specific calibration techniques for large fields of views, camera and lens selection, data processing, as well as best practice techniques learned from using the large field of view photogrammetry on a multitude of crash and landing test scenarios unique to the LandIR.

  2. The Fourth Gravity Test and Quintessence Matter Field

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Molin; Yu, Benhai; Yu, Fei; Gui, Yuanxing

    2010-01-01

    After the previous work on gravitational frequency shift, light deflection (arXiv:1003.5296) and perihelion advance (arXiv:0812.2332), we calculate carefully the fourth gravity test, i.e. radar echo delay in a central gravity field surrounded by static free quintessence matter, in this paper. Through the Lagrangian method, we find the influence of the quintessence matter on the time delay of null particle is presence by means of an additional integral term. When the quintessence field vanishe...

  3. Overspinning BTZ black holes with test particles and fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düztaş, Koray

    2016-12-01

    It has been claimed that in a test of an asymptotically anti-de Sitter version of weak cosmic censorship conjecture by attempting to overspin a Bañados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli (BTZ) black hole with test particles, one finds that it is not possible to spin up the black hole past its extremal limit. The result of this analysis is restricted to the case where the initial black hole is extremal. We extend this analysis to find that massive test particles can overspin the black hole, if we start with a nearly extremal black hole, instead. We also consider the interaction of the BTZ black hole with test fields. We show that overspinning of nearly extremal black holes is possible whether or not there is super-radiance for the field. If there is super-radiance, overspinning occurs in a narrow range of frequencies bounded below by the super-radiant limit. However, if there is no super-radiance for the field, overspinning becomes generic and also applies to extremal black holes. This is in analogy with the Kerr case.

  4. Chemical Tracer Methods: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    Tracers have a wide variety of uses in hydrologic studies: providing quantitative or qualitative estimates of recharge, identifying sources of recharge, providing information on velocities and travel times of water movement, assessing the importance of preferential flow paths, providing information on hydrodynamic dispersion, and providing data for calibration of water flow and solute-transport models (Walker, 1998; Cook and Herczeg, 2000; Scanlon et al., 2002b). Tracers generally are ions, isotopes, or gases that move with water and that can be detected in the atmosphere, in surface waters, and in the subsurface. Heat also is transported by water; therefore, temperatures can be used to trace water movement. This chapter focuses on the use of chemical and isotopic tracers in the subsurface to estimate recharge. Tracer use in surface-water studies to determine groundwater discharge to streams is addressed in Chapter 4; the use of temperature as a tracer is described in Chapter 8.Following the nomenclature of Scanlon et al. (2002b), tracers are grouped into three categories: natural environmental tracers, historical tracers, and applied tracers. Natural environmental tracers are those that are transported to or created within the atmosphere under natural processes; these tracers are carried to the Earth’s surface as wet or dry atmospheric deposition. The most commonly used natural environmental tracer is chloride (Cl) (Allison and Hughes, 1978). Ocean water, through the process of evaporation, is the primary source of atmospheric Cl. Other tracers in this category include chlorine-36 (36Cl) and tritium (3H); these two isotopes are produced naturally in the Earth’s atmosphere; however, there are additional anthropogenic sources of them.

  5. An Advanced Reservoir Simulator for Tracer Transport in Multicomponent Multiphase Compositional Flow and Applications to the Cranfield CO2 Sequestration Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moortgat, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir simulators are widely used to constrain uncertainty in the petrophysical properties of subsurface formations by matching the history of injection and production data. However, such measurements may be insufficient to uniquely characterize a reservoir's properties. Monitoring of natural (isotopic) and introduced tracers is a developing technology to further interrogate the subsurface for applications such as enhanced oil recovery from conventional and unconventional resources, and CO2 sequestration. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been piloting this tracer technology during and following CO2 injection at the Cranfield, Mississippi, CO2 sequestration test site. Two campaigns of multiple perfluorocarbon tracers were injected together with CO2 and monitored at two wells at 68 m and 112 m from the injection site. The tracer data suggest that multiple CO2 flow paths developed towards the monitoring wells, indicative of either channeling through high permeability pathways or of fingering. The results demonstrate that tracers provide an important complement to transient pressure data. Numerical modeling is essential to further explain and interpret the observations. To aid the development of tracer technology, we enhanced a compositional multiphase reservoir simulator to account for tracer transport. Our research simulator uses higher-order finite element (FE) methods that can capture the small-scale onset of fingering on the coarse grids required for field-scale modeling, and allows for unstructured grids and anisotropic heterogeneous permeability fields. Mass transfer between fluid phases and phase behavior are modeled with rigorous equation-of-state based phase-split calculations. We present our tracer simulator and preliminary results related to the Cranfield experiments. Applications to noble gas tracers in unconventional resources are presented by Darrah et al.

  6. Comparative study of gas diffusion in subsurface using dual-gas tracer SF6 and halon 1211

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Weixian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment and soil column test were performed to study the gas diffusion in the soil subsurface using dual-gas tracer SF6 and halon 1211. Gas samples collected from pre-set sampling sites were measured. These two tracer gases showed the similar trend. At the different directions from injecting site, concentrations increased rapidly at the beginning, the peak value concentration of SF6 was higher than that of halon 1211, implied SF6 diffuse further. At the different depth from injecting site, tracer gases preferred to transport horizontal or downwards rather than upwards, meant gravity settling was an important factor affecting the gas diffusion. The effect of temperature and water content on the gas diffusion revealed that gases migrated fast obviously with the temperature increase, the change of water content had influence slightly. Gas desorption test indicated that much more halon 1211 was adsorbed on the soil, which led the diffusion process slow down.

  7. Dual-tracer transport experiments in a physically and chemically heterogeneous porous aquifer: effective transport parameters and spatial variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, T.; Schmid, G.

    1996-08-01

    In order to investigate the effects of reactive transport processes within a heterogeneous porous aquifer, two small-scale forced gradient tracer tests were conducted at the 'Horkheimer Insel' field site. During the experiments, two fluorescent tracers were injected simultaneously in the same fully penetrating groundwater monitoring well, located approximately 10 m from the pumping well. Fluoresceine and Rhodamine WT were used to represent the classes of practically non-sorbing and sorbing solutes, respectively. Multilevel breakthrough curves with a temporal resolution of 1 min were measured for both tracers at different depths within the pumping well using fibre-optic fluorimeters. This paper presents the tracer test design, the fibre-optic fluorimetry instrumentation, the experimental results and the interpretation of the measured multilevel breakthrough curves in terms of temporal moments and effective transport parameters. Significant sorption of Rhodamine WT is apparent from the effective retardation factors. Furthermore, an enhanced tailing of Rhodamine WT breakthrough curves is observed, which is possibly caused by a variability of aquifer sorption properties. The determined effective parameters are spatially variable, suggesting that a complex numerical flow and transport modelling approach within a stochastic framework will be needed to adequately describe the transport behaviour observed in the two experiments. Therefore, the tracer test results will serve in future work for the validation of numerical stochastic transport simulations taking into account the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity and sorption-related aquifer properties.

  8. SMART wind turbine rotor. Design and field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Jonathan Charles; Resor, Brian Ray; Paquette, Joshua A.; White, Jonathan Randall

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Energy Technologies department at Sandia National Laboratories has developed and field tested a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of rotor aerodynamics. The SMART Rotor project was funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was conducted to demonstrate active rotor control and evaluate simulation tools available for active control research. This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This report begins with an overview of active control research at Sandia and the objectives of this project. The SMART blade, based on the DOE / SNL 9-meter CX-100 blade design, is then documented including all modifications necessary to integrate the trailing edge flaps, sensors incorporated into the system, and the fabrication processes that were utilized. Finally the test site and test campaign are described.

  9. Field Test of Wake Steering at an Offshore Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Paul; Annoni, Jennifer; Shah, Jigar J.; Wang, Linpeng; Ananthan, Shreyas; Zhang, Zhijun; Hutchings, Kyle; Wang, Peng; Chen, Weiguo; Chen, Lin

    2017-02-06

    In this paper, a field test of wake steering control is presented. The field test is the result of a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Envision Energy, a smart energy management company and turbine manufacturer. In the campaign, an array of turbines within an operating commercial offshore wind farm in China have the normal yaw controller modified to implement wake steering according to a yaw control strategy. The strategy was designed using NREL wind farm models, including a computational fluid dynamics model, SOWFA, for understanding wake dynamics and an engineering model, FLORIS, for yaw control optimization. Results indicate that, within the certainty afforded by the data, the wake-steering controller was successful in increasing power capture, by amounts similar to those predicted from the models.

  10. The virtual fields method applied to spalling tests on concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forquin P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For one decade spalling techniques based on the use of a metallic Hopkinson bar put in contact with a concrete sample have been widely employed to characterize the dynamic tensile strength of concrete at strain-rates ranging from a few tens to two hundreds of s−1. However, the processing method mainly based on the use of the velocity profile measured on the rear free surface of the sample (Novikov formula remains quite basic and an identification of the whole softening behaviour of the concrete is out of reach. In the present paper a new processing method is proposed based on the use of the Virtual Fields Method (VFM. First, a digital high speed camera is used to record the pictures of a grid glued on the specimen. Next, full-field measurements are used to obtain the axial displacement field at the surface of the specimen. Finally, a specific virtual field has been defined in the VFM equation to use the acceleration map as an alternative ‘load cell’. This method applied to three spalling tests allowed to identify Young’s modulus during the test. It was shown that this modulus is constant during the initial compressive part of the test and decreases in the tensile part when micro-damage exists. It was also shown that in such a simple inertial test, it was possible to reconstruct average axial stress profiles using only the acceleration data. Then, it was possible to construct local stress-strain curves and derive a tensile strength value.

  11. On the linearity of tracer bias around voids

    CERN Document Server

    Pollina, Giorgia; Dolag, Klaus; Weller, Jochen; Baldi, Marco; Moscardini, Lauro

    2016-01-01

    The large-scale structure of the universe can only be observed directly via luminous tracers of the underlying distribution of dark matter. However, the clustering statistics of tracers are biased and depend on various properties of the tracers themselves, such as their host-halo mass and formation and assembly history. On very large scales, where density fluctuations are within the linear regime, this tracer bias results in a constant offset in the clustering amplitude, which is known as linear bias. Towards smaller non-linear scales, this is no longer the case and tracer bias becomes a complicated function of scale and time. We focus on tracer bias centered on cosmic voids, depressions of the density field that spatially dominate the universe. We consider three different types of tracers: galaxies, galaxy clusters and AGNs, extracted from the hydrodynamical simulation suite Magneticum Pathfinder. In contrast to common clustering statistics that focus on the auto-correlation of tracers, we find that void-tra...

  12. Field-testing UV disinfection of drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, A.; Drescher, A.; Greene, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Miller, P. [Natural Resources Defense Council (United States); Motau, C. [South African Center for Essential Community Services (South Africa); Stevens, F. [Durban Metro Water (South Africa)

    1997-09-01

    A recently invented device, ``UV Waterworks,`` uses ultraviolet (UV) light to disinfect drinking water. Its novel features are: low cost, robust design, rapid disinfection, low electricity use, low maintenance, high flow rate and ability to work with unpressurized water sources. The device could service a community of 1,000 persons, at an annual total cost of less than 10 US cents per person. UV Waterworks has been successfully tested in the laboratory. Limited field trials of an early version of the device were conducted in India in 1994--95. Insights from these trials led to the present design. Extended field trials of UV Waterworks, initiated in South Africa in February 1997, will be coordinated by the South African Center for Essential Community Services (SACECS), with technical and organizational support from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(LBNL) and the Natural Resources Defense Council (both US). The first of the eight planned sites of the year long trial is an AIDS hospice near Durban. Durban metro Water and LBNL lab-tested a UV Waterworks unit prior to installing it at the hospice in August, 1997. The authors describe the field test plans and preliminary results from Durban.

