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Sample records for field reversal compact

  1. Compact reversed-field pinch reactors (CRFPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.; Schnurr, N.M.; Copenhaver, C.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Embrechts, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The unique confinement properties of the poloidal-field-dominated Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) are exploited to examine physics and technical issues related to a compact high-power-density fusion reactor. This resistive-coil, steady-state, toroidal device would use a dual-media (i.e., two separate coolants) power cycle that would be driven by a fusion power core (FPC, i.e., plasma chamber, first wall, blanket, shield, and coils) having a power density and mass approaching pressurized-water-fission reactor values. A 1000-MWe(net) base case is selected from a comprehensive trade-off study to examine technological issues related to operating a high-power-density FPC. A general rationale outlining the need for improved fusion concepts is given, followed by a description of the RFP principle, a detailed systems and trade-off analysis, and a conceptual FPC design for the ∝ 20-MW/m 2 (neutrons) compact RFP reactor, CRFPR(20). Key FPC components are quantified, and full power-balance, thermal, and mechanical FPC integrations are given. (orig.)

  2. Compact reversed-field pinch reactors (CRFPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Hagenson, R.L.; Copenhaver, C.; Werley, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    The unique confinement properties of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) are exploited to examine physics and technical issues related to a compact, high-power-density fusion reactor. This resistive-coil, steady-state, toroidal device would use a dual-media power cycle driven by a fusion power core (FPC, i.e., plasma chamber, first wall, blanket, shield, and coils) with a power density and mass approaching values characteristic of pressurized-water fission rectors. A 1000-MWe(net) base case is selected from a comprehensive trade-off study to examine technological issues related to operating a high-power-density FPC. After describing the main physics and technology issues for this base-case reactor, directions for future study are suggested

  3. Dynamic processes in field-reversed-configuration compact toroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rej, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this lecture, the dynamic processes involved in field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation, translation, and compression will be reviewed. Though the FRC is related to the field-reversed mirror concept, the formation method used in most experiments is a variant of the field-reversed Θ-pinch. Formation of the FRC eqilibrium occurs rapidly, usually in less than 20 μs. The formation sequence consists of several coupled processes: preionization; radial implosion and compression; magnetic field line closure; axial contraction; equilibrium formation. Recent experiments and theory have led to a significantly improved understanding of these processes; however, the experimental method still relies on a somewhat empirical approach which involves the optimization of initial preionization plasma parameters and symmetry. New improvements in FRC formation methods include the use of lower voltages which extrapolate better to larger devices. The axial translation of compact toroid plasmas offers an attractive engineering convenience in a fusion reactor. FRC translation has been demonstrated in several experiments worldwide, and these plasmas are found to be robust, moving at speeds up to the Alfven velocity over distances of up to 16 m, with no degradation in the confinement. Compact toroids are ideal for magnetic compression. Translated FRCs have been compressed and heated by imploding liners. Upcoming experiments will rely on external flux compression to heat a translater FRC at 1-GW power levels. 39 refs

  4. Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactors (CRFPR): preliminary engineering considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Embrechts, M.J.; Schnurr, N.M.; Battat, M.E.; LaBauve, R.J.; Davidson, J.W.

    1984-08-01

    The unique confinement physics of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) projects to a compact, high-power-density fusion reactor that promises a significant reduction in the cost of electricity. The compact reactor also promises a factor-of-two reduction in the fraction of total cost devoted to the reactor plant equipment [i.e., fusion power core (FPC) plus support systems]. In addition to operational and developmental benefits, these physically smaller systems can operate economically over a range of total power output. After giving an extended background and rationale for the compact fusion approaches, key FPC subsystems for the Compact RFP Reactor (CRFPR) are developed, designed, and integrated for a minimum-cost, 1000-MWe(net) system. Both the problems and promise of the compact, high-power-density fusion reactor are quantitatively evaluated on the basis of this conceptual design. The material presented in this report both forms a framework for a broader, more expanded conceptual design as well as suggests directions and emphases for related research and development

  5. Compact toroid development: activity plan for field reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This document contains the description, goals, status, plans, and approach for the investigation of the properties of a magnetic configuration for plasma confinement identified as the field reversed configuration (FRC). This component of the magnetic fusion development program has been characterized by its potential for physical compactness and a flexible range of output power. The included material represents the second phase of FRC program planning. The first was completed in February 1983, and was reported in DOE/ER-0160; Compact Toroid Development. This planning builds on that previous report and concentrates on the detailed plans for the next several years of the current DOE sponsored program. It has been deliberately restricted to the experimental and theoretical efforts possible within the present scale of effort. A third phase of this planning exercise will examine the subsequent effort and resources needed to achieve near term (1987 to 1990) FRC technical objectives

  6. Field-reversed experiments (FRX) on compact toroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, W.T.; Linford, R.K.; Lipson, J.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1981-11-01

    Equilibrium, stability, and confinement properties of compact toroids produced in field-reversed theta-pinch experiments (FRX) are reported. Two experimental facilities, FRX-A and FRX-B, have been used to study highly elongated compact toroid plasmas confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. Spatial scans and fill pressure scaling of the equilibrium plasma parameters are presented. Plasma conditions range from T/sub e/approx.150 eV, T/sub i/approx.800 eV, n/sub m/approx.1 x 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/ to T/sub e/approx.100 eV, T/sub i/approx.150 eV, n/sub m/approx.4 x 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/. Typical confined plasma dimensions are: major radius Rapprox.4 cm, minor radius aapprox.2 cm, and total length 35--50 cm. The plasma configuration remains in a stable equilibrium for up to 50 ..mu..sec followed by the destructive n = 2 rotational instability. The stable period prior to the onset of the rotational mode is up to one hundred times greater than characteristic Alfven transit times of the plasma. This stable period increases and the mode growth rate decreases with increased a/rho/sub i/ (where rho/sub i/ is the ion gyroradius). Agreement of experimental and theoretical mode frequencies for the instability is observed. Preferential particle loss has been proposed as a likely cause of rotation. The particle inventory at the onset of the instability is consistent with this hypothesis. The particle loss rate is also consistent with the predicted anomalous transport near the separatrix. Contributions to rotational instability from diffusion, end-shorting, equipartition, and compression are also discussed.

  7. Field-reversed experiments (FRX) on compact toroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, W.T.; Linford, R.K.; Lipson, J.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    Equilibrium, stability, and confinement properties of compact toroids produced in field-reversed theta-pinch experiments (FRX) are reported. Two experimental facilities, FRX-A and FRX-B, have been used to study highly elongated compact toroid plasmas confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. Spatial scans and fill pressure scaling of the equilibrium plasma parameters are presented. Plasma conditions range from T/sub e/approx.150 eV, T/sub i/approx.800 eV, n/sub m/approx.1 x 10 15 cm -3 to T/sub e/approx.100 eV, T/sub i/approx.150 eV, n/sub m/approx.4 x 10 15 cm -3 . Typical confined plasma dimensions are: major radius Rapprox.4 cm, minor radius aapprox.2 cm, and total length 35--50 cm. The plasma configuration remains in a stable equilibrium for up to 50 μsec followed by the destructive n = 2 rotational instability. The stable period prior to the onset of the rotational mode is up to one hundred times greater than characteristic Alfven transit times of the plasma. This stable period increases and the mode growth rate decreases with increased a/rho/sub i/ (where rho/sub i/ is the ion gyroradius). Agreement of experimental and theoretical mode frequencies for the instability is observed. Preferential particle loss has been proposed as a likely cause of rotation. The particle inventory at the onset of the instability is consistent with this hypothesis. The particle loss rate is also consistent with the predicted anomalous transport near the separatrix. Contributions to rotational instability from diffusion, end-shorting, equipartition, and compression are also discussed

  8. Comparison study of toroidal-field divertors for a compact reversed-field pinch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two divertor configurations for the Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (CRFPR) based on diverting the minority (toroidal) field have been reported. A critical factor in evaluating the performance of both poloidally symmetric and bundle divertor configurations is the accurate determination of the divertor connection length and the monitoring of magnetic islands introduced by the divertors, the latter being a three-dimensional effect. To this end the poloidal-field, toroidal-field, and divertor coils and the plasma currents are simulated in three dimensions for field-line tracings in both the divertor channel and the plasma-edge regions. The results of this analysis indicate a clear preference for the poloidally symmetric toroidal-field divertor. Design modifications to the limiter-based CRFPR design that accommodate this divertor are presented

  9. ''Compact'' reversed-field pinch (CRFP) reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.; Nebel, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    These results indicate that a CRFP operating in the range of 100 MWe should be feasible. While the large aspect ratio leads to a 6.4-m major radius, the design still retains many attributes of conventional compact tori, such as simplicity and ease of access. The relatively low Q/sub p/ with batch burns might be satifactory for a demonstration unit. However, to obtain power-plant ''grade'' Q/sub p/, either refueling (possibly by pellets) or larger size plasmas appear necessary

  10. Plasma engineering design of a compact reversed-field pinch reactor (CRFPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.G.; Embrechts, M.J.; Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The rationale for and the characteristics of the high-power-density Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (CRFPR) are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to key plasma engineering aspects of the conceptual design, including plasma operations, current drive, and impurity/ash control by means of pumped limiters or magnetic divertors. A brief description of the Fusion-Power-Core integration is given

  11. The reversed-field pinch: a compact approach to fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) for development into an efficient, compact, copper-coil fusion reactor has been quantified by comprehensive parametric tradeoff studies. This compact system promises to be competitive in size, power density, and cost to alternative energy sources. Conceptual engineering designs that substantiate these promising results have been completed. This 1000 MW(e) (net) design is described along with a detailed rationale and physics/technology assessment for the compact approach to fusion. The RFP presents a robust plasma confinement system capable of providing a range of reactor systems that are compact in both physical size and/or net power output while ensuring acceptable cost and engineering feasibility for a range of assumed physics performance. (author)

  12. Compact-Toroid Fusion Reactor (CTOR) based on the Field-Reversed Theta Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Scoping studies of a translating Compact Torus Reactor (CTOR) have been made on the basis of a dynamic plasma model and an overall systems approach. This CTOR embodiment uses a Field-Reversed Theta Pinch as a plasma source. The field-reversed plasmoid would be formed and compressionally heated to ignition prior to injection into and translation through a linear burn chamber, thereby removing the high-technology plamoid source from the hostile reactor environment. Stabilization of the field-reversed plasmoid would be provided by a passive conducting shell located outside the high-temperature blanket but within the low-field superconducting magnets and associated radition shielding. On the basis of this batch-burn but thermally steady-state approach, a reactor concept emerges with a length below approx. 40 m that generates 300 to 400 MWe of net electrical power with a recirculating power fraction less than 0.15

  13. Compact-Toroid fusion reactor based on the field-reversed theta pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-03-01

    Early scoping studies based on approximate, analytic models have been extended on the basis of a dynamic plasma model and an overall systems approach to examine a Compact Toroid (CTOR) reactor embodiment that uses a Field-Reversed Theta Pinch as a plasma source. The field-reversed plasmoid would be formed and compressionally heated to ignition prior to injection into and translation through a linear burn chamber, thereby removing the high-technology plasmoid source from the hostile reactor environment. Stabilization of the field-reversed plasmoid would be provided by a passive conducting shell located outside the high-temperature blanket but within the low-field superconducting magnets and associated radiation shielding. On the basis of this batch-burn but thermally steady-state approach, a reactor concept emerges with a length below approx. 40 m that generates 300 to 400 MWe of net electrical power with a recirculating power fraction less than 0.15

  14. Magnetic divertor design for the compact reversed-field pinch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    A recently completed design of a pumped-limiter-based Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor is used to estimate for the first time the impact of magnetic divertors. A range of divertor options for the low-toroidal-field RFP is examined, and a design selection is made constrained by consideration of field ripple (magnetic island), blanket displacement, recirculating power, cost, heat flux, and access. Design choices based on diversion of minority (toroidal) field lead to a preference for (poloidally) symmetric or bundle divertor geometries

  15. FIREBIRD - a conceptual design of a field reversed configuration compact torus fusion reactor (CTFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, R.; Zubrin, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the work carried out by the Nuclear Engineering 512 design team at the University of Washington on a conceptual design study of a Compact-Torus (Field-Reversed) Fusion Reactor Configuration (CTFR). The primary objective of the study was to develop a reactor design that strived for high engineering power density, modest recirculating power and competitive cost of electrical power. A Conceptual design was developed for a translating field-reversed configuration reactor; based on the Physics developed by Tuszewski and Lindford at LANL and by Hoffman and Milroy at MSNW. Furthermore, it also appears possible to operate a simplified form of this reactor using a pure D-D fuel cycle after an initial D-T ignition ramp to reach the advanced fuel operating regime. One optimistic reactor so designed has a length of about 35 meters, producing a net electrical power of about 375 MWe

  16. A short introduction to the status and motivation for reversed field pinch and compact toroid research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, H.

    1987-09-01

    Potential commercial fusion power systems must be acceptable from a safety and environmental standpoint. They must also promise to be competitive with other sources of energy (i.e., fossil, fission, etc.) when considered from the standpoint of the cost of electricity (COE) and the unit direst cost (UDC) in ($/kWe). These costs are affected by a host of factors including recirculating power, plant availability, construction time, capital cost etc., and are, thus, influenced by technological complexity. In a attempt to meet these requirements, the emphasis of fusion research in the United States has been moving toward smaller, lower-cost systems. There is increased interest in higher beta tokamaks and stellarators, and in compact alternate concepts such as the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) and the Compact Toroids (CTs) which are, in part, the subject of this paper

  17. Compact reversed-field pinch reactors (CRFPR): sensitivity study and design-point determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1982-07-01

    If the costing assumptions upon which the positive assessment of conventional large superconducting fusion reactors are based proves overly optimistic, approaches that promise considerably increased system power density and reduced mass utilization will be required. These more compact reactor embodiments generally must operate with reduced shield thickness and resistive magnets. Because of the unique, magnetic topology associated with the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP), the compact reactor embodiment for this approach is particularly attractive from the viewpoint of low-field resistive coils operating with Ohmic losses that can be made small relative to the fusion power. A comprehensive system model is developed and described for a steady-state, compact RFP reactor (CRFPR). This model is used to select a unique cost-optimized design point that will be used for a conceptual engineering design. The cost-optimized CRFPR design presented herein would operate with system power densities and mass utilizations that are comparable to fission power plants and are an order of magnitude more favorable than the conventional approaches to magnetic fusion power. The sensitivity of the base-case design point to changes in plasma transport, profiles, beta, blanket thickness, normal vs superconducting coils, and fuel cycle (DT vs DD) is examined. The RFP approach is found to yield a point design for a high-power-density reactor that is surprisingly resilient to changes in key, but relatively unknown, physics and systems parameters

  18. Engineering and physics of high-power-density, compact, reversed-field-pinch fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najmabadi, F.; Conn, R.W.; Krakowski, R.A.; Schultz, K.R.; Steiner, D.

    1989-01-01

    The technical feasibility and key developmental issues of compact, high-power-density Reversed-Field-Pinch (RFP) reactors are the primary results of the TITAN RFP reactor study. Two design approaches emerged, TITAN-I and TITAN-II, both of which are steady-state, DT-burning, circa 1000 MWe power reactors. The TITAN designs are physically compact and have a high neutron wall loading of 18 MW m 2 . Detailed analyses indicate that: a) each design is technically feasible; b) attractive features of compact RFP reactors can be realized without sacrificing the safety and environmental potential of fusion; and c) major features of this particular embodiment of the RFP reactor are retained in a design window of neutron wall loading ranging from 10 to 20 MW/m 2 . A major product of the TITAN study is the identification and quantification of major engineering and physics requirements for this class of RFP reactors. These findings are the focus of this paper. (author). 26 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactors (CRFPR): fusion-power-core integration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, C.; Krakowski, R.A.; Schnurr, N.M.

    1985-08-01

    Using detailed two-dimensional neutronics studies based on the results of a previous framework study (LA-10200-MS), the fusion-power-core (FPC) integration, maintenance, and radio-activity/afterheat control are examined for the Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (CRFPR). While maintaining as a base case the nominal 20-MW/m 2 neutron first-wall loading design, CRFPR(20), the cost and technology impact of lower-wall-loading designs are also examined. The additional detail developed as part of this follow-on study also allows the cost estimates to be refined. The cost impact of multiplexing lower-wall-loading FPCs into a approx. 1000-MWe(net) plant is also examined. The CRFPR(20) design remains based on a PbLi-cooled FPC with pressurized-water used as a coolant for first-wall, pumped-limiter, and structural-shield systems. Single-piece FPC maintenance of this steady-state power plant is envisaged and evaluated on the basis of a preliminary layout of the reactor building. This follow-on study also develops the groundwork for assessing the feasibility and impact of impurity/ash control by magnetic divertors as an alternative to previously considered pumped-limiter systems. Lastly, directions for future, more-detailed power-plant designs based on the Reversed-Field Pinch are suggested

  20. Blanket activation and afterheat for the Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.W.; Battat, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed assessment has been made of the activation and afterheat for a Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (CRFPR) blanket using a two-dimensional model that included the limiter, the vacuum ducts, and the manifolds and headers for cooling the limiter and the first and second walls. Region-averaged, multigroup fluxes and prompt gamma-ray/neutron heating rates were calculated using the two-dimensional, discrete-ordinates code TRISM. Activation and depletion calculations were performed with the code FORIG using one-group cross sections generated with the TRISM region-averaged fluxes. Afterheat calculations were performed for regions near the plasma, i.e., the limiter, first wall, etc. assuming a 10-day irradiation. Decay heats were computed for decay periods up to 100 minutes. For the activation calculations, the irradiation period was taken to be one year and blanket activity inventories were computed for decay times to 4 x 10 5 years. These activities were also calculated as the toxicity-weighted biological hazard potential (BHP). 15 refs

  1. Compact toroid injection fueling in a large field-reversed configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Roche, T.; Allfrey, I.; Gota, H.; Sekiguchi, J.; Edo, T.; Garate, E.; Takahashi, Ts.; Binderbauer, M.; Tajima, T.

