WorldWideScience

Sample records for field testing plug-in

  1. Field-test programs of borehole plugs in southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.; Peterson, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper gives a general overview of the repository-sealing field test effort being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeast New Mexico. Summary descriptions of supporting activities, such as performance assessment and plugging materials development, are included to create the connection between modeling and laboratory activities as they relate to field results. Results of tests on a portion of a 17-year-old plug (Plug 217) recovered from a mine horizon and the Bell Canyon Test, in which a cement plug was emplaced to isolate a naturally pressurized aquifer, are given. Conclusions from these field plugging tests are included

  2. Test Confessions : A Study of Testing Practices for Plug-in Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greiler, M.; Van Deursen, A.; Storey, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Testing plug-in-based systems is challenging due to complex interactions among many different plug-ins, and variations in version and configuration. The objective of this paper is to increase our understanding of what testers and developers think and do when it comes to testing plug-inbased systems.

  3. Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

    2009-05-01

    Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

  4. Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles plugging the vehicle into an electric power source. PHEVs are powered by an internal combustion engine that

  5. Hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle performance testing by the US Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Donald; Francfort, James

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), part of the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modeling, and vehicle development programs. The AVTA has tested full size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and hydrogen internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Currently, the AVTA is conducting baseline performance, battery benchmark and fleet tests of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). Testing has included all HEVs produced by major automotive manufacturers and spans over 2.5 million test miles. Testing is currently incorporating PHEVs from four different vehicle converters. The results of all testing are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory.

  6. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophersen, Jon P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  7. Replacement of 13 valves by using an isolation plug in the 20 inches diameter main offshore gas pipeline at Cantarell oil field, Campeche Bay, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvahal Reyes, Jorge Omar; Ulloa Ochoa, Carlos Manuel [PEMEX, Exploracion y Produccion, MX (Mexico)

    2009-12-19

    In 2002 we changed 13 valves on deck of one gas production platform called Nohoch-A-Enlace at Cantarell Offshore Oil Field. The 20'' diameter gas pipeline and 200 km of length, transport and deliver gas for others production platforms in the Gas Lift System, So 2 millions of oil barrels per day depends of the operation of this gas pipeline but there was 13 valves on pig traps to be changed after 20 years of service to high pressure (64 to 63 kg/cm{sup 2}). We could not stop the operation of this pipeline and some little gas leaks were eliminated in some parts of the valves. This pipeline has two risers so the gas can be injected by two sides of the ring of 20 Km. So we found the proper technology in order to isolate one riser nad change 8 valves and the isolate the other and change the 5, and the gas lift system never stop during the plug and maintenance operations on platform. In the first isolation plug operation this tool run 20 mts inside the riser and was actionated and resists 65 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas pressure during 44 hours so we changed 8 valves: 2 of 20'', 2 of 10'', 3 of 4'' and 1 of 8'' diameter. In the second isolation the plug run 30 mts inside the second risers and resist 64 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas during 46 hours and we changed 5 valves of 20'' diameter. In the paper I will describe all the details of this successful operations and procedures. Also the aspects of Health, Security and Environment that we prepared one year before this operations at platform. Pemex save almost 2.5 millions of dollars because the gas lift system never stop and all valves were changed and now we can run cleaning and inspection tools inside the full ring. We used the first isolation plug in Latin America and we want to share this experience to all the pipeline operators in the world as a good practice in pipeline maintenance using plugging technology in the main and large pipelines of high pressure. (author)

  8. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

    2008-11-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

  9. Plug-in Hybrid Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Angie; Moore, Ray; Rowden, Tim

    2013-09-27

    Our main project objective was to implement Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) and charging infrastructure into our electric distribution service territory and help reduce barriers in the process. Our research demonstrated the desire for some to be early adopters of electric vehicles and the effects lack of education plays on others. The response of early adopters was tremendous: with the initial launch of our program we had nearly 60 residential customers interested in taking part in our program. However, our program only allowed for 15 residential participants. Our program provided assistance towards purchasing a PEV and installation of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). The residential participants have all come to love their PEVs and are more than enthusiastic about promoting the many benefits of driving electric.

  10. Mastering Eclipse plug-in development

    CERN Document Server

    Blewitt, Alex

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer who is familiar with the Eclipse plug-in environment, this book covers the advanced concepts that you need to know to achieve true expertise. Prior experience in creating Eclipse plug-ins is assumed for this book.

  11. Plug-In Tutor Agents: Still Pluggin'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Steven

    2016-01-01

    "An Architecture for Plug-in Tutor Agents" (Ritter and Koedinger 1996) proposed a software architecture designed around the idea that tutors could be built as plug-ins for existing software applications. Looking back on the paper now, we can see that certain assumptions about the future of software architecture did not come to be, making…

  12. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Imagine being able to one that's in a standard hybrid electric vehicle. The larger battery pack allows plug-in hybrids to between fill-ups) that's very similar to the range of a conventional vehicle. A plug-in hybrid vehicle's

  13. Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-03-31

    On September 30, 2008, the US Department of Energy (DoE), issued a cooperative agreement award, DE-FC26-08NT01914, to the Metropolitan Energy Center (MEC), for a project known as “Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty Certification” project. The cooperative agreement was awarded pursuant to H15915 in reference to H. R. 2764 Congressionally Directed Projects. The original agreement provided funding for The Consortium to implement the established project objectives as follows: (1) to understand the current state of the development of a test protocol for PHEV configurations; (2) to work with industry stakeholders to recommend a medium duty vehicle test protocol; (3) to utilize the Phase 1 Eaton PHEV F550 Chassis or other appropriate PHEV configurations to conduct emissions testing; (4) and to make an industry PHEV certification test protocol recommendation for medium duty trucks. Subsequent amendments to the initial agreement were made, the most significant being a revised Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) that did not address actual field data since it was not available as originally expected. This project was mated by DOE with a parallel project award given to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in California. The SCAQMD project involved designing, building and testing of five medium duty plug-in hybrid electric trucks. SCAQMD had contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to manage the project. EPRI provided the required match to the federal grant funds to both the SCAQMD project and the Kansas Consortium project. The rational for linking the two projects was that the data derived from the SCAQMD project could be used to validate the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium team. At the same time, the consortium team would be a useful resource to SCAQMD in designating their test procedures for emissions and operating parameters and determining vehicle mileage. The years between award of the cooperative

  14. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle R&D plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-06-01

    FCVT, in consultation with industry and other appropriate DOE offices, developed the Draft Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle R&D Plan to accelerate the development and deployment of technologies critical for plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  15. Open-field test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoda, Koichi; Shinozuka, Takashi

    1995-06-01

    An open-field test site with measurement equipment, a turn table, antenna positioners, and measurement auxiliary equipment was remodelled at the CRL north-site. This paper introduces the configuration, specifications and characteristics of this new open-field test site. Measured 3-m and 10-m site attenuations are in good agreement with theoretical values, and this means that this site is suitable for using 3-m and 10-m method EMI/EMC measurements. The site is expected to be effective for antenna measurement, antenna calibration, and studies on EMI/EMC measurement methods.

  16. Useful field of view test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M; Owsley, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The useful field of view test was developed to reflect the visual difficulties that older adults experience with everyday tasks. Importantly, the useful field of view test (UFOV) is one of the most extensively researched and promising predictor tests for a range of driving outcomes measures, including driving ability and crash risk as well as other everyday tasks. Currently available commercial versions of the test can be administered using personal computers; these measure the speed of visual processing for rapid detection and localization of targets under conditions of divided visual attention and in the presence and absence of visual clutter. The test is believed to assess higher-order cognitive abilities, but performance also relies on visual sensory function because in order for targets to be attended to, they must be visible. The format of the UFOV has been modified over the years; the original version estimated the spatial extent of useful field of view, while the latest version measures visual processing speed. While deficits in the useful field of view are associated with functional impairments in everyday activities in older adults, there is also emerging evidence from several research groups that improvements in visual processing speed can be achieved through training. These improvements have been shown to reduce crash risk, and can have a positive impact on health and functional well-being, with the potential to increase the mobility and hence the independence of older adults. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-02-01

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young's modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs

  18. Remote field eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Y. M.; Jung, H. K.; Huh, H.; Lee, Y. S.; Shim, C. M.

    2001-03-01

    The state-of-art technology of the remote field eddy current, which is actively developed as an electromagnetic non-destructive testing tool for ferromagnetic tubes, is described. The historical background and recent R and D activities of remote-field eddy current technology are explained including the theoretical development of remote field eddy current, such as analytical and numerical approach, and the results of finite element analysis. The influencing factors for actual applications, such as the effect of frequency, magnetic permeability, receiving sensitivity, and difficulties of detection and classification of defects are also described. Finally, two examples of actual application, 1) the gap measurement between pressure tubes and calandria tube in CANDU reactor and, 2) the detection of defects in the ferromagnetic heat exchanger tubes, are described. The future research efforts are also included

  19. Ford C-Max plug-in hybrid; Ford C-Max mit Plug-in-Hybridtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamel, Andreas; D' Annunzio, Julie; Iorio, Rob [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Schmitz, Peter [Ford-Forschungszentrum Aachen GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    Ford provides consumers a broad choice of electrified vehicles globally, including full hybrids, plug-in hybrids and all-electric vehicles. The all-new 2013 model year C-Max Energi Plug-in Hybrid utilises the third generation of Ford hybrid technology. This article discusses the hybrid powersplit architecture and components, as well as the charging capability and human-machine interfaces, used in the C-Max Energi Plug-In Hybrid. (orig.)

  20. Capillarity Induced Negative Pressure of Water Plugs in Nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Niels Roelof; Mela, P.; Kramer, Tobias; Berenschot, Johan W.; van den Berg, Albert

    2003-01-01

    We have found evidence that water plugs in hydrophilic nanochannels can be at significant negative pressure due to tensile capillary forces. The negative pressure of water plugs in nanochannels induces bending of the thin channel capping layer, which results in a visible curvature of the liquid

  1. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  2. California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Helwig, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment conveys to interested parties the Energy Commission’s conclusions, recommendations, and intentions with respect to plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure development. There are several relatively low-risk and high-priority electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) deployment options that will encourage PEV sales and

  3. National Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-15

    This report addresses the fundamental question of how much plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging infrastructure—also known as electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE)—is needed in the United States to support both plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs).

  4. Implementation and evaluation of change-over speed in plug-in hybrid electric two wheeler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, Shaik; Rudramoorthy, R.; Sadagopan, P.; Neelakrishnan, S.

    2016-01-01

    In Asia, two wheelers are popular mode of transportation to a large group of people because of their relative affordability and ability to maneuver in heavy city traffic. However, the rate of fuel consumption and emission contribution by them, especially in urban areas need more attention to improve sustainability of energy and air quality. Recently, plug-in hybrid technology has been emerged as one of the most promising alternatives in reducing petroleum consumption and emission. This paper presents the implementation of plug-in hybrid technology on a two wheeler by formulation of novel control strategy suitable for Indian city driving needs. Experimental investigations on hub motor and IC (internal combustion) engine has been carried out to fix the change-over speed in hybrid mode, followed by road test on prototype vehicle. The performance of prototype vehicle on IDC (Indian driving cycle) simulated road pattern and actual road driving, confirmed the change-over speed of vehicle in hybrid mode. The converted plug-in hybrid electric two wheeler also demonstrated the drive strategy adopted for higher energy efficiency up to 2.5 times. So, plug-in hybrid electric two wheelers show significant improvements in fuel economy by replacing petroleum fuel with electricity for portions of trip to achieve nations' energy security. - Highlights: • Implementation of plug-in hybrid concept for two wheelers suitable for city driving. • Investigation on hub motor, engine and prototype vehicle to fix change-over speed. • Plug-in hybrid electric two wheeler demonstrates 2.48 times higher fuel efficiency. • Significant improvements in fuel economy help to achieve nations' energy security.

  5. A Genre Classification Plug-in for Data Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2006-01-01

    This demonstration illustrates how the methods developed in the MIR community can be used to provide real-time feedback to music users. By creating a genre classifier plug-in for a popular media player we present users with relevant information as they play their songs. The plug-in can furthermor...... be used as a data collection platform. After informed consent from a selected set of users the plug-in will report on music consumption behavior back to a central server.......This demonstration illustrates how the methods developed in the MIR community can be used to provide real-time feedback to music users. By creating a genre classifier plug-in for a popular media player we present users with relevant information as they play their songs. The plug-in can furthermore...

  6. Dueco Plug-In Hybrid Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip Eidler

    2011-09-30

    Dueco, a final stage manufacture of utility trucks, was awarded a congressionally directed cost shared contract to develop, test, validate, and deploy several PHEV utility trucks. Odyne will be the primary subcontractor responsible for all aspects of the hybrid system including its design and installation on a truck chassis. Key objectives in this program include developing a better understanding of the storage device and system capability; improve aspects of the existing design, optimization of system and power train components, and prototype evaluation. This two year project will culminate in the delivery of at least five vehicles for field evaluation.

  7. Field testing of bioenergetic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Doubly labeled water provides a direct measure of the rate of carbon dioxide production by free-living animals. With appropriate conversion factors, based on chemical composition of the diet and assimilation efficiency, field metabolic rate (FMR), in units of energy expenditure, and field feeding rate can be estimated. Validation studies indicate that doubly labeled water measurements of energy metabolism are accurate to within 7% in reptiles, birds, and mammals. This paper discusses the use of doubly labeled water to generate empirical models for FMR and food requirements for a variety of animals

  8. Field testing a soil site field guide for Allegheny hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.B. Jones

    1991-01-01

    A site quality evaluation decision model, developed for Allegheny hardwoods on the non-glaciated Allegheny Plateau of Pennsylvania and New York, was field tested by International Paper (IP) foresters and the author, on sites within the region of derivation and on glaciated sites north and west of the Wisconsin drift line. Results from the field testing are presented...

  9. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Policy Effectiveness: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. federal government first introduced incentives for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) through the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009, which provided a tax credit of up to $7,500 for a new PEV purchase. Soon after, in December 2010, two mass-market PEVs were introduced, the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) Chevrolet Volt and the battery electric vehicle (BEV) Nissan LEAF. Since that time, numerous additional types of PEV incentives have been provided by federal and regional (state or city) government agencies and utility companies. These incentives cover vehicle purchases as well as the purchase and installation of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) through purchase rebates, tax credits, or discounted purchase taxes or registration fees. Additional incentives, such as free high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane access and parking benefits, may also be offered to PEV owners. Details about these incentives, such as the extent to which each type is offered by region, can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Alternative Fuel Data Center (http://www.afdc.energy.gov/). In addition to these incentives, other policies, such as zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) mandates,1 have also been implemented, and community-scale federal incentives, such as the DOE PEV Readiness Grants, have been awarded throughout the country to improve PEV market penetration. This report reviews 18 studies that analyze the impacts of past or current incentives and policies that were designed to support PEV adoption in the U.S. These studies were selected for review after a comprehensive survey of the literature and discussion with a number of experts in the field. The report summarizes the lessons learned and best practices from the experiences of these incentive programs to date, as well as the challenges they face and barriers that inhibit further market adoption of PEVs. Studies that make projections based on future policy scenarios and those that focus solely

  10. Field testing of sulphide electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.R.; Gaonkar, K.B.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    Sulphide ion selective electrodes have been developed at BARC, for determination of Ag + and S - ions directly and Cl - and CN - ions indirectly. The electrodes were tested for their use in sulphide environments in the EAD (Effluent After Dilution) stream at the Heavy Water Plant, Kota. The electrodes are suitable in the concentration range of 16000 ppm to 0.002 ppm, with a slope of 29-31 mV per decade change in the sulphide ion concentration. The response time is less than 10 seconds. These electrodes are reliable for continuous on-line use for a long period. (author). 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  11. Evaluation of field test equipment for halide and DOP testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, K.L.; Kovach, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The Nucon Testing Services Department, field testing at power reactor sites, has performed tests using R-11, R-12, and R-112 in conjunction with gas chromatographs and direct reading halide detectors. The field operational experience with these detector systems, thus sensitivity, precision, and manner of field calibration, are presented. Laboratory experiments regarding 3 H-tagged methyl iodide for in place leak testing of adsorber systems indicate a low hazard, high reliability process for leak testing in facilities where atmospheric cross contamination occurs. (U.S.)

  12. Test fields cannot destroy extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natário, José; Queimada, Leonel; Vicente, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    We prove that (possibly charged) test fields satisfying the null energy condition at the event horizon cannot overspin/overcharge extremal Kerr–Newman or Kerr–Newman–anti de Sitter black holes, that is, the weak cosmic censorship conjecture cannot be violated in the test field approximation. The argument relies on black hole thermodynamics (without assuming cosmic censorship), and does not depend on the precise nature of the fields. We also discuss generalizations of this result to other extremal black holes. (paper)

  13. Experimental and numerical modeling of sulfur plugging in carbonate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Kassem, J.H. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, UAE University, PO Box 17555, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2000-05-01

    Sour gas, mainly in the form of hydrogen sulfide, is produced in large amounts from many oil and gas reservoirs in the United Arab Emirates. In addition to creating problems in production lines, the precipitation of elemental sulfur in vicinity of the wellbore is often reported to cause wellbore damage. While there have been several studies performed on the role of solid deposition in gas reservoirs, the role of sulfur deposition in oil reservoirs has not been investigated. This paper presents experimental results along with a comprehensive wellbore model that predicts sulfur precipitation as well as plugging. Two separate sets of experiments, one for a gas phase system and another for a crude oil system, were conducted to investigate the deposition of elemental sulfur in (linear) carbonate cores. The gas flow tests were conducted with elemental sulfur being carried with nitrogen through limestone cores. Changes in gas flow rate were monitored while the injection pressure was held constant. A series of experiments generated valuable data for plugging with elemental sulfur. X-ray diffraction tests provided evidence of sulfur deposition along the cores. The oil flow tests were carried out to observe sulfur precipitation and plugging in a carbonate core. The crude oil was de-asphalted before conducting these tests in order to isolate the effect of asphaltene plugging. Significant plugging was observed and was found to be dependent on flow rate and initial sulfur concentration. This information was used in a phenomenological model that was incorporated in the wellbore numerical model. The data for the numerical model were obtained from both test tube and oil flow experiments. By using a phenomenological model, the wellbore plugging was modeled with an excellent match (with experimental results)

  14. The Plug-in Concept: Technology and Aesthetics of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Šenk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The architecture concept of plug-in is based on the duality of the infrastructure system and units or elements connected to it. In the context of megastructures, the concept was most vividly characterised by works of Archigram and Japanese Metabolists in the 1960s and early 1970s. Blurring the boundary between the building and the city, the plug-in concept outgrew architectural boundaries and was slowly transformed into an urbanistic concept.The paper presents the cultural context relevant to contemporaneity, which influenced specific development of the technology-driven concept of plug-in in the British Archigram Group and Japanese Metabolists. Based on the aesthetics of change and incompleteness, which was characterised by similar architectural manifestations despite entirely different cultural backgrounds, the plug-in concept foreshadowed social transformation based on freedom, individualisation and mobility in an utopian manner and held a promise of urban development with adaptability to unpredictable needs and desires of residents, who would become its co-creators with an active approach.Although the revolutionary sixties are quite some time behind, the plug-in concept in its commodified form has become and remained operational and relevant at least on the metaphorical level; in the contemporary space it is evident primarily in urbanism and not as much in its original architectural form.

  15. Manitoba plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoemsen, R. [Red River College, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Parsons, R. [Government of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Centre for Emerging Renewable Energy

    2010-07-01

    Manitoba has low electricity rates, the highest proportion of renewables, and a legislated commitment to reduce greenhouse gases. However, the province still relies heavily on oil as everyone else. The mix of energy opportunities in Manitoba were highlighted in this presentation, with particular reference to the commercialization of electric vehicles. Several photographs were presented of the Toyota plug-in hybrid vehicle and a plug-in hybrid electric demonstration vehicle. A demonstration project overview was offered that used technology from A123 Systems Inc. The conversion module and vehicle users were profiled. Topics that were presented related to the demonstration project included monitoring; gasoline fuel economy results; fuel economy variability; cold weather operation; cold weather issues; battery upgrade solutions; and highly qualified personnel. It was concluded that in terms of follow-up, there is a need to combine findings of current plug-in hybrid electric vehicle demonstration with those for the new Toyota production plug-in hybrid vehicles. Key next steps for the demonstration are to address cabin heating requirements; better characterizing winter performance; and implementation of IPLC units on all plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for electricity consumption. figs.

  16. Plug-in electric vehicles integrating fluctuating renewable electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallinger, David

    2013-11-01

    This paper examines a method to model plug-in electric vehicles as part of the power system and presents results for the contribution of plug-in electric vehicles to balance the fluctuating electricity generation of renewable energy sources. The scientific contribution includes: - A novel approach to characterizing fluctuating generation. This allows the detailed comparison of results from energy analysis and is the basis to describe the effect of electricity from renewable energy sources and plug-in electric vehicles on the power system. - The characterization of mobile storage, which includes the description of mobility behavior using probabilities and battery discharging costs. - The introduction of an agent-based simulation approach, coupling energy markets and distributed grids using a price-based mechanism design. - The description of an agent with specific driving behavior, battery discharging costs and optimization algorithm suitable for real plug-in vehicles and simulation models. - A case study for a 2030 scenario describing the contribution of plug-in electric vehicles to balance generation from renewable energy sources in California and Germany.

  17. Report on electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars; Redegoerelse - elbiler og plug-in hybridbiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkjaer Toennesen, A.; Winther, K.; Noerregaard, K. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Larsen, Esben; Christensen, Linda; Kveiborg, O. (Danmarks Teknologiske Univ., Kgs. Lyngby (DTU) (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    The Center for Green Transport at the Danish Transport Authority has prepared this statement in order to uncover driving technical aspects, user expectations and needs, and the environmental consequences of using electric and plug-in hybrid cars. An electric car is defined as a car driven by an electric motor that has a battery that can be charged with power from the grid. A plug-in hybrid car is defined as a car that combines gasoline or diesel engine with an electric motor with a battery which can be recharged with power from the grid. From an overall consideration related to the transport sector electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars have the major advantage that negative impacts on environment and climate from traffic can be reduced while the high mobility is maintained. Through an increased use of electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars, the many advantages attached to the car as an individual transportation form is maintained, while CO{sub 2} emissions etc. are reduced. Electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars is one of the technologies that are considered to have particularly great prospects in the medium term when it comes to promoting new technologies in transport. Another advantage of using electric vehicles is the power supply factor. An increased use of electricity in transport will reduce the need for and dependence on fossil fuels in the sector. Both electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars are expected to be used for storage of wind power, a possibility which is hardly available today. The plug-in hybrid car could meet some of the challenges facing the pure electric car, because it also can use conventional fuel. The report presents analyses based on three focus areas: a) Users' needs, expectations and economics in relation to vehicles; b) The technology - and hence the manufacturers' opportunities and challenges; c) Connection to the power grid. (ln)

  18. Hydrogen Field Test Standard: Laboratory and Field Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Jodie G.; Wright, John D.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed a prototype field test standard (FTS) that incorporates three test methods that could be used by state weights and measures inspectors to periodically verify the accuracy of retail hydrogen dispensers, much as gasoline dispensers are tested today. The three field test methods are: 1) gravimetric, 2) Pressure, Volume, Temperature (PVT), and 3) master meter. The FTS was tested in NIST's Transient Flow Facility with helium gas and in the field at a hydrogen dispenser location. All three methods agree within 0.57 % and 1.53 % for all test drafts of helium gas in the laboratory setting and of hydrogen gas in the field, respectively. The time required to perform six test drafts is similar for all three methods, ranging from 6 h for the gravimetric and master meter methods to 8 h for the PVT method. The laboratory tests show that 1) it is critical to wait for thermal equilibrium to achieve density measurements in the FTS that meet the desired uncertainty requirements for the PVT and master meter methods; in general, we found a wait time of 20 minutes introduces errors methods, respectively and 2) buoyancy corrections are important for the lowest uncertainty gravimetric measurements. The field tests show that sensor drift can become a largest component of uncertainty that is not present in the laboratory setting. The scale was calibrated after it was set up at the field location. Checks of the calibration throughout testing showed drift of 0.031 %. Calibration of the master meter and the pressure sensors prior to travel to the field location and upon return showed significant drifts in their calibrations; 0.14 % and up to 1.7 %, respectively. This highlights the need for better sensor selection and/or more robust sensor testing prior to putting into field service. All three test methods are capable of being successfully performed in the field and give equivalent answers if proper sensors without drift are

  19. Analytical Plug-In Method for Kernel Density Estimator Applied to Genetic Neutrality Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troudi, Molka; Alimi, Adel M.; Saoudi, Samir

    2008-12-01

    The plug-in method enables optimization of the bandwidth of the kernel density estimator in order to estimate probability density functions (pdfs). Here, a faster procedure than that of the common plug-in method is proposed. The mean integrated square error (MISE) depends directly upon [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] which is linked to the second-order derivative of the pdf. As we intend to introduce an analytical approximation of [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], the pdf is estimated only once, at the end of iterations. These two kinds of algorithm are tested on different random variables having distributions known for their difficult estimation. Finally, they are applied to genetic data in order to provide a better characterisation in the mean of neutrality of Tunisian Berber populations.

  20. Analytical Plug-In Method for Kernel Density Estimator Applied to Genetic Neutrality Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Saoudi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The plug-in method enables optimization of the bandwidth of the kernel density estimator in order to estimate probability density functions (pdfs. Here, a faster procedure than that of the common plug-in method is proposed. The mean integrated square error (MISE depends directly upon J(f which is linked to the second-order derivative of the pdf. As we intend to introduce an analytical approximation of J(f, the pdf is estimated only once, at the end of iterations. These two kinds of algorithm are tested on different random variables having distributions known for their difficult estimation. Finally, they are applied to genetic data in order to provide a better characterisation in the mean of neutrality of Tunisian Berber populations.

  1. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Beatty, J.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents selected preliminary results obtained during the first 54 days of the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT) that are being performed in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test Site. The test described is a precursor to the Engineered Barrier Systems Field Tests (EBSFT). The EBSFT will consist of in situ tests of the geohydrologic and geochemical environment in the near field (within a few meters) of heaters emplaced in welded tuff to simulate the thermal effects of waste packages. The PEBSFTs are being conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures for future investigations that will be conducted in the Exploratory Shaft Facilities of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The paper discusses the evolution of hydrothermal behavior during the prototype test, including rock temperatures, changes in rock moisture content, air permeability of fractures, gas pressures, and rock mass gas-phase humidity. 10 refs., 12 figs

  2. Cloud computing-based energy optimization control framework for plug-in hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao; Li, Liang; You, Sixiong; Yan, Bingjie; Du, Xian

    2017-01-01

    Considering the complicated characteristics of traffic flow in city bus route and the nonlinear vehicle dynamics, optimal energy management integrated with clustering and recognition of driving conditions in plug-in hybrid electric bus is still a challenging problem. Motivated by this issue, this paper presents an innovative energy optimization control framework based on the cloud computing for plug-in hybrid electric bus. This framework, which includes offline part and online part, can realize the driving conditions clustering in offline part, and the energy management in online part. In offline part, utilizing the operating data transferred from a bus to the remote monitoring center, K-means algorithm is adopted to cluster the driving conditions, and then Markov probability transfer matrixes are generated to predict the possible operating demand of the bus driver. Next in online part, the current driving condition is real-time identified by a well-trained support vector machine, and Markov chains-based driving behaviors are accordingly selected. With the stochastic inputs, stochastic receding horizon control method is adopted to obtain the optimized energy management of hybrid powertrain. Simulations and hardware-in-loop test are carried out with the real-world city bus route, and the results show that the presented strategy could greatly improve the vehicle fuel economy, and as the traffic flow data feedback increases, the fuel consumption of every plug-in hybrid electric bus running in a specific bus route tends to be a stable minimum. - Highlights: • Cloud computing-based energy optimization control framework is proposed. • Driving cycles are clustered into 6 types by K-means algorithm. • Support vector machine is employed to realize the online recognition of driving condition. • Stochastic receding horizon control-based energy management strategy is designed for plug-in hybrid electric bus. • The proposed framework is verified by simulation and hard

  3. Buildings, fields of activity, testing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Since 1969 the activities of the Materialpruefungsanstalt Stuttgart (MPA) have grown quickly as planned, especially in the field of reactor safety research, which made it necessary to increase the staff to approximately 165 members, to supplement the machines and equipment and to extend the fields of activities occasioning a further departmental reorganization. At present the MPA has the following departments: 1. Teaching (materials testing, materials science and strength of materials) 2. Materials and Welding Technology 3. Materials Science and General Materials Testing with Tribology 4. Design and Strength 5. Creep and Fatigue Testing 6. Central Facilities 7. Vessel and Component Testing. (orig./RW) [de

  4. SRS environmental technology development field test platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riha, B.D.; Rossabi, J.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    A critical and difficult step in the development and implementation of new technologies for environmental monitoring and characterization is successfully transferring these technologies to industry and government users for routine assessment and compliance activities. The Environmental Sciences Section of the DOE Savannah River Technology Center provides a forum for developers, potential users, and regulatory organizations to evaluate new technologies in comparison with baseline technologies in a well characterized field test bed. The principal objective of this project is to conduct comprehensive, objective field tests of monitoring and characterization technologies that are not currently used in EPA standard methods and evaluate their performance during actual operating conditions against baseline methods. This paper provides an overview of the field test site and a description of some of the technologies demonstrated at the site including their field applications

  5. IMOM Field Test Study and Accuracy Verification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levien, Fred

    1998-01-01

    .... It was desired to obtain flight test data for both TAMPS and IMOM in order to compare their ability to accurately predict the effects of Radar Terrain Masking (RTM). It was initially planned to have NPS compare predictive data from both of these systems and then do analysis of how they compared to actual field test data.

  6. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for consumers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Fueling and Driving Options Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle batteries can be charged by an outside sized hybrid electric vehicle. If the vehicle is driven a shorter distance than its all-electric range drives the wheels almost all of the time, but the vehicle can switch to work like a parallel hybrid at

  8. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  9. Background field coils for the High Field Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbasnik, J.P.; Cornish, D.N.; Scanlan, R.M.; Jewell, A.M.; Leber, R.L.; Rosdahl, A.R.; Chaplin, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The High Field Test Facility (HFTF), presently under construction at LLNL, is a set of superconducting coils that will be used to test 1-m-o.d. coils of prototype conductors for fusion magnets in fields up to 12 T. The facility consists of two concentric sets of coils; the outer set is a stack of Nb-Ti solenoids, and the inner set is a pair of solenoids made of cryogenically-stabilized, multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn superconductor, developed for use in mirror-fusion magnets. The HFTF system is designed to be parted along the midplane to allow high-field conductors, under development for Tokamak fusion machines, to be inserted and tested. The background field coils were wound pancake-fashion, with cold-welded joints at both the inner and outer diameters. Turn-to-turn insulation was fabricated at LLNL from epoxy-fiberglass strip. The coils were assembled and tested in our 2-m-diam cryostat to verify their operation

  10. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cautley, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bohac, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Francisco, P. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Shen, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gloss, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015.

  11. Sultan - forced flow, high field test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, I.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1981-01-01

    Three European laboratories: CNEN (Frascati, I) ECN (Petten, NL) and SIN (Villigen, CH) decided to coordinate their development efforts and to install a common high field forced flow test facility at Villigen Switzerland. The test facility SULTAN (Supraleiter Testanlage) is presently under construction. As a first step, an 8T/1m bore solenoid with cryogenic periphery will be ready in 1981. The cryogenic system, data acquisition system and power supplies which are contributed by SIN are described. Experimental feasibilities, including cooling, and instrumentation are reviewed. Progress of components and facility construction is described. Planned extension of the background field up to 12T by insert coils is outlined. 5 refs

  12. Numerical simulations of capillary barrier field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.E.; Stormont, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Numerical simulations of two capillary barrier systems tested in the field were conducted to determine if an unsaturated flow model could accurately represent the observed results. The field data was collected from two 7-m long, 1.2-m thick capillary barriers built on a 10% grade that were being tested to investigate their ability to laterally divert water downslope. One system had a homogeneous fine layer, while the fine soil of the second barrier was layered to increase its ability to laterally divert infiltrating moisture. The barriers were subjected first to constant infiltration while minimizing evaporative losses and then were exposed to ambient conditions. The continuous infiltration period of the field tests for the two barrier systems was modelled to determine the ability of an existing code to accurately represent capillary barrier behavior embodied in these two designs. Differences between the field test and the model data were found, but in general the simulations appeared to adequately reproduce the response of the test systems. Accounting for moisture retention hysteresis in the layered system will potentially lead to more accurate modelling results and is likely to be important when developing reasonable predictions of capillary barrier behavior

  13. Some Tests on Heather Field Moraine Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mogens B.; Jacobsen, Moust

    This report deals with oedometer tests on three samples of moraine clay from the Heather Field in the English part of the North Sea. The tests have been carried out in the very unelastic apparatus used in Denmark and with special test procedures differing from the ones used elsewhere. In Denmark...... Moraine Clay covers a large part of the surface, and it has therefore been investigated extensively in the field and in the laboratories during the last 25 years. It is to day - from a geotechnical point of view - the best known clay in Denmark. It could therefore be of some interest to compare...... the English North Sea moraine clays with the corresponding Danish Moraine Clays. The Danish test procedures are explained in details and some comments are given in the hope that they may not be banalities all of them....

  14. Influence of driving patterns on life cycle cost and emissions of hybrid and plug-in electric vehicle powertrains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabasoglu, Orkun; Michalek, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    We compare the potential of hybrid, extended-range plug-in hybrid, and battery electric vehicles to reduce lifetime cost and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions under various scenarios and simulated driving conditions. We find that driving conditions affect economic and environmental benefits of electrified vehicles substantially: Under the urban NYC driving cycle, hybrid and plug-in vehicles can cut life cycle emissions by 60% and reduce costs up to 20% relative to conventional vehicles (CVs). In contrast, under highway test conditions (HWFET) electrified vehicles offer marginal emissions reductions at higher costs. NYC conditions with frequent stops triple life cycle emissions and increase costs of conventional vehicles by 30%, while aggressive driving (US06) reduces the all-electric range of plug-in vehicles by up to 45% compared to milder test cycles (like HWFET). Vehicle window stickers, fuel economy standards, and life cycle studies using average lab-test vehicle efficiency estimates are therefore incomplete: (1) driver heterogeneity matters, and efforts to encourage adoption of hybrid and plug-in vehicles will have greater impact if targeted to urban drivers vs. highway drivers; and (2) electrified vehicles perform better on some drive cycles than others, so non-representative tests can bias consumer perception and regulation of alternative technologies. We discuss policy implications. - Highlights: • Electrified vehicle life cycle emissions and cost depend on driving conditions. • GHGs can triple in NYC conditions vs. highway (HWFET), cost +30%. • Under NYC conditions hybrid and plug-in vehicles cut GHGs up to 60%, cost 20%. • Under HWFET conditions they offer few GHG reductions at higher costs. • Federal tests for window labels and CAFE standards favor some technologies over others

  15. Field testing plan for unsaturated zone monitoring and field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.H.; Wierenga, P.J.; Warrick, A.W.

    1996-10-01

    The University of Arizona, in cooperation with the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, and Stephens and Associates in Albuquerque, New Mexico has developed a field testing plan for evaluating subsurface monitoring systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has requested development of these testing plans for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (LLW) and for monitoring at decommissioned facilities designated under the open-quotes Site Decommissioning Management Planclose quotes (SDMP). The tests are conducted on a 50 m by 50 m plot on the University of Arizona's Maricopa Agricultural Center. Within the 50 m by 50 m plot one finds: (1) an instrumented buried trench, (2) monitoring islands similar to those proposed for the Ward Valley, California LLW Facility, (3) deep borehole monitoring sites, (4) gaseous transport monitoring, and (5) locations for testing non-invasive geophysical measurement techniques. The various subplot areas are instrumented with commercially available instruments such as neutron probes, time domain reflectometry probes, tensiometers, psychrometers, heat dissipation sensors, thermocouples, solution samplers, and cross-hole geophysics electrodes. Measurement depths vary from ground surface to 15 m. The data from the controlled flow and transport experiments, conducted over the plot, will be used to develop an integrated approach to long-term monitoring of the vadose zone at waste disposal sites. The data will also be used to test field-scale flow and transport models. This report describes in detail the design of the experiment and the methodology proposed for evaluating the data

  16. Comparative Field Tests of Pressurised Rover Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G. A.; Wood, N. B.; Clarke, J. D.; Piechochinski, S.; Bamsey, M.; Laing, J. H.

    The conceptual designs, interior layouts and operational performances of three pressurised rover prototypes - Aonia, ARES and Everest - were field tested during a recent simulation at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah. A human factors experiment, in which the same crew of three executed the same simulated science mission in each of the three vehicles, yielded comparative data on the capacity of each vehicle to safely and comfortably carry explorers away from the main base, enter and exit the vehicle in spacesuits, perform science tasks in the field, and manage geological and biological samples. As well as offering recommendations for design improvements for specific vehicles, the results suggest that a conventional Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) would not be suitable for analog field work; that a pressurised docking tunnel to the main habitat is essential; that better provisions for spacesuit storage are required; and that a crew consisting of one driver/navigator and two field science crew specialists may be optimal. From a field operations viewpoint, a recurring conflict between rover and habitat crews at the time of return to the habitat was observed. An analysis of these incidents leads to proposed refinements of operational protocols, specific crew training for rover returns and again points to the need for a pressurised docking tunnel. Sound field testing, circulating of results, and building the lessons learned into new vehicles is advocated as a way of producing ever higher fidelity rover analogues.

  17. Field test of coordinated ramp metering (CRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    This project has focused on field implementation and testing of a Coordinated Ramp Metering (CRM) algorithm at California State Route 99 : Northbound corridor in Sacramento between Calvine Road and the SR50 interchange after 12th Ave. It is a 9 mile ...

  18. Remote Handling behind port plug in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bede, O.; Neuberger, H.

    2006-01-01

    Different Test Blanket Modules (TBM) will be used in succession in the same equatorial ports of ITER. The remote handling operations for connection/disconnection of an interface between the port plug of the EU-HCPB-TBM and the port cell equipment are investigated with the goal to reach a quick and simple TBM exchange procedure. This paper describes the operations and systems which are required for connection of the TBM to its supply lines at this interface. The interface is located inside the free space of the port plug flange between the port plug shield and the bioshield of the port cell behind. The approach of the operation place is only available through a narrow gate in the bioshield opened temporarily during maintenance periods. This gate limits the dimensions of the whole system and its tools. The current design of the EU-HCPB-TBM foresees up to 9 supply lines which have to be connected inside the free space of one half of the port plug flange. The connection operations require positioning and adjustment of the tools for each pipe separately. Despite the strict circumstances it is still possible to find such an industrial jointed-arm robot with sufficient payload, which can penetrate into the working area. A mechanical system is necessary to move the robot from its storing place in the hot cell to the port plug on 6 m distance. Each operation requires different end-of-arm tools. The most special one is a pipe positioner tool, which can position and pull the pipe ends to each other and align the tool before welding and hold them in proper position during the welding process. Weld seams can be made by orbital welding tool. The pipe positioner tool has to provide place for welding tool. Using of inbore tool is impossible because pipes have no open ends where the tool could leave it. Orbital tool must be modified to meet requirements of remote handling because it is designed for human handling. The coolant is helium, so for eliminating the leak of helium it is

  19. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Buscheck, T.; Carlson, R.; Daily, W.; Lee, K.; Lin, Wunan; Mao, Nai-hsien; Ueng, Tzou-Shin; Wang, H.; Watwood, D.

    1991-08-01

    This final report represents a summary of data and interpretations obtained from the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT) performed in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test Site. The PEBSFT was conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures developed for future field tests that will be conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. The primary objective of the test was to provide a basis for determining whether tests planned for the ESF have the potential to be successful. Chapter 1 on high frequency electromagnetic tomography discusses the rock mass electromagnetic permittivity and attenuation rate changes that were measured to characterize the water distribution in the near field of a simulated waste container. The data are used to obtain quantitative estimates of how the moisture content in the rock mass changes during heating and to infer properties of the spatial variability of water distribution, leading to conclusions about the role of fractures in the system. Chapter 2 discusses the changes in rock moisture content detected by the neutron logging probe. Chapter 3 permeability tests discusses the characterization of the in-situ permeability of the fractured tuff around the borehole. The air permeability testing apparatus, the testing procedures, and the data analysis are presented. Chapter 4 describes the moisture collection system installed in the heater borehole to trap and measure the moisture volumes. Chapter 5 describes relative humidity measurements made with the thermocouple psychrometer and capacitance sensors. Chapter 6 discusses gas pressure measurements in the G-Tunnel, addressing the calibration and installation of piezoresistive-gaged transducers. Chapter 7 describes the calibration and installation of thermocouples for temperature measurements. Chapter 8 discusses the results of the PEBSFT

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Signage for Plug-In Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Signage for Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Signage for Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Signage for Plug-In Electric Vehicle

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversions Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  2. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have immense potential for increasing the country's energy, economic, and environmental security, and they will play a key role in the future of U.S. transportation. By providing PEV charging at the workplace, employers are perfectly positioned to contribute to and benefit from the electrification of transportation. This handbook answers basic questions about PEVs and charging equipment, helps employers assess whether to offer workplace charging for employees, and outlines important steps for implementation.

  3. A Rigorous Methodology for Analyzing and Designing Plug-Ins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasie, Marieta V.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Kiniry, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    . This paper addresses these problems by describing a rigorous methodology for analyzing and designing plug-ins. The methodology is grounded in the Extended Business Object Notation (EBON) and covers informal analysis and design of features, GUI, actions, and scenarios, formal architecture design, including...... behavioral semantics, and validation. The methodology is illustrated via a case study whose focus is an Eclipse environment for the RAISE formal method's tool suite....

  4. Field Testing of Cryogenic Carbon Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, Aaron [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Frankman, Dave [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Baxter, Andrew [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Stitt, Kyler [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Baxter, Larry [Sustainable Energy Solutions, LLC; Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2017-07-17

    Sustainable Energy Solutions has been developing Cryogenic Carbon Capture™ (CCC) since 2008. In that time two processes have been developed, the External Cooling Loop and Compressed Flue Gas Cryogenic Carbon Capture processes (CCC ECL™ and CCC CFG™ respectively). The CCC ECL™ process has been scaled up to a 1TPD CO2 system. In this process the flue gas is cooled by an external refrigerant loop. SES has tested CCC ECL™ on real flue gas slip streams from subbituminous coal, bituminous coal, biomass, natural gas, shredded tires, and municipal waste fuels at field sites that include utility power stations, heating plants, cement kilns, and pilot-scale research reactors. The CO2 concentrations from these tests ranged from 5 to 22% on a dry basis. CO2 capture ranged from 95-99+% during these tests. Several other condensable species were also captured including NO2, SO2 and PMxx at 95+%. NO was also captured at a modest rate. The CCC CFG™ process has been scaled up to a .25 ton per day system. This system has been tested on real flue gas streams including subbituminous coal, bituminous coal and natural gas at field sites that include utility power stations, heating plants, and pilot-scale research reactors. CO2 concentrations for these tests ranged from 5 to 15% on a dry basis. CO2 capture ranged from 95-99+% during these tests. Several other condensable species were also captured including NO2, SO2 and PMxx at 95+%. NO was also captured at 90+%. Hg capture was also verified and the resulting effluent from CCC CFG™ was below a 1ppt concentration. This paper will focus on discussion of the capabilities of CCC, the results of field testing and the future steps surrounding the development of this technology.

  5. Acoustic emission monitoring of leakage through seal-plug in PHWR systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, S K; Badgujar, B P; Goswami, G L [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Atomic Fuels Div.; Patel, R J; Bhattacharya, S; Agrawal, R G [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Refuelling Technology Division

    1994-12-31

    Acoustic Emission (AE) technique is being developed as an in-service inspection tool for monitoring the leakage through seal-plugs in Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). Time as well as frequency domain analysis have been utilised during the experiment carried out at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) using test set up simulating the pressure and temperature conditions. The work involved were to determine the temperature profile on end-fitting, effect of pressure and temperature on leakage etc. This paper discusses various relationships like signal-level vs. pressure, frequency spectrum of signal, signal-level vs. leakage based on the above experimental work. (author). 4 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Deep Borehole Field Test Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This report documents conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), including test packages (simulated waste packages, not containing waste) and a system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the planned Field Test Borehole (FTB). For the DBFT to have demonstration value, it must be based on conceptualization of a deep borehole disposal (DBD) system. This document therefore identifies key options for a DBD system, describes an updated reference DBD concept, and derives a recommended concept for the DBFT demonstration. The objective of the DBFT is to confirm the safety and feasibility of the DBD concept for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. The conceptual design described in this report will demonstrate equipment and operations for safe waste handling and downhole emplacement of test packages, while contributing to an evaluation of the overall safety and practicality of the DBD concept. The DBFT also includes drilling and downhole characterization investigations that are described elsewhere (see Section 1). Importantly, no radioactive waste will be used in the DBFT, nor will the DBFT site be used for disposal of any type of waste. The foremost performance objective for conduct of the DBFT is to demonstrate safe operations in all aspects of the test.

  7. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cautley, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bohac, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Francisco, P. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Shen, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gloss, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-11-05

    "9Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  8. Optimal control of a repowered vehicle: Plug-in fuel cell against plug-in hybrid electric powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribioli, L., E-mail: laura.tribioli@unicusano.it; Cozzolino, R. [Dept. of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome Niccolo’ Cusano (Italy); Barbieri, M. [Engineering Dept., University of Naples Parthenope, Centro Direzionale-Isola C4, 80143 Naples (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    This paper describes two different powertrain configurations for the repowering of a conventional vehicle, equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE). A model of a mid-sized ICE-vehicle is realized and then modified to model both a parallel plug-in hybrid electric powertrain and a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) hybrid powertrain. The vehicle behavior under the application of an optimal control algorithm for the energy management is analyzed for the different scenarios and results are compared.

  9. Optimal control of a repowered vehicle: Plug-in fuel cell against plug-in hybrid electric powertrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribioli, L.; Cozzolino, R.; Barbieri, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two different powertrain configurations for the repowering of a conventional vehicle, equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE). A model of a mid-sized ICE-vehicle is realized and then modified to model both a parallel plug-in hybrid electric powertrain and a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) hybrid powertrain. The vehicle behavior under the application of an optimal control algorithm for the energy management is analyzed for the different scenarios and results are compared

  10. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Wilder, D.G.

    1991-02-01

    This progress report presents the interpretation of data obtained (up to November 1, 1988) from the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT) that are being performed for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test site. The PEBSFTs are being conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures developed for the field tests for future investigations that will be conducted in the Exploratory Shaft Facilities, at a potential high-level radioactive waste repository site in Yucca Mountain. The primary objective of the tests is to provide the basis for determining whether tests planned for Yucca Mountain have the potential to be successful. Thirteen chapters discuss the following: mapping the electromagnetic permittivity and attenuation rate of the rock mass; changes in moisture content detected by the neutron logging probe; characterization of the in-situ permeability of the fractured tuff around the heater borehole; electrical resistance heater installed in a 30-cm borehole; relative humidity measurements; the operation, design, construction, calibration, and installation of a microwave circuit that might provide partial pressure information at temperatures in excess of 200 degree C (392 degree F); pressure and temperature measurements in the G-Tunnel; the moisture collection system, which attempts to collect steam that migrates into the heater borehole; The borehole television and borescope surveys that were performed to map the location, orientation, and aperture of the fractures intersecting the boreholes; preliminary scoping calculations of the hydrothermal conditions expected for this prototype test; the Data Acquisition System; and the results of the PEBSFT, preliminary interpretations of these results, and plans for the remainder of the test. Chapters have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  11. A prototype tap test imaging system: Initial field test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J. J.; Barnard, D. J.; Hudelson, N. A.; Simpson, T. S.; Hsu, D. K.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a simple, field-worthy tap test imaging system that gives quantitative information about the size, shape, and severity of defects and damages. The system consists of an accelerometer, electronic circuits for conditioning the signal and measuring the impact duration, a laptop PC and data acquisition and processing software. The images are generated manually by tapping on a grid printed on a plastic sheet laid over the part's surface. A mechanized scanner is currently under development. The prototype has produced images for a variety of aircraft composite and metal honeycomb structures containing flaws, damages, and repairs. Images of the local contact stiffness, deduced from the impact duration using a spring model, revealed quantitatively the stiffness reduction due to flaws and damages, as well as the stiffness enhancement due to substructures. The system has been field tested on commercial and military aircraft as well as rotor blades and engine decks on helicopters. Field test results will be shown and the operation of the system will be demonstrated.—This material is based upon work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration under Contract #DTFA03-98-D-00008, Delivery Order No. IA016 and performed at Iowa State University's Center for NDE as part of the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability program.

  12. Deep Borehole Field Test Laboratory and Borehole Testing Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gardner, W. Payton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jang, Je-Hun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Daley, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Freifeld, Barry M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spane, Frank A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    Deep Borehole Disposal (DBD) of high-level radioactive wastes has been considered an option for geological isolation for many years (Hess et al. 1957). Recent advances in drilling technology have decreased costs and increased reliability for large-diameter (i.e., ≥50 cm [19.7”]) boreholes to depths of several kilometers (Beswick 2008; Beswick et al. 2014). These advances have therefore also increased the feasibility of the DBD concept (Brady et al. 2009; Cornwall 2015), and the current field test design will demonstrate the DBD concept and these advances. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013) specifically recommended developing a research and development plan for DBD. DOE sought input or expression of interest from States, local communities, individuals, private groups, academia, or any other stakeholders willing to host a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT). The DBFT includes drilling two boreholes nominally 200m [656’] apart to approximately 5 km [16,400’] total depth, in a region where crystalline basement is expected to begin at less than 2 km depth [6,560’]. The characterization borehole (CB) is the smaller-diameter borehole (i.e., 21.6 cm [8.5”] diameter at total depth), and will be drilled first. The geologic, hydrogeologic, geochemical, geomechanical and thermal testing will take place in the CB. The field test borehole (FTB) is the larger-diameter borehole (i.e., 43.2 cm [17”] diameter at total depth). Surface handling and borehole emplacement of test package will be demonstrated using the FTB to evaluate engineering feasibility and safety of disposal operations (SNL 2016).