  13. Travel-time-based thermal tracer tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyvári, Márk; Bayer, Peter; Brauchler, Ralf

    2016-05-01

    Active thermal tracer testing is a technique to get information about the flow and transport properties of an aquifer. In this paper we propose an innovative methodology using active thermal tracers in a tomographic setup to reconstruct cross-well hydraulic conductivity profiles. This is facilitated by assuming that the propagation of the injected thermal tracer is mainly controlled by advection. To reduce the effects of density and viscosity changes and thermal diffusion, early-time diagnostics are used and specific travel times of the tracer breakthrough curves are extracted. These travel times are inverted with an eikonal solver using the staggered grid method to reduce constraints from the pre-defined grid geometry and to improve the resolution. Finally, non-reliable pixels are removed from the derived hydraulic conductivity tomograms. The method is applied to successfully reconstruct cross-well profiles as well as a 3-D block of a high-resolution fluvio-aeolian aquifer analog data set. Sensitivity analysis reveals a negligible role of the injection temperature, but more attention has to be drawn to other technical parameters such as the injection rate. This is investigated in more detail through model-based testing using diverse hydraulic and thermal conditions in order to delineate the feasible range of applications for the new tomographic approach.

  14. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  15. Simple and rapid field tests for brucellosis in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoel, Theresia; Dias, Isabel Travassos; Cardoso, Regina; Smits, Henk L

    2008-08-25

    Four simple and rapid field tests for the serodiagnosis of brucellosis in cattle, goat, sheep and swine were developed. The performance of the assays was investigated using serum samples collected in Portugal from animals originating from herds with a defined sanitary status with respect to the presence of brucellosis. The sensitivity calculated for the bovine, caprine, ovine and swine Brucella lateral flow assays based on results obtained for samples collected from animals with culture confirmed brucellosis was 90%, 100%, 90% and 73%, respectively. None of the samples from animals from herds free of brucellosis reacted in the flow assays indicating a high specificity. However, as expected, some degree of reactivity was observed when testing selected serum samples that reacted non-specific in reference tests for brucellosis.

  16. Field Testing of a 1/100th Scale Starshade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casement, L. S.; Glassman, T. M.; Lo, A.; Warwick, S.; Armagan, O.

    2013-01-01

    The external starshade is a prospective method for the direct detection and spectral characterization of terrestrial planets around other stars, a key goal identified in ASTRO2010. Validation of this approach has been challenging at ~1/1000th scale in the lab (Samuele et al., 2010). Recently we have successfully fabricated 60 cm 1/100th scale) starshades and have begun a series of ground test experiments with them. Our first experiment, limited by city lights and a short (300 m) baseline between the telescope and the starshade, showed excellent light suppression of >106. We enhanced our experimental setup to provide longer baselines and reduced aperture size to provide a closer match to the Fresnel number expected for the flight system. We took our test equipment into the field for a test in November 2012, the results of which are presented here.

  17. Testing strong-field CED and QED with intense laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piazza, Antonino di; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.; King, Ben; Keitel, Christoph H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Strong laser fields can be employed to test classical and quantum electrodynamics (CED and QED, respectively) under extreme conditions. A fundamental problem in electrodynamics is the ''radiation reaction'' problem: classically, an accelerated electron emits radiation and this emission alters the motion of the electron itself. The Landau-Lifshitz equation consistently describes the electron's motion in an external field by including radiation reaction. We explore a new scenario in which this equation can be in principle tested experimentally for the first time and with presently available laser technology. We will also briefly address quantum vacuum polarization effects. We demonstrate the possibility of observing electron-positron pair production in laser and nuclear fields, by controlling the tunneling barrier through the assistance of an additional high-energy photon. Finally, by exploiting the quantum interaction among real photon in vacuum, we propose a double-slit-like experiment devoid of any material parts.

  18. Field Test of Expedient Pavement Repairs (Test Items 16-35).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    7 AD-AlG 903 A IR FORCE ENGINEERING AND SERVICES CENTER TYNDALL AF--ETC FG 13/2 FIELD TEST OF EXPEDIENT PAVEMENT REPAIRS ( TEST ITEMS 16-35).(U...PAVEMENT REPAIRS ~( TEST ITEMS 16-35) MICHAEL T. McNERNEY ENGINEERING RESEARCH DIVISION NOVEMBER 1980 ’ FINAL REPORT JULY 1978 - SEPTEMBER 1979 APPROVED FOR...EXPEDIENT PAVEMENT REPAIRS Final Reportg- July 1978- ( TEST ITEMS 16-35), Segtr W79 7. "AUTHOR(s) 8 CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Michael T./lcNernev, P

  19. Field assessments in conjunction with whole effluent toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Point, T.W.; Waller, W.T.

    2000-01-01

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests are widely used to assess potential effects of wastewater discharges on aquatic life. This paper represents a summary of chapters in a 1996 Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry-sponsored workshop and a literature review concerning linkages between WET testing and associated field biomonitoring. Most published studies thus far focus primarily on benthic macroinvertebrates and on effluent-dominated stream systems in which effluents demonstrate little or no significant acute toxicity. Fewer studies examine WET test predictability in other aquatic ecosystems (e.g., wetlands, estuaries, large rivers) or deal with instream biota such as fish and primary producers. Published results indicate that standards for the usual WET freshwater test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas, may not always protect most of the species inhabiting a receiving stream. Although WET tests are useful in predicting aquatic individual responses, they are not meant to directly measure natural population or community responses. Further, they do not address bioconcentration or bioaccumulation of hydrophobic compounds; do not assess eutrophication effects in receiving systems; and lastly, do not reflect genotoxic effects or function to test for endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Consequently, a more direct evaluation of ecosystem health, using bioassessment techniques, may be needed to properly evaluate aquatic systems affected by wastewater discharges.

  20. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measurement of Thermal Evolution in Geothermal Reservoirs: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell A. Plummer; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson; Laurence C. Hull; George D. Redden

    2011-07-01

    tracers that would improve method sensitivity, (3) development of a software tool for design and interpretation of reactive tracer tests and (4) field testing of the reactive tracer temperature monitoring concept.

  1. High temperature superconducting axial field magnetic coupler: realization and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belguerras, L.; Mezani, S.; Lubin, T.; Lévêque, J.; Rezzoug, A.

    2015-09-01

    Contactless torque transmission through a large airgap is required in some industrial applications in which hermetic isolation is necessary. This torque transmission usually uses magnetic couplers, whose dimension strongly depends on the airgap flux density. The use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils to create a strong magnetic field may constitute a solution to reduce the size of the coupler. It is also possible to use this coupler to replace a torque tube in transmitting the torque produced by a HTS motor to its load. This paper presents the detailed construction and tests of an axial field HTS magnetic coupler. Pancake coils have been manufactured from BSCCO tape and used in one rotor of the coupler. The second rotor is mainly composed of NdFeB permanent magnets. Several tests have been carried out showing that the constructed coupler is working properly. A 3D finite element (FE) model of the studied coupler has been developed. Airgap magnetic field and torque measurements have been carried out and compared to the FE results. It has been shown that the measured and the computed quantities are in satisfactory agreement.

  2. Field Measurements and Pullout Tests of Reinforced Earth Retaining Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈群; 何昌荣; 朱分清

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, field measurements and pullout tests of a new type of reinforced earth retaining wall, which is reinforced by trapezoid concrete blocks connected by steel bar, are described. Field measurements included settlements of the earth fill, tensile forces in the ties and earth pressures on the facing panels during the construction and at completion. Based on the measurements, the following statements can be made: ( 1 ) the tensile forces in the ties increased with the height of backfill above the tie and there is a tensile force crest in most ties; (2) at completion, the measured earth pressures along the wall face were between the values of the active earth pressures and the pressures at rest; (3) larger settlements occurred near the face of the wall where a zone of drainage sand and gravel was not compacted properly and smaller settlements occurred in the well-compacted backfill. The results of field pullout tests indicated that the magnitudes of pullout resistances as well as tensile forces induced in the ties were strongly influenced by the relative displacements between the ties and the backfill, and pullout resistances increased with the height of backfill above the ties and the length of ties.

  3. Relation of field independence and test-item format to student performance on written piagetian tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ló; Pez-Rupérez, F.; Palacios, C.; Sanchez, J.

    In this study we have investigated the relationship between the field-dependence-independence (FDI) dimension as measured by the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) and subject performance on the Longeot test, a pencil-and-paper Piagetian test, through the open or closed format of its items. The sample consisted of 141 high school students. Correlation and variance analysis show that the FDI dimension and GEFT correlate significantly on only those items on the Longeot test that require formal reasoning. The effect of open- or closed-item format is found exclusively for formal items; only the open format discriminates significantly (at the 0.01 level) between the field-dependent and -independent subjects performing on this type of item. Some implications of these results for science education are discussed.

  4. Field tests of 2- and 40-tube condensers at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R.W.; Domingo, N.

    1982-05-01

    Two water-cooled isobutane condensers, one with 2 tubes and one with 40 tubes, were subjected to field tests at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site to assess relative heat transfer performance in both surface evaporator and direct-contact evaporator modes. The five groups of tests established that field performance was below earlier laboratory-determined levels and that direct-contact evaporator mode performance was poorer than that for the surface evaporator mode. In all test situations, fluted condenser tubes performed better than smooth condenser tubes. Cooling water quality had no significant effect on performance, but brine preflash in the direct-contact mode did promote some relative performance improvement. Important implications of these results for binary geothermal power plants are that (1) working-fluid-side impurities can significantly degrade heat transfer performance of the power plant condensers and (2) provisions for minimizing such impurities may be required.

  5. TEST OF AN ANIMAL DRAWN FIELD IMPLEMENT CART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Spugnoli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The field performance of a horse-drawn hitch cart equipped with a PTO system powered by the two cart ground wheels have been investigated. For this purpose field tests on clay and turf soil, with varying ballast and PTO torque, have been carried out pulling the cart by a tractor. Preliminary tests were aimed at assessing the traction capability of horse breed. These tests showed that the mean draught force given by two of these horses was 173daN, average working speed was about 1m*s-1, resulting a mean draught power developed by each horse of about 0.86kW. The PTO cart system performance has shown that the torque has not exceeded 2.4daN*m, maximum draught or PTO power was 1.15kW, rotation speed just higher than 400min-1, with mean efficiency of about 50%. These values are consistent with horse performance and small haymaking, fertilizing, seeding and chemical application machine requirements.

  6. SPHRAY: A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Ray Tracer for Radiative Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Altay, Gabriel; Pelupessy, Inti

    2008-01-01

    We introduce SPHRAY, a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) ray tracer designed to solve the 3D, time dependent, radiative transfer (RT) equations for arbitrary density fields. The SPH nature of SPHRAY makes the incorporation of separate hydrodynamics and gravity solvers very natural. SPHRAY relies on a Monte Carlo (MC) ray tracing scheme that does not interpolate the SPH particles onto a grid but instead integrates directly through the SPH kernels. Given initial conditions and a description of the sources of ionizing radiation, the code will calculate the non-equilibrium ionization state (HI, HII, HeI, HeII, HeIII, e) and temperature (internal energy/entropy) of each SPH particle. The sources of radiation can include point like objects, diffuse recombination radiation, and a background field from outside the computational volume. The MC ray tracing implementation allows for the quick introduction of new physics and is parallelization friendly. A quick Axis Aligned Bounding Box (AABB) test taken from compute...

  7. A Lagrangian particle method with remeshing for tracer transport on the sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosler, Peter A.; Kent, James; Krasny, Robert; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2017-07-01

    A Lagrangian particle method (called LPM) based on the flow map is presented for tracer transport on the sphere. The particles carry tracer values and are located at the centers and vertices of triangular Lagrangian panels. Remeshing is applied to control particle disorder and two schemes are compared, one using direct tracer interpolation and another using inverse flow map interpolation with sampling of the initial tracer density. Test cases include a moving-vortices flow and reversing-deformational flow with both zero and nonzero divergence, as well as smooth and discontinuous tracers. We examine the accuracy of the computed tracer density and tracer integral, and preservation of nonlinear correlation in a pair of tracers. We compare results obtained using LPM and the Lin-Rood finite-volume scheme. An adaptive particle/panel refinement scheme is demonstrated.

  8. Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, P.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.; Clifton, A.; Schreck, S.; Johnson, K.; Wright, A.; Gebraad, P.; Annoni, J.; Naughton, B.; Berg, J.; Herges, T.; White, J.; Mikkelsen, T.; Sjöholm, M.; Angelou, N.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental design and setup. All data collected as part of this field experiment will be archived and made available to the public via the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmosphere to Electrons Data Archive and Portal.