    2017-07-01

    A repetitively driven compact toroid (CT) injector has been developed for the large field-reversed configuration (FRC) facility of the C-2/C-2U, primarily for particle refueling. A CT is formed and injected by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) exclusively developed for the C-2/C-2U FRC. To refuel the particles of long-lived FRCs, multiple CT injections are required. Thus, a multi-stage discharge circuit was developed for a multi-pulsed CT injection. The drive frequency of this system can be adjusted up to 1 kHz and the number of CT shots per injector is two; the system can be further upgraded for a larger number of injection pulses. The developed MCPG can achieve a supersonic ejection velocity in the range of ~100 km s-1. The key plasma parameters of electron density, electron temperature and the number of particles are ~5  ×  1021 m-3, ~30 eV and 0.5-1.0  ×  1019, respectively. In this project, single- and double-pulsed counter CT injection fueling were conducted on the C-2/C-2U facility by two CT injectors. The CT injectors were mounted 1 m apart in the vicinity of the mid-plane. To avoid disruptive perturbation on the FRC, the CT injectors were operated at the lower limit of the particle inventory. The experiments demonstrated successful refueling with a significant density build-up of 20-30% of the FRC particle inventory per single CT injection without any deleterious effects on the C-2/C-2U FRC.

  2. Compact-toroid fusion reactor based on the field-reversed theta pinch: reactor scaling and optimization for CTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Early scoping studies based on approximate, analytic models have been extended on the basis of a dynamic plasma model and an overall systems approach to examine a Compact Toroid (CT) reactor embodiment that uses a Field-Reversed Theta Pinch as a plasma source. The field-reversed plasmoid would be formed and compressionally heated to ignition prior to injection into and translation through a linear burn chamber, thereby removing the high-technology plasmoid source from the hostile reactor environment. Stabilization of the field-reversed plasmoid would be provided by a passive conduction shell located outside the high-temperature blanket but within the low-field superconducting magnets and associated radiation shielding. On the basis of this batch-burn but thermally steady-state approach a reactor concept emerges with a length below approx. 40 m that generates 300 to 400 MWe of net electrical power with a recirculating power fraction less than 0.15

  3. The reversed-field pinch as a poloidal-field-dominated, compact, high-power-density fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of reversed-field pinch devices as future thermonuclear reactors. Safety, cost, ion temperatures, Lawson numbers, and power densities are reviewed for these types of devices. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Compact and lightweight support platform with electromagnetic disturbance elimination for interferometer on reversed field pinch Keda Torus eXperiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenzhe; Yuan, Peng; Zheng, Jian; Ding, Weixing; Li, Hong; Lan, Tao; Liu, Adi; Liu, Wandong; Xie, Jinlin

    2016-11-01

    A compact and lightweight support platform has been used as a holder for the interferometer system on the Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX), which is a reversed field pinch device. The vibration caused by the interaction between the time-varying magnetic field and the induced current driven in the metal optical components has been measured and, following comparison with the mechanical vibration of the KTX device and the refraction effect of the ambient turbulent air flow, has been identified as the primary vibration source in this case. To eliminate this electromagnetic disturbance, nonmetallic epoxy resin has been selected as the material for the support platform and the commercially available metal optical mounts are replaced. Following these optimization steps and mechanical reinforcements, the stability of the interferometer platform has improved significantly. The phase shift caused by the vibration has been reduced to the level of background noise.

  5. Point design for deuterium-deuterium compact reversed-field pinch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabiri, A.E.; Dobrott, D.R.; Gurol, H.; Schnack, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    A deuterium-deuterium (D-D) reversed-field pinch (RFP) reactor may be made comparable in size and cost to a deuterium-tritium (D-T) reactor at the expense of high-thermal heat load to the first wall. This heat load is the result of the larger percentage of fusion power in charged particles in the D-D reaction as compared to the D-T reaction. The heat load may be reduced by increasing the reactor size and hence the cost. In addition to this ''degraded'' design, the size may be kept small by means of a higher heat load wall, or by means of a toroidal divertor, in which case most of the heat load seen by the wall is in the form of radiation. Point designs are developed for these approaches and cost studies are performed and compared with a D-T reactor. The results indicate that the cost of electricity of a D-D RFP reactor is about20% higher than a D-T RFP reactor. This increased cost could be offset by the inherent safety features of the D-D fuel cycle

  6. Compact toroid formation using barrier fields and controlled reconnection in the TRX-1 field reversed theta pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.L.; Armstrong, W.T.

    1982-01-01

    TRX-1 is a new 20 cm diameter, 1-m long field reversed theta pinch with a magnetic field swing of 10 kG in 3 μsec. It employs z discharge preionization and octopole barrier fields to maximize flux trapping on first half cycle operation. Cusp coils are used at the theta pinch ends to delay reconnection and fast mirror coils are used to trigger reconnection at a time designed to maximize axial heating efficiency and toroid lifetime. These controls are designed to study toroid formation methods which are claimed to be especially efficient by Russian experimenters. Studies have been conducted on flux trapping efficiency, triggered reconnection, and equilibrium and lifetime

  7. Development of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun for compact toroid injection into the C-2 field-reversed configuration device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, T., E-mail: cstd14003@g.nihon-u.ac.jp; Sekiguchi, J.; Asai, T. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 1018308 (Japan); Gota, H.; Garate, E.; Allfrey, I.; Valentine, T.; Morehouse, M.; Roche, T.; Kinley, J.; Aefsky, S.; Cordero, M.; Waggoner, W.; Binderbauer, M. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010 Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Tajima, T. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010 Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    A compact toroid (CT) injector was developed for the C-2 device, primarily for refueling of field-reversed configurations. The CTs are formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylindrical electrodes and a bias coil for creating a magnetic field. First, a plasma ring is generated by a discharge between the electrodes and is accelerated by Lorenz self-force. Then, the plasma ring is captured by an interlinkage flux (poloidal flux). Finally, the fully formed CT is ejected from the MCPG. The MCPG described herein has two gas injection ports that are arranged tangentially on the outer electrode. A tungsten-coated inner electrode has a head which can be replaced with a longer one to extend the length of the acceleration region for the CT. The developed MCPG has achieved supersonic CT velocities of ∼100 km/s. Plasma parameters for electron density, electron temperature, and the number of particles are ∼5 × 10{sup 21} m{sup −3}, ∼40 eV, and 0.5–1.0 × 10{sup 19}, respectively.

  8. Development of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun for compact toroid injection into the C-2 field-reversed configuration device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T; Sekiguchi, J; Asai, T; Gota, H; Garate, E; Allfrey, I; Valentine, T; Morehouse, M; Roche, T; Kinley, J; Aefsky, S; Cordero, M; Waggoner, W; Binderbauer, M; Tajima, T

    2016-05-01

    A compact toroid (CT) injector was developed for the C-2 device, primarily for refueling of field-reversed configurations. The CTs are formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylindrical electrodes and a bias coil for creating a magnetic field. First, a plasma ring is generated by a discharge between the electrodes and is accelerated by Lorenz self-force. Then, the plasma ring is captured by an interlinkage flux (poloidal flux). Finally, the fully formed CT is ejected from the MCPG. The MCPG described herein has two gas injection ports that are arranged tangentially on the outer electrode. A tungsten-coated inner electrode has a head which can be replaced with a longer one to extend the length of the acceleration region for the CT. The developed MCPG has achieved supersonic CT velocities of ∼100 km/s. Plasma parameters for electron density, electron temperature, and the number of particles are ∼5 × 10(21) m(-3), ∼40 eV, and 0.5-1.0 × 10(19), respectively.

  9. Development of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun for compact toroid injection into the C-2 field-reversed configuration device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Sekiguchi, J.; Asai, T.; Gota, H.; Garate, E.; Allfrey, I.; Valentine, T.; Morehouse, M.; Roche, T.; Kinley, J.; Aefsky, S.; Cordero, M.; Waggoner, W.; Binderbauer, M.; Tajima, T.

    2016-01-01

    A compact toroid (CT) injector was developed for the C-2 device, primarily for refueling of field-reversed configurations. The CTs are formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylindrical electrodes and a bias coil for creating a magnetic field. First, a plasma ring is generated by a discharge between the electrodes and is accelerated by Lorenz self-force. Then, the plasma ring is captured by an interlinkage flux (poloidal flux). Finally, the fully formed CT is ejected from the MCPG. The MCPG described herein has two gas injection ports that are arranged tangentially on the outer electrode. A tungsten-coated inner electrode has a head which can be replaced with a longer one to extend the length of the acceleration region for the CT. The developed MCPG has achieved supersonic CT velocities of ∼100 km/s. Plasma parameters for electron density, electron temperature, and the number of particles are ∼5 × 10"2"1 m"−"3, ∼40 eV, and 0.5–1.0 × 10"1"9, respectively.

  10. Reversed field pinch diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is a toroidal, axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration characterized by a magnetic field configuration in which the toroidal magnetic field is of similar strength to the poloidal field, and is reversed at the edge compared to the center. The RFP routinely operates at high beta, and is a strong candidate for a compact fusion device. Relevant attributes of the configuration will be presented, together with an overview of present and planned experiments and their diagnostics. RFP diagnostics are in many ways similar to those of other magnetic confinement devices (such as tokamaks); these lectures will point out pertinent differences, and will present some diagnostics which provide special insights into unique attributes of the RFP

  11. US-Japan workshop on field-reversed configurations with steady-state high-temperature fusion plasmas and the 11th US-Japan workshop on compact toroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.C.; Fernandez, J.C.; Rej, D.J.

    1990-05-01

    The US-Japan Workshop on Field-Reversed Configurations with Steady-State High-Temperature Fusion Plasma and the 11th US-Japan Workshop on Compact Toroids were held at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico on November 7--9, 1989. These proceedings contain the papers presented at the workshops as submitted by the authors. These papers have been indexed separately

  12. US-Japan workshop on field-reversed configurations with steady-state high-temperature fusion plasmas and the 11th US-Japan workshop on compact toroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, D.C.; Fernandez, J.C.; Rej, D.J. (comps.)

    1990-05-01

    The US-Japan Workshop on Field-Reversed Configurations with Steady-State High-Temperature Fusion Plasma and the 11th US-Japan Workshop on Compact Toroids were held at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico on November 7--9, 1989. These proceedings contain the papers presented at the workshops as submitted by the authors. These papers have been indexed separately.

  13. Field reversal experiments (FRX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Armstrong, W.T.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1978-01-01

    The equilibrium, confinement, and stability properties of the reversed-field configuration (RFC) are being studied in two theta-pinch facilities. The RFC is an elongated toroidal plasma confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. The open field lines of the linear theta pinch support the closed-field RFC much like the vertical field centers the toroidal plasma in a tokamak. Depending on stability and confinement properties, the RFC might be used to greatly reduce the axial losses in linear fusion devices such as mirrors, theta pinches, and liners. The FRX systems produce RFC's with a major radius R = 2-6 cm, minor radius a approximately 2 cm, and a total length l approximately 35 cm. The observed temperatures are T/sub e/ approximately 100 eV and T/sub i/ = 150-350 eV with a peak density n approximately 2 x 10 15 cm -3 . After the plasma reaches equilibrium, the RFC remains stable for up to 30 μs followed by the rapid growth of the rotational m = 2 instability, which terminates the confinement. During the stable equilibrium, the particle and energy confinement times are more than 10 times longer than in an open-field system. The behavior of the m = 2 mode qualitatively agrees with the theoretically predicted instability for rotational velocities exceeding some critical value

  14. Field reversal experiments (FRX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Armstrong, W.T.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1979-01-01

    The equilibrium, confinement, and stability properties of the reversed-field configuration (RFC) are being studied in two theta-pinch facilities. The RFC is an elongated toroidal plasma confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. The open field lines of the linear theta pinch support the closed-field RFC much like the vertical field centres the toroidal plasma in a tokamak. Depending on stability and confinement properties, the RFC might be used to greatly reduce the axial losses in linear fusion devices such as mirrors, theta pinches, and liners. The FRX systems produce RFCs with a major radius R=2-6cm, a minor radius a approximately 2cm, and a total length l approximately 35cm. The observed temperatures are Tsub(e) approximately 100eV and Tsub(i)=150-350eV with a peak density n approximately 2x10 15 cm -3 . After the plasma has reached equilibrium, the RFC remains stable for up to 30μs, followed by the rapid growth of the rotational m=2 instability, which terminates the confinement. During the stable equilibrium, the particle and energy confinement times are more than 10 times longer than in an open-field system. The behaviour of the m=2 mode agrees qualitatively with the theoretically predicted instability for rotational velocities exceeding some critical value. (author)

  15. Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirtzler, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    It has frequently been suggested that only the geomagnetic dipole, rather than higher order poles, reverse during a geomagnetic field reversal. Under this assumption the geomagnetic field strength has been calculated for the surface of the Earth for various steps of the reversal process. Even without an eminent a reversal of the field, extrapolation of the present secular change (although problematic) shows that the field strength may become zero in some geographic areas within a few hundred years.

  16. Particle transort in field-reversed configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuszewski, M.; Linford, R.K.; Lipson, J.; Sgro, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    A field reversed configuration (FRC) is a compact toroid that contains no toroidal field. These plasmas are observed to be grossly stable for about 10-100 ..mu..sec. The lifetimes appear limited by an n = 2 rotational instability which may be caused by particle loss. Particle transport is therefore an important issue for these configurations. We investigate particle loss with a steady-state, 1-D model which approximates the experimental observation of elongated FRC equilibrium with about constant separatrix radius.

  17. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This paper on titan plasma engineering contains papers on the following topics: reversed-field pinch as a fusion reactor; parametric systems studies; magnetics; burning-plasma simulations; plasma transient operations; current drive; and physics issues for compact RFP reactors

  18. Study of a compact reversed shear Tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Tomabechi, K.; Yoshida, T.; Hiwatari, R.; Ogawa, Y.; Tokimatsu, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Inoue, N.; Murakami, Y.

    1998-01-01

    A reversed shear configuration, which was observed recently in some tokamak experiments, might have a possibility to realize compact and cost-competitive tokamak reactors. In this study, a compact (low cost) commercial reactor based on the shear reversed high beta equilibrium with β N =5.5, is considered, namely the compact reversed shear tokamak, CREST-1. The CREST-1 is designed with a moderate aspect ratio (R/a=3.4), which will allow us to experimentally develop this CREST concept by ITER. This will be very advantageous with regard to the fusion development strategy. The current profile for the reversed shear operation is sustained and controlled in steady state by bootstrap (88%), beam and r driven currents, which are calculated by a neo-classical model code in 3D geometry. The MHD stability has been checked by an ideal MHD stability analysis code (ERATO) and it has been confirmed that the ideal low n kink, ballooning and Mercier modes are stable while a closed conductive shell is required for stability. Such a compact tokamak can be cost-competitive as an electric power source in the 21st century and it is one possible scenario in realizing a commercial fusion reactor beyond the ITER project. (orig.)

  19. Field reversal in mirror machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlstein, L.D.; Anderson, D.V.; Boozer, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    This report discusses some of the physics issues anticipated in field-reversed mirrors. The effect of current cancellation due to electrons is described. An estimate is made of the required impurity level to maintain a field-reversed configuration. The SUPERLAYER code is used to simulate the high-β 2XIIB results, and favorable comparisons require inclusion of quasilinear RF turbulence. Impact of a quadrupole field on field-line closure and resonant transport is discussed. A simple self-consistent model of ion currents is presented. Conditions for stability of field-reversed configurations to E x B driven rotations are determined

  20. Reversed field pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberston, S.

    1991-05-01

    The Reversatron RFP is usually operated with toroidal field windings which are a continuous helix of 144 turns. These windings produce a poloidal current which is uniform around the torus. The distribution of current is fixed by the geometry so that the applied field has only an m = 0, n = 0 component. The windings cannot act to stabilize an m = 0 mode with |n| > 0 or any m = 1 mode because these modes will excite no current in the windings. It has recently been suggested that parallel connected field coils might act as a shell by forcing the flux within each winding to be the same. Coils connected in parallel must have the same voltage at their terminals and thus must enclose the same volt-seconds or flux. Data from ZT-40 show that the discharges are more quiescent when parallel or series-parallel connected windings are used

  1. Vacuum magnetic field structure of compact torii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobehart, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    A new class of axisymmetric vacuum field solutions of the Grad--Shafranov equation, which is suitable for describing the field external to a compact torus equilibrium, is presented. In particular, solutions that match straight field lines at infinity are studied

  2. Kinetic Stability of the Field Reversed Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.V. Belova; R.C. Davidson; H. Ji; and M. Yamada

    2002-01-01

    New computational results are presented which advance the understanding of the stability properties of the Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). The FRC is an innovative confinement approach that offers a unique fusion reactor potential because of its compact and simple geometry, translation properties, and high plasma beta. One of the most important issues is FRC stability with respect to low-n (toroidal mode number) MHD modes. There is a clear discrepancy between the predictions of standard MHD theory that many modes should be unstable on the MHD time scale, and the observed macroscopic resilience of FRCs in experiments

  3. A transient ischemic environment induces reversible compaction of chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmes, Ina; Szczurek, Aleksander; Prakash, Kirti; Charapitsa, Iryna; Heiser, Christina; Musheev, Michael; Schock, Florian; Fornalczyk, Karolina; Ma, Dongyu; Birk, Udo; Cremer, Christoph; Reid, George

    2015-11-05

    Cells detect and adapt to hypoxic and nutritional stress through immediate transcriptional, translational and metabolic responses. The environmental effects of ischemia on chromatin nanostructure were investigated using single molecule localization microscopy of DNA binding dyes and of acetylated histones, by the sensitivity of chromatin to digestion with DNAseI, and by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) of core and linker histones. Short-term oxygen and nutrient deprivation of the cardiomyocyte cell line HL-1 induces a previously undescribed chromatin architecture, consisting of large, chromatin-sparse voids interspersed between DNA-dense hollow helicoid structures 40-700 nm in dimension. The chromatin compaction is reversible, and upon restitution of normoxia and nutrients, chromatin transiently adopts a more open structure than in untreated cells. The compacted state of chromatin reduces transcription, while the open chromatin structure induced upon recovery provokes a transitory increase in transcription. Digestion of chromatin with DNAseI confirms that oxygen and nutrient deprivation induces compaction of chromatin. Chromatin compaction is associated with depletion of ATP and redistribution of the polyamine pool into the nucleus. FRAP demonstrates that core histones are not displaced from compacted chromatin; however, the mobility of linker histone H1 is considerably reduced, to an extent that far exceeds the difference in histone H1 mobility between heterochromatin and euchromatin. These studies exemplify the dynamic capacity of chromatin architecture to physically respond to environmental conditions, directly link cellular energy status to chromatin compaction and provide insight into the effect ischemia has on the nuclear architecture of cells.