  13. Field evaporation test of uranium tailings solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, B.L.; Shepard, T.A.; Stewart, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    A field experiment was performed to observe the effect on evaporation rate of a uranium tailings impoundment pond water as salt concentration of the water increased. The duration of the experiment was long enough to cause maximum salt concentration of the water to be attained. The solution used in the experiment was tailings pond water from an inactive uranium tailings disposal site in the initial stages of reclamation. The solution was not neutralized. The initial pH was about 1.0 decreasing to a salt gel at the end of the test. The results of the field experiment show a gradual and slight decrease in evaporation efficiency. This resulted as salt concentrations increased and verified the practical effectiveness of evaporation as a water removal method. In addition, the physical and chemical nature of the residual salts suggest that no long-term stability problem would likely result due to their presence in the impoundment during or after reclamation

  14. Performance Test of CCTV in a Test Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyung Min [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    On April 12-13, 2010, US President Obama hosted a Nuclear Security Summit in Washington, DC, to enhance international cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism, an issue which he has identified as the most immediate and extreme threat to global security. The Summit focused on the security of nuclear materials, nonproliferation, disarmament, and peaceful nuclear energy. At the summit, the Republic of Korea was chosen as the host of the next Summit in 2012. This series of events reflects the growing global interest on 'Nuclear Security' and as the host country of the next Nuclear Summit it is the time for Korea to strengthen the physical protection regime for nuclear facilities as a first step of securing its nuclear security capability. KINAC has been operating Test field as a mean of preparing solid backup data for reviewing and revising DBT (Design Basis Threat) and to test components of the conventional physical protection system. CCTV is a key component which is used worldwide for the assessment measure of alarms. In terms of performance test of CCTV, there are several elements such as image quality, coverage and mechanical features (speed of zoom-in-out, capture, angle shift etc.). Speaking of image quality acquired by the CCTV, the quality is subject to resolution, monitor specification, camera housing, camera mounting and lightening. Thus it is clear that performance tests on image quality should consider those factors and vary the factors respectively in order to verify the influence and the interaction among those. Nevertheless due to the restrictions of the current Test field, this paper focuses on the image quality through resolution test under the various lightening conditions

  15. Issues related to field testing in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper has brought out the unique properties of tuffs and related them to needs associated with their use as a host rock for a high level nuclear waste repository. Major issues of temperature, pore water, joints, and depositional patterns have been identified and related responses and impacts outlined in Table 1. Planned experiments have been outlined and their relationships to the rock mechanics issues summarized in Table 2. The conclusions from this paper are: (1) tuff is a complex rock and basic phenomenological understanding is incomplete; and (2) available field test facilities will be used for a series of experiments designed to improve phenomenological understanding and support repository design efforts

  16. In Situ Field Testing of Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR

  17. In Situ Field Testing of Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Wang

    2001-12-14

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR.

  18. Component sizing optimization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaolan; Cao, Binggang; Li, Xueyan; Xu, Jun; Ren, Xiaolong

    2011-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are considered as one of the most promising means to improve the near-term sustainability of the transportation and stationary energy sectors. This paper describes a methodology for the optimization of PHEVs component sizing using parallel chaos optimization algorithm (PCOA). In this approach, the objective function is defined so as to minimize the drivetrain cost. In addition, the driving performance requirements are considered as constraints. Finally, the optimization process is performed over three different all electric range (AER) and two types of batteries. The results from computer simulation show the effectiveness of the approach and the reduction in drivetrian cost while ensuring the vehicle performance.

  19. Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Analysis (Milestone Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T.; Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; O' Keefe, M.; Simpson, A.; Thornton, M.

    2006-11-01

    NREL's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) analysis activities made great strides in FY06 to objectively assess PHEV technology, support the larger U.S. Department of Energy PHEV assessment effort, and share technical knowledge with the vehicle research community and vehicle manufacturers. This report provides research papers and presentations developed in FY06 to support these efforts. The report focuses on the areas of fuel economy reporting methods, cost and consumption benefit analysis, real-world performance expectations, and energy management strategies.

  20. Compact Fluorescent Plug-In Ballast-in-a-Socket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca Voelker

    2001-12-21

    The primary goal of this program was to develop a ballast system for plug-in CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) that will directly replace standard metal shell, medium base incandescent lampholders (such as Levition No. 6098) for use with portable lamp fixtures, such as floor, table and desk lamps. A secondary goal was to identify a plug-in CFL that is optimized for use with this ballast. This Plug-in CFL Ballastin-a-Socket system will allow fixture manufacturers to easily manufacture CFL-based high-efficacy portable fixtures that provide residential and commercial consumers with attractive, cost-effective, and energy-efficient fixtures for use wherever portable incandescent fixtures are used today. The advantages of this proposed system over existing CFL solutions are that the fixtures can only be used with high-efficacy CFLs, and they will be more attractive and will have lower life-cycle costs than screw-in or adapter-based CFL retrofit solutions. These features should greatly increase the penetration of CFL's into the North American market. Our work has shown that using integrated circuits it is quite feasible to produce a lamp-fixture ballast of a size comparable to the current Edison-screw 3-way incandescent fixtures. As for price points for BIAS-based fixtures, end-users polled by the Lighting Research Institute at RPI indicated that they would pay as much as an additional $10 for a lamp containing such a ballast. The ballast has been optimized to run with a 26 W amalgam triple biax lamp in the base-down position, yet can accept non-amalgam versions of the lamp. With a few part alterations, the ballast can be produced to support 32 W lamps as well. The ballast uses GE's existing L-Comp[1] power topology in the circuit so that the integrated circuit design would be a design that could possibly be used by other CFL and EFL products with minor modifications. This gives added value by reducing cost and size of not only the BIAS, but also possibly other

  1. Fiber optic sensor applications in field testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perea, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors (F.O.S.) are defined, and the application of this technology to measuring various phenomonon in diverse and hostile environments are discussed. F.O.S. advantages and disavantages both technically and operationally are summarized. Three sensor techniques - intensity, interferometric, and polarization - are then discussed in some detail. General environmental instrumentation and controls that support the Nuclear Weapons Test Program at the Nevada Test Site are discussed next to provide the reader with a basic understanding of the programmatic task. This will aid in recognizing the various difficulties of the traditional measurement techniques at the NTS and the potential advantages that fiber optic measurement systems can provide. An F.O.S. development program is then outlined, depicting a plan to design and fabricate a prototype sensor to be available for field testing by the end of FY84. We conclude with future plans for further development of F.O.S. to measure more of the desired physical parameters for the Test Program, and to eventually become an integral part of an overall measurement and control system

  2. 3X-100 blade field test.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas, Jose R.; Johnson, Wesley D.

    2008-03-01

    In support of a Work-For-Other (WFO) agreement between the Wind Energy Technology Department at Sandia National Laboratories and 3TEX, one of the three Micon 65/13M wind turbines at the USDA Agriculture Research Service (ARS) center in Bushland, Texas, has been used to test a set of 9 meter wind turbine blades, manufactured by TPI composites using the 3TEX carbon material for the spar cap. Data collected from the test has been analyzed to evaluate both the aerodynamic performance and the structural response from the blades. The blades aerodynamic and structural performance, the meteorological inflow and the wind turbine structural response has been monitored with an array of 57 instruments: 15 to characterize the blades, 13 to characterize inflow, and 15 to characterize the time-varying state of the turbine. For the test, data was sampled at a rate of 40 Hz using the ATLAS II (Accurate GPS Time-Linked Data Acquisition System) data acquisition system. The system features a time-synchronized continuous data stream and telemetered data from the turbine rotor. This paper documents the instruments and infrastructure that have been developed to monitor these blades, turbines and inflow, as well as both modeling and field testing results.

  3. Field Tests of a Portable MEMS Gravimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Middlemiss

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gravimeters are used to measure density anomalies under the ground. They are applied in many different fields from volcanology to oil and gas exploration, but present commercial systems are costly and massive. A new type of gravity sensor has been developed that utilises the same fabrication methods as those used to make mobile phone accelerometers. In this study, we describe the first results of a field-portable microelectromechanical system (MEMS gravimeter. The stability of the gravimeter is demonstrated through undertaking a multi-day measurement with a standard deviation of 5.58 × 10 − 6 ms − 2 . It is then demonstrated that a change in gravitational acceleration of 4.5 × 10 − 5 ms − 2 can be measured as the device is moved between the top and the bottom of a 20.7 m lift shaft with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of 14.25. Finally, the device is demonstrated to be stable in a more harsh environment: a 4.5 × 10 − 4 ms − 2 gravity variation is measured between the top and bottom of a 275-m hill with an SNR of 15.88. These initial field-tests are an important step towards a chip-sized gravity sensor.

  4. IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S.Y. YANG

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes REV 02. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in REV 02 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what

  5. IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YANG, J.S.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes2. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in2 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what conditions, the tests were conducted. The descriptions and analyses

  6. In situ respiration testing: A field treatability test for bioventing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.A.; Hinchee, R.E.; Miller, R.; Vogel, C.; Hoeppel, R.

    1993-01-01

    Bioventing is the process of aerating subsurface soils to stimulate in situ biological activity and promote bioremediation. Bioventing differs from soil venting in remedial approach. Soil venting is designed and operated to maximize the volatilization of low-molecular-weight compounds, with some biodegradation occurring. In contrast, bioventing is designed to maximize biodegradation of aerobically biodegradable compounds, regardless of their molecular weight, with some volatilization occurring. Bioventing is gaining wide acceptance as a remediation alternative at petroleum-contaminated sites. However, site variability usually requires that a short term treatability test be conducted in situ at potential sites to determine the applicability of bioventing. Battelle has worked with the US Air Force and the US Navy to develop a simple and inexpensive field test to evaluate bioventing potential-contaminated sites. This test has been used to evaluate the applicability of bioventing at over 50 sites. The in situ respiration test consists of injecting air and an inert tracer gas (helium) over a 24-hour period to aerate soils at an oxygen-deficient, petroleum-contaminated site. Soil vapor samples are collected to determine oxygen utilization rates and carbon dioxide production rates. The stoichiometric relationship for the oxidation of hexane is used to calculate the biodegradation rate. The tracer gas is monitored to estimate the effect of diffusion on changes in soil-gas concentrations

  7. FIELD TEST OF THE FLAME QUALITY INDICATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, Andrew M; Butcher, Thomas; Troost, Henry

    2003-02-04

    The flame quality indicator concept was developed at BNL specifically to monitor the brightness of the flame in a small oil burner and to provide a ''call for service'' notification when the brightness has changed from its setpoint, either high or low. In prior development work BNL has explored the response of this system to operational upsets such as excess air changes, fouled atomizer nozzles, poor fuel quality, etc. Insight Technologies, Inc. and Honeywell, Inc. have licensed this technology from the U.S. Department of Energy and have been cooperating to develop product offerings which meet industry needs with an optimal combination of function and price. Honeywell has recently completed the development of the Flame Quality Monitor (FQM or Honeywell QS7100F). This is a small module which connects via a serial cable to the burners primary operating control. Primary advantages of this approach are simplicity, cost, and ease of installation. Call-for-service conditions are output in the form of front panel indicator lights and contact closure which can trigger a range of external communication options. Under this project a field test was conducted of the FQM in cooperation with service organizations in Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut. At total of 83 field sites were included. At each site the FQM was installed in parallel with another embodiment of this concept--the Insight AFQI. The AFQI incorporates a modem and provides the ability to provide detailed information on the trends in the flame quality over the course of the two year test period. The test site population was comprised of 79.5% boilers, 13.7% warm air furnaces, and 6.8% water heaters. Nearly all were of residential size--with firing rates ranging from 0.6 gallons of oil per hour to 1.25. During the course of the test program the monitoring equipment successfully identified problems including: plugged fuel lines, fouled nozzles, collapsed combustion

  8. The newly developed Toyota plug-in hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaoka, Toshifumi; Ichinose, Hiroki [Toyota Motor Corporation (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Toyota has been introducing several hybrid vehicles (HV) as a countermeasure to the automobile's concerns, like CO2 reduction, energy security, and emission reduction in urban areas. A next step towards an even more effective solution for these concerns is a plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV). This vehicle combines the advantages of electric vehicles (EV), which use clean electric energy, and HV, with it's high environmental potential and user- friendliness comparable to conventional vehicles, such as a long cruising range. This paper describes a newly developed plug-in hybrid system and its vehicle performance. This system uses a Li-ion battery with high energy density and has an affordable EV range without sacrificing cabin space. The vehicle achieves a CO2 emission of 59g/km and meets the most stringent emission regulations in the world. The new PHV is a forerunner of the large-scale mass production PHV two years later. PHVs have the potential to become popular as a realistic solution towards sustainable mobility by renewable electricity usage in the future. (orig.)

  9. Cooperative field test program for wind systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollmeier, W.S. II; Dodge, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    The objectives of the Federal Wind Energy Program, managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), are (1) to assist industry and utilities in achieving a multi-regional US market penetration of wind systems, and (2) to establish the United States as the world leader in the development of advanced wind turbine technology. In 1984, the program conducted a series of planning workshops with representatives from the wind energy industry to obtain input on the Five-Year Research Plan then being prepared by DOE. One specific suggestion that came out of these meetings was that the federal program should conduct cooperative research tests with industry to enhance the technology transfer process. It was also felt that the active involvement of industry in DOE-funded research would improve the state of the art of wind turbine technology. DOE established the Cooperative Field Test Program (CFTP) in response to that suggestion. This program was one of the first in DOE to feature joint industry-government research test teams working toward common objectives.

  10. Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasato, Matt [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Kosowski, Mark [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation Program was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) funding. The purpose of the program is to develop a path to migrate plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology to medium-duty vehicles by demonstrating and evaluating vehicles in diverse applications. The program also provided three production-ready PHEV systems—Odyne Systems, Inc. (Odyne) Class 6 to 8 trucks, VIA Motors, Inc. (VIA) half-ton pickup trucks, and VIA three-quarter-ton vans. The vehicles were designed, developed, validated, produced, and deployed. Data were gathered and tests were run to understand the performance improvements, allow cost reductions, and provide future design changes. A smart charging system was developed and produced during the program. The partnerships for funding included the DOE; the California Energy Commission (CEC); the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD); the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Odyne; VIA; Southern California Edison; and utility and municipal industry participants. The reference project numbers are DOE FOA-28 award number EE0002549 and SCAQMD contract number 10659.

  11. Particle swarm optimization of driving torque demand decision based on fuel economy for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Peihong; Zhao, Zhiguo; Zhan, Xiaowen; Li, Jingwei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an energy management strategy based on logic threshold is proposed for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle powertrain model is established using MATLAB/Simulink based on experimental tests of the power components, which is validated by the comparison with the verified simulation model which is built in the AVL Cruise. The influence of the driving torque demand decision on the fuel economy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle is studied using a simulation. The optimization method for the driving torque demand decision, which refers to the relationship between the accelerator pedal opening and driving torque demand, from the perspective of fuel economy is formulated. The dynamically changing inertia weight particle swarm optimization is used to optimize the decision parameters. The simulation results show that the optimized driving torque demand decision can improve the PHEV fuel economy by 15.8% and 14.5% in the fuel economy test driving cycle of new European driving cycle and worldwide harmonized light vehicles test respectively, using the same rule-based energy management strategy. The proposed optimization method provides a theoretical guide for calibrating the parameters of driving torque demand decision to improve the fuel economy of the real plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. - Highlights: • The influence of the driving torque demand decision on the fuel economy is studied. • The optimization method for the driving torque demand decision is formulated. • An improved particle swarm optimization is utilized to optimize the parameters. • Fuel economy is improved by using the optimized driving torque demand decision.

  12. Field operational tests of Smartway in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Kanazawa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Efforts are underway in Japan to promote “Smartway” next-generation roadways, which provide a variety of services through the use of advanced ITS technologies. In recent years, the National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management (NILIM, part of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT, has conducted public–private joint research on next-generation road services using ITS technologies. Field operational tests (FOTs of services including forward obstacle information provision and merging assistance using 5.8 GHz dedicated short range communication (DSRC were conducted on the Tokyo Metropolitan Expressway through FY2007. In FY2008–2009, FOTs were conducted in three major metropolitan areas—Tokyo, Nagoya, and Keihanshin (Kyoto, Osaka, and Kobe—to promote future deployment nationwide. These included tests of information provision services to alert drivers to forward obstacles hidden beyond the crest of an incline and prevent excessive speed on sharp curves. This paper presents an overview of these FOTs conducted by NILIM in recent years and their results.

  13. Assessing the Battery Cost at Which Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles Become Cost-Effective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J. D.; Brooker, A. D.

    2013-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) validated diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid medium-duty parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reductions and cost implications of hybrid and plug-in hybrid diesel variants. The hybrid and plug-in hybrid variants are run on a field data-derived design matrix to analyze the effect of drive cycle, distance, engine downsizing, battery replacements, and battery energy on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. For an array of diesel fuel costs, the battery cost per kilowatt-hour at which the hybridized configuration becomes cost-effective is calculated. This builds on a previous analysis that found the fuel savings from medium duty plug-in hybrids more than offset the vehicles' incremental price under future battery and fuel cost projections, but that they seldom did so under present day cost assumptions in the absence of purchase incentives. The results also highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle specific daily distance and kinetic intensity.

  14. Component sizing optimization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaolan; Cao, Binggang; Li, Xueyan; Xu, Jun; Ren, Xiaolong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are considered as one of the most promising means to improve the near-term sustainability of the transportation and stationary energy sectors. This paper describes a methodology for the optimization of PHEVs component sizing using parallel chaos optimization algorithm (PCOA). In this approach, the objective function is defined so as to minimize the drivetrain cost. In addition, the driving performance requirements are considered as constraints. Finally, the optimization process is performed over three different all electric range (AER) and two types of batteries. The results from computer simulation show the effectiveness of the approach and the reduction in drivetrian cost while ensuring the vehicle performance. (author)

  15. 'Plug-in hybrids and smart grids'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbaty, R.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Robert Horbaty from the ENCO Energy Consulting AG takes a look at how the amount of renewable energy in the electricity mains and the efficiency of mobility can be increased and pollution reduced at the same time. The integration of energy supply and electrically-powered mobility to help reduce the effects of intermittent power production from renewable sources of energy is discussed. The 'smart' technologies needed for integration and management are looked at. Examples of pilot projects are quoted and the effects of the liberalisation of the electricity markets are discussed. The advantages offered by plug-in hybrid vehicles are noted and load-shifting possibilities are discussed. Trends towards mains regulation using bi-directional charging facilities are noted.

  16. Device for sealing a rotating plug in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandstetter, R.

    1975-01-01

    The invention relates to the sealing of a rotating plug in a nuclear reactor. The sealing arrangement comprises a friction track which is formed along the periphery of the top of a ring mounted on a stationary element. An annular base coaxial with the plug is secured in sealing-tight manner to the stationary bearing around the ring and the track by means of a seal which rests on the annular base and also on the friction track of the ring and which comprises at least one friction ring and a clamping spring ring. The seal is clamped against the friction track to retractable clamping means when the plug is stationary, the retractable clamping means being carried by a ring secured to the first-mentioned ring. (U.S.)

  17. Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) smart charging module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jason; Dobrzynski, Daniel S.

    2017-09-12

    A smart charging system for charging a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) includes an electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) configured to supply electrical power to the PEV through a smart charging module coupled to the EVSE. The smart charging module comprises an electronic circuitry which includes a processor. The electronic circuitry includes electronic components structured to receive electrical power from the EVSE, and supply the electrical power to the PEV. The electronic circuitry is configured to measure a charging parameter of the PEV. The electronic circuitry is further structured to emulate a pulse width modulated signal generated by the EVSE. The smart charging module can also include a first coupler structured to be removably couple to the EVSE and a second coupler structured to be removably coupled to the PEV.

  18. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yin

    In this thesis, in order to investigate the impact of charging load from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), a stochastic model is developed in Matlab. In this model, two main types of PHEVs are defined: public transportation vehicles and private vehicles. Different charging time schedule, charging speed and battery capacity are considered for each type of vehicles. The simulation results reveal that there will be two load peaks (at noon and in evening) when the penetration level of PHEVs increases continuously to 30% in 2030. Therefore, optimization tool is utilized to shift load peaks. This optimization process is based on real time pricing and wind power output data. With the help of smart grid, power allocated to each vehicle could be controlled. As a result, this optimization could fulfill the goal of shifting load peaks to valley areas where real time price is low or wind output is high.

  19. Strength and stability of microbial plugs in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, A.K. [NIPER/BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Sharma, M.M.; Georgiou, G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Mobility reduction induced by the growth and metabolism of bacteria in high-permeability layers of heterogeneous reservoirs is an economically attractive technique to improve sweep efficiency. This paper describes an experimental study conducted in sandpacks using an injected bacterium to investigate the strength and stability of microbial plugs in porous media. Successful convective transport of bacteria is important for achieving sufficient initial bacteria distribution. The chemotactic and diffusive fluxes are probably not significant even under static conditions. Mobility reduction depends upon the initial cell concentrations and increase in cell mass. For single or multiple static or dynamic growth techniques, permeability reduction was approximately 70% of the original permeability. The stability of these microbial plugs to increases in pressure gradient and changes in cell physiology in a nutrient-depleted environment needs to be improved.

  20. National Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Srinivasa Raghavan, Seshadri [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-15

    This document describes a study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory quantifying the charging station infrastructure required to serve the growing U.S. fleet of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). PEV sales, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), have surged recently. Most PEV charging occurs at home, but widespread PEV adoption will require the development of a national network of non-residential charging stations. Installation of these stations strategically would maximize the economic viability of early stations while enabling efficient network growth as the PEV market matures. This document describes what effective co-evolution of the PEV fleet and charging infrastructure might look like under a range of scenarios. To develop the roadmap, NREL analyzed PEV charging requirements along interstate corridors and within urban and rural communities. The results suggest that a few hundred corridor fast-charging stations could enable long-distance BEV travel between U.S. cities. Compared to interstate corridors, urban and rural communities are expected to have significantly larger charging infrastructure requirements. About 8,000 fast-charging stations would be required to provide a minimum level of coverage nationwide. In an expanding PEV market, the total number of non-residential charging outlets or 'plugs' required to meet demand ranges from around 100,000 to more than 1.2 million. Understanding what drives this large range in capacity requirements is critical. For example, whether consumers prefer long-range or short-range PEVs has a larger effect on plug requirements than does the total number of PEVs on the road. The relative success of PHEVs versus BEVs also has a major impact, as does the number of PHEVs that charge away from home. This study shows how important it is to understand consumer preferences and driving behaviors when planning charging networks.

  1. National Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Srinivasa Raghavan, Sesha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-07

    This presentation describes a study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory quantifying the charging station infrastructure required to serve the growing U.S. fleet of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). PEV sales, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), have surged recently. Most PEV charging occurs at home, but widespread PEV adoption will require the development of a national network of non-residential charging stations. Installation of these stations strategically would maximize the economic viability of early stations while enabling efficient network growth as the PEV market matures. This document describes what effective co-evolution of the PEV fleet and charging infrastructure might look like under a range of scenarios. To develop the roadmap, NREL analyzed PEV charging requirements along interstate corridors and within urban and rural communities. The results suggest that a few hundred corridor fast-charging stations could enable long-distance BEV travel between U.S. cities. Compared to interstate corridors, urban and rural communities are expected to have significantly larger charging infrastructure requirements. About 8,000 fast-charging stations would be required to provide a minimum level of coverage nationwide. In an expanding PEV market, the total number of non-residential charging outlets or 'plugs' required to meet demand ranges from around 100,000 to more than 1.2 million. Understanding what drives this large range in capacity requirements is critical. For example, whether consumers prefer long-range or short-range PEVs has a larger effect on plug requirements than does the total number of PEVs on the road. The relative success of PHEVs versus BEVs also has a major impact, as does the number of PHEVs that charge away from home. This study shows how important it is to understand consumer preferences and driving behaviors when planning charging networks.

  2. Field Testing of Environmentally Friendly Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Burnett

    2009-05-31

    The Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program addresses new low-impact technology that reduces the footprint of drilling activities, integrates light weight drilling rigs with reduced emission engine packages, addresses on-site waste management, optimizes the systems to fit the needs of a specific development sites and provides stewardship of the environment. In addition, the program includes industry, the public, environmental organizations, and elected officials in a collaboration that addresses concerns on development of unconventional natural gas resources in environmentally sensitive areas. The EFD program provides the fundamentals to result in greater access, reasonable regulatory controls, lower development cost and reduction of the environmental footprint associated with operations for unconventional natural gas. Industry Sponsors have supported the program with significant financial and technical support. This final report compendium is organized into segments corresponding directly with the DOE approved scope of work for the term 2005-2009 (10 Sections). Each specific project is defined by (a) its goals, (b) its deliverable, and (c) its future direction. A web site has been established that contains all of these detailed engineering reports produced with their efforts. The goals of the project are to (1) identify critical enabling technologies for a prototype low-impact drilling system, (2) test the prototype systems in field laboratories, and (3) demonstrate the advanced technology to show how these practices would benefit the environment.

  3. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, H.; Sousa, T.; Soares, J.; Faria, P.; Vale, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Definition fuel shifting demand response programs applied to the electric vehicles. • Integration of the proposed fuel shifting in energy resource management algorithm. • Analysis of fuel shifting contribution to support the consumption increasing. • Analysis of fuel shifting contribution to support the electric vehicles growing. • Sensitivity analysis considering different electric vehicles penetration levels. - Abstract: In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems’ operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles’ charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services. This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed, namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting into the network. These programs are included in an energy resources management algorithm which integrates the management of other resources. The paper presents a case study considering a 37-bus distribution network with 25 distributed generators, 1908 consumers, and 2430 plug-in vehicles. Two scenarios are tested, namely a scenario with high photovoltaic generation, and a scenario without photovoltaic generation. A sensitivity analyses is performed in order to evaluate when each energy resource is required

  4. The Mehrum Coalfire Test Field (MCTF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halisch, M.; Wuttke, M. W.; Hesse, Ph.; Han, J.; Kessels, W.

    2009-04-01

    Spontaneous self ignition of coal causes an immense emission of climate relevant gases and affects regional groundwater conditions in such a large scale, that it could not be even rough estimated. This problem occurs all over the world where coal is mined, stored or processed. Keeping these things and also global warming problems in mind, the extinction of such fires becomes a significant task for future climate and environmental protection. In the big arid coal mining belt of the northwest PR China the necessity of environmental as well as resource protection is now realized, leading to increased fire fighting activities. Mostly, the burning coal is partially removed, the surface is insufficiently sealed from oxygen and fire-zones are cooled with valuable fresh water. Such cooling of fire centers is often not sustainable because oxygen rich air may keep on penetrating through the soil surface and reach the cooled down coal which subsequently starts to burn again. Within the Sino-German project "Innovative Technologies for Exploration, Extinction and Monitoring of Coal Fires in North China" numerical models are developed to simulate the propagation of underground coal fires in realistic scenarios. These models will be adapted to new data from lab and field experiments including multiphase transport and phase transition processes. The Mehrum test site is used to set up a small scale in situ coal fire experiment in order to validate and verify the codes as well as to better understand the coal fire genesis. The experiment will be carried out under usage of two coal heaps with a total volume of about 1 m3. At the bottom, a layer of hydraulic conductive coarse gravel has been built in. Within this layer, a special ventilation system for air supplying has been embedded. The exact amount of led in air is measured by high resolution flow rate devices. The coal lies directly above the coarse gravel layer. The heating source is located in the lower forth of the coal layer

  5. Development and field test of psychophysical tests for DWI arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Administration and scoring procedures were standardized for a sobriety test battery consisting of the walk-and-turn test, the one leg stand test, and horizontal gaze nystagmus. The effectiveness of the standardized battery was then evaluated in the l...

  6. Advancing Plug-In Hybrid Technology and Flex Fuel Application on a Chrysler Minivan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi, Abdullah [Chrysler Group LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Barnhart, Steven [Chrysler Group LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2014-12-31

    FCA US LLC viewed this DOE funding as a historic opportunity to begin the process of achieving required economies of scale on technologies for electric vehicles. The funding supported FCA US LLC’s light-duty electric drive vehicle and charging infrastructure-testing activities and enabled FCA US LLC to utilize the funding on advancing Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) technologies to future programs. FCA US LLC intended to develop the next generations of electric drive and energy batteries through a properly paced convergence of standards, technology, components, and common modules, as well as first-responder training and battery recycling. To support the development of a strong, commercially viable supplier base, FCA US LLC also used this opportunity to evaluate various designated component and sub-system suppliers. The original project proposal was submitted in December 2009 and selected in January 2010. The project ended in December 2014.

  7. Plug-in Based Analysis Framework for LHC Post-Mortem Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbonosov, R; Zerlauth, M; Baggiolini, V

    2014-01-01

    Plug-in based software architectures [1] are extensible, enforce modularity and allow several teams to work in parallel. But they have certain technical and organizational challenges, which we discuss in this paper. We gained our experience when developing the Post-Mortem Analysis (PMA) system, which is a mission critical system for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We used a plugin-based architecture with a general-purpose analysis engine, for which physicists and equipment experts code plugins containing the analysis algorithms. We have over 45 analysis plugins developed by a dozen of domain experts. This paper focuses on the design challenges we faced in order to mitigate the risks of executing third-party code: assurance that even a badly written plugin doesn't perturb the work of the overall application; plugin execution control which allows to detect plugin misbehaviour and react; robust communication mechanism between plugins, diagnostics facilitation in case of plugin failure; testing of the plugins be...

  8. Field testing of asphalt-emulsion radon-barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Baker, E.G.; Elmore, M.R.; Nelson, D.A.; Voss, C.F.; Koehmstedt, P.L.

    1981-09-01

    Three years of laboratory and field testing have demonstrated that asphalt emulsion seals are effective radon diffusion barriers. Both laboratory and field tests in 1979, 1980 and 1981 have shown that an asphalt emulsion seal can reduce radon fluxes by greater than 99.9%. The effective diffusion coefficient for the various asphalt emulsion admix seals averages about 10 -6 cm 2 /s. The 1981 joint field test is a culmination of all the technology developed to date for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. Preliminary results of this field test and the results of the 1980 field test are presented. 18 figures, 6 tables

  9. FIELD ACCURACY TEST OF RPAS PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Barry

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Baseline Surveys Ltd is a company which specialises in the supply of accurate geospatial data, such as cadastral, topographic and engineering survey data to commercial and government bodies. Baseline Surveys Ltd invested in aerial drone photogrammetric technology and had a requirement to establish the spatial accuracy of the geographic data derived from our unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV photogrammetry before marketing our new aerial mapping service. Having supplied the construction industry with survey data for over 20 years, we felt that is was crucial for our clients to clearly understand the accuracy of our photogrammetry so they can safely make informed spatial decisions, within the known accuracy limitations of our data. This information would also inform us on how and where UAV photogrammetry can be utilised. What we wanted to find out was the actual accuracy that can be reliably achieved using a UAV to collect data under field conditions throughout a 2 Ha site. We flew a UAV over the test area in a "lawnmower track" pattern with an 80% front and 80% side overlap; we placed 45 ground markers as check points and surveyed them in using network Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK GPS. We specifically designed the ground markers to meet our accuracy needs. We established 10 separate ground markers as control points and inputted these into our photo modelling software, Agisoft PhotoScan. The remaining GPS coordinated check point data were added later in ArcMap to the completed orthomosaic and digital elevation model so we could accurately compare the UAV photogrammetry XYZ data with the RTK GPS XYZ data at highly reliable common points. The accuracy we achieved throughout the 45 check points was 95% reliably within 41 mm horizontally and 68 mm vertically and with an 11.7 mm ground sample distance taken from a flight altitude above ground level of 90 m.The area covered by one image was 70.2 m × 46.4 m, which equals 0.325 Ha. This

  10. An Electric Field Test Using the MRI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiala, P.; Bartušek, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 7 (2008), s. 701-705 ISSN 1931-7360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : MRI * electric field * numerical modeling Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  11. The four-meter confrontation visual field test.

    OpenAIRE

    Kodsi, S R; Younge, B R

    1992-01-01

    The 4-m confrontation visual field test has been successfully used at the Mayo Clinic for many years in addition to the standard 0.5-m confrontation visual field test. The 4-m confrontation visual field test is a test of macular function and can identify small central or paracentral scotomas that the examiner may not find when the patient is tested only at 0.5 m. Also, macular sparing in homonymous hemianopias and quadrantanopias may be identified with the 4-m confrontation visual field test....

  12. Computational analysis on plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, S. J.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle (PHEM) is an alternative to promote sustainability lower emissions. However, the PHEM overall system packaging is constrained by limited space in a motorcycle chassis. In this paper, a chassis applying the concept of a Chopper is analysed to apply in PHEM. The chassis 3dimensional (3D) modelling is built with CAD software. The PHEM power-train components and drive-train mechanisms are intergraded into the 3D modelling to ensure the chassis provides sufficient space. Besides that, a human dummy model is built into the 3D modelling to ensure the rider?s ergonomics and comfort. The chassis 3D model then undergoes stress-strain simulation. The simulation predicts the stress distribution, displacement and factor of safety (FOS). The data are used to identify the critical point, thus suggesting the chassis design is applicable or need to redesign/ modify to meet the require strength. Critical points mean highest stress which might cause the chassis to fail. This point occurs at the joints at triple tree and bracket rear absorber for a motorcycle chassis. As a conclusion, computational analysis predicts the stress distribution and guideline to develop a safe prototype chassis.

  13. Episodic air quality impacts of plug-in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brown, Tim; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the Spatially and Temporally Resolved Energy and Environment Tool (STREET) is used in conjunction with University of California Irvine - California Institute of Technology (UCI-CIT) atmospheric chemistry and transport model to assess the impact of deploying plug-in electric vehicles and integrating wind energy into the electricity grid on urban air quality. STREET is used to generate emissions profiles associated with transportation and power generation sectors for different future cases. These profiles are then used as inputs to UCI-CIT to assess the impact of each case on urban air quality. The results show an overall improvement in 8-h averaged ozone and 24-h averaged particulate matter concentrations in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) with localized increases in some cases. The most significant reductions occur northeast of the region where baseline concentrations are highest (up to 6 ppb decrease in 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 μg/m3 decrease in 24-h-averaged PM2.5). The results also indicate that, without integration of wind energy into the electricity grid, the temporal vehicle charging profile has very little to no effect on urban air quality. With the addition of wind energy to the grid mix, improvement in air quality is observed while charging at off-peak hours compared to the business as usual scenario.

  14. The water intensity of the plugged-in automotive economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

    2008-06-15

    Converting light-duty vehicles from full gasoline power to electric power, by using either hybrid electric vehicles or fully electric power vehicles, is likely to increase demand for water resources. In the United States in 2005, drivers of 234 million cars, lighttrucks, and SUVs drove approximately 2.7 trillion miles and consumed over 380 million gallons of gasoline per day. We compare figures from literature and government surveys to calculate the water usage, consumption, and withdrawal, in the United States during petroleum refining and electricity generation. In displacing gasoline miles with electric miles, approximately 2-3 [corrected] times more water is consumed (0.24 [corrected] versus 0.07--0.14 gallons/mile) and over 12 [corrected] times more water is withdrawn (7.8 [corrected] versus 0.6 gallons/mile) primarily due to increased water cooling of thermoelectric power plants to accommodate increased electricity generation. Overall, we conclude that the impact on water resources from a widespread shift to grid-based transportation would be substantial enough to warrant consideration for relevant public policy decision-making. That is not to say that the negative impacts on water resources make such a shift undesirable, but rather this increase in water usage presents a significant potential impact on regional water resources and should be considered when planning for a plugged-in automotive economy.

  15. Conceptual Design and Requirements for Characterization and Field Test Boreholes: Deep Borehole Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rigali, Mark J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Freifeld, Barry M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Daley, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    Deep Borehole Disposal (DBD) of high-level radioactive wastes has been considered an option for geological isolation for many years (Hess et al. 1957). Recent advances in drilling technology have decreased costs and increased reliability for large-diameter (i.e., ≥50 cm [19.7”]) boreholes to depths of several kilometers (Beswick 2008; Beswick et al. 2014). These advances have therefore also increased the feasibility of the DBD concept (Brady et al. 2009; Cornwall 2015), and the current field test, introduced herein, is a demonstration of the DBD concept and these advances.

  16. Superconductor shields test chamber from ambient magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.

    1965-01-01

    Shielding a test chamber for magnetic components enables it to maintain a constant, low magnetic field. The chamber is shielded from ambient magnetic fields by a lead foil cylinder maintained in a superconducting state by liquid helium.

  17. Plug-in vehicles and the future of road infrastructure funding in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumortier, Jerome; Kent, Matthew W.; Payton, Seth B.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, road infrastructure funding is declining due to an increase in fuel efficiency and the non-adjustment of fuel taxes to inflation. Legislation to tax plug-in vehicles has been proposed or implemented in several states. Those propositions are contrary to policies to promote fuel efficient vehicles. This paper assesses (1) the magnitude of the decline in federal fuel tax revenue caused by plug-in vehicles and (2) quantifies the revenue that could be generated from a federal plug-in vehicle registration fee. We find that the contribution of plug-in vehicles to the decline of the federal fuel tax revenue is at most 1.6% and the majority of the shortfall can be attributed to the non-adjustment of the fuel tax rate and the increase in vehicle fuel efficiency by 2040. An additional tax of $50–$200 per plug-in vehicle per year in the reference case would generate $188–$745 million in 2040 which represents an increase of 1.69–6.71% in federal fuel tax revenue compared to no tax. The lesson for policy makers is that plug-in vehicles do not contribute significantly to the funding shortfall in the short- and medium-run and a supplemental tax would generate a small percentage of additional revenue. - Highlights: •Fees on plug-in cars are proposed or implemented to collect foregone fuel taxes. •Plug-in cars are responsible for a very small percentage of declining tax revenue. •An additional tax on plug-in cars does not stop the decline in fuel tax revenue. •Adjusting fuel taxes to inflation is a more effective tool to increase tax revenue.

  18. Comparative Study of Frederikshavn Field Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firouzianbandpey, Sarah

    This report contains the results and experiences from a large scale test on a bucket foundation located in saturated sand. The experiment is a part of a large research and development program concerning bucket foundations for offshore wind turbines. The research program is a co-operation between...

  19. Plug-In Hybrid Urban Delivery Truck Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasato, Matt [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Impllitti, Joseph [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Pascal, Amar [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The I-710 and CA-60 highways are key transportation corridors in the Southern California region that are heavily used on a daily basis by heavy duty drayage trucks that transport the cargo from the ports to the inland transportation terminals. These terminals, which include store/warehouses, inland-railways, are anywhere from 5 to 50 miles in distance from the ports. The concentrated operation of these drayage vehicles in these corridors has had and will continue to have a significant impact on the air quality in this region whereby significantly impacting the quality of life in the communities surrounding these corridors. To reduce these negative impacts it is critical that zero and near-zero emission technologies be developed and deployed in the region. A potential local market size of up to 46,000 trucks exists in the South Coast Air Basin, based on near- dock drayage trucks and trucks operating on the I-710 freeway. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), California Air Resources Board (CARB) and Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) — the agencies responsible for preparing the State Implementation Plan required under the federal Clean Air Act — have stated that to attain federal air quality standards the region will need to transition to broad use of zero and near zero emission energy sources in cars, trucks and other equipment (Southern California Association of Governments et al, 2011). SCAQMD partnered with Volvo Trucks to develop, build and demonstrate a prototype Class 8 heavy-duty plug-in hybrid drayage truck with significantly reduced emissions and fuel use. Volvo’s approach leveraged the group’s global knowledge and experience in designing and deploying electromobility products. The proprietary hybrid driveline selected for this proof of concept was integrated with multiple enhancements to the complete vehicle in order to maximize the emission and energy impact of electrification. A detailed review of all

  20. Field tests of the mobile robot Sherpa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaucourt, P. de; Garrec, P.; Morganti, P.; Lucibello, P.; Nobile, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent demonstrations of the transport capabilities, inside nuclear buildings, of the six egged robot SHERPA, developed by the CEA (Atomic Energy Commission) robotic team. Results of the tests carried out at Chooz-B and Trino Vercellesse Nuclear Power Plants, respectively in June 1993 and in January 1994, in the framework of the European Community TELEMAN Programme, are presented. (authors). 10 refs., 13 figs

  1. Field tests of the mobile robot Sherpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaucourt, P. de; Garrec, P.; Morganti, P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes et Systemes Avances; Trouville, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France); Lucibello, P.; Nobile, M. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Direzione Studi

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes recent demonstrations of the transport capabilities, inside nuclear buildings, of the six egged robot SHERPA, developed by the CEA (Atomic Energy Commission) robotic team. Results of the tests carried out at Chooz-B and Trino Vercellesse Nuclear Power Plants, respectively in June 1993 and in January 1994, in the framework of the European Community TELEMAN Programme, are presented. (authors). 10 refs., 13 figs.

  2. Performance analysis in Japanese field test program; Field test data kara no chiiki hatsuden kaiseki hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, H.; Kurokawa, K.; Uchida, D. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Otani, K.; Sakuta, K.; Tsuda, I. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Oshiro, T.; Sakamoto, K. [Japan Quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Power generation characteristics are investigated using data collected in photovoltaic power generation field tests being undertaken by NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization). The photovoltaic power generation system performance is evaluated by examining loss factors leading to degradation in system performance, with weather conditions such as variation in insolation and air temperature, inverter performance, and shadows cast by surrounding buildings taken into consideration. As the result, it is found that the important loss factors are degradation in module performance due to elevated temperature, drift in the maximum output control, degraded inverter performance due to input power variation, effect of shadows, etc. It is learned that system is greatly affected by degradation in module performance due to increased temperature in summer and by shadows in winter, the two being responsible for the output coefficient dropping to approximately 75% throughout the year. The output coefficient frequency distribution charts for the 75 test sites confirm that the rate is as low as 70-80% at many sites. As for the system operating time, it tends to be longer in West Japan where the annual insolation rate is higher. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Field Lysimeter Test Facility: Second year (FY 1989) test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.D.; Gee, G.W.; Kanyid, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.

    1990-04-01

    The Record of Decision associated with the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (53 FR 12449-53) commits to an evaluation of the use of protective barriers placed over near-surface wastes. The barrier must protect against wind and water erosion and limit plant and animal intrusion and infiltration of water. Successful conclusion of this program will yield the necessary protective barrier design for near-surface waste isolation. This report presents results from the second year of tests at the FLTF. The primary objective of testing protective barriers at the FLTF was to measure the water budgets within the various barriers and assess the effectiveness of their designs in limiting water intrusion into the zone beneath each barrier. Information obtained from these measurements is intended for use in refining barrier designs. Four elements of water budget were measured during the year: precipitation, evaporation, storage, and drainage. Run-off, which is a fifth element of a complete water budget, was made negligible by a lip on the lysimeters that protrudes 5 cm above the soil surface to prevent run-off. A secondary objective of testing protective barriers at the FLTF was to refine procedures and equipment to support data collection for verification of the computer model needed for long-term projections of barrier performance. 6 refs

  4. System and method for charging a plug-in electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassham, Marjorie A.; Spigno, Jr., Ciro A.; Muller, Brett T.; Newhouse, Vernon L.

    2017-05-02

    A charging system and method that may be used to automatically apply customized charging settings to a plug-in electric vehicle, where application of the settings is based on the vehicle's location. According to an exemplary embodiment, a user may establish and save a separate charging profile with certain customized charging settings for each geographic location where they plan to charge their plug-in electric vehicle. Whenever the plug-in electric vehicle enters a new geographic area, the charging method may automatically apply the charging profile that corresponds to that area. Thus, the user does not have to manually change or manipulate the charging settings every time they charge the plug-in electric vehicle in a new location.

  5. Test of QED at critical field strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bula, C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In a new experiment at the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC, a low-emittance 46.6 GeV electron beam is brought into collisions with terawatt pulses of 1054 nm or 527 nm wavelength from a Nd:glass laser. Peak laser intensities of 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} have been achieved corresponding to a value of 0.6 for the parameter {eta} = e{epsilon}/m{omega}{sub 0}c. In this case, an electron that crosses the center of the laser pulse has near-unit interaction probability. Results are presented for multiphoton Compton scattering in which an electron interacts with up to four laser photons, in agreement with theoretical calculations.

  6. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  7. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  8. Ford Plug-In Project: Bringing PHEVs to Market Demonstration and Validation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Annunzio, Julie [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Slezak, Lee [U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Conley, John Jason [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2014-03-26

    This project is in support of our national goal to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. By supporting efforts that contribute toward the successful mass production of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, our nation’s transportation-related fuel consumption can be offset with energy from the grid. Over four and a half years ago, when this project was originally initiated, plug-in electric vehicles were not readily available in the mass marketplace. Through the creation of a 21 unit plug-in hybrid vehicle fleet, this program was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and to help build cross-industry familiarity with the technology and interface of this technology with the grid. Ford Escape PHEV Demonstration Fleet 3 March 26, 2014 Since then, however, plug-in vehicles have become increasingly more commonplace in the market. Ford, itself, now offers an all-electric vehicle and two plug-in hybrid vehicles in North America and has announced a third plug-in vehicle offering for Europe. Lessons learned from this project have helped in these production vehicle launches and are mentioned throughout this report. While the technology of plugging in a vehicle to charge a high voltage battery with energy from the grid is now in production, the ability for vehicle-to-grid or bi-directional energy flow was farther away than originally expected. Several technical, regulatory and potential safety issues prevented progressing the vehicle-to-grid energy flow (V2G) demonstration and, after a review with the DOE, V2G was removed from this demonstration project. Also proving challenging were communications between a plug-in vehicle and the grid or smart meter. While this project successfully demonstrated the vehicle to smart meter interface, cross-industry and regulatory work is still needed to define the vehicle-to-grid communication interface.

  9. Role of energy systems in two intermittent field tests in women field hockey players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Visscher, Susan H.

    The energetics of 2 field tests that reflect physical performance in intermittent sports (i.e., the Interval Shuttle Sprint Test [ISST] and the Interval Shuttle Run Test [ISRT]) were examined in 21 women field hockey players. The ISST required the players to perform 10 shuttle sprints starting every

  10. The Savannah River environmental technology field test platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossabi, J.; Riha, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    The principal goal in the development of new technologies for environmental monitoring and characterization is transferring them to organizations and individuals for use in site assessment and compliance monitoring. The Savannah River technology Center (SRTC) has been developing a program to rigorously field test promising environmental technologies that have not undergone EPA equivalency testing. The infrastructure and staff expertise developed as part of the activities of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program allows field testing of technologies without the difficulties of providing remote field support. By providing a well-characterized site and a well-developed infrastructure, technologies are tested in actual field scenarios to determine their appropriate applications in environmental characterization and monitoring activities. The field tests provide regulatory organizations, potential industrial partners, and potential users with the opportunity to evaluate the technology's performance and its utility for implementation in environmental characterization and monitoring programs. This program has resulted in the successful implementation of several new technologies

  11. Managing operations of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) exchange stations for use with a smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurre, Sarah G.; Bent, Russell; Pan, Feng; Sharkey, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a deterministic integer programming model for determining the optimal operations of multiple plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) battery exchange stations over time. The operations include the number of batteries to charge, discharge, and exchange at each point in time over a set time horizon. We allow discharging of batteries back to the power grid, through vehicle-to-grid technology. We incorporate the exchange station's dependence on the power network, transportation network, and other exchange stations. The charging and discharging at these exchange stations lead to a greater amount of variability which creates a less predictable and flat power generation curve. We introduce and test three policies to smooth the power generation curve by balancing its load. Further, tests are conducted evaluating these policies while factoring wind energy into the power generation curve. These computational tests use realistic data and analysis of the results suggest general operating procedures for exchange stations and evaluate the effectiveness of these power flattening policies. - Highlights: • Model the operations of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery exchange stations. • Determine the optimal and general charging, discharging, and exchange operations. • Conclude that forced customer service levels are unnecessary with proper pricing. • Examine policies to reduce variability in power generation from PHEVs and wind. • Observe that strict constraints on exchange stations best reduce variability

  12. Toward a model for field-testing patient decision-support technologies: a qualitative field-testing study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, R.; Elwyn, G.; Edwards, A.; Watson, E.; Austoker, J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Field-testing is a quality assurance criterion in the development of patient decision-support technologies (PDSTs), as identified in the consensus statement of the International Patient Decision Aids Standards Collaboration. We incorporated field-testing into the development of a

  13. Experimental and numerical modeling of sulfur plugging in a carbonate oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Awadhy, F. [ADMA-OPCO, Abudhabi (United Arab Emirates); Kocabas, I.; Abou-Kassem, J.H. [UAE University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Islam, M.R. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (United States)

    2005-01-15

    Many oil and gas reservoirs in the United Arab Emirates produce large amounts of sour gas, mainly in the form of hydrogen sulfide. In addition to creating problems in the production line, wellbore damage is often reported due to the precipitation of elemental sulfur in the vicinity of the wellbore. While there have been several studies performed on the role of solid deposition in a gas reservoir, the role of sulfur deposition in oil reservoirs has not been investigated. This article presents experimental results along with a comprehensive wellbore model that predicts sulfur precipitation as well as plugging. The experiments were conducted in a core (linear) system. Both analytical and numerical modelings were performed in a linear coordinate system. Data for the numerical model was obtained from both test tube and coreflood experiments. By using a phenomenological model, the wellbore plugging was modeled with an excellent match (with experimental results). The crude oil was de-asphalted prior to conducting the experiment in order to isolate the effect of asphaltene plugging. A series of coreflood tests was carried out to observe sulfur precipitation and plugging in a carbonate rock. Significant plugging was observed and was found to be dependent on flow rate and initial sulfur concentration. This information was used in the phenomenological model and can be incorporated in the wellbore numerical model. (author)

  14. Optimal sizing of plug-in fuel cell electric vehicles using models of vehicle performance and system cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jianqiu; Yang, Fuyuan; Lu, Languang; Hua, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An analytical model for vehicle performance and power-train parameters. ► Quantitative relationships between vehicle performance and power-train parameters. ► Optimal sizing rules that help designing an optimal PEM fuel cell power-train. ► An on-road testing showing the performance of the proposed vehicle. -- Abstract: This paper presents an optimal sizing method for plug-in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell and lithium-ion battery (LIB) powered city buses. We propose a theoretical model describing the relationship between components’ parameters and vehicle performance. Analysis results show that within the working range of the electric motor, the maximal velocity and driving distance are influenced linearly by the parameters of the components, e.g. fuel cell efficiency, fuel cell output power, stored hydrogen mass, vehicle auxiliary power, battery capacity, and battery average resistance. Moreover, accelerating time is also linearly dependant on the abovementioned parameters, except of those of the battery. Next, we attempt to minimize fixed and operating costs by introducing an optimal sizing problem that uses as constraints the requirements on vehicle performance. By solving this problem, we attain several optimal sizing rules. Finally, we use these rules to design a plug-in PEM fuel cell city bus and present performance results obtained by on-road testing.