  9. Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-08-05

    The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.

  10. Test plan for FY-94 digface characterization field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josten, N.E.; Roybal, L.G.

    1994-08-01

    The digface characterization concept has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since fiscal year (FY) 1992 through the support of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program. A digface characterization system conducts continuous subsurface characterization simultaneously with retrieval of hazardous and radioactive waste from buried waste sites. The system deploys multiple sensors at the retrieval operation digface and collects data that provide a basis for detecting, locating, and classifying buried materials and hazardous conditions before they are disturbed by the retrieval equipment. This test plan describes ongoing efforts to test the digface characterization concept at the INEL`s Cold Test Pit using a simplified prototype deployment apparatus and off-the-shelf sensors. FY-94 field experiments will explore problems in object detection and classification. Detection and classification of objects are fundamental to three of the four primary functions of digface characterization during overburden removal. This test plan establishes procedures for collecting and validating the digface characterization data sets. Analysis of these data will focus on testing and further developing analysis methods for object detection and classification during overburden removal.

  11. Validity of Selected Lab and Field Tests of Physical Working Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund J.

    The validity of selected lab and field tests of physical working capacity was investigated. Forty-four male college students were administered a series of lab and field tests of physical working capacity. Lab tests include a test of maximum oxygen uptake, the PWC 170 test, the Harvard Step Test, the Progressive Pulse Ratio Test, Margaria Test of…

  12. Preliminary operational results of the industrial process heat field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.; Davenport, R.

    1980-04-01

    There are currently six DOE-funded solar industrial process heat (IPH) field tests which have been operational for one year or longer. These are all low temperature first generation projects which supply heat at temperatures below 100/sup 0/C - three hot water and three hot air. During the 1979 calendar year, personnel from the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) visited all of these sites; the performance and cost results obtained for each project and the operational problems encountered at each site are discussed.

  13. Pulsed mixed n, {gamma} radiation fields for electronic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurdin, G.; Becret, C.; Jaureguy, J.C. [Etablissement Technique Central de l`Armement (ETCA), 94 - Arcueil (France); Vie, M.; Baboulet, J.P.; Lapeyre, P.; Ramisse, D. [D.G.A., 46 - Gramat (France)

    1994-12-31

    For combined n, {gamma} TREE testing we have modified the CALIBAN Fast Burst Reactor Field with CdO/Epoxy converters to cover the range [10{sup 11} -10{sup 12}] n.cm{sup -2} (1 MeV Si), [10{sup 7} - 10{sup 8}] cGy(Si).s{sup -1}. Activation and fission {sigma} {phi}vector, 1 MeV(Si) fluences, neutron spectra, total exposures and dose rates were predicted with good agreement by n, {gamma} photon transport codes. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, P.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power...... production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental...

  15. University of Minnesota Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Field Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, M.; Hoyer, M. C.

    1982-12-01

    The University of Minnesota Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) Field Test Facility became operational. Experiments demonstrated that the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer will accept injection of 300 gpm (18.9 1 sec (-1)) at reasonable pressures with a heat buildup in the injection well of about 44 psi (31.6 m) over 8 days. Heating of the ground water caused precipitation of carbonate in the piping and injection well, but with proper water conditioning, the system will work satisfactorily at elevated temperatures.

  16. Field Test: Results from the One Year Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Feiveson, A. H.; Fisher, E. A.; Phillips, T.; Ribeiro, C.; Taylor, L. C.; Miller, C. A.; Gadd, N. E.; Peters, B. T.; Kitov, V. V.; Lysova, N. Yu; Holden, K. L.; De Dios, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The One Year Mission was designed to aid in determining the effect that extending the duration on orbit aboard the International Space Station (ISS) would have on a number of biological and physiological systems. Two crewmembers were selected to participate in this endeavor, one U.S. On-Orbit Segment (USOS) astronaut and one Russian cosmonaut. The Neuroscience and Cardiovascular and Vision Laboratories at the Johnson Space Center and the Sensory-Motor and Countermeasures Division within the Institute for Biomedical Problems were selected to investigate vestibular, sensorimotor and cardiovascular function with the two long-duration crewmembers using the established methodology developed for the Field Test (FT).

  17. Radon as geological tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Valladares, D.L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Ayub, J. Juri [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL); Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of {sup 222}Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 23}'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using {sup 222}Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m{sup -3} recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  18. Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed

  19. A monitoring system of radioactive tracers in hydroponic solution for research on plant physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzui, N.; Kawachi, N.; Ishioka, N.; Fujimaki, S. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Yamaguchi, M. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    The mechanism of nutrient uptake in plants has received considerable attention in the field of plant science. Here we describe the development of a new monitoring system of radioactive tracers in hydroponic solution, which enables the noninvasive measurement of radioactive tracer uptake by an intact plant. In addition, we incorporated a weighing instrument into this system in order to simultaneously monitor water uptake by the same plant. For an evaluation of this monitoring system, we conducted a tracer experiment with a rice plant and a positron-emitting radioactive tracer, and successfully obtained continuous data for the amounts of radioactive tracer and water taken up by the intact plant over 36 h. (authors)

  20. Radar for tracer particles

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, Felix; Huang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a radar system capable of tracking a $5$mm spherical target continuously in three dimensions. The $10$GHz (X-band) radar system has a transmission power of $1$W and operates in the near field of the horn antennae. By comparing the phase shift of the electromagnetic wave traveling through the free space with an IQ-Mixer, we obtain the relative movement of the target with respect to the antennae. From the azimuth and inclination angles of the receiving antennae obtained in the calibration, we reconstruct the target trajectory in a three-dimensional Cartesian system. Finally, we test the tracking algorithm with target moving in circular as well as in pendulum motions, and discuss the capability of the radar system.

  1. Hypersensitivity test to electric magnetic fields; Test de hipersensibilidad a exposiciones residenciales a campos magneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubeda Maeso, A.; Martinez Pascual, M. A.

    2004-07-01

    The so-called electromagnetic hypersensitivity (RH) syndrome includes a number of unspecific, medically unexplained symptoms attributed to exposure to electric and magnetic fields. As a whole, laboratory tests have provided inconclusive results, in part due to the fact that many individuals show nuclear, inconsistent responses to repeated experimental field-exposures. It has been proposed that such inconsistencies could be due in part to distress caused by the lab test itself. We have developed a test to be conducted at the patient's residence, allowing for long-term follow up of exposure-response assessment and avoiding the laboratory environment and the presence of the researcher as potential stressors and confounding factors. In a pilot test, EMDEX-II magnetometers were used to continuously recording power-frequency magnetic fields in the residence of a patient with perceived EH. The patient's symptoms included distress, headache and dizziness, among other ailments. Magnetographic data of a total of 123 recording days were plotted against the corresponding data on occurrence of the symptoms episodes. As a whole, the results did not show positive linear correlation between the daily occurrence of the episode and the exposures levels recorded during the day or during the day before. These preliminary results are little supportive of the hypothesis that the patient's ailments are caused or worsened by a putative hypersensitivity to residential exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields in the 0.02-4.00 {mu}T range. (Author) 29 refs.

  2. Exotic tracers for atmospheric studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovelock, J.E. (Brazzos Ltd., Launceston (UK)); Ferber, G.J. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD (USA). Air Resources Lab.)

    1982-01-01

    Tracer materials can be injected into the atmosphere to study transport and dispersion processes and to validate air pollution model calculations. Tracers should be inert, non-toxic and harmless to the environment. Tracers for long-range experiments, where dilution is very great, must be measurable at extremely low concentrations, well below the parts per trillion level. Compounds suitable for long-range tracer work are rare and efforts should be made to reserve them for meteorological studies, barring them from commercial uses which would increase atmospheric background concentrations. The use of these exotic tracers, including certain perfluorocarbons and isotopically labelled methanes, should be coordinated within the meteorological community to minimize interferences and maximise research benefits.

  3. Exotic tracers for atmospheric studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, James E.; Ferber, Gilbert J.

    Tracer materials can be injected into the atmosphere to study transport and dispersion processes and to validate air pollution model calculations. Tracers should be inert, non-toxic and harmless to the environment. Tracers for long-range experiments, where dilution is very great, must be measurable at extremely low concentrations, well below the parts per trillion level. Compounds suitable for long-range tracer work are rare and efforts should be made to reserve them for meteorological studies, barring them from commercial uses which would increase atmospheric background concentrations. The use of these exotic tracers, including certain perfluorocarbons and isotopically labelled methanes, should be coordinated within the meteorological community to minimize interferences and maximize research benefits.

  4. Field tests of a tissue-equivalent beta survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, D.E.; Johnson, L.O.; Rich, B.L.; Daniel, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent survey meter for monitoring the (dD/dt)(0.07) and (dD/dt)(10) dose rates produced by betas and photons has been designed and tested. The very thin tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator closely simulates the critical skin tissue layer between 4 mg.cm/sup -2/ and 9 mg.cm/sup -2/. The meter is calibrated to read the (dD/dt)(0.07) dose rate directly, and the (dD/dt)(10) dose rate behind a filter. Laboratory measurements of calibrated sources and field tests have demonstrated tissue-equivalent response of the survey meter to betas between 70 keV and 2500 keV and to photons with energies greater than about 30 keV.

  5. Trace Contraband Detection Field-Test by the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannum, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection Dept.; Shannon, Gary W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection Dept.

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the collaboration between the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force (STSCNTF) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in a field test that provided prototype hand-held trace detection technology for use in counter-drug operations. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ)/National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)/Border Research and Technology Center (BRTC) was contacted by STSCNTF for assistance in obtaining cutting-edge technology. The BRTC created a pilot project for Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the STSCNTF for the use of SNL’s Hound, a hand-held sample collection and preconcentration system that, when combined with a commercial chemical detector, can be used for the trace detection of illicit drugs and explosives. The STSCNTF operates in an area of high narcotics trafficking where methods of concealment make the detection of narcotics challenging. Sandia National Laboratories’ (SNL) Contraband Detection Department personnel provided the Hound system hardware and operational training. The Hound system combines the GE VaporTracer2, a hand-held commercial chemical detector, with an SNL-developed sample collection and preconcentration system. The South Texas Task force reported a variety of successes, including identification of a major shipment of methamphetamines, the discovery of hidden compartments in vehicles that contained illegal drugs and currency used in drug deals, and the identification of a suspect in a nightclub shooting. The main advantage of the hand-held trace detection unit is its ability to quickly identify the type of chemical (drugs or explosives) without a long lag time for laboratory analysis, which is the most common analysis method for current law enforcement procedures.

  6. Trace Contraband Detection Field-Test by the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannum, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection Dept.; Shannon, Gary W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection Dept.

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the collaboration between the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force (STSCNTF) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in a field test that provided prototype hand-held trace detection technology for use in counter-drug operations. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ)/National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)/Border Research and Technology Center (BRTC) was contacted by STSCNTF for assistance in obtaining cutting-edge technology. The BRTC created a pilot project for Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the STSCNTF for the use of SNL’s Hound, a hand-held sample collection and preconcentration system that, when combined with a commercial chemical detector, can be used for the trace detection of illicit drugs and explosives. The STSCNTF operates in an area of high narcotics trafficking where methods of concealment make the detection of narcotics challenging. Sandia National Laboratories’ (SNL) Contraband Detection Department personnel provided the Hound system hardware and operational training. The Hound system combines the GE VaporTracer2, a hand-held commercial chemical detector, with an SNL-developed sample collection and preconcentration system. The South Texas Task force reported a variety of successes, including identification of a major shipment of methamphetamines, the discovery of hidden compartments in vehicles that contained illegal drugs and currency used in drug deals, and the identification of a suspect in a nightclub shooting. The main advantage of the hand-held trace detection unit is its ability to quickly identify the type of chemical (drugs or explosives) without a long lag time for laboratory analysis, which is the most common analysis method for current law enforcement procedures.