  4. The Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirtzler, James R.

    2003-01-01

    By modifying the IGRF it is possible to learn what may happen to the geomagnetic field during a geomagnetic reversal. If the entire IGRF reverses then the declination and inclination only reverse when the field strength is zero. If only the dipole component of the IGRF reverses a large geomagnetic field remains when the dipole component is zero and he direction of the field at the end of the reversal is not exactly reversed from the directions at the beginning of the reversal.

  5. Theory of field reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    This final report surveys the results of work conducted on the theory of field reversed configurations. This project has spanned ten years, beginning in early 1980. During this period, Spectra Technology was one of the leading contributors to the advances in understanding FRC. The report is organized into technical topic areas, FRC formation, equilibrium, stability, and transport. Included as an appendix are papers published in archival journals that were generated in the course of this report. 33 refs

  6. Field-reversed mirror reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The reactor design is a multicell arrangement wherein a series of field-reversed plasma layers are arranged along the axis of a long superconducting solenoid which provides the background magnetic field. Normal copper mirror coils and Ioffe bars placed at the first wall radius provide shallow axial and radial magnetic wells for each plasma layer. Each of 11 plasma layers requires the injection of 3.6 MW of 200 keV deuterium and tritium and produces 20 MW of fusion power. The reactor has a net electric output of 74 MWe and an estimated direct capital cost of $1200/kWe

  7. Theory of field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes results from the theoretical program on field reversed configurations (FRC) at STI Optronics. The program, which has spanned the last 13 years, has included analytical as well as computational components. It has led to published papers on every major topic of FRC theory. The report is outlined to summarize results from each of these topic areas: formation, equilibrium, stability, and confinement. Also briefly described are Steinhauer's activities as Compact Toroid Theory Listening Post. Appendix A is a brief listing of the major advances achieved in this program. Attached at the back of this report is a collection of technical papers in archival journals that resulted from work in this program. The discussion within each subsection is given chronologically in order to give a historical sense of the evolution of understanding of FRC physics

  8. Rotational instabilities in field reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, M.A.M.; Tsui, K.H.; Ponciano, B.M.B.; Sakanaka, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The rotational instability (n = 2 toroidal mode) in field reversed configurations (FRC) using the ideal MHD equations in cylindrical geometry is studied. These equations are solved using a realistic densite profile, and the influence of some plasma parameters on the growth rate is analysed. The model shows good qualitative results. The growth rate increases rapidly as rotational frequency goes up and the mode m = 2 dominates over the m = 1 mode. With the variation of the density profile, it is observed that the growth rate decreases as the density dip at the center fills up. Calculated value ranges from 1/2 to 1/7 of the rotational frequency Ω whereas the measured value is around Ω/50. The developed analysis is valid for larger machines. The influence of the plasma resistivity on the mode stabilization is also analysed. The resistivity, which is the fundamental factor in the formation of compact torus, tends to decrease the growth rate. (author) [pt

  9. Zero field reversal probability in thermally assisted magnetization reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, E. B.; Utari; Purnama, B.

    2017-11-01

    This paper discussed about zero field reversal probability in thermally assisted magnetization reversal (TAMR). Appearance of reversal probability in zero field investigated through micromagnetic simulation by solving stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gibert (LLG). The perpendicularly anisotropy magnetic dot of 50×50×20 nm3 is considered as single cell magnetic storage of magnetic random acces memory (MRAM). Thermally assisted magnetization reversal was performed by cooling writing process from near/almost Curie point to room temperature on 20 times runs for different randomly magnetized state. The results show that the probability reversal under zero magnetic field decreased with the increase of the energy barrier. The zero-field probability switching of 55% attained for energy barrier of 60 k B T and the reversal probability become zero noted at energy barrier of 2348 k B T. The higest zero-field switching probability of 55% attained for energy barrier of 60 k B T which corespond to magnetif field of 150 Oe for switching.

  10. Reversed field pinch ignition requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma models are described and used to calculated numerically the transport confinement (nτ E ) requirements and steady state operation points for both the reversed field pinch (RFP) and the tokamak. The models are used to examine the CIT tokamak ignition conditions and the RFP experimental and ignition conditions. Physics differences between RFPs and tokamaks and their consequences for a D-T ignition machine are discussed. Compared with a tokamak, the ignition RFP has many physics advantages, including Ohmic heating to ignition (no need for auxiliary heating systems), higher beta, lower ignition current, less sensitivity of ignition requirements to impurity effects, no hard disruptions (associated with beta or density limits) and successful operation with high radiation fractions (f RAD ∼ 0.95). These physics advantages, coupled with important engineering advantages associated with lower external magnetic field, larger aspect ratios and smaller plasma cross-sections, translate to significant cost reductions for both ignition and reactor applications. The primary drawback of the RFP is the uncertainty that the present scaling will extrapolate to reactor regimes. Devices that are under construction should go a long way toward resolving this scaling uncertainty. The 4 MA ZTH is expected to extend the nτ E transport scaling data by three orders of magnitude above the results of ZT-40M, and, if the present scaling holds, ZTH is expected to achieve a D-T equivalent scientific energy breakeven, Q = 1. A base case RFP ignition point is identified with a plasma current of 8.1 MA and no auxiliary heating. (author). 19 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Tritium system for compact high field devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roccella, M.; Bonizzoni, G.; Chiesa, P.; Ghezzi, F.; Nassi, M.; Pavesi, U.; Amedeo, P.; Boschetti, G.; Giffanti, F.; Moriggio, A.

    1988-01-01

    Some theoretical results and the current status of the work on a prototype plant for the Tritium cycle of compact high-field tokamaks (such as, Ignitor, CIT, etc.), using the SAES Getter St 707 getter material, are described in this report. The schematics and present status of the main subplants of the cycle are reported together with some experimental results demostrating the possibility of utilizing the St 707 material to purify the inert atmosphere of the glove-boxes and the secondary containment of the double-containment metal canalization which is to eventually house the various parts of the plant. Finally, as an example, the FTU machine, under construction at ENEA Frascati, has been taken as a reference, and theoretical evaluations are given for the inventory, permeation and release of the Tritium from the first wall and the thermal shieldes of such a tokamak

  12. Definably compact groups definable in real closed fields. I

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    We study definably compact definably connected groups definable in a sufficiently saturated real closed field $R$. We introduce the notion of group-generic point for $\\bigvee$-definable groups and show the existence of group-generic points for definably compact groups definable in a sufficiently saturated o-minimal expansion of a real closed field. We use this notion along with some properties of generic sets to prove that for every definably compact definably connected group $G$ definable in...

  13. How the geomagnetic field vector reverses polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, M.; Mankinen, E.A.; Gromme, C.S.; Coe, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    A highly detailed record of both the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field as it reverses has been obtained from a Miocene volcanic sequence. The transitional field is low in intensity and is typically non-axisymmetric. Geomagnetic impulses corresponding to astonishingly high rates of change of the field sometimes occur, suggesting that liquid velocity within the Earth's core increases during geomagnetic reversals. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  14. Magnetization reversal mechanisms under oblique magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntallis, N.; Efthimiadis, K.G., E-mail: kge@auth.gr

    2017-03-01

    In this work finite element micromagnetic simulations were performed in order to study the reversal mechanisms of spherical ferromagnetic particles with uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy, when they are magnetized along an oblique direction with respect to the anisotropy axis. Magnetization loops are taken in different directions of external magnetic field, at different anisotropy constants and particle sizes. In the simulation results, the three reversal mechanisms (coherent, curling and domains) are observed and new phenomena arise due to the action of oblique magnetic fields. Moreover, the dependence of the critical fields with respect to the angle of the external field is presented. - Highlights: • Finite element micromagnetic simulation of the three different reversal mechanisms. • For the curling mechanism, the new phenomenon is the rotation of the vortex. • In the domain reversal mechanism, the formed domain wall is smaller than 180°. • In soft ferromagnetic particles a rearrangement of the magnetic domains is observed.

  15. Stability of the field-reversed mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, E.C.

    1979-01-01

    The stability of a field reversed mirror plasma configuration is studied with an energy principle derived from the Vlasov equation. Because of finite orbit effects, the stability properties of a field-reversed mirror are different from the stability properties of similar magnetohydrodynamic equilibria. The Vlasov energy principle developed here is applied to a computer simulation of an axisymmetric field-reversed mirror state. It has been possible to prove that the l = 0 modes, called tearing modes, satisfy a sufficient condition for stability. Precessional modes, with l = 1, 2, are found to be unstable at low growth rate. This suggests possible turbulent behavior (Bohm confinement) in the experimental devices aiming at field reversal. Techniques for suppressing these instabilities are outlined, and the applicability of the Vlasov energy principle to more complicated equilibrium models is shown

  16. Turbulent transport in reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.P.; Roberts, K.V.

    1976-01-01

    MHD stability of the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) relies on reversal of the toroidal field component in the outer plasma region. Interest in this configuration comes from its potential economic advantages as a thermonuclear reactor, since compared to a Tokamak the RFP supports a higher value of β, the ratio between plasma and total magnetic pressure. Results of computations on the time-evolution of the RFP using a 1D MHD model are reported. (orig./GG) [de

  17. A compact electron gun using field emitter array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakawa, M.R.; Ikeda, A.; Miyabe, N.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kusaba, M.; Tsunawaki, Y.

    2008-01-01

    A compact electron gun using field emitter array has been developed. With a simple triode configuration consisting of FEA, mid-electrode and anode electrode, the electron gun produces a parallel beam with a diameter of 0.5 mm. This electron gun is applicable for compact radiation sources such as Cherenkov free-electron lasers

  18. Compaction monitoring in the Ekofisk area Chalk Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menghini, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    In late Nov. 1984, the subsidence phenomenon was recognized in the Ekofisk field. To determine the magnitude and areal extent of the formation compaction, a program for measuring compaction with electric logging tools was initiated. Initial time-lapse surveys performed with cased-hole neutron tools indicated that reservoir compaction was occurring, but the accuracy of the determination of compaction rate was low. In addition to the cased-hole neutron survey, radioactive markers and a gamma ray (GR) detection tool were used to determine compaction rate in the reservoir more accurately and to determine whether compaction was occurring in the overburden. A program for implanting radioactive-marker bullets and subsequent monitoring with a four-detector GR tool was implemented. There are currently 13 wells equipped with radioactive markers in the compaction monitoring program. Compaction monitoring accuracy using the four-detector GR tool was found to depend on wellbore geometry, completion design, and radioactive-marker placement. This paper gives the results of the program to date and describes the operational procedures and analysis techniques used for compaction monitoring in the greater Ekofisk area chalk fields

  19. Earth's magnetic field is probably not reversing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Maxwell; Korte, Monika; Holme, Richard; Wardinski, Ingo; Gunnarson, Sydney

    2018-04-30

    The geomagnetic field has been decaying at a rate of [Formula: see text]5% per century from at least 1840, with indirect observations suggesting a decay since 1600 or even earlier. This has led to the assertion that the geomagnetic field may be undergoing a reversal or an excursion. We have derived a model of the geomagnetic field spanning 30-50 ka, constructed to study the behavior of the two most recent excursions: the Laschamp and Mono Lake, centered at 41 and 34 ka, respectively. Here, we show that neither excursion demonstrates field evolution similar to current changes in the geomagnetic field. At earlier times, centered at 49 and 46 ka, the field is comparable to today's field, with an intensity structure similar to today's South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA); however, neither of these SAA-like fields develop into an excursion or reversal. This suggests that the current weakened field will also recover without an extreme event such as an excursion or reversal. The SAA-like field structure at 46 ka appears to be coeval with published increases in geomagnetically modulated beryllium and chlorine nuclide production, despite the global dipole field not weakening significantly in our model during this time. This agreement suggests a greater complexity in the relationship between cosmogenic nuclide production and the geomagnetic field than is commonly assumed.

  20. Computational methods for reversed-field equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.K.; Auerbach, S.P.; Willmann, P.A.; Berk, H.L.; McNamara, B.

    1980-01-01

    Investigating the temporal evolution of reversed-field equilibrium caused by transport processes requires the solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation and computation of field-line-averaged quantities. The technique for field-line averaging and the computation of the Grad-Shafranov equation are presented. Application of Green's function to specify the Grad-Shafranov equation boundary condition is discussed. Hill's vortex formulas used to verify certain computations are detailed. Use of computer software to implement computational methods is described

  1. Dynamical similarity of geomagnetic field reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre; Fournier, Alexandre; Courtillot, Vincent; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio

    2012-10-04

    No consensus has been reached so far on the properties of the geomagnetic field during reversals or on the main features that might reveal its dynamics. A main characteristic of the reversing field is a large decrease in the axial dipole and the dominant role of non-dipole components. Other features strongly depend on whether they are derived from sedimentary or volcanic records. Only thermal remanent magnetization of lava flows can capture faithful records of a rapidly varying non-dipole field, but, because of episodic volcanic activity, sequences of overlying flows yield incomplete records. Here we show that the ten most detailed volcanic records of reversals can be matched in a very satisfactory way, under the assumption of a common duration, revealing common dynamical characteristics. We infer that the reversal process has remained unchanged, with the same time constants and durations, at least since 180 million years ago. We propose that the reversing field is characterized by three successive phases: a precursory event, a 180° polarity switch and a rebound. The first and third phases reflect the emergence of the non-dipole field with large-amplitude secular variation. They are rarely both recorded at the same site owing to the rapidly changing field geometry and last for less than 2,500 years. The actual transit between the two polarities does not last longer than 1,000 years and might therefore result from mechanisms other than those governing normal secular variation. Such changes are too brief to be accurately recorded by most sediments.

  2. Conceptual design of economic compact reversed shear Tokamak (CRST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Kunihiko

    1998-01-01

    Two indices of performance for economic analysis of Tokamak are defined as toroidal β value: β t (%)=(plasma pressure)/(pressure of magnetic field) and Troyon coefficient β N . The pressure of magnetic field is defined as β t 2 /2μ 0 (Bt: strength of toroidal magnetic field and μ 0 : permeability). β N is determined in order to make possible compare β t between other devices. To increase β N is very important on the economic viewpoint. ITER is designed as 2.2 β N , 1 MW/m 2 average neutron wall load, 8.14 m large radius and 2.8 m small radius, but the above values of CRST are 5.5, 4.5 MW/m 2 , 5.4 m and 1.59 m, respectively. Development of industrial and physical technologies makes possible to minimize economic Tokamak. After ITER, we expect that economic fusion reactor is obtained by minimization. CRST satisfies the conditions of economic fusion reactor conduced by the economic analysis. CRST is designed as 5.4 m main radius and 116x10 4 kW electric output. Fundamental physics and technologies, conceptual and industrial design of CRST are explained. (S.Y.)

  3. Laser heating of field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, R.S.; Vlases, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental facility is a 21-cm-long solenoid with a 5.5-cm bore. The 4-cm ID quartz tube is filled with slowly flowing H 2 to 0.5-3.0 torr. Fields up to 6.5 T in 3.7 μsec are produced, with reverse-bias fields up -1.9 T. Preionization is by 40kA axial discharge 4.5 μsec before field-reversal is begun. The CO 2 laser used produces 300 to 400 J in 2 μsec, in an annular beam that can be defocused for preheating the outer edges of the plasma, or focused tightly for central-column heating and beam propagation during formation. The focusing system includes a return mirror for multiple passing of the laser energy. Diagnostics include compensated, diamagnetic flux loops, internal field probes, cross-tube and axial interferometers, fast photography, and spectroscopy

  4. Los Alamos field-reversed configuration (FRC) research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, W.T.; Bartsch, R.R.; Cochrane, J.C.; Linford, R.K.; Lipson, J.; McKenna, K.F.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.; Siemon, R.E.; Tuszewski, M.

    1981-01-01

    Recent experimental results are discussed for a compact toroid produced by a field-reversed theta-pinch and containing purely poloidal magnetic fields. The confinement time is found to vary inversely with the ion gyro-radius and to be approximately independent of ion temperature for fixed gyro-radius. Within a coil of fixed radius, the plasmoid major radius R was varied by approx. 30% and the confinement appears to scale as R/sup 2/. A semi-empirical formation model has been formulated that predicts reasonably well the plasma parameters as magnetic field and fill pressure are varied in present experiments. The model is used to predict parameters in larger devices under construction.