  15. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: battery degradation, grid support, emissions, and battery size tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott B.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become a substantial part of the transportation fleet in a decade or two. This dissertation investigates battery degradation, and how introducing PHEVs may influence the electricity grid, emissions, and petroleum use in the US. It examines the effects of combined driving and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) usage on lifetime performance of commercial Li-ion cells. The testing shows promising capacity fade performance: more than 95% of the original cell capacity remains after thousands of driving days. Statistical analyses indicate that rapid vehicle motive cycling degraded the cells more than slower, V2G galvanostatic cycling. These data are used to examine the potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours. The maximum annual profit with perfect market information and no battery degradation cost ranged from ˜US140 to 250 in the three cities. If measured battery degradation is applied the maximum annual profit decreases to ˜10-120. The dissertation predicts the increase in electricity load and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generators, with a 50/tonne CO2 price, and with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO2 capture. It also models emissions using natural gas or wind+gas. We examined PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50%. Compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO2 emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO2 generation. NOX is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO2 emissions or allowance prices under a cap. Finally the dissertation compares increasing the all-electric range (AER) of PHEVs to installing charging infrastructure. Fuel use was modeled with National Household Travel Survey and Greenhouse Gasses, Regulated

  16. Field Testing Research at the NWTC (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) has extensive field testing capabilities that have been used in collaboration with the wind industry to accelerate wind technology development and deployment for more than 30 years.

  17. SMART operational field test evaluation : dispatchers survey report : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART) has installed an automaticscheduling and dispatch system (ASD) in Southeast Michigan in accordance with their plans toimplement ITS as a site for an operational field test. The purpo...

  18. SMART operational field test evaluation : scheduler survey report : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART) has installed an automatic scheduling and dispatch system (ASD) in Southeast Michigan in accordance with their plans to implement ITS as a site for an operational field test. The pur...

  19. AFSC/FMA/NPRB Halibut Bycatch Video Field Test

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data arise from a field test of electronic monitoring (EM) of vessels participating in the Pacific halibut fishery off Alaska. A side-by-side comparison was...

  20. Travel Time Data Collection Field Tests - Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-28

    The Los Angeles Spread Spectrum Radio (SSR) Traffic Signal Interconnect Field Operational Test (FOT) investigated the feasibility of using wireless communications as an alternative to traditional hard-wire interconnection, to extend the coverage of c...

  1. Instructions for 104-SX liquid level measurement field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides detailed instructions for field testing a suggested solution of inserting a liner inside the 104-SX failed Liquid Observation Well to gain access for making temporary Liquid Level Measurement until a permanent solution has been provided

  2. Remote field eddy current testing of ferromagnetic tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, B.

    1990-01-01

    In order to test ferromagnetic tubes using internal probes, Intercontrole and the CEA have carried out theoretical and experimental works and developed a method to adapt the Remote Field Eddy Current technique which has been known and used for 30 years now. This document briefly recalls the basic principles of the Remote Field Eddy Current technique, the various steps of the works carried out and mainly describes examples of field inspection of ferromagnetic tubes and pipes [fr

  3. The Center-TRACON Automation System: Simulation and field testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denery, Dallas G.; Erzberger, Heinz

    1995-01-01

    A new concept for air traffic management in the terminal area, implemented as the Center-TRACON Automation System, has been under development at NASA Ames in a cooperative program with the FAA since 1991. The development has been strongly influenced by concurrent simulation and field site evaluations. The role of simulation and field activities in the development process will be discussed. Results of recent simulation and field tests will be presented.

  4. Field tests and commercialization of natural gas leak detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, D S; Jeon, J S; Kim, K D; Cho, Y A [R and D Center, Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives - (1) fields test of industrial gas leak detection monitoring system. (2) commericialization of residential gas leak detector. Contents - (1) five sets of gas leak detection monitoring system were installed at natural gas transmition facilities and tested long term stability and their performance. (2) improved residential gas leak detector was commercialised. Expected benefits and application fields - (1) contribution to the improvement of domestic gas sensor technology. (2) localization of fabrication technology for gas leak detectors. 23 refs., 126 figs., 37 tabs.

  5. Superconductors for fusion magnets tested under pulsed field in SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, P.; Bottura, L.; Katheder, H.; Blau, B.; Rohleder, I.; Vecsey, G.

    1995-01-01

    The SULTAN III test facility has been upgraded with a pair of pulsed field coils to carry out AC losses and stability experiments under full operating loads on large size, fusion conductors for ITER. A fast data aquisition system records the conductor behaviour under fast field transient. The commissioning results of the pulsed coils and instrumentation are critically discussed and the test capability of the set up is assessed. (orig.)

  6. Model-based design approaches for plug-in hybrid vehicle design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, C.J. [CrossChasm Technologies, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Stevens, M.B.; Fowler, M.W. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Fraser, R.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Wilhelm, E.J. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland). Energy Systems Analysis

    2007-07-01

    A model-based design process for plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) was presented. The paper discussed steps between the initial design concept and a working vehicle prototype, and focused on an investigation of the software-in-the-loop (SIL), hardware-in-the-loop (HIL), and component-in-the-loop (CIL) design phases. The role and benefits of using simulation were also reviewed. A method for mapping and identifying components was provided along with a hybrid control strategy and component-level control optimization process. The role of simulation in component evaluation, architecture design, and de-bugging procedures was discussed, as well as the role simulation networks can play in speeding deployment times. The simulations focused on work performed on a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox converted to a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV). Components were aggregated to create a complete virtual vehicle. A simplified vehicle model was implemented onto the on-board vehicle control hardware. Optimization metrics were estimated at 10 alpha values during each control loop iteration. The simulation was then used to tune the control system under a variety of drive cycles and conditions. A CIL technique was used to place a physical hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) component under the control of a real time HEV/PHEV simulation. It was concluded that controllers should have a standardized component description that supports integration into advanced testing procedures. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Improving power grid transient stability by plug-in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajduk, Andrej; Kocarev, Ljupco; Todorovski, Mirko; Kurths, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can serve in discharge mode as distributed energy and power resources operating as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) devices and in charge mode as loads or grid-to-vehicle devices. It has been documented that PEVs serving as V2G systems can offer possible backup for renewable power sources, can provide reactive power support, active power regulation, load balancing, peak load shaving, can reduce utility operating costs and can generate revenue. Here we show that PEVs can even improve power grid transient stability, that is, stability when the power grid is subjected to large disturbances, including bus faults, generator and branch tripping, and sudden large load changes. A control strategy that regulates the power output of a fleet of PEVs based on the speed of generator turbines is proposed and tested on the New England 10-unit 39-bus power system. By regulating the power output of the PEVs we show that (1) speed and voltage fluctuations resulting from large disturbances can be significantly reduced up to five times, and (2) the critical clearing time can be extended by 20–40%. Overall, the PEVs control strategy makes the power grid more robust. (paper)

  8. Efficient integration of plug-in electric vehicles via reconfigurable microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavousi-Fard, Abdollah; Khodaei, Amin

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the viability of the reconfigurable microgrids (RMGs) in facilitating the integration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The reconfiguration ability of microgrids, which is enabled by the use of remotely controlled switches (RCSs), will support the high penetration of PEVs and renewable distributed generators (DGs) while reducing the total operation cost and potentially enhance microgrid reliability. The objective of the proposed optimal scheduling problem is to minimize the total cost of power supply by distributed energy resources (DERs) and upstream network energy exchange, battery degradation cost in PEVs, cost of switching during the reconfiguration, and expected customer interruption costs as a reliability index. To address the high level of the uncertainties in the problem, a scenario-based stochastic framework is devised to capture the uncertainties associated with the charging and discharging values of PEVs, number of PEVs in each fleet, time of the daily trips for PEVs, hourly load consumption, hourly output power of renewable DGs, and hourly market price. The satisfying performance and merits of the proposed model are examined on a test microgrid. - Highlights: • Introduction of reconfigurable microgrids for providing flexible structure to manage electric loads. • Assessing the effects of the reconfiguration on the integration of PEVs. • Introduction of a stochastic framework for reducing operation and reliability costs in microgrids. • Introduction of a smart charge/discharge scheme for PEVs based on V2G during the reconfiguration.

  9. The Development of CPSES Plug-in(CPMP) for APR1400 Computerized Procedure Effective Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, No Kyu; Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Yeon Sub [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The Computerized Procedure System (CPS) is one of the Man Machine Interface (MMI) resources of the Shin-Kori 3 and 4 nuclear power plants. The CPS is a computerized operator support system that enables operating crew to execute procedures in an accurate and fast manner. The Computerized Procedure (CP) is the XML data file in executable format that can be installed in the Procedure eXecution System (PXS) for execution. The CP contains specific information related to a particular procedure (i.e. LOCA). These computerized procedures such as Alarm Response Procedures (ARP) are separated into individual alarm procedure to maximize function interface between CPS and DCS. E.g. 'Procedure open by alarm list'. The procedure writer's burden to manage many procedures has been increased because of separated procedures. This paper introduces Computerized Procedure System Engineering System (CPSES) plug-in that is computerized procedure management program (CPMP) to reduce procedure writer's burden. This paper introduces the main features of CPMP. CPMP reduces procedure writer's or CPX maintainer's burden. This program is implemented and tested by program design requirement.

  10. Assessing the Potential of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Active Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ahmadi Kordkheili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-objective optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to increase the penetration level of renewable energy sources (RESs in distribution networks by intelligent management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV storage. The proposed algorithm is defined to manage the reverse power flow (PF from the distribution network to the upstream electrical system. Furthermore, a charging algorithm is proposed within the proposed optimization in order to assure PEV owner’s quality of service (QoS. The method uses genetic algorithm (GA to increase photovoltaic (PV penetration without jeopardizing PEV owners’ (QoS and grid operating limits, such as voltage level of the grid buses. The method is applied to a part of the Danish low voltage (LV grid to evaluate its effectiveness and capabilities. Different scenarios have been defined and tested using the proposed method. Simulation results demonstrate the capability of the algorithm in increasing solar power penetration in the grid up to 50%, depending on the PEV penetration level and the freedom of the system operator in managing the available PEV storage.

  11. Testing of a one dimensional model for Field II calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Willatzen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Field II is a program for simulating ultrasound transducer fields. It is capable of calculating the emitted and pulse-echoed fields for both pulsed and continuous wave transducers. To make it fully calibrated a model of the transducer’s electro-mechanical impulse response must be included. We...... examine an adapted one dimensional transducer model originally proposed by Willatzen [9] to calibrate Field II. This model is modified to calculate the required impulse responses needed by Field II for a calibrated field pressure and external circuit current calculation. The testing has been performed...... to the calibrated Field II program for 1, 4, and 10 cycle excitations. Two parameter sets were applied for modeling, one real valued Pz27 parameter set, manufacturer supplied, and one complex valued parameter set found in literature, Alguer´o et al. [11]. The latter implicitly accounts for attenuation. Results show...

  12. Influence of the magnetic field profile on ITER conductor testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhuis, A; Ilyin, Y; Kate, H H J ten

    2006-01-01

    We performed simulations with the numerical CUDI-CICC code on a typical short ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) conductor test sample of dual leg configuration, as usually tested in the SULTAN test facility, and made a comparison with the new EFDA-Dipole test facility offering a larger applied DC field region. The new EFDA-Dipole test facility, designed for short sample testing of conductors for ITER, has a homogeneous high field region of 1.2 m, while in the SULTAN facility this region is three times shorter. The inevitable non-uniformity of the current distribution in the cable, introduced by the joints at both ends, has a degrading effect on voltage-current (VI) and voltage-temperature (VT) characteristics, particularly for these short samples. This can easily result in an underestimation or overestimation of the actual conductor performance. A longer applied DC high field region along a conductor suppresses the current non-uniformity by increasing the overall longitudinal cable electric field when reaching the current sharing mode. The numerical interpretation study presented here gives a quantitative analysis for a relevant practical case of a test of a short sample poloidal field coil insert (PFCI) conductor in SULTAN. The simulation includes the results of current distribution analysis from self-field measurements with Hall sensor arrays, current sharing measurements and inter-petal resistance measurements. The outcome of the simulations confirms that the current uniformity improves with a longer high field region but the 'measured' VI transition is barely affected, though the local peak voltages become somewhat suppressed. It appears that the location of the high field region and voltage taps has practically no influence on the VI curve as long as the transverse voltage components are adequately cancelled. In particular, for a thin conduit wall, the voltage taps should be connected to the conduit in the form of an (open) azimuthally

  13. Stochastic scheduling of local distribution systems considering high penetration of plug-in electric vehicles and renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabaee, Sajad; Mortazavi, Seyed Saeedallah; Niknam, Taher

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimal scheduling of electric power units in the renewable based local distribution systems considering plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The appearance of PEVs in the electric grid can create new challenges for the operation of distributed generations and power units inside the network. In order to deal with this issue, a new stochastic optimization method is devised to let the central controll manage the power units and charging behavior of PEVs. The problem formulation aims to minimize the total cost of the network including the cost of power supply for loads and PEVs as well as the cost of energy not supplied (ENS) as the reliability costs. In order to make PEVs as opportunity for the grid, the vehicle-2-grid (V2G) technology is employed to reduce the operational costs. To model the high uncertain behavior of wind turbine, photovoltaics and the charging and discharging pattern of PEVs, a new stochastic power flow based on unscented transform is proposed. Finally, a new optimization algorithm based on bat algorithm (BA) is proposed to solve the problem optimally. The satisfying performance of the proposed stochastic method is tested on a grid-connected local distribution system. - Highlights: • Introduction of stochastic method to assess Plug-in Electric Vehicles effects on the microgrid. • Assessing the role of V2G technology on battery aging and degradation costs. • Use of BA for solving the proposed problem. • Introduction of a new modification method for the BA.

  14. Differential Gender Performance on the Major Field Test-Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka; Brown, F. William

    2013-01-01

    The Major Field Test in Business (MFT-B), a standardized assessment test of business knowledge among undergraduate business seniors, is widely used to measure student achievement. Many previous studies analyzing scores on the MFT-B report gender differences on the exam even after controlling for student's aptitude, general intellectual ability,…

  15. Field testing for cosmic ray soft errors in semiconductor memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Gorman, T.J.; Ross, J.M.; Taber, A.H.; Ziegler, J.F.; Muhlfeld, H.P.; Montrose, C.J.; Curtis, H.W.; Walsh, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a review of experiments performed by IBM to investigate the causes of soft errors in semiconductor memory chips under field test conditions. The effects of alpha-particles and cosmic rays are separated by comparing multiple measurements of the soft-error rate (SER) of samples of memory chips deep underground and at various altitudes above the earth. The results of case studies on four different memory chips show that cosmic rays are an important source of the ionizing radiation that causes soft errors. The results of field testing are used to confirm the accuracy of the modeling and the accelerated testing of chips

  16. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  17. Research and field tests of staged fracturing technology for casing deformation sections in horizontal shale gas wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimeng Liao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal shale gas well fracturing is mostly carried out by pumping bridge plugs. In the case of casing deformation, the bridge plug can not be pumped down to the designated position, so the hole sections below the deformation could not be stimulated according to the design program. About 30% of horizontal shale gas wells in the Changning and Weiyuan Blocks, Sichuan Basin, suffer various casing deformation after fracturing. Previously, the hole sections which could not be stimulated due to casing deformation were generally abandoned. As a result, the resources controlled by shale gas wells weren't exploited effectively and the fracturing effect was impacted greatly. There are a lot of difficulties in investigating casing deformation, such as complex mechanisms, various influencing factors and unpredictable deformation time. Therefore, it is especially important to seek a staged fracturing technology suitable for the casing deformation sections. In this paper, the staged fracturing technology with sand plugs inside fractures and the staged fracturing technology with temporary plugging balls were tested in casing deformation wells. The staged fracturing technology with sand plugs inside fractures was carried out in the mode of single-stage perforation and single-stage fracturing. The staged fracturing technology with temporary plugging balls was conducted in the mode of single perforation, continuous fracturing and staged ball dropping. Then, two kinds of technologies were compared in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, they were tested on site. According to the pressure response, the pressure monitoring of the adjacent wells and the microseismic monitoring in the process of actual fracturing, both technologies are effective in the stimulation of the casing deformation sections, realizing well control reserves efficiently and guaranteeing fracturing effects. Keywords: Shale gas, Horizontal well, Casing deformation, Staged

  18. Field Tests of the HYDAD-D Landmine Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, F.D.; Drosg, M.; Smit, F.D.

    2010-01-01

    The HYDAD-D landmine detector has been field tested in South Africa and in Egypt, using both a dummy landmine and real (disabled) anti-personnel landmines. A hand-held version of the detector and a version that incorporates a motor-driven scanner were tested. The test results demonstrate that HYDAD-D can detect the VS 50 anti-personnel landmine (mass 185 g) when buried at a cover depth of 20 cm in dry sand. (author)

  19. Testing of Photomultiplier Tubes in a Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Zachary; A1 Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The A1 collaboration at MAMI in Mainz, Germany has designed a neutron detector that can be used in experiments to measure the electric form factor of the neutron. They will measure elastic scattering from the neutron, using the polarized electron beam from MAMI at A1's experimental hall. The detector will be composed of two walls of staggered scintillator bars which will be read out by photomultiplier tubes (PMT), connected to both ends of each scintillator via light guides. The experiment requires a magnetic field with strength of 1 Tesla, 2m away from the first scintillator wall. The resulting fringe field is sufficient to disrupt the PMTs, despite the addition of Mu Metal shielding. The effects of the fringe field on these PMTs was tested to optimize the amplification of the PMTs. A Helmholtz Coil was designed to generate a controlled magnetic field with equivalent strength to the field that the PMTs will encounter. The PMTs were read out using a multi-channel analyzer, were tested at various angles relative to the magnetic field in order to determine the optimal orientation to minimize signal disruption. Tests were also performed to determine: the neutron detector response to cosmic radiation; and the best method for measuring a magnetic field's strength in two dimensions. National Science Foundation Grant No. IIA-1358175.

  20. Trip-oriented stochastic optimal energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yongchang; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Qinpu; Zhang, Yuanbo; Xia, Huaicheng

    2016-01-01

    A trip-oriented stochastic optimal energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric bus is presented in this paper, which includes the offline stochastic dynamic programming part and the online implementation part performed by equivalent consumption minimization strategy. In the offline part, historical driving cycles of the fixed route are divided into segments according to the position of bus stops, and then a segment-based stochastic driving condition model based on Markov chain is built. With the segment-based stochastic model obtained, the control set for real-time implemented equivalent consumption minimization strategy can be achieved by solving the offline stochastic dynamic programming problem. Results of stochastic dynamic programming are converted into a 3-dimensional lookup table of parameters for online implemented equivalent consumption minimization strategy. The proposed strategy is verified by both simulation and hardware-in-loop test of real-world driving cycle on an urban bus route. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms both the well-tuned equivalent consumption minimization strategy and the rule-based strategy in terms of fuel economy, and even proved to be close to the optimal result obtained by dynamic programming. Furthermore, the practical application potential of the proposed control method was proved by hardware-in-loop test. - Highlights: • A stochastic problem was formed based on a stochastic segment-based driving condition model. • Offline stochastic dynamic programming was employed to solve the stochastic problem. • The instant power split decision was made by the online equivalent consumption minimization strategy. • Good performance in fuel economy of the proposed method was verified by simulation results. • Practical application potential of the proposed method was verified by the hardware-in-loop test results.

  1. Real-world fuel economy and CO2 emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploetz, Patrick; Funke, Simon Arpad; Jochem, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual PHEV that have been observed over more than a year in the U.S. and Germany. We find that real-world fuel economy of PHEV differ widely among users. The main factors explaining this variation are the annual mileage, the regularity of daily driving, and the likelihood of long-distance trips. Current test cycle fuel economy ratings neglect these factors. Despite the broad range of PHEV fuel economies, the test cycle fuel economy ratings can be close to empiric PHEV fleet averages if the average annual mile-age is about 17,000 km. For the largest group of PHEV in our data, the Chevrolet Volt, we find the average fuel economy to be 1.45 litres/100 km at an average electric driving share of 78%. The resulting real-world tank-to-wheel CO 2 emissions of these PHEV are 42 gCO 2 /km and the annual CO 2 savings in the U.S. amount to about 50 Mt. In conclusion, the variance of empirical PHEV fuel economy is considerably higher than of conventional vehicles. This should be taken into account by future test cycles and high electric driving shares should be incentivised.

  2. Innovations for ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Limited resources and increasing requirements will continue to influence decisions on ISS. The ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) supports power and data for utilization, systems, and daily operations through the Electrical Power System (EPS) Secondary Power/Data Subsystem. Given the fluid launch schedule, the focus of the Plug-In Plan has evolved to anticipate future requirements by judicious development and delivery of power supplies, power strips, Alternating Current (AC) power inverters, along with innovative deployment strategies. A partnership of ISS Program Office, Engineering Directorate, Mission Operations, and International Partners poses unique solutions with existing on-board equipment and resources.

  3. Pressure test method for reactor pressure vessel in construction field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Masakado; Ushiroda, Koichi; Miyahara, Ryohei; Takano, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Tadashi; Sato, Keiya.

    1998-01-01

    Plant constitutional parts as targets of both of a primary pressure test and a secondary pressure test are disposed in communication with a reactor pressure vessel, and a pressure of the primary pressure test is applied to the targets of both tests, so that the primary pressure test and the second pressure test are conducted together. Since the number of pressure tests can be reduced to promote construction, and the number of workers can also be reduced. A pressure exceeding the maximum pressure upon use is applied to the pressure vessel after disposing the incore structures, to continuously conduct the primary pressure test and the secondary pressure test joined together and an incore flowing test while closing the upper lid of the pressure vessel as it is in the construction field. The number of opening/closing of the upper lid upon conducting every test can be reduced, and since the pressure resistance test is conducted after arranging circumference conditions for the incore flowing test, the tests can be conducted collectively also in view of time. (N.H.)

  4. Applied field test procedures on petroleum release sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, G.; Nichols, L.

    1995-01-01

    The effective remediation of petroleum contaminated soils and ground water is a significant issue for Williams Pipe Line Co. (Williams): costing $6.8 million in 1994. It is in the best interest, then, for Williams to adopt approaches and apply technologies that will be both cost-effective and comply with regulations. Williams has found the use of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air sparging (AS) field test procedures at the onset of a petroleum release investigation/remediation accomplish these goals. This paper focuses on the application of AS/SVE as the preferred technology to a specific type of remediation: refined petroleum products. In situ field tests are used prior to designing a full-scale remedial system to first validate or disprove initial assumptions on applicability of the technology. During the field test, remedial system design parameters are also collected to tailor the design and operation of a full-scale system to site specific conditions: minimizing cost and optimizing effectiveness. In situ field tests should be designed and operated to simulate as close as possible the operation of a full-scale remedial system. The procedures of an in situ field test will be presented. The results of numerous field tests and the associated costs will also be evaluated and compared to full-scale remedial systems and total project costs to demonstrate overall effectiveness. There are many advantages of As/SVE technologies over conventional fluid extraction or SVE systems alone. However, the primary advantage is the ability to simultaneously reduce volatile and biodegradable compound concentrations in the phreatic, capillary fringe, and unsaturated zones

  5. Energy conversion phenomena in plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katrasnik, Tomaz

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Energy conversion phenomena of PHEVs for different drive cycles and depletion rates of energy sources. → Detailed physically based framework for analyzing energy conversion phenomena in PHEVs. → Interaction of energy flows and energy losses with energy consumption of the PHEV. → Identification and explanation of mechanisms leading to optimal tank-to-wheel efficiency. → Analysis of well-to-wheel efficiencies for different realistic well-to-tank scenarios. -- Abstract: Energy flows and energy conversion efficiencies of commercial plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV) are analyzed for parallel and series PHEV topologies. The analysis is performed by a combined analytical and simulation approach. Combined approach enables evaluation of energy losses on different energy paths and provides their impact on the energy consumption of the PHEV. Thereby the paper reveals energy conversion phenomena of different PHEV topologies operating according to charge depleting and charge sustaining modes as well as according to different test cycles. It is shown in the paper that amount of the energy depleted from both on-board energy sources is significantly influenced by the efficiencies of energy conversion chains from on-board energy sources to the wheels. It is also shown that energy used to power the PHEV according to particular test cycles varies based on its operating mode, which influences energy flows on different energy paths within the PHEVs and consequently overall energy consumed by the PHEV. The paper additionally discusses well-to-wheel efficiencies considering different realistic well-to-tank scenarios. It is shown that well-to-tank efficiency of electric energy generation significantly influences optimal operating mode of the PHEV if consumption of primary energy sources is considered.

  6. The Savannah River environmental technology field test platform: Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossabi, J.; Riha, B.D.; May, C.P.; Pemberton, B.E.; Jarosch, T.R.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Raymond, R.

    1995-01-01

    The principal goal in the development of new technologies for environmental monitoring and characterization is transferring them to organizations and individuals for use in site assessment and compliance monitoring. The DOE complex has devised several strategies to facilitate this transfer including joint research projects between private industries and government laboratories or universities (CRADAs), and streamlined licensing procedures. One strategy that has been under-utilized is a planned sequence gradually moving from laboratory development and field demonstration to long term evaluation and onsite use. Industrial partnership and commercial production can be initiated at any step based on the performance, market, user needs, and costs associated with the technology. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been developing a program to rigorously field test promising environmental technologies that have not undergone EPA equivalency testing. The infrastructure and staff expertise developed as part of the activities of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program (i.e., wells, available power, conventional baseline characterization and monitoring equipment, shelter structures) allows field testing of technologies without the difficulties of providing remote field support. By providing a well-characterized site and a well-developed infrastructure, technologies can be tested for long periods of time to determine their appropriate applications in environmental characterization and monitoring activities. Situation specific evaluations of the technology following stringent test plans can be made in comparison with simultaneous baseline methods and historical data. This program is designed to help expedite regulatory approval and technology transfer to manufacturers and the user community

  7. High field, low current operation of engineering test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.; Cohn, D.R.; Bromberg, L.; Williams, J.E.C.

    1987-06-01

    Steady state engineering test reactors with high field, low current operation are investigated and compared to high current, lower field concepts. Illustrative high field ETR parameters are R = 3 m, α ∼ 0.5 m, B ∼ 10 T, β = 2.2% and I = 4 MA. For similar wall loading the fusion power of an illustrative high field, low current concept could be about 50% that of a lower field device like TIBER II. This reduction could lead to a 50% decrease in tritium consumption, resulting in a substantial decrease in operating cost. Furthermore, high field operation could lead to substantially reduced current drive requirements and cost. A reduction in current drive source power on the order of 40 to 50 MW may be attainable relative to a lower field, high current design like TIBER II implying a possible cost savings on the order of $200 M. If current drive is less efficient than assumed, the savings could be even greater. Through larger β/sub p/ and aspect ratio, greater prospects for bootstrap current operation also exist. Further savings would be obtained from the reduced size of the first wall/blanket/shield system. The effects of high fields on magnet costs are very dependent on technological assumptions. Further improvements in the future may lie with advances in superconducting and structural materials

  8. The design and validation of a hybrid digital-signal-processing plug-in for traditional cochlear implant speech processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiaghababa, Fatemeh; Marateb, Hamid R; Kermani, Saeed

    2018-06-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are electronic devices restoring partial hearing to deaf individuals with profound hearing loss. In this paper, a new plug-in for traditional IIR filter-banks (FBs) is presented for cochlear implants based on wavelet neural networks (WNNs). Having provided such a plug-in for commercially available CIs, it is possible not only to use available hardware in the market but also to optimize their performance compared with the-state-of-the-art. An online database of Dutch diphone perception was used in our study. The weights of the WNNs were tuned using particle swarm optimization (PSO) on a training set (speech-shaped noise (SSN) of 2 dB SNR), while its performance was assessed on a test set in terms of objective and composite measures in the hold-out validation framework. The cost function was defined based on the combination of mean square error (MSE), short‑time objective intelligibility (STOI) criteria on the training set. Variety of performance indices were used including segmental signal- to -noise ratio (SNRseg), MSE, STOI, log-likelihood ratio (LLR), weighted spectral slope (WSS), and composite measures C sig , C bak and C ovl . Meanwhile, the following CI speech processing techniques were used for comparison: traditional FBs, dual resonance nonlinear (DRNL) and simple dual path nonlinear (SPDN) models. The average SNRseg, MSE, and LLR values for the WNN in the entire data set were 2.496 ± 2.794, 0.086 ± 0.025 and 2.323 ± 0.281, respectively. The proposed method significantly improved MSE, SNR, SNRseg, LLR, C sig C bak and C ovl compared with the other three methods (repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA); P < 0.05). The average running time of the proposed algorithm (written in Matlab R2013a) on the training and test sets for each consonant or vowel on an Intel dual-core 2.10 GHz CPU with 2GB of RAM was 9.91 ± 0.87 (s) and 0.19 ± 0.01 (s), respectively. The proposed algorithm is accurate and

  9. Field test plan: Buried waste technologies, Fiscal Year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, R.E.; Hyde, R.A.; Engleman, V.S.; Evans, J.D.; Jackson, T.W.

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development, supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that, when integrated with commercially available baseline technologies, form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The Fiscal Year 1995 effort is to deploy and test multiple technologies from four functional areas of buried waste remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, and treatment. This document is the basic operational planning document for the deployment and testing of the technologies that support the field testing in Fiscal Year 1995. Discussed in this document are the scope of the tests; purpose and objective of the tests; organization and responsibilities; contingency plans; sequence of activities; sampling and data collection; document control; analytical methods; data reduction, validation, and verification; quality assurance; equipment and instruments; facilities and utilities; health and safety; residuals management; and regulatory management

  10. Favorable effects of lacrimal plugs in patients with an anophthalmic socket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardizer, Y.; Lang, Y.; Mourits, M. P.; Briscoe, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of punctal plugs in the treatment of dry eyes is well established. Anophthalmic patients have less tears in the anophthalmic socket in comparison to their normal side, due to an absent corneal reflex (Lee & Elsie, 1981a,b). Many of those patients complain of dry eye symptoms,

  11. Consumer adoption and grid impact models for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This proposed study focuses on assessing the demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in Wisconsin and its economic : impacts on the States energy market and the electric grid. PHEVs are expected to provide a range of about 40 miles per ...

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. Hybrid Electric Vehicles Icon cost and emissions with a conventional vehicle. Select Fuel/Technology Electric Hybrid Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20) Propane (LPG) Next Vehicle Cost

  13. Households' Stories of Their Encounters with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperello, Nicolette D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    One way to progress toward greenhouse gas reductions is for people to drive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Households in this study participated in a 4- to 6-week PHEV driving trial. A narrative of each household's encounter with the PHEV was constructed by the researchers from multiple in-home interviews, questionnaires completed by…

  14. Aggregation of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Power Systems for Primary Frequency Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadkhast, S.

    2017-01-01

    The number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is likely to increase in the near future and these vehicles will probably be connected to the electric grid most of the day time. PEVs are interesting options to provide a wide variety of services such as primary frequency control (PFC), because they

  15. Predicting the market potential of plug-in electric vehicles using multiday GPS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "Detailed GPS data for a years worth of travel by 255 households from the Seattle area were used to : investigate how plug-in electric vehicle types may affect adoption rates and use levels. The results suggest : that a battery-electric vehicle (B...

  16. Clean Cities Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  17. Multi-objective optimization control of plug-in electric vehicles in low voltage distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Villalobos, J.; Zamora, I.; Knezovic, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    The massive introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into low voltage (LV) distribution networks will lead to several problems, such as: increase of energy losses, decrease of distribution transformer lifetime, lines and transformer overload issues, voltage drops and unbalances...

  18. Impact of plug-in electric vehicles on voltage unbalance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) will soon be connected to residential distribution networks. ... generation units which transfer the energy stored in their battery into grid. ... electric vehicles on voltage imbalance in distribution system is presented. ... and other types of distribution generator such as solar photovoltaic and wind ...

  19. Abstraction and Model Checking in the PEPA Plug-in for Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Michael James Andrew

    2010-01-01

    lead to very large Markov chains. One way of analysing such models is to use abstraction - constructing a smaller model that bounds the properties of the original. We present an extension to the PEPA plug-in for Eclipse that enables abstracting and model checking of PEPA models. This implements two new...

  20. A Preliminary Field Test of an Employee Work Passion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigarmi, Drea; Nimon, Kim; Houson, Dobie; Witt, David; Diehl, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Four dimensions of a process model for the formulation of employee work passion, derived from Zigarmi, Nimon, Houson, Witt, and Diehl (2009), were tested in a field setting. A total of 447 employees completed questionnaires that assessed the internal elements of the model in a corporate work environment. Data from the measurements of work affect,…

  1. Couplex1 test case nuclear - Waste disposal far field simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This first COUPLEX test case is to compute a simplified Far Field model used in nuclear waste management simulation. From the mathematical point of view the problem is of convection diffusion type but the parameters are highly varying from one layer to another. Another particularity is the very concentrated nature of the source, both in space and in time. (author)

  2. Rock sealing - large scale field test and accessory investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1988-03-01

    The experience from the pilot field test and the basic knowledge extracted from the lab experiments have formed the basis of the planning of a Large Scale Field Test. The intention is to find out how the 'instrument of rock sealing' can be applied to a number of practical cases, where cutting-off and redirection of groundwater flow in repositories are called for. Five field subtests, which are integrated mutually or with other Stripa projects (3D), are proposed. One of them concerns 'near-field' sealing, i.e. sealing of tunnel floors hosting deposition holes, while two involve sealing of 'disturbed' rock around tunnels. The fourth concerns sealing of a natural fracture zone in the 3D area, and this latter test has the expected spin-off effect of obtaining additional information on the general flow pattern around the northeastern wing of the 3D cross. The fifth test is an option of sealing structures in the Validation Drift. The longevity of major grout types is focussed on as the most important part of the 'Accessory Investigations', and detailed plans have been worked out for that purpose. It is foreseen that the continuation of the project, as outlined in this report, will yield suitable methods and grouts for effective and long-lasting sealing of rock for use at stategic points in repositories. (author)

  3. Design and field tests of a modified small mammallivetrap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -vinyl-chloride) and metal small mammal live-trap has been developed and subjected to field tests. The PVC traps captured greater numbers of very small rodents and shrews but fewer large rodents than did hardboard ones. s. Afr. J. Zool.

  4. Field test of a new Australian method of rangeland monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne Mayne; Neil West

    2001-01-01

    Managers need more efficient means of monitoring changes on the lands they manage. Accordingly, a new Australian approach was field tested and compared to the Daubenmire method of assessing plant cover, litter, and bare soil. The study area was a 2 mile wide by 30.15 mile long strip, mostly covered by salt desert shrub ecosystem types, centered along the SE boundary of...

  5. Heat pumps in field test; Waermepumpen im Feldtest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Miara, M.; Russ, C.

    2007-09-15

    The Fraunhofer ISE has launched two field tests of newly installed heat pumps in 2006. Both deal with the measurement of a high number of heat pump units under real conditions in small houses. Values of volume flows, temperatures, heat quantity and electricity consumption are collected and daily saved and analysed at the Fraunhofer ISE. (orig.)

  6. Simple and rapid field tests for brucellosis in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoel, Theresia; Dias, Isabel Travassos; Cardoso, Regina; Smits, Henk L.

    2008-01-01

    Four simple and rapid field tests for the serodiagnosis of brucellosis in cattle, goat, sheep and swine were developed. The performance of the assays was investigated using serum samples collected in Portugal from animals originating from herds with a defined sanitary status with respect to the

  7. Sequential accelerated tests: Improving the correlation of accelerated tests to module performance in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Thomas; Gambogi, William; Stika, Katherine; Yu, Bao-Ling; Bradley, Alex; Hu, Hongjie; Garreau-Iles, Lucie; Trout, T. John

    2016-09-01

    DuPont has been working steadily to develop accelerated backsheet tests that correlate with solar panels observations in the field. This report updates efforts in sequential testing. Single exposure tests are more commonly used and can be completed more quickly, and certain tests provide helpful predictions of certain backsheet failure modes. DuPont recommendations for single exposure tests are based on 25-year exposure levels for UV and humidity/temperature, and form a good basis for sequential test development. We recommend a sequential exposure of damp heat followed by UV then repetitions of thermal cycling and UVA. This sequence preserves 25-year exposure levels for humidity/temperature and UV, and correlates well with a large body of field observations. Measurements can be taken at intervals in the test, although the full test runs 10 months. A second, shorter sequential test based on damp heat and thermal cycling tests mechanical durability and correlates with loss of mechanical properties seen in the field. Ongoing work is directed toward shorter sequential tests that preserve good correlation to field data.

  8. Test results of BM109 magnet field stability during ramping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristalinski, A.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents results of the measured lag between the current ramp and the following magnetic field rise in BM109 magnets. The purpose of these tests is to choose identical ramping programs for PC4AN1, PC4AN2 and PC4AN3 magnets. The lag occurs due to the large eddy currents in the magnets' solid iron cores. The experiment requires a magnetic field stability of 0.1% during beam presence. Using existing equipment and a program slope of 100 Amp/sec starting at Tl yields fields within the 0.05% of set value. Add to this 0.05% for P.S. regulation to meet the required field stability of 0.1%. This program yields annual savings of $200,000 (assuming 100% usage) . Additional savings can be made by using faster slopes, but this requires additional controls

  9. Potential of the test particle in the magnetic field. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sestak, B.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of the test particle potential in an external homogeneous magnetic field is solved in an unmagnetized plasma. It is shown that for the case when the parallel velocity component of the test particle is greater than the thermal velocity of the background particles, the potential is of a Coulomb character while for the case where the parallel velocity component is less than the thermal velocity the potential is of a Debye character. The Larmor radius of the test particle appears as an additional parameter in these potentials. (author)

  10. Influence of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging strategies on charging and battery degradation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunz, Benedikt; Yan, Zexiong; Gerschler, Jochen Bernhard; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The profitability of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is significantly influenced by battery aging and electricity costs. Therefore a simulation model for PHEVs in the distribution grid is presented which allows to compare the influence of different charging strategies on these costs. The simulation is based on real-world driving behavior and European Energy Exchange (EEX) intraday prices for obtaining representative results. The analysis of comprehensive lithium-ion battery aging tests performed within this study shows that especially high battery states of charge (SOCs) decrease battery lifetime, whereas the cycling of batteries at medium SOCs only has a minor contribution to aging. Charging strategies that take into account the previously mentioned effects are introduced, and the SOC distributions and cycle loads of the vehicle battery are investigated. It can be shown that appropriate charging strategies significantly increase battery lifetime and reduce charging costs at the same time. Possible savings due to lifetime extension of the vehicle battery are approximately two times higher than revenues due to energy trading. The findings of this work indicate that car manufacturers and energy/mobility providers have to make efforts for developing intelligent charging strategies to reduce mobility costs and thus foster the introduction of electric mobility. - Highlights: ► Modeling of PHEVs based on real-world driving behavior and electricity prices. ► Consideration of battery degradation for the calculation of mobility costs. ► Smart charging decreases battery degradation and electricity costs simultaneously. ► Reduction of battery degradation costs is around two times higher than reduction of electricity costs.

  11. Test field for airborne laser scanning in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahokas, E.; Kaartinen, H.; Kukko, A.; Litkey, P.

    2014-11-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is a widely spread operational measurement tool for obtaining 3D coordinates of the ground surface. There is a need for calibrating the ALS system and a test field for ALS was established at the end of 2013. The test field is situated in the city of Lahti, about 100 km to the north of Helsinki. The size of the area is approximately 3.5 km × 3.2 km. Reference data was collected with a mobile laser scanning (MLS) system assembled on a car roof. Some streets were measured both ways and most of them in one driving direction only. The MLS system of the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) consists of a navigation system (NovAtel SPAN GNSS-IMU) and a laser scanner (FARO Focus3D 120). In addition to the MLS measurements more than 800 reference points were measured using a Trimble R8 VRS-GNSS system. Reference points are along the streets, on parking lots, and white pedestrian crossing line corners which can be used as reference targets. The National Land Survey of Finland has already used this test field this spring for calibrating their Leica ALS-70 scanner. Especially it was easier to determine the encoder scale factor parameter using this test field. Accuracy analysis of the MLS points showed that the point height RMSE is 2.8 cm and standard deviation is 2.6 cm. Our purpose is to measure both more MLS data and more reference points in the test field area to get a better spatial coverage. Calibration flight heights are planned to be 1000 m and 2500 m above ground level. A cross pattern, southwest-northeast and northwest-southeast, will be flown both in opposite directions.

  12. Dynamic Coordinated Shifting Control of Automated Mechanical Transmissions without a Clutch in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlei Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the shifting process of automated mechanical transmissions (AMTs for traditional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, and by combining the features of electric machines with fast response speed, the dynamic model of the hybrid electric AMT vehicle powertrain is built up, the dynamic characteristics of each phase of shifting process are analyzed, and a control strategy in which torque and speed of the engine and electric machine are coordinatively controlled to achieve AMT shifting control for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV without clutch is proposed. In the shifting process, the engine and electric machine are well controlled, and the shift jerk and power interruption and restoration time are reduced. Simulation and real car test results show that the proposed control strategy can more efficiently improve the shift quality for PHEVs equipped with AMTs.

  13. Deep Borehole Field Test Research Activities at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsang, Chin-Fu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kneafsey, Timothy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borglin, Sharon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piceno, Yvette [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Andersen, Gary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nakagawa, Seiji [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nihei, Kurt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reagan, Matthew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition’s (UFD) Deep Borehole Field Test is to drill two 5 km large-diameter boreholes: a characterization borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 8.5 inches and a field test borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 17 inches. These boreholes will be used to demonstrate the ability to drill such holes in crystalline rocks, effectively characterize the bedrock repository system using geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological techniques, and emplace and retrieve test waste packages. These studies will be used to test the deep borehole disposal concept, which requires a hydrologically isolated environment characterized by low permeability, stable fluid density, reducing fluid chemistry conditions, and an effective borehole seal. During FY16, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists conducted a number of research studies to support the UFD Deep Borehole Field Test effort. This work included providing supporting data for the Los Alamos National Laboratory geologic framework model for the proposed deep borehole site, conducting an analog study using an extensive suite of geoscience data and samples from a deep (2.5 km) research borehole in Sweden, conducting laboratory experiments and coupled process modeling related to borehole seals, and developing a suite of potential techniques that could be applied to the characterization and monitoring of the deep borehole environment. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  14. Deep Borehole Field Test Research Activities at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, Patrick; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Kneafsey, Timothy; Borglin, Sharon; Piceno, Yvette; Andersen, Gary; Nakagawa, Seiji; Nihei, Kurt; Rutqvist, Jonny; Doughty, Christine; Reagan, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition's (UFD) Deep Borehole Field Test is to drill two 5 km large-diameter boreholes: a characterization borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 8.5 inches and a field test borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 17 inches. These boreholes will be used to demonstrate the ability to drill such holes in crystalline rocks, effectively characterize the bedrock repository system using geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological techniques, and emplace and retrieve test waste packages. These studies will be used to test the deep borehole disposal concept, which requires a hydrologically isolated environment characterized by low permeability, stable fluid density, reducing fluid chemistry conditions, and an effective borehole seal. During FY16, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists conducted a number of research studies to support the UFD Deep Borehole Field Test effort. This work included providing supporting data for the Los Alamos National Laboratory geologic framework model for the proposed deep borehole site, conducting an analog study using an extensive suite of geoscience data and samples from a deep (2.5 km) research borehole in Sweden, conducting laboratory experiments and coupled process modeling related to borehole seals, and developing a suite of potential techniques that could be applied to the characterization and monitoring of the deep borehole environment. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  15. R20 Programme: Field testing of grouting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranta-Korpi, R.; Karttunen, P.; Sievaenen, U.

    2008-02-01

    In the year 2004 Finnish nuclear waste management organisation Posiva Oy started to construct an underground rock characterisation facility in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, Western Finland. The ONKALO was planned to be a final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. This facility is going to be finished in the end of the year 2010. In ONKALO it is important to grout the water conductive structures to minimize the leakage of the inflowing groundwater in order to keep the geohydrogical environment unchanged and the repository conditions safe. Before the construction began the development of the grouts suitable for this demanding environment was started. Especially pH, the penetration ability and rheology have been the matter of interest. One target for the grout has been that the pH is relatively low. These grouts have different properties than the normal grouts. Several laboratory and field tests have been done for low pH grouts. The suitable recipies are studied in laboratory and the properties are verified in field. This work concerns the field testing of several low pH grout recipies. The different W/DM -ratios and SPL contents were studied. Besides the customary test methods, two new measurement methods were taken into use: the sand column test for measuring the penetration ability and the stick test for determining the plastic viscosity and yield value. The relationships between different properties, the properties as a function of the time and the effect of the (orig.)

  16. Initial field testing definition of subsurface sealing and backfilling tests in unsaturated tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Case, J.B.; Tyburski, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    This report contains an initial definition of the field tests proposed for the Yucca Mountain Project repository sealing program. The tests are intended to resolve various performance and emplacement concerns. Examples of concerns to be addressed include achieving selected hydrologic and structural requirements for seals, removing portions of the shaft liner, excavating keyways, emplacing cementitious and earthen seals, reducing the impact of fines on the hydraulic conductivity of fractures, efficient grouting of fracture zones, sealing of exploratory boreholes, and controlling the flow of water by using engineered designs. Ten discrete tests are proposed to address these and other concerns. These tests are divided into two groups: Seal component tests and performance confirmation tests. The seal component tests are thorough small-scale in situ tests, the intermediate-scale borehole seal tests, the fracture grouting tests, the surface backfill tests, and the grouted rock mass tests. The seal system tests are the seepage control tests, the backfill tests, the bulkhead test in the Calico Hills unit, the large-scale shaft seal and shaft fill tests, and the remote borehole sealing tests. The tests are proposed to be performed in six discrete areas, including welded and non-welded environments, primarily located outside the potential repository area. The final selection of sealing tests will depend on the nature of the geologic and hydrologic conditions encountered during the development of the Exploratory Studies Facility and detailed numerical analyses. Tests are likely to be performed both before and after License Application

  17. Acceptance test report: Field test of mixer pump for 241-AN-107 caustic addition project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    The field acceptance test of a 75 HP mixer pump (Hazleton serial number N-20801) installed in Tank 241-AN-107 was conducted from October 1995 thru February 1996. The objectives defined in the acceptance test were successfully met, with two exceptions recorded. The acceptance test encompassed field verification of mixer pump turntable rotation set-up and operation, verification that the pump instrumentation functions within established limits, facilitation of baseline data collection from the mixer pump mounted ultrasonic instrumentation, verification of mixer pump water flush system operation and validation of a procedure for its operation, and several brief test runs (bump) of the mixer pump

  18. Optimization of batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Jeffrey Robb

    This thesis presents a method to quickly determine the optimal battery for an electric vehicle given a set of vehicle characteristics and desired performance metrics. The model is based on four independent design variables: cell count, cell capacity, state-of-charge window, and battery chemistry. Performance is measured in seven categories: cost, all-electric range, maximum speed, acceleration, battery lifetime, lifetime greenhouse gas emissions, and charging time. The performance of each battery is weighted according to a user-defined objective function to determine its overall fitness. The model is informed by a series of battery tests performed on scaled-down battery samples. Seven battery chemistries were tested for capacity at different discharge rates, maximum output power at different charge levels, and performance in a real-world automotive duty cycle. The results of these tests enable a prediction of the performance of the battery in an automobile. Testing was performed at both room temperature and low temperature to investigate the effects of battery temperature on operation. The testing highlighted differences in behavior between lithium, nickel, and lead based batteries. Battery performance decreased with temperature across all samples with the largest effect on nickel-based chemistries. Output power also decreased with lead acid batteries being the least affected by temperature. Lithium-ion batteries were found to be highly efficient (>95%) under a vehicular duty cycle; nickel and lead batteries have greater losses. Low temperatures hindered battery performance and resulted in accelerated failure in several samples. Lead acid, lead tin, and lithium nickel alloy batteries were unable to complete the low temperature testing regime without losing significant capacity and power capability. This is a concern for their applicability in electric vehicles intended for cold climates which have to maintain battery temperature during long periods of inactivity

  19. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: Economic efficiency and market chances of different business models; Plug-in Hybridfahrzeuge: Wirtschaftlichkeit und Marktchancen verschiedener Geschaeftsmodelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackbarth, Andre; Schuermann, Gregor [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftswissenschaften insb. Energieoekonomik,; RWTH Aachen (DE). E.ON Energy Research Center, Institut fuer Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN); Madlener, Reinhard [Technische Hochschule Aachen (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen (VKA)

    2009-07-15

    The German traffic sector is strongly dependent on fossil fuels. Electric vehicles could reduce this dependence and also help to keep CO2 emissions low. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) are a technology option that may facilitate the transition to electromobility. The authors investigate the economic efficiencies and amortisation periods of PHEV on the basis of two different business models, i.e. passenger cars (compact and medium-sized) and light vans. It is shown that under the assumed boundary conditions PHEV are not economically efficient at present. The influence of various parameters on economic efficiency and amortisation period is investigated by means of a sensitivity analysis. (orig.)