  7. Tracer dispersion in a percolation network with spatial correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makse; Andrade; Eugene Stanley H

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the transport properties of a neutral tracer in a carrier fluid flowing through percolationlike porous media with spatial correlations. We model convection in the mass transport process using the velocity field obtained by the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations in the pore space. We find that the resulting statistical properties of the tracer show a transition from a subdiffusion regime at low Peclet number to an enhanced diffusion regime at high Peclet number.

  8. First field test of FiDeL The magnetic field description for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Catalan-Lasheras, N; Deniau, L; Di Castro, M; Fartoukh, S; Giovannozzi, M; Hagen, P; Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre; Lamont, M; Miles, J; Remondino, V; Sammut, N; Sanfilippo, S; Schmidt, F; Sernelius, D; Steinhagen, R; Strzelczyk, M; Tomás, R; Todesco, E; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Walckiers, L; Wenninger, J; Wolf, R; Xydi, P

    2010-01-01

    The start-up of the LHC has provided the first field test for the concept, functionality and accuracy of FiDeL, the Field Description for the LHC. FiDeL provides a parametric model of the transfer function of the main field integrals generated by the series of magnets in the LHC powering circuits, comprising superconducting and normal-conducting main optical elements and high-order harmonic correctors. The same framework is used to predict harmonic errors of both static and dynamic nature, and forecast appropriate corrections. In this paper we make use of beam-based measurements taken on the first LHC beams to assess the first-shot accuracy in the prediction of the current setting for the main arc magnets.

  9. An Integrated Approach to Characterizing Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous and Fractured Reservoirs Using Partitioning Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2006-12-31

    We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling partitioning interwell tracer tests in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Specifically, we utilize the unique features of streamline models to develop an efficient approach for interpretation and history matching of field tracer response. A critical aspect here is the underdetermined and highly ill-posed nature of the associated inverse problems. We have investigated the relative merits of the traditional history matching ('amplitude inversion') and a novel travel time inversion in terms of robustness of the method and convergence behavior of the solution. We show that the traditional amplitude inversion is orders of magnitude more non-linear and the solution here is likely to get trapped in local minimum, leading to inadequate history match. The proposed travel time inversion is shown to be extremely efficient and robust for practical field applications. The streamline approach is generalized to model water injection in naturally fractured reservoirs through the use of a dual media approach. The fractures and matrix are treated as separate continua that are connected through a transfer function, as in conventional finite difference simulators for modeling fractured systems. A detailed comparison with a commercial finite difference simulator shows very good agreement. Furthermore, an examination of the scaling behavior of the computation time indicates that the streamline approach is likely to result in significant savings for large-scale field applications. We also propose a novel approach to history matching finite-difference models that combines the advantage of the streamline models with the versatility of finite-difference simulation. In our approach, we utilize the streamline-derived sensitivities to facilitate history matching during finite-difference simulation. The use of finite-difference model allows us to account for detailed process physics and compressibility effects

  10. Luminescent two-color tracer particles for simultaneous velocity and temperature measurements in microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massing, J.; Kaden, D.; Kähler, C. J.; Cierpka, C.

    2016-11-01

    The simultaneous and non-intrusive measurement of temperature and velocity fields in flows is of great scientific and technological interest. To sample the velocity and temperature, tracer particle based approaches have been developed, where the velocity is measured using PIV or PTV and the temperature is obtained from the intensity (LIF, thermographic phosphors) or frequency (TLC) of the light emitted or reflected by the tracer particles. In this article, a measurement technique is introduced, that relates the luminescent intensity ratio of individual dual-color luminescent tracer particles to temperature. Different processing algorithms are tested on synthetic particle images and compared with respect to their accuracy in estimating the intensity ratio. Furthermore, polymer particles which are doped with the temperature sensitive dye europium (III) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate (EuTTA) and the nearly temperature insensitive reference dye perylene are characterized as valid tracers. The results show a reduction of the temperature measurement uncertainty of almost 40% (95% confidence interval) compared to previously reported luminescent particle based measurement techniques for microfluidics.

  11. Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) field test installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, R.L.; Waymire, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fuess, D.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    The MIMS program is funded by the Department of Energy under the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The program objective is to develop cost effective, modular, multi-sensor monitoring systems. Both in-plant and ground based sensors are envisioned. It is also desirable to develop sensors/systems that can be fielded/deployed in a rapid fashion. A MIMS architecture was selected to allow modular integration of sensors and systems and is based on LonWorks technology, commercially developed by Echelon Corporation. The first MIMS fieldable hardware was demonstrated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The field test, known within the DOE as the Item Tracking and Transparency (IT&I) demonstration, involved the collaboration and cooperation of five DOE laboratories (Sandia (SNL), Lawrence Livermore (LLNL), Pacific Northwest (PNL), Los Alamos (LANL), and Oak Ridge (ORNL)). The IT&T demonstration involved the monitoring of special nuclear material as it was transported around the facility utilizing sensors from the participating labs. The scenario was programmed to ignore normal activity in the facility until entry into the room where the material was stored. A second demonstration, which involved three separate scenarios, was conducted at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The participants included representatives from SNL, LLNL, PNL, and INEL. DOE has selected INEL as the long term testbed for MIMS developed sensors, systems, and scenarios. This paper will describe the installation, intended purpose, and results of the field demonstrations at LLNL and INEL under the MIMS program.

  12. Field test of hydrogen in the natural gas grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskov, H.

    2010-08-15

    In order to prepare for a future use of hydrogen as a fuel gas it became evident that very little information existed regarding the compatibility between long-term exposure and transportation of hydrogen in natural gas pipelines. A program was therefore set to study the transportation in a small-scale pilot grid at the research centre in Hoersholm, Denmark. The test program included steel pipes from the Danish gas transmission grid and polymer pipes from the Danish and Swedish gas distribution grid. The test of polymer pipes was devised so that samples of all test pipes were cut out of the grid each year and analysis performed on these pipe samples; in this way any form of influence on the integrity of the polyethylene pipe would be detected. The analytical program for polymer was devised in order to detect any influence on the additivation of the polyethylene as this has an influence on oxidative resistance, as well as checking already encountered possible degradation caused by extrusion of the material. Further tools as rheology and melt flow rate were used for detecting any structural changes on the material. On the mechanical property side the tensile strength and modulus were followed as well as the most important property for the pipe line, namely slow crack growth. The results of the polymer pipe tests show no degradations of any kind related to the continuous hydrogen exposure for more than 4 years. This is a strong indication of the compatibility to hydrogen of the tested polymer materials PE 80 and PE 100. The object of the steel pipe test was to see the effect on fatigue life of existing natural gas transmission lines with hydrogen replacing the natural gas. Full-scale dynamic tests were performed using randomly selected cut-out API 5L X70 pipe sections with a diameter of 20 inches and a wall thickness of 7 millimetres from the Danish natural gas transmission system. The pipe sections contained field girth weld made during the installation of the pipe

  13. Field Testing of Nano-PCM Enhanced Building Envelope Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Building Technologies Program s goal of developing high-performance, energy efficient buildings will require more cost-effective, durable, energy efficient building envelopes. Forty-eight percent of the residential end-use energy consumption is spent on space heating and air conditioning. Reducing envelope-generated heating and cooling loads through application of phase change material (PCM)-enhanced envelope components can facilitate maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. Field-testing of prototype envelope components is an important step in estimating their energy benefits. An innovative phase change material (nano-PCM) was developed with PCM encapsulated with expanded graphite (interconnected) nanosheets, which is highly conducive for enhanced thermal storage and energy distribution, and is shape-stable for convenient incorporation into lightweight building components. During 2012, two test walls with cellulose cavity insulation and prototype PCM-enhanced interior wallboards were installed in a natural exposure test (NET) facility at Charleston, SC. The first test wall was divided into four sections, which were separated by wood studs and thin layers of foam insulation. Two sections contained nano-PCM-enhanced wallboards: one was a three-layer structure, in which nano-PCM was sandwiched between two gypsum boards, and the other one had PCM dispersed homogeneously throughout graphite nanosheets-enhanced gypsum board. The second test wall also contained two sections with interior PCM wallboards; one contained nano-PCM dispersed homogeneously in gypsum and the other was gypsum board containing a commercial microencapsulated PCM (MEPCM) for comparison. Each test wall contained a section covered with gypsum board on the interior side, which served as control or a baseline for evaluation of the PCM wallboards. The walls were instrumented with arrays of thermocouples and heat flux transducers. Further, numerical modeling of

  14. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2

  15. 76 FR 3075 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Feline Leukemia Vaccine, Live...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Feline Leukemia Vaccine, Live Canarypox Vector AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed Feline Leukemia Vaccine, Live Canarypox Vector. The.... Product: Feline Leukemia Vaccine, Live Canarypox Vector. Field Test Locations: Alabama,...

  16. 77 FR 22283 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Feline Interleukin-2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Feline Interleukin-2 Immunomodulator, Live Canarypox Vector AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... of field testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed Feline Interleukin-2 ] Immunomodulator, Live... testing of the following unlicensed veterinary biological product: Requester: Merial, Inc. Product:...

  17. Molecules as tracers of galaxy evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costagliola, F.; Aalto, S.; I. Rodriguez, M.;

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the molecular gas properties of a sample of 23 galaxies in order to find and test chemical signatures of galaxy evolution and to compare them to IR evolutionary tracers. Observation at 3 mm wavelengths were obtained with the EMIR broadband receiver, mounted on the IRAM 30 m telesco...... detect the molecule in its vibrationally excited state.We find low HNC/HCN line ratios (...

  18. Improved performance of Brucella melitensis native hapten over Brucella abortus OPS tracer on goat antibody detection by the fluorescence polarization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Pfeiffer, C; Díaz-Aparicio, E; Rodríguez-Padilla, C; Morales-Loredo, A; Alvarez-Ojeda, G; Gomez-Flores, R

    2008-06-15

    The current method for goat brucellosis diagnosis is based on the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) using the screening card test (CT), with antigen at 8% (CT8) or 3% (CT3) of cell concentrations, and the confirmatory complement fixation test (CFT). However, these tests do not differentiate antibodies induced by vaccination from those derived from field infections by Brucella species or other bacterial agents; in places like Mexico, where the prevalence of brucellosis and the vaccination rates are high, there is a considerable percentage of false positive reactions that causes significant unnecessary slaughter of animals. Furthermore, results of the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) using the Brucella abortus O-polysaccharide (OPS) tracer in goats are poorer than those with cattle. The present study was undertaken to investigate a tracer prepared from the native hapten (NH) of the Rev. 1 strain of Brucella melitensis to improve FPA performance on goat brucellosis diagnosis. Evaluation of 48 positive samples and 96 negative samples showed that the NH tracer was more accurate (pgoat sera samples selected by test series approved by the OIE (card test 3% and CFT). We demonstrated a new application for the NH lipopolysaccharide on detecting antibodies against Brucella using the FPA, which may yield faster results (minutes vs. 24-72h) than the immunodiagnosis assays frequently used in bovine brucellosis. In addition, NH tracer produces similar or better performance results than the conventional OPS tracer, using the FPA in goat sera samples.

  19. Evaluating lysimeter drainage against soil deep percolation modeled with profile soil moisture, field tracer propagation, and lab measured soil hydraulic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Vicente; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Iversen, Bo Vangsø;

    them have been reported. To compare among methods, one year of four large-scale lysimeters drainage (D) was evaluated against modeled soil deep percolation using either profile soil moisture, bromide breakthrough curves from suction cups, or measured soil hydraulic properties in the laboratory...... model using field q, and 572 mm with the laboratory measured soil hydraulic properties. In conclusion, lysimeters presented the lowest D and can be considered as a lower bound for D; whereas either laboratory measured soil hydraulic properties or models calibrated with profile soil moisture yielded......Quantifying recharge to shallow aquifers via soil deep percolation is needed for sustainable management of water resources. This includes modeled predictions to address the effects of climate change on recharge. Different methods to estimate soil deep percolation exist but few comparisons among...