  5. Los Alamos field-reversed configuration (FRC) research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, W.T.; Bartsch, R.R.; Cochrane, J.C.; Linford, R.K.; Lipson, J.; McKenna, K.F.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.; Siemon, R.E.; Tuszewski, M.

    1981-01-01

    Recent experimental results are discussed for a compact toroid produced by a field-reversed theta-pinch and containing purely poloidal magnetic fields. The confinement time is found to vary inversely with the ion gyro-radius and to be approximately independent of ion temperature for fixed gyro-radius. Within a coil of fixed radius, the plasmoid major radius R was varied by approx. 30% and the confinement appears to scale as R 2 . A semi-empirical formation model has been formulated that predicts reasonably well the plasma parameters as magnetic field and fill pressure are varied in present experiments. The model is used to predict parameters in larger devices under construction

  6. Field reversal produced by a plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Condit, W.; Granneman, E.H.A.; Prono, D.; Smith, A.C. Jr.; Taska, J.; Turner, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental results are presented of the production of Field-Reversed Plasma with a high energy coaxial plasma gun. The gun is magnetized with solenoids inside the center electrode and outside the outer electrode so that plasma emerging from the gun entrains the radial fringer field at the muzzle. The plasma flow extends field lines propagating a high electrical conductivity, the flux inside the center electrode should be preserved. However, for low flux, the trapped flux exceeds by 2 or more the initial flux, possibly because of helical deformation of the current channel extending from the center electrode

  7. Reversed-Field Pinch plasma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.; Nebel, R.A.; Moses, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The stability of a Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) is strongly dependent on the plasma profile and the confining sheared magnetic field. Magnetic diffusion and thermal transport produce changing conditions of stability. Despite the limited understanding of RFP transport, modelling is important to predict general trends and to study possible field programming options. To study the ZT-40 experiment and to predict the performance of future RFP reactors, a one-dimensional transport code has been developed. This code includes a linear, ideal MHD stability check based on an energy principle. The transport section integrates plasma profiles forward in time while the stability section periodically checks the stability of the evolving plasma profile

  8. Midday reversal of equatorial ionospheric electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the geomagnetic and ionospheric data at equatorial and low-latitude stations in India over the 20 year period 1956–1975 is described. The reversal of the electric field in the ionosphere over the magnetic equator during the midday hours indicated by the disappearance of the equatorial sporadic E region echoes on the ionograms is a rare phenomenon occurring on about 1% of time. Most of these events are associated with geomagnetically active periods. By comparing the simultaneous geomagnetic H field at Kodaikanal and at Alibag during the geomagnetic storms it is shown that ring current decreases are observed at both stations. However, an additional westward electric field is superimposed in the ionosphere during the main phase of the storm which can be strong enough to temporarily reverse the normally eastward electric field in the dayside ionosphere. It is suggested that these electric fields associated with the V×Bz electric fields originate at the magnetopause due to the interaction of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field.

  9. Midday reversal of equatorial ionospheric electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the geomagnetic and ionospheric data at equatorial and low-latitude stations in India over the 20 year period 1956–1975 is described. The reversal of the electric field in the ionosphere over the magnetic equator during the midday hours indicated by the disappearance of the equatorial sporadic E region echoes on the ionograms is a rare phenomenon occurring on about 1% of time. Most of these events are associated with geomagnetically active periods. By comparing the simultaneous geomagnetic H field at Kodaikanal and at Alibag during the geomagnetic storms it is shown that ring current decreases are observed at both stations. However, an additional westward electric field is superimposed in the ionosphere during the main phase of the storm which can be strong enough to temporarily reverse the normally eastward electric field in the dayside ionosphere. It is suggested that these electric fields associated with the V×Bz electric fields originate at the magnetopause due to the interaction of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field.

  10. Compact muon solenoid magnet reaches full field

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Scientist of the U.S. Department of Energy in Fermilab and collaborators of the US/CMS project announced that the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet has reached full field in tests at CERN. (1 apge)

  11. Flux trapping during field reversal in a field reversed theta pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milroy, R.D.; Hoffman, A.L.; Slough, J.T.; Harding, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper we present new results from both numerical and experimental studies of the formation of the conducting sheath near the tube wall and its effectiveness in trapping bias flux during field reversal

  12. Recent studies of Reversed-Field Pinch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The reactor prognoses of a class of confinement scheme that relies primarily on self-fields induced by axial currents flowing within a plasma column are presented. The primary focus has been placed on the toroidal Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP). At the limit of very large current densities is the gas-embedded Dense Z-Pinch (DZP), a small-radius, linear device. Past conventional RFP reactor designs are reviewed. The extention of these conventional RFP reactors to DD advanced-fuel operation is described. The implications are summarized of operating higher-density, compact RFPs as reactors, wherein the current density rather than physical dimensions are scaled. Lastly, the application of very high current densities supported in a sub-millimeter linear current channel, as embodied in the DZP reactor, is reviewed

  13. Electric fields and monopole currents in compact QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, M.; Faber, M.; Kainz, W.; Skala, P.

    1995-01-01

    The confinement in compact QED is known to be related to magnetic monopoles. Magnetic currents form a solenoid around electric flux lines between a pair of electric charges. This behaviour can be described by the dual version of Maxwell-London equations including a fluctuating string. We use a definition of magnetic monopole currents adjusted to the definition of the electric field strength on a lattice and get good agreement for field and current distributions between compact QED and the predictions of dual Maxwell-London equations. Further we show that the monopole fluctuations in the vacuum are suppressed by the flux tube. ((orig.))

  14. Spherical torus, compact fusion at low field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-02-01

    A spherical torus is obtained by retaining only the indispensable components on the inboard side of a tokamak plasma, such as a cooled, normal conductor that carries current to produce a toroidal magnetic field. The resulting device features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (ranging from below 2 to about 1.3), a naturally elongated D-shaped plasma cross section, and ramp-up of the plasma current primarily by noninductive means. As a result of the favorable dependence of the tokamak plasma behavior to decreasing aspect ratio, a spherical torus is projected to have small size, high beta, and modest field. Assuming Mirnov confinement scaling, an ignition spherical torus at a field of 2 T features a major radius of 1.5 m, a minor radius of 1.0 m, a plasma current of 14 MA, comparable toroidal and poloidal field coil currents, an average beta of 24%, and a fusion power of 50 MW. At 2 T, a Q = 1 spherical torus will have a major radius of 0.8 m, a minor radius of 0.5 m, and a fusion power of a few megawatts

  15. Reversed-field multiple mirror concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.; Grossmann, W.; Seyler, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    The reversed-field multiple mirror (RFMM), is a promising technique for end-stoppering linear magnetic fusion plasmas. By this means the physics and engineering advantages of a linear plasma are gained while circumventing the endloss problem, allowing the projection of very short (less than or equal to 100 m) conceptual reactors. RFMM end-stoppering is accomplished by a string of closed field-line cells on the plasma column axis; these cells strongly retard the axial flow of particles and energy. We describe the reactor implications of the RFMM

  16. Interchange stability of noncircular reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, D.A.; Prager, S.C.; Todd, A.M.M.

    1987-08-01

    Interchange (Mercier) stability of toroidal reversed-field-pinch plasmas with noncircular cross-section is evaluated numerically. Marginally stable pressure profiles and beta values are produced. Most shapes, such as indented or vertically elongated, reduce stability by making the net magnetic curvature of the poloidal-field-dominated plasmas yet worse than that of the circle. Horizontally elongated plasmas slightly enhance stability beyond that of the circle as a result of increased shear produced by toroidicity. Such shear enhancement by the toroidal shift of magnetic surfaces might be exploited for future, more comprehensive studies

  17. Particle transport in field-reversed configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuszewski, M.; Linford, R.K.

    1982-05-01

    Particle transport in field-reversed configurations is investigated using a one-dimensional, nondecaying, magnetic field structure. The radial profiles are constrained to satisfy an average ..beta.. condition from two-dimensional equilibrium and a boundary condition at the separatrix to model the balance between closed and open-field-line transport. When applied to the FRX-B experimental data and to the projected performance of the FRX-C device, this model suggests that the particle confinement times obtained with anomalous lower-hybrid-drift transport are in good agreement with the available numerical and experimental data. Larger values of confinement times can be achieved by increasing the ratio of the separatrix radius to the conducting wall radius. Even larger increases in lifetimes might be obtained by improving the open-field-line confinement.

  18. Particle transport in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuszewski, M.; Linford, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    Particle transport in field-reversed configurations is investigated using a one-dimensional, nondecaying, magnetic field structure. The radial profiles are constrained to satisfy an average β condition from two-dimensional equilibrium and a boundary condition at the separatrix to model the balance between closed and open-field-line transport. When applied to the FRX-B experimental data and to the projected performance of the FRX-C device, this model suggests that the particle confinement times obtained with anomalous lower-hybrid-drift transport are in good agreement with the available numerical and experimental data. Larger values of confinement times can be achieved by increasing the ratio of the separatrix radius to the conducting wall radius. Even larger increases in lifetimes might be obtained by improving the open-field-line confinement

  19. Domino model for geomagnetic field reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, N; Schmitt, D; Wicht, J; Ferriz-Mas, A; Mouri, H; Nakamichi, A; Morikawa, M

    2013-01-01

    We solve the equations of motion of a one-dimensional planar Heisenberg (or Vaks-Larkin) model consisting of a system of interacting macrospins aligned along a ring. Each spin has unit length and is described by its angle with respect to the rotational axis. The orientation of the spins can vary in time due to spin-spin interaction and random forcing. We statistically describe the behavior of the sum of all spins for different parameters. The term "domino model" in the title refers to the interaction among the spins. We compare the model results with geomagnetic field reversals and dynamo simulations and find strikingly similar behavior. The aggregate of all spins keeps the same direction for a long time and, once in a while, begins flipping to change the orientation by almost 180 degrees (mimicking a geomagnetic reversal) or to move back to the original direction (mimicking an excursion). Most of the time the spins are aligned or antialigned and deviate only slightly with respect to the rotational axis (mimicking the secular variation of the geomagnetic pole with respect to the geographic pole). Reversals are fast compared to the times in between and they occur at random times, both in the model and in the case of the Earth's magnetic field.

  20. Using nanocomposite materials technology to understand and control reverse osmosis membrane compaction

    KAUST Repository

    Pendergast, Mary Theresa M.; Nygaard, Jodie M.; Ghosh, Asim K.; Hoek, Eric M.V.

    2010-01-01

    Composite reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were formed by interfacial polymerization of polyamide thin films over pure polysulfone and nanocomposite-polysulfone support membranes. Nanocomposite support membranes were formed from amorphous non-porous silica and crystalline microporous zeolite nanoparticles. For each hand-cast membrane, water flux and NaCl rejection were monitored over time at two different applied pressures. Nanocomposite-polysulfone supported RO membranes generally had higher initial permeability and experienced less flux decline due to compaction than pure polysulfone supported membranes. In addition, observed salt rejection tended to increase as flux declined from compaction. Crosssectional SEM images verified significant reduction in thickness of pure polysulfone supports, whereas nanocomposites better resisted compaction due to enhanced mechanical stability imparted by the nanoparticles. A conceptual model was proposed to explain the mechanistic relationship between support membrane compaction and observed changes in water flux and salt rejection. As the support membrane compacts, skin layer pore constriction increased the effective path length for diffusion through the composite membranes, which reduced both water and salt permeability identically. However, experimental salt permeability tended to decline to a greater extent than water permeability; hence, the observed changes in flux and rejection might also be related to structural changes in the polyamide thin film. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Using nanocomposite materials technology to understand and control reverse osmosis membrane compaction

    KAUST Repository

    Pendergast, Mary Theresa M.

    2010-10-01

    Composite reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were formed by interfacial polymerization of polyamide thin films over pure polysulfone and nanocomposite-polysulfone support membranes. Nanocomposite support membranes were formed from amorphous non-porous silica and crystalline microporous zeolite nanoparticles. For each hand-cast membrane, water flux and NaCl rejection were monitored over time at two different applied pressures. Nanocomposite-polysulfone supported RO membranes generally had higher initial permeability and experienced less flux decline due to compaction than pure polysulfone supported membranes. In addition, observed salt rejection tended to increase as flux declined from compaction. Crosssectional SEM images verified significant reduction in thickness of pure polysulfone supports, whereas nanocomposites better resisted compaction due to enhanced mechanical stability imparted by the nanoparticles. A conceptual model was proposed to explain the mechanistic relationship between support membrane compaction and observed changes in water flux and salt rejection. As the support membrane compacts, skin layer pore constriction increased the effective path length for diffusion through the composite membranes, which reduced both water and salt permeability identically. However, experimental salt permeability tended to decline to a greater extent than water permeability; hence, the observed changes in flux and rejection might also be related to structural changes in the polyamide thin film. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Translating laboratory compaction test results to field scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roholl, J.A.; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Breunese, J.N.

    2016-01-01

    In recent studies on the surface subsidence caused by hydrocarbon recovery of the Groningen gas field, the predicted subsidence is overestimated if results of compaction experiments are not corrected by an empirical `upscaling factor'. In order to find an explanation for this `upscaling factor', an

  3. A compact neutron generator using a field ionization source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Arun; Waldmann, Ole; Kapadia, Rehan; Takei, Kuniharu; Javey, Ali; Schenkel, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Field ionization as a means to create ions for compact and rugged neutron sources is pursued. Arrays of carbon nano-fibers promise the high field-enhancement factors required for efficient field ionization. We report on the fabrication of arrays of field emitters with a density up to 10(6) tips∕cm(2) and measure their performance characteristics using electron field emission. The critical issue of uniformity is discussed, as are efforts towards coating the nano-fibers to enhance their lifetime and surface properties.

  4. Catalyzed deuterium fueled reversed-field pinch reactor assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrott, D.

    1985-01-01

    This study is part of a Department of Energy supported alternate fusion fuels program at Science Applications International Corporation. The purpose of this portion of the study is to perform an assessment of a conceptual compact reversed-field pinch reactor (CRFPR) that is fueled by the catalyzed-deuterium (Cat-d) fuel cycle with respect to physics, technology, safety, and cost. The Cat-d CRFPR is compared to a d-t fueled fusion reactor with respect to several issues in this study. The comparison includes cost, reactor performance, and technology requirements for a Cat-d fueled CRFPR and a comparable cost-optimized d-t fueled conceptual design developed by LANL

  5. Definably compact groups definable in real closed fields.II

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    We continue the analysis of definably compact groups definable in a real closed field $\\mathcal{R}$. In [3], we proved that for every definably compact definably connected semialgebraic group $G$ over $\\mathcal{R}$ there are a connected $R$-algebraic group $H$, a definable injective map $\\phi$ from a generic definable neighborhood of the identity of $G$ into the group $H\\left(R\\right)$ of $R$-points of $H$ such that $\\phi$ acts as a group homomorphism inside its domain. The above result and o...

  6. Compactly supported linearised observables in single-field inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fröob, Markus B.; Higuchi, Atsushi [Department of Mathematics, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Hack, Thomas-Paul, E-mail: mbf503@york.ac.uk, E-mail: thomas-paul.hack@itp.uni-leipzig.de, E-mail: atsushi.higuchi@york.ac.uk [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Brüderstraße 16, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the gauge-invariant observables constructed by smearing the graviton and inflaton fields by compactly supported tensors at linear order in general single-field inflation. These observables correspond to gauge-invariant quantities that can be measured locally. In particular, we show that these observables are equivalent to (smeared) local gauge-invariant observables such as the linearised Weyl tensor, which have better infrared properties than the graviton and inflaton fields. Special cases include the equivalence between the compactly supported gauge-invariant graviton observable and the smeared linearised Weyl tensor in Minkowski and de Sitter spaces. Our results indicate that the infrared divergences in the tensor and scalar perturbations in single-field inflation have the same status as in de Sitter space and are both a gauge artefact, in a certain technical sense, at tree level.

  7. Magnetization reversal in ultrashort magnetic field pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.; Lopusnik, R.; Fassbender, J.; Hillebrands, B.

    2000-01-01

    We report the switching properties of a thin magnetic film subject to an ultrashort, laterally localized magnetic field pulse, obtained by numerical investigations. The magnetization distribution in the film is calculated on a grid assuming Stoner-like coherent rotation within the grid square size. Perpendicularly and in-plane magnetized films exhibit a magnetization reversal due to a 4 ps magnetic field pulse. Outside the central region the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period. In this area the evolution of the magnetization during the field pulse does not depend strongly on magnetic damping and/or pulse shape. However, the final magnetization distribution is affected by the magnetic damping. Although the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period, the time needed for the relaxation of the magnetization to the equilibrium state is rather large. The influence of the different magnetic anisotropy contributions and the magnetic damping parameter enters into the magnetization reversal process. Comparing the case of perpendicular anisotropy with different kinds of in-plane anisotropies, a principal difference is found due to the symmetry of the shape anisotropy with respect to the anisotropy in question

  8. Confinement dynamics in the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberg, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    The study of basic transport and confinement dynamics is central to the development of the reversed field pinch (RFP) as a confinement concept. Thus, the goal of RFP research is to understand the connection between processes that sustain the RFP configuration and related transport/confinement properties. Recently, new insights into confinement have emerged from a detailed investigation of RFP electron and ion physics. These insights derive from the recognition that both magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and electron kinetic effects play an important and strongly coupled role in RFP sustainment and confinement dynamics. In this paper, we summarize the results of these studies on the ZT-40M experiment. 8 refs

  9. Field-reversed mirror pilot reactor. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoto, R.S.; Erickson, J.L.; Fink, J.H.