  20. Large Field Photogrammetry Techniques in Aircraft and Spacecraft Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.

    2010-01-01

    The Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR) at NASA Langley Research Center is a 240 ft. high A-frame structure which is used for full-scale crash testing of aircraft and rotorcraft vehicles. Because the LandIR provides a unique capability to introduce impact velocities in the forward and vertical directions, it is also serving as the facility for landing tests on full-scale and sub-scale Orion spacecraft mass simulators. Recently, a three-dimensional photogrammetry system was acquired to assist with the gathering of vehicle flight data before, throughout and after the impact. This data provides the basis for the post-test analysis and data reduction. Experimental setups for pendulum swing tests on vehicles having both forward and vertical velocities can extend to 50 x 50 x 50 foot cubes, while weather, vehicle geometry, and other constraints make each experimental setup unique to each test. This paper will discuss the specific calibration techniques for large fields of views, camera and lens selection, data processing, as well as best practice techniques learned from using the large field of view photogrammetry on a multitude of crash and landing test scenarios unique to the LandIR.

  1. Pretest Calculations of Temperature Changes for Field Thermal Conductivity Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N.S. Brodsky

    2002-01-01

    A large volume fraction of the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain may reside in the Tptpll (Tertiary, Paintbrush Group, Topopah Spring Tuff, crystal poor, lower lithophysal) lithostratigraphic unit. This unit is characterized by voids, or lithophysae, which range in size from centimeters to meters. A series of thermal conductivity field tests are planned in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. The objective of the pretest calculation described in this document is to predict changes in temperatures in the surrounding rock for these tests for a given heater power and a set of thermal transport properties. The calculation can be extended, as described in this document, to obtain thermal conductivity, thermal capacitance (density x heat capacity, J · m -3 · K -1 ), and thermal diffusivity from the field data. The work has been conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Testing and Monitoring'' (BSC 2001). One of the outcomes of this analysis is to determine the initial output of the heater. This heater output must be sufficiently high that it will provide results in a reasonably short period of time (within several weeks or a month) and be sufficiently high that the heat increase is detectable by the instruments employed in the test. The test will be conducted in stages and heater output will be step increased as the test progresses. If the initial temperature is set too high, the experiment will not have as many steps and thus fewer thermal conductivity data points will result

  2. [New visual field testing possibilities (a preliminary report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erichev, V P; Ermolaev, A P; Antonov, A A; Grigoryan, G L; Kosova, D V

    2018-01-01

    There are currently no portable mobile perimeters that allow visual field testing outside ophthalmologist's examination rooms. To develop a mobile perimetry technique based on use of a virtual reality headset (VR). The study involved 26 patients (30 eyes) with II-III stage primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) with compensated IOP. Perimetry was performed for each patient twice - on Humphrey analyzer (test 30-2, 76 points) and employing similar strategy on a perimeter integrated into VR headset (Total Vision, Russia). Visual field testing was performed with an interval from 1 hour to 3 days. The results were comparatively analyzed. Patients tolerated the examination well. Comparative analysis of preliminary perimetry results obtained with both methods showed high degree of identity, so the results were concluded to be comparable. By visually isolating the wearer, VR headset achieves elimination of distractions and stable light conditions for visual field testing. The headset-perimeter is compact, mobile, easily transportable, can be used in the work of visiting medical teams and for examination at home.

  3. Field testing at the Climax Stock on the Nevada Test Site: spent fuel test and radionuclide migration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, L.B.; Isherwood, D.J.; Patrick, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Two field tests in the Climax Stock are being conducted. The Climax Stock, a granitic instrusive, has been administratively excluded from consideration as a full-scale repository site. However, it provides a readily available facility for field testing with high-level radioactive materials at a depth (420 m) approaching that of a repository. The major test activity in the 1980 fiscal year has been initiation of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C). This test, which was authorized in June 1978, is designed to evaluate the generic feasibility of geologic storage and retrievability of commercial power reactor spent fuel assemblies in a granitic medium. In addition, the test is configured and instrumented to provide thermal and thermomechanical response data that will be relevant to the design of a repository in hard crystalline rock. The other field activity in the Climax Stock is a radionuclide migration test. It combines a series of field and laboratory migration experiments with the use of existing hydrologic models for pretest predictions and data interpretation. Goals of this project are to develop: (1) field measurement techniques for radionuclide migration studies in a hydrologic regime where the controlling mechanism is fracture permeability; (2) field test data on radionuclide migration; and (3) a comparison of laboratory- and field-measured retardation factors. This radionuclide migration test, which was authorized in the middle of the 1980 fiscal year, is in the preliminary design phase. The detailed program plan was prepared and subjected to formal peer review in August. In September/October researchers conducted preliminary flow tests with water in selected near-vertical fractures intersected by small horizontal boreholes. These tests were needed to establish the range of pressures, flow rates, and other operating parameters to be used in conducting the nuclide migration tests. 21 references, 14 figures, 1 table

  4. Design approaches for access plugs in a basalt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, J.; Allirot, D.; O'Connor, K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes research, laboratory testing, and analytical approaches taken toward the development of designs for sealing boreholes, shafts, and tunnels penetrating from ground surface to a deep, mined nuclear waste repository in basalt. A material selection process leading to identification of preferred sealing materials is discussed, and the laboratory testing program to define the geochemical and geotechnical performance of these materials is described. Analysis of the environmental conditions in the Columbia Plateau basalt flows leads to identification of tentative design criteria for plug systems. These design criteria include performance of the plug as a hydraulic barrier and as a radionuclide barrier. An important problem for effective performance of a plug system as a hydraulic barrier is shown to be a potentially disturbed zone surrounding the excavation in the stressed and jointed host rock. An idealized one-dimensional numerical model is described for analyzing the performance of the plug as a barrier to radionuclide transport. The preliminary analyses led to the conclusion that the composition and dimensions of practical candidate plugs can satisfy both hydraulic and radionuclide barrier criteria. Examples of candidate designs are shown for boreholes, shafts, and tunnels. 9 references, 6 figures, 6 tables

  5. SMART wind turbine rotor. Design and field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Jonathan Charles; Resor, Brian Ray; Paquette, Joshua A.; White, Jonathan Randall

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Energy Technologies department at Sandia National Laboratories has developed and field tested a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of rotor aerodynamics. The SMART Rotor project was funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was conducted to demonstrate active rotor control and evaluate simulation tools available for active control research. This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This report begins with an overview of active control research at Sandia and the objectives of this project. The SMART blade, based on the DOE / SNL 9-meter CX-100 blade design, is then documented including all modifications necessary to integrate the trailing edge flaps, sensors incorporated into the system, and the fabrication processes that were utilized. Finally the test site and test campaign are described.

  6. Conducting field studies for testing pesticide leaching models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles N.; Parrish, Rudolph S.; Brown, David S.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of predictive models are being applied to evaluate the transport and transformation of pesticides in the environment. These include well known models such as the Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), the Risk of Unsaturated-Saturated Transport and Transformation Interactions for Chemical Concentrations Model (RUSTIC) and the Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems Model (GLEAMS). The potentially large impacts of using these models as tools for developing pesticide management strategies and regulatory decisions necessitates development of sound model validation protocols. This paper offers guidance on many of the theoretical and practical problems encountered in the design and implementation of field-scale model validation studies. Recommendations are provided for site selection and characterization, test compound selection, data needs, measurement techniques, statistical design considerations and sampling techniques. A strategy is provided for quantitatively testing models using field measurements.

  7. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WALKER, PAMELA K.; RODACY, PHILIP J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue

  8. Field test of wake steering at an offshore wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fleming

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a field test of wake-steering control is presented. The field test is the result of a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL and Envision Energy, a smart energy management company and turbine manufacturer. In the campaign, an array of turbines within an operating commercial offshore wind farm in China have the normal yaw controller modified to implement wake steering according to a yaw control strategy. The strategy was designed using NREL wind farm models, including a computational fluid dynamics model, Simulator fOr Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA, for understanding wake dynamics and an engineering model, FLOw Redirection and Induction in Steady State (FLORIS, for yaw control optimization. Results indicate that, within the certainty afforded by the data, the wake-steering controller was successful in increasing power capture, by amounts similar to those predicted from the models.

  9. Do Persistence and Passion Matter: Evidence from the Educational Testing Service Major Field Test in Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcham, David; Nigro, Peter; Roberto, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The authors examined the determinants of success on the Educational Testing Service Major Field Test in Business. The authors find that gender, SAT performance, and concentration are significant predictors of performance. Additionally, they derive proxies for student passion and persistence, and find that the greater the student's passion for…

  10. Scientific investigation plan for initial engineered barrier system field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunan Lin.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this Scientific Investigation Plan (SIP) is to describe tests known as Initial Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (IEBSFT) and identified by Work Breakdown Structure as WBS 1.2.2.2.4. The IEBSFT are precursors to the Engineered Barrier System Field Test (EBSFT), WBS 1.2.2.2.4, to be conducted in the Exploratory Study Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. The EBSFT and IEBSFT are designed to provide information on the interaction between waste packages (simulated by heated containers) and the surrounding rock mass, its vadose water, and infiltrated water. Heater assemblies will be installed in drifts or boreholes openings and heated to measure moisture movement during heat-up and subsequent cool-down of the rock mass. In some of the tests, infiltration of water into the heated rock mass will be studied. Throughout the heating and cooling cycle, instruments installed in the rock will monitor such parameters as temperature, moisture content, concentration of some chemical species, and stress and strain. Rock permeability measurements, rock and fluid (water and gas) sampling, and fracture pattern measurements will also be made before and after the test

  11. Field Test of Driven Pile Group under Lateral Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorska, Karolina; Rybak, Jaroslaw; Wyjadlowski, Marek

    2017-12-01

    All the geotechnical works need to be tested because the diversity of soil parameters is much higher than in other fields of construction. Horizontal load tests are necessary to determine the lateral capacity of driven piles subject to lateral load. Various load tests were carried out altogether on the test field in Kutno (Poland). While selecting the piles for load tests, different load combinations were taken into account. The piles with diverse length were chosen, on the basis of the previous tests of their length and integrity. The subsoil around the piles consisted of mineral soils: clays and medium compacted sands with the density index ID>0.50. The pile heads were free. The points of support of the “base” to which the dial gauges (displacement sensors) were fastened were located at the distance of 0.7 m from the side surface of the pile loaded laterally. In order to assure the independence of measurement, additional control (verifying) geodetic survey of the displacement of the piles subject to the load tests was carried out (by means of the alignment method). The trial load was imposed in stages by means of a hydraulic jack. The oil pressure in the actuator was corrected by means of a manual pump in order to ensure the constant value of the load in the on-going process of the displacement of the pile under test. On the basis of the obtained results it is possible to verify the numerical simulations of the behaviour of piles loaded by a lateral force.

  12. On-site cell field test support program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniunas, J. W.; Merten, G. P.

    1982-09-01

    Utility sites for data monitoring were reviewed and selected. Each of these sites will be instrumented and its energy requirements monitored and analyzed for one year prior to the selection of 40 Kilowatt fuel cell field test sites. Analyses in support of the selection of sites for instrumentation shows that many building sectors offered considerable market potential. These sectors include nursing home, health club, restaurant, industrial, hotel/motel and apartment.

  13. Field Test of Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus Polyphemus) Population Estimation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Web (WWW) at URL: http://www.cecer.army.mil ERDC/CERL TR-08-7 4 2 Field Tests The gopher tortoise is a species of conservation concern in the... ncv D ⎛ ⎞⎛ ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ (4) where: L = estimate of line length to be sampled b = dispersion parameter 2ˆ( )tcv D = desired coefficient of

  14. The virtual fields method applied to spalling tests on concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forquin P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For one decade spalling techniques based on the use of a metallic Hopkinson bar put in contact with a concrete sample have been widely employed to characterize the dynamic tensile strength of concrete at strain-rates ranging from a few tens to two hundreds of s−1. However, the processing method mainly based on the use of the velocity profile measured on the rear free surface of the sample (Novikov formula remains quite basic and an identification of the whole softening behaviour of the concrete is out of reach. In the present paper a new processing method is proposed based on the use of the Virtual Fields Method (VFM. First, a digital high speed camera is used to record the pictures of a grid glued on the specimen. Next, full-field measurements are used to obtain the axial displacement field at the surface of the specimen. Finally, a specific virtual field has been defined in the VFM equation to use the acceleration map as an alternative ‘load cell’. This method applied to three spalling tests allowed to identify Young’s modulus during the test. It was shown that this modulus is constant during the initial compressive part of the test and decreases in the tensile part when micro-damage exists. It was also shown that in such a simple inertial test, it was possible to reconstruct average axial stress profiles using only the acceleration data. Then, it was possible to construct local stress-strain curves and derive a tensile strength value.

  15. The forced flow high field test facility SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, I.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.

    1984-01-01

    The construction of the 8 Tesla, 1 m bore Test Facility SULTAN - I, a common action of ENEA (I-Frascati), ECN (NL-Petten) and SIN (CH-Villigen), is completed. Results on assembly, cooldown and the first operation of the whole system are presented. The SULTAN facility provides a wide range of capability of parameter variations (field, current, cooling) for the investigation of steady state performance and stability of technical superconductors unders nominal and limiting conditions

  16. SU-F-J-94: Development of a Plug-in Based Image Analysis Tool for Integration Into Treatment Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, D; Anderson, C; Mayo, C; El Naqa, I; Ten Haken, R; Cao, Y; Balter, J; Matuszak, M [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To extend the functionality of a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) to support (i) direct use of quantitative image-based metrics within treatment plan optimization and (ii) evaluation of dose-functional volume relationships to assist in functional image adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: A script was written that interfaces with a commercial TPS via an Application Programming Interface (API). The script executes a program that performs dose-functional volume analyses. Written in C#, the script reads the dose grid and correlates it with image data on a voxel-by-voxel basis through API extensions that can access registration transforms. A user interface was designed through WinForms to input parameters and display results. To test the performance of this program, image- and dose-based metrics computed from perfusion SPECT images aligned to the treatment planning CT were generated, validated, and compared. Results: The integration of image analysis information was successfully implemented as a plug-in to a commercial TPS. Perfusion SPECT images were used to validate the calculation and display of image-based metrics as well as dose-intensity metrics and histograms for defined structures on the treatment planning CT. Various biological dose correction models, custom image-based metrics, dose-intensity computations, and dose-intensity histograms were applied to analyze the image-dose profile. Conclusion: It is possible to add image analysis features to commercial TPSs through custom scripting applications. A tool was developed to enable the evaluation of image-intensity-based metrics in the context of functional targeting and avoidance. In addition to providing dose-intensity metrics and histograms that can be easily extracted from a plan database and correlated with outcomes, the system can also be extended to a plug-in optimization system, which can directly use the computed metrics for optimization of post-treatment tumor or normal tissue response

  17. Driving-behavior-aware stochastic model predictive control for plug-in hybrid electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liang; You, Sixiong; Yang, Chao; Yan, Bingjie; Song, Jian; Chen, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The novel approximated global optimal energy management strategy has been proposed for hybrid powertrains. • Eight typical driving behaviors have been classified with K-means to deal with the multiplicative traffic conditions. • The stochastic driver models of different driving behaviors were established based on the Markov chains. • ECMS was used to modify the SMPC-based energy management strategy to improve its fuel economy. • The approximated global optimal energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric buses has been verified and analyzed. - Abstract: Driving cycles of a city bus is statistically characterized by some repetitive features, which makes the predictive energy management strategy very desirable to obtain approximate optimal fuel economy of a plug-in hybrid electric bus. But dealing with the complicated traffic conditions and finding an approximated global optimal strategy which is applicable to the plug-in hybrid electric bus still remains a challenging technique. To solve this problem, a novel driving-behavior-aware modified stochastic model predictive control method is proposed for the plug-in hybrid electric bus. Firstly, the K-means is employed to classify driving behaviors, and the driver models based on Markov chains is obtained under different kinds of driving behaviors. While the obtained driver behaviors are regarded as stochastic disturbance inputs, the local minimum fuel consumption might be obtained with a traditional stochastic model predictive control at each step, taking tracking the reference battery state of charge trajectory into consideration in the finite predictive horizons. However, this technique is still accompanied by some working points with reduced/worsened fuel economy. Thus, the stochastic model predictive control is modified with the equivalent consumption minimization strategy to eliminate these undesirable working points. The results in real-world city bus routines show that the

  18. Dispersant field testing : a review of procedures and considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of a dispersant is defined by the amount of oil that the dispersant puts into the water column compared to the amount of oil that was initially spilled. Effectiveness is generally determined visually in plumes of dispersed oil that are visible from ships and aircraft. This paper describes 25 specific issues and technical concerns regarding field testing of dispersant effectiveness. Recent field tests were reviewed and literature that relates to testing procedures was sited. The 25 factors that are important for the appropriate outcome of dispersant field experiments include: mass balance; proper controls; analytical method; differential plume movement; time lag and length of time followed; mathematics of calculation and integration; lower and upper limits of analytical methods; use of remote sensing; thickness measurement; behaviour of oil with surfactant content; surfactant stripping; tracking surface oil and dispersed oil; recovering surface oil; visibility of oil from the surface; background levels of hydrocarbons; fluorescence of dispersant; herding; emulsion breaking; application success; heterogeneity of slick and plume; deposition measurements; true analytical standards; effect of wind on dispersant and slick; dispersant run-off; and weathering of the oil. It was concluded that the most important factors are the ability to determine mass balance, use proper controls, analytical methods and to avoid procedures that give incorrect results. 34 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  19. Fuel consumption of business passenger cars and plug-in vehicles; Praktijkverbruik van zakelijke personenauto's en plug-in voertuigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2013-05-15

    TNO investigates the use and fuel consumption of private cars since 2008. In this report the results for 2012 are presented. In part 1 the most recent results of statistical analyses of fuel card data, which are used by business-type drivers of passenger cars, are presented. The second part contains the results of an analysis of available fuel consumption data of so-called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and range-extender electric vehicles that have entered the market in 2012 [Dutch] TNO doet al sinds 2008 onderzoek naar het praktijkverbruik van personenauto's. In dit rapport worden de resultaten over 2012 weergegeven. Het eerste deel presenteert de meest recente resultaten van statistische analyses van tankpasdata van door zakelijke rijders gebruikte personenvoertuigen. Het tweede deel bevat de resultaten van een analyse van beschikbare verbruiksgegevens van zogenoemde 'plug-in hybrides' en 'range-extender' elektrische voertuigen die in 2012 op de markt zijn gekomen.

  20. Grimsel Test Site: modelling radionuclide migration field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heer, W.; Hadermann, J.

    1994-09-01

    In the migration field experiments at Nagra's Grimsel Test Site, the processes of nuclide transport through a well defined fractured shear-zone in crystalline rock are being investigated. For these experiments, model calculations have been performed to obtain indications on validity and limitation of the model applied and the data deduced under field conditions. The model consists of a hydrological part, where the dipole flow fields of the experiments are determined, and a nuclide transport part, where the flow field driven nuclide propagation through the shear-zone is calculated. In addition to the description of the model, analytical expressions are given to guide the interpretation of experimental results. From the analysis of experimental breakthrough curves for conservative uranine, weakly sorbing sodium and more stronger sorbing strontium tracers, the following main results can be derived: i) The model is able to represent the breakthrough curves of the migration field experiments to a high degree of accuracy, ii) The process of matrix diffusion is manifest through the tails of the breakthrough curves decreasing with time as t -3/2 and through the special shape of the tail ends, both confirmed by the experiments, iii) For nuclide sorbing rapidly, not too strongly, linearly, and exhibiting a reversible cation exchange process on fault gouge, the laboratory sorption coefficient can reasonably well be extrapolated to field conditions. Adequate care in selecting and preparing the rock samples is, of course, a necessary requirement. Using the parameters determined in the previous analysis, predictions are made for experiments in a smaller an faster flow field. For conservative uranine and weakly sorbing sodium, the agreement of predicted and measured breakthrough curves is good, for the more stronger sorbing strontium reasonable, confirming that the model describes the main nuclide transport processes adequately. (author) figs., tabs., 29 refs

  1. Preparation of the ITER Poloidal Field Conductor Insert (PFCI) test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanino, R.; Egorov, S.; Kim, K.; Martovetsky, N.; Nunoya, Y.; Okuno, K.; Salpietro, E.; Sborchia, C.; Takahashi, Y.; Weng, P.; Bangasco, M.; Savoldi Richard, L.; Polak, M.; Formisano, A.; Zapretilina, E.; Shikov, A.; Vedernikov, G.; Ciazynski, D.; Zani, L.; Muzzi, L.; Ricci, M.; Deela Corte, A.; Sugimoto, M.; Hamada, K.; Portone, A.; Hurd, F.; Mitchell, N.; Nijhuis, A.; Ilyin, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The Poloidal Field Conductor Insert (PFCI) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been designed in Europe and is being manufactured at Tesla Engineering, UK, in the frame of a Task Agreement with the ITER International Team. Completion of the PFCI is expected at the beginning of 2005. Then, the coil shall be shipped to JAERI Naka, Japan, and inserted into the bore of the ITER Central Solenoid Model Coil, where it should be tested in 2005 to 2006. The PFCI consists of a NbTi dual-channel conductor, almost identical to the ITER PF1 and PF6 design, about 45 m long, with a 50 mm thick square stainless steel jacket, wound in a single-layer solenoid. It should carry up to 50 kA in a field of about 6 T, and it will be cooled by supercritical He at around 4.5 K and 0.6 MPa. An intermediate joint, representative of the ITER PF joints and located at relatively high field, will be an important new item in the test configuration with respect to the previous ITER Insert Coils. The PFCI will be fully instrumented with inductive and resistive heaters, as well as with voltage taps, Hall probes, pick-up coils, temperature sensors, pressure taps, strain and displacement sensors. The test program shall be aimed at DC and pulsed performance assessment of conductor and intermediate joint, AC loss measurement, stability and quench propagation, thermalhydraulic characterization. Here we give an overview of the preparatory work towards the test, including a review of the coil manufacturing and of the available instrumentation, a discussion of the most likely test program items, and a presentation of the supporting modeling and characterization work performed so far. (authors)

  2. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  3. Optimal Operation of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    in the power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the integration of plug-in electric vehicles in the power systems with high wind power penetrations is proposed and discussed. Optimal operation strategies of PEV in the spot market are proposed in order to decrease the energy cost for PEV......The Danish power system has a large penetration of wind power. The wind fluctuation causes a high variation in the power generation, which must be balanced by other sources. The battery storage based Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) may be a possible solution to balance the wind power variations...... owners. Furthermore, the application of battery storage based aggregated PEV is analyzed as a regulation services provider in the power system with high wind power penetrations. The western Danish power system where the total share of annual wind power production is more than 27% of the electrical energy...

  4. A plug-in to Eclipse for VHDL source codes: functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niton, B.; Poźniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    The paper presents an original application, written by authors, which supports writing and edition of source codes in VHDL language. It is a step towards fully automatic, augmented code writing for photonic and electronic systems, also systems based on FPGA and/or DSP processors. An implementation is described, based on VEditor. VEditor is a free license program. Thus, the work presented in this paper supplements and extends this free license. The introduction characterizes shortly available tools on the market which serve for aiding the design processes of electronic systems in VHDL. Particular attention was put on plug-ins to the Eclipse environment and Emacs program. There are presented detailed properties of the written plug-in such as: programming extension conception, and the results of the activities of formatter, re-factorizer, code hider, and other new additions to the VEditor program.

  5. Development of Analytical Plug-ins for ENSITE: Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    careful re- search. Although the mathematical basis for calculating slope from elevation data is very well established, context and details for the...Can the code work on multiple computers ? • Does the code work when appended to other existing analyses in the same language/environment? Once the...TERMS Military bases—Location, Data curation, Geospatial data, Computer programs, Plug-ins ( Computer programs), Military planning 16. SECURITY

  6. Making distributed ALICE analysis simple using the GRID plug-in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheata, A; Gheata, M

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an interface within the ALICE analysis framework that allows transparent usage of the experiment's distributed resources. This analysis plug-in makes it possible to configure back-end specific parameters from a single interface and to run with no change the same custom user analysis in many computing environments, from local workstations to PROOF clusters or GRID resources. The tool is used now extensively in the ALICE collaboration for both end-user analysis and large scale productions.

  7. Environmental Benefits of Using Wind Generation to Power Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hajian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As alternatives to conventional vehicles, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs running off electricity stored in batteries could decrease oil consumption and reduce carbon emissions. By using electricity derived from clean energy sources, even greater environmental benefits are obtainable. This study examines the potential benefits arising from the widespread adoption of PHEVs in light of Alberta’s growing interest in wind power. It also investigates PHEVs’ capacity to mitigate natural fluctuations in wind power generation.

  8. Market-based Demand Response via Residential Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Rassaei, Farshad; Soh, Wee-Seng; Chua, Kee-Chaing

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility in power demand, diverse usage patterns and storage capability of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) grow the elasticity of residential electricity demand remarkably. This elasticity can be utilized to form the daily aggregated demand profile and/or alter instantaneous demand of a system wherein a large number of residential PEVs share one electricity retailer or an aggregator. In this paper, we propose a demand response (DR) technique to manage vehicle-to-grid (V2G) enabled PEVs' e...

  9. Torque Coordination Control during Braking Mode Switch for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yang; Chao Wang; Quanrang Zhang; Xiaolong He

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid vehicles usually have several braking systems, and braking mode switches are significant events during braking. It is difficult to coordinate torque fluctuations caused by mode switches because the dynamic characteristics of braking systems are different. In this study, a new type of plug-in hybrid vehicle is taken as the research object, and braking mode switches are divided into two types. The control strategy of type one is achieved by controlling the change rates of clutch hold-dow...

  10. Assessing the Potential of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Pourmousavi, Seyyed Ali; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    A multi-objective optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to increase the penetration level of renewable energy sources (RESs) in distribution networks by intelligent management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) storage. The proposed algorithm is defined to manage the reverse power flow ...... demonstrate the capability of the algorithm in increasing solar power penetration in the grid up to 50%, depending on the PEV penetration level and the freedom of the system operator in managing the available PEV storage....

  11. Hydrate plugs in subsea pipelines and non-invasive methodology for localization

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim, Sannes

    2013-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology With the growth in global energy demand and the lack of new shallow-water and onshore opportunities, there is growing emphasis on oil and gas production in deep-water environments. A particular challenge for flow assurance engineers is to ensure pipelines remain free from restrictions created during operation. Hydrate plugging, in particular is, one of the major flow assurance challenge, and as oil and gas production moves into harsh and challengin...

  12. Journey predictive energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmaraj Ram Manohar, Ravi Shankar

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) is widely seen as an interim solution for the decarbonisation of the transport sector. Within a PHEV, determining the required energy storage capacity of the battery remains one of the primary concerns for vehicle manufacturers and system integrators. This fact is particularly pertinent since the battery constitutes the largest contributor to vehicle mass. Furthermore, the financial cost associated with the procurement, d...

  13. Online forecasting of electrical load for distributed management of plug-in electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Basu , Kaustav; Ovalle , Andres; Guo , Baoling; Hably , Ahmad; Bacha , Seddik; Hajar , Khaled

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The paper aims at making online forecast of electrical load at the MV-LV transformer level. Optimal management of the Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) charging requires the forecast of the electrical load for future hours. The forecasting module needs to be online (i.e update and make forecast for the future hours, every hour). The inputs to the predictor are historical electrical and weather data. Various data driven machine learning algorithms are compared to derive t...

  14. Fabrication and testing of the Nb3Sn superconductor for High-Field Test Facility (HFTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, C.; Adam, E.; Gregory, E.; Marancik, W.; Sanger, P.; Scanlan, R.; Cornish, D.

    1979-01-01

    A 5000 A-12 T fully stable Nb 3 Sn superconductor has to be produced for the insert magnet of the high-field test facility being built at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. A process is described which permits the fabrication of long lengths of large fully transposed monolithic superconductors containing in excess of 100,000 filaments of Nb 3 Sn. Measurements of critical current as a function of magnetic field and longitudinal strain on prototype samples are reported

  15. Optimizing plug-in electric vehicle charging in interaction with a small office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momber, Ilan; Gomez, Tomas [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica (IIT), Madrid (Spain); Dallinger, David; Beer, Sebastian; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energy Policy and Energy Systems; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper considers the integration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in micro-grids. Extending a theoretical framework for mobile storage connection, the economic analysis here turns to the interactions of commuters and their driving behavior with office buildings. An illustrative example for a real office building is reported. The chosen system includes solar thermal, photovoltaic, combined heat and power generation as well as an array of plug-in electric vehicles with a combined aggregated capacity of 864 kWh. With the benefit-sharing mechanism proposed here and idealized circumstances, estimated cost savings of 5% are possible. Different pricing schemes were applied which include flat rates, demand charges, as well as hourly variable final customer tariffs and their effects on the operation of intermittent storage were revealed and examined in detail. Because the plug-in electric vehicle connection coincides with peak heat and electricity loads as well as solar radiation, it is possible to shift energy demand as desired in order to realize cost savings. (orig.)

  16. Results from Field Testing the RIMFAX GPR on Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamran, S. E.; Amundsen, H. E. F.; Berger, T.; Carter, L. M.; Dypvik, H.; Ghent, R. R.; Kohler, J.; Mellon, M. T.; Nunes, D. C.; Paige, D. A.; Plettemeier, D.; Russell, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Radar Imager for Mars' Subsurface Experiment - RIMFAX is a Ground Penetrating Radar being developed for NASÁs MARS 2020 rover mission. The principal goals of the RIMFAX investigation are to image subsurface structures, provide context for sample sites, derive information regarding subsurface composition, and search for ice or brines. In meeting these goals, RIMFAX will provide a view of the stratigraphic section and a window into the geological and environmental history of Mars. To verify the design an Engineering Model (EM) of the radar was tested in the field in the spring 2017. Different sounding modes on the EM were tested in different types of subsurface geology on Svalbard. Deep soundings were performed on polythermal glaciers down to a couple of hundred meters. Shallow soundings were used to map a ground water table in the firn area of a glacier. A combination of deep and shallow soundings was used to image buried ice under a sedimentary layer of a couple of meters. Subsurface sedimentary layers were imaged down to more than 20 meters in sand stone permafrost. This presentation will give an overview of the RIMFAX investigation, describe the development of the radar system, and show results from field tests of the radar.

  17. TEST OF AN ANIMAL DRAWN FIELD IMPLEMENT CART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Spugnoli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The field performance of a horse-drawn hitch cart equipped with a PTO system powered by the two cart ground wheels have been investigated. For this purpose field tests on clay and turf soil, with varying ballast and PTO torque, have been carried out pulling the cart by a tractor. Preliminary tests were aimed at assessing the traction capability of horse breed. These tests showed that the mean draught force given by two of these horses was 173daN, average working speed was about 1m*s-1, resulting a mean draught power developed by each horse of about 0.86kW. The PTO cart system performance has shown that the torque has not exceeded 2.4daN*m, maximum draught or PTO power was 1.15kW, rotation speed just higher than 400min-1, with mean efficiency of about 50%. These values are consistent with horse performance and small haymaking, fertilizing, seeding and chemical application machine requirements.

  18. Leaching of saltstone: Laboratory and field testing and mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, M.W.; Langton, C.A.; Oblath, S.B.; Pepper, D.W.; Wallace, R.M.; Wilhite, E.L.; Yau, W.W.F.

    1987-01-01

    A low-level alkaline salt solution will be a byproduct in the processing of high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This solution will be incorporated into a wasteform, saltstone, and disposed of in surface vaults. Laboratory and field leach testing and mathematical modeling have demonstrated the predictability of contaminant release from cement wasteforms. Saltstone disposal in surface vaults will meet the design objective, which is to meet drinking water standards in shallow groundwater at the disposal area boundary. Diffusion is the predominant mechanism for release of contaminants to the environment. Leach testing in unsaturated soil, at soil moisture levels above 1 wt %, has shown no difference in leach rate compared to leaching in distilled water. Field leach testing of three thirty-ton blocks of saltstone in lysimeters has been underway since January 1984. Mathematical models were applied to assess design features for saltstone disposal. One dimensional infinite-composite and semi-infinite analytical models were developed for assessing diffusion of nitrate from saltstone through a cement barrier. Numerical models, both finite element and finite difference, were validated by comparison of model predictions with the saltstone lysimeter results. Validated models were used to assess the long-term performance of the saltstone stored in surface vaults. The maximum concentrations of all contaminants released from saltstone to shallow groundwater are predicted to be below drinking water standards at the disposal area boundary. 5 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-08-05

    The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.

  20. Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, P.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.

    2016-01-01

    production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental......This paper describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power...... design and setup. All data collected as part of this field experiment will be archived and made available to the public via the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmosphere to Electrons Data Archive and Portal....

  1. Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.

  2. Spinning test particles in the field of a black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tod, K P; de Felice, F [Padua Univ. (Italy); Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia

    1976-08-11

    It is studied the motion of spinning test bodies in the gravitational field of a rotating black hole, confining the examination of the pole-dipole approximation and of the special case of motion in the equatorial plane with the spin vector perpendicular to it. The study also provides the locus of the turning points for the equatorial orbits and also the exact limits of validity of the pole-dipole approximation for any given set of particle parameters. The innermost stable circular orbits are studied in details, and it is found that opposite spinning accreting particles are separated by the gravitational field of the black hole and that the fraction of energy ''at infinity'' which can be extracted when the particle spin is opposite to that of the black hole can be as high as 100%.

  3. Field test of a post-closure radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, S.; Christy, C.E.; Heath, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE is conducting remedial actions at many sites contaminated with radioactive materials. After closure of these sites, long-term subsurface monitoring is typically required by law. This monitoring is generally labor intensive and expensive using conventional sampling and analysis techniques. The U.S. Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has contracted with Babcock and Wilcox to develop a Long-Term Post-Closure Radiation Monitoring System (LPRMS) to reduce these monitoring costs. A prototype LPRMS probe was built, and B ampersand W and FERMCO field tested this monitoring probe at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in the fall of 1994 with funding from the DOE's Office of Technology Development (EM-50) through METC. The system was used to measure soil and water with known uranium contamination levels, both in drums and in situ at depths up to 3 meters. For comparison purposes, measurements were also performed using a more conventional survey probe with a sodium iodide scintillator directly butt-coupled to detection electronics. This paper presents a description and the results of the field tests. The results were used to characterize the lower detection limits, precision and bias of the system, which allowed the DOE to judge the monitoring system's ability to meet its long-term post-closure radiation monitoring needs. Based on the test results, the monitoring system has been redesigned for fabrication and testing in a potential Phase III of this program. If the DOE feels that this system can meet its needs and chooses to continue into Phase III of this program, this redesigned full scale prototype system will be built and tested for a period of approximately a year. Such a system can be used at a variety of radioactively contaminated sites

  4. Field test and mathematical modeling of bioremediation of an oil-contaminated soil. Part 1: Field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.Y.; Xu, T.; Colapret, J.A.; Cawley, W.A.; Bonner, J.S.; Ernest, A.; Verramachaneni, P.B.

    1994-01-01

    A fire-wall area (about 270 ft x 310 ft) with the Bunker C oil contaminated soil was selected for the bioremediation field test. This fire-wall area was separated into 18 plots by dirt dikes to test 6 bioremediation methods with three tests of each method. The six treatment methods were: (a) aeration with basic nutrients and indigenous organisms (BNIO); (b) aeration with basic nutrients and inoculation from a refinery wastewater treatment facility (BNSIWT); (c) aeration with an oleophilic fertilizer and indigenous organisms (INIPOL); (d) aeration with basic nutrients and biosurfactant organisms (EPA Seal Beach consortia) (EPA); (e) aeration with proprietary nutrients and organisms (PRO); and (f) aeration only for active control (CONTROL). This field test was conducted for 91 days. In general the oil contents in 18 plots were reduced, but the results showed significant fluctuations. A statistical method was used to examine if the oil reductions of six methods were the results from the random error of sampling and sample analysis or biodegradation. The results of the statistical analysis showed that oil reduction was concluded from all but the plots of PRO. From the data analysis, it may be concluded that the oil reduction rate in these studies is controlled by oil transfer from soil into the aqueous solution. An example of calculation was used to illustrate this conclusion

  5. Test plan for FY-94 digface characterization field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josten, N.E.; Roybal, L.G.

    1994-08-01

    The digface characterization concept has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since fiscal year (FY) 1992 through the support of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program. A digface characterization system conducts continuous subsurface characterization simultaneously with retrieval of hazardous and radioactive waste from buried waste sites. The system deploys multiple sensors at the retrieval operation digface and collects data that provide a basis for detecting, locating, and classifying buried materials and hazardous conditions before they are disturbed by the retrieval equipment. This test plan describes ongoing efforts to test the digface characterization concept at the INEL's Cold Test Pit using a simplified prototype deployment apparatus and off-the-shelf sensors. FY-94 field experiments will explore problems in object detection and classification. Detection and classification of objects are fundamental to three of the four primary functions of digface characterization during overburden removal. This test plan establishes procedures for collecting and validating the digface characterization data sets. Analysis of these data will focus on testing and further developing analysis methods for object detection and classification during overburden removal

  6. Efficient field testing for load rating railroad bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jeffrey L.; Brett C., Commander

    1995-06-01

    As the condition of our infrastructure continues to deteriorate, and the loads carried by our bridges continue to increase, an ever growing number of railroad and highway bridges require load limits. With safety and transportation costs at both ends of the spectrum. the need for accurate load rating is paramount. This paper describes a method that has been developed for efficient load testing and evaluation of short- and medium-span bridges. Through the use of a specially-designed structural testing system and efficient load test procedures, a typical bridge can be instrumented and tested at 64 points in less than one working day and with minimum impact on rail traffic. Various techniques are available to evaluate structural properties and obtain a realistic model. With field data, a simple finite element model is 'calibrated' and its accuracy is verified. Appropriate design and rating loads are applied to the resulting model and stress predictions are made. This technique has been performed on numerous structures to address specific problems and to provide accurate load ratings. The merits and limitations of this approach are discussed in the context of actual examples of both rail and highway bridges that were tested and evaluated.

  7. Layout of the objects of underground nuclear tests at the Balapan test field of the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalov, V.E.; Gryaznov, O.V.

    2000-01-01

    Integrated research of practical and scientific interest is conducted at the Balapan test field of the Semipalatinsk test site. The lack of the reliable locations for features associated with nuclear testing causes considerable difficulties while carrying out the research. To fill this gap the authors present data available at the Institute of Geophysical Research of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. (author)

  8. Field Lysimeter Test Facility for protective barriers: Experimental plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, R.R.; Gee, G.W.; Downs, J.L.

    1987-12-01

    This document was first written in October 1986 and has been used to guide the design of the Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) and to promote discussions between research and engineering staff regarding the selection of barrier treatments for inclusion in the FLTF. The construction of the lysimeter facility was completed June 28, 1987. This document describes the facility, the treatments placed in each lysimeter, types of measurements made in each lysimeter, and a brief discussion of project activities related to quality assurance, safety, and funding requirements. The treatment description and figures have been updated to reflect the lysimeter facility as constructed. 12 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Pulsed mixed n, γ radiation fields for electronic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurdin, G.; Becret, C.; Jaureguy, J.C.; Vie, M.; Baboulet, J.P.; Lapeyre, P.; Ramisse, D.

    1994-01-01

    For combined n, γ TREE testing we have modified the CALIBAN Fast Burst Reactor Field with CdO/Epoxy converters to cover the range [10 11 -10 12 ] n.cm -2 (1 MeV Si), [10 7 - 10 8 ] cGy(Si).s -1 . Activation and fission σ φvector, 1 MeV(Si) fluences, neutron spectra, total exposures and dose rates were predicted with good agreement by n, γ photon transport codes. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. Parallelization of ultrasonic field simulations for non destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The Non Destructive Testing field increasingly uses simulation. It is used at every step of the whole control process of an industrial part, from speeding up control development to helping experts understand results. During this thesis, a fast ultrasonic field simulation tool dedicated to the computation of an ultrasonic field radiated by a phase array probe in an isotropic specimen has been developed. During this thesis, a simulation tool dedicated to the fast computation of an ultrasonic field radiated by a phased array probe in an isotropic specimen has been developed. Its performance enables an interactive usage. To benefit from the commonly available parallel architectures, a regular model (aimed at removing divergent branching) derived from the generic CIVA model has been developed. First, a reference implementation was developed to validate this model against CIVA results, and to analyze its performance behaviour before optimization. The resulting code has been optimized for three kinds of parallel architectures commonly available in workstations: general purpose processors (GPP), many-core co-processors (Intel MIC) and graphics processing units (nVidia GPU). On the GPP and the MIC, the algorithm was reorganized and implemented to benefit from both parallelism levels, multithreading and vector instructions. On the GPU, the multiple steps of field computing have been divided in multiple successive CUDA kernels. Moreover, libraries dedicated to each architecture were used to speedup Fast Fourier Transforms, Intel MKL on GPP and MIC and nVidia cuFFT on GPU. Performance and hardware adequation of the produced codes were thoroughly studied for each architecture. On multiple realistic control configurations, interactive performance was reached. Perspectives to address more complex configurations were drawn. Finally, the integration and the industrialization of this code in the commercial NDT platform CIVA is discussed. (author) [fr

  11. Field tests of 2- and 40-tube condensers at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R.W.; Domingo, N.

    1982-05-01

    Two water-cooled isobutane condensers, one with 2 tubes and one with 40 tubes, were subjected to field tests at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site to assess relative heat transfer performance in both surface evaporator and direct-contact evaporator modes. The five groups of tests established that field performance was below earlier laboratory-determined levels and that direct-contact evaporator mode performance was poorer than that for the surface evaporator mode. In all test situations, fluted condenser tubes performed better than smooth condenser tubes. Cooling water quality had no significant effect on performance, but brine preflash in the direct-contact mode did promote some relative performance improvement. Important implications of these results for binary geothermal power plants are that (1) working-fluid-side impurities can significantly degrade heat transfer performance of the power plant condensers and (2) provisions for minimizing such impurities may be required.

  12. Influence of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on smart grids; Management der Trendwatching Group. Einfluss von Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles auf intelligente Verteilnetze (Smart Grids) - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbaty, R. [ENCO Energie Consulting AG, Bubendorf (Switzerland); Strub, P. [Pierre Strub, Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the influence of plug-in hybrid vehicles on intelligent electricity distribution grids. The work of a trend-watching group which examined the regulatory services at the interface between such 'smart' grids and electrically powered vehicles is reported on. The trend-watching group includes research institutes, energy suppliers, NGOs, the automobile industry and technology companies. Vehicle-to-grid concepts and innovative developments in the Swiss market are commented on and the group's own activities (research, business models, technological development and politics) are discussed. The group will accompany relevant research programs and the implementation of measures as well as accompanying feasibility evaluations concerning current market developments. The Swiss federal strategy is to be discussed and international co-operation (with the IEA) is to be further strengthened.

  13. Integration of plug-in hybrid cars for the encouragement of intelligent power distribution structures; Integration von Plug-in-Hybrid Cars zur Foerderung intelligenter Verteilnetzstrukturen. Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbaty, R.; Rigassi, R.

    2007-11-15

    This preliminary study for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how plug-in hybrid cars could be used to support the electricity supply in Switzerland. This study explains to what extent hybrid cars would be in a position to provide the services needed to regulate the Swiss electricity mains. Core elements of the concept known as 'Vehicle to Grid' (V2G) are presented. The requirements placed on the cars' equipment, including reversible battery chargers and communication equipment, are reviewed. Mains regulation systems are discussed, as are battery storage and the potential advantages offered by such a system. Challenges and hindrances to implementation are examined and initial feasibility studies are analysed. Questions still to be addressed are noted. A comprehensive appendix rounds off the report.

  14. Effect of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle adoption on gas tax revenue, local pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) are likely to increase in popularity in the near future. However, the : environmental benefits of PHEVs involve tradeoffs between the benefits of reduced tailpipe emissions : against the drawbacks of increased ...

  15. Lessons Learned about Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure from The EV Project and ChargePoint America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, John Galloway [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Salisbury, Shawn Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes key findings in two national plug-in electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstrations: The EV Project and ChargePoint America. It will be published to the INL/AVTA website for the general public.

  16. 40 CFR 1065.935 - Emission test sequence for field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... value for the previous 2 min or until an engine thermostat controls engine temperature with coolant or... media, such as evacuated bags or tare-weighed PM sample media. (2) Operate the PEMS according to the... ambient data, and integrate measured values using a PEMS. (3) If engine starting is part of field testing...

  17. Field measurement of albedo for limited extent test surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David J. [Portland State University, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, P.O. Box 751-ME, Portland, OR 97207 (United States); Resh, Kyle; Segura, Del [Tulane University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 400 Lindy Boggs Center, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    A new method is introduced for field measurement of surface albedo. This method consists of the use of a cylindrical shade ring made of opaque fabric with a known (low) albedo placed over a test surface. The albedo measurement is accomplished using two small pyranometers situated so that the downward-facing pyranometer receives radiation only from the test surface and the shade ring. The upward-facing pyranometer simultaneously records the incoming solar radiation. The radiation received by the downward-facing pyramometer is a combination of reflected radiation from shaded and unshaded portions of these two surfaces, requiring detailed accounting of the resulting view factor geometries. The method presented here improves upon past approaches by allowing for smaller sample sizes, minimizing errors associated with reflective properties of the surroundings, and allowing for accurate measurements even under partially cloudy skies. In addition to these methodological improvements we introduce an approach for estimating the uncertainty in the resulting albedo measurements. Results from field measurements are presented to validate the measurement protocol, and to compare its accuracy with the accuracy of a published standard. (author)

  18. Field test of hydrogen in the natural gas grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskov, H

    2010-08-15

    In order to prepare for a future use of hydrogen as a fuel gas it became evident that very little information existed regarding the compatibility between long-term exposure and transportation of hydrogen in natural gas pipelines. A program was therefore set to study the transportation in a small-scale pilot grid at the research centre in Hoersholm, Denmark. The test program included steel pipes from the Danish gas transmission grid and polymer pipes from the Danish and Swedish gas distribution grid. The test of polymer pipes was devised so that samples of all test pipes were cut out of the grid each year and analysis performed on these pipe samples; in this way any form of influence on the integrity of the polyethylene pipe would be detected. The analytical program for polymer was devised in order to detect any influence on the additivation of the polyethylene as this has an influence on oxidative resistance, as well as checking already encountered possible degradation caused by extrusion of the material. Further tools as rheology and melt flow rate were used for detecting any structural changes on the material. On the mechanical property side the tensile strength and modulus were followed as well as the most important property for the pipe line, namely slow crack growth. The results of the polymer pipe tests show no degradations of any kind related to the continuous hydrogen exposure for more than 4 years. This is a strong indication of the compatibility to hydrogen of the tested polymer materials PE 80 and PE 100. The object of the steel pipe test was to see the effect on fatigue life of existing natural gas transmission lines with hydrogen replacing the natural gas. Full-scale dynamic tests were performed using randomly selected cut-out API 5L X70 pipe sections with a diameter of 20 inches and a wall thickness of 7 millimetres from the Danish natural gas transmission system. The pipe sections contained field girth weld made during the installation of the pipe

  19. Field test of hydrogen in the natural gas grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskov, H.

    2010-08-15

    In order to prepare for a future use of hydrogen as a fuel gas it became evident that very little information existed regarding the compatibility between long-term exposure and transportation of hydrogen in natural gas pipelines. A program was therefore set to study the transportation in a small-scale pilot grid at the research centre in Hoersholm, Denmark. The test program included steel pipes from the Danish gas transmission grid and polymer pipes from the Danish and Swedish gas distribution grid. The test of polymer pipes was devised so that samples of all test pipes were cut out of the grid each year and analysis performed on these pipe samples; in this way any form of influence on the integrity of the polyethylene pipe would be detected. The analytical program for polymer was devised in order to detect any influence on the additivation of the polyethylene as this has an influence on oxidative resistance, as well as checking already encountered possible degradation caused by extrusion of the material. Further tools as rheology and melt flow rate were used for detecting any structural changes on the material. On the mechanical property side the tensile strength and modulus were followed as well as the most important property for the pipe line, namely slow crack growth. The results of the polymer pipe tests show no degradations of any kind related to the continuous hydrogen exposure for more than 4 years. This is a strong indication of the compatibility to hydrogen of the tested polymer materials PE 80 and PE 100. The object of the steel pipe test was to see the effect on fatigue life of existing natural gas transmission lines with hydrogen replacing the natural gas. Full-scale dynamic tests were performed using randomly selected cut-out API 5L X70 pipe sections with a diameter of 20 inches and a wall thickness of 7 millimetres from the Danish natural gas transmission system. The pipe sections contained field girth weld made during the installation of the pipe

  20. Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    for public release Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability Shukri Kazbour PEV Lead Engineer...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 SEP 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED...00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability

  1. Field Evaluation of Medium-Duty Plug-in Electric Delivery Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpson, Mike [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Kandler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Walkowicz, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report focuses on medium-duty electric delivery vehicles operated by Frito-Lay North America (FLNA) at its Federal Way, Washington, distribution center. The 100% electric drive system is an alternative to conventional diesel delivery trucks and reduces both energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The vehicles' drive cycles and operation are analyzed and compared to demonstrate the importance of matching specific electric vehicle (EV) technologies to the appropriate operational duty cycle. The results of this analysis show that the Smith Newton EVs demonstrated a 68% reduction in energy consumption over the data reporting period compared to the conventional diesel vehicles, as well as a 46.4% reduction in CO2 equivalent emissions based on the local energy generation source. In addition to characterizing the in-use performance of the EVs compared to the conventional diesels, detailed facility load data were collected at the main building power feed as well as from each of the 10 EV chargers to better understand the broader implications associated with commercial EV deployment. These facility loads were incorporated into several modeling scenarios to demonstrate the potential benefits of integrating onsite renewables.