  20. Cooperative field test program for wind systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollmeier, W.S. II; Dodge, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    The objectives of the Federal Wind Energy Program, managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), are (1) to assist industry and utilities in achieving a multi-regional US market penetration of wind systems, and (2) to establish the United States as the world leader in the development of advanced wind turbine technology. In 1984, the program conducted a series of planning workshops with representatives from the wind energy industry to obtain input on the Five-Year Research Plan then being prepared by DOE. One specific suggestion that came out of these meetings was that the federal program should conduct cooperative research tests with industry to enhance the technology transfer process. It was also felt that the active involvement of industry in DOE-funded research would improve the state of the art of wind turbine technology. DOE established the Cooperative Field Test Program (CFTP) in response to that suggestion. This program was one of the first in DOE to feature joint industry-government research test teams working toward common objectives.

  1. Design and Field Test of a Galvanometer Deflected Streak Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, C C; Goosman, D R; Wade, J T; Avara, R

    2002-11-08

    We have developed a compact fieldable optically-deflected streak camera first reported in the 20th HSPP Congress. Using a triggerable galvanometer that scans the optical signal, the imaging and streaking function is an all-optical process without incurring any photon-electron-photon conversion or photoelectronic deflection. As such, the achievable imaging quality is limited mainly only by optical design, rather than by multiple conversions of signal carrier and high voltage electron-optics effect. All core elements of the camera are packaged into a 12 inch x 24 inch footprint box, a size similar to that of a conventional electronic streak camera. At LLNL's Site-300 Test Site, we have conducted a Fabry-Perot interferometer measurement of fast object velocity using this all-optical camera side-by-side with an intensified electronic streak camera. These two cameras are configured as two independent instruments for recording synchronously each branch of the 50/50 splits from one incoming signal. Given the same signal characteristics, the test result has undisputedly demonstrated superior imaging performance for the all-optical streak camera. It produces higher signal sensitivity, wider linear dynamic range, better spatial contrast, finer temporal resolution, and larger data capacity as compared with that of the electronic counterpart. The camera had also demonstrated its structural robustness and functional consistence to be well compatible with field environment. This paper presents the camera design and the test results in both pictorial records and post-process graphic summaries.

  2. Test particle transport in perturbed magnetic fields in tokamaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rover, M.; Schilham, A.M.R.; Montvai, A.; Cardozo, N. J. L.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical calculations of magnetic field line trajectories in a tokamak are used to investigate the common hypotheses that (i) field lines in a chaotic field make a Gaussian random walk and (ii) that the poloidal component of the magnetic field is uniform in regions with a chaotic magnetic field. Bo

  3. Proceedings of the atmospheric tracers and tracer application workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, S.; Gedayloo, T. (comps.)

    1979-12-01

    In addition to presentations by participating members a general discussion was held in order to summarize and outline the goals and objectives of the workshop. A number of new low level background tracers such as heavy methanes, perfluorocarbons, multiply labeled isotopes such as /sup 13/C/sup 18/O/sub 2/, helium 3, in addition to sample collection techniques and analytical methods for various tracers were discussed. This report is a summary of discussions and papers presented at this workshop.

  4. Results from laboratory and field testing of nitrate measuring spectrophotometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snazelle, Teri T.

    2015-01-01

    Five ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer nitrate analyzers were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) during a two-phase evaluation. In Phase I, the TriOS ProPs (10-millimeter (mm) path length), Hach NITRATAX plus sc (5-mm path length), Satlantic Submersible UV Nitrate Analyzer (SUNA, 10-mm path length), and S::CAN Spectro::lyser (5-mm path length) were evaluated in the HIF Water-Quality Servicing Laboratory to determine the validity of the manufacturer's technical specifications for accuracy, limit of linearity (LOL), drift, and range of operating temperature. Accuracy specifications were met in the TriOS, Hach, and SUNA. The stock calibration of the S::CAN required two offset adjustments before the analyzer met the manufacturer's accuracy specification. Instrument drift was observed only in the S::CAN and was the result of leaching from the optical path insert seals. All tested models, except for the Hach, met their specified LOL in the laboratory testing. The Hach's range was found to be approximately 18 milligrams nitrogen per liter (mg-N/L) and not the manufacturer-specified 25 mg-N/L. Measurements by all of the tested analyzers showed signs of hysteresis in the operating temperature tests. Only the SUNA measurements demonstrated excessive noise and instability in temperatures above 20 degrees Celsius (°C). The SUNA analyzer was returned to the manufacturer at the completion of the Phase II field deployment evaluation for repair and recalibration, and the performance of the sensor improved significantly.

  5. Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle with supercluster Laniakea's gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-Xing; Zhang, Bo; Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng

    2016-03-01

    Comparing the parameterized post-Newtonian parameter γ values for different types of particles, or the same type of particles with different energies is an important method to test the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP). Assuming that the observed time delays are dominated by the gravitational potential of the Laniakea supercluster of galaxies, better results of EEP constraints can be obtained. In this paper, we apply photons from three kinds of cosmic transients, including TeV blazars, gamma-ray bursts as well as fast radio bursts to constrain EEP. With a gravitational field far more stronger than a single galaxy, we obtain 4-5 orders of magnitude more stringent than the previous results.

  6. Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle with Supercluster Laniakea's Gravitational Field

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Zhi-Xing; Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Comparing the parameterized post-Newtonian parameter $\\gamma$ values for different types of particles, or the same type of particles with different energies is an important method to test the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP). Assuming that the observed time delays are dominated by the gravitational potential of the Laniakea supercluster of galaxies, better results of EEP constraints can be obtained. In this paper, we apply photons from three kinds of cosmic transients, including TeV blazars, gamma-ray bursts as well as fast radio bursts to constrain EEP. With a gravitational field far more stronger than a single galaxy, we obtain 4--5 orders of magnitude more stringent than the pervious results.

  7. Numerical Tests of Fast Reconnection in Weakly Stochastic Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kowal, G; Vishniac, E T; Otmianowska-Mazur, K

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of turbulence on magnetic reconnection using 3D numerical simulations. This is the first attempt to test a model of fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of weak turbulence proposed by Lazarian & Vishniac (1999). This model predicts that weak turbulence, generically present in most of astrophysical systems, enhances the rate of reconnection by reducing the transverse scale for reconnection events and by allowing many independent flux reconnection events to occur simultaneously. As a result the reconnection speed becomes independent of Ohmic resistivity and is determined by the magnetic field wandering induced by turbulence. To quantify the reconnection speed we use both an intuitive definition, i.e. the speed of the reconnected flux inflow, as well as a more sophisticated definition based on a formally derived analytical expression. Our results confirm the predictions of the Lazarian & Vishniac model. In particular, we find that Vrec Pinj^(1/2), as predicted by the model. The...

  8. A field test of a simple stochastic radiative transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, N. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The problem of determining the effect of clouds on the radiative energy balance of the globe is of well-recognized importance. One can in principle solve the problem for any given configuration of clouds using numerical techniques. This knowledge is not useful however, because of the amount of input data and computer resources required. Besides, we need only the average of the resulting solution over the grid scale of a general circulation model (GCM). Therefore, we are interested in estimating the average of the solutions of such fine-grained problems using only coarse grained data, a science or art called stochastic radiation transfer. Results of the described field test indicate that the stochastic description is a somewhat better fit to the data than is a fractional cloud cover model, but more data are needed. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  9. FUELS IN SOIL TEST KIT: FIELD USE OF DIESEL DOG SOIL TEST KITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.

    2002-09-30

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed a new commercial product ready for technology transfer, the Diesel Dog{reg_sign} Portable Soil Test Kit, for performing analysis of fuel-contaminated soils in the field. The technology consists of a method developed by WRI (U.S. Patents 5,561,065 and 5,976,883) and hardware developed by WRI that allows the method to be performed in the field (patent pending). The method is very simple and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. The aromatic components in a soil extract are measured by absorption at 254 nm with a field-portable photometer. WRI added significant value to the technology by taking the method through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) approval and validation processes. The method is designated as ASTM Method D 5831-96, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This ASTM designation allows the method to be used for federal compliance activities. In June 2001, the Diesel Dog technology won an American Chemical Society Regional Industrial Innovations Award. To gain field experience with the new technology, Diesel Dog kits have been used for a variety of site evaluation and cleanup activities. Information gained from these activities has led to improvements in hardware configurations and additional insight into correlating Diesel Dog results with results from laboratory methods. The Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) used Diesel Dog Soil Test Kits to guide cleanups at a variety of sites throughout the state. ENSR, of Acton, Massachusetts, used a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit to evaluate sites in the Virgin Islands and Georgia. ChemTrack and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers successfully used a test kit to guide excavation at an abandoned FAA fuel-contaminated site near Fairbanks, Alaska. Barenco, Inc. is using a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit for site evaluations in Canada. A small spill of diesel fuel was cleaned up in Laramie, Wyoming using a Diesel

  10. Field test on temperature field and thermal stress for prestressed concrete box-girder bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoguo CHEN; Rui DING; Junjie ZHENG; Shibiao ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    A field test was conducted to investigate the distribution of temperature field and the variation of thermal stress for a prestressed concrete (PC) box-girder bridge. The change of hydration heat temperature consists of four periods: temperature rising period, constant temperature period, rapid temperature fall period and stow temperature fall period. The peak value of hydration heat temperature increases with the increasing casting temperature of concrete; the relation between them is approximately linear. According to field tests, the thermal stress incurred by hydration heat may induce temperature cracks on the PC box-girder. Furthermore, the nonlinear distribution of temperature gradient and the fluctuation of thermal stress induced by exposure to sunlight were also obtained based on continuous in-situ monitoring. Such results show that the prevailing Chinese Code (2004) is insufficient since it does not take into account the temperature gradient of the bottom slab. Finally, some preventive measures against temperature cracks were proposed based on related studies. The conclusions can provide valuable reference for the design and construction of PC box-girder bridges.

  11. Testing neoclassical competitive market theory in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, John A

    2002-11-26

    This study presents results from a pilot field experiment that tests predictions of competitive market theory. A major advantage of this particular field experimental design is that my laboratory is the marketplace: subjects are engaged in buying, selling, and trading activities whether I run an exchange experiment or am a passive observer. In this sense, I am gathering data in a natural environment while still maintaining the necessary control to execute a clean comparison between treatments. The main results of the study fall into two categories. First, the competitive model predicts reasonably well in some market treatments: the expected price and quantity levels are approximated in many market rounds. Second, the data suggest that market composition is important: buyer and seller experience levels impact not only the distribution of rents but also the overall level of rents captured. An unexpected result in this regard is that average market efficiency is lowest in markets that match experienced buyers and experienced sellers and highest when experienced buyers engage in bargaining with inexperienced sellers. Together, these results suggest that both market experience and market composition play an important role in the equilibrium discovery process.

  12. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Detailed Test Plan for Simulated Leak Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.

    2000-06-23

    This report describes controlled transport experiments at well-instrumented field tests to be conducted during FY 2000 in support of DOE?s Vadose Zone Transport Field Study (VZTFS). The VZTFS supports the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Initiative. The field tests will improve understanding of field-scale transport and lead to the development or identification of efficient and cost-effective characterization methods. These methods will capture the extent of contaminant plumes using existing steel-cased boreholes. Specific objectives are to 1) identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford?s waste disposal sites; 2) reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; 3) develop a detailed and accurate data base of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; and 4) identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) manages the VZTFS for DOE.