    1980-09-01

    This report concludes a two-year effort to design a near-term small-scale fusion power plant which, through its construction and operation, would be a direct and important step toward the commercialization of fusion energy. The fusion reactor pilot plant was designed under the ground rules that it must produce net power, be compact, have minimum total cost, and use near-term (late 1980's) engineering technology. The neutral beam driven, field-reversed mirror (FRM) was selected as the fusion plasma confinement concept around which the pilot plant was designed. Although the physics data base for this design is not yet well in hand, it is being pursued within the magnetic field-reversal framework of the US Mirror Fusion Program. Depending on the plasma size, the pilot plant would gross up to 19.8 MW(e) and would produce up to 10.7 MW(e) net, with the recirculated power used principally for the neutral beam injectors and refrigeration for the superconducting magnets

  10. Tilting mode in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzmeier, J.L.; Barnes, D.C.; Lewis, H.R.; Seyler, C.E.; Shestakov, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Field Reversed Configurations (FRCs) experimentally have exhibited remarkable stability on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) timescale, despite numerous MHD calculations showing FRCs to be unstable. It is easy to believe that local modes are stabilized by finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects, but more puzzling is the apparent stability of FRCs against global modes, where one would expect FLR effects to be less important. In this paper we study the tilting mode, which MHD has shown to be a rapidly growing global mode. The tilting mode in FRCs is driven by the pressure gradient, and magnetic compression and field line bending are the stabilizing forces. A schematic of the evolution of the tilting mode is shown. The tilting mode is considered dangerous, because it would lead to rapid tearing across the separatrix. Unlike spheromaks, the tilting mode in FRCs has a separatrix that is fixed in space, so that the mode is strictly internal

  11. Atmospheric helium and geomagnetic field reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, W. R.; Kern, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The problem of the earth's helium budget is examined in the light of recent work on the interaction of the solar wind with nonmagnetic planets. It is proposed that the dominant mode of helium (He4) loss is ion pumping by the solar wind during geomagnetic field reversals, when the earth's magnetic field is very small. The interaction of the solar wind with the earth's upper atmosphere during such a period is found to involve the formation of a bow shock. The penetration altitude of the shock-heated solar plasma is calculated to be about 700 km, and ionization rates above this level are estimated for a cascade ionization (electron avalanche) process to average 10 to the 9th power ions/sq cm/sec. The calculated ionization rates and the capacity of the solar wind to remove ionized helium (He4) from the upper atmosphere during geomagnetic dipole reversals are sufficient to yield a secular equilibrium over geologic time scales. The upward transport of helium from the lower atmosphere under these conditions is found to be adequate to sustain the proposed loss rate.

  12. Coupled transport in field-reversed configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Berk, H. L.; TAE Team

    2018-02-01

    Coupled transport is the close interconnection between the cross-field and parallel fluxes in different regions due to topological changes in the magnetic field. This occurs because perpendicular transport is necessary for particles or energy to leave closed field-line regions, while parallel transport strongly affects evolution of open field-line regions. In most toroidal confinement systems, the periphery, namely, the portion with open magnetic surfaces, is small in thickness and volume compared to the core plasma, the portion with closed surfaces. In field-reversed configurations (FRCs), the periphery plays an outsized role in overall confinement. This effect is addressed by an FRC-relevant model of coupled particle transport that is well suited for immediate interpretation of experiments. The focus here is particle confinement rather than energy confinement since the two track together in FRCs. The interpretive tool yields both the particle transport rate χn and the end-loss time τǁ. The results indicate that particle confinement depends on both χn across magnetic surfaces throughout the plasma and τǁ along open surfaces and that they provide roughly equal transport barriers, inhibiting particle loss. The interpretation of traditional FRCs shows Bohm-like χn and inertial (free-streaming) τǁ. However, in recent advanced beam-driven FRC experiments, χn approaches the classical rate and τǁ is comparable to classic empty-loss-cone mirrors.

  13. Magnetic islands at the field reversal surface in reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsker, R.I.; Reiman, A.H.

    1985-09-01

    In the reversed field pinch (RFP), magnetic field perturbations having zero poloidal mode number and any toroidal mode number are resonant at the field reversal surface. Such perturbations are a particular threat to the RFP because of their weak radial dependence at low toroidal mode number, and because the toroidal field ripple is essentially of this type. The widths of the resulting islands are calculated in this paper. The self-consistent plasma response is included through the assumption that the plasma relaxes to a Taylor force-free state. The connection with linear tearing mode theory is established for those limits where arbitrarily large islands result from infinitesimal perturbations. Toroidal effects are considered, and application of the theory to RFP experiments is discussed

  14. LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Burkhardt, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of the absolute energy loss due to radiation from impurities in the LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch experiment ZT-S is reported. The measurements show that over half the energy loss is accounted for by this mechanism. Thomson-scattering electron density measurements indicate only a gradual increase in temperature as the filling pressure is reduced, indicating an increased energy loss at lower pressures. Cylindrical and toroidal simulations of the experiment indicate either that a highly radiative pinch boundary or anomalous transport is needed to match the experimental results. New effects on the equilibrium due to plasma flows induced by the toroidal geometry are predicted by the toroidal simulations. The preliminary results on the low-temperature discharge cleaning of the ZT-S torus are reported. A description of the upgrade of the ZT-S experiment and the objectives, construction and theoretical predictions for the new ZT-40 experiment are given. (author)

  15. LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Burkhardt, L.C.

    1978-01-01

    The determination of the absolute energy loss due to radiation from impurities in the LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch experiment ZT-S is reported. The measurements show over half of the energy loss is accounted for by this mechanism. Thomson scattering electron density measurements indicate only a gradual increase in temperature as the filling pressure is reduced indicating an increased energy loss at lower pressures. Cylindrical and toroidal simulations of the experiment indicate either that a highly radiative pinch boundary or anomalous transport are needed to match the experimental results. New effects on the equilibrium due to plasma flows induced by the toroidal geometry are predicted by the toroidal simulations. The preliminary results on the low temperature discharge cleaning of the ZT-S torus are reported. A description of the upgrade of the ZT-S experiment and the objectives, construction and theoretical predictions for the new ZT-40 experiment are given

  16. Reversed field pinch reactor study 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollis, A.A.; Mitchell, J.T.D.

    1977-12-01

    This report, the third of a series on the Reversed Field Pinch Reactor, describes a preliminary concept of the engineering design and layout of this pulsed toroidal reactor, which uses the stable plasma behaviour first observed in ZETA. The basic parameters of the 600 MW(e) reactor are taken from a companion study by Hancox and Spears. The plasma volume is 1.75m minor radius and 16m major radius surrounded by a 1.8m blanket-shield region - with the blanket divided into 14 removable segments for servicing. The magnetic confinement system consists of 28 toroidal field coils situated just outside the blanket and inside the poloidal and vertical field coils and all coils have normal copper conductors. The requirement to incorporate a conducting shell at the front of the blanket to provide a short-time plasma stability has a marked effect on the design. It sets the size of the blanket segment and the scale of the servicing operations, limits the breeding gain and complicates the blanket cooling and its integration with the heat engine. An extensive study will be required to confirm the overall reactor potential of the concept. (author)

  17. Reversed-field pinch fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual engineering design of a fusion reactor based on plasma confinement in a toroidal Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) configuration is described. The plasma is ohmically ignited by toroidal plasma currents which also inherently provide the confining magnetic fields in a toroidal chamber having major and minor radii of 12.7 and 1.5 m, respectively. The DT plasma ignites in 2 to 3 s and undergoes a transient, unrefueled burn at 10 to 20 keV for approx. 20 s to give a DT burnup of approx. 50%. The 5-s dwell period between burn pulses for plasma quench and refueling allows steady-state operation of all thermal systems outside the first wall; no auxiliary thermal capacity is required. Tritium breeding occurs in a granular Li 2 O blanket which is packed around an array of radially oriented water/steam coolant tubes. The slightly superheated steam emerging from this blanket directly drives a turbine that produces electrical power at an efficiency of 30%. A borated-water shield is located immediately outside the thermal blanket to protect the superconducting magnet coils. Both the superconducting poloidal and toroidal field coils are energized by homopolar motor/generators. Accounting for all major energy sinks yields a cost-optimized system with a recirculating power fraction of 0.17; the power output is 750 MWe

  18. Characterization of compact-toroid injection during formation, translation, and field penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T.; Roche, T.; Allfrey, I.; Sekiguchi, J.; Asai, T.; Gota, H.; Cordero, M.; Garate, E.; Kinley, J.; Valentine, T.; Waggoner, W.; Binderbauer, M.; Tajima, T.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a compact toroid (CT) injector system for particle refueling of the advanced beam-driven C-2U field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The CT injector is a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), and the produced CT must cross the perpendicular magnetic field surrounding the FRC for the refueling of C-2U. To simulate this environment, an experimental test stand has been constructed. A transverse magnetic field of ˜1 kG is established, which is comparable to the C-2U axial magnetic field in the confinement section, and CTs are fired across it. On the test stand we have been characterizing and studying CT formation, ejection/translation from the MCPG, and penetration into transverse magnetic fields.

  19. Characterization of compact-toroid injection during formation, translation, and field penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, T., E-mail: cstd14003@g.nihon-u.ac.jp; Sekiguchi, J.; Asai, T. [Nihon University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Roche, T.; Allfrey, I.; Gota, H.; Cordero, M.; Garate, E.; Kinley, J.; Valentine, T.; Waggoner, W.; Binderbauer, M. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Tajima, T. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We have developed a compact toroid (CT) injector system for particle refueling of the advanced beam-driven C-2U field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The CT injector is a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), and the produced CT must cross the perpendicular magnetic field surrounding the FRC for the refueling of C-2U. To simulate this environment, an experimental test stand has been constructed. A transverse magnetic field of ∼1 kG is established, which is comparable to the C-2U axial magnetic field in the confinement section, and CTs are fired across it. On the test stand we have been characterizing and studying CT formation, ejection/translation from the MCPG, and penetration into transverse magnetic fields.

  20. Kinetic stability of field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudenmeier, J.L.; Hsiao, M.-Y.

    1991-01-01

    The internal tilt mode is considered to be the biggest threat to Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) global stability. The tilt stability of the FRC is studied using the MHD, Hall MHD, and the Vlasov-fluid (Vlasov ions, cold massless fluid electrons) models. Nonlinear Hall MHD calculations showed that the FRC was stable to the tilt mode when the s value of the FRC was below a critical value that was dependent on plasma length. The critical s value is larger for longer plasma equilibria. The stability of FRC's with toroidal field was studied with a linear initial value MHD code. The calculations showed an axial perturbation wavelength of the most unstable eigenfunction that was consistent with internal probe measurements made on translated FRC's. Linear Vlasov-fluid eigenvalue calculations showed that kinetic ion effects can change both the growth rate and the structure of the eigenfunctions when compared to the corresponding MHD modes. Calculations on short FRC equilibria indicate that MHD is not the appropriate small gyroradius limit of the Vlasov-fluid model because the axial transit time of a thermal ion is approximately equal to an MHD growth time for the tilt mode. Calculations were done using a small number of unstable MHD eigenfunctions as basis functions in order to reduce the dimensionality of the stability problem. The results indicated that this basis set can produce inaccurate growth rates at large value for s for some equilibria

  1. Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Cort, G.E.

    1979-08-01

    A conceptual engineering design of a fusion reactor based on plasma confinement in a Reversed-Field Pinch (FRP) configuration is presented. A 50% atomic mixture of deuterium and tritium (DT) is ohmically heated to ignition by currents flowing in the toroidal plasma; this plasma current also inherently produces the confining magnetic fields in a toroidal chamber having a major and minor radii of 12.7 and 1.5 m, respectively. The DT plasma ignites in 2 to 3 s and burns at 10 to 20 keV for approx. 20 s to give a fuel burnup of approx. 50%. Tritium breeding occurs in a granular Li 2 O blanket which is packed around an array of radially oriented coolant tubes carrying a mixture of high-pressure steam and water. The slightly superheated steam emerging from this blanket would be used to drive a turbine directly. Low-pressure helium containing trace amounts of oxygen is circulated through the packed Li 2 O bed to extract the tritium. A 20-mm-thick copper first wall serves as a neutron multiplier, acts as a tritium barrier, and supports image currents to provide plasma stabilization on a 0.1-s timescale; external windings provide stability for longer times

  2. The Cornell field-reversed ion ring experiment FIREX: experimental design and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podulka, W J; Greenly, J B; Anderson, D E; Glidden, S C; Hammer, D A; Omelchenko, Yu A; Sudan, R N [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Laboratory of Plasma Studies

    1997-12-31

    The goal of FIREX (Field-reversed Ion Ring EXperiment) is to produce a fully field-reversed ring with 1 MeV protons. Such a ring requires about (2-3) x 10{sup 17} protons, or 30-50 mC of charge. This charge is to be injected as an annular proton beam through a suitable magnetic cusp configuration to produce a compact ring. The critical design issues for the ion beam accelerator are described. First experimental results of ion diode operation indicate that the design is capable of producing the required beam parameters. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs.

  3. The Cornell field-reversed ion ring experiment FIREX: experimental design and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podulka, W.J.; Greenly, J.B.; Anderson, D.E.; Glidden, S.C.; Hammer, D.A.; Omelchenko, Yu.A.; Sudan, R.N.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of FIREX (Field-reversed Ion Ring EXperiment) is to produce a fully field-reversed ring with 1 MeV protons. Such a ring requires about (2-3) x 10 17 protons, or 30-50 mC of charge. This charge is to be injected as an annular proton beam through a suitable magnetic cusp configuration to produce a compact ring. The critical design issues for the ion beam accelerator are described. First experimental results of ion diode operation indicate that the design is capable of producing the required beam parameters. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs

  4. Oscillating field current drive for reversed field pinch discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberg, K.F.; Gribble, R.F.; Baker, D.A.

    1984-06-01

    Oscillating Field Current Drive (OFCD), also known as F-THETA pumping, is a steady-state current-drive technique proposed for the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). Unlike other current-drive techniques, which employ high-technology, invasive, and power intensive schemes using radio frequency or neutral particle injection, F-THETA pumping entails driving the toroidal and poloidal magnetic field circuits with low-frequency (audio) oscillating voltage sources. Current drive by this technique is a consequence of the strong nonlinear plasma coupling in the RFP. Because of its low frequency and efficient plasma coupling, F-THETA pumping shows excellent promise as a reactor-relevant current-drive technique. A conceptual and computational study of this concept, including its experimental and reactor relevance, is explored in this paper

  5. Compact high-field superconducting quadrupole magnet with holmium poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Lobb, C.T.; Menzel, M.T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Walstrom, P.L. (Grumman Space Systems, Los Alamos, NM (United States))

    1992-03-15

    A compact high-field superconducting quadrupole magnet was designed and built with poles made of the rare-earth metal holmium. The magnet is intended for use in superconducting coupled-cavity linear accelerators where compact high-field quadrupoles are needed, but where the use of permanent magnets is ruled out because of trapped-flux losses. The magnet has a clear bore diameter of 1.8 cm, outside diameter of 11 cm, length of 11 cm, and pole tip length of 6 cm. The effect of using holmium, a material with a higher saturation field than iron, was investigated by replacing poles made of iron with identical poles made of holmium. The magnet was operated at a temperature of 4.2 K and reached a peak quadrupole field gradient of 355 T/m, a 10% increase over the same magnet with iron poles. This increase in performance is consistent with calculations based on B-H curves that were measured for holmium at 4.2 K. (orig.).

  6. Transport and equilibrium in field-reversed mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.K.

    1982-09-01

    Two plasma models relevant to compact torus research have been developed to study transport and equilibrium in field reversed mirrors. In the first model for small Larmor radius and large collision frequency, the plasma is described as an adiabatic hydromagnetic fluid. In the second model for large Larmor radius and small collision frequency, a kinetic theory description has been developed. Various aspects of the two models have been studied in five computer codes ADB, AV, NEO, OHK, RES. The ADB code computes two dimensional equilibrium and one dimensional transport in a flux coordinate. The AV code calculates orbit average integrals in a harmonic oscillator potential. The NEO code follows particle trajectories in a Hill's vortex magnetic field to study stochasticity, invariants of the motion, and orbit average formulas. The OHK code displays analytic psi(r), B/sub Z/(r), phi(r), E/sub r/(r) formulas developed for the kinetic theory description. The RES code calculates resonance curves to consider overlap regions relevant to stochastic orbit behavior

  7. FARADAY ROTATION: EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD REVERSALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melrose, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    The standard formula for the rotation measure (RM), which determines the position angle, ψ = RMλ 2 , due to Faraday rotation, includes contributions only from the portions of the ray path where the natural modes of the plasma are circularly polarized. In small regions of the ray path where the projection of the magnetic field on the ray path reverses sign (called QT regions) the modes are nearly linearly polarized. The neglect of QT regions in estimating RM is not well justified at frequencies below a transition frequency where mode coupling changes from strong to weak. By integrating the polarization transfer equation across a QT region in the latter limit, I estimate the additional contribution Δψ needed to correct this omission. In contrast with a result proposed by Broderick and Blandford, Δψ is small and probably unobservable. I identify a new source of circular polarization, due to mode coupling in an asymmetric QT region. I also identify a new circular-polarization-dependent correction to the dispersion measure at low frequencies.

  8. FARADAY ROTATION: EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD REVERSALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melrose, D B [SIfA, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-12-20

    The standard formula for the rotation measure (RM), which determines the position angle, {psi} = RM{lambda}{sup 2}, due to Faraday rotation, includes contributions only from the portions of the ray path where the natural modes of the plasma are circularly polarized. In small regions of the ray path where the projection of the magnetic field on the ray path reverses sign (called QT regions) the modes are nearly linearly polarized. The neglect of QT regions in estimating RM is not well justified at frequencies below a transition frequency where mode coupling changes from strong to weak. By integrating the polarization transfer equation across a QT region in the latter limit, I estimate the additional contribution {Delta}{psi} needed to correct this omission. In contrast with a result proposed by Broderick and Blandford, {Delta}{psi} is small and probably unobservable. I identify a new source of circular polarization, due to mode coupling in an asymmetric QT region. I also identify a new circular-polarization-dependent correction to the dispersion measure at low frequencies.