  2. Field test investigation of high sensitivity fiber optic seismic geophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Min, Li; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Faxiang; Sun, Zhihui; Li, Shujuan; Wang, Chang; Zhao, Zhong; Hao, Guanghu

    2017-10-01

    Seismic reflection, whose measured signal is the artificial seismic waves ,is the most effective method and widely used in the geophysical prospecting. And this method can be used for exploration of oil, gas and coal. When a seismic wave travelling through the Earth encounters an interface between two materials with different acoustic impedances, some of the wave energy will reflect off the interface and some will refract through the interface. At its most basic, the seismic reflection technique consists of generating seismic waves and measuring the time taken for the waves to travel from the source, reflect off an interface and be detected by an array of geophones at the surface. Compared to traditional geophones such as electric, magnetic, mechanical and gas geophone, optical fiber geophones have many advantages. Optical fiber geophones can achieve sensing and signal transmission simultaneously. With the development of fiber grating sensor technology, fiber bragg grating (FBG) is being applied in seismic exploration and draws more and more attention to its advantage of anti-electromagnetic interference, high sensitivity and insensitivity to meteorological conditions. In this paper, we designed a high sensitivity geophone and tested its sensitivity, based on the theory of FBG sensing. The frequency response range is from 10 Hz to 100 Hz and the acceleration of the fiber optic seismic geophone is over 1000pm/g. sixteen-element fiber optic seismic geophone array system is presented and the field test is performed in Shengli oilfield of China. The field test shows that: (1) the fiber optic seismic geophone has a higher sensitivity than the traditional geophone between 1-100 Hz;(2) The low frequency reflection wave continuity of fiber Bragg grating geophone is better.

  3. Cooperative field test program for wind systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollmeier, W.S. II; Dodge, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    The objectives of the Federal Wind Energy Program, managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), are (1) to assist industry and utilities in achieving a multi-regional US market penetration of wind systems, and (2) to establish the United States as the world leader in the development of advanced wind turbine technology. In 1984, the program conducted a series of planning workshops with representatives from the wind energy industry to obtain input on the Five-Year Research Plan then being prepared by DOE. One specific suggestion that came out of these meetings was that the federal program should conduct cooperative research tests with industry to enhance the technology transfer process. It was also felt that the active involvement of industry in DOE-funded research would improve the state of the art of wind turbine technology. DOE established the Cooperative Field Test Program (CFTP) in response to that suggestion. This program was one of the first in DOE to feature joint industry-government research test teams working toward common objectives.

  4. BENCHMARKING MOBILE LASER SCANNING SYSTEMS USING A PERMANENT TEST FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kaartinen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to benchmark the geometric accuracy of mobile laser scanning (MLS systems using a permanent test field under good coverage of GNSS. Mobile laser scanning, also called mobile terrestrial laser scanning, is currently a rapidly developing area in laser scanning where laser scanners, GNSS and IMU are mounted onboard a moving vehicle. MLS can be considered to fill the gap between airborne and terrestrial laser scanning. Data provided by MLS systems can be characterized with the following technical parameters: a point density in the range of 100-1000 points per m2 at 10 m distance, b distance measurement accuracy of 2-5 cm, and c operational scanning range from 1 to 100 m. Several commercial, including e.g. Riegl, Optech and others, and some research mobile laser scanning systems surveyed the test field using predefined driving speed and directions. The acquired georeferenced point clouds were delivered for analyzing. The geometric accuracy of the point clouds was determined using the reference targets that could be identified and measured from the point cloud. Results show that in good GNSS conditions most systems can reach an accuracy of 2 cm both in plane and elevation. The accuracy of a low cost system, the price of which is less than tenth of the other systems, seems to be within a few centimetres at least in ground elevation determination. Inaccuracies in the relative orientation of the instruments lead to systematic errors and when several scanners are used, in multiple reproductions of the objects. Mobile laser scanning systems can collect high density point cloud data with high accuracy. A permanent test field suits well for verifying and comparing the performance of different mobile laser scanning systems. The accuracy of the relative orientation between the mapping instruments needs more attention. For example, if the object is seen double in the point cloud due to imperfect boresight calibration between two

  5. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) at the Hanford Site: Installation and initial tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Kirkham, R.R.; Downs, J.L.; Campbell, M.D.

    1989-02-01

    The objectives of this program are to test barrier design concepts and to demonstrate a barrier design that meets established performance criteria for use in isolating wastes disposed of near-surface at the Hanford Site. Specifically, the program is designed to assess how well the barriers perform in controlling biointrusion, water infiltration, and erosion, as well as evaluating interactions between environmental variables and design factors of the barriers. To assess barrier performance and design with respect to infiltration control, field lysimeters and small- and large-scale field plots are planned to test the performance of specific barrier designs under actual and modified (enhanced precipitation) climatic conditions. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) is located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site just east of the 200 West Area and adjacent to the Hanford Meteorological Station. The FLTF data will be used to assess the effectiveness of selected protective barrier configurations in controlling water infiltration. The facility consists of 14 drainage lysimeters (2 m dia x 3 m deep) and four precision weighing lysimeters (1.5 m x 1.5 m x 1.7 m deep). The lysimeters are buried at grade and aligned in a parallel configuration, with nine lysimeters on each side of an underground instrument chamber. The lysimeters were filled with materials to simulate a multilayer protective barrier system. Data gathered from the FLTF will be used to compare key barrier components and to calibrate and test models for predicting long-term barrier performance

  6. Results of field testing of radioactive waste forms using lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W., Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.; Wickliff, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigation: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining informaiton on the performance of radioactive waste in a disposal environment. Waste forms fabricated using ion-exchange resins from EPICOR-II prefilters employed in the cleanup of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Station are being tested to develop a low-level waste data base and to obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment. In this paper, radionuclide releases from waste forms in the first six years of sampling are presented and discussed. Application of lysimeter data to use in performance assessment models is presented. Initial results from use of data in a performance assessment model are discussed

  7. Field Tested Service Oriented Robotic Architecture: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Utz, Hanz

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the lessons learned from six years of experiments with planetary rover prototypes running the Service Oriented Robotic Architecture (SORA) developed by the Intelligent Robotics Group (IRG) at NASA Ames Research Center. SORA relies on proven software methods and technologies applied to the robotic world. Based on a Service Oriented Architecture and robust middleware, SORA extends its reach beyond the on-board robot controller and supports the full suite of software tools used during mission scenarios from ground control to remote robotic sites. SORA has been field tested in numerous scenarios of robotic lunar and planetary exploration. The results of these high fidelity experiments are illustrated through concrete examples that have shown the benefits of using SORA as well as its limitations.

  8. Results from laboratory and field testing of nitrate measuring spectrophotometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snazelle, Teri T.

    2015-01-01

    Five ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer nitrate analyzers were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) during a two-phase evaluation. In Phase I, the TriOS ProPs (10-millimeter (mm) path length), Hach NITRATAX plus sc (5-mm path length), Satlantic Submersible UV Nitrate Analyzer (SUNA, 10-mm path length), and S::CAN Spectro::lyser (5-mm path length) were evaluated in the HIF Water-Quality Servicing Laboratory to determine the validity of the manufacturer's technical specifications for accuracy, limit of linearity (LOL), drift, and range of operating temperature. Accuracy specifications were met in the TriOS, Hach, and SUNA. The stock calibration of the S::CAN required two offset adjustments before the analyzer met the manufacturer's accuracy specification. Instrument drift was observed only in the S::CAN and was the result of leaching from the optical path insert seals. All tested models, except for the Hach, met their specified LOL in the laboratory testing. The Hach's range was found to be approximately 18 milligrams nitrogen per liter (mg-N/L) and not the manufacturer-specified 25 mg-N/L. Measurements by all of the tested analyzers showed signs of hysteresis in the operating temperature tests. Only the SUNA measurements demonstrated excessive noise and instability in temperatures above 20 degrees Celsius (°C). The SUNA analyzer was returned to the manufacturer at the completion of the Phase II field deployment evaluation for repair and recalibration, and the performance of the sensor improved significantly.

  9. Near-field modeling in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlmann, K.; Shirley, C.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating the effects of nuclear testing in underground test areas (the UGTA program) at the Nevada Test Site. The principal focus of the UGTA program is to better understand and define subsurface radionuclide migration. The study described in this report focuses on the development of tools for generating maps of hydrogeologic characteristics of subsurface Tertiary volcanic units at the Frenchman Flat corrective Action Unit (CAU). The process includes three steps. The first step involves generation of three-dimensional maps of the geologic structure of subsurface volcanic units using geophysical logs to distinguish between two classes: densely welded tuff and nonwelded tuff. The second step generates three-dimensional maps of hydraulic conductivity utilizing the spatial distribution of the two geologic classes obtained in the first step. Each class is described by a correlation structure based on existing data on hydraulic conductivity, and conditioned on the generated spatial location of each class. The final step demonstrates the use of the maps of hydraulic conductivity for modeling groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in volcanic tuffs from an underground nuclear test at the Frenchman Flat CAU. The results indicate that the majority of groundwater flow through the volcanic section occurs through zones of densely welded tuff where connected fractures provide the transport pathway. Migration rates range between near zero to approximately four m/yr, with a mean rate of 0.68 m/yr. This report presents the results of work under the FY96 Near-Field Modeling task of the UGTA program

  10. Testing neoclassical competitive market theory in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, John A

    2002-11-26

    This study presents results from a pilot field experiment that tests predictions of competitive market theory. A major advantage of this particular field experimental design is that my laboratory is the marketplace: subjects are engaged in buying, selling, and trading activities whether I run an exchange experiment or am a passive observer. In this sense, I am gathering data in a natural environment while still maintaining the necessary control to execute a clean comparison between treatments. The main results of the study fall into two categories. First, the competitive model predicts reasonably well in some market treatments: the expected price and quantity levels are approximated in many market rounds. Second, the data suggest that market composition is important: buyer and seller experience levels impact not only the distribution of rents but also the overall level of rents captured. An unexpected result in this regard is that average market efficiency is lowest in markets that match experienced buyers and experienced sellers and highest when experienced buyers engage in bargaining with inexperienced sellers. Together, these results suggest that both market experience and market composition play an important role in the equilibrium discovery process.

  11. Results of field testing of waste forms using lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the field testing task, using lysimeter arrays, is to expose samples of solidified resin waste to the actual physical, chemical, and microbiological conditions of disposal enviroment. Wastes used in the experiment include a mixture of synthetic organic ion exchange resins and a mixture of organic exchange resins and an inorganic zeolite. Solidification agents used to produce the 4.8-by 7.6-cm cylindrical waste forms used in the study were Portland Type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene. Seven of these waste forms were stacked end-to-end and inserted into each lysimeter to provide a 1-L volume. There are 10 lysimeters, 5 at ORNL and 5 at ANL-E. Lysimeters used in this study were designed to be self-contained units which will be disposed at the termination of the 20-year study. Each is a 0.91-by 3.12-m right-circular cylinder divided into an upper compartment, which contains fill material, waste forms, and instrumentation, and an empty lower compartment, which collects leachate. Four lysimeters at each site are filled with soil, while a fifth (used as a control) is filled with inert silica oxide sand. Instrumentation within each lysimeter includes porous cup soil-water samplers and soil moisture/temperature probes. The probes are connected to an on-site data acquisition and storage system (DAS) which also collects data from a field meteorological station located at each site. 9 refs

  12. Flood field uniformity testing - effects of crystal hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimcheva, M.; Sergieva, S.; Doldurova, M.; Jovanovska, A.

    2012-01-01

    The most basic and sensitive routine quality control (QC) of gamma camera is that of intrinsic flood-field uniformity. The routine QC test must be assessed daily and any nonuniformity must be eliminated before patient testing to eliminate artifacts and false positive or false-negative patient results. The purpose of this study was to compare uniformity analysis results for scintillation crystal hydration with symmetric and asymmetric energy window on the Siemens Symbia T2 SPECTCT camera. Integral and differential uniformity analysis was performed by placing a point source 99m Tc in front of the detector with removed collimator to measure the effect of correction matrix, a count rate and activity volume on intrinsic uniformity. A 15% energy window set symmetrically over the 99m Tc photo peak is equivalent to 140±10% keV or a window spanning 126-154 keV. The results, received from Detector 2 gave the following uniformity parameter values: Both asymmetric energy window images show clearly multiple focal spots due to crystal hydration: discrete hot spots in the asymmetric low window image and discrete cold spots in the asymmetric high window image. The above results are not seen yet on the symmetric window image. We had replaced Detector 2 in order to avoid spots become visible in flood images obtained with the clinical energy window. The uniformity of a gamma camera is maybe the most important parameter that expresses the quality of the camera's performance. Non uniform areas in the field of view can result in misdiagnosed patients and low quality of clinical services. (authors)

  13. Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Landreth

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was

  14. A natural language interface plug-in for cooperative query answering in biological databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Hasan M

    2012-06-11

    One of the many unique features of biological databases is that the mere existence of a ground data item is not always a precondition for a query response. It may be argued that from a biologist's standpoint, queries are not always best posed using a structured language. By this we mean that approximate and flexible responses to natural language like queries are well suited for this domain. This is partly due to biologists' tendency to seek simpler interfaces and partly due to the fact that questions in biology involve high level concepts that are open to interpretations computed using sophisticated tools. In such highly interpretive environments, rigidly structured databases do not always perform well. In this paper, our goal is to propose a semantic correspondence plug-in to aid natural language query processing over arbitrary biological database schema with an aim to providing cooperative responses to queries tailored to users' interpretations. Natural language interfaces for databases are generally effective when they are tuned to the underlying database schema and its semantics. Therefore, changes in database schema become impossible to support, or a substantial reorganization cost must be absorbed to reflect any change. We leverage developments in natural language parsing, rule languages and ontologies, and data integration technologies to assemble a prototype query processor that is able to transform a natural language query into a semantically equivalent structured query over the database. We allow knowledge rules and their frequent modifications as part of the underlying database schema. The approach we adopt in our plug-in overcomes some of the serious limitations of many contemporary natural language interfaces, including support for schema modifications and independence from underlying database schema. The plug-in introduced in this paper is generic and facilitates connecting user selected natural language interfaces to arbitrary databases using a

  15. FUELS IN SOIL TEST KIT: FIELD USE OF DIESEL DOG SOIL TEST KITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.

    2002-09-30

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed a new commercial product ready for technology transfer, the Diesel Dog{reg_sign} Portable Soil Test Kit, for performing analysis of fuel-contaminated soils in the field. The technology consists of a method developed by WRI (U.S. Patents 5,561,065 and 5,976,883) and hardware developed by WRI that allows the method to be performed in the field (patent pending). The method is very simple and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. The aromatic components in a soil extract are measured by absorption at 254 nm with a field-portable photometer. WRI added significant value to the technology by taking the method through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) approval and validation processes. The method is designated as ASTM Method D 5831-96, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This ASTM designation allows the method to be used for federal compliance activities. In June 2001, the Diesel Dog technology won an American Chemical Society Regional Industrial Innovations Award. To gain field experience with the new technology, Diesel Dog kits have been used for a variety of site evaluation and cleanup activities. Information gained from these activities has led to improvements in hardware configurations and additional insight into correlating Diesel Dog results with results from laboratory methods. The Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) used Diesel Dog Soil Test Kits to guide cleanups at a variety of sites throughout the state. ENSR, of Acton, Massachusetts, used a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit to evaluate sites in the Virgin Islands and Georgia. ChemTrack and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers successfully used a test kit to guide excavation at an abandoned FAA fuel-contaminated site near Fairbanks, Alaska. Barenco, Inc. is using a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit for site evaluations in Canada. A small spill of diesel fuel was cleaned up in Laramie, Wyoming using a Diesel

  16. Field vibration test of principal equipment of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraki, Kazuhiro; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Kajimura, Motohiko; Ikegami, Yasuhiko; Hanzawa, Katsumi; Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Kokubo, Eiji; Igarashi, Shigeru

    1984-09-01

    Japan is one of the most earthquake-stricken countries in the world, and demands for aseismic design have become severer recently. In a nuclear power plant in particular, consisting of a reactor vessel and other facilities dealing with a radioactive substance in some form or other, it is essential from the standpoint of safety to eliminate any possibility of radioactive hazards for the local public, and the employees at the plant as well, if these facilities are struck by an earthquake. This paper is related to the reactor vessel, reactor primary cooling equipment and piping system and important general piping as examples of important facilities of a nuclear power plant, and discusses vibration tests of an actual plant in the field from the standpoint of enhancing the aseismic safety of the Mitsubishi PWR nuclear power plant. Especially concerning vibration test technology, the effects in the evaluation of aseismic safety and its limits are studied to prove how it contributes to the enhancement of the reliability of aseismic design of nuclear power plants.

  17. GLM Post Launch Testing and Airborne Science Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S. J.; Padula, F.; Koshak, W. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series provides the continuity for the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a wholly new instrument that provides a capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes). The first satellite in the GOES-R series, now GOES-16, was launched in November 2016 followed by in-orbit post launch testing for approximately 12 months before being placed into operations replacing the GOES-E satellite in December. The GLM will map total lightning continuously throughout day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product latency of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. The total lightning is very useful for identifying hazardous and severe thunderstorms, monitoring storm intensification and tracking evolution. Used in tandem with radar, satellite imagery, and surface observations, total lightning data has great potential to increase lead time for severe storm warnings, improve aviation safety and efficiency, and increase public safety. In this paper we present initial results from the post-launch in-orbit performance testing, airborne science field campaign conducted March-May, 2017 and assessments of the GLM instrument and science products.

  18. Assessment of Charging Infrastructure for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s advanced vehicle testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (Intertek) to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. Task 2 selected vehicles for further monitoring and involved identifying daily operational characteristics of these select vehicles. Data logging of vehicle movements was initiated in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. The Task 3 vehicle utilization report provided results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. Finally, this report provides an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support the suggested PEV replacements. Intertek acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory, Marine Corps headquarters, and Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune Fleet management and personnel for participation in this study. Intertek is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune personnel.

  19. The Barriers to Acceptance of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: 2017 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-09

    Vehicle manufacturers, government agencies, universities, private researchers, and organizations worldwide are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce the consumption of petroleum in the forms of gasoline and diesel. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are one such technology. This report, an update to the previous version published in December 2016, details findings from a study in February 2017 of broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround PEVs. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, enhance mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability.

  20. Configuration Analysis of Plug-in Hybrid Systems using Global Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Insup; Kim, Hyunsup

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the configurations of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) with respect to fuel economy. Existing studies mostly focus on hybrid systems or few PHEV systems by only considering power split ratio and component efficiency. This paper adds original contribution to these literatures. First of all, this study compares and analyzes “series + α” PHEV – Input split, Series-output split and Series-parallel, which is consisted of a single Planetary gear or spur...

  1. Consumer Views on Plug-in Electric Vehicles -- National Benchmark Report (Second Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Vehicle manufacturers, government agencies, universities, private researchers, and organizations worldwide are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce the consumption of petroleum in the forms of gasoline and diesel. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are one such technology. This report, an update to the version published in January 2016, details findings from a study in February 2015 of broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround PEVs. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, enhance mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability.

  2. Apparatus for sealing a rotatable shield plug in a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkleblack, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for sealing a rotatable shield plug in a nuclear reactor having liquid metal coolant is described. The apparatus includes a dip -ring seal adapted to provide a fluid barrier between the liquid metal and the atmosphere and to permit rotation of the shield plug. The apparatus also includes a static seal for the rotatable shield plug located between the dip-ring seal and the liquid metal. The static seal isolates the dip-ring seal from the liquid metal vapor during operation at power and can be disengaged for rotation of the shield plug

  3. Combustion aided by a glow plug in diesel engines under cold idling conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qile

    2016-01-01

    Glow plugs are widely used to promote the desired cold start and post-cold start combustion characteristics of light duty diesel engines. The importance of the glow plug becomes more apparent when the compression ratio is low. An experimental investigation of combustion initiation and development aided by the glow plug has been carried out on a single cylinder HPCR DI diesel engine with a low compression ratio of 15.5:1. High speed imaging of combustion initiated by the glow plug in a combust...

  4. A specialized plug-in software module for computer-aided quantitative measurement of medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Zeng, Y J; Huo, P; Hu, J L; Zhang, J H

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a specialized system for quantitative measurement of medical images. Using Visual C++, we developed a computer-aided software based on Image-Pro Plus (IPP), a software development platform. When transferred to the hard disk of a computer by an MVPCI-V3A frame grabber, medical images can be automatically processed by our own IPP plug-in for immunohistochemical analysis, cytomorphological measurement and blood vessel segmentation. In 34 clinical studies, the system has shown its high stability, reliability and ease of utility.

  5. Development of a plug in for image j for the quality control of a scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otal Palacin, A.; Fuentemilla Urio, N.; Olasolo Alonso, J.; Martin Albina, M. L.; Miquelez Alonso, S.; Lozares Cordero, S.; Pellejero, S.; Maneru Camara, F.; Rubio Arroniz, A.; Soto Prados, P.

    2013-01-01

    The increase in the quality of radiology equipment requirements necessitates that give us tools efficient that they simplify the more possible tasks of analysis of the data obtained in the quality controls. We can choose by solutions based on commercial software or otherwise try to develop our own to measure of our needs. For this reason we have developed a plug-in for the ImageJ program that automates the work of analysis of image quality in the Navarro health service scanners. (Author)

  6. Towards strong field tests of beyond Horndeski gravity theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakstein, Jeremy; Babichev, Eugeny; Koyama, Kazuya; Langlois, David; Saito, Ryo

    2017-03-01

    Theories of gravity in the beyond Horndeski class encompass a wide range of scalar-tensor theories that will be tested on cosmological scales over the coming decade. In this work, we investigate the possibility of testing them in the strong field regime by looking at the properties of compact objects—neutron, hyperon, and quark stars—embedded in an asymptotically de Sitter space-time, for a specific subclass of theories. We extend previous works to include slow rotation and find a relation between the dimensionless moment of inertia (I ¯ =I c2/GNM3 ) and the compactness C =GNM /R c2 (an I ¯-C relation), independent of the equation of state, that is reminiscent of but distinct from the general relativity prediction. Several of our equations of state contain hyperons and free quarks, allowing us to revisit the hyperon puzzle. We find that the maximum mass of hyperon stars can be larger than 2 M⊙ for small values of the beyond Horndeski parameter, thus providing a resolution of the hyperon puzzle based on modified gravity. Moreover, stable quark stars exist when hyperonic stars are unstable, which means that the phase transition from hyperon to quark stars is predicted just as in general relativity (GR), albeit with larger quark star masses. Two important and potentially observable consequences of some of the theories we consider are the existence of neutron stars in a range of masses significantly higher than in GR and I ¯-C relations that differ from their GR counterparts. In the former case, we find objects that, if observed, could not be accounted for in GR because they violate the usual GR causality condition. We end by discussing several difficult technical issues that remain to be addressed in order to reach more realistic predictions that may be tested using gravitational wave searches or neutron star observations.

  7. Field Lysimeter Test Facility status report IV: FY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Felmy, D.G.; Ritter, J.C.; Campbell, M.D.; Downs, J.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kirkham, R.R.; Link, S.O.

    1993-10-01

    At the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, a unique facility, the Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) is used to measure drainage from and water storage in soil covers. Drainage has ranged from near zero amounts to more than 50% of the applied water, with the amount depending on vegetative cover and soil type. Drainage occurred from lysimeters with coarse soils and gravel covers, but did not occur from capillary barrier-type lysimeters (1.5 m silt loam soil over coarse sands and gravels) except under the most extreme condition tested. For capillary barriers that were irrigated and kept vegetation-free (bare surface), no drainage occurred in 5 of the past 6 years. However, this past year (1992--1993) a record snowfall of 1,425 mm occurred and water storage in the irrigated, bare-surfaced capillary barriers exceeded 500 mm resulting in drainage of more than 30 mm from these barriers. In contrast, capillary barriers, covered with native vegetation (i.e., shrubs and grasses) did not drain under any climatic condition (with or without irrigation). In FY 1994, the FLTF treatments will be increased from 11 to 17 with the addition of materials that will simulate portions of a prototype barrier planned for construction in 1994 at the Hanford Site. The 17 FLTF treatments are designed to test the expected range of surface soil, vegetation, and climatic conditions encountered at the Hanford Site and will assist in evaluating final surface barrier designs for a waste disposal facility

  8. Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles—Assessment of Electrical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshin Omar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performances of various lithium-ion chemistries for use in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles have been investigated and compared to several other rechargeable energy storage systems technologies such as lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and electrical-double layer capacitors. The analysis has shown the beneficial properties of lithium-ion in the terms of energy density, power density and rate capabilities. Particularly, the nickel manganese cobalt oxide cathode stands out with the high energy density up to 160 Wh/kg, compared to 70–110, 90 and 71 Wh/kg for lithium iron phosphate cathode, lithium nickel cobalt aluminum cathode and, lithium titanate oxide anode battery cells, respectively. These values are considerably higher than the lead-acid (23–28 Wh/kg and nickel-metal hydride (44–53 Wh/kg battery technologies. The dynamic discharge performance test shows that the energy efficiency of the lithium-ion batteries is significantly higher than the lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride technologies. The efficiency varies between 86% and 98%, with the best values obtained by pouch battery cells, ahead of cylindrical and prismatic battery design concepts. Also the power capacity of lithium-ion technology is superior compared to other technologies. The power density is in the range of 300–2400 W/kg against 200–400 and 90–120 W/kg for lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride, respectively. However, considering the influence of energy efficiency, the power density is in the range of 100–1150 W/kg. Lithium-ion batteries optimized for high energy are at the lower end of this range and are challenged to meet the United States Advanced Battery Consortium, SuperLIB and Massachusetts Institute of Technology goals. Their association with electric-double layer capacitors, which have low energy density (4–6 Wh/kg but outstanding power capabilities, could be very interesting. The study of the rate capability of the lithium-ion batteries has

  9. Describing of elements IO field in a testing computer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Loshkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A standard of describing the process of displaying interactive windows on a computer monitor, through which an output of questions and input of answers are implemented during computer testing, is presented in the article [11]. According to the proposed standard, the description of the process mentioned above is performed with a format line, containing element names, their parameters as well as grouping and auxiliary symbols. Program objects are described using elements of standard. The majority of objects create input and output windows on a computer monitor. The aim of our research was to develop a minimum possible set of elements of standard to perform mathematical and computer science testing.The choice of elements of the standard was conducted in parallel with the development and testing of the program that uses them. This approach made it possible to choose a sufficiently complete set of elements for testing in fields of study mentioned above. For the proposed elements, names were selected in such a way: firstly, they indicate their function and secondly, they coincide with the names of elements in other programming languages that are similar by function. Parameters, their names, their assignments and accepted values are proposed for the elements. The principle of name selection for the parameters was the same as for elements of the standard: the names should correspond to their assignments or coincide with names of similar parameters in other programming languages. The parameters define properties of objects. Particularly, while the elements of standard create windows, the parameters define object properties (location, size, appearance and the sequence in which windows are created. All elements of standard, proposed in this article are composed in a table, the columns of which have names and functions of these elements. Inside the table, the elements of standard are grouped row by row into four sets: input elements, output elements, input

  10. Stochastic scheduling of aggregators of plug-in electric vehicles for participation in energy and ancillary service markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipour, Manijeh; Mohammadi-Ivatloo, Behnam; Moradi-Dalvand, Mohammad; Zare, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles are expected to play a major role in the transportation system as the environmental problems and energy crisis are being more and more urgent recently. Implementing a large number of vehicles with proper control could bring an opportunity of large storage and flexibility for power systems. The plug-in electric vehicle aggregator is responsible for providing power and controlling the charging pattern of the plug-in electric vehicles under its contracted area. This paper deals with the problem of optimal scheduling problem of plug-in electric vehicle aggregators in electricity market considering the uncertainties of market prices, availability of vehicles and status of being called by the ISO in the reserve market. The impact of the market price and reserve market uncertainties on the electric vehicle scheduling problem is characterized through a stochastic programming framework. The objective of the aggregator is to maximize its profit by charging the plug-in electric vehicles on the low price time intervals as well as participating in ancillary service markets. The operational constraints of plug-in electric vehicles and constraints of vehicle to grid are modeled in the proposed framework. An illustrative example is provided to confirm the performance of the proposed model. - Highlights: • Optimal scheduling of vehicle aggregators in electricity market has been addressed. • The operational constraints of plug-in vehicle to grid are considered. • The uncertainties of calling status in reserve market and market prices are modeled. • Vehicles' driving patterns and availability uncertainty are modeled. • The effect of risk measure weight in the vehicle to grid model has been studied.

  11. Advanced Rooftop Control (ARC) Retrofit: Field-Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2013-07-31

    The multi-year research study was initiated to find solutions to improve packaged equipment operating efficiency in the field. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) conducted this research, development and demonstration (RD&D) study. Packaged equipment with constant speed supply fans is designed to provide ventilation at the design rate at all times when the fan is operating as required by building code. Although there are a number of hours during the day when a building may not be fully occupied or the need for ventilation is lower than designed, the ventilation rate cannot be adjusted easily with a constant speed fan. Therefore, modulating the supply fan in conjunction with demand controlled ventilation (DCV) will not only reduce the coil energy but also reduce the fan energy. The objective of this multi-year research, development and demonstration project was to determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop air conditioners with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units. First, through detailed simulation analysis, it was shown that significant energy (between 24% and 35%) and cost savings (38%) from fan, cooling and heating energy consumption could be realized when packaged air conditioning units with gas furnaces are retrofitted with advanced control packages (combining multi-speed fan control, integrated economizer controls and DCV). The simulation analysis also showed significant savings for heat pumps (between 20% and 60%). The simulation analysis was followed by an extensive field test of a retrofittable advanced rooftop unit (RTU) controller.

  12. Field-Testing of an Active Laser Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, V.; Khiznyak, A.; Woll, D.; Liu, S.

    -mirror module for laser beam steering and detectors, all set on a single platform. In the initial ALTS design, the laser module is conceptualized in coupled-cavitiesarchitecturewith a synchronously pumped gain media, a four-wave mixing PCM. The four-wave mixing arrangement uses optical phase conjugation to compensate for spatial inhomogeneities of the atmosphere. A significant innovation in the proposed approach is in its perspective capabilities to detect and measure the critical parameters in the returned signal that should allow to directly measure spatial/angular position and velocity of the target. This report will cover the system analysis, the ALTS design, test plan and exit criteria, functional and operational tests, and test results at Edwards AFB Range field.

  13. FUELS IN SOIL TEST KIT: FIELD USE OF DIESEL DOG SOIL TEST KITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-05-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is commercializing Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kits for performing analysis of fuel-contaminated soils in the field. The technology consists of a method developed by WRI (U.S. Patents 5,561,065 and 5,976,883) and hardware developed by WRI that allows the method to be performed in the field (patent pending). The method is very simple and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. The aromatic components in a soil extract are measured by absorption at 254 nm with a field-portable photometer. WRI added significant value to the technology by taking the method through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) approval and validation processes. The method is designated ASTM Method D-5831-96, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This ASTM designation allows the method to be used for federal compliance activities. In FY 99, twenty-five preproduction kits were successfully constructed in cooperation with CF Electronics, Inc., of Laramie, Wyoming. The kit components work well and the kits are fully operational. In the calendar year 2000, kits were provided to the following entities who agreed to participate as FY 99 and FY 00 JSR (Jointly Sponsored Research) cosponsors and use the kits as opportunities arose for field site work: Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) (3 units), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Gradient Corporation, The Johnson Company (2 units), IT Corporation (2 units), TRC Environmental Corporation, Stone Environmental, ENSR, Action Environmental, Laco Associates, Barenco, Brown and Caldwell, Dames and Moore Lebron LLP, Phillips Petroleum, GeoSyntek, and the State of New Mexico. By early 2001, ten kits had been returned to WRI following the six-month evaluation period. On return, the components of all ten kits were fully functional. The kits were upgraded with circuit modifications, new polyethylene foam inserts, and updated instruction manuals.

  14. Validity of selected cardiovascular field-based test among Malaysian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on emerge obese problem among Malaysian, this research is formulated to validate published tests among healthy female adult. Selected test namely; 20 meter multi-stage shuttle run, 2.4km run test, 1 mile walk test and Harvard Step test were correlated with laboratory test (Bruce protocol) to find the criterion validity ...

  15. Field tests of acoustic telemetry for a portable coastal observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M.; Butman, B.; Ware, J.; Frye, D.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term field tests of a low-cost acoustic telemetry system were carried out at two sites in Massachusetts Bay. At each site, an acoustic Doppler current profiler mounted on a bottom tripod was fitted with an acoustic modem to transmit data to a surface buoy; electronics mounted on the buoy relayed these data to shore via radio modem. The mooring at one site (24 m water depth) was custom-designed for the telemetry application, with a custom designed small buoy, a flexible electro-mechanical buoy to mooring joint using a molded chain connection to the buoy, quick-release electro-mechanical couplings, and dual hydrophones suspended 7 m above the bottom. The surface buoy at the second site (33 m water depth) was a U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) channel buoy fitted with telemetry electronics and clamps to hold the hydrophones. The telemetry was tested in several configurations for a period of about four years. The custom-designed buoy and mooring provided nearly error-free data transmission through the acoustic link under a variety of oceanographic conditions for 261 days at the 24 m site. The electro mechanical joint, cables and couplings required minimal servicing and were very reliable, lasting 862 days deployed before needing repairs. The acoustic communication results from the USCG buoy were poor, apparently due to the hard cobble bottom, noise from the all-steel buoy, and failure of the hydrophone assembly. Access to the USCG buoy at sea required ideal weather. ??2006 IEEE.

  16. Visualization tool for three-dimensional plasma velocity distributions (ISEE_3D) as a plug-in for SPEDAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keika, Kunihiro; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Machida, Shinobu; Ieda, Akimasa; Seki, Kanako; Hori, Tomoaki; Miyashita, Yukinaga; Shoji, Masafumi; Shinohara, Iku; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Lewis, Jim W.; Flores, Aaron

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces ISEE_3D, an interactive visualization tool for three-dimensional plasma velocity distribution functions, developed by the Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Japan. The tool provides a variety of methods to visualize the distribution function of space plasma: scatter, volume, and isosurface modes. The tool also has a wide range of functions, such as displaying magnetic field vectors and two-dimensional slices of distributions to facilitate extensive analysis. The coordinate transformation to the magnetic field coordinates is also implemented in the tool. The source codes of the tool are written as scripts of a widely used data analysis software language, Interactive Data Language, which has been widespread in the field of space physics and solar physics. The current version of the tool can be used for data files of the plasma distribution function from the Geotail satellite mission, which are publicly accessible through the Data Archives and Transmission System of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The tool is also available in the Space Physics Environment Data Analysis Software to visualize plasma data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale and the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms missions. The tool is planned to be applied to data from other missions, such as Arase (ERG) and Van Allen Probes after replacing or adding data loading plug-ins. This visualization tool helps scientists understand the dynamics of space plasma better, particularly in the regions where the magnetohydrodynamic approximation is not valid, for example, the Earth's inner magnetosphere, magnetopause, bow shock, and plasma sheet.

  17. Resource Efficiency Assessment—Comparing a Plug-In Hybrid with a Conventional Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Henßler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong economic growth in recent years has led to an intensive use of natural resources, which causes environmental stress as well as restrictions on the availability of resources. Therefore, a more efficient use of resources is necessary as an important contribution to sustainable development. The ESSENZ method presented in this article comprehensively assesses a product’s resource efficiency by going beyond existing approaches and considering the pollution of the environment as well as the physical and socio-economic availability of resources. This paper contains a short description of the ESSENZ methodology as well as a case study of the Mercedes-Benz C-Class (W 205—comparing the conventional C 250 (petrol engine with the C 350 e Plug-In Hybrid (electric motor and petrol engine. By applying the ESSENZ method it can be shown that the use of more and different materials for the Plug-In-Hybrid influences the dimensions physical and socio-economic availability significantly. However, for environmental impacts, especially climate change and summer smog, clear advantages of the C 350 e occur due to lower demand of fossil energy carriers. As shown within the case study, the when applying the ESSENZ method a comprehensive evaluation of the used materials and fossil energy carriers can be achieved.

  18. Real-Time Occupant Based Plug-in Device Control Using ICT in Office Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Bin Bae

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to reduce the unnecessary plug loads used by computers, monitors, and computer peripheral devices, all of which account for more than 95% of the entire plug loads of an office building. To this end, an occupant-based plug-in device control (OBC-P software was developed. The OBC-P software collects real-time information about the presence or absence of occupants who are connected to the access point through the Wifi and controls the power of monitors or computers, while a standby power off device controls computer peripheral devices. To measure the plug load saving of the occupant-based plug-in device control, an experiment was conducted, targeting 10 occupants of three research labs of the graduate school, for two weeks. The experiment results showed that it could save the plug loads of monitors and computer peripheral devices by 15% in the Awake mode, and by 26% in the Sleep mode.

  19. A Computable Plug-In Estimator of Minimum Volume Sets for Novelty Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Chiwoo

    2010-10-01

    A minimum volume set of a probability density is a region of minimum size among the regions covering a given probability mass of the density. Effective methods for finding the minimum volume sets are very useful for detecting failures or anomalies in commercial and security applications-a problem known as novelty detection. One theoretical approach of estimating the minimum volume set is to use a density level set where a kernel density estimator is plugged into the optimization problem that yields the appropriate level. Such a plug-in estimator is not of practical use because solving the corresponding minimization problem is usually intractable. A modified plug-in estimator was proposed by Hyndman in 1996 to overcome the computation difficulty of the theoretical approach but is not well studied in the literature. In this paper, we provide theoretical support to this estimator by showing its asymptotic consistency. We also show that this estimator is very competitive to other existing novelty detection methods through an extensive empirical study. ©2010 INFORMS.

  20. Game-Theoretic Energy Management for Residential Users with Dischargeable Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtuan Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The plug-in electric vehicle (PEV has attracted more and more attention because of the energy crisis and environmental pollution, which is also the main shiftable load of the residential users’ demand side management (DSM system in the future smart grid (SG. In this paper, we employ game theory to provide an autonomous energy management system among residential users considering selling energy back to the utility company by discharging the PEV’s battery. By assuming all users are equipped with smart meters to execute automatic energy consumption scheduling (ECS and the energy company can adopt adequate pricing tariffs relating to time and level of energy usage, we formulate an energy management game, where the players are the residential users and the strategies are their daily schedules of household appliance use. We will show that the Nash equilibrium of the formulated energy management game can guarantee the global optimization in terms of minimizing the energy costs, where the depreciation cost of PEV’s battery because of discharging and selling energy back is also considered. Simulation results verify that the proposed game-theoretic approach can reduce the total energy cost and individual daily electricity payment. Moreover, since plug-in electric bicycles (PEBs are currently widely used in China, simulation results of residential users owing household appliances and bidirectional energy trading of PEBs are also provided and discussed.

  1. Flexible interaction of plug-in electric vehicle parking lots for efficient wind integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydarian-Forushani, E.; Golshan, M.E.H.; Shafie-khah, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Interactive incorporation of plug-in electric vehicle parking lots is investigated. • Flexible energy and reserve services are provided by electric vehicle parking lots. • Uncertain characterization of electric vehicle owners’ behavior is taken into account. • Coordinated operation of parking lots can facilitate wind power integration. - Abstract: The increasing share of uncertain wind generation has changed traditional operation scheduling of power systems. The challenges of this additional variability raise the need for an operational flexibility in providing both energy and reserve. One key solution is an effective incorporation of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the power system operation process. To this end, this paper proposes a two-stage stochastic programming market-clearing model considering the network constraints to achieve the optimal scheduling of conventional units as well as PEV parking lots (PLs) in providing both energy and reserve services. Different from existing works, the paper pays more attention to the uncertain characterization of PLs takes into account the arrival/departure time of PEVs to/from the PL, the initial state of charge (SOC) of PEVs, and their battery capacity through a set of scenarios in addition to wind generation scenarios. The results reveal that although the cost saving as a consequence of incorporating PL to the grid is below 1% of total system cost, however, flexible interactions of PL in the energy and reserve markets can promote the integration of wind power more than 13.5%.

  2. Design, production and initial state of the backfill and plug in deposition tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Lennart; Gunnarsson, David; Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Jonsson, Esther

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the backfill and plug in deposition tunnels for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the engineered barriers once they have been finally placed in the KBS-3 repository and will not be further handled within the repository facility. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the backfill and plug shall be handled and installed. The report presents the design premises and reference designs of the backfill and plug in deposition tunnels and verifies their conformity to the design premises. It also describes the production of the backfill from excavation and delivery of backfill material to installation in the deposition tunnel, and gives an outline of the installation of the plug. Finally, the initial states of the backfill and plug and their conformity to the reference designs and design premises are presented

  3. A Computable Plug-In Estimator of Minimum Volume Sets for Novelty Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Chiwoo; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Ding, Yu

    2010-01-01

    A minimum volume set of a probability density is a region of minimum size among the regions covering a given probability mass of the density. Effective methods for finding the minimum volume sets are very useful for detecting failures or anomalies in commercial and security applications-a problem known as novelty detection. One theoretical approach of estimating the minimum volume set is to use a density level set where a kernel density estimator is plugged into the optimization problem that yields the appropriate level. Such a plug-in estimator is not of practical use because solving the corresponding minimization problem is usually intractable. A modified plug-in estimator was proposed by Hyndman in 1996 to overcome the computation difficulty of the theoretical approach but is not well studied in the literature. In this paper, we provide theoretical support to this estimator by showing its asymptotic consistency. We also show that this estimator is very competitive to other existing novelty detection methods through an extensive empirical study. ©2010 INFORMS.

  4. The load shift potential of plug-in electric vehicles with different amounts of charging infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnann, Till; Klingler, Anna-Lena; Kühnbach, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles are the currently favoured option to decarbonize the passenger car sector. However, a decarbonisation is only possible with electricity from renewable energies and plug-in electric vehicles might cause peak loads if they started to charge at the same time. Both these issues could be solved with coordinated load shifting (demand response). Previous studies analyzed this research question by focusing on private vehicles with domestic and work charging infrastructure. This study additionally includes the important early adopter group of commercial fleet vehicles and reflects the impact of domestic, commercial, work and public charging. For this purpose, two models are combined. In a comparison of three scenarios, we find that charging of commercial vehicles does not inflict evening load peaks in the same magnitude as purely domestic charging of private cars does. Also for private cars, charging at work occurs during the day and may reduce the necessity of load shifting while public charging plays a less important role in total charging demand as well as load shifting potential. Nonetheless, demand response reduces the system load by about 2.2 GW or 2.8% when domestic and work charging are considered compared to a scenario with only domestic charging.

  5. Important Factors for Early Market Microgrids: Demand Response and Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David Masaki

    Microgrids are evolving concepts that are growing in interest due to their potential reliability, economic and environmental benefits. As with any new concept, there are many unresolved issues with regards to planning and operation. In particular, demand response (DR) and plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging are viewed as two key components of the future grid and both will likely be active technologies in the microgrid market. However, a better understanding of the economics associated with DR, the impact DR can have on the sizing of distributed energy resource (DER) systems and how to accommodate and price PEV charging is necessary to advance microgrid technologies. This work characterizes building based DR for a model microgrid, calculates the DER systems for a model microgrid under DR through a minimization of total cost, and determines pricing methods for a PEV charging station integrated with an individual building on the model microgrid. It is shown that DR systems which consist only of HVAC fan reductions provide potential economic benefits to the microgrid through participation in utility DR programs. Additionally, peak shaving DR reduces the size of power generators, however increasing DR capacity does not necessarily lead to further reductions in size. As it currently stands for a microgrid that is an early adopter of PEV charging, current installation costs of PEV charging equipment lead to a system that is not competitive with established commercial charging networks or to gasoline prices for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV).

  6. MINERVA: A multi-modality plug-in-based radiation therapy treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wemple, C. A.; Wessol, D. E.; Nigg, D. W.; Cogliati, J. J.; Milvich, M.; Fredrickson, C. M.; Perkins, M.; Harkin, G. J.; Hartmann-Siantar, C. L.; Lehmann, J.; Flickinger, T.; Pletcher, D.; Yuan, A.; DeNardo, G. L.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at the INEEL, MSU, LLNL and UCD have undertaken development of MINERVA, a patient-centric, multi-modal, radiation treatment planning system, which can be used for planning and analysing several radiotherapy modalities, either singly or combined, using common treatment planning tools. It employs an integrated, lightweight plug-in architecture to accommodate multi-modal treatment planning using standard interface components. The design also facilitates the future integration of improved planning technologies. The code is being developed with the Java programming language for inter-operability. The MINERVA design includes the image processing, model definition and data analysis modules with a central module to coordinate communication and data transfer. Dose calculation is performed by source and transport plug-in modules, which communicate either directly through the database or through MINERVA's openly published, extensible markup language (XML)-based application programmer's interface (API). All internal data are managed by a database management system and can be exported to other applications or new installations through the API data formats. A full computation path has been established for molecular-targeted radiotherapy treatment planning, with additional treatment modalities presently under development. (authors)

  7. Coordinating plug-in electric vehicle charging with electric grid: Valley filling and target load following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Jabbari, Faryar; Brown, Tim; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) shift energy consumption from petroleum to electricity for the personal transportation sector. This work proposes a decentralized charging protocol for PEVs with grid operators updating the cost signal. Each PEV calculates its own optimal charging profile only once based on the cost signal, after it is plugged in, and sends the result back to the grid operators. Grid operators only need to aggregate charging profiles and update the load and cost. The existing PEV characteristics, national household travel survey (NHTS), California Independent System Operator (CAISO) demand, and estimates for future renewable generation in California are used to simulate PEV operation, PEV charging profiles, grid demand, and grid net load (demand minus renewable). Results show the proposed protocol has good performance for overnight net load valley filling if the costs to be minimized are proportional to the net load. Annual results are shown in terms of overnight load variation and comparisons are made with grid level valley filling results. Further, a target load can be approached in the same manner by using the gap between current load and the target load as the cost. The communication effort involved is quite modest.

  8. Electricity-price arbitrage with plug-in hybrid electric vehicle: Gain or loss?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Duo; Sun, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    Customers, utilities, and society can gain many benefits from distributed energy resources (DERs), including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Using battery on PHEV to arbitrage electricity price is one of the potential benefits to PHEV owners. There is, however, disagreement on the magnitude of such profit. This study uses a stochastic optimization model to estimate the potential profit from electricity price arbitrage of two types of PHEVs (PHEV-10, and PHEV-40) under three scenarios with variant electricity tariff and PHEV owners over a five-year period. The simulation results indicate that under current market structure, even with significant improvement in battery technologies (e.g., higher efficiency, lower cost), the PHEV owners can't achieve a positive arbitrage profit. This finding implies that expected arbitrage profit solely is not a viable option to engage PHEVs larger adoption. Subsidy and combining PHEV arbitraging with alternative PHEV services are required. - Highlights: •A stochastic optimization model is proposed to assess the arbitrage value of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). •Under current market condition, PHEV owners lose money from conducting PHEV arbitrage if counting battery degradation cost. •PHEV owner loses more money at real time pricing (RTP) than at time of use (TOU) scheme. •Battery improvement will reduce but can't even the arbitrage loss. •Expected arbitrage profit is not a viable option to engage PHEVs in dispatching and in providing ancillary services.

  9. Visual field measurement with motion sensitivity screening test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has been shown that early ocular lesions which manifest as visual field defects or ... easy-to-understand computer perimetry that could be useful in monitoring visual field changes in onchocer- .... education with the equivalent of ordinary level.

  10. Geomechanical Considerations for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is under consideration as a potential alternative to shallower mined repositories. The disposal concept consists of drilling a borehole into crystalline basement rocks to a depth of 5 km, emplacement of canisters containing solid waste in the lower 2 km, and plugging and sealing the upper 3 km of the borehole. Crystalline rocks such as granites are particularly attractive for borehole emplacement because of their low permeability and porosity at depth, and high mechanical strength to resist borehole deformation. In addition, high overburden pressures contribute to sealing of some of the fractures that provide transport pathways. We present geomechanical considerations during construction (e.g., borehole breakouts, disturbed rock zone development, and creep closure), relevant to both the smaller-diameter characterization borehole (8.5") and the larger-diameter field test borehole (17"). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. A Field Test of the New Portable Gamma Spectrometry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung-Ki; Park, Uk Ryang; Park, Seunghoon; Chung, Heejun; Kwak, Sung-Woo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yongkwn [NuCare Medical Systems, Inc., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In order to perform a field test of the system, the measurement of U-235 enrichment for nuclear fuel pellets was conducted along with the IAEA Physical Inventory Verification (PIV) inspection at the KEPCO Nuclear Fuel (KNF). The enrichment value of U-235 was calculated based on the total counts of the 185.7 keV photopeak and compared with the reference line, drawn by certified sources. The goal of this study is to experimentally evaluate the system performance of the developed system. In this study, the new portable gamma spectrometry system showed a good linearity (R{sup 2}=1) but overestimated the enrichment values than IAEA inspection device. It could be caused by the stability of the new system since it found, right after this measurement, that the accuracy of the system gradually increases and becomes stable over time. Further steps will optimize the design parameter based on these results and repeat measurement with the same samples under the same environment.