  13. Evaluation of the reliability of two field hockey specific sprint and dribble tests in young field hockey players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmink, K.A.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Visscher, C.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the reliability of two field hockey specific tests: the shuttle sprint and dribble test (ShuttleSDT) and the slalom sprint and dribble test (SlalomSDT). METHODS: The shuttle sprint and dribble performances of 22 young male and 12 young female field hockey players were

  14. Evaluation of the reliability of two field hockey specific sprint and dribble tests in young field hockey players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmink, K.A.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Visscher, C.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the reliability of two field hockey specific tests: the shuttle sprint and dribble test (ShuttleSDT) and the slalom sprint and dribble test (SlalomSDT). METHODS: The shuttle sprint and dribble performances of 22 young male and 12 young female field hockey players were assess

  15. Development of a specific anaerobic field test for aerobic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Borelli, Marcello Tadeu Caetano; Paineli, Vitor de Salles; Azevedo, Rafael de Almeida; Borelli, Claudia Cristine Gomes; Lancha Junior, Antônio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to develop a valid specific field test to evaluate anaerobic physical performance in Aerobic Gymnastics athletes. We first designed the Specific Aerobic Gymnast Anaerobic Test (SAGAT), which included gymnastics-specific elements performed in maximal repeated sprint fashion, with a total duration of 80-90 s. In order to validate the SAGAT, three independent sub-studies were performed to evaluate the concurrent validity (Study I, n=8), the reliability (Study II, n=10) and the sensitivity (Study III, n=30) of the test in elite female athletes. In Study I, a positive correlation was shown between lower-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03 and Peak power: p = 0.02, r = -0.72, CI: -0.95 to -0.04) and between upper-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.67, CI: -0.94 to 0.02 and Peak power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03). Additionally, plasma lactate was similarly increased in response to SAGAT (p = 0.002), lower-body Wingate Test (p = 0.021) and a simulated competition (p = 0.007). In Study II, no differences were found between the time to complete the SAGAT in repeated trials (p = 0.84; Cohen's d effect size = 0.09; ICC = 0.97, CI: 0.89 to 0.99; MDC95 = 0.12 s). Finally, in Study III the time to complete the SAGAT was significantly lower during the competition cycle when compared to the period before the preparatory cycle (p Gymnastics training period. Taken together, these data have demonstrated that SAGAT is a specific, reliable and sensitive measurement of specific anaerobic performance in elite female Aerobic Gymnastics, presenting great potential to be largely applied in training settings.

  16. Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Landreth

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was

  17. Microfluidics for Synthesis of Peptide-Based PET Tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET is a powerful noninvasive tool for acquisition of the physiological parameters in human and animals with the help of PET tracers. Among all the PET tracers, radiolabeled peptides have been widely explored for cancer-related receptor imaging due to their high affinity and specificity to receptors. But radiochemistry procedures for production of peptide-based PET tracers are usually complex, which makes large-scale clinical studies relatively challenging. New radiolabeling technologies which could simplify synthesis and purification procedures, are extremely needed. Over the last decade, microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip (LOC technology have boomed as powerful tools in the field of organic chemistry, which potentially provide significant help to the PET chemistry. In this minireview, microfluidic radiolabeling technology is described and its application for synthesis of peptide-based PET tracers is summarized and discussed.

  18. Tracking thermal fronts with temperature-sensitive, chemically reactive tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, B.A.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Los Alamos is developing tracer techniques using reactive chemicals to track thermal fronts in fractured geothermal reservoirs. If a nonadsorbing tracer flowing from the injection to production well chemically reacts, its reaction rate will be a strong function of temperature. Thus the extent of chemical reaction will be greatest early in the lifetime of the system, and less as the thermal front progresses from the injection to production well. Early laboratory experiments identified tracers with chemical kinetics suitable for reservoirs in the temperature range of 75 to 100/sup 0/C. Recent kinetics studies have focused on the kinetics of hydrolysis of derivatives of bromobenzene. This class of reactions can be used in reservoirs ranging in temperature from 150 to 275/sup 0/C, which is of greater interest to the geothermal industry. Future studies will include laboratory adsorption experiments to identify possibly unwanted adsorption on granite, development of sensitive analytical techniques, and a field demonstration of the reactive tracer concept.

  19. A theoretical framework of tracer methods for marine sediment dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new theoretical framework of tracer methods is proposed in the present contribution, on the basis of mass conservation. This model is applicable for both artificial and natural tracers. It can be used to calculate the spatial distribution patterns of sediment transport rate, thus providing independent information and verification for the results derived from empirical formulae. For the procedures of the calculation, first, the tracer concentration and topographic maps of two times are obtained. Then, the spatial and temporal changes in the concentration and seabed elevation are calculated, and the boundary conditions required are determined by field observations (such as flow and bedform migration measurements). Finally, based upon eqs. (1) and (13), the transport rate is calculated and expressed as a function of the position over the study area. Further, appropriate modifications to the model may allow the tracer to have different densities and grain size distributions from the bulk sediment.

  20. Mobility of Metal Tracers in Unsaturated Tuffs of Busted Butte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffman, A. R.

    2001-12-01

    A complex tracer mixture was injected continuously for over two years into a 10 m x 10 m x 7 m block of unsaturated tuff as part of the Busted Butte unsaturated-zone tracer test at Yucca Mountain. The test was designed to measure tracer transport within the Topopah Springs and Calico Hills tuffs, units that occur between the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain and the water table below. The mixture included nonreactive (Br, I, and fluorinated benzoic acids (FBAs)) and reactive tracers (Li, Ce, Sm, Ni, Co, and Mn). Bromide, I, FBAs, and Li were detected during the test on absorbent pads emplaced in a series of solute collection boreholes located beneath the injectors but the more strongly sorbing metals did not reach the collection boreholes during this period. To determine the distribution and mobility of these metals, tracer constituents were extracted from tuff samples collected during overcoring and mineback of the test block. Tracers were extracted from the tuff samples by leaching with a 5% nitric acid solution for metals and a bicarbonate-carbonate buffer for anions. Results from the overcore sample suite show that metals have migrated through the tuff in the region adjacent to and immediately below the tracer injectors. Consistent with laboratory sorption measurements and observed breakthrough in the collection boreholes, rock analyses showed that Li is the most mobile of the metals. Co and Ni behave similarly, traveling tens of cm from the injection sites, while Sm and Ce moved far less, possibly due to precipitation reactions in addition to sorption. Determination of Mn transport is complicated by high background concentrations in the tuff; additional background samples are currently being evaluated. As expected, our rock analyses show that the nonreactive tracers Br and FBAs have moved beyond the overcore region, corroborating results from collection boreholes.

  1. Slew-rate dependence of tracer magnetization response in magnetic particle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saqlain A; Ferguson, R M; Krishnan, K M

    2014-10-28

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new biomedical imaging technique that produces real-time, high-resolution tomographic images of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. Currently, 25 kHz and 20 mT/μ0 excitation fields are common in MPI, but lower field amplitudes may be necessary for patient safety in future designs. Here, we address fundamental questions about MPI tracer magnetization dynamics and predict tracer performance in future scanners that employ new combinations of excitation field amplitude (Ho ) and frequency (ω). Using an optimized, monodisperse MPI tracer, we studied how several combinations of drive field frequencies and amplitudes affect the tracer's response, using Magnetic Particle Spectrometry and AC hysteresis, for drive field conditions at 15.5, 26, and 40.2 kHz, with field amplitudes ranging from 7 to 52 mT/μ0. For both fluid and immobilized nanoparticle samples, we determined that magnetic response was dominated by Néel reversal. Furthermore, we observed that the peak slew-rate (ωHo) determined the tracer magnetic response. Smaller amplitudes provided correspondingly smaller field of view, sometimes resulting in excitation of minor hysteresis loops. Changing the drive field conditions but keeping the peak slew-rate constant kept the tracer response almost the same. Higher peak slew-rates led to reduced maximum signal intensity and greater coercivity in the tracer response. Our experimental results were in reasonable agreement with Stoner-Wohlfarth model based theories.

  2. Field-Based Video Pre-Test Counseling, Oral Testing, and Telephonic Post-Test Counseling: Implementation of an HIV Field Testing Package among High-Risk Indian Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Hannah; Yeldandi, Vijay V.; Kumar, G. Prem; Liao, Chuanhong; Lakshmi, Vemu; Gandham, Sabitha R.; Muppudi, Uma; Oruganti, Ganesh; Schneider, John A.

    2012-01-01

    In India, men who have sex with men (MSM) and truck drivers are high-risk groups that often do not access HIV testing due to stigma and high mobility. This study evaluated a field testing package (FTP) that identified HIV positive participants through video pre-test counseling, OraQuick oral fluid HIV testing, and telephonic post-test counseling…

  3. Very Massive Tracers and Higher Derivative Biases

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Tomohiro; Senatore, Leonardo; Vlah, Zvonimir; Angulo, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Most of the upcoming cosmological information will come from analyzing the clustering of the Large Scale Structures (LSS) of the universe through LSS or CMB observations. It is therefore essential to be able to understand their behavior with exquisite precision. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures (EFTofLSS) provides a consistent framework to make predictions for LSS observables in the mildly non-linear regime. In this paper we focus on biased tracers. We argue that in calculations at a given order in the dark matter perturbations, highly biased tracers will underperform because of their larger higher derivative biases. A natural prediction of the EFTofLSS is therefore that by simply adding higher derivative biases, all tracers should perform comparably well. We implement this prediction for the halo-halo and the halo-matter power spectra at one loop, and the halo-halo-halo, halo-halo-matter, and halo-matter-matter bispectra at tree-level, and compare with simulations. We find good agreement ...

  4. Tracer technology modeling the flow of fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Levenspiel, Octave

    2012-01-01

    A vessel’s behavior as a heat exchanger, absorber, reactor, or other process unit is dependent upon how fluid flows through the vessel.  In early engineering, the designer would assume either plug flow or mixed flow of the fluid through the vessel.  However, these assumptions were oftentimes inaccurate, sometimes being off by a volume factor of 100 or more.  The result of this unreliable figure produced ineffective products in multiple reaction systems.   Written by a pioneering researcher in the field of chemical engineering, the tracer method was introduced to provide more accurate flow data.  First, the tracer method measured the actual flow of fluid through a vessel.  Second, it developed a suitable model to represent the flow in question.  Such models are used to follow the flow of fluid in chemical reactors and other process units, like in rivers and streams, or solid and porous structures.  In medicine, the tracer method is used to study the flow of chemicals—harmful  and harmless—in the...

  5. Natural tracer profiles across argillaceous formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurek, Martin, E-mail: mazurek@geo.unibe.ch [Rock-Water Interaction, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern (Switzerland); Alt-Epping, Peter [Rock-Water Interaction, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern (Switzerland); Bath, Adrian [Intellisci, Willoughby on the Wolds, Loughborough LE12 6SZ (United Kingdom); Gimmi, Thomas [Rock-Water Interaction, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern (Switzerland)] [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Niklaus Waber, H. [Rock-Water Interaction, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern (Switzerland); Buschaert, Stephane [Andra, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Canniere, Pierre De; Craen, Mieke De [SCK-CEN, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Gautschi, Andreas [Nagra, 5430 Wettingen (Switzerland); Savoye, Sebastien [IRSN, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Vinsot, Agnes [Andra, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Wemaere, Isabelle [SCK-CEN, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Wouters, Laurent [Ondraf/Niras, 1210 Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Solute transport processes in clay and shale formations at nine sites are examined. > Conservative pore-water tracers (e.g. Cl{sup -}, {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H, He) show regular profiles. > These indicate the dominance of diffusive transport over times of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} years. > The contribution of vertical advection to transport is limited or negligible. > Modelled evolution times are in line with independent palaeo-hydrogeological data. - Abstract: Argillaceous formations generally act as aquitards because of their low hydraulic conductivities. This property, together with the large retention capacity of clays for cationic contaminants, has brought argillaceous formations into focus as potential host rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive and other waste. In several countries, programmes are under way to characterise the detailed transport properties of such formations at depth. In this context, the interpretation of profiles of natural tracers in pore waters across the formations can give valuable information about the large-scale and long-term transport behaviour of these formations. Here, tracer-profile data, obtained by various methods of pore-water extraction for nine sites in central Europe, are compiled. Data at each site comprise some or all of the conservative tracers: anions (Cl{sup -}, Br{sup -}), water isotopes ({delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H) and noble gases (mainly He). Based on a careful evaluation of the palaeo-hydrogeological evolution at each site, model scenarios are derived for initial and boundary pore-water compositions and an attempt is made to numerically reproduce the observed tracer distributions in a consistent way for all tracers and sites, using transport parameters derived from laboratory or in situ tests. The comprehensive results from this project have been reported in . Here the results for three sites are presented in detail, but the conclusions are based on model interpretations of the