  9. The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) fusion reactor study is a multi-institutional research effort to determine the technical feasibility and key developmental issues of an RFP fusion reactor, especially at high power density, and to determine the potential economics, operations, safety, and environmental features of high-mass-power-density fusion systems. The TITAN conceptual designs are DT burning, 1000 MWe power reactors based on the RFP confinement concept. The designs are compact, have a high neutron wall loading of 18 MW/m 2 and a mass power density of 700 kWe/tonne. The inherent characteristics of the RFP confinement concept make fusion reactors with such a high mass power density possible. Two different detailed designs have emerged: the TITAN-I lithium-vanadium design, incorporating the integrated-blanket-coil concept; and the TITAN-II aqueous loop-in-pool design with ferritic steel structure. This report contains a collection of 16 papers on the results of the TITAN study which were presented at the International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology. This collection describes the TITAN research effort, and specifically the TITAN-I and TITAN-II designs, summarizing the major results, the key technical issues, and the central conclusions and recommendations. Overall, the basic conclusions are that high-mass power-density fusion reactors appear to be technically feasible even with neutron wall loadings up to 20 MW/m 2 ; that single-piece maintenance of the FPC is possible and advantageous; that the economics of the reactor is enhanced by its compactness; and the safety and environmental features need not to be sacrificed in high-power-density designs. The fact that two design approaches have emerged, and others may also be possible, in some sense indicates the robustness of the general findings

  10. Magnetic field structures in active compact radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.W.; Rudnick, L.; Fiedler, R.L.; Aller, H.D.; Aller, M.F.; Hodge, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of simultaneous multifrequency linear polarimetry data between 1.4 GHz and 90 GHz for about 20 active, compact radio sources at six epochs from 1977 December 10 1980 July is presented. In addition, monthly 8 Ghz polarization data on the same sources were examined. The general polarization characteristics of these sources can be well described in terms of magnetic fields which are largely turbulent and slightly anisotropic. The magnetic field symmetry axes are generally aligned with the source structural axes on the milli-arcsecond scale (OJ 287 is a notable exception.) Monte Carlo calculations indicate that observed polarization variations and in particular rotator polarization events can be produced in this model as a consequence of random walks generated through evolution of the turbulent magnetic field. 43 references

  11. Translation of field-reversed configurations in the FRX C/T experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rej, D.J.; Armstrong, W.T.; Chrien, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    One of the unique features inherent to compact toroids is the potential ability to translate the plasma along its geometric axis. CT translation has proven useful in reactor design studies, and has been the focus of several experimental investigations. In this paper, we report on the initial results from translation experiments performed with the field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas generated in the FRX-C/T device

  12. Translation of field-reversed configurations in the FRX C/T experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rej, D.J.; Armstrong, W.T.; Chrien, R.E.; Klingner, P.L.; Linford, R.K.; McKenna, K.F.; Milroy, R.D.; Sherwood, E.G.; Siemon, R.E.; Tuszewski, M.

    1984-01-01

    One of the unique features inherent to compact toroids is the potential ability to translate the plasma along its geometric axis. CT translation has proven useful in reactor design studies, and has been the focus of several experimental investigations. In this paper, we report on the initial results from translation experiments performed with the field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas generated in the FRX-C/T device.

  13. High density, high magnetic field concepts for compact fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    One rather discouraging feature of our conventional approaches to fusion energy is that they do not appear to lend themselves to a small reactor for developmental purposes. This is in contrast with the normal evolution of a new technology which typically proceeds to a full scale commercial plant via a set of graduated steps. Accordingly' several concepts concerned with dense plasma fusion systems are being studied theoretically and experimentally. A common aspect is that they employ: (a) high to very high plasma densities (∼10 16 cm -3 to ∼10 26 cm -3 ) and (b) magnetic fields. If they could be shown to be viable at high fusion Q, they could conceivably lead to compact and inexpensive commercial reactors. At least, their compactness suggests that both proof of principle experiments and development costs will be relatively inexpensive compared with the present conventional approaches. In this paper, the following concepts are considered: (1) The staged Z-pinch, (2) Liner implosion of closed-field-line configurations, (3) Magnetic ''fast'' ignition of inertial fusion targets, (4) The continuous flow Z-pinch

  14. Tandem mirror and field-reversed mirror experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coensgen, F.H.; Simonen, T.C.; Turner, W.C.

    1979-08-21

    This paper is largely devoted to tandem mirror and field-reversed mirror experiments at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), and briefly summarizes results of experiments in which field-reversal has been achieved. In the tandem experiment, high-energy, high-density plasmas (nearly identical to 2XIIB plasmas) are located at each end of a solenoid where plasma ions are electrostatically confined by the high positive poentials arising in the end plug plasma. End plug ions are magnetically confined, and electrons are electrostatically confined by the overall positive potential of the system. The field-reversed mirror reactor consists of several small field-reversed mirror plasmas linked together for economic reasons. In the LLL Beta II experiment, generation of a field-reversed plasma ring will be investigated using a high-energy plasma gun with a transverse radial magnetic field. This plasma will be further heated and sustained by injection of intense, high-energy neutral beams.

  15. Fusion proton diagnostic for the C-2 field reversed configurationa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, R. M.; Clary, R.; Korepanov, S.; Smirnov, A.; Garate, E.; Knapp, K.; Tkachev, A.

    2014-11-01

    Measurements of the flux of fusion products from high temperature plasmas provide valuable insights into the ion energy distribution, as the fusion reaction rate is a very sensitive function of ion energy. In C-2, where field reversed configuration plasmas are formed by the collision of two compact toroids and partially sustained by high power neutral beam injection [M. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 045003 (2010); M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012)], measurements of DD fusion neutron flux are used to diagnose ion temperature and study fast ion confinement and dynamics. In this paper, we will describe the development of a new 3 MeV proton detector that will complement existing neutron detectors. The detector is a large area (50 cm2), partially depleted, ion implanted silicon diode operated in a pulse counting regime. While the scintillator-based neutron detectors allow for high time resolution measurements (˜100 kHz), they have no spatial or energy resolution. The proton detector will provide 10 cm spatial resolution, allowing us to determine if the axial distribution of fast ions is consistent with classical fast ion theory or whether anomalous scattering mechanisms are active. We will describe in detail the diagnostic design and present initial data from a neutral beam test chamber.

  16. Murakami density limit in tokamaks and reversed-field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, F.W.; Hulse, R.A.

    1984-03-01

    A theoretical upper limit for the density in an ohmically heated tokamak discharge follows from the requirement that the ohmic heating power deposited in the central current-carrying channel exceed the impurity radiative cooling in this critical region. A compact summary of our results gives this limit n/sub M/ for the central density as n/sub M/ = [Z/sub e//(Z/sub e/-1]/sup 1/2/n/sub eo/ (B/sub T//1T)(1m/R) where n/sub eo/ depends strongly on the impurity species and is remarkably independent of the central electron temperature T/sub e/(0). For T/sub e/(0) approx. 1 keV, we have n/sub eo/ = 1.5 x 10 14 cm -3 for beryllium, n/sub eo/ = 5 x 10 13 cm -3 for oxygen, n/sub eo/ = 1.0 x 10 13 cm -3 for iron, and n/sub eo/ = 0.5 x 10 13 cm -3 for tungsten. The results agree quantitatively with Murakami's original observations. A similar density limit, known as the I/N limit, exists for reversed-field pinch devices and this limit has also been evaluated for a variety of impurity species

  17. Poloidal flux loss in a field-reversed theta pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.L.; Milroy, R.D.; Steinhauer, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Poloidal flux loss has been measured in field-reversed configurations and related to anomalous resistivity near the magnetic field null. The results indicate that mechanisms in addition to the lower-hybrid drift instability are affecting transport

  18. The physics of reversed-field pinch profile sustainment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    A description of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) is given. There is experimental evidence that indicates that an RFP dynamo effect sustains field reversal in steady state. Three sustainment mechanisms are reviewed: the MHD model, the tangled discharge model, and the kinetic dynamo model. The relationship of these models to each another is discussed briefly

  19. The topology of intrasector reversals of the interplanetary magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S. W.; Crooker, N. U.; Gosling, J. T.

    1996-11-01

    A technique has been developed recently to determine the polarities of interplanetary magnetic fields relative to their origins at the Sun by comparing energetic electron flow directions with local magnetic field directions. Here we use heat flux electrons from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) plasma detector on the ISEE 3 spacecraft to determine the field polarities. We examine periods within well-defined magnetic sectors when the field directions appear to be reversed from the normal spiral direction of the sector. About half of these intrasector field reversals (IFRs) are cases in which the polarities match those of the surrounding sectors, indicating that those fields have been folded back toward the Sun. The more interesting cases are those with polarity reversals. We find no clear cases of isolated reverse polarity fields, which suggests that islands of reverse polarity in the solar source dipole field probably do not exist. The IFRs with polarity reversals are strongly associated with periods of bidirectional electron flows, suggesting that those fields occur only in conjunction with closed fields. We propose that both those IFRs and the bidirectional flows are signatures of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In that case, many interplanetary CMEs are larger and more complex than previously thought, consisting of both open and closed field components.

  20. Aligning laboratory and field compaction practices for asphalt - the influence of compaction temperature on mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Frank; Miller, Seirgei Rosario; de Bondt, A.H.; Doree, Andries G.

    2015-01-01

    The approach used to identify a compaction temperature in the laboratory, based on binder viscosity, provides a single compaction temperature whereas, on-site, a roller operates within a temperature window. The effect on the density and mechanical properties of rolling during a temperature window

  1. Edge-plasmas and wall protection in RFPs [Reversed-Field Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Reverse-Field Pinch (RFP) has the ability to operate as a compact, moderate-to-high beta, high-power-density system. A compact system requires careful control of the particle and heat fluxes impinging on plasma-facing components. A strongly recycling, toroidal-field open divertor combined with a highly radiating (>90% of plasma heating power) core plasma is required. An open divertor configuration locates the plate near the field null to take advantage of the flux expansion and minimum poloidal asymmetries to minimize peak heat fluxes. The physics and engineering requirements are quantitatively discussed for an evolutionary sequence of impurity/ash-control schemes for AT-40M (0.4 MA) → ZT-P (0.08 MA) → ZTH (2-4 MA) → FTF/RFP (10 MA) → TITAN (18 MA). 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Field reversed theta pinch TC-I UNICAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, R.Y.; Machida, M.; Aramaki, E.A.; Porto, P.; Berni, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Field reversed configuration TC-I device is 16 cm diameter, 1 meter long with two mirror coils and 30 kJ field reversed theta pinch working for over two years at University of Campinas. Its implosion dynamics and field reversal parameters have been studied using flux excluded loops, internal magnetic probe, visible spectroscopy, photodiode array and image converter camera. The vacuum vessel is a pyrex tube of 14,5 cm diameter pumped with a liquid nitrogen cooled diffusion pump to a base pressure of 6 x 10 -7 Torr. The schematic view of the machine and experimental set up are shown. (Author)

  3. PZT-Based Detection of Compactness of Concrete in Concrete Filled Steel Tube Using Time Reversal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart aggregate-based approach is proposed for the concrete compactness detection of concrete filled steel tube (CFST columns. The piezoceramic-based smart aggregates (SAs were embedded in the predetermined locations prior to the casting of concrete columns to establish a wave-based smart sensing system for the concrete compactness detection purpose. To evaluate the efficiency of the developed approach, six specimens of the CFST columns with the rectangular cross-section were produced by placing some artificial defects during casting of concrete for simulating various uncompacted voids such as cavities, cracks, and debond. During the test, the time reversal technology was applied to rebuild the received signals and launch the reversed signals again by SAs, to overcome the issue of the lack of the prototype. Based on the proposed nonprototype, two indices of time reversibility (TR and symmetry (SYM were applied to relatively evaluate the level of concrete compactness in the range of the two SAs. The experimental results show that the developed method can effectively detect the compactness of concrete in CFST columns.

  4. Paleomagnetic Study of a Reversal of the Earth's Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J R; Fuller, M; Ito, H; Schmidt, V A

    1971-05-21

    A detailed record of a field reversal has been obtained from the natural remanent magnetization of the Tatoosh intrusion in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington. The reversal took place at 14.7 +/- 1 million years and is interpreted to be from reverse to normal. A decrease in the intensity of the field of about an order of magnitude occurs immediately before the reversal, while its orientation remains substantially unchanged. The onset of the reversal is marked by abrupt swinging of the virtual geomagnetic pole along an arc of a great circle. During the reversal the pole traces a path across the Pacific. In the last stage of the process recorded in the sections, the succession of virtual geomagnetic poles is very similar to those generated by secular variation in the recent past. Although the cooling rate of the intrusion is not sufficiently well known to permit a useful calculation of the duration of the reversal process, an estimate based on the length of the supposed secular variation cycles gives 1 to 4 x 103 years for the reversal of field direction and approximately 1 x 104 years for the time scale of the intensity changes.

  5. Electrical circuit modeling of reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprott, J.C.

    1988-02-01

    Equations are proposed to describe the radial variation of the magnetic field and current density in a circular, cylindrical RFP. These equations are used to derive the electrical circuit parameters (inductance, resistance, and coupling coefficient) for an RFP discharge. The circuit parameters are used to evaluate the flux and energy consumption for various startup modes and for steady-state operation using oscillating field current drive. The results are applied to the MST device. 32 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  6. Magnetization reversal in ferromagnetic film through solitons by electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerakumar, V.; Daniel, M.

    2001-07-01

    We study the reversal of magnetization in an isotopic ferromagnetic film free from charges by exposing it to a circularly polarized electromagnetic (EM) field. The magnetization excitations are obtained in the form of line and lump solitons of the completely integrable modified KP-II equation which is derived using a reductive perturbation method from the set of coupled Landau-Lifschitz and Maxwell equations. It is observed that when the polarization of the EM-field is reversed followed by a rotation, for every (π)/2-degrees, the magnetization is reversed. (author)

  7. Overview of the TITAN-II reversed-field pinch aqueous fusion power core design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Creedon, R.L.; Grotz, S.; Cheng, E.T.; Sharafat, S.; Cooke, P.I.H.

    1988-03-01

    TITAN-II is a compact, high power density Reversed-Field Pinch fusion power reactor design based on the aqueous lithium solution fusion power core concept. The selected breeding and structural materials are LiNO/sub 3/ and 9-C low activation ferritic steel, respectively. TITAN-II is a viable alternative to the TITAN-I lithium self-cooled design for the Reversed-Field Pinch reactor to operate at a neutron wall loading of 18 MWm/sup 2/. Submerging the complete fusion power core and the primary loop in a large pool of cool water will minimize the probability of radioactivity release. Since the protection of the large pool integrity is the only requirement for the protection of the public, TITAN-II is a passive safety assurance design. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Overview of the TITAN-II reversed-field pinch aqueous fusion power core design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Creedon, R.L.; Cheng, E.T. (General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (USA)); Grotz, S.P.; Sharafat, S.; Cooke, P.I.H. (California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering; California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). Inst. for Plasma and Fusion Research); TITAN Research Group

    1989-04-01

    TITAN-II is a compact, high-power-density Reversed-Field Pinch fusion power reactor design based on the aqueous lithium solution fusion power core concept. The selected breeding and structural materials are LiNO/sub 3/ and 9-C low activation ferritic steel, respectively. TITAN-II is a viable alternative to the TITAN-I lithium self-cooled design for the Reversed-Field Pinch reactor to operate at a neutron wall loading of 18 MW/m/sup 2/. Submerging the complete fusion power core and the primary loop in a large pool of cool water will minimize the probability of radioactivity release. Since the protection of the large pool integrity is the only requirement for the protection of the public, TITAN-II is a level 2 of passive safety assurance design. (orig.).

  9. Intelligent Compaction and Infrared Scanning Field Projects with Consulting Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) was awarded a grant from the FHWA Accelerated Innovation Deployment (AID) program, in 2016. MoDOT provided the required matching funds to support this Intelligent Compaction (IC) and Infrared Scanning...

  10. 3-dimensional simulation of dynamo effect of reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Shinji.

    1990-09-01

    A non-linear numerical simulation of the dynamo effect of a reversed field pinch (RFP) with finite beta is presented. It is shown that the m=-1, n=(9,10,11,....,19) modes cause the dynamo effect and sustain the field reversed configuration. The role of the m=0 modes on the dynamo effect is carefully examined. Our simulation shows that the magnetic field fluctuation level scales as S -0.2 or S -0.3 in the range of 10 3 5 , while Nebel, Caramana and Schnack obtained the fluctuation level is independent of S for a pressureless RFP plasma. (author)

  11. Coronal Polarization of Pseudostreamers and the Solar Polar Field Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmeler, L. A.; Guennou, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Gibson, S. E.; Auchere, F.

    2016-01-01

    The reversal of the solar polar magnetic field is notoriously hard to pin down due to the extreme viewing angle of the pole. In Cycle 24, the southern polar field reversal can be pinpointed with high accuracy due to a large-scale pseudostreamer that formed over the pole and persisted for approximately a year. We tracked the size and shape of this structure with multiple observations and analysis techniques including PROBA2/SWAP EUV images, AIA EUV images, CoMP polarization data, and 3D tomographic reconstructions. We find that the heliospheric field reversed polarity in February 2014, whereas in the photosphere, the last vestiges of the previous polar field polarity remained until March 2015. We present here the evolution of the structure and describe its identification in the Fe XII 1074nm coronal emission line, sensitive to the Hanle effect in the corona.