  12. The Savannah River Technology Center environmental monitoring field test platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossabi, J.

    1993-01-01

    Nearly all industrial facilities have been responsible for introducing synthetic chemicals into the environment. The Savannah River Site is no exception. Several areas at the site have been contaminated by chlorinated volatile organic chemicals. Because of the persistence and refractory nature of these contaminants, a complete clean up of the site will take many years. A major focus of the mission of the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Technology Center is to develop better, faster, and less expensive methods for characterizing, monitoring, and remediating the subsurface. These new methods can then be applied directly at the Savannah River Site and at other contaminated areas in the United States and throughout the world. The Environmental Sciences Section has hosted field testing of many different monitoring technologies over the past two years primarily as a result of the Integrated Demonstration Program sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development. This paper provides an overview of some of the technologies that have been demonstrated at the site and briefly discusses the applicability of these techniques

  13. Rigorously testing multialternative decision field theory against random utility models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitsch, Nicolas A J; Scheibehenne, Benjamin; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2014-06-01

    Cognitive models of decision making aim to explain the process underlying observed choices. Here, we test a sequential sampling model of decision making, multialternative decision field theory (MDFT; Roe, Busemeyer, & Townsend, 2001), on empirical grounds and compare it against 2 established random utility models of choice: the probit and the logit model. Using a within-subject experimental design, participants in 2 studies repeatedly choose among sets of options (consumer products) described on several attributes. The results of Study 1 showed that all models predicted participants' choices equally well. In Study 2, in which the choice sets were explicitly designed to distinguish the models, MDFT had an advantage in predicting the observed choices. Study 2 further revealed the occurrence of multiple context effects within single participants, indicating an interdependent evaluation of choice options and correlations between different context effects. In sum, the results indicate that sequential sampling models can provide relevant insights into the cognitive process underlying preferential choices and thus can lead to better choice predictions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Design and Application of a Power Unit to Use Plug-In Electric Vehicles as an Uninterruptible Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorkem Sen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Grid-enabled vehicles (GEVs such as plug-in electric vehicles present environmental and energy sustainability advantages compared to conventional vehicles. GEV runs solely on power generated by its own battery group, which supplies power to its electric motor. This battery group can be charged from external electric sources. Nowadays, the interaction of GEV with the power grid is unidirectional by the charging process. However, GEV can be operated bi-directionally by modifying its power unit. In such operating conditions, GEV can operate as an uninterruptible power supply (UPS and satisfy a portion or the total energy demand of the consumption center independent from utility grid, which is known as vehicle-to-home (V2H. In this paper, a power unit is developed for GEVs in the laboratory to conduct simulation and experimental studies to test the performance of GEVs as a UPS unit in V2H mode at the time of need. The activation and deactivation of the power unit and islanding protection unit are examined when energy is interrupted.

  15. A robust H∞ control-based hierarchical mode transition control system for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Jiao, Xiaohong; Li, Liang; Zhang, Yuanbo; Chen, Zheng

    2018-01-01

    To realize a fast and smooth operating mode transition process from electric driving mode to engine-on driving mode, this paper presents a novel robust hierarchical mode transition control method for a plug-in hybrid electric bus (PHEB) with pre-transmission parallel hybrid powertrain. Firstly, the mode transition process is divided into five stages to clearly describe the powertrain dynamics. Based on the dynamics models of powertrain and clutch actuating mechanism, a hierarchical control structure including two robust H∞ controllers in both upper layer and lower layer is proposed. In upper layer, the demand clutch torque can be calculated by a robust H∞controller considering the clutch engaging time and the vehicle jerk. While in lower layer a robust tracking controller with L2-gain is designed to perform the accurate position tracking control, especially when the parameters uncertainties and external disturbance occur in the clutch actuating mechanism. Simulation and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test are carried out in a traditional driving condition of PHEB. Results show that the proposed hierarchical control approach can obtain the good control performance: mode transition time is greatly reduced with the acceptable jerk. Meanwhile, the designed control system shows the obvious robustness with the uncertain parameters and disturbance. Therefore, the proposed approach may offer a theoretical reference for the actual vehicle controller.

  16. Optimal Coordinated Management of a Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Station under a Flexible Penalty Contract for Voltage Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jip Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs may cause a low-voltage problem in the distribution network. In particular, the introduction of charging stations where multiple PEVs are simultaneously charged at the same bus can aggravate the low-voltage problem. Unlike a distribution network operator (DNO who has the overall responsibility for stable and reliable network operation, a charging station operator (CSO may schedule PEV charging without consideration for the resulting severe voltage drop. Therefore, there is a need for the DNO to impose a coordination measure to induce the CSO to adjust its charging schedule to help mitigate the voltage problem. Although the current time-of-use (TOU tariff is an indirect coordination measure that can motivate the CSO to shift its charging demand to off-peak time by imposing a high rate at the peak time, it is limited by its rigidity in that the network voltage condition cannot be flexibly reflected in the tariff. Therefore, a flexible penalty contract (FPC for voltage security to be used as a direct coordination measure is proposed. In addition, the optimal coordinated management is formulated. Using the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E 69-bus test distribution network, the effectiveness of the coordination was verified by comparison with the current TOU tariff.

  17. Field tests on migration of TRU-nuclide, (2). Migration test for engineered barrier materials in aerated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Toshikatsu; Tanaka, Tadao; Mukai, Masayuki

    2003-01-01

    Field tests on migration of radionuclides for engineered barrier materials such as bentonite and cementitious materials were performed. The tests were run under both wet conditions with artificial rainfall and dry conditions with natural rainfall. Laboratory experiments such as batch adsorption tests were also conducted to analyze the result of field test. The results of field tests agreed with the predicted moisture conditions and the migration behaviors observed at the laboratory experiment that is reported so far. For bentonite material, the movements of the tracer were calculated using known information such as the results of batch sorption tests and migration mechanism. Comparing the result of field test and calculations, it is suggested that tracer migration behavior in bentonite material in field can be evaluated quantitatively by the known migration mechanism and the results of laboratory experiments such as batch sorption test. (author)

  18. In-use measurement of activity, energy use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graver, Brandon M; Frey, H Christopher; Choi, Hyung-Wook

    2011-10-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) could reduce transportation air emissions and energy use. However, a method is needed for estimating on-road emissions of PHEVs. To develop a framework for quantifying microscale energy use and emissions (EU&E), measurements were conducted on a Toyota Prius retrofitted with a plug-in battery system on eight routes. Measurements were made using the following: (1) a data logger for the hybrid control system; (2) a portable emissions measurement system; and (3) a global positioning system with barometric altimeter. Trends in EU&E are estimated based on vehicle specific power. Energy economy is quantified based on gasoline consumed by the engine and grid energy consumed by the plug-in battery. Emissions from electricity consumption are estimated based on the power generation mix. Fuel use is approximately 30% lower during plug-in battery use. Grid emissions were higher for CO₂, NO(x), SO₂, and PM compared to tailpipe emissions but lower for CO and hydrocarbons. EU&E depends on engine and plug-in battery operation. The use of two energy sources must be addressed in characterizing fuel economy; overall energy economy is 11% lower if including grid energy use than accounting only for fuel consumption.

  19. PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE EMISSIONS UNDER FTP AND US06 CYCLES AT HIGH, AMBIENT, AND LOW TEMPERATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidman, M.R.; Markel, T.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is to displace consumption of gasoline by using electricity from the vehicle’s large battery pack to power the vehicle as much as possible with minimal engine operation. This paper assesses the PHEV emissions and operation. Currently, testing of vehicle emissions is done using the federal standard FTP4 cycle on a dynamometer at ambient (75°F) temperatures. Research was also completed using the US06 cycle. Furthermore, research was completed at high (95°F) and low (20°F) temperatures. Initial dynamometer testing was performed on a stock Toyota Prius under the standard FTP4 cycle, and the more demanding US06 cycle. Each cycle was run at 95°F, 75°F, and 20°F. The testing was repeated with the same Prius retrofi tted with an EnergyCS Plug-in Hybrid Electric system. The results of the testing confi rm that the stock Prius meets Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements under current testing procedures, while the PHEV Prius under current testing procedures were greater than Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements, but still met Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements. Research points to the catalyst temperature being a critical factor in meeting emission requirements. Initial engine emissions pass through with minimal conversion until the catalyst is heated to typical operating temperatures of 300–400°C. PHEVs also have trouble maintaining the minimum catalyst temperature throughout the entire test because the engine is turned off when the battery can support the load. It has been observed in both HEVs and PHEVs that the catalyst is intermittently unable to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, which causes further emission releases. Research needs to be done to combat the initial emission spikes caused by a cold catalyst. Research also needs to be done to improve the reduction of nitrogen oxides by the catalyst system.

  20. Comparison Between 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test and Multistage Field Test on Physiological Responses in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Weissland, Thierry; Faupin, Arnaud; Borel, Benoit; Leprêtre, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The intermittent nature of wheelchair court sports suggests using a similar protocol to assess repeated shuttles and recovery abilities. This study aimed to compare performances, physiological responses and perceived rating exertion obtained from the continuous multistage field test (MFT) and the 30-15 intermittent field test (30-15IFT). Eighteen trained wheelchair basketball players (WBP) (WBP: 32.0 ? 5.7 y, IWBF classification: 2.9 ? 1.1 points) performed both incremental field tests in ran...

  1. Large-scale field testing on flexible shallow landslide barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugnion, Louis; Volkwein, Axel; Wendeler, Corinna; Roth, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Open shallow landslides occur regularly in a wide range of natural terrains. Generally, they are difficult to predict and result in damages to properties and disruption of transportation systems. In order to improve the knowledge about the physical process itself and to develop new protection measures, large-scale field experiments were conducted in Veltheim, Switzerland. Material was released down a 30° inclined test slope into a flexible barrier. The flow as well as the impact into the barrier was monitored using various measurement techniques. Laser devices recording flow heights, a special force plate measuring normal and shear basal forces as well as load cells for impact pressures were installed along the test slope. In addition, load cells were built in the support and retaining cables of the barrier to provide data for detailed back-calculation of load distribution during impact. For the last test series an additional guiding wall in flow direction on both sides of the barrier was installed to achieve higher impact pressures in the middle of the barrier. With these guiding walls the flow is not able to spread out before hitting the barrier. A special constructed release mechanism simulating the sudden failure of the slope was designed such that about 50 m3 of mixed earth and gravel saturated with water can be released in an instant. Analysis of cable forces combined with impact pressures and velocity measurements during a test series allow us now to develop a load model for the barrier design. First numerical simulations with the software tool FARO, originally developed for rockfall barriers and afterwards calibrated for debris flow impacts, lead already to structural improvements on barrier design. Decisive for the barrier design is the first dynamic impact pressure depending on the flow velocity and afterwards the hydrostatic pressure of the complete retained material behind the barrier. Therefore volume estimation of open shallow landslides by assessing

  2. Smart Infrared Inspection System Field Operational Test Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    The Smart InfraRed Inspection System (SIRIS) is a tool designed to assist inspectors in determining which vehicles passing through the SIRIS system are in need of further inspection by measuring the thermal data from the wheel components. As a vehicle enters the system, infrared cameras on the road measure temperatures of the brakes, tires, and wheel bearings on both wheel ends of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in motion. This thermal data is then presented to enforcement personal inside of the inspection station on a user friendly interface. Vehicles that are suspected to have a violation are automatically alerted to the enforcement staff. The main goal of the SIRIS field operational test (FOT) was to collect data to evaluate the performance of the prototype system and determine the viability of such a system being used for commercial motor vehicle enforcement. From March 2010 to September 2010, ORNL facilitated the SIRIS FOT at the Greene County Inspection Station (IS) in Greeneville, Tennessee. During the course of the FOT, 413 CMVs were given a North American Standard (NAS) Level-1 inspection. Of those 413 CMVs, 384 were subjected to a SIRIS screening. A total of 36 (9.38%) of the vehicles were flagged by SIRIS as having one or more thermal issues; with brakes issues making up 33 (91.67%) of those. Of the 36 vehicles flagged as having thermal issues, 31 (86.11%) were found to have a violation and 30 (83.33%) of those vehicles were placed out-of-service (OOS). Overall the enforcement personnel who have used SIRIS for screening purposes have had positive feedback on the potential of SIRIS. With improvements in detection algorithms and stability, the system will be beneficial to the CMV enforcement community and increase overall trooper productivity by accurately identifying a higher percentage of CMVs to be placed OOS with minimal error. No future evaluation of SIRIS has been deemed necessary and specifications for a production system will soon be drafted.

  3. An ecologic accompanying research on the fleet test electromobility. Final report; Oekologische Begleitforschung zum Flottenversuch Elektromobilitaet. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, Heinrich; Lambrecht, Udo; Joehrens, Julius; Pehnt, Martin; Liebich, Axel; Weiss, Uta; Kaemper, Claudia

    2013-06-15

    Mobility is a prerequisite for numerous economic and private activities and thus a central component of our life. The demand for mobility in Germany is predominantly covered by the road traffic. The Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany) carried out an ecologic accompanying research in the course of a fleet test in order to determine the potentials of environmental improvement of the vehicles tested in a field test. These potentials were perpetuated for future serial vehicles and projected to Germany. The main themes of this contribution are: (a) Production and disposal of plug-in-hybrids; (b) The TwinDrive in the fleet test; (c) Plug-in-hybrid serial vehicles 2020; (d) Perspective of electromobility in Germany 2030; (e) Strategic evaluation of the electomobility.

  4. Table 1. Summary of Field Testing and Measurement Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Key performance parameters measured during the field demonstration such as lining thickness, compressive strength, Flexural Strength, Modulus of Elasticity, bond...

  5. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Soares, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems' operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important...... to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles' charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services.This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed......, namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting...

  6. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-11-11

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep analysis was performed over a number of a different battery sizes, charging powers, and charging stations. The net present value was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for the design evaluation. In all cases, given present day economic assumptions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present value while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario reached lower lifetime costs than the hybrid electric bus. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under low market potential assumptions and high market potential assumptions. The net present value of plug-in hybrid electric bus is close to that of conventional bus.

  7. Vadose zone transport field study: Detailed test plan for simulated leak tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL Ward; GW Gee

    2000-01-01

    : identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford's waste disposal sites; reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; develop a detailed and accurate database of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. This plan provides details for conducting field tests during FY 2000 to accomplish these objectives. Details of additional testing during FY 2001 and FY 2002 will be developed as part of the work planning process implemented by the Integration Project

  8. Inter operability of smart field devices on an open field-bus: from laboratory tests to on-site applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piguet, M.; Favennec, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a field trial held in EDF's R and D laboratories concerning smart field instruments (sensors, I/O modules, transmitters) operating on the WorldFIP field-bus. The trial put into operation a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system on the field-bus with available industrial field devices and software tools. The field trial enables EDF's teams to address the inter-operability issue regarding smart field devices and to prepare the forthcoming step from analog to fully digital measurement technology by evaluating new services and higher performances provided. Possible architectures for process control and on-site testing purposes have been identified. A first application for a flow-measuring rig is under way. It implements a WorldFIP field-bus based DCS with FIP/HART multiplexers, FIP and HART smart devices (sensors and actuators) and a field management system. (authors)

  9. Real-world fuel economy and CO{sub 2} emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploetz, Patrick; Funke, Simon Arpad; Jochem, Patrick [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energiepolitik und Energiesysteme

    2015-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual PHEV that have been observed over more than a year in the U.S. and Germany. We find that real-world fuel economy of PHEV differ widely among users. The main factors explaining this variation are the annual mileage, the regularity of daily driving, and the likelihood of long-distance trips. Current test cycle fuel economy ratings neglect these factors. Despite the broad range of PHEV fuel economies, the test cycle fuel economy ratings can be close to empiric PHEV fleet averages if the average annual mile-age is about 17,000 km. For the largest group of PHEV in our data, the Chevrolet Volt, we find the average fuel economy to be 1.45 litres/100 km at an average electric driving share of 78%. The resulting real-world tank-to-wheel CO{sub 2} emissions of these PHEV are 42 gCO{sub 2}/km and the annual CO{sub 2} savings in the U.S. amount to about 50 Mt. In conclusion, the variance of empirical PHEV fuel economy is considerably higher than of conventional vehicles. This should be taken into account by future test cycles and high electric driving shares should be incentivised.

  10. Guide to Federal Funding, Financing, and Technical Assistance for Plug-in Electric Vehicles and Charging Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-07-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Department of Transportation have published a guide to highlight examples of federal support and technical assistance for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and charging stations. The guide provides a description of each opportunity and a point of contact to assist those interested in advancing PEV technology. The Department of Energy’s Alternative Fuels Data Center provides a comprehensive database of federal and state programs that support plug-in electric vehicles and infrastructure.

  11. Results of ITER toroidal field coil cover plate welding test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Norikiyo; Matsui, Kunihiro; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Nakajima, Hideo; Iijima, Ami; Makino, Yoshinobu

    2012-01-01

    In ITER Toroidal Field (TF) coils, cover plates (CP) are welded to the teeth of the radial plate (RP) to fix conductors in the grooves of the RP. Though the total length of the welds is approximately 1.5 km and the height and width of the RP are 14 and 9 m, respectively, welding deformation of smaller than 1 mm for local out-of-plane distortion and smaller than several millimeters for in-plane deformation is required. Therefore, laser welding is used for CP welding to reduce welding deformation as much as possible. However, the gap in welding joints is expected to be a maximum of 0.5 mm. Thus, a laser welding technique to enable welding of joints with a gap of 0.5 mm in width has been developed. Applying this technology, a CP welding trial using an RP mock-up was successfully performed. The achieved local flatness, that is, the flatness of the cross-section of the RP mock-up, is 0.6 mm. The analysis using inherent strains, which are derived from the welding test using flat plates, also indicates that better local flatness can be achieved if the initial distortion is zero. In addition, the welding deformation of a full-scale RP is evaluated via analysis using the inherent strain. The analytical results show that in-plane deformation is approximately 5 mm and large out-of-plane deformation, consisting of approximately 5 mm-long wave distortion and a twist of approximately 1.5 mm in the RP cross-section, is generated. It is expected that the required profile can be achieved by determining the original geometry of an RP by simulating deformation during welding. It is also expected that the required local flatness of a DP can be achieved, since out-of-plane deformation can be reduced by increasing the number of RPs turned over during CP welding. A more detailed study is required. (author)

  12. Torque Coordination Control during Braking Mode Switch for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid vehicles usually have several braking systems, and braking mode switches are significant events during braking. It is difficult to coordinate torque fluctuations caused by mode switches because the dynamic characteristics of braking systems are different. In this study, a new type of plug-in hybrid vehicle is taken as the research object, and braking mode switches are divided into two types. The control strategy of type one is achieved by controlling the change rates of clutch hold-down and motor braking forces. The control strategy of type two is achieved by simultaneously changing the target braking torque during different mode switch stages and controlling the motor to participate in active coordination control. Finally, the torque coordination control strategy is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink, and the results show that the proposed control strategy has a good effect in reducing the braking torque fluctuation and vehicle shocks during braking mode switches.

  13. Self-learning control system for plug-in hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Robert C [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A system is provided to instruct a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle how optimally to use electric propulsion from a rechargeable energy storage device to reach an electric recharging station, while maintaining as high a state of charge (SOC) as desired along the route prior to arriving at the recharging station at a minimum SOC. The system can include the step of calculating a straight-line distance and/or actual distance between an orientation point and the determined instant present location to determine when to initiate optimally a charge depleting phase. The system can limit extended driving on a deeply discharged rechargeable energy storage device and reduce the number of deep discharge cycles for the rechargeable energy storage device, thereby improving the effective lifetime of the rechargeable energy storage device. This "Just-in-Time strategy can be initiated automatically without operator input to accommodate the unsophisticated operator and without needing a navigation system/GPS input.

  14. Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) with grid connected residential photovoltaic energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Adarsh; Shireen, Wajiha

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes an approach for integrating Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) to an existing residential photovoltaic system, to control and optimize the power consumption of residential load. Control involves determining the source from which residential load will be catered, where as optimization of power flow reduces the stress on the grid. The system built to achieve the goal is a combination of the existing residential photovoltaic system, PHEV, Power Conditioning Unit (PCU), and a controller. The PCU involves two DC-DC Boost Converters and an inverter. This paper emphasizes on developing the controller logic and its implementation in order to accommodate the flexibility and benefits of the proposed integrated system. The proposed controller logic has been simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK and further implemented using Digital Signal Processor (DSP) microcontroller, TMS320F28035, from Texas Instruments

  15. Consumer Behavior and the Plug-In Electric Vehicle Purchase Decision Process: A Research Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impact Dept.; Fujita, K. Sydney [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impact Dept.

    2018-01-31

    This report synthesizes consumer behavior research as it pertains to the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) purchase decision process. The purpose is to clarify what is known about the vital role consumers play in the U.S. PEV market as it matures to become less policy-reliant and more representative of the U.S., both spatially and demographically. A more representative PEV market will: help OEMs recoup more of their R&D investments in PEVs; help American consumers access the economic and performance benefits of PEVs; and help the U.S. become more energy independent while improving air quality-related public health and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Impact of Uncoordinated Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging on Residential Power Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-22

    Electrification of transport offers opportunities to increase energy security, reduce carbon emissions, and improve local air quality. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are creating new connections between the transportation and electric sectors, and PEV charging will create opportunities and challenges in a system of growing complexity. Here, I use highly resolved models of residential power demand and PEV use to assess the impact of uncoordinated in-home PEV charging on residential power demand. While the increase in aggregate demand might be minimal even for high levels of PEV adoption, uncoordinated PEV charging could significantly change the shape of the aggregate residential demand, with impacts for electricity infrastructure, even at low adoption levels. Clustering effects in vehicle adoption at the local level might lead to high PEV concentrations even if overall adoption remains low, significantly increasing peak demand and requiring upgrades to the electricity distribution infrastructure. This effect is exacerbated when adopting higher in-home power charging.

  17. Consumer Views on Plug-in Electric Vehicles -- National Benchmark Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-31

    Vehicle manufacturers, U.S. Department of Energy laboratories, universities, private researchers, and organizations from around the globe are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce the consumption of petroleum in the form of gasoline and diesel. In order to make these technologies most appealing to the marketplace, they must take consumer sentiment into account. This report details study findings of broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround the advanced vehicle technologies of plug-in electric vehicles and is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Office in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, provide mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability.

  18. On the performance of accelerated particle swarm optimization for charging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Rahman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation electrification has undergone major changes since the last decade. Success of smart grid with renewable energy integration solely depends upon the large-scale penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs for a sustainable and carbon-free transportation sector. One of the key performance indicators in hybrid electric vehicle is the State-of-Charge (SoC which needs to be optimized for the betterment of charging infrastructure using stochastic computational methods. In this paper, a newly emerged Accelerated particle swarm optimization (APSO technique was applied and compared with standard particle swarm optimization (PSO considering charging time and battery capacity. Simulation results obtained for maximizing the highly nonlinear objective function indicate that APSO achieves some improvements in terms of best fitness and computation time.

  19. Review on Automotive Power Generation System on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Yap Wee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is a function to recharge power bank on the Plug-in electric vehicles (PHEV and electric vehicles (EV. The weakness of this system is, it can only perform its function when the vehicle is slowing down or by stepping the brake foot pedal. In other words, the electricity recharging system is inconsistent, non-continuous and geography dependent. To overcome the weakness of the regenerative braking system, it is suggested that to apply another generator which is going to be parallel with the regenerative braking system so that continuous charging can be achieved. Since the ironless electricity generator has a less counter electromotive force (CEMF comparing to an ironcored electricity generator and no cogging torque. Applying the ironless electricity generator parallel to the regenerative braking system is seen one of the options which creates sustainable charging system compared to cored electricity generator.

  20. Protecting Public Health: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging and the Healthcare Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryder, Carrie; Lommele, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    In 2014, the U.S. transportation sector consumed more than 13 million barrels of petroleum a day, approximately 70% of all domestic petroleum consumption. Internal combustion engine vehicles are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), smog-forming compounds, particulate matter, and other air pollutants. Widespread use of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, including plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), can reduce our national dependence on petroleum and decrease the emissions that impact our air quality and public health. Healthcare organizations are major employers and community leaders that are committed to public well-being and are often early adopters of employer best practices. A growing number of hospitals are offering PEV charging stations for employees to help promote driving electric vehicles, reduce their carbon footprint, and improve local air quality.

  1. Potential For Plug-In Electric Vehicles To Provide Grid Support Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, F. G.; Luo, Y.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Hovsapian, R.; Scoffield, D.

    2017-04-01

    Since the modern-day introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), scientists have proposed leveraging PEV battery packs as distributed energy resources for the electric grid. PEV charging can be controlled not only to provide energy for transportation but also to provide grid services and to facilitate the integration of renewable energy generation. With renewable generation increasing at an unprecedented rate, most of which is non-dispatchable and intermittent, the concept of using PEVs as controllable loads is appealing to electric utilities. This additional functionality could also provide value to PEV owners and drive PEV adoption. It has been widely proposed that PEVs can provide valuable grid services, such as load shifting to provide voltage regulation. The objective this work is to address the degree to which PEVs can provide grid services and mutually benefit the electric utilities, PEV owners, and auto manufacturers.

  2. On integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles into existing power system structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galus, Matthias D.; Zima, Marek; Andersson, Goeran

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) represent one option for the electrification of private mobility. In order to efficiently integrate PHEVs into power systems, existing organizational structures need to be considered. Based on procedures of power systems planning and operation, actors are identified whose operational activities will be affected by PHEV integration. Potential changes and challenges in the actors' long- and short term planning activities are discussed. Further, a PHEV operation state description is developed which defines vehicle operation states from the power system point of view integrating uncontrolled, controlled recharging and vehicle to grid (V2G) utilization in one single framework. Future PHEV managing entities, such as aggregators, can use this framework for planning and operation activities including load management and V2G. This operational state description could provide a solution for future short term planning challenges of PHEVs and an aegis for various routes of current research, which to date have been weakly linked to each other.

  3. A new ImageJ plug-in "ActogramJ" for chronobiological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Benjamin; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte; Yoshii, Taishi

    2011-10-01

    While the rapid development of personal computers and high-throughput recording systems for circadian rhythms allow chronobiologists to produce huge amounts of data, the software to analyze them often lags behind. Here, we announce newly developed chronobiology software that is easy to use, compatible with many different systems, and freely available. Our system can perform the most frequently used analyses: actogram drawing, periodogram analysis, and waveform analysis. The software is distributed as a pure Java plug-in for ImageJ and so works on the 3 main operating systems: Linux, Macintosh, and Windows. We believe that this free software raises the speed of data analyses and makes studying chronobiology accessible to newcomers. © 2011 The Author(s)

  4. Impact of uncoordinated plug-in electric vehicle charging on residential power demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    2018-03-01

    Electrification of transport offers opportunities to increase energy security, reduce carbon emissions, and improve local air quality. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are creating new connections between the transportation and electric sectors, and PEV charging will create opportunities and challenges in a system of growing complexity. Here, I use highly resolved models of residential power demand and PEV use to assess the impact of uncoordinated in-home PEV charging on residential power demand. While the increase in aggregate demand might be minimal even for high levels of PEV adoption, uncoordinated PEV charging could significantly change the shape of the aggregate residential demand, with impacts for electricity infrastructure, even at low adoption levels. Clustering effects in vehicle adoption at the local level might lead to high PEV concentrations even if overall adoption remains low, significantly increasing peak demand and requiring upgrades to the electricity distribution infrastructure. This effect is exacerbated when adopting higher in-home power charging.

  5. National Economic Value Assessment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stright, Dana [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can reduce household fuel expenditures by substituting electricity for gasoline while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum imports. A scenario approach is employed to provide insights into the long-term economic value of increased PEV market growth across the United States. The analytic methods estimate fundamental costs and benefits associated with an economic allocation of PEVs across households based upon household driving patterns, projected vehicle cost and performance attributes, and simulations of a future electricity grid. To explore the full technological potential of PEVs and resulting demands on the electricity grid, very high PEV market growth projections from previous studies are relied upon to develop multiple future scenarios.

  6. Targeting plug-in hybrid electric vehicle policies to increase social benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skerlos, Steven J.; Winebrake, James J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the U.S. federal government enacted tax credits aimed at encouraging consumers to purchase plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). These tax credits are available to all consumers equally and therefore do not account for the variability in social benefits associated with PHEV operation in different parts of the country. The tax credits also do not consider variability in consumer income. This paper discusses why the PHEV subsidy policy would have higher social benefits at equal or less cost if the tax credits were offered at different levels depending on consumer income and the location of purchase. Quantification of these higher social benefits and related policy proposals are left for future work.

  7. Verification, validation, and field testing the USEPA National Stormwater Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — We used this dataset to verify and validate functions in the USEPA National Stormwater Calculator, and then applied field data and commonly-available datasets to...

  8. Technology Roadmaps - Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    The mass deployment of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and PHEVs) that rely on low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission electricity generation has great potential to significantly reduce the consumption of petroleum and other high CO2-emitting transportation fuels. The vision of the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid (EV/PHEV) Vehicles Roadmap is to achieve by 2050 the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs, which together represent more than 50% of annual LDV (light duty vehicle) sales worldwide. In addition to establishing a vision, this roadmap sets strategic goals to achieve it, and identifies the steps that need to be taken to accomplish these goals. This roadmap also outlines the roles and collaboration opportunities for different stakeholders and shows how government policy can support the overall achievement of the vision. The strategic goals for attaining the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs worldwide by 2050 cover the development of the EV/PHEV market worldwide through 2030 and involve targets that align with global targets to stabilise GHG concentrations. These technology-specific goals include the following: Set targets for electric-drive vehicle sales; Develop coordinated strategies to support the market introduction of electric-drive vehicles; Improve industry understanding of consumer needs and behaviours; Develop performance metrics for characterising vehicles; Foster energy storage RD and D initiatives to reduce costs and address resource-related issues; and, Develop and implement recharging infrastructure. The roadmap outlines additional recommendations that must be considered in order to successfully meet the technology milestones and strategic goals. These recommendations include the following: Use a comprehensive mix of policies that provide a clear framework and balance stakeholder interests; Engage in international collaboration efforts; and, Address policy and industry needs at a national level. The IEA will work in an

  9. Modeling light-duty plug-in electric vehicles for national energy and transportation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Di; Aliprantis, Dionysios C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper sets forth a family of models of light-duty plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) fleets, appropriate for conducting long-term national-level planning studies of the energy and transportation sectors in an integrated manner. Using one of the proposed models, three case studies on the evolution of the U.S. energy and transportation infrastructures are performed, where portfolios of optimum investments over a 40-year horizon are identified, and interdependencies between the two sectors are highlighted. The results indicate that with a gradual but aggressive introduction of PEVs coupled with investments in renewable energy, the total cost from the energy and transportation systems can be reduced by 5%, and that overall emissions from electricity generation and light-duty vehicle (LDV) tailpipes can be reduced by 10% over the 40-year horizon. The annual gasoline consumption from LDVs can be reduced by 66% by the end of the planning horizon, but an additional 800 TWh of annual electricity demand will be introduced. In addition, various scenarios of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions are investigated. It is found that GHG emissions can be significantly reduced with only a marginal cost increment, by shifting electricity generation from coal to renewable sources. - Highlights: • We model plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) for long-term national planning studies. • Realistic travel patterns are used to estimate the vehicles' energy consumption. • National energy and transportation system interdependencies are considered. • Case studies illustrate optimum investments in energy and transportation sectors. • PEVs synergistically with renewable energy can aggressively reduce GHG emissions

  10. Hybrid, plug-in hybrid, or electric—What do car buyers want?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    We use a survey to compare consumers’ stated interest in conventional gasoline (CV), hybrid (HEV), plug-in hybrid (PHEV) and pure electric vehicles (EV) of varying designs and prices. Data are from 508 households representing new vehicle buyers in San Diego County, California in 2011. The mixed-mode survey collected information about access to residential recharge infrastructure, three days of driving patterns, and desired vehicle designs and motivations via design games. Across the higher and lower price scenarios, a majority of consumers designed and selected some form of PHEV for their next new vehicle, smaller numbers designed an HEV or a conventional vehicle, and only a few percent designed an EV. Of those who did not design an EV, the most frequent concerns with EVs were limited range, charger availability, and higher vehicle purchase prices. Positive interest in HEVs, PHEVs and EVs was associated with vehicle images of intelligence, responsibility, and support of the environment and nation (United States). The distribution of vehicle designs suggests that cheaper, smaller battery PHEVs may achieve more short-term market success than larger battery PHEVs or EV. New car buyers’ present interests align with less expensive first steps in a transition to electric-drive vehicles. - Highlights: • We assess consumer interest in various electric-drive vehicle designs. • Web-based design games completed by 508 households from San Diego, California. • Plug-in hybrids are most popular, followed by hybrids and conventional vehicles. • Only a few percent opted for a pure electric vehicle. • Electric-drive associated with intelligence, responsibility, and environment

  11. Impacts of plug-in electric vehicles in a balancing area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Unit commitment methodology is used to determine BEV impact on electricity market. • Roles of charging profile, dispatch strategy and interconnecting area are assessed. • Results show that impact of BEV on cost of electricity generation is small. • Controlled BEV charging can lower emissions intensity of the grid and MCP. • BEV deployment helps reduce overall criteria pollutant emissions. - Abstract: High contributions of the electricity generation and transportation sectors to criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions have resulted in an increased interest and shift towards low to non-carbon generation options such as renewable wind and solar, and alternative transportation options including plug-in electric vehicles. Since plug-in electric vehicles transfer the tailpipe emissions to the electric grid, it is important to study the interaction between the two sectors. In this paper, a previously developed spatially and temporally resolved unit commitment model is used to determine the dispatch schedule of resources with and without battery electric vehicles for 2050 in a fictitious balancing area located within the South Coast Air Basin of California. Cases studied include various charging profiles, penetration in light-duty fleet, imports mix, and grid dispatch strategies. Results of the analysis include average cost of electricity production, market clearing price, temporal production of individual generators, and emissions from electricity generation and the transportation sectors. The results show that deploying battery electric vehicles (1) has little impact on the average cost of electricity generation-maximum of $2.5 per MW h for the cases studied with 40% penetration in the light-duty fleet, (2) reduces the overall criteria pollutant emissions except for one case, and (3) results in a smoother load profile, reduces the use of peaking units, and reduces the average emission intensity of the grid through controlled off

  12. Predicting the market potential of plug-in electric vehicles using multiday GPS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Mobashwir; Kockelman, Kara M.

    2012-01-01

    GPS data for a year's worth of travel by 255 Seattle households illuminate how plug-in electric vehicles can match household needs. The results suggest that a battery-electric vehicle (BEV) with 100 mi of range should meet the needs of 50% of one-vehicle households and 80% of multiple-vehicle households, when charging once a day and relying on another vehicle or mode just 4 days a year. Moreover, the average one-vehicle Seattle household uses each vehicle 23 mi per day and should be able to electrify close to 80% of its miles, while meeting all its travel needs, using a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with 40-mile all-electric range. Households owning two or more vehicles can electrify 50 to 70% of their total household miles using a PHEV40, depending on how they assign the vehicle across drivers each day. Cost comparisons between the average single-vehicle household owning a Chevrolet Cruze versus a Volt PHEV suggest that, when gas prices are $3.50 per gallon and electricity rates are at 11.2 ct/kWh, the Volt will save the household $535 per year in operating costs. Similarly, the Toyota Prius PHEV will provide an annual savings of $538 per year over the Corolla. - Highlights: ► Daily travel distances over a year were obtained for 255 Seattle households. ► 100-mi-range BEVs can meet 99% of daily needs for 50% of one-vehicle households. ► 100-mi-range BEVs can meet 99% of needs for 80% of multi-vehicle households. ► One-vehicle households will electrify close to 80% of their miles using a PHEV40 while meeting all trip-distance needs. ► Two-vehicle households can electrify 50 to 70% of household miles using a PHEV40 while meeting all trip-distance needs.

  13. Testing Chameleon Theories with Light Propagating through a Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Brax, P.; van de Bruck, C.; Davis, A. C.; Mota, D. F.; Shaw, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    It was recently argued that the observed PVLAS anomaly can be explained by chameleon field theories in which large deviations from Newton's law can be avoided. Here we present the predictions for the dichroism and the birefringence induced in the vacuum by a magnetic field in these models. We show that chameleon particles behave very differently from standard axion-like particles (ALPs). We find that, unlike ALPs, the chameleon particles are confined within the experimental set-up. As a conse...

  14. Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chris A. Hodge, Ding Yuan, Raymond P. Keegan, Michael A. Krstich

    2007-01-01

    Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as 'Pagers'. This test, 'Bobcat', was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS

  15. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-10-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of the art of exercise testing in the Olympic disciplines of eventing, show jumping and dressage, and areas for further development are defined. In event horses, a simple four-step incremental exercise test measuring heart rate (HR), lactate concentration (LA) and velocity (V) is most often used. In dressage and riding horses, a wide variety of exercise tests have been developed, including incremental exercise tests, indoor riding tests and lunging tests. In show jumping, the use of a five-step incremental exercise test and exercise tests evaluating technical skills and fatigue of the horse has been reported. The velocity at a plasma LA of 4 mmol/L (VLA4) and HR recovery during submaximal exercise intensity have been shown to be the best parameters in event horses for predicting performance and impending injuries. In riding horses, the fitness level of horses is also an important determinant of injuries. Implementation of regular exercise testing and monitoring of training sessions may have important added value in the assessment of performance ability and potential future injuries in Warmblood sport horses. However, there is an urgent need to standardise methodologies and outcome parameters in order to make results comparable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Superconducting magnet development capability of the LLNL [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory] High Field Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.R.; Shen, S.; Summers, L.T.

    1990-02-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: High-Field Test Facility Equipment at LLNL; FENIX Magnet Facility; High-Field Test Facility (HFTF) 2-m Solenoid; Cryogenic Mechanical Test Facility; Electro-Mechanical Conductor Test Apparatus; Electro-Mechanical Wire Test Apparatus; FENIX/HFTF Data System and Network Topology; Helium Gas Management System (HGMS); Airco Helium Liquefier/Refrigerator; CTI 2800 Helium Liquefier; and MFTF-B/ITER Magnet Test Facility

  17. [Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Gerolf; Irblich, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work This study investigated to what extent diagnosticians use reviews of psychometric tests for children and adolescents, how they evaluate their quality, and what they expect concerning content. Test users (n = 323) from different areas of work (notably social pediatrics, early intervention, special education, speech and language therapy) rated test reviews as one of the most important sources of information. Readers of test reviews value practically oriented descriptions and evaluations of tests that are relevant to their respective field of work. They expect independent reviews that critically discuss opportunities and limits of the tests under scrutiny. The results show that authors of test reviews should not only have a background in test theory but should also be familiar with the practical application of tests in various settings.

  18. Field test of wireless sensor network in the nuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Wang, Q.; Bari, A.; Deng, C.; Chen, D.; Jiang, J.; Alexander, Q.; Sur, B.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are appealing options for the health monitoring of nuclear power plants due to their low cost and flexibility. Before they can be used in highly regulated nuclear environments, their reliability in the nuclear environment and compatibility with existing devices have to be assessed. In situ electromagnetic interference tests, wireless signal propagation tests, and nuclear radiation hardness tests conducted on candidate WSN systems at AECL Chalk River Labs are presented. The results are favourable to WSN in nuclear applications. (author)

  19. Field test of wireless sensor network in the nuclear environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L., E-mail: lil@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Wang, Q.; Bari, A. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Deng, C.; Chen, D. [Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Jiang, J. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Alexander, Q.; Sur, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are appealing options for the health monitoring of nuclear power plants due to their low cost and flexibility. Before they can be used in highly regulated nuclear environments, their reliability in the nuclear environment and compatibility with existing devices have to be assessed. In situ electromagnetic interference tests, wireless signal propagation tests, and nuclear radiation hardness tests conducted on candidate WSN systems at AECL Chalk River Labs are presented. The results are favourable to WSN in nuclear applications. (author)

  20. Test-particle motion in Einstein's unified field theory. I. General theory and application to neutral test particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    We develop a method for finding the exact equations of structure and motion of multipole test particles in Einstein's unified field theory: the theory of the nonsymmetric field. The method is also applicable to Einstein's gravitational theory. Particles are represented by singularities in the field. The method is covariant at each step of the analysis. We also apply the method and find both in Einstein's unified field theory and in Einstein's gravitational theory the equations of structure and motion of neutral pole-dipole test particles possessing no electromagnetic multipole moments. In the case of Einstein's gravitational theory the results are the well-known equations of structure and motion of a neutral pole-dipole test particle in a given background gravitational field. In the case of Einstein's unified field theory the results are the same, providing we identify a certain symmetric second-rank tensor field appearing in Einstein's theory with the metric and gravitational field. We therefore discover not only the equations of structure and motion of a neutral test particle in Einstein's unified field theory, but we also discover what field in Einstein's theory plays the role of metric and gravitational field

  1. The German remote monitoring field test -- First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.; Neumann, G.; Rudolf, K.; Schink, F.J.; Johnson, C.S.; Martinez, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency strives to increase the efficiency of its safeguards by reducing the inspection effort without losing safeguards effectiveness. Remote data transmission may have a potential to automate routine safeguards. The German government sponsors a field trial to study technical and non-technical issues related to the remote transmission of safeguards and status data as well as mailing-in of data carriers. Major technical issues of the field trial are the authenticity and confidentiality of the remotely received data as well as the reliability of the transmission techniques and data storage on removable data carriers. Non-technical issues are related to the release of data including the timing of data transmissions. The field trial takes place in the commercial Ahaus Dry Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel with participation of Sandia National Laboratories. The paper describes the first results

  2. Testing chameleon theories with light propagating through a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Bruck, Carsten van de; Davis, Anne-Christine; Mota, David F.; Shaw, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    It was recently argued that the observed PVLAS anomaly can be explained by chameleon field theories in which large deviations from Newton's law can be avoided. Here we present the predictions for the dichroism and the birefringence induced in the vacuum by a magnetic field in these models. We show that chameleon particles behave very differently from standard axionlike particles (ALPs). We find that, unlike ALPs, the chameleon particles are confined within the experimental setup. As a consequence, the birefringence is always bigger than the dichroism in PVLAS-type experiments

  3. A Field Test for Upper Body Strength and Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jack K.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Researchers studied the reliability of the modified push-up test in measuring upper body strength and endurance in elementary through college students. It also examined the accuracy of partner scoring. The test proved much easier to administer than the regular floor push-up. It was valid and reliable for all students and suitable for partner…

  4. Optical Automatic Car Identification (OACI) Field Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    The results of the Optical Automatic Car Identification (OACI) tests at Chicago conducted from August 16 to September 4, 1975 are presented. The main purpose of this test was to determine the suitability of optics as a principle of operation for an a...

  5. Drunk driving warning system (DDWS). Volume 2, Field test evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    The Drunk Driving Warning System (DDWS) is a vehicle-mounted device for testing driver impairment and activating alarms. The driver must pass a steering competency test (the Critical Tracking Task or CTT) in order to drive the car in a normal manner....

  6. Final report of the Buffer Mass Test - Volume I: Scope, preparative field work and test arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Nilsson, J.; Ramqvist, G.

    1985-07-01

    The Buffer Mass Test was conducted in a 30 m long drift at 340 m depth in the Stripa mine, The main objective being to check the predicted functions of certain bentonite-based buffer materials in rock environment. These materials were blocks of highly compacted sodium bentonite placed in large boreholes simulating deposition holes for canisters, and on-site compacted sand/bentonite mixtures used as tunnel backfill. The blocks of bentonite embedded electrical heaters which served to produce heat so as to create conditions similar to those in a repository. The temperature in the initially non-saturated buffer materials was expected to be a function of the water uptake from the rock, which was also assumed to lead to rather high swelling pressures. The recording of these processes and of the moistening of the buffer materials , as well as of the associated build-up of piezometric heads at rock/buffer interfaces, was the major item of the field test. For this purpose the buffer materials and the rock were equipped with a large number of thermal elements, pressure and piezometric cells as well as moisture sensors. The choise of positions and properties of these gauges, which were connected to an effective data acquisition system, was based on predictions that required a careful site documentation with respect to the fracture characteristics and hydrological properties of the surrounding rock. (author)

  7. Field Lysimeter Test Facility: Protective barrier test results (FY 1990, the third year)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.D.; Gee, G.W.

    1990-11-01

    The Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) was constructed to test protective barriers for isolating low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes from the biosphere. Protective barriers are specially configured earth materials placed over near-surface wastes to prevent intrusion of water, plants, and animals. Low-level radioactive waste is stored in near-surface repositories at the Hanford Site and can be transported into the biosphere by water, plants, and animals. The purpose of the FLTF is to measure water balance within barriers as precipitation is partitioned to evaporation (including transpiration), storage, and drainage. Runoff was prevented by raised edges on the lysimeters. Water balance in protective barriers depends on the water-holding capacity of the soil, the gradient of a potential, and the conductivity of the underlying capillary barrier. Current barrier design uses soil with a high water storage capacity and a capillary barrier underlying the soil to increase its water storage capacity. This increased storage capacity is to hold water, which would normally drain, near the the surface where evaporation can cycle it back to the atmosphere. 7 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Visual Field Measurement with Motion Sensitivity Screening Test in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eye disease is a frequent complication of onchocerciasis in countrise where the disease is highly endemic. It has been shown that early ocular lesions which manifest as visual field defects or reduction in visual acuity can be reversed following treatment with ivermectin. At the community level, it is important to detect ...

  9. Translating laboratory compaction test results to field scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roholl, J.A.; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Breunese, J.N.

    2016-01-01

    In recent studies on the surface subsidence caused by hydrocarbon recovery of the Groningen gas field, the predicted subsidence is overestimated if results of compaction experiments are not corrected by an empirical `upscaling factor'. In order to find an explanation for this `upscaling factor', an

  10. Discriminative deep inelastic tests of strong interaction field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glueck, M.; Reya, E.

    1979-02-01

    It is demonstrated that recent measurements of ∫ 0 1 F 2 (x, Q 2 )dx eliminate already all strong interaction field theories except QCD. A detailed study of scaling violations of F 2 (x, Q 2 ) in QCD shows their insensitivity to the gluon content of the hadron at presently measured values of Q 2 . (orig.) [de

  11. Plug-in-Hybrid Vehicle Use, Energy Consumption, and Greenhouse Emissions: An Analysis of Household Vehicle Placements in Northern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kammen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the real-world use over the course of one year of a nickel-metal-hydride plug-in hybrid—the Toyota Plug-In HV—by a set of 12 northern California households able to charge at home and work. From vehicle use data, energy and greenhouse-emissions implications are also explored. A total of 1557 trips—most using under 0.5 gallons of gasoline—ranged up to 2.4 hours and 133 miles and averaged 14 minutes and 7 miles. 399 charging events averaged 2.6 hours. The maximum lasted 4.6 hours. Most recharges added less than 1.4 kWh, with a mean charge of 0.92 kWh. The average power drawn was under one-half kilowatt. The greenhouse gas emissions from driving and charging were estimated to be 2.6 metric tons, about half of the emissions expected from a 22.4-mpg vehicle (the MY2009 fleet-wide real-world average. The findings contribute to better understanding of how plug-in hybrids might be used, their potential impact, and how potential benefits and requirements vary for different plug-in-vehicle designs. For example, based on daily driving distances, 20 miles of charge-depleting range would have been fully utilized on 81% of days driven, whereas 40 miles would not have been fully utilized on over half of travel days.

  12. Consumer Views: Fuel Economy, Plug-in Electric Vehicle Battery Range, and Willingness to Pay for Vehicle Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-11

    This presentation includes data captured by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) research efforts. The data capture consumer views on fuel economy, plug-in electric vehicle battery range, and willingness to pay for advanced vehicle technologies.

  13. Evaluation of energy requirements for all-electric range of plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, Shaik; Rudramoorthy, R.; Neelakrishnan, S.; Sri Raja Varman, K.; Arjunan, T.V.

    2011-01-01

    Recently plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are emerging as one of the promising alternative to improve the sustainability of transportation energy and air quality especially in urban areas. The all-electric range in PHEV design plays a significant role in sizing of battery pack and cost. This paper presents the evaluation of battery energy and power requirements for a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler for different all-electric ranges. An analytical vehicle model and MATLAB simulation analysis has been discussed. The MATLAB simulation results estimate the impact of driving cycle and all-electric range on energy capacity, additional mass and initial cost of lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries. This paper also focuses on influence of cycle life on annual cost of battery pack and recommended suitable battery pack for implementing in plug-in hybrid electric two-wheelers. -- Research highlights: → Evaluates the battery energy and power requirements for a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler. → Simulation results reveal that the IDC demand more energy and cost of battery compared to ECE R40. → If cycle life is considered, the annual cost of Ni-MH battery pack is lower than lead-acid and Li-ion.

  14. Incentive-based coordinated charging control of plug-in electric vehicles at the distribution-transformer level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, R.M.; Almassalkhi, M.R.; Hiskens, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    Distribution utilities are becoming increasingly aware that their networks may struggle to accommodate large numbers of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). In particular, uncoordinated overnight charging is expected to be problematic, as the corresponding aggregated power demand exceeds the capacity

  15. ANOLE Portable Radiation Detection System Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, Chris A.

    2007-01-01

    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign

  16. Radiation Isotope Identification Device (RIIDs) Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher Hodge, Raymond Keegan

    2007-01-01

    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign

  17. Field Tests with Drilled Shafts in Tension in Frictional Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Damkilde, Lars; Andersen, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Three series of ten piles each have been installed. The lengths of the piles varied from 2 m to 6 m and the diameters were 14 cm, 25 cm and 60 cm. The piles were constructed above the ground water table using continuous flight augers and the concrete was placed by gravity free fall. All piles were...... tested to failure in axial uplift and the load-displacement relations were recorded and the results from the tests have been compared with theoretical values based on current design practice and the methods proposed by Fleming et al. and Reese & O'Neill seem to produce the best match with the test...