  6. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Final report of the first stage of the tracer retention understanding experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, A. [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Andersson, Peter [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Grundteknik, Solna (Sweden); Byegaard, Johan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Cvetkovic, V. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Water Resources Engineering; Birgersson, Lars [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-03-15

    from its surrounding. The near proximity of the experimental array to the tunnel (10-15 m) implies a strong gradient (approximately 10%) in the structure, which has to be overcome and controlled during the experiments. A methodology for characterising fracture pore space using resin injection, excavation using large diameter coring and subsequent analysis with photo-microscopic and image analysis techniques was developed and tested at a separate site. The results show that epoxy resin can be injected over several hours, and that the estimated areal spread is in the order of square metres. The mean apertures of the two investigated samples were 239 and 266 microns, respectively. Assessment of spatial correlation show practical ranges in the order of a few millimetres. Performed tracer tests with conservative tracers in Feature A show that the feature is connected between its interpreted intercepts in the array. The parameters evaluated from the conservative tests; flow porosity, dispersivity and fracture conductivity are similar, indicating a relative homogeneity. Previous work has identified cationic tracers, featured by sorption through ion exchange, as the most suitable tracers for sorbing tracer experiments at ambient Aespoe conditions. Laboratory experiments on generic Aespoe material and site-specific material included batch sorption experiments on various size fractions of the geological material, and through diffusion experiments on core samples of variable length on a centimetre length scale. The sorbtivity was found to be strongly affected by the biotite content and the sorption was also found to increase with contact time. The sorbtivity was found to follow the relative order; {sup 22}Na{sup +} < {sup 47}Ca{sup 2+} {approx_equal} {sup 85}Sr{sup 2+} << {sup 86}Rb{sup +} {approx_equal} {sup 133}Ba{sup 2+} The field tracer tests, using essentially the same cocktail of sorbing tracers as in the laboratory, were found to show the same relative sorbtivity as seen

  7. Advanced Rooftop Control (ARC) Retrofit: Field-Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2013-07-31

    The multi-year research study was initiated to find solutions to improve packaged equipment operating efficiency in the field. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) conducted this research, development and demonstration (RD&D) study. Packaged equipment with constant speed supply fans is designed to provide ventilation at the design rate at all times when the fan is operating as required by building code. Although there are a number of hours during the day when a building may not be fully occupied or the need for ventilation is lower than designed, the ventilation rate cannot be adjusted easily with a constant speed fan. Therefore, modulating the supply fan in conjunction with demand controlled ventilation (DCV) will not only reduce the coil energy but also reduce the fan energy. The objective of this multi-year research, development and demonstration project was to determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop air conditioners with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units. First, through detailed simulation analysis, it was shown that significant energy (between 24% and 35%) and cost savings (38%) from fan, cooling and heating energy consumption could be realized when packaged air conditioning units with gas furnaces are retrofitted with advanced control packages (combining multi-speed fan control, integrated economizer controls and DCV). The simulation analysis also showed significant savings for heat pumps (between 20% and 60%). The simulation analysis was followed by an extensive field test of a retrofittable advanced rooftop unit (RTU) controller.

  8. First Field Test of FiDeL the Magnetic Field Description for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Catalan-Lasheras, N; Deniau, L; Di Castro, M; Giovannozzi, M; Hagen, P; Koutchouk, J; Lamont, M; Miles, J; Remondino, V; Sammut, N; Sanfilippo, S; Schmidt, F; Sernelius, D; Strzelczyk, M; Todesco, E; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Walckiers, L; Wolf, R; Xydi, P

    2009-01-01

    The start-up of the LHC has provided the first field test for the concept, functionality and accuracy of FiDeL, the Field Description for the LHC. FiDeL is primarily a parametric model of the transfer function of the main field integrals generated by the series of magnets in the LHC powering circuits, from main optical elements to high-order harmonic correctors, both superconducting and normal-conducting magnets. In addition, the same framework is used to predict harmonic errors of both static and dynamic nature, and forecast appropriate corrections. In this paper we give a description of the level of detail achieved in the model and the rationale adopted for the LHC start-up. Beam-based measurements have been used for an assessment of the first-shot accuracy in the prediction of the current setting for the main arc magnets. We finally give a list of priority issues to be addressed, and sketch a plan for the preparation of the LHC restart.

  9. Progress in crosswell induction imaging for EOR: field system design and field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkendall, B A; Lewis, J P; Hunter, S L; Harben, P E

    1999-03-04

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we are continuing our effort to develop improved crosswell low-frequency electromagnetic imaging techniques, which are used to map in situ steamflood and waterflood movement during enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. Toward this effort, we procured two new borehole-logging field vehicles, and developed and integrated new crosswell electromagnetic transmitter and receiver data acquisition and control systems into these vehicles. We tested this new acquisition system by conducting a suite of background measurements and repeatability experiments at the Richmond Field Station in Richmond, California. Repeatability of a given scan in which the receiver was fixed and the transmitter position was varied over 60 m in 0.2-m increments resulted in amplitude differences of less than 0.6% and phase differences of less than 0.54 deg. Forward modeling produced a resistivity map fully consistent with well log data from the Richmond Field Station. In addition, modeling results suggest (1) that residual high-conductivity saltwater, injected in 1993 and pumped out in 1995, is present at the site and (2) that it has diffused outward from the original target strata. To develop crosswell electromagnetic imaging into a viable commercial product, our future research must be a two-fold approach: (1) improved quantification of system noise through experiments such as ferromagnetic core characterization as a function of temperature, and (2) development of procedures and codes to account for steel-cased hole scenarios.

  10. Tracer Diffusion in a Soft Glassy Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Laure; Barentin, Catherine; Colombani, Jean; Ybert, Christophe; Barrat, Jean-Louis; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2008-07-01

    We have carried out Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching measurements of the diffusion of tracers of various sizes in a colloidal glass (a Laponite suspension). We have shown that the diffusion is only dependent on the ratio of the tracer size and the distance between Laponite disks. This suggests that the tracer diffusion hindrance in the glass stems from the hydrodynamical interactions between the tracer and the Laponite network, the physico-chemical Laponite-tracer interaction playing a negligible role.

  11. Evolving test-fields in a black-hole geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    1997-01-01

    We consider the initial value problem for a massless scalar field in the Schwarzschild geometry. When constructed using a complex-frequency approach the necessary Green's function splits into three components. We discuss all of these in some detail: 1) The contribution from the singularities (the quasinormal modes of the black hole) is approximated and the mode-sum is demonstrated to converge after a certain well defined time in the evolution. A dynamic description of the mode-excitation is introduced and tested. 2) It is shown how a straightforward low-frequency approximation to the integral along the branch cut in the black-hole Green's function leads to the anticipated power-law fall off at very late times. We also calculate higher order corrections to this tail and show that they provide an important complement to the leading order. 3) The high-frequency problem is also considered. We demonstrate that the combination of the obtained approximations for the quasinormal modes and the power-law tail provide a...

  12. Evolving test fields in a black-hole geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Nils

    1997-01-01

    We consider the initial value problem for a massless scalar field in the Schwarzschild geometry. When constructed using a complex-frequency approach the necessary Green's function splits into three components. We discuss all of these in some detail. (1) The contribution from the singularities (the quasinormal modes of the black hole) is approximated and the mode sum is demonstrated to converge after a certain well-defined time in the evolution. A dynamic description of the mode excitation is introduced and tested. (2) It is shown how a straightforward low-frequency approximation to the integral along the branch cut in the black-hole Green's function leads to the anticipated power-law falloff at very late times. We also calculate higher order corrections to this tail and show that they provide an important complement to the leading order. (3) The high-frequency problem is also considered. We demonstrate that the combination of the obtained approximations for the quasinormal modes and the power-law tail provide a complete description of the evolution at late times. Problems that arise (in the complex-frequency picture) for early times are also discussed, as is the fact that many of the presented results generalize to, for example, Kerr black holes.

  13. A Field Test of the New Portable Gamma Spectrometry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung-Ki; Park, Uk Ryang; Park, Seunghoon; Chung, Heejun; Kwak, Sung-Woo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yongkwn [NuCare Medical Systems, Inc., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In order to perform a field test of the system, the measurement of U-235 enrichment for nuclear fuel pellets was conducted along with the IAEA Physical Inventory Verification (PIV) inspection at the KEPCO Nuclear Fuel (KNF). The enrichment value of U-235 was calculated based on the total counts of the 185.7 keV photopeak and compared with the reference line, drawn by certified sources. The goal of this study is to experimentally evaluate the system performance of the developed system. In this study, the new portable gamma spectrometry system showed a good linearity (R{sup 2}=1) but overestimated the enrichment values than IAEA inspection device. It could be caused by the stability of the new system since it found, right after this measurement, that the accuracy of the system gradually increases and becomes stable over time. Further steps will optimize the design parameter based on these results and repeat measurement with the same samples under the same environment.

  14. Field test of a post-closure radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S.E. [Babcock & Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States); Christy, C.E. [Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States); Heath, R.E. [FERMCO, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The DOE is conducting remedial actions at many sites contaminated with radioactive materials. After closure of these sites, long-term subsurface monitoring is typically required by law. This monitoring is generally labor intensive and expensive using conventional sampling and analysis techniques. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has contracted with Babcock and Wilcox to develop a Long-Term Post-Closure Radiation Monitoring System (LPRMS) to reduce these monitoring costs. The system designed in Phase I of this development program monitors gamma radiation using a subsurface cesium iodide scintillator coupled to above-ground detection electronics using optical waveguide. The radiation probe can be installed to depths up to 50 meters using cone penetrometer techniques, and requires no downhole electrical power. Multiplexing, data logging and analysis are performed at a central location. A prototype LPRMS probe was built, and B&W and FERMCO field tested this monitoring probe at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in the fall of 1994 with funding from the DOE`s Office of Technology Development (EM-50) through METC. The system was used measure soil and water with known uranium contamination levels, both in drums and in situ depths up to 3 meters. For comparison purposes measurements were also performed using a more conventional survey probe with a sodium iodide scintillator directly butt-coupled to detection electronics.

  15. Field test of thermoelectric generating system at Komatsu plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa T.; Fujimoto, Sinichi; Mizukami, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Shigeo [Komatsu Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    At the end of October 2009, Komatsu Ltd. started a field test of the thermoelectric generation (TEG) system at a carburizing facility of Awazu plant. Residual carburizing gas based on such as CO, N and H{sub 2} is burned resulting that 20-30 kW range of flame constantly heats up the hot side of TEG. 16 of the Bi-Te thermo-modules, which were separated into 4 groups, were employed, each of which has a size of 50 by 50 by 4.2 mm{sup 3} and can generate better than 25 W under the circumstance of 280 C and 30 C of hot side and cold side temperature, respectively. Each module has a single booster-type DC/DC converter controlled by one chip computer and Maximum Power point Tracking (MPPT) was well facilitated to search for the maximum output power depending on the hot and cold side temperature. The electric output power from the four modules is summed up to charge a single lead storage battery (GS Yuasa Corp. 12V-65Ah) and then through a DC/AC inverter electricity goes to fluorescent light tubes inside the factory. Typically from 4 groups 200 W can be generated and 170 W is delivered to the batteries. (orig.)

  16. Rigorously testing multialternative decision field theory against random utility models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitsch, Nicolas A J; Scheibehenne, Benjamin; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2014-06-01

    Cognitive models of decision making aim to explain the process underlying observed choices. Here, we test a sequential sampling model of decision making, multialternative decision field theory (MDFT; Roe, Busemeyer, & Townsend, 2001), on empirical grounds and compare it against 2 established random utility models of choice: the probit and the logit model. Using a within-subject experimental design, participants in 2 studies repeatedly choose among sets of options (consumer products) described on several attributes. The results of Study 1 showed that all models predicted participants' choices equally well. In Study 2, in which the choice sets were explicitly designed to distinguish the models, MDFT had an advantage in predicting the observed choices. Study 2 further revealed the occurrence of multiple context effects within single participants, indicating an interdependent evaluation of choice options and correlations between different context effects. In sum, the results indicate that sequential sampling models can provide relevant insights into the cognitive process underlying preferential choices and thus can lead to better choice predictions.

  17. The Savannah River Technology Center environmental monitoring field test platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossabi, J.

    1993-03-05

    Nearly all industrial facilities have been responsible for introducing synthetic chemicals into the environment. The Savannah River Site is no exception. Several areas at the site have been contaminated by chlorinated volatile organic chemicals. Because of the persistence and refractory nature of these contaminants, a complete clean up of the site will take many years. A major focus of the mission of the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Technology Center is to develop better, faster, and less expensive methods for characterizing, monitoring, and remediating the subsurface. These new methods can then be applied directly at the Savannah River Site and at other contaminated areas in the United States and throughout the world. The Environmental Sciences Section has hosted field testing of many different monitoring technologies over the past two years primarily as a result of the Integrated Demonstration Program sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development. This paper provides an overview of some of the technologies that have been demonstrated at the site and briefly discusses the applicability of these techniques.

  18. Application of separable parameter space techniques to multi-tracer PET compartment modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jeff L.; Morey, A. Michael; Kadrmas, Dan J.

    2016-02-01

    Multi-tracer positron emission tomography (PET) can image two or more tracers in a single scan, characterizing multiple aspects of biological functions to provide new insights into many diseases. The technique uses dynamic imaging, resulting in time-activity curves that contain contributions from each tracer present. The process of separating and recovering separate images and/or imaging measures for each tracer requires the application of kinetic constraints, which are most commonly applied by fitting parallel compartment models for all tracers. Such multi-tracer compartment modeling presents challenging nonlinear fits in multiple dimensions. This work extends separable parameter space kinetic modeling techniques, previously developed for fitting single-tracer compartment models, to fitting multi-tracer compartment models. The multi-tracer compartment model solution equations were reformulated to maximally separate the linear and nonlinear aspects of the fitting problem, and separable least-squares techniques were applied to effectively reduce the dimensionality of the nonlinear fit. The benefits of the approach are then explored through a number of illustrative examples, including characterization of separable parameter space multi-tracer objective functions and demonstration of exhaustive search fits which guarantee the true global minimum to within arbitrary search precision. Iterative gradient-descent algorithms using Levenberg-Marquardt were also tested, demonstrating improved fitting speed and robustness as compared to corresponding fits using conventional model formulations. The proposed technique overcomes many of the challenges in fitting simultaneous multi-tracer PET compartment models.

  19. Cross-borehole ERT monitoring of a tracer injection into chlorinated-solvent contaminated fractured mudstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J.; Slater, L. D.; Johnson, T. C.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Imbrigiotta, T. E.; Johnson, C. D.; Lacombe, P.; Lane, J. W., Jr.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Shapiro, A. M.; Tiedeman, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to monitor remedial injections in contaminated fractured rock to determine if targeted areas have been reached and to monitor treatment effectiveness. While detailed information can be obtained at boreholes, these locations are limited; determining connectivity in fracture networks is difficult and borehole monitoring locations may miss the injection entirely. The primary and secondary domains in fractured rock have hydraulic conductivities that differ by orders of magnitude such that tracer injections commonly have rapid breakthrough followed by extended tailings. Often, it is presumed that the tracer is transported into dead-end pore spaces or unknown inter-connected networks and/or sorbed into the primary porosity. Cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), guided by information from borehole geophysical logging and hydraulic testing, has the potential to monitor the fate of tracer injections between borehole locations. ERT has been under-exploited in fractured rock due to: (1) a lack of available 3D codes, (2) a lack of computing resources to accommodate a large number of model parameters, and (3) limitations of regularization constraints used in ERT modeling for representing fractured rock settings along with a full understanding of these constraints. Recognizing numerous advances in ERT imaging and building on our previous studies, we present results from a field-scale ERT experiment in fractured rock. We use ERT to monitor a conductive tracer injection in a fractured mudstone at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in New Jersey. A custom-built electrode array included inflatable bladders to isolate fractures within each borehole and allowed for discrete water sampling and injection. By injecting the tracer in pulses and collecting 3D ERT measurements following each pulse, we were able to (1) avoid rapid breakthrough and large dilution rates and thus maintain a high conductivity contrast, and (2) characterize ambient flow by

  20. The Assessment of Sonic Waves and Tracer Gases as Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) Methods for In-Situ Underground Mine Seals

    OpenAIRE

    Brashear, Kyle Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since the MINER Act of 2006, the minimum static load of in-situ underground mine seals has been increased from 20-psi to either 50-psi if monitoring is conducted or 120-psi if left unmonitored. These minimum strength requirements in seals must be designed, built, and maintained throughout the lifetime of the seal. Due to this, it has become necessary to assess the effectiveness of non-destructive testing (NDT) technologies to determine seal integrity, which in this case, are explored using so...

  1. The characterization of petroleum contamination in heterogenous media using partitioning tracer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.; Rhee, S.; Park, J. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2009-07-01

    A partitioning tracer method for characterizing petroleum contamination in heterogenous media was discussed. The average saturation level of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) was calculated by comparing the transport of the partitioning tracers to a conservative tracer. The NAPL saturation level represented a continuous value throughout the contaminated site. Experiments were conducted in a 2-D sandbox divided into 4 parts using different-sized sands. Soils were contaminated with a mixture of kerosene and diesel. Partitioning tracer tests were conducted both before and after contamination. A partitioning batch test was conducted to determine the partition coefficient (K) of the tracer between the NAPL and water. Breakthrough curves were obtained, and a retardation factor (R) was calculated. Results of the study showed that the calculated NAPL saturation was in good agreement with determined values. It was concluded that the partitioning tracer test is an accurate method of locating and quantifying NAPLs.

  2. Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the San Juan Basin CO{sub 2} pilot test site at Pump Canyon New Mexico, using perfluorocarbon tracers, CO{sub 2} soil-gas flux and soil-gas hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Arthur W; Diehl, J Rodney; Strazisar, Brian R; Wilson, Thomas; H Stanko, Dennis C

    2012-05-01

    Near-surface monitoring and subsurface characterization activities were undertaken in collaboration with the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on their San Juan Basin coal-bed methane pilot test site near Navajo City, New Mexico. Nearly 18,407 short tons (1.670 × 107 kg) of CO{sub 2} were injected into 3 seams of the Fruitland coal between July 2008 and April 2009. Between September 18 and October 30, 2008, two additions of approximately 20 L each of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers were mixed with the CO{sub 2} at the injection wellhead. PFC tracers in soil-gas and in the atmosphere were monitored over a period of 2 years using a rectangular array of permanent installations. Additional monitors were placed near existing well bores and at other locations of potential leakage identified during the pre-injection site survey. Monitoring was conducted using sorbent containing tubes to collect any released PFC tracer from soil-gas or the atmosphere. Near-surface monitoring activities also included CO{sub 2} surface flux and carbon isotopes, soil-gas hydrocarbon levels, and electrical conductivity in the soil. The value of the PFC tracers was demonstrated when a significant leakage event was detected near an offset production well. Subsurface characterization activities, including 3D seismic interpretation and attribute analysis, were conducted to evaluate reservoir integrity and the potential that leakage of injected CO{sub 2} might occur. Leakage from the injection reservoir was not detected. PFC tracers made breakthroughs at 2 of 3 offset wells which were not otherwise directly observable in produced gases containing 20–30% CO{sub 2}. These results have aided reservoir geophysical and simulation investigations to track the underground movement of CO{sub 2}. 3D seismic analysis provided a possible interpretation for the order of appearance of tracers at production wells.

  3. Testing the Visual Soil Assessment tool on Estonian farm fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintam, Endla; Are, Mihkel; Selge, Are

    2017-04-01

    Soil quality estimation plays important role in decision making on farm as well on policy level. Sustaining the production ability and good health of the soil the chemical, physical and biological indicators should be taken into account. The system to use soil chemical parameters is usually quite well established in most European counties, including Estonia. However, measuring soil physical properties, such bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, structural stability ect is time consuming, needs special tools and is highly weather dependent. In that reason these parameters are excluded from controllable quality parameters in policy in Estonia. Within the project "Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience" (iSQAPER) the visual soil assessment (VSA) tool was developed for easy detection of soil quality as well the different soil friendly agricultural management practices (AMP) were detected. The aim of current study was to test the VSA tool on Estonian farm fields under different management practices and compare the results with laboratory measurements. The main focus was set on soil physical parameters. Next to the VSA, the undisturbed soil samples were collected from the depth of 5-10 cm and 25-30 cm. The study revealed that results of a visually assessed soil physical parameters, such a soil structure, soil structural stability, soil porosity, presence of tillage pan, were confirmed by laboratory measurements in most cases. Soil water stable structure measurement on field (on 1 cm2 net in one 1 l box with 4-6 cm air dry clods for 5-10 min) underestimated very well structured soil on grassland and overestimated the structure aggregates stability of compacted soil. The slightly better soil quality was detected under no-tillage compared to ploughed soils. However, the ploughed soil got higher quality points compared with minimum tillage. The slurry application (organic manuring) had

  4. Vadose zone transport field study: Detailed test plan for simulated leak tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AL Ward; GW Gee

    2000-06-23

    Hanford to: identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford's waste disposal sites; reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; develop a detailed and accurate database of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. This plan provides details for conducting field tests during FY 2000 to accomplish these objectives. Details of additional testing during FY 2001 and FY 2002 will be developed as part of the work planning process implemented by the Integration Project.

  5. Sorption and transformation of the reactive tracers resazurin and resorufin in natural river sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, D.; González-Pinzón, R.; Liao, Z.; Wöhling, T.; Osenbrück, K.; Haggerty, R.; Cirpka, O. A.

    2014-08-01

    Resazurin (Raz) and its reaction product resorufin (Rru) have increasingly been used as reactive tracers to quantify metabolic activity and hyporheic exchange in streams. Previous work has indicated that these compounds undergo sorption in stream sediments. We present laboratory experiments on Raz and Rru transport, sorption, and transformation, consisting of 4 column and 72 batch tests using 2 sediments with different physicochemical properties under neutral (pH = 7) and alkaline (pH = 9) conditions. The study aimed at identifying the key processes of reactive transport of Raz and Rru in streambed sediments and the experimental setup best suited for their determination. Data from column experiments were simulated by a travel-time-based model accounting for physical transport, equilibrium and kinetic sorption, and three first-order reactions. We derived the travel-time distributions directly from the breakthrough curve (BTC) of the conservative tracer, fluorescein, rather than from fitting an advective-dispersive transport model, and inferred from those distributions the transfer functions of Raz and Rru, which provided conclusive approximations of the measured BTCs. The most likely reactive transport parameters and their uncertainty were determined by a Markov chain-Monte Carlo approach. Sorption isotherms of both compounds were obtained from batch experiments. We found that kinetic sorption dominates sorption of both Raz and Rru, with characteristic timescales of sorption in the order of 12 to 298 min. Linear sorption models for both Raz and Rru appeared adequate for concentrations that are typically applied in field tracer tests. The proposed two-site sorption model helps to interpret transient tracer tests using the Raz-Rru system.

  6. Smart Infrared Inspection System Field Operational Test Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    The Smart InfraRed Inspection System (SIRIS) is a tool designed to assist inspectors in determining which vehicles passing through the SIRIS system are in need of further inspection by measuring the thermal data from the wheel components. As a vehicle enters the system, infrared cameras on the road measure temperatures of the brakes, tires, and wheel bearings on both wheel ends of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in motion. This thermal data is then presented to enforcement personal inside of the inspection station on a user friendly interface. Vehicles that are suspected to have a violation are automatically alerted to the enforcement staff. The main goal of the SIRIS field operational test (FOT) was to collect data to evaluate the performance of the prototype system and determine the viability of such a system being used for commercial motor vehicle enforcement. From March 2010 to September 2010, ORNL facilitated the SIRIS FOT at the Greene County Inspection Station (IS) in Greeneville, Tennessee. During the course of the FOT, 413 CMVs were given a North American Standard (NAS) Level-1 inspection. Of those 413 CMVs, 384 were subjected to a SIRIS screening. A total of 36 (9.38%) of the vehicles were flagged by SIRIS as having one or more thermal issues; with brakes issues making up 33 (91.67%) of those. Of the 36 vehicles flagged as having thermal issues, 31 (86.11%) were found to have a violation and 30 (83.33%) of those vehicles were placed out-of-service (OOS). Overall the enforcement personnel who have used SIRIS for screening purposes have had positive feedback on the potential of SIRIS. With improvements in detection algorithms and stability, the system will be beneficial to the CMV enforcement community and increase overall trooper productivity by accurately identifying a higher percentage of CMVs to be placed OOS with minimal error. No future evaluation of SIRIS has been deemed necessary and specifications for a production system will soon be drafted.