  12. Data-acquisition system of the reversed field pinch device REPUTE-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, N.; Aoki, H.; Shinohara, H.; Toyama, H.; Morikawa, J.

    1988-01-01

    The new, compact data-acquisition system of the reversed field pinch device, REPUTE-1, is reported. Its distinctive feature is high flexibility and easy handling. The interface between the computer and measurement devices is CAMAC. The computer and the CAMAC devices are connected to a CAMAC byte serial highway that transmits setup parameters and acquisition data. The computer carries out setup of CAMAC devices and data acquisition automatically by use of CAMAC parameters and the acquisition data base. The maintenance tools for the data base are also provided. The computer system, which consists of a ''TOSBAC DS-600,'' has been in operation for REPUTE-1 since 1985

  13. Velocity-space particle loss in field-reversed theta pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, M.Y.

    1983-01-01

    A field-reversed theta pinch (FRTP) is a compact device for magnetic fusion. It has attracted much attention in recent years since encouraging experimental results have been obtained. However, the definite causes for the observed particle loss rate and plasma rotation are not well known. In this work, we study the velocity-space particle loss (VSPL), i.e., particle loss due to the existence of a loss region in velocity space, in FRTP's in order to have a better understanding about the characteristics of this device

  14. A Compact RFID Reader Antenna for UHF Near-Field and Far-Field Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Xiao zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact loop antenna is presented for mobile ultrahigh frequency (UHF radio frequency identification (RFID application. This antenna, printed on a 0.8 mm thick FR4 substrate with a small size of 31 mm × 31 mm, achieves good impedance bandwidth from 897 to 928 MHz, which covers USA RFID Band (902–928 MHz. The proposed loop configuration, with a split-ring resonator (SRR coupled inside it, demonstrates strong and uniform magnetic field distribution in the near-field antenna region. Its linearly polarized radiation pattern provides available far-field gain. Finally, the reading capabilities of antenna are up to 56 mm for near-field and 1.05 m for far-field UHF RFID operations, respectively.

  15. Physics of reversed-field pinch profile sustainment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    A description of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) is given, emphasizing the necessity of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) or kinetic process to sustain field reversal. Three sustainment mechanisms are reviewed: the MHD dynamo, the tangled discharge model, and nonlocal resistivity. A slab model of steady (ohmic) states is described. A relationship between ohmic state wave numbers and the minimum amplitude of nonsymmetric field components is given. If ohmic states are the sole source of the sustainment process, their wave lengths are probably much longer than the minor diameter of the plasma. Otherwise field asymmetries would exceed those observed in experiments. It is noted that internal field data are still limited, restricting the generality of our comments

  16. Eccentric binaries of compact objects in strong-field gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, Roman

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we study the dynamics as well as the resulting gravitational radiation from eccentric binaries of compact objects in the non-linear regime of General Relativity. For this purpose we solve Einstein's field equation numerically in a 3+1 decomposition using the moving-puncture technique. We focus our study on very particular orbits, arising as a purely relativistic phenomenon of the two-body problem in General Relativity, which are associated with unstable circular orbits. They are governed by a fast, nearly circular revolution at a short distance followed by a slow, radial motion on a nearly elliptic trajectory. Due to the unique features of their orbital trajectories they are called zoom-whirl orbits. We analyze how the peculiar dynamics manifests itself in the emitted gravitational radiation and to which extent one can infer the orbital properties from observations of the gravitational waves. In the first part, we consider black hole binaries. We perform a comprehensive parameter study by varying the initial eccentricity, computing and characterizing the resulting gravitational waveforms. We address aspects, which can only be obtained from non-perturbative methods, and which are crucial to the astrophysical relevance of these orbits. In particular, our results imply a fairly low amount of fine-tuning necessary to spot zoom-whirl effects. We find whirl orbits for values of the eccentricities, which fall in disjunct intervals extending to rather low values. Furthermore, we show that whirl effects just before merger cause a signal with significant amplitude. In the second part, we investigate neutron star binaries on eccentric orbits in full General Relativity, which has not been studied so far. We explore their phenomenology and study the consequences for the matter after the neutron stars have merged. In these evolutions the merged neutron stars sooner or later collapse to form a black hole. During the collapse most of the matter is accreted on to the

  17. Eccentric binaries of compact objects in strong-field gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, Roman

    2011-09-27

    In this thesis we study the dynamics as well as the resulting gravitational radiation from eccentric binaries of compact objects in the non-linear regime of General Relativity. For this purpose we solve Einstein's field equation numerically in a 3+1 decomposition using the moving-puncture technique. We focus our study on very particular orbits, arising as a purely relativistic phenomenon of the two-body problem in General Relativity, which are associated with unstable circular orbits. They are governed by a fast, nearly circular revolution at a short distance followed by a slow, radial motion on a nearly elliptic trajectory. Due to the unique features of their orbital trajectories they are called zoom-whirl orbits. We analyze how the peculiar dynamics manifests itself in the emitted gravitational radiation and to which extent one can infer the orbital properties from observations of the gravitational waves. In the first part, we consider black hole binaries. We perform a comprehensive parameter study by varying the initial eccentricity, computing and characterizing the resulting gravitational waveforms. We address aspects, which can only be obtained from non-perturbative methods, and which are crucial to the astrophysical relevance of these orbits. In particular, our results imply a fairly low amount of fine-tuning necessary to spot zoom-whirl effects. We find whirl orbits for values of the eccentricities, which fall in disjunct intervals extending to rather low values. Furthermore, we show that whirl effects just before merger cause a signal with significant amplitude. In the second part, we investigate neutron star binaries on eccentric orbits in full General Relativity, which has not been studied so far. We explore their phenomenology and study the consequences for the matter after the neutron stars have merged. In these evolutions the merged neutron stars sooner or later collapse to form a black hole. During the collapse most of the matter is accreted on

  18. Plasma behaviors in the open field region of reversed-field theta-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Yoshiyuki; Hirano, Keiichi.

    1983-03-01

    A characteristic behavior of the plasma in an open field region of reversed field theta pinch has been studied with the guide field (GF) which extends the field line along the axial direction. The experimental result suggests that the rotaional instability may be induced in FRC after the plasma touches the wall at the ends of the open field. (author)

  19. Midlatitude cooling caused by geomagnetic field minimum during polarity reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaba, Ikuko; Hyodo, Masayuki; Katoh, Shigehiro; Dettman, David L; Sato, Hiroshi

    2013-01-22

    The climatic effects of cloud formation induced by galactic cosmic rays (CRs) has recently become a topic of much discussion. The CR-cloud connection suggests that variations in geomagnetic field intensity could change climate through modulation of CR flux. This hypothesis, however, is not well-tested using robust geological evidence. Here we present paleoclimate and paleoenvironment records of five interglacial periods that include two geomagnetic polarity reversals. Marine oxygen isotope stages 19 and 31 contain both anomalous cooling intervals during the sea-level highstands and the Matuyama-Brunhes and Lower Jaramillo reversals, respectively. This contrasts strongly with the typical interglacial climate that has the temperature maximum at the sea-level peak. The cooling occurred when the field intensity dropped to 40% increase in CR flux. The climate warmed rapidly when field intensity recovered. We suggest that geomagnetic field intensity can influence global climate through the modulation of CR flux.

  20. Toroidal equilibrium in an iron-core reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.

    1984-04-01

    An analytical theory of toroidal equilibrium in the ZT-40M reversed field pinch is obtained, including effects of iron cores and resistive shell. The iron cores alter the form of the equilibrium condition and cause the equilibrium to be unstable on the shell resistive time scale

  1. A Mirnov loop array for field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuszewski, M.

    1990-01-01

    An array of 64 magnetic pick-up loops has been used for stability studies of large field-reversed configurations in the FRX-C/LSM device. This array proved reliable, could resolve signals of a few Gauss, and allowed the detection of several plasma instabilities. 3 refs., 4 figs

  2. Overview of quasi single helicity experiments in reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.; Marrelli, L.; Spizzo, G.

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of an experimental and theoretical project dedicated to the study of Quasi Single Helicity Reversed Field Pinch plasmas. The project has involved several RFP devices and numerical codes. It appears that QSH spectra are a feature common to all the experiments. (author)

  3. Time-reversal symmetry breaking by ac field: Effect of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deviate from 2 thus signalling on the time-reversal breaking by the ac field. ... is also the parity effect: the enchancement is only present if either P or Q is even. ... analysis (see figure 1) is possible and the ergodic zero-dimensional approx-.

  4. A review of the experimental and theoretical status of the reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) approach to the development of a compact nuclear fusion reactor. Two RFP papers in this conference are complementary; the first paper contains the historical origins and basic concepts concerning MHD instabilities, relaxation and RFP confinement properties as well as a discussion of future prospects of the RFP. This paper gives an overview of the status of plasma parameters of the present main RFP experiments and of the status of theory and experiment of the interesting RFP plasma phenomena of relaxation, self reversal and flux generation (these effects are often referred to as the dynamo effect). The low frequency oscillating-field current drive concept which exploits these effects is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the theoretical results obtained from plasma simulation codes used in these active areas of study. Selected topics of recent research on the Los Alamos ZT-40M experiments are reported. The paper concludes with descriptions of the next generation Los Alamos RFP experiment ZTH, to be located in the new Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) presently under construction, and the characteristics of an RFP compact reactor. 68 refs

  5. Detection of electric field around field-reversed configuration plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeyama, Taeko; Hiroi, Masanori; Nogi, Yasuyuki; Ohkuma, Yasunori

    2010-01-01

    Electric-field probes consisting of copper plates are developed to measure electric fields in a vacuum region around a plasma. The probes detect oscillating electric fields with a maximum strength of approximately 100 V/m through a discharge. Reproducible signals from the probes are obtained with an unstable phase dominated by a rotational instability. It is found that the azimuthal structure of the electric field can be explained by the sum of an n=2 mode charge distribution and a convex-surface electron distribution on the deformed separatrix at the unstable phase. The former distribution agrees with that anticipated from the diamagnetic drift motions of plasma when the rotational instability occurs. The latter distribution suggests that an electron-rich plasma covers the separatrix.

  6. MHD turbulence models for the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimblett, C.G.; Watkins, M.L.

    1976-01-01

    A kinematic model which describes the effect of isotropic, non-mirror symmetric turbulence on a mean magnetic field is used to examine the temporal behaviour of magnetic field in high beta pinch experiments. Solutions to the model can indicate the formation of a steady-state, force-free configuration that corresponds to the state of lowest magnetic energy and the reversal of the toroidal magnetic field at the plasma boundary in accordance with experimental observations on toroidal pinches such as ZETA and HBTX. This model neglects both the dynamic interaction between fluid and field and the associated anisotropy. These effects are examined in a further model. (author)

  7. Experimental studies of field-reversed configuration translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rej, D.J.; Armstrong, W.T.; Chrien, R.E.; Klingner, P.L.; Linford, R.K.; McKenna, K.F.; Sherwood, E.G.; Siemon, R.E.; Tuszewski, M.; Milroy, R.D.

    1986-03-01

    In the FRX-C/T experiment (Proceedings of the 9th Symposium for Engineering Problems of Fusion Research (IEEE, New York, 1981), p. 1751), field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas have been formed in, and launched from, a field-reversed theta-pinch source and subsequently trapped in an adjacent confinement region. No destructive instabilities or enhanced losses of poloidal flux, particles, or thermal energy are observed for FRC total trajectories of up to 16 m. The observed translation dynamics agree with two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. When translated into reduced external magnetic fields, FRC's are observed to accelerate, expand, and cool in partial agreement with adiabatic theory. The plasmas reflect from an external mirror and after each reflection, the axial kinetic energy is reduced by approximately 50%. Because of this reduction, FRC's are readily trapped without the need of pulsed gate magnet coils.

  8. Moving-ring field-reversed mirror reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.; Ashworth, C.P.; Abreu, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    We describe a first prototype fusion reactor design of the Moving-Ring Field-Reversed Mirror Reactor. The fusion fuel is confined in current-carrying rings of magnetically-field-reversed plasma. The plamsa rings, formed by a coaxial plasma gun, are magnetically compressed to ignition temperature while they are being injected into the reactor's burner section. DT ice pellets refuel the rings during the burn at a rate which maintains constant fusion power. A steady train of plasma rings moves at constant speed through the reactor under the influence of a slightly diverging magnetic field. The aluminum first wall and breeding zone structure minimize induced radioactivity; hands-on maintenance is possible on reactor components outside the breeding blanket. Helium removes the heat from the Li 2 O tritium breeding blanket and is used to generate steam. The reactor produces a constant, net power of 376 MW

  9. The effect of quadrupole fields on particle confinement in a field-reversed mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, D.B.; Berk, H.L.; Hammer, J.; Morse, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    A particle simulation code has been modified to simulate particle loss caused by quadrupole magnetic fields on a field-reversed mirror plasma device. Since analytic fields are chosen for the equilibrium, the numerical algorithm is highly accurate for long-time integrations of particle orbits. The resultant particle loss due to the quadrupole fields can be competitive with collisional loss in the device

  10. Remote replacement of TF [toroidal field] and PF [poloidal field] coils for the compact ignition tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.; Watkin, D.C.; Hollis, M.J.; DePew, R.E.; Kuban, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The use of deuterium-tritium fuel in the Compact Ignition Tokamak will require applying remote handling technology for ex-vessel maintenance and replacement of machine components. Highly activated and contaminated components of the fusion devices auxiliary systems, such as diagnostics and RF heating, must be replaced using remotely operated maintenance equipment in the test cell. In-vessel remote maintenance included replacement of divertor and first wall hardware, faraday shields, and for an in-vessel inspection system. Provision for remote replacement of a vacuum vessel sector, toroidal field coil or poloidal field ring coil was not included in the project baseline. As a result of recent coil failures experienced at a number of facilities, the CIT project decided to reconsider the question of remote recovery from a coil failure and, in January of 1990, initiated a coil replacement study. This study focused on the technical requirements and impact on fusion machine design associated with remote recovery from any coil failure

  11. Test fields on compact spacetimes: Problems, some partial results and speculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurtsever, U.

    1989-09-01

    In this paper we study some basic aspects of (Lorentzian) field theory on compact Lorentz manifolds. All compact spacetimes are acausal, i.e. possess closed timelike curves; this makes them a useful testbed in analyzing some new notions of causality that we will introduce for more general acausal spacetimes. In addition, studying compact spacetimes in their own right raises a wide range of fascinating mathematical problems some of which we will explore. We will see that it is reasonable to expect Lorentzian field theory on a compact spacetime to provide information on the topology of the underlying manifold; if this is true, then this information is likely to be ''orthogonal'' (or complementary) to the information obtained through the study of Euclidean field theory. (author). 45 refs, 2 figs

  12. Inter- and Intra- Field variations in soil compaction levels and subsequent impacts on hydrological extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Ian; Coates, Victoria

    2015-04-01

    The rural landscape in the UK is dominated by pastoral agriculture, with about 40% of land cover classified as either improved or semi-natural grassland according to the Land Cover Map 2007. Intensification has resulted in greater levels of compaction associated with higher stocking densities. However, there is likely to be a great amount of variability in compaction levels within and between fields due to multiple controlling factors. This research focusses in on two of these factors; firstly animal species, namely sheep, cattle and horses; and secondly field zonation e.g. feeding areas, field gates, open field. Field experiments have been conducted in multiple fields in the River Skell catchment, in Yorkshire, UK, which has an area of 140km2. The effect on physical and hydrologic soil characteristics such as bulk density and moisture contents have been quantified using a wide range of field and laboratory based experiments. Results have highlighted statistically different properties between heavily compacted areas where animals congregate and less-trampled open areas. Furthermore, soil compaction has been hypothesised to contribute to increased flood risk at larger spatial scales. Previous research (Pattison, 2011) on a ~40km2 catchment (Dacre Beck, Lake District, UK) has shown that when soil characteristics are homogeneously parameterised in a hydrological model, downstream peak discharges can be 65% higher for a heavy compacted soil than for a lightly compacted soil. Here we report results from spatially distributed hydrological modelling using soil parameters gained from the field experimentation. Results highlight the importance of both the percentage of the catchment which is heavily compacted and also the spatial distribution of these fields.