  18. Consensus on Intermediate Scale Salt Field Test Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L; Mills, Melissa Marie; Matteo, Edward N

    2017-03-01

    This report summarizes the first stage in a collaborative effort by Sandia, Los Alamos, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories to design a small-diameter borehole heater test in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE). The intention is to complete test design during the remainder of fiscal year 2017 (FY17), and the implementation of the test will begin in FY18. This document is the result of regular meetings between the three national labs and the DOE-NE, and is intended to represent a consensus of these meetings and discussions.

  19. Plug-in vs. wireless charging: Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for an electric bus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Zicheng; Song, Lingjun; De Kleine, Robert; Mi, Chunting Chris; Keoleian, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this study, plug-in and wireless charging for an all-electric bus system are compared from the life cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions perspectives. The comparison of life cycle GHG emissions is shown in the graph below. The major differences between the two systems, including the charger, battery and use-phase electricity consumption, are modeled separately and compared aggregately. In the base case, the wireless charging system consumes 0.3% less energy and emits 0.5% less greenhouse gases than plug-in charging system in the total life cycle. To further improve the energy and environmental performance of the wireless charging system, key parameters including grid carbon intensity and wireless charging efficiency are analyzed and discussed in this paper. - Highlights: • Compared life cycle energy and GHG emissions of wireless to plug-in charging. • Modeled a transit bus system to compare both charging methods as a case study. • Contrasted tradeoffs of infrastructure burdens with lightweighting benefits. • The wireless battery can be downsized to 27–44% of a plug-in charged battery. • Explored sensitivity of wireless charging efficiency & grid carbon intensity. - Abstract: Wireless charging, as opposed to plug-in charging, is an alternative charging method for electric vehicles (EVs) with rechargeable batteries and can be applicable to EVs with fixed routes, such as transit buses. This study adds to the current research of EV wireless charging by utilizing the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to provide a comprehensive framework for comparing the life cycle energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with a stationary wireless charging all-electric bus system to a plug-in charging all-electric bus system. Life cycle inventory analysis of both plug-in and wireless charging hardware was conducted, and battery downsizing, vehicle lightweighting and use-phase energy consumption were modeled. A bus system in Ann Arbor

  20. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Jonathan C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Resor, Brian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Paquette, Joshua A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, Jonathan R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-01-29

    This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This work established hypothetical approaches for integrating active aerodynamic devices (AADs) into the wind turbine structure and controllers.

  1. Standard Guide for Conducting Corrosion Tests in Field Applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures for conducting corrosion tests in plant equipment or systems under operating conditions to evaluate the corrosion resistance of engineering materials. It does not cover electrochemical methods for determining corrosion rates. 1.1.1 While intended primarily for immersion tests, general guidelines provided can be applicable for exposure of test specimens in plant atmospheres, provided that placement and orientation of the test specimens is non-restrictive to air circulation. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. See also 10.4.2.

  2. Simulated Field Trials Using an Indoor Aerosol Test Chamber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semler, D. D; Roth, A. P; Semler, K. A; Nolan, P. M

    2004-01-01

    .... In this method, the aerosol chamber control software manipulates circulation fan speeds, chamber vacuum and agent spray times to produce a simulated dynamic cloud within the aerosol test chamber...

  3. Simulated Field Trials Using An Indoor Aerosol Test Chamber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semler, D. D; Roth, A. P; Semler, K. A; Nolan, P. M

    2004-01-01

    .... In this method, the aerosol chamber control software manipulates circulation fan speeds, chamber vacuum and agent spray times to produce a simulated dynamic cloud within the aerosol test chamber...

  4. A study of statistical tests for near-real-time materials accountancy using field test data of Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Hideo; Ikawa, Koji; Miura, Nobuyuki; Iwanaga, Masayuki; Kusano, Toshitsugu.

    1988-03-01

    An Near-Real-Time Materials Accountancy(NRTA) system had been developed as an advanced safeguards measure for PNC Tokai Reprocessing Plant; a minicomputer system for NRTA data processing was designed and constructed. A full scale field test was carried out as a JASPAS(Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards) project with the Agency's participation and the NRTA data processing system was used. Using this field test data, investigation of the detection power of a statistical test under real circumstances was carried out for five statistical tests, i.e., a significance test of MUF, CUMUF test, average loss test, MUF residual test and Page's test on MUF residuals. The result shows that the CUMUF test, average loss test, MUF residual test and the Page's test on MUF residual test are useful to detect a significant loss or diversion. An unmeasured inventory estimation model for the PNC reprocessing plant was developed in this study. Using this model, the field test data from the C-1 to 85 - 2 campaigns were re-analyzed. (author)

  5. Sound field control for a low-frequency test facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The two largest problems in controlling the reproduction of low-frequency sound for psychoacoustic experiments is the effect of the room due to standing waves and the relatively large sound pressure levels needed. Anechoic rooms are limited downward in frequency and distortion may be a problem even...... at moderate levels, while pressure-field playback can give higher sound pressures but is limited upwards in frequency. A new solution that addresses both problems has been implemented in the laboratory of Acoustics, Aalborg University. The solution uses one wall with 20 loudspeakers to generate a plane wave...... that is actively absorbed when it reaches the 20 loudspeakers on the opposing wall. This gives a homogeneous sound field in the majority of the room with a flat frequency response in the frequency range 2-300 Hz. The lowest frequencies are limited to sound pressure levels in the order of 95 dB. If larger levels...

  6. Sizing community energy storage systems to reduce transformer overloading with emphasis on plug-in electric vehicle loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowler, Derik Wesley

    The research objective of this study was to develop a sizing method for community energy storage systems with emphasis on preventing distribution transformer overloading due to plug-in electric vehicle charging. The method as developed showed the formulation of a diversified load profile based upon residential load data for several customers on the American Electric Power system. Once a load profile was obtained, plug-in electric vehicle charging scenarios which were based upon expected adoption and charging trends were superimposed on the load profile to show situations where transformers (in particular 25 kVA, 50 kVA, and 100 kVA) would be overloaded during peak hours. Once the total load profiles were derived, the energy and power requirements of community energy storage systems were calculated for a number of scenarios with different combinations of numbers of homes and plug-in electric vehicles. The results were recorded and illustrated into charts so that one could determine the minimum size per application. Other topics that were covered in this thesis were the state of the art and future trends in plug-in electric vehicle and battery chemistry adoption and development. The goal of the literature review was to confirm the already suspected notion that Li-ion batteries are best suited and soon to be most cost-effective solution for applications requiring small, efficient, reliable, and light-weight battery systems such as plug-in electric vehicles and community energy storage systems. This thesis also includes a chapter showing system modeling in MATLAB/SimulinkRTM. All in all, this thesis covers a wide variety of considerations involved in the designing and deploying of community energy storage systems intended to mitigate the effects of distribution transformer overloading.

  7. Energy efficiency of multiport power converters used in plug-in/V2G fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizon, Nicu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► It is proposed a new FC hybrid power source topology for plug-in FC vehicle (PFCV). ► An energy efficiency analysis of three architectures for Multiport Power Converter (MPC) of HPS is performed. ► The MPC energy efficiency features were shown by analytical computing in all PFCV regimes. -- Abstract: In this paper is presented an analysis of energy efficiency for the Multiport Power Converters (MPCs) used in Plug-in Fuel Cell Vehicles (PFCVs). A generic MPC architecture for PFCVs is proposed, which is analyzed for different operating modes of MPC in relation with PFCV operating regimes and the plug-in feature. The basic MPC architecture is described in relation with the PFCV operating regimes. Two MPC architectures are derived from the basic MPC architecture: (1) the MPC1 architecture, which is the MPC architecture without reverse power flow during regenerative braking process, and (2) the MPC2 architecture – MPC architecture without charging mode of Energy Storage System (ESS) from the FC system. Taking in account the imposed window for the ESS state-of-charge, the MPC can be connected to Plug-in Charging Stations (PCS) to exchange power with the Electric Power (EP) system, which will include renewable Distributed Generation (DG) systems. The Energy Management Unit (EMU) of MPC can communicate with the EP system to determine the moments that match the energy demand of plug-in vehicle with the supply availability of the EP system, stabilizing the EP system. The MPC features regarding its energy efficiency were shown by analytical computing performed and appropriate simulations presented in relation with the ESS that can be charged (discharged) from (to) the home/DG/EP system.

  8. A semi-field approach to testing effects of fresh pesticide residues on bees in multiple-rate test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.; Calis, J.N.M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a semi-field cage test specifically designed to test effects of delayed exposure to plant protection products. The trial involved the use of standardised mini-beehives. The principle of the trial was to prepare two groups of potted test plants per treatment. The first group of plants

  9. Design and Installation of a Disposal Cell Cover Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C.H. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin; Waugh, W.J. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado; Albright, W.H. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada; Smith, G.M. [Geo-Smith Engineering, Grand Junction, Colorado; Bush, R.P. [U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction, Colorado

    2011-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Legacy Management (LM) initiated a cover assessment project in September 2007 to evaluate an inexpensive approach to enhancing the hydrological performance of final covers for disposal cells. The objective is to accelerate and enhance natural processes that are transforming existing conventional covers, which rely on low-conductivity earthen barriers, into water balance covers, that store water in soil and release it as soil evaporation and plant transpiration. A low conductivity cover could be modified by deliberately blending the upper layers of the cover profile and planting native shrubs. A test facility was constructed at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site to evaluate the proposed methodology. The test cover was constructed in two identical sections, each including a large drainage lysimeter. The test cover was constructed with the same design and using the same materials as the existing disposal cell in order to allow for a direct comparison of performance. One test section will be renovated using the proposed method; the other is a control. LM is using the lysimeters to evaluate the effectiveness of the renovation treatment by monitoring hydrologic conditions within the cover profile as well as all water entering and leaving the system. This paper describes the historical experience of final covers employing earthen barrier layers, the design and operation of the lysimeter test facility, testing conducted to characterize the as-built engineering and edaphic properties of the lysimeter soils, the calibration of instruments installed at the test facility, and monitoring data collected since the lysimeters were constructed.

  10. Field Testing of Compartmentalization Methods for Multifamily Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The 2012 IECC has an airtightness requirement of 3 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals test pressure for both single-family and multifamily construction in Climate Zones 3-8. Other programs (LEED, ASHRAE 189, ASHRAE 62.2) have similar or tighter compartmentalization requirements, driving the need for easier and more effective methods of compartmentalization in multifamily buildings. Builders and practitioners have found that fire-resistance rated wall assemblies are a major source of difficulty in air sealing/compartmentalization, particularly in townhouse construction. This problem is exacerbated when garages are “tucked in” to the units and living space is located over the garages. In this project, Building Science Corporation examined the taping of exterior sheathing details to improve air sealing results in townhouse and multifamily construction, when coupled with a better understanding of air leakage pathways. Current approaches are cumbersome, expensive, time consuming, and ineffective; these details were proposed as a more effective and efficient method. The effectiveness of these air sealing methods was tested with blower door testing, including “nulled” or “guarded” testing (adjacent units run at equal test pressure to null out inter-unit air leakage, or “pressure neutralization”). Pressure diagnostics were used to evaluate unit-to-unit connections and series leakage pathways (i.e., air leakage from exterior, into the fire-resistance rated wall assembly, and to the interior).

  11. Idaho National Laboratory’s Analysis of ARRA-Funded Plug-in Electric Vehicle and Charging Infrastructure Projects: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carlson, Richard [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garretson, Thomas [Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Gourley, LauraLee [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Karner, Donal [Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, AZ (United States); McGuire, Patti [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scoffield, Don [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kirkpatrick, Mindy [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Shrik, Matthew [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Salisbury, Shawn [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schey, Stephen [Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Smart, John [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wishard, Jeffery [Intertek Center for the Evaluation of Clean Energy Technology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). INL’s conduct of the AVTA resulted in a significant base of knowledge and experience in the area of testing light-duty vehicles that reduced transportation-related petroleum consumption. Due to this experience, INL was tasked by DOE to develop agreements with companies that were the recipients of The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) grants, that would allow INL to collect raw data from light-duty vehicles and charging infrastructure. INL developed non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) with several companies and their partners that resulted in INL being able to receive raw data via server-to-server connections from the partner companies. This raw data allowed INL to independently conduct data quality checks, perform analysis, and report publicly to DOE, partners, and stakeholders, how drivers used both new vehicle technologies and the deployed charging infrastructure. The ultimate goal was not the deployment of vehicles and charging infrastructure, cut rather to create real-world laboratories of vehicles, charging infrastructure and drivers that would aid in the design of future electric drive transportation systems. The five projects that INL collected data from and their partners are: • ChargePoint America - Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Demonstration • Chrysler Ram PHEV Pickup - Vehicle Demonstration • General Motors Chevrolet Volt - Vehicle Demonstration • The EV Project - Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Demonstration • EPRI / Via Motors PHEVs – Vehicle Demonstration The document serves to benchmark the performance science involved the execution, analysis and reporting for the five above projects that provided lessons learned based on driver’s use of the

  12. Field tests on migration of TRU-nuclide, (1). General introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hiromichi; Tanaka, Tadao; Mukai, Masayuki

    2003-01-01

    The field migration test using TRU nuclide was carried out as a cooperative research project between JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) and CIRP (China Institute for Radiation Protection). This report introduced the out-line of the field migration test and described the outline of the series of 'Field Test on Migration of TRU-nuclide' and main results as a summary report. (author)

  13. Field Test Data for Detecting Vibrations of a Building Using High-Speed Video Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    ARL-TR-8185 ● OCT 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Field Test Data for Detecting Vibrations of a Building Using High-Speed Video...Field Test Data for Detecting Vibrations of a Building Using High-Speed Video Cameras by Caitlin P Conn and Geoffrey H Goldman Sensors and...June 2016 – October 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Field Test Data for Detecting Vibrations of a Building Using High-Speed Video Cameras 5a. CONTRACT

  14. Pilot Implementation: Learning from Field Tests in IS Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    the laboratory to the field, thereby allowing users to experience a system design under realistic conditions and developers to get feedback from realistic use while the design is still malleable. We characterize pilot implementation, contrast it with prototyping, propose a fiveelement model of pilot...... implementation and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can be difficult...

  15. Discriminative deep inelastic tests of strong interaction field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glueck, M.; Reya, E.

    1979-02-01

    It is demonstrated that recent measurements of F 2 (x,Q 2 ) dx eliminate already all strong interaction field theories which do not include colored quarks as well as colored vector gluons. Detailed studies of scaling violations in F 2 (x,Q 2 ) cannot discriminate between a local gauge invariant theory (QCD) and one which has no local color gauge invariance, i.e. no triple-gluon coupling. This implies that all calculations on scaling violations done so far are insensitive to the gluon self-coupling, the latter might perhaps be delineated with future ep colliding beam facilities. (orig.) [de

  16. Data Modeling for Measurements in the Metrology and Testing Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Pavese, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Offers a comprehensive set of modeling methods for data and uncertainty analysis. This work develops methods and computational tools to address general models that arise in practice, allowing for a more valid treatment of calibration and test data and providing an understanding of complex situations in measurement science

  17. Field test of an autonomous cucumber picking robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Hemming, J.; Kornet, J.G.; Bontsema, J.; Os, van E.A.

    2003-01-01

    At the Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering (IMAG B.V.) an autonomous harvesting robot for cucumbers was developed and tested in a greenhouse in autumn 2001. Analysis of the harvest process had revealed that at a 2 ha Dutch production facility four robots are needed to replace the

  18. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of

  19. An experiment to test in-field pointing for Elisa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Christina; Broll, Bernhard; Fitzsimons, Ewan; Johann, Ulrich; Jonke, Wouter; Lucarelli, Stefano; Nikolov, Susanne; Voert, Martijn; Weise, Dennis; Witvoet, Gert

    2017-11-01

    The evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA) Mission is being developed to detect and characterise gravitational waves by measuring pathlength changes between free flying inertial test masses over a baseline of order 1 Gm. Here the observed astrophysical events and objects lie in a frequency range between 30 μHz and 1 Hz (the LISA measurement band, LMB).

  20. Development of a plug-in for Variability Modeling in Software Product Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lucía López-Araujo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Las Líneas de Productos de Software (LPS toman ventaja económica de las similitudes y variación entre un conjunto de sistemas de software dentro de un dominio específico. La Ingeniería de Líneas de Productos de Software por lo tanto, define una serie de procesos para el desarrollo de LPS que consideran las similitudes y variación a lo largo del ciclo devida. El modelado de variabilidad, en consecuencia, es una actividad esencial en un enfoque de Ingeniería de Líneas de Productos de Software. Existen varias técnicas para modelado de variabilidad. Entre ellas resalta COVAMOF que permite modelar los puntos de variación, variantes y dependencias como entidades de primera clase, proporcionando una manera uniforme de representarlos en los diversos niveles de abstracción de una LPS. Para poder aprovechar los beneficios de COVAMOF es necesario contar con una herramienta, de otra manera el modelado y la administración de la variabilidad pueden resultar una labor ardua para el ingeniero de software. Este trabajo presenta el desarrollo de un plug-in de COVAMOF para Eclipse.Software Product Lines (SPL take economic advantage of commonality and variability among a set of software systems that exist within a specific domain. Therefore, Software Product Line Engineering defines a series of processes for the development of a SPL that consider commonality and variability during the software life cycle. Variability modeling is therefore an essential activity in a Software Product Line Engineering approach. There are several techniques for variability modeling nowadays. COVAMOF stands out among them since it allows the modeling of variation points, variants and dependencies as first class elements. COVAMOF, therefore, provides an uniform manner for representing such concepts in different levels of abstraction within a SPL. In order to take advantage of COVAMOF benefits, it is necessary to have a computer aided tool, otherwise variability modeling and

  1. Sorting through the many total-energy-cycle pathways possible with early plug-in hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, L.; Burnham, A.; Rousseau, A.; Santini, D.

    2008-01-01

    Using the 'total energy cycle' methodology, we compare U.S. near term (to ∼2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles (CVs). For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information two ways (1) energy from the grid during charge depletion (CD); (2) energy from stored on-board fossil fuel when charge sustaining (CS). We examine 'incremental sources of supply of liquid fuel such as (a) oil sands from Canada, (b) Fischer-Tropsch diesel via natural gas imported by LNG tanker, and (c) ethanol from cellulosic biomass. We compare such fuel pathways to various possible power converters producing electricity, including (i) new coal boilers, (ii) new integrated, gasified coal combined cycle (IGCC), (iii) existing natural gas fueled combined cycle (NGCC), (iv) existing natural gas combustion turbines, (v) wood-to-electricity, and (vi) wind/solar. We simulate a fuel cell HEV and also consider the possibility of a plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle (FCV). For the simulated FCV our results address the merits of converting some fuels to hydrogen to power the fuel cell vs. conversion of those same fuels to electricity to charge the PHEV battery. The investigation is confined to a U.S. compact sized car (i.e. a world passenger car). Where most other studies have focused on emissions (greenhouse gases and conventional air pollutants), this study focuses on identification of the pathway providing the most vehicle kilometers from each of five feedstocks examined. The GREET 1.7 fuel cycle model and the new GREET 2.7 vehicle cycle model were used as the foundation for this study. Total energy, energy by fuel type, total greenhouse gases (GHGs), volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), fine particulate (PM2.5) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) values are presented. We also isolate the PHEV emissions contribution from varying k

  2. Electric and hydrogen consumption analysis in plug-in road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribau, Joao P.; Silva, Carla M.; Faria, Tiago L. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1 Pav. Mecanica I, 2 andar, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of the present study is to analyze some of the capabilities and behavior of two types of plug-in cars: battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell hybrid electric, facing different driving styles, different road gradients, different occupation rates, different electrical loads, and different battery's initial state of charge. In order to do that, four vehicles with different power/weight (kW/kg) ratio (0.044 to 0.150) were simulated in the software ADVISOR, which gives predictions of energy consumption, and behavior of vehicle's power train components (including energy regeneration) along specified driving cycles. The required energy, electricity and/or hydrogen, to overcome the specified driving schedules, allowed to estimate fuel life cycle's CO2 emissions and primary energy. A vehicle with higher power/weight ratio (kW/kg) demonstrated to be less affected in operation and in variation of the energy consumption, facing the different case studies, however may have higher consumptions in some cases. The autonomy, besides depending on the fuel consumption, is directly associated with the type and capacity (kWh) of the chosen battery, plus the stored hydrogen (if fuel cell vehicles are considered, PHEV-FC). The PHEV-FC showed to have higher autonomy than the battery vehicles, but higher energy consumption which is extremely dependent on the type and ratio of energy used, hydrogen or electricity. An aggressive driving style, higher road gradient and increase of weight, required more energy and power to the vehicle and presented consumption increases near to 77%, 621%, 19% respectively. Higher electrical load and battery's initial state of charge, didn't affect directly vehicle's dynamic. The first one drained energy directly from the battery plus demanded a fraction of its power, with energy consumption maximum increasing near 71%. The second one restricted the autonomy without influence directly the energy consumption per

  3. Initial field testing definition of subsurface sealing and backfilling tests in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Case, J.B.; Tyburski, J.R. [I. T. Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This report contains an initial definition of the field tests proposed for the Yucca Mountain Project repository sealing program. The tests are intended to resolve various performance and emplacement concerns. Examples of concerns to be addressed include achieving selected hydrologic and structural requirements for seals, removing portions of the shaft liner, excavating keyways, emplacing cementitious and earthen seals, reducing the impact of fines on the hydraulic conductivity of fractures, efficient grouting of fracture zones, sealing of exploratory boreholes, and controlling the flow of water by using engineered designs. Ten discrete tests are proposed to address these and other concerns. These tests are divided into two groups: Seal component tests and performance confirmation tests. The seal component tests are thorough small-scale in situ tests, the intermediate-scale borehole seal tests, the fracture grouting tests, the surface backfill tests, and the grouted rock mass tests. The seal system tests are the seepage control tests, the backfill tests, the bulkhead test in the Calico Hills unit, the large-scale shaft seal and shaft fill tests, and the remote borehole sealing tests. The tests are proposed to be performed in six discrete areas, including welded and non-welded environments, primarily located outside the potential repository area. The final selection of sealing tests will depend on the nature of the geologic and hydrologic conditions encountered during the development of the Exploratory Studies Facility and detailed numerical analyses. Tests are likely to be performed both before and after License Application.

  4. CX-100 and TX-100 blade field tests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, Adam (USDA-Agriculture Research Service, Bushland, TX); Jones, Perry L.; Zayas, Jose R.

    2005-12-01

    In support of the DOE Low Wind Speed Turbine (LWST) program two of the three Micon 65/13M wind turbines at the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) center in Bushland, Texas will be used to test two sets of experimental blades, the CX-100 and TX-100. The blade aerodynamic and structural characterization, meteorological inflow and wind turbine structural response will be monitored with an array of 75 instruments: 33 to characterize the blades, 15 to characterize the inflow, and 27 to characterize the time-varying state of the turbine. For both tests, data will be sampled at a rate of 30 Hz using the ATLAS II (Accurate GPS Time-Linked Data Acquisition System) data acquisition system. The system features a time-synchronized continuous data stream and telemetered data from the turbine rotor. This paper documents the instruments and infrastructure that have been developed to monitor these blades, turbines and inflow.

  5. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final detailed test plan : WSDOT deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to expand upon the evaluation components presented in "Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final evaluation plan : WSDOT deployment". This document defines the objective, approach,...

  6. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final test plans : state of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to expand upon the evaluation components presented in "Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final evaluation plan : state of Utah". This document defines the objective, approach, an...

  7. A portable and affordable extensional rheometer for field testing

    OpenAIRE

    Hallmark, Bart; Bryan, Matthew; Bosson, E; Butler, S; Hoier, T; Magens, Ole; Pistre, N; Pratt, L; Ward, B-A; Wibberley, S; Wilson, David Ian

    2016-01-01

    Extensional shear testing is often needed to characterise the behaviour of complex fluids found in industry and nature. Traditional extensional rheometers are typically expensive, fragile and heavy and are only suited to making measurements in a laboratory environment. For some applications, it is necessary to make in situ rheological measurements where, for example, fluid properties change rapidly over time or where laboratory facilities are unavailable. This paper reports the development an...

  8. Joint interpretation of two tracer tests with reversed flow fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstmann, H.; Kinzelbach, W.; Marschall, P.; Li, G.

    1995-01-01

    Two dipole tracer experiments were performed in a fractured rock at the Grimsel Test Site in February/March 1993. In both experiments NaCl was used as a tracer. The extraction rate was twice the injection rate. In the second experiment injection and extraction were interchanged (Reverse-Experiment). Long tailing was characteristic for the breakthrough curves in both experiments. The tests were interpreted using a single fracture flow model. Tracer transport is described by advection/dispersion along the fracture allowing for diffusion into an immobile matrix. The authors were able to interpret the breakthrough curves for both experiments by one unique set of parameters, describing transport and baseflow. Uniqueness could only be achieved when using the information of both experiments. The authors conclude that performing a Reverse-Experiment is an indispensable tool for parameter identification in dipole tracer tests. A sensitivity analysis suggested that not only matrix diffusion is responsible for the tailing in the breakthrough curves but also transversal dispersivity. Further, the typical exchange time between mobile and immobile media was too small to be attributed to matrix diffusion in the strict sense which will cause tailing even at large spatial and temporal scales. Analysis of the covariance matrices showed that the parameters have small errors but high correlation

  9. FAID/SPAR field tests at Kahl: A final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, J.M.; Self, B.G.; Crawford, T.J.; Suber, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    LWR fuel assemblies are convenient units for item accounting. A pplication of a fuel assembly seal which gives both integrity and a unique identity to the fuel assembly offers the potential of increased safeguards over present methods. This is particularly the case if the seal can be read at frequent intervals. The BWR Kahl reactor has been used to field evaluate FAID type ultrasonic seals. Twenty-four seals were applied to fresh fuel assemblies before their being placed in the reactor core. At convenient times when the reactor was shut down and the fuel moved to the spent fuel storage pool, the seal's identity and integrity were checked with a seal pattern reader (SPAR). After the reactor was decommissioned all seals were reidentified and their integrity checked. Five seals were removed from their fuel assemblies and embrittlement of the fracture link observed. Several seals were in the reactor core for three years

  10. 1981 radon barrier field test at Grand Junction uranium mill tailings pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.; Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.

    1983-04-01

    Technologies to reduce radon released from uranium mill tailings are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology development program. These technologies include: (1) earthen cover systems, (2) multilayer cover systems, and (3) asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. During the summer of 1981, a field test was initiated at the Grand Junction, Colorado, uranium tailings pile to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of each radon barrier system. Test plots cover about 1.2 ha (3 acres). The field test has demonstrated the effectiveness of all three cover systems in reducing radon release to near background levels ( 2 s - 1 ). In conjunction with the field tests, column tests (1.8 m diameter) were initiated with cover systems similar to those in the larger field test plots. The column tests allow a direct comparison of the two test procedures and also provide detailed information on radon transport

  11. High-level waste glass field burial tests at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnyk, T.W.; Walton, F.B.; Johnson, H.L.

    1983-06-01

    In 1960 June, 25 nepheline syenite-based glass hemispheres containing the fission products 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 144 Ce and 106 Ru were buried below the water table in fluvial sand at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Soil and groundwater concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs have been determined since then and the data have been interpreted using kinetically limited migration models to deduce the leaching history of the glass for these burial conditions. The leaching history derived from the field data is compared to laboratory leaching of samples from a glass hemisphere retrieved in 1978, and also to pre-burial laboratory leaching of identical hemispheres. The time dependence of the leach rates observed for the buried specimens suggests that leaching is being inhibited by the formation of a protective surface layer, although no direct observation of this layer has been made. Using an average leach rate of 5.6 x 10 -14 kg/(m 2 .s) derived from the field data for the period 1966 to 1977, it is estimated that it would require approximately 20 million years to dissolve the glass hemispheres. The effect of the kinetic limitations of the fission-product/fluvial-sand interactions is discussed with respect to the migration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs over a 20-a time scale. It is concluded that kinetically limited sorption by oxyhydroxides rather than equilibrium ion exchange controls the long-term migration of 90 Cr; the action of the oxyhydroxides immobilizes the 90 Sr on the longer time scale. Cesium is initially rapidly bound to the micaceous fraction of the sand. On a longer time scale, slow remobilization of 137 Cs in particulate form is observed and is believed to be related to bacterial action

  12. Field Testing of Compartmentalization Methods for Multifamily Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. W. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) has an airtightness requirement of 3 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals test pressure (3 ACH50) for single-family and multifamily construction (in climate zones 3–8). The Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design certification program and ASHRAE Standard 189 have comparable compartmentalization requirements. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 will soon be responsible for all multifamily ventilation requirements (low rise and high rise); it has an exceptionally stringent compartmentalization requirement. These code and program requirements are driving the need for easier and more effective methods of compartmentalization in multifamily buildings.

  13. Dynamics of railway bridges, analysis and verification by field tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper discusses different aspects of railway bridge dynamics, comprising analysis, modelling procedures and experimental testing. The importance of realistic models is discussed, especially regarding boundary conditions, load distribution and soil-structure interaction. Two theoretical case studies are presented, involving both deterministic and probabilistic assessment of a large number of railway bridges using simplified and computationally efficient models. A total of four experimental case studies are also introduced, illustrating different aspects and phenomena in bridge dynamics. The excitation consists of both ambient vibrations, train induced vibrations, free vibrations after train passages and controlled forced excitation.

  14. Land reclamation on the Nevada Test Site: A field tour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.

    1993-01-01

    An all-day tour to observe and land reclamation on the Nevada Test Site was conducted in conjunction with the 8th Wildland Shrub and Arid Land Restoration Symposium. Tour participants were introduced to the US Department of Energy reclamation programs for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project and Treatability Studies for Soil Media (TSSM) Project. The tour consisted of several stops that covered a variety of topics and studies including revegetation by seeding, topsoil stockpile stabilization, erosion control, shrub transplanting, shrub herbivory, irrigation, mulching, water harvesting, and weather monitoring

  15. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Allison; Jaramillo, Paulina; Michalek, Jeremy

    2016-02-01

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs.

  16. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles-A low-carbon solution for Ireland?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2006, the primary energy requirement of the Irish transport sector increased by 166%. Associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have followed a corresponding trajectory, and are responsible-at least in part-for Ireland's probable failure to meet its Kyoto targets. As in most countries, Ireland's transport sector is almost totally reliant on oil-a commodity for which Ireland is totally dependent on imports-and therefore vulnerable to supply and price shocks. Conversely, the efficiency and carbon intensity of the Irish electricity supply system have both improved dramatically over the same period, with significant further improvements projected over the coming decade. This paper analyses the prospects for leveraging these changes by increasing the electrification of the Irish transport sector. Specifically, the potential benefits of plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV) are assessed, in terms of reducing primary energy requirement (PER) and CO 2 emissions. It is shown that, on a per-km basis, PHEV offer the potential for reductions of 50% or more in passenger car PER and CO 2 intensity. However, the time required to turn over the existing fleet means that a decade or more will be required to significantly impact PER and emissions of the PC fleet.

  17. Evaluation of energy consumption, emissions and cost of plug-in hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Carla; Ross, Marc; Farias, Tiago

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) are gaining attention over the world due to their ability to reduce gasoline/diesel consumption by using electricity from the grid. Despite the efforts of Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice SAE J1711, it has not yet been established a worldwide methodology for calculation of fuel consumption and emission factors when regarding emission standards, with distinct driving cycles. This paper intends to contribute to the creation of this broader methodology, based on SAE J1711, aiming a fair comparison among vehicle technologies, and giving insight on electric grid impact and on CO 2 life-cycle emissions. The methodology was applied to two simulated PHEVs exploring two different powertrain configurations: series and parallel; different driving cycles: CAFE, FTP75, NEDC and JC08; different driving distances (specially analyzing the average commuting daily distance of 20 km) and different user behaviours regarding battery recharging. CO 2 emissions were calculated for fuel consumption, electricity generation and cradle-to-grave. Electric grid power demand was estimated. Maintenance, manufacturer and use costs were discussed.

  18. Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in a regional wind-thermal power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeransson, Lisa; Karlsson, Sten; Johnsson, Filip

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates consequences of integrating plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in a wind-thermal power system supplied by one quarter of wind power and three quarters of thermal generation. Four different PHEV integration strategies, with different impacts on the total electric load profile, have been investigated. The study shows that PHEVs can reduce the CO 2 -emissions from the power system if actively integrated, whereas a passive approach to PHEV integration (i.e. letting people charge the car at will) is likely to result in an increase in emissions compared to a power system without PHEV load. The reduction in emissions under active PHEV integration strategies is due to a reduction in emissions related to thermal plant start-ups and part load operation. Emissions of the power sector are reduced with up to 4.7% compared to a system without PHEVs, according to the simulations. Allocating this emission reduction to the PHEV electricity consumption only, and assuming that the vehicles in electric mode is about 3 times as energy efficient as standard gasoline operation, total emissions from PHEVs would be less than half the emissions of a standard car, when running in electric mode.

  19. Cost and emissions impacts of plug-in hybrid vehicles on the Ohio power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Fagiani, Riccardo; Marano, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been promoted as a potential technology that can reduce vehicles' fuel consumption, decreasing transportation-related emissions and dependence on imported oil. The net emission and cost impacts of PHEV use are intimately connected with the electricity generator mix used for PHEV charging, which will in turn depend on when during the day PHEVs are recharged. This paper analyzes the effects of a PHEV fleet in the state of Ohio. The analysis considers two different charging scenarios-a controlled and an uncontrolled scenario-which offer the grid operator different levels of control over the timing of PHEV charging. The analysis shows that PHEV use could result in major reductions in gasoline consumption of close to 70% per vehicle compared to a conventional vehicle (CV) under both charging scenarios. Moreover, despite the high penetrations of coal in the Ohio power system, net CO 2 emissions from a PHEV could be up to 24% lower than that of a CV in the uncontrolled case, however, CO 2 and NO x emissions would increase in both scenarios.

  20. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  1. CO2 Mitigation Potential of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles larger than expected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plötz, P; Funke, S A; Jochem, P; Wietschel, M

    2017-11-28

    The actual contribution of plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles (PHEV and BEV) to greenhouse gas mitigation depends on their real-world usage. Often BEV are seen as superior as they drive only electrically and do not have any direct emissions during driving. However, empirical evidence on which vehicle electrifies more mileage with a given battery capacity is lacking. Here, we present the first systematic overview of empirical findings on actual PHEV and BEV usage for the US and Germany. Contrary to common belief, PHEV with about 60 km of real-world range currently electrify as many annual vehicles kilometres as BEV with a much smaller battery. Accordingly, PHEV recharged from renewable electricity can highly contribute to green house gas mitigation in car transport. Including the higher CO 2eq emissions during the production phase of BEV compared to PHEV, PHEV show today higher CO 2eq savings then BEVs compared to conventional vehicles. However, for significant CO 2eq improvements of PHEV and particularly of BEVs the decarbonisation of the electricity system should go on.

  2. Effects of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on ozone concentrations in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Gregory L; Denholm, Paul; Hannigan, Michael P; Milford, Jana B

    2010-08-15

    This study explores how ozone concentrations in the Denver, CO area might have been different if plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) had replaced light duty gasoline vehicles in summer 2006. A unit commitment and dispatch model was used to estimate the charging patterns of PHEVs and dispatch power plants to meet electricity demand. Emission changes were estimated based on gasoline displacement and the emission characteristics of the power plants providing additional electricity. The Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) was used to simulate the effects of these emissions changes on ozone concentrations. Natural gas units provided most of the electricity used for charging PHEVs in the scenarios considered. With 100% PHEV penetration, nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions were reduced by 27 tons per day (tpd) from a fleet of 1.7 million vehicles and were increased by 3 tpd from power plants; VOC emissions were reduced by 57 tpd. These emission changes reduced modeled peak 8-h average ozone concentrations by approximately 2-3 ppb on most days. Ozone concentration increases were modeled for small areas near central Denver. Future research is needed to forecast when significant PHEV penetration may occur and to anticipate characteristics of the corresponding power plant and vehicle fleets.

  3. The impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on distribution networks: A review and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Robert C. II.; Wang, Lingfeng; Alam, Mansoor

    2011-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are the next big thing in the electric transportation market. While much work has been done to detail what economic costs and benefits PHEVs will have on consumers and producers alike, it seems that it is also important to understand what impact PHEVs will have on distribution networks nationwide. This paper finds that the impact of PHEVs on the distribution network can be determined using the following aspects of PHEVs: driving patterns, charging characteristics, charge timing, and vehicle penetration. The impacts that these aspects of PHEVs will have on distribution networks have been measured and calculated by multiple authors in different locations using many different tools that range from analytical techniques to simulations and beyond. While much work has already been completed in this area, there is still much to do. Areas left for improvement and future work will include adding more stochasticity into models as well as computing and analyzing reliability indices with respect to distribution networks. (author)

  4. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from plug-in hybrid vehicles: implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Constantine; Meisterling, Kyle

    2008-05-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector. However, meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. We assess life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs and find that they reduce GHG emissions by 32% compared to conventional vehicles, but have small reductions compared to traditional hybrids. Batteries are an important component of PHEVs, and GHGs associated with lithium-ion battery materials and production account for 2-5% of life cycle emissions from PHEVs. We consider cellulosic ethanol use and various carbon intensities of electricity. The reduced liquid fuel requirements of PHEVs could leverage limited cellulosic ethanol resources. Electricity generation infrastructure is long-lived, and technology decisions within the next decade about electricity supplies in the power sector will affectthe potential for large GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs for several decades.

  5. An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, D M; Kammen, D M; Farrell, A E

    2008-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can use both grid-supplied electricity and liquid fuels. We show that under recent conditions, millions of PHEVs could have charged economically in California during both peak and off-peak hours even with modest gasoline prices and real-time electricity pricing. Special electricity rate tariffs already in place for electric vehicles could successfully render on-peak charging uneconomical and off-peak charging very attractive. However, unless battery prices fall by at least a factor of two, or gasoline prices double, the present value of fuel savings is smaller than the marginal vehicle costs, likely slowing PHEV market penetration in California. We also find that assumptions about how PHEVs are charged strongly influence the number of PHEVs that can be charged before the electric power system must be expanded. If most PHEVs are charged after the workday, and thus after the time of peak electricity demand, our forecasts suggest that several million PHEVs could be deployed in California without requiring new generation capacity, and we also find that the state's PHEV fleet is unlikely to reach into the millions within the current electricity sector planning cycle. To ensure desirable outcomes, appropriate technologies and incentives for PHEV charging will be needed if PHEV adoption becomes mainstream

  6. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Allison; Jaramillo, Paulina; Michalek, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs. (letter)

  7. Magnitude and Variability of Controllable Charge Capacity Provided by Grid Connected Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoffield, Don R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smart, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Salisbury, Shawn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) increases over time, the number of PEVs charging on the electric grid will also increase. As the number of PEVs increases, their ability to collectively impact the grid increases. The idea of a large body of PEVs connected to the grid presents an intriguing possibility. If utilities can control PEV charging, it is possible that PEVs could act as a distributed resource to provide grid services. The technology required to control charging is available for modern PEVs. However, a system for wide-spread implementation of controllable charging, including robust communication between vehicles and utilities, is not currently present. Therefore, the value of controllable charging must be assessed and weighed against the cost of building and operating such as system. In order to grasp the value of PEV charge control to the utility, the following must be understood: 1. The amount of controllable energy and power capacity available to the utility 2. The variability of the controllable capacity from day to day and as the number of PEVs in the market increases.

  8. An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, D. M.; Kammen, D. M.; Farrell, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can use both grid-supplied electricity and liquid fuels. We show that under recent conditions, millions of PHEVs could have charged economically in California during both peak and off-peak hours even with modest gasoline prices and real-time electricity pricing. Special electricity rate tariffs already in place for electric vehicles could successfully render on-peak charging uneconomical and off-peak charging very attractive. However, unless battery prices fall by at least a factor of two, or gasoline prices double, the present value of fuel savings is smaller than the marginal vehicle costs, likely slowing PHEV market penetration in California. We also find that assumptions about how PHEVs are charged strongly influence the number of PHEVs that can be charged before the electric power system must be expanded. If most PHEVs are charged after the workday, and thus after the time of peak electricity demand, our forecasts suggest that several million PHEVs could be deployed in California without requiring new generation capacity, and we also find that the state's PHEV fleet is unlikely to reach into the millions within the current electricity sector planning cycle. To ensure desirable outcomes, appropriate technologies and incentives for PHEV charging will be needed if PHEV adoption becomes mainstream.

  9. Cost Analysis of Plug-In Hybred Electric Vehicles Using GPS-Based Longitudinal Travel Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xing [Lamar University; Dong, Jing [Iowa State University; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Using spatial, longitudinal travel data of 415 vehicles over 3 18 months in the Seattle metropolitan area, this paper estimates the operating costs of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) of various electric ranges (10, 20, 30, and 40 miles) for 3, 5, and 10 years of payback period, considering different charging infrastructure deployment levels and gasoline prices. Some key findings were made. (1) PHEVs could help save around 60% or 40% in energy costs, compared with conventional gasoline vehicles (CGVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), respectively. However, for motorists whose daily vehicle miles traveled (DVMT) is significant, HEVs may be even a better choice than PHEV40s, particularly in areas that lack a public charging infrastructure. (2) The incremental battery cost of large-battery PHEVs is difficult to justify based on the incremental savings of PHEVs operating costs unless a subsidy is offered for largebattery PHEVs. (3) When the price of gasoline increases from $4/gallon to $5/gallon, the number of drivers who benefit from a larger battery increases significantly. (4) Although quick chargers can reduce charging time, they contribute little to energy cost savings for PHEVs, as opposed to Level-II chargers.

  10. Hybrid optimal online-overnight charging coordination of plug-in electric vehicles in smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoum, Mohammad A. S.; Nabavi, Seyed M. H.

    2016-10-01

    Optimal coordinated charging of plugged-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in smart grid (SG) can be beneficial for both consumers and utilities. This paper proposes a hybrid optimal online followed by overnight charging coordination of high and low priority PEVs using discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) that considers the benefits of both consumers and electric utilities. Objective functions are online minimization of total cost (associated with grid losses and energy generation) and overnight valley filling through minimization of the total load levels. The constraints include substation transformer loading, node voltage regulations and the requested final battery state of charge levels (SOCreq). The main challenge is optimal selection of the overnight starting time (toptimal-overnight,start) to guarantee charging of all vehicle batteries to the SOCreq levels before the requested plug-out times (treq) which is done by simultaneously solving the online and overnight objective functions. The online-overnight PEV coordination approach is implemented on a 449-node SG; results are compared for uncoordinated and coordinated battery charging as well as a modified strategy using cost minimizations for both online and overnight coordination. The impact of toptimal-overnight,start on performance of the proposed PEV coordination is investigated.

  11. Toyota Prius Hybrid Plug-in Conversation and Battery Monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikannan, Krishnanunni; McIntyre, Michael; Harper, Doug; Kessinger, Robert; Young, Megan; Lantham, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the project was to analyze the performance of a Toyota Hybrid. We started off with a stock Toyota Prius and taking data by driving it in city and on the highway in a mixed pre-determined route. The batteries can be charged using standard 120V AC outlets. First phase of the project was to increase the performance of the car by installing 20 Lead (Pb) batteries in a plug-in kit. To improve the performance of the kit, a centralized battery monitoring system was installed. The battery monitoring system has two components, a custom data modules and a National Instruments CompactRIO. Each Pb battery has its own data module and all the data module are connected to the CompactRIO. The CompactRIO records differential voltage, current and temperature from all the 20 batteries. The LabVIEW software is dynamic and can be reconfigured to any number of batteries and real time data from the batteries can be monitored on a LabVIEW enabled machine.

  12. From catastrophic acceleration to deceleration of liquid plugs in prewetted capillary tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magniez, Juan; Baudoin, Michael; Zoueshtiagh, Farzam; Lemac/Lics Team

    2016-11-01

    Liquid/gas flows in capillaries are involved in a multitude of systems including flow in porous media, petroleum extraction, imbibition of paper or flows in pulmonary airways in pathological conditions. Liquid plugs, witch compose the biphasic flows, can have a dramatic impact on patients with pulmonary obstructive diseases, since they considerably alter the circulation of air in the airways and thus can lead to severe breathing difficulties. Here, the dynamics of liquid plugs in prewetted capillary tube is investigated experimentally and theoretically, with a particular emphasis on the role of the prewetting films and of the driving condition (constant flow rate, constant pressure). For both driving conditions, the plugs can either experience a continuous increase or decrease of their size. While this phenomenon is regular in the case of imposed flow rate, a constant pressure head can lead to a catastrophic acceleration of the plug and eventually its rupture or a dramatic increase of the plug size. A theoretical model is proposed to explain the transition between theses two regimes. These results give a new insight on the critical pressure required for airways obstruction and reopening. IEMN, International Laboratory LEMAC/LICS, UMR CNRS 8520, University of Lille.

  13. A tm Plug-In for Distributed Text Mining in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Theussl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available R has gained explicit text mining support with the tm package enabling statisticians to answer many interesting research questions via statistical analysis or modeling of (text corpora. However, we typically face two challenges when analyzing large corpora: (1 the amount of data to be processed in a single machine is usually limited by the available main memory (i.e., RAM, and (2 the more data to be analyzed the higher the need for efficient procedures for calculating valuable results. Fortunately, adequate programming models like MapReduce facilitate parallelization of text mining tasks and allow for processing data sets beyond what would fit into memory by using a distributed file system possibly spanning over several machines, e.g., in a cluster of workstations. In this paper we present a plug-in package to tm called tm.plugin.dc implementing a distributed corpus class which can take advantage of the Hadoop MapReduce library for large scale text mining tasks. We show on the basis of an application in culturomics that we can efficiently handle data sets of significant size.

  14. Regional Charging Infrastructure for Plug-In Electric Vehicles: A Case Study of Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Raghavan, Sesha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Given the complex issues associated with plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging and options in deploying charging infrastructure, there is interest in exploring scenarios of future charging infrastructure deployment to provide insight and guidance to national and regional stakeholders. The complexity and cost of PEV charging infrastructure pose challenges to decision makers, including individuals, communities, and companies considering infrastructure installations. The value of PEVs to consumers and fleet operators can be increased with well-planned and cost-effective deployment of charging infrastructure. This will increase the number of miles driven electrically and accelerate PEV market penetration, increasing the shared value of charging networks to an expanding consumer base. Given these complexities and challenges, the objective of the present study is to provide additional insight into the role of charging infrastructure in accelerating PEV market growth. To that end, existing studies on PEV infrastructure are summarized in a literature review. Next, an analysis of current markets is conducted with a focus on correlations between PEV adoption and public charging availability. A forward-looking case study is then conducted focused on supporting 300,000 PEVs by 2025 in Massachusetts. The report concludes with a discussion of potential methodology for estimating economic impacts of PEV infrastructure growth.

  15. Cytoprophet: a Cytoscape plug-in for protein and domain interaction networks inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcos, Faruck; Lamanna, Charles; Sikora, Marcin; Izaguirre, Jesús

    2008-10-01

    Cytoprophet is a software tool that allows prediction and visualization of protein and domain interaction networks. It is implemented as a plug-in of Cytoscape, an open source software framework for analysis and visualization of molecular networks. Cytoprophet implements three algorithms that predict new potential physical interactions using the domain composition of proteins and experimental assays. The algorithms for protein and domain interaction inference include maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) using expectation maximization (EM); the set cover approach maximum specificity set cover (MSSC) and the sum-product algorithm (SPA). After accepting an input set of proteins with Uniprot ID/Accession numbers and a selected prediction algorithm, Cytoprophet draws a network of potential interactions with probability scores and GO distances as edge attributes. A network of domain interactions between the domains of the initial protein list can also be generated. Cytoprophet was designed to take advantage of the visual capabilities of Cytoscape and be simple to use. An example of inference in a signaling network of myxobacterium Myxococcus xanthus is presented and available at Cytoprophet's website. http://cytoprophet.cse.nd.edu.

  16. Proceedings of the PHEV09 conference : plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The commercialization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) will require careful consideration of the electric grid's generation and distribution capacities as well as new developments in electric drives and other PHEV and EV technologies. A greater understanding of the policy initiatives needed to develop and promote the use of PHEVs and EVs is also needed in Canada. With 344 delegates, this conference provided a forum for the discussion of issues related to the current PHEV and EV market in Canada. The first day of the conference focused on emerging battery technologies, while the second and third days discussed PHEV and EV technologies, markets, policies and regulations. Presentations at the conference were divided into 18 sessions: (1) performance of batteries in extreme conditions; (2) grid integration; (3) customer perspectives; (4) public and private support programs for the Canadian EV industry; (5) grid-vehicle interface; (6) standards, regulations and safety issues now and in the foreseeable future; (7) an overview of key initiatives in Canada; (8) applications in defence and space; (9) international perspectives on market issues and supportive policies; (10) power management; (11) applications in northern and remote communities; (12) emerging business models to accelerate electric drive; (13) power management; (14) renewable and zero GHG energy opportunities; (15) human resources implications; (16) OEM perspectives; (17) OEM perspectives part 2; and (18) a closing plenary session. The conference featured 64 presentations, of which 11 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  17. Calibration methodology for energy management system of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Benming; Wang, Qingnian; Zeng, Xiaohua; Gong, Yinsheng; Song, Dafeng; Wang, Junnian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Calibration theory of EMS is proposed. • A comprehensive evaluating indicator is constructed by radar chart method. • Optimal Latin hypercube design algorithm is introduced to obtain training data. • An approximation model is established by using a RBF neural network. • Offline calibration methodology improves the actual calibration efficiency. - Abstract: This paper presents a new analytical calibration method for energy management strategy designed for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. This method improves the actual calibration efficiency to reach a compromise among the conflicting calibration requirements (e.g. emissions and economy). A comprehensive evaluating indicator covering emissions and economic performance is constructed by using a radar chart method. A radial basis functions (RBFs) neural network model is proposed to establish a precise model among control parameters and the comprehensive evaluation indicator. The optimal Latin hypercube design is introduced to obtain the experimental data to train the RBFs neural network model. And multi-island genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimization model. Finally, an offline calibration example is conducted. Results validate the effectiveness of the proposed calibration approach in improving vehicle performance and calibration efficiency.