  13. Nonlinear tearing modes in the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.

    1989-01-01

    Finite-amplitude islands, which are the saturated states of tearing modes in the reversed field pinch, are calculated. These states are bifurcated noncylindrical equilibrium states. With σ(r) (σequivalentj x B/B 2 ) nonuniform across the plasma, as is consistent with experiment, a variety of m = 1 and m = 0 bifurcated equilibria are possible, instead of just the m = 1 helix calculated for uniform σ(r) by Taylor [in Pulsed High Beta Plasmas, edited by D. Evans (Pergamon, Oxford, 1976), p. 59]. Assuming the magnetic field lines in the reversed field pinch are weakly stochastic, the growth time of an unstable tearing mode is on the inertial time scale, as in the Taylor model, in constrast to growth on the resistive time scale predicted from nonlinear tearing mode theory when magnetic surfaces exist. The dependence of the saturated island width on radius of a conducting shell is investigated. Islands in the reversed field pinch often have magnetic wells in the island interior, which may result in improved confinement in the island regions

  14. Studies of a poloidal divertor reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarff, J.S.; Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.; Sprott, J.C.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt has been made to form a reversed field pinch (RFP) in a poloidal divertor configuration which position the plasma far from a conducting wall. In this configuration, the plasma is localized within a magnetic separatrix formed by the combination of toroidal currents in the plasma and four internal aluminum rings. Plasmas were formed with plasma current /approximately/135 kA, toroidal field reversal lasting /approximately/1 msec, line-averaged density /approximately/1--2 /times/ 10 13 cm/sup /minus/3/ and central electron temperature /approximately/55 eV, but a large asymmetry in the magnetic field (δB/B /approximately/40%) onset at about the time the toroidal field reversed at the wall. Symmetric, poloidal divertor RFP equilibria were not formed. This behavior might be expected based on linear MHD stability analysis of a cylindrical plasma bounded by a large vacuum region and distant conducting wall. The symmetric equilibrium before the asymmetry develops and the asymmetry itself are described. 15 refs., 3 figs

  15. Stationary bound-state massive scalar field configurations supported by spherically symmetric compact reflecting stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2017-12-15

    It has recently been demonstrated that asymptotically flat neutral reflecting stars are characterized by an intriguing no-hair property. In particular, it has been proved that these horizonless compact objects cannot support spatially regular static matter configurations made of scalar (spin-0) fields, vector (spin-1) fields and tensor (spin-2) fields. In the present paper we shall explicitly prove that spherically symmetric compact reflecting stars can support stationary (rather than static) bound-state massive scalar fields in their exterior spacetime regions. To this end, we solve analytically the Klein-Gordon wave equation for a linearized scalar field of mass μ and proper frequency ω in the curved background of a spherically symmetric compact reflecting star of mass M and radius R{sub s}. It is proved that the regime of existence of these stationary composed star-field configurations is characterized by the simple inequalities 1 - 2M/R{sub s} < (ω/μ){sup 2} < 1. Interestingly, in the regime M/R{sub s} << 1 of weakly self-gravitating stars we derive a remarkably compact analytical equation for the discrete spectrum {ω(M,R_s, μ)}{sup n=∞}{sub n=1} of resonant oscillation frequencies which characterize the stationary composed compact-reflecting-star-linearized-massive-scalar-field configurations. Finally, we verify the accuracy of the analytically derived resonance formula of the composed star-field configurations with direct numerical computations. (orig.)

  16. Rotational stability of a long field-reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D. C.; Steinhauer, L. C.

    2014-01-01

    Rotationally driven modes of long systems with dominantly axial magnetic field are considered. We apply the incompressible model and order axial wavenumber small. A recently developed gyro-viscous model is incorporated. A one-dimensional equilibrium is assumed, but radial profiles are arbitrary. The dominant toroidal (azimuthal) mode numbers ℓ=1 and ℓ=2 modes are examined for a variety of non-reversed (B) and reversed profiles. Previous results for both systems with rigid rotor equilibria are reproduced. New results are obtained by incorporation of finite axial wavenumber and by relaxing the assumption of rigid electron and ion rotation. It is shown that the frequently troublesome ℓ=2 field reversed configuration (FRC) mode is not strongly affected by ion kinetic effects (in contrast to non-reversed cases) and is likely stabilized experimentally only by finite length effects. It is also shown that the ℓ=1 wobble mode has a complicated behavior and is affected by a variety of configuration and profile effects. The rotationally driven ℓ=1 wobble is completely stabilized by strong rotational shear, which is anticipated to be active in high performance FRC experiments. Thus, observed wobble modes in these systems are likely not driven by rotation alone

  17. Rotational stability of a long field-reversed configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, D. C., E-mail: coronadocon@msn.com; Steinhauer, L. C. [Tri Alpha Energy, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Rotationally driven modes of long systems with dominantly axial magnetic field are considered. We apply the incompressible model and order axial wavenumber small. A recently developed gyro-viscous model is incorporated. A one-dimensional equilibrium is assumed, but radial profiles are arbitrary. The dominant toroidal (azimuthal) mode numbers ℓ=1 and ℓ=2 modes are examined for a variety of non-reversed (B) and reversed profiles. Previous results for both systems with rigid rotor equilibria are reproduced. New results are obtained by incorporation of finite axial wavenumber and by relaxing the assumption of rigid electron and ion rotation. It is shown that the frequently troublesome ℓ=2 field reversed configuration (FRC) mode is not strongly affected by ion kinetic effects (in contrast to non-reversed cases) and is likely stabilized experimentally only by finite length effects. It is also shown that the ℓ=1 wobble mode has a complicated behavior and is affected by a variety of configuration and profile effects. The rotationally driven ℓ=1 wobble is completely stabilized by strong rotational shear, which is anticipated to be active in high performance FRC experiments. Thus, observed wobble modes in these systems are likely not driven by rotation alone.

  18. Topological Field Theory of Time-Reversal Invariant Insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Xiao-Liang; Hughes, Taylor; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-19

    We show that the fundamental time reversal invariant (TRI) insulator exists in 4 + 1 dimensions, where the effective field theory is described by the 4 + 1 dimensional Chern-Simons theory and the topological properties of the electronic structure is classified by the second Chern number. These topological properties are the natural generalizations of the time reversal breaking (TRB) quantum Hall insulator in 2 + 1 dimensions. The TRI quantum spin Hall insulator in 2 + 1 dimensions and the topological insulator in 3 + 1 dimension can be obtained as descendants from the fundamental TRI insulator in 4 + 1 dimensions through a dimensional reduction procedure. The effective topological field theory, and the Z{sub 2} topological classification for the TRI insulators in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions are naturally obtained from this procedure. All physically measurable topological response functions of the TRI insulators are completely described by the effective topological field theory. Our effective topological field theory predicts a number of novel and measurable phenomena, the most striking of which is the topological magneto-electric effect, where an electric field generates a magnetic field in the same direction, with an universal constant of proportionality quantized in odd multiples of the fine structure constant {alpha} = e{sup 2}/hc. Finally, we present a general classification of all topological insulators in various dimensions, and describe them in terms of a unified topological Chern-Simons field theory in phase space.

  19. Compaction and subsidence of the Groningen gas field in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thienen-Visser, K. van; Pruiksma, J.P.; Breunese, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    The Groningen gas field in the Netherlands is Europe’s largest gas field. It has been produced since 1963 and production is expected to continue until 2080. The pressure decline in the field causes compaction in the reservoir which is observed as subsidence at the surface. Measured subsidence is

  20. Single-piece maintenance procedures for the TITAN reversed-field pinch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, S.P.; Creedon, R.L.; Cooke, P.I.H.; Duggan, W.P.; Krakowski, R.A.; Najmabadi, F.; Wong, C.P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The TITAN reactor is a compact (major radius of 3.9 m and minor plasma radius of 0.6 m), high neutron wall loading (--18MW/m 2 ) fusion energy system based on the reversed-field pinch (RFP) concept. The TITAN-I fusion power core (FPC) is a lithium, self-cooled design with vanadium alloy (V-3Ti-1Si) structural material. The compact design of the TITAN fusion power core (FPC) reduces the system to a few small and relatively low mass components, making toroidal segmentation of the FPC unnecessary. A single-piece maintenance procedure in which the replaceable first wall and blanket is removed as a single unit is, therefore, possible. The TITAN FPC design provides for top access to the reactor with vertical lifts used to remove the components. The number of remote handling procedures is few and the movements are uncomplicated. The annual torus replacement requires that the reusable ohmic-heating coil set and hot-shield assembly be removed and temporarily stored in a hot cell. The used first wall and blanket assembly is drained and disconnected from the coolant supply system, then lifted to a processing room where it is cooled and prepared for Class-C waste burial. The new, pre-tested first wall and blanket assembly is then lowered into position and the removal procedure is reversed to complete the replacement process

  1. Field-reversed configuration confinement in TRX-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.; Slough, J.

    1984-01-01

    Particle and poloidal flux lifetime data from the TRX-1, field-reversed theta pinch experiment, have been used to infer information on the basic transport behavior. The field-reversed configurations were created over a broad range of plasma parameters: separatrix radii, 4-8 cm; lengths, 35-80 cm; and temperature T/sub e/ + T/sub i/, 150-1000 eV. The confinement times covered a wide range as well: Particles, tau/sub N/ = 30-170 μs; poloidal flux, tau/sub phi/ = 30-140 μs; and energy tau/sub E/ = 20-75 μs. The experimental data was divided, a priori, into three classes: 1) the triggered-reconnection mode; 2) the programmed-formation mode with a good preionization (PI); and 3) programmed formation with poor PI

  2. Indirect, reversible high-density hydrogen storage in compact metal ammine salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Zink; Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo; Klerke, Asbjørn

    2008-01-01

    The indirect hydrogen storage capabilities of Mg(NH3)(6)Cl-2, Ca(NH3)(6)Cl-2, Mn(NH3)(6)Cl-2, and Ni(NH3)(6)Cl-2 are investigated. All four metal ammine chlorides can be compacted to solid tablets with densities of at least 95% of the crystal density. This gives very high indirect hydrogen...

  3. The reversal of the Sun's magnetic field in cycle 24

    OpenAIRE

    Mordvinov, Alexander V.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Bertello, Luca; Petrie, Gordon J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of synoptic data from the Vector Stokes Magnetograph (VSM) of the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) and the NASA/NSO Spectromagnetograph (SPM) at the NSO/Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope facility shows that the reversals of solar polar magnetic fields exhibit elements of a stochastic process, which may include the development of specific patterns of emerging magnetic flux, and the asymmetry in activity between northern and southern hemispheres. The presence of su...

  4. Analytic, two fluid, field reversed configuration equilibrium with sheared rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobehart, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    A two fluid model is used to derive an analytical equilibrium for elongated field reversed configurations containing shear in both the electron and ion velocity profiles. Like some semiempirical models used previously, the analytical expressions obtained provide a satisfactory fit to the experimental results for all radii with a few key parameters. The present results reduce to the rigid rotor model and the infinite conductivity case for a specific choice of the parameters

  5. Adiabatic compression of elongated field-reversed configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, R.L.; Tuszewski, M.; Linford, R.K.

    1983-06-01

    The adiabatic compression of an elongated field-reversed configuration (FRC) is computed by using a one-dimensional approximation. The one-dimensional results are checked against a two-dimensional equilibrium code. For ratios of FRC separatrix length to separatrix radius greater than about ten, the one-dimensional results are accurate within 10%. To this accuracy, the adiabatic compression of FRC's can be described by simple analytic formulas.

  6. Adiabatic compression of elongated field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.L.; Tuszewski, M.; Linford, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    The adiabatic compression of an elongated field-reversed configuration (FRC) is computed by using a one-dimensional approximation. The one-dimensional results are checked against a two-dimensional equilibrium code. For ratios of FRC separatrix length to separatrix radius greater than about ten, the one-dimensional results are accurate within 10%. To this accuracy, the adiabatic compression of FRC's can be described by simple analytic formulas

  7. Stochastic behaviour of particle orbits in field reversed geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Studies of stochastic or ergodic behaviour of beam particle orbits in axisymmetric systems with field reversal produced by ion rings or by neutral injection are presented. In the former case a large class of orbits is ergodic, whereas in the latter most are integrable. Effects of ergodic behaviour on particle confinement, equilibrium, magnetic compression, and stability are discussed. The modification, due to ergodic orbits of the stability criterion for low frequency (ω << ωsub(ci)) resonant instabilities is presented. (author)

  8. Prospects for fusion applications of reversed-field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The applicability of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) as a source of fusion neutrons for use in developing key fusion nuclear technologies is examined. This Fusion Test Facility (FTF) would emphasize high neutron wall loading, small plasma volume, low fusion and driver powers, and steady-state operation. Both parametric tradeoffs based on present-day physics understanding and a conceptual design based on an approx.1-MW/m 2 (neutron) driven operation are reported. 10 refs

  9. A reversed-field theta-pinch plasma machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasojima, Yoshiyuki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Sasao, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Noboru; Tanaka, Toshihide

    1984-01-01

    Mitsubishi Electric has constructed a reversed-field theta-pinch machine at its Central Research Laboratory and initiated a series of plasma diagnostics and control studies for development of nuclear-fusion technology. Although the device has a linear configuration, a stable high-temperature, high-density toroidal plasma can be generated. The article describes the overall structure, vacuum system, power-supply system, and diagnostics and control system of the plasma machine. (author)

  10. Statistical theory of field fluctuations in a reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.

    1982-01-01

    A statistical description of three-dimensional, incompressible turbulence in an ideal, current-bearing, bounded magnetofluid is given both analytically and numerically. Our results are then compared with existing data taken from reversed-field pinch experiments

  11. Energy confinement in a high-current reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Z.G.; Lee, G.S.; Diamond, P.H.

    1985-07-01

    The ion temperature gradient driven (eta/sub i/) mode is proposed as a candidate for the cause of anomalous transport in high current reversed field pinches. A 'four-field' fluid model is derived to describe the coupled nonlinear evolution of resistive interchange and eta/sub i/ modes. A renormalized theory is discussed, and the saturation level of the fluctuations is analytically estimated. Transport scalings are obtained, and their implications discussed. In particular, these results indicate that pellet injection is a potentially viable mechanism for improving energy confinement in a high temperature RFP

  12. Magnetic field reversals, polar wander, and core-mantle coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtillot, V; Besse, J

    1987-09-04

    True polar wander, the shifting of the entire mantle relative to the earth's spin axis, has been reanalyzed. Over the last 200 million years, true polar wander has been fast (approximately 5 centimeters per year) most of the time, except for a remarkable standstill from 170 to 110 million years ago. This standstill correlates with a decrease in the reversal frequency of the geomagnetic field and episodes of continental breakup. Conversely, true polar wander is high when reversal frequency increases. It is proposed that intermittent convection modulates the thickness of a thermal boundary layer at the base of the mantle and consequently the core-to-mantle heat flux. Emission of hot thermals from the boundary layer leads to increases in mantle convection and true polar wander. In conjunction, cold thermals released from a boundary layer at the top of the liquid core eventually lead to reversals. Changes in the locations of subduction zones may also affect true polar wander. Exceptional volcanism and mass extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary and Permo-Triassic boundaries may be related to thermals released after two unusually long periods with no magnetic reversals. These environmental catastrophes may therefore be a consequence of thermal and chemical couplings in the earth's multilayer heat engine rather than have an extraterrestrial cause.

  13. Simulation study of dynamo structure in reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, A.; Sato, K.I.; Ashida, H.; Amano, T.

    1992-10-01

    The dynamo structure in the reversed field pinch (RFP) is studied through the nonlinear dynamics of single-helicity mode. Simulation is concentrated upon the physical structure of nonlinear interactions of the plasma flow and magnetic fluctuation. The result indicates that when the initial equilibrium profile is deformed by resistive diffusion, the radial flow is driven near the core of the plasma. As this flow forms a vortex structure and magnetic fluctuation grows radially, the dynamo electric field is spirally induced just inside the reversal surface and then the toroidal flux is increased. This dynamo electric field correlates to nonlinear evolution of the kinetic energy of m=1 mode, and the increase of the toroidal flux is originated in the growth process of the magnetic energy of this mode. Consequently, the RFP configuration can be sustained by the single-helicity evolution of m=1 mode alone, and the electric field induced by the interactions of the toroidal velocity and the radial magnetic field is the most dominant source on the dynamo action. (author)

  14. Advanced-fuel reversed-field pinch reactor (RFPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-10-01

    The utilization of deuterium-based fuels offers the potential advantages of greater flexibility in blanket design, significantly reduced tritium inventory, potential reduction in radioactivity level, and utilization of an inexhaustible fuel supply. The conventional DT-fueled Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) designs are reviewed, and the recent extension of these devices to advanced-fuel (catalyzed-DD) operation is presented. Attractive and economically competitive DD/RFPR systems are identified having power densities and plasma parameters comparable to the DT systems. Converting an RFP reactor from DT to DD primarily requires increasing the magnetic field levels a factor of two, still requiring only modest magnet coil fields (less than or equal to 4 T). When compared to the mainline tokamak, the unique advantages of the RFP (e.g., high beta, low fields at the coils, high ohmic-heating power densities, unrestricted aspect ratio) are particularly apparent for the utilization of advanced fuels

  15. Classical transport in field reversed mirrors: reactor implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, S.P.; Condit, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Assuming that the field-reversed mirror (or the closely related spheromak) turns out to be stable, the next crucial issue is transport of particles and heat. Of particular concern is the field null on axis (the X-point), which at first glance seems to allow particles to flow out unhindered. We have evaluated the classical diffusion coefficients for particles and heat in field-reversed mirrors, with particular reference to a class of Hill's vortex models. Two fairly surprising results emerge from this study. First, the diffusion-driven flow of particles and heat is finite at the X-points. This may be traced to the geometrical constraint that the current (and hence the ion-electron drag force, which causes cross-field transport) must vanish on axis. This conclusion holds for any transport model. Second, the classical diffusion coefficient D(psi), which governs both particle and heat flux, is finite on the separatrix. Indeed, in a wide class of Hill's vortex equilibria (spherical, oblate, or prolate) D(psi) is essentially independent of psi (except for the usual factor of n

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic effects of current profile control in reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovinec, C.R.; Prager, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Linear and non-linear MHD computations are used to investigate reversed field pinch configurations with magnetic fluctuations reduced through current profile control. Simulations with reduced ohmic drive and moderate auxiliary current drive, represented generically with an electron force term, applied locally in radius near the plasma edge show magnetic fluctuation energies that are orders of magnitude smaller than those in simulations without profile control. The core of the improved configurations has reduced magnetic shear and closed flux surfaces in some cases, and reversal is sustained through the auxiliary current drive. Modes resonant near the edge may become unstable with auxiliary drive, but their saturation levels can be controlled. The space of auxiliary drive parameters is explored, and the ill effects of deviating far from optimal conditions is demonstrated in non-linear simulations. (author)

  17. Criticality and novel quantum liquid phases in Ginzburg-Landau theories with compact and non-compact gauge fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smiseth, Jo

    2005-07-01

    The critical properties of three-dimensional U(1)-symmetric lattice gauge theories have been studied. The models apply to various physical systems such as insulating phases of strongly correlated electron systems as well as superconducting and superfluid states of liquid metallic hydrogen