  18. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as regulating power providers. Case studies of Sweden and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.-L.; Goeransson, L.; Karlsson, S.; Johnsson, F.; Elofsson, A.K.; Galus, M.D.; Andersson, G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as providers of regulating power in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary frequency control. Previous studies have shown that PHEVs could generate substantial profits while providing ancillary services. This study investigates under what conditions PHEVs can generate revenues using actual market data, i.e. prices and activations of regulating power, from Sweden and Germany from four months in 2008. PHEV market participation is modelled for individual vehicles in a fleet subject to a simulated movement pattern. Costs for infrastructure and vehicle-to-grid equipment are not included in the analysis. The simulation results indicate that maximum average profits generated on the German markets are in the range 30-80 EUR per vehicle and month whereas the Swedish regulating power markets give no profit. In addition, an analysis is performed to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of PHEVs as regulating power providers. Based on the simulation results and the SWOT analysis, characteristics for an ideal regulating power market for PHEVs are presented. (author)

  19. Secure Plug-in Electric Vehicle PEV Charging in a Smart Grid Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Shuaib

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Charging of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs exposes smart grid systems and their users to different kinds of security and privacy attacks. Hence, a secure charging protocol is required for PEV charging. Existing PEV charging protocols are usually based on insufficiently represented and simplified charging models that do not consider the user’s charging modes (charging at a private location, charging as a guest user, roaming within one’s own supplier network or roaming within other suppliers’ networks. However, the requirement for charging protocols depends greatly on the user’s charging mode. Consequently, available solutions do not provide complete protocol specifications. Moreover, existing protocols do not support anonymous user authentication and payment simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive end-to-end charging protocol that addresses the security and privacy issues in PEV charging. The proposed protocol uses nested signatures to protect users’ privacy from external suppliers, their own suppliers and third parties. Our approach supports anonymous user authentication, anonymous payment, as well as anonymous message exchange between suppliers within a hierarchical smart grid architecture. We have verified our protocol using the AVISPA software verification tool and the results showed that our protocol is secure and works as desired.

  20. Implementation of Single Phase Soft Switched PFC Converter for Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswariya Sekar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new soft switching boost converter with a passive snubber cell without additional active switches for battery charging systems. The proposed snubber finds its application in the front-end ac-dc converter of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV battery chargers. The proposed auxiliary snubber circuit consists of an inductor, two capacitors and two diodes. The new converter has the advantages of continuous input current, low switching stresses, high voltage gain without extreme duty cycle, minimized charger size and charging time and fewer amounts of cost and electricity drawn from the utility at higher switching frequencies. The switch is made to turn ON by Zero Current Switching (ZCS and turn OFF by Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS. The detailed steady state analysis of the novel ac-dc Zero Current- Zero Voltage Switching (ZC-ZVS boost Power Factor Correction (PFC converter is presented with its operating principle. The experimental prototype of 20 kHz, 100 W converter verifies the theoretical analysis. The power factor of the prototype circuit reaches near unity with an efficiency of 97%, at nominal output power for a ±10% variation in the input voltage and ±20% variation in the snubber component values.

  1. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a way to maximize the integration of variable renewable energy in power systems: The case of wind generation in northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares MC Borba, Bruno; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have proposed different tools for analyzing the integration of variable renewable energy into power grids. This study applies an optimization tool to model the expansion of the electric power system in northeastern Brazil, enabling the most efficient dispatch of the variable output of the wind farms that will be built in the region over the next 20 years. The expected combined expansion of wind generation with conventional inflexible generation facilities, such as nuclear plants and run-of-the-river hydropower plants, poses risks of future mismatch between supply and demand in northeastern Brazil. Therefore, this article evaluates the possibility of using a fleet of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) to regularize possible energy imbalances. Findings indicate that a dedicated fleet of 500 thousand PHEVs in 2015, and a further 1.5 million in 2030, could be recharged overnight to take advantage of the surplus power generated by wind farms. To avoid the initial costs of smart grids, this article suggests, as a first step, the use of a governmental PHEV fleet that allows fleet managers to control battery charging times. Finally, the study demonstrates the advantages of optimizing simultaneously the power and transport sectors to test the strategy suggested here. -- Highlights: ► We evaluated the use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) to regularize possible energy imbalances in northeastern Brazil. ► This imbalance might result from the large-scale wind power penetration along with conventional inflexible power plants in the region. ► We adapted the MESSAGE optimization tool to the base conditions of the Brazilian power system. ► 500 thousand PHEVs in 2015 and 1.5 million in 2030 could be recharged taking advantage of wind energy surplus.

  2. Testing of an accident consequence assessment model using field data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Toshimitsu; Matsubara, Takeshi; Tomita, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the application of an accident consequence assessment model, OSCAAR to the Iput dose reconstruction scenario of BIOMASS and also to the Chernobyl 131 I fallout scenario of EMRAS, both organized by International Atomic Energy Agency. The Iput Scenario deals with 137 Cs contamination of the catchment basin and agricultural area in the Bryansk Region of Russia, which was heavily contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. This exercise was used to test the chronic exposure pathway models in OSCAAR with actual measurements and to identify the most important sources of uncertainty with respect to each part of the assessment. The OSCAAR chronic exposure pathway models had some limitations but the refined model, COLINA almost successfully reconstructed the whole 10-year time course of 137 Cs activity concentrations in most requested types of agricultural products and natural foodstuffs. The Plavsk scenario provides a good opportunity to test not only the food chain transfer model of 131 I but also the method of assessing 131 I thyroid burden. OSCAAR showed in general good capabilities for assessing the important 131 I exposure pathways. (author)

  3. Field-testing competing runoff source and hydrochemical conceptualisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, A. W.; Saffarpour, S.; Adams, R.; Costelloe, J. F.; McDonnell, J.

    2014-12-01

    There are competing conceptualisations of heterogeneity in catchment systems. It is often convenient to divide catchments into zones, for example the soil profile, groundwater aquifers (saturated zone), riparian zones, etc. We also often divide flow sources into distinct categories such as surface runoff, interflow and baseflow, implying a few distinct stores of water. In tracer hydrology we typically assume water from such zones has distinct and invariant chemistry that is used to infer the runoff source mixture through conservative mixing model techniques such as End-Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA). An alternative conceptualisation is that catchments consist of a large number of stores with varying residence times. In this case individual stores contribute a variable proportion of flow and may have a temporally varying composition due to processes such as evapo-concentration. Hence they have a variable influence on the hydrochemistry of runoff. In this presentation, examples from two field studies in southern Australia will be presented that examine the relationships between hydrologic and hydrochemical conceptualisations and the relative variation within and between different hydrologic zones. The implications for water quality behaviour will be examined and the additional behavioural complexities associated with interactions between runoff pathways for non-conservative chemical species will be discussed.

  4. The Savannah River Environmental Technology Field Test Platform: Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossabi, J.; Riha, B.D.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Pemberton, B.E.; May, C.P.; Jarosch, T.R.; Looney, B.B.; Raymond, R.

    1995-01-01

    The principal goal in the development of new technologies for environmental monitoring and characterization is transferring them to organizations and individuals for use in site assessment and compliance monitoring. The DOE complex has devised several strategies to facilitate this transfer including joint research projects between private industries and government laboratories or universities (CRADAs) and streamlined licensing procedures. One strategy that has been under-utilized is a planned sequence gradually moving from laboratory development and field demonstration to long term evaluation and onsite use. Industrial partnership and commercial production can be initiated at any step based on the performance, market, user needs, and costs associated with the technology. This approach allows use of the technology by onsite groups for compliance monitoring tasks (e.g. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management), while following parallel research and development organizations the opportunity to evaluate the long term performance and to make modifications or improvements to the technology. This probationary period also provides regulatory organizations, potential industrial partners, and potential users with the opportunity to evaluate the technology's performance and its utility for implementation in environmental characterization and monitoring programs

  5. Consistent electrification of the powertrain in Mercedes-Benz cars. From micro hybrid to plug-in; Konsequente Elektrifizierung des Antriebsstrangs bei Mercedes-Benz Cars. Vom Micro-Hybrid bis zum Plug-In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, M.; Henning, G.; Lamm, A.; Bitsche, O.; Antony, P.; Nietfeld, F. [Daimler AG (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Electrifying vehicle drives is a major part of Daimler's strategy to realize sustained mobility. Electrification encompasses a wide range of concepts and system designs - from the micro hybrid to the plug-in. Economically priced micro hybrids were initially available in the smart fortwo as well as A-Class and B-Class model series and will be successively offered for other model series. Mild and full hybrids, which feature additional functionality, have already been successfully launched or will be available in the near future. The effort to continually advance innovative drive technology culminates in the SClass Plug-In. The lithium-ion battery plays a key role with its high energy density and efficiency. These vehicles and the drive technology they incorporate make it possible to meet the most stringent emissions standards as well as achieve very low fuel economy and CO{sub 2} emissions. (orig.)

  6. Automated Critical Peak Pricing Field Tests: Program Descriptionand Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Xu, Peng

    2006-04-06

    California utilities have been exploring the use of critical peak prices (CPP) to help reduce needle peaks in customer end-use loads. CPP is a form of price-responsive demand response (DR). Recent experience has shown that customers have limited knowledge of how to operate their facilities in order to reduce their electricity costs under CPP (Quantum 2004). While the lack of knowledge about how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs like CPP, another barrier is the lack of automation of DR systems. During 2003 and 2004, the PIER Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) conducted a series of tests of fully automated electric demand response (Auto-DR) at 18 facilities. Overall, the average of the site-specific average coincident demand reductions was 8% from a variety of building types and facilities. Many electricity customers have suggested that automation will help them institutionalize their electric demand savings and improve their overall response and DR repeatability. This report focuses on and discusses the specific results of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing (Auto-CPP, a specific type of Auto-DR) tests that took place during 2005, which build on the automated demand response (Auto-DR) research conducted through PIER and the DRRC in 2003 and 2004. The long-term goal of this project is to understand the technical opportunities of automating demand response and to remove technical and market impediments to large-scale implementation of automated demand response (Auto-DR) in buildings and industry. A second goal of this research is to understand and identify best practices for DR strategies and opportunities. The specific objectives of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing test were as follows: (1) Demonstrate how an automated notification system for critical peak pricing can be used in large commercial facilities for demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate effectiveness of such a system. (3) Determine how customers

  7. Design, production, and testing of field effect transistors. [cryogenic MOSFETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclar, N.

    1982-01-01

    Cryogenic MOSFETS (CRYOFETS), specifically designed for low temperature preamplifier application with infrared extrinsic detectors were produced and comparatively tested with p-channel MOSFETs under matched conditions. The CRYOFETs exhibit lower voltage thresholds, high source-follower gains at lower bias voltage, and lower dc offset source voltage. The noise of the CRYOFET is found to be 2 to 4 times greater than the MOSFET with a correspondingly lower figure of merit (which is established for source-follower amplifiers). The device power dissipation at a gain of 0.98 is some two orders of magnitude lower than for the MOSFET. Further, CRYOFETs are free of low temperature I vs V character hysteresis and balky conduction turn-on effects and operate effectively in the 2.4 to 20 K range. These devices have promise for use on long term duration sensor missions and for on-focal-plane signal processing at low temperatures.

  8. Hydrologic modeling and field testing at Yucca mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoxie, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being evaluated as a possible site for a mined geologic repository for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The repository is proposed to be constructed in fractured, densely welded tuff within the thick (500 to 750 meters) unsaturated zone at the site. Characterization of the site unsaturated-zone hydrogeologic system requires quantitative specification of the existing state of the system and the development of numerical hydrologic models to predict probable evolution of the hydrogeologic system over the lifetime of the repository. To support development of hydrologic models for the system, a testing program has been designed to characterize the existing state of the system, to measure hydrologic properties for the system and to identify and quantify those processes that control system dynamics. 12 refs

  9. The theory and method of two-well field test for in-situ leaching uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yixuan; Huo Jiandang; Xiang Qiulin; Tang Baobin

    2007-01-01

    Because leaching area in field test for in-situ leaching uranium is not accounted exactly, the reliability of obtaining parameters by calculating can not be ensured, and the whole test needs a long time and great investment. In two-well field test, lixiviant is injected from one well, pregnant solution is pumped out from the other, flow rate of the production well is more than that of the injection well, and uranium is not recoveried. In the case of keeping invariable ratio of pumping capacity to injecting capacity during the testing process, leaching area is not variable, can be exactly calculated. The full field test needs six months to one year. Two-well test is a scientific, rapid, minimal spending field test method, and is widely used in Commonwealth of Independent States. (authors)

  10. 76 FR 12932 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Fowl Laryngotracheitis-Marek's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Inspection Service (APHIS), as well as obtain APHIS' authorization to ship the product for field testing. To... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0011] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing... and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that...

  11. 76 FR 66032 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Avian Influenza-Marek's Disease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Avian Influenza-Marek's Disease Vaccine, H5 Subtype, Serotype 3, Live Marek's Disease Vector AGENCY... authorization to ship for the purpose of field testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed Avian Influenza... product: Requester: Biomune Company. Product: Avian Influenza-Marek's Disease Vaccine, H5 Subtype...

  12. Research Note The reliability of a field test kit for the detection and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note The reliability of a field test kit for the detection and the persistence of ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The objectives were to test a field kit for practicality and reliability, to assess the spread of the bacteria among ...

  13. 78 FR 29698 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing a Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing a Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA AGENCY: Animal and... Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA. The environmental assessment, which is based on a risk analysis prepared to... biological product: Requester: Merial, Inc. Product: Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA. Possible Field Test...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.295 - PM inertial balance for field-testing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... net PM on a sample medium for field testing. (b) Component requirements. We recommend that you use a... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PM inertial balance for field-testing analysis. 1065.295 Section 1065.295 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  15. Experiments and Modeling to Support Field Test Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Peter Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bourret, Suzanne Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zyvoloski, George Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Disposition of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) remains a continuing technical and sociopolitical challenge. We define HGNW as the combination of both heat generating defense high level waste (DHLW) and civilian spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Numerous concepts for HGNW management have been proposed and examined internationally, including an extensive focus on geologic disposal (c.f. Brunnengräber et al., 2013). One type of proposed geologic material is salt, so chosen because of its viscoplastic deformation that causes self-repair of damage or deformation induced in the salt by waste emplacement activities (Hansen and Leigh, 2011). Salt as a repository material has been tested at several sites around the world, notably the Morsleben facility in Germany (c.f. Fahland and Heusermann, 2013; Wollrath et al., 2014; Fahland et al., 2015) and at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. Evaluating the technical feasibility of a HGNW repository in salt is an ongoing process involving experiments and numerical modeling of many processes at many facilities.

  16. A portable and affordable extensional rheometer for field testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Bart; Bryan, Matthew; Bosson, Ed; Butler, Simon; Hoier, Tom; Magens, Ole; Pistre, Nicolas; Pratt, Lee; Ward, Betsy-Ann; Wibberley, Sam; Wilson, D. Ian

    2016-12-01

    Extensional shear testing is often needed to characterise the behaviour of complex fluids found in industry and nature. Traditional extensional rheometers are typically expensive, fragile and heavy and are only suited to making measurements in a laboratory environment. For some applications, it is necessary to make in situ rheological measurements where, for example, fluid properties change rapidly over time or where laboratory facilities are unavailable. This paper reports the development and validation of an inexpensive, lightweight and robust ‘open source’ extensional rheometer, Seymour II. Validation was carried out experimentally and computationally. Measurements on a Newtonian fluid (492 mPa s Brookfield silicone oil) yielded results of 510  ±  51 mPa s; these are comfortably within the range of  ±10% which other authors have quoted for extensional techniques using laboratory rheometers. Comparison of the observed filament thinning dynamics to those obtained using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) gave good qualitative agreement. Use of Seymour II at the University of Cambridge Botanic Gardens revealed that the mucilage of the ‘crane flower’, Strelitzia reginae, was a viscoelastic fluid whose extensional response could be described by a two-mode Giesekus equation. Engineering drawings and image analysis code for Seymour II are available for download at the project website, www.seymourII.org/.

  17. A portable and affordable extensional rheometer for field testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallmark, Bart; Bryan, Matthew; Bosson, Ed; Butler, Simon; Hoier, Tom; Magens, Ole; Pratt, Lee; Ward, Betsy-Ann; Wibberley, Sam; Wilson, D Ian; Pistre, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Extensional shear testing is often needed to characterise the behaviour of complex fluids found in industry and nature. Traditional extensional rheometers are typically expensive, fragile and heavy and are only suited to making measurements in a laboratory environment. For some applications, it is necessary to make in situ rheological measurements where, for example, fluid properties change rapidly over time or where laboratory facilities are unavailable. This paper reports the development and validation of an inexpensive, lightweight and robust ‘open source’ extensional rheometer, Seymour II. Validation was carried out experimentally and computationally. Measurements on a Newtonian fluid (492 mPa s Brookfield silicone oil) yielded results of 510  ±  51 mPa s; these are comfortably within the range of  ±10% which other authors have quoted for extensional techniques using laboratory rheometers. Comparison of the observed filament thinning dynamics to those obtained using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) gave good qualitative agreement. Use of Seymour II at the University of Cambridge Botanic Gardens revealed that the mucilage of the ‘crane flower’, Strelitzia reginae , was a viscoelastic fluid whose extensional response could be described by a two-mode Giesekus equation. Engineering drawings and image analysis code for Seymour II are available for download at the project website, www.seymourII.org/. (paper)

  18. A New Facility for Testing Superconducting Solenoid Magnets with Large Fringe Fields at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orris, D. [Fermilab; Carcagno, R. [Fermilab; Nogiec, J. [Fermilab; Rabehl, R. [Fermilab; Sylvester, C. [Fermilab; Tartaglia, M. [Fermilab

    2013-09-01

    Testing superconducting solenoid with no iron flux return can be problematic for a magnet test facility due to the large magnetic fringe fields generated. These large external fields can interfere with the operation of equipment while precautions must be taken for personnel supporting the test. The magnetic forces between the solenoid under test and the external infrastructure must also be taken under consideration. A new test facility has been designed and built at Fermilab specifically for testing superconducting magnets with large external fringe fields. This paper discusses the test stand design, capabilities, and details of the instrumentation and controls with data from the first solenoid tested in this facility: the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) coupling coil.

  19. Test plan for the field evaluation and demonstration of the Contamination Control Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, M.R.; Thompson, D.N.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes test details of a full demonstration of the Contamination Control Unit (CCU). The CCU is a mobile trailer capable of employing the use of soil fixatives, dust suppression agents, misting, and vacuum systems. These systems can perform a large number of contamination control functions to support the Office of Waste Technology Development (OTD) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) projects, transuranic (TRU) waste retrieval operations, and emergency response for hazardous and radioactive materials incidents. The demonstration will include both performance testing at the North Holmes Laboratory Facility (NHLF) and field testing in conjunction with the Remote Excavation System Demonstration at the Cold Test Pit. The NHLF will test operational parameters using water only, and the field demonstration at the Cold Test Pit involves full scale operation of vacuum, fixant, misting, and dust suppression systems. Test objectives, detailed experimental procedures, and data quality objectives necessary to perform the field demonstration are included in this test plan

  20. Qualifying tests for TRIAM-1M superconducting toroidal magnetic field coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanura, Yukio; Hiraki, Naoji; Nakamura, Kazuo; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Nagao, Akihiro; Kawasaki, Shoji; Itoh, Satoshi

    1984-09-01

    In the strong toroidal magnetic field experimental facility ''TRIAM-1M'' currently under construction, construction of the superconducting toroidal magnetic field coil and the following qualifying tests conducted on the full-scale superconducting toroidal magnetic field coil actually fabricated are described: (1) coil excitation test, (2) superconducting stability test, (3) external magnetic field application test, and (4) high-speed excitation test. On the basis of these test results, stability was evaluated of the superconducting coil being operated in the tokamak device. In normal tokamak operation, there occurs no normal conduction transition. At the time of plasma disruption, though this transition takes place in part of the coil, the superconducting state is immediately restored. By its electromagnetic force analysis, the superconducting coil is also stable in structure.

  1. Patterns of surface burrow plugging in a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied by black-footed ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David E.; Biggins, Dean E.

    2012-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) can surface-plug openings to a burrow occupied by a black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). At a coarse scale, surface plugs are more common in colonies of prairie dogs occupied by ferrets than in colonies without ferrets. However, little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of surface plugging in a colony occupied by ferrets. In a 452-ha colony of black-tailed prairie dogs in South Dakota, we sampled burrow openings for surface plugs and related those data to locations of ferrets observed during spotlight surveys. Of 67,574 burrow openings in the colony between June and September 2007, 3.7% were plugged. In a colony-wide grid of 80 m × 80 m cells, the occurrence of surface plugging (≥1 opening plugged) was greater in cells used by ferrets (93.3% of cells) than in cells not observably used by ferrets (70.6%). Rates of surface plugging (percentages of openings plugged) were significantly higher in cells used by ferrets (median = 3.7%) than in cells without known ferret use (median = 3.2%). Also, numbers of ferret locations in cells correlated positively with numbers of mapped surface plugs in the cells. To investigate surface plugging at finer temporal and spatial scales, we compared rates of surface plugging in 20-m-radius circle-plots centered on ferret locations and in random plots 1–4 days after observing a ferret (Jun–Oct 2007 and 2008). Rates of surface plugging were greater in ferret-plots (median = 12.0%) than in random plots (median = 0%). For prairie dogs and their associates, the implications of surface plugging could be numerous. For instance, ferrets must dig to exit or enter plugged burrows (suggesting energetic costs), and surface plugs might influence microclimates in burrows and consequently influence species that cannot excavate soil (e.g., fleas that transmit the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis).

  2. Optimal integration of a hybrid solar-battery power source into smart home nanogrid with plug-in electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Xiaosong; Teng, Yanqiong; Qian, Shide; Cheng, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid solar-battery power source is essential in the nexus of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV), renewables, and smart building. This paper devises an optimization framework for efficient energy management and components sizing of a single smart home with home battery, PEV, and potovoltatic (PV) arrays. We seek to maximize the home economy, while satisfying home power demand and PEV driving. Based on the structure and system models of the smart home nanogrid, a convex programming (CP) problem i...

  3. Seed vigour tests for predicting field emergence of maize under severe conditions

    OpenAIRE

    García de Yzaguirre, Álvaro; Lasa Dolhagaray, José Manuel

    1989-01-01

    [EN] With 40 to 50 different seed vigour tests available, appropiate procedures for choosing the best single test or combination the best predictors of seedling emergence of maize (Zea Mays L.) under severe conditions. Thirteen vigour tests and various field emergence trials were performed on six inbred lines and two commercial hybrids. The best single predictors of field emergence were identified by calculating simple correlation coefficients. The calculation of the geometric mean of the res...

  4. CORRELATION BETWEEN SEED TESTS AND FIELD EMERGENCE OF TWO MAIZE HYBRIDS (SC704 AND SC500)

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. ALILOO; B. SHOKATI

    2011-01-01

    Early emergence and stand establishment of maize (Zea mays L.) are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors. The influence of seed vigor on these factors is vital. Therefore, five laboratory tests and field experiment were conducted on basis of a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five replications in 2011, to evaluate the correlation among the seed vigor tests and field emergence of two maize hybrids (SC704 and SC500). In laboratory tests, differences between ...

  5. Development and manufacture of a Nb3Sn superconductor for the high-field test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, R.M.; Cornish, D.N.; Spencer, C.R.; Gregory, E.; Adam, E.

    1981-01-01

    The High-Field Test Facility (HFTF) project has two primary goals. The first is to establish manufacturing capability for a Nb 3 Sn conductor suitable for use in a mirror fusion coil. The second is to provide a test facility for evaluating other fusion conductor designs at high fields. This paper describes some of the problems encountered and the solutions devised in working toward the first goal. Construction of the test facility coils will be described in a subsequent paper

  6. Correlation between two parameters of mice behaviour in the open field test

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović, Nikola M.; Ranđelović, Pavle J.; Radulović, Niko S.

    2017-01-01

    The open field test is being used extensively for the determination of different aspects of animal behaviour for over seventy years. The correlation between different behavioural parameters obtained in this test, although previously studied, is still debatable. Thus, we aimed to analyze and correlate behaviour scores to estimate the importance of individual parameters in this type of experiment. The open field test was performed on male BALB/c mice treated with either saline (10 ml/kg) or dia...

  7. Pump testing - Comparison of factory vs. field test of centrifugal pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, R.

    1992-01-01

    Testing of pumps in situ, i.e., as installed in a system, will typically yield somewhat different performance results from the original manufacturer's factory test. This paper discusses some of the reasons for these variations. It shows that the factory test curves can be used for evaluation of initial acceptance tests but not for reference in normal inservice testing (IST). This is the basis for reference values used in American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section 11 specifications and the revised ASME Code 1990

  8. Conceptual & Engineering Design of Plug-in Cryostat Cylinder for Super-Conducting Central Solenoid of SST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Prabal; Santra, Prosenjit; Vasava, Kirit; Jayswal, Snehal; Parekh, Tejas; Chauhan, Pradeep; Patel, Hitesh; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    SST-1, country’s first indigenously built steady state super-conducting tokamak is planned to be equipped with an Nb3Sn based superconducting central solenoid, which will replace the existing copper conductor TR1 coil for the purpose of Ohmic breakdown. This central solenoid (CS) of four layers with each layer having 144 turns with an OD of 573 mm, ID of 423 mm length of 2483 mm will be housed inside a high vacuum, CRYO compatible plug-in cryostat thin shell having formed from SS 304L plate duly rolled and welded to form cylinder along with necessary accessories like LN2 bubble panel, current lead chamber, coil and cylinder support structure etc. This paper will present the design drivers, material selection, advantages and constraints of the plug-in cryostat concept, sub-systems of plug-in cryostat, its conceptual and engineering design, CAD models, finite element analysis using ANSYS, safety issues and diagnostics, on-going works about fabrication, quality assurance/control and assembly/integration aspects with in the existing SST-1 machine bore.

  9. Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2013-03-01

    The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand.

  10. Shifting primary energy source and NOx emission location with plug-in hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karman, Deniz

    2011-06-01

    Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) present an interesting technological opportunity for using non-fossil primary energy in light duty passenger vehicles, with the associated potential for reducing air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, to the extent that the electric power grid is fed by non-fossil sources. This perspective, accompanying the article by Thompson et al (2011) in this issue, will touch on two other studies that are directly related: the Argonne study (Elgowainy et al 2010) and a PhD thesis from Utrecht (van Vliet 2010). Thompson et al (2011) have examined air quality effects in a case where the grid is predominantly fossil fed. They estimate a reduction of 7.42 tons/day of NOx from motor vehicles as a result of substituting electric VMTs for 20% of the light duty gasoline vehicle miles traveled. To estimate the impact of this reduction on air quality they also consider the increases in NOx emissions due to the increased load on electricity generating units. The NOx emission increases are estimated as 4.0, 5.5 and 6.3 tons for the Convenience, Battery and Night charging scenarios respectively. The net reductions are thus in the 1.1-3.4 tons/day range. The air quality modelling results presented show that the air quality impact from a ground-level ozone perspective is favorable overall, and while the effect is stronger in some localities, the difference between the three scenarios is small. This is quite significant and suggests that localization of the NOx emissions to point sources has a more pronounced effect than the absolute reductions achieved. Furthermore it demonstrates that localization of NOx emissions to electricity generating units by using PHEVs in vehicle traffic has beneficial effects for air quality not only by minimizing direct human exposure to motor vehicle emissions, but also due to reduced exposure to secondary pollutants (i.e. ozone). In an electric power grid with a smaller share of fossil fired generating units, the beneficial

  11. Optimised performance of a plug-in electric vehicle aggregator in energy and reserve markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie-khah, M.; Moghaddam, M.P.; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new model is developed to optimise the performance of a PEV aggregator in the power market. • PEVs aggregator can combine the PEVs and manage the charge/discharge of their batteries. • A new approach to calculate the satisfaction/motivation of PEV owners is proposed. • Several uncertainties are taken into account using a two-stage stochastic programing approach. • The proposed model is proficient in significantly improving the short- and long-term behaviour. - Abstract: In this paper, a new model is developed to optimise the performance of a plug-in Electric Vehicle (EV) aggregator in electricity markets, considering both short- and long-term horizons. EV aggregator as a new player of the power market can aggregate the EVs and manage the charge/discharge of their batteries. The aggregator maximises the profit and optimises EV owners’ revenue by applying changes in tariffs to compete with other market players for retaining current customers and acquiring new owners. On this basis, a new approach to calculate the satisfaction/motivation of EV owners and their market participation is proposed in this paper. Moreover, the behaviour of owners to select their supplying company is considered. The aggregator optimises the self-scheduling programme and submits the best bidding/offering strategies to the day-ahead and real-time markets. To achieve this purpose, the day-ahead and real-time energy and reserve markets are modelled as oligopoly markets, in contrast with previous works that utilised perfectly competitive ones. Furthermore, several uncertainties and constraints are taken into account using a two-stage stochastic programing approach, which have not been addressed in previous works. The numerical studies show the effectiveness of the proposed model

  12. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Gross, Thomas [Sentech, Inc.; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Sullivan, John [University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.; Ward, Jake [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

  13. Potential impacts assessment of plug-in electric vehicles on the Portuguese energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, C.; Farias, T.; Esteves, J.

    2011-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which obtain their fuel from the grid by charging a battery, are set to be introduced into the mass market and expected to contribute to oil consumption reduction. In this research, scenarios for 2020 EVs penetration and charging profiles are studied integrated with different hypotheses for electricity production mix. The impacts in load profiles, spot electricity prices and emissions are obtained for the Portuguese case study. Simulations for year 2020, in a scenario of low hydro production and high prices, resulted in energy costs for EVs recharge of 20 cents/kWh, with 2 million EVs charging mainly at evening peak hours. On the other hand, in an off-peak recharge, a high hydro production and low wholesale prices' scenario, recharge costs could be reduced to 5.6 cents/kWh. In these extreme cases, EV's energy prices were between 0.9 Euro to 3.2 Euro per 100 km. Reductions in primary energy consumption, fossil fuels use and CO 2 emissions of up to 3%, 14% and 10%, respectively, were verified (for a 2 million EVs' penetration and a dry year's off-peak recharge scenario) from the transportation and electricity sectors together when compared with a BAU scenario without EVs. - Highlights: → EVs and PHEVs impacts in energy, power profiles and spot electricity prices. → Reductions in primary energy consumption, fossil fuels use and CO 2 emissions. → Electricity production with more % of fossil fuels technologies and renewable ones. → Comparison between extreme charging profiles, peak and off-peak, in charging cost.

  14. On the business value of ICT-controlled plug-in electric vehicle charging in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The increasing penetration of variable renewable energy, such as wind and solar, requires the deployment of large scale energy storage or dynamic demand side management. Leveraging the intrinsic energy storage potential of certain electric loads could be the key for an efficient transition to green power generation. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are about to be introduced on a large scale. In this paper, we investigate the savings potential of electricity retailers resulting from the ability to control the charging behavior of a fleet of PEVs using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). This savings potential is important as it could jumpstart the development of advanced control infrastructures for dynamic demand side management. The paper makes three major contributions: first, it applies a novel car usage model based on data from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). Second, it develops and evaluates several charging scheduling algorithms with low computational requirements. Third, it identifies several key parameters influencing the relative and absolute savings potential of ICT-controlled PEV charging. We obtain a relative savings potential of up to 45%. The absolute yearly savings per PEV, however, are rather small, which could limit the economic incentives of electricity retailers to deploy the required infrastructure. - Highlights: ► The paper presents a novel model for car usage based on NHTS. ► Several charging scheduling algorithms with low computational requirements are developed and evaluated. ► Several key parameters influencing the relative and absolute savings potential of ICT-controlled PEV charging are identified. ► PEVs can be used to reduce electricity sourcing cost by up to 45%. ► The absolute yearly savings per controlled PEV are rather small and could limit the economic incentives of electricity retailers to deploy the required infrastructure.

  15. Optimal trading of plug-in electric vehicle aggregation agents in a market environment for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie-khah, M.; Heydarian-Forushani, E.; Golshan, M.E.H.; Siano, P.; Moghaddam, M.P.; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposing a multi-stage stochastic model of a PEV aggregation agent. • Reflecting several uncertainties using a stochastic model and appropriate scenarios. • Updating bids/offers of PEV aggregation agents by taking part in the intraday market. • Taking part in Demand Response eXchange (DRX) markets. - Abstract: Ever since energy sustainability is an emergent concern, Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) significantly affect the approaching smart grids. Indeed, Demand Response (DR) brings a positive effect on the uncertainties of renewable energy sources, improving market efficiency and enhancing system reliability. This paper proposes a multi-stage stochastic model of a PEV aggregation agent to participate in day-ahead and intraday electricity markets. The stochastic model reflects several uncertainties such as the behaviour of PEV owners, electricity market prices, and activated quantity of reserve by the system operator. For this purpose, appropriate scenarios are utilized to realize the uncertain feature of the problem. Furthermore, in the proposed model, the PEV aggregation agents can update their bids/offers by taking part in the intraday market. To this end, these aggregation agents take part in Demand Response eXchange (DRX) markets designed in the intraday session by employing DR resources. The numerical results show that DR provides a perfect opportunity for PEV aggregation agents to increase the profit. In addition, the results reveal that the PEV aggregation agent not only can increase its profit by participating in the DRX market, but also can become an important player in the mentioned market.

  16. Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2013-01-01

    The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand. (letter)

  17. An agent-based model to study market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppstein, Margaret J.; Grover, David K.; Marshall, Jeffrey S.; Rizzo, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    A spatially explicit agent-based vehicle consumer choice model is developed to explore sensitivities and nonlinear interactions between various potential influences on plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) market penetration. The model accounts for spatial and social effects (including threshold effects, homophily, and conformity) and media influences. Preliminary simulations demonstrate how such a model could be used to identify nonlinear interactions among potential leverage points, inform policies affecting PHEV market penetration, and help identify future data collection necessary to more accurately model the system. We examine sensitivity of the model to gasoline prices, to accuracy in estimation of fuel costs, to agent willingness to adopt the PHEV technology, to PHEV purchase price and rebates, to PHEV battery range, and to heuristic values related to gasoline usage. Our simulations indicate that PHEV market penetration could be enhanced significantly by providing consumers with ready estimates of expected lifetime fuel costs associated with different vehicles (e.g., on vehicle stickers), and that increases in gasoline prices could nonlinearly magnify the impact on fleet efficiency. We also infer that a potential synergy from a gasoline tax with proceeds is used to fund research into longer-range lower-cost PHEV batteries. - Highlights: → We model consumer agents to study potential market penetration of PHEVs. → The model accounts for spatial, social, and media effects. → We identify interactions among potential leverage points that could inform policy. → Consumer access to expected lifetime fuel costs may enhance PHEV market penetration. → Increasing PHEV battery range has synergistic effects on fleet efficiency.

  18. Field monitoring of static, dynamic, and statnamic pile loading tests using fibre Bragg grating strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Correia, Ricardo P.; Chehura, Edmon; Staines, Stephen; James, Stephen W.; Tatam, Ralph; Butcher, Antony P.; Fuentes, Raul

    2009-10-01

    Pile loading test plays an important role in the field of piling engineering. In order to gain further insight into the load transfer mechanism, strain gauges are often used to measure local strains along the piles. This paper reports a case whereby FBG strain sensors was employed in a field trial conducted on three different types of pile loading tests in a glacial till. The instrumentation systems were configured to suit the specific characteristic of each type of test. Typical test results are presented. The great potential of using FBG sensors for pile testing is shown.

  19. A Portable Environment Test System: A Field Assessment of Organotin Leachates--Test and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    of organotin-based antifouling (AF) coatings, NOSC researchers used this facility to study the effects of tributyltin ( TBT ), the primary toxic ...Environmental Test System (PETS) was evaluated with tributyltin ( TBT ) anti oling leachates in Sin Diego Bay over a 7-month period. Overall mean test...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A Portable Environmental Test System (PETS) was evaluated with tributyltin ( TBT ) antifouling leachates in San Diego Bay for 7

  20. TEST BED FOR THE SIMULATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF LOW EARTH ORBIT SATELLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gallina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a test bed designed to simulate magnetic environment experienced by a spacecraft on low Earth orbit. It consists of a spherical air bearing located inside a Helmholtz cage. The spherical air bearing is used for simulating microgravity conditions of orbiting bodies while the Helmholtz cage generates a controllable magnetic field resembling the one surrounding a satellite during its motion. Dedicated computer software is used to initially calculate the magnetic field on an established orbit. The magnetic field data is then translated into current values and transmitted to programmable power supplies energizing the cage. The magnetic field within the cage is finally measured by a test article mounted on the air bearing. The paper provides a description of the test bed and the test article design. An experimental test proves the good performance of the entire system.

  1. Power system operation risk analysis considering charging load self-management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhe; Wang, Dan; Jia, Hongjie; Djilali, Ned

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The interactive mechanism between system and PHEVs is presented. • The charging load self-management without sacrificing user requirements is proposed. • The charging load self-management is coupled to system operation risk analysis. • The charging load self-management can reduce the extra risk brought by PHEVs. • The charging load self-management can shift charging power to the time with low risk. - Abstract: Many jurisdictions around the world are supporting the adoption of electric vehicles through incentives and the deployment of a charging infrastructure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), with offer mature technology and stable performance, are expected to gain an increasingly larger share of the consumer market. The aggregated effect on power grid due to large-scale penetration of PHEVs needs to be analyzed. Nighttime-charging which typically characterizes PHEVs is helpful in filling the nocturnal load valley, but random charging of large PHEV fleets at night may result in new load peaks and valleys. Active response strategy is a potentially effective solution to mitigate the additional risks brought by the integration of PHEVs. This paper proposes a power system operation risk analysis framework in which charging load self-management is used to control system operation risk. We describe an interactive mechanism between the system and PHEVs in conjunction with a smart charging model is to simulate the time series power consumption of PHEVs. The charging load is managed with adjusting the state transition boundaries and without violating the users’ desired charging constraints. The load curtailment caused by voltage or power flow violation after outages is determined by controlling charging power. At the same time, the system risk is maintained under an acceptable level through charging load self-management. The proposed method is implemented using the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) and

  2. A comprehensive study of economic unit commitment of power systems integrating various renewable generations and plug-in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhile; Li, Kang; Niu, Qun; Xue, Yusheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new UCsRP problem with flexible integrations is established. • A novel multi-zone sampling method is proposed for scenarios generation. • A meta-heuristic solving tool is introduced for solving the UCsRP problem. • A comprehensive study is conducted considering multiple weathers and seasons. • The economic effects of various scenarios are evaluated and compared. - Abstract: Significant penetration of renewable generations (RGs) and mass roll-out of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) will pay a vital role in delivering the low carbon energy future and low emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) that are responsible for the global climate change. However, it is of considerable difficulties to precisely forecast the undispatchable and intermittent wind and solar power generations. The uncoordinated charging of PEVs imposes further challenges on the unit commitment in modern grid operations. In this paper, all these factors are comprehensively investigated for the first time within a novel hybrid unit commitment framework, namely UCsRP, which considers a wide range of scenarios in renewable generations and demand side management of dispatchable PEVs load. UCsRP is however an extremely challenging optimisation problem not only due to the large scale, mixed integer and nonlinearity, but also due to the double uncertainties relating to the renewable generations and PEV charging and discharging. In this paper, a meta-heuristic solving tool is introduced for solving the UCsRP problem. A key to improve the reliability of the unit commitment is to generate a range of scenarios based on multiple distributions of renewable generations under different prediction errors and extreme predicted value conditions. This is achieved by introducing a novel multi-zone sampling method. A comprehensive study considering four different cases of unit commitment problems with various weather and season scenarios using real power system data are conducted and solved, and smart

  3. Laboratory shake flask batch tests can predict field biodegradation of aniline in the Rhine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toräng, Lars; Reuschenbach, P.; Müller, B.

    2001-01-01

    .7 degreesC, respectively. This field rate estimate was compared with results from 38 laboratory shake flask batch tests with Rhine water which averaged 1.5 day(-1) at 15 degreesC and 2.0 day(-1) at 20 degreesC. These results indicate that laboratory shake flask batch tests with low concentrations of test...

  4. Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Lindbergh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipment designed primarily for lithium-ion battery cell testing is presented. This equipment is intended to be used on conventional vehicles, not hybrid vehicles, as a cheaper and faster field testing method for batteries, compared to full scale HEV testing. The equipment emulates an HEV environment for the tested battery cell by using real time vehicle sensor information and the existing starter battery as load and source. In addition to the emulated battery cycling, periodical capacity and pulse testing capability are implemented as well. This paper begins with presenting some background information about hybrid electrical vehicles and describing the limitations with today’s HEV battery testing. Furthermore, the functionality of the test equipment is described in detail and, finally, results from verification of the equipment are presented and discussed.

  5. Implementation of a solar thermal electricity pilot plant (Concentrated Tower) of 1MW and introduction of a bus fleet of plug-in hybrids on the Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Implementacao de uma planta piloto de heliotermia (Torre de Concentracao) de 1MW e introducao de uma frota de onibus hibridos plug-in na Ilha do Fundao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Bruno Soares Moreira Cesar; Malagueta, Diego Cunha [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to simulate a solar thermal electricity pilot plant at the Campus of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), at Fundao Island, which would generate part of the electricity demanded by the Technology Center (CT) of the UFRJ. Based on the electricity demand from UFRJ and the electric prices paid by the institution, this study proposes the construction of a 1MW Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) pilot plant and analyses the economical, energy and environmental viability of implementation of this plant, operating from 2015 to 2045. This CSP plant would cover a field of 0,01km{sup 2} and have a 30% of capacity factor. This study also evaluates the impact caused by the substitution of the current Campus internal bus fleet for plug-in hybrid electric buses. The current service is provided by Normandy, which operates 12 buses plus 1 backup. These new buses would be regularly partially recharged by the energy generated from CSP. All the simulations have been made with the RETScreen software, which simulated the operation of the CSP, the amount of electricity produced, the carbon emissions avoided, the acquisition and implementation of the plug-in hybrid electric bus fleet and the cash flow. Six scenarios generated were, namely A1, B1, C1 (all for lower costs for the CSP plants) and A2, B2, C2 (for higher costs). For a social discount rate around 8% and along 30 years, only the A1, C1 and C2 scenarios showed a non-negative cash flow. Also, the emissions avoided were around 222 tCO{sub 2}/yr (or 6.660 tCO{sub 2} over 30 years) in the A1 and A2 scenarios, and around 550 tCO{sub 2}/yr (or 16.512 tCO{sub 2} over 30 years) in all others scenarios. (author)

  6. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems light-vehicle field operational test key findings report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    "This document presents key findings from the light-vehicle field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michigan Transportat...

  7. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems light-vehicle field operational test, methodology and results report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    "This document presents the methodology and results from the light-vehicle field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michi...

  8. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : light vehicle platform field operational test data analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-22

    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to : perform analysis of data collected from the light vehicle platform field operational test of the : Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progr...

  9. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : heavy truck platform field operational test data analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-23

    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to perform : analysis of data collected from the heavy truck platform field operational test of the Integrated Vehicle- : Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progra...

  10. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test : state of Utah final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This document provides the final report for the evaluation of the USDOT-sponsored Computer-Aided Dispatch Traffic Management Center Integration Field Operations Test in the State of Utah. The document discusses evaluation findings in the followin...

  11. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test : Washington State final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This document provides the final report for the evaluation of the USDOT-sponsored Computer-Aided Dispatch - Traffic Management Center Integration Field Operations Test in the State of Washington. The document discusses evaluation findings in the foll...

  12. Field test of the PNNL Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagomarsino, R.J.; Ku, E.; Latner, N.; Sanderson, C.G.

    1998-07-01

    As part of the requirements of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Automated Radioxenon/Sampler Analyzer (ARSA) was designed and engineered by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The instrument is to provide near real-time detection and measurement of the radioxenons released into the atmosphere after a nuclear test. Forty-six field tests, designed to determine the performance of the ARSA prototype under simulated field conditions, were conducted at EML from March to December 1997. This final report contains detailed results of the tests with recommendations for improvements in instrument performance

  13. Field test of the PNNL Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagomarsino, R.J.; Ku, E.; Latner, N.; Sanderson, C.G.

    1998-07-01

    As part of the requirements of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Automated Radioxenon/Sampler Analyzer (ARSA) was designed and engineered by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The instrument is to provide near real-time detection and measurement of the radioxenons released into the atmosphere after a nuclear test. Forty-six field tests, designed to determine the performance of the ARSA prototype under simulated field conditions, were conducted at EML from March to December 1997. This final report contains detailed results of the tests with recommendations for improvements in instrument performance.

  14. Preliminary investigation on determination of radionuclide distribution in field tracing test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tadao; Mukai, Masayuki; Takebe, Shinichi; Guo Zede; Li Shushen; Kamiyama, Hideo.

    1993-12-01

    Field tracing tests for radionuclide migration have been conducted by using 3 H, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 134 Cs, in the natural unsaturated loess zone at field test site of China Institute for Radiation Protection. It is necessary to obtain confidable distribution data of the radionuclides in the test site, in order to evaluate exactly the migration behavior of the radionuclides in situ. An available method to determine the distribution was proposed on the basis of preliminary discussing results on sampling method of soils from the test site and analytical method of radioactivity in the soils. (author)

  15. Child-Robot Interaction in the Wild : Field Testing Activities of the ALIZ-E Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greeff, J. de; Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Fraaije, A.; Solms, L.; Wigdor, N.; Bierman, B.

    2014-01-01

    A field study was conducted in which CRI activities developed by the ALIZ-E project were tested with the project's primary user group: children with diabetes. This field study resulted in new insights in the modalities and roles a robot aimed at CRI in a healthcare setting might utilise, while in

  16. On the possibility of a fourth test of general relativity in earth's gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuan-zhong.

    1981-03-01

    In the paper the possibility for a fourth test of general relativity (i.e. relativistic time delay) in Earth's gravitational field is discussed. The effects of Earth's gravitational field on an interferometer and a resonant cavity are calculated by means of both two definitions of physical length. (author)

  17. A test for stationarity of spatio-temporal random fields on planar and spherical domains

    KAUST Repository

    Jun, Mikyoung; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    A formal test for weak stationarity of spatial and spatio-temporal random fields is proposed. We consider the cases where the spatial domain is planar or spherical, and we do not require distributional assumptions for the random fields. The method

  18. Finalize field testing of cold climate heat pump (CCHP) based on tandem vapor injection compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report describes the system diagram and control algorithm of a prototype air-source cold climate heat pump (CCHP) using tandem vapor injection (VI) compressors. The prototype was installed in Fairbanks, Alaska and underwent field testing starting in 09/2016. The field testing results of the past six months, including compressor run time fractions, measured COPs and heating capacities, etc., are presented as a function of the ambient temperature. Two lessons learned are also reported.

  19. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; McGill, Ralph N [ORNL; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.

    2010-07-01

    PHEVs have been the subject of growing interest in recent years because of their potential for reduced operating costs, oil displacement, national security, and environmental benefits. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The study Objectives are: (1) To identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome the initial price premium relative to comparable ICEs and HEVs and (2) to assess other non-monetary benefits and barriers associated with an emerging PHEV fleet, including environmental, societal, and grid impacts. Study results indicate that a single PHEV-30 on the road in 2030 will: (1) Consume 65% and 75% less gasoline than a comparable HEV and ICE, respectively; (2) Displace 7.25 and 4.25 barrels of imported oil each year if substituted for equivalent ICEs and HEVs, respectively, assuming 60% of the nation's oil consumed is imported; (3) Reduce net ownership cost over 10 years by 8-10% relative to a comparable ICE and be highly cost competitive with a comparable HEV; (4) Use 18-22% less total W2W energy than a comparable ICE, but 8-13% more than a comparable HEV (assuming a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030); and (5) Emit 10% less W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in southern California and emits 13% more W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in the ECAR region. This also assumes a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030. PHEVs and other plug-in vehicles on the road in 2030 may offer many valuable benefits to utilities, business owners, individual consumers, and society as a whole by: (1) Promoting national energy security by displacing large volumes of imported oil; (2) Supporting a secure economy through the expansion of domestic vehicle and component manufacturing; (3) Offsetting the vehicle's initial price premium with lifetime operating cost savings (e.g., lower fuel and

  20. Proposed sealing field tests for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in unsaturated tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Case, J.B.; Tyburski, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains a general description of the field tests proposed for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project repository sealing program. The tests are intended to resolve various performance and emplacement concerns associated with sealing components. Ten discrete tests are proposed to address these concerns. These tests are divided into two categories -- simple and complex tests. The simple tests are: the small-scale in situ tests: the intermediate-scale borehole seal tests; the fracture grouting tests; the surface backfill tests; and the grouted rock mass tests. The complex tests are the seepage control tests; in situ backfill tests; in situ bulkhead tests; large-scale shaft seal tests; and remote borehole seal tests. These tests are proposed to be performed in welded and nonwelded tuff environments. The final selection of sealing tests will depend on the nature of the geologic and hydrologic conditions encountered during the development of the exploratory studies facility. Some tests may be performed before license application and some after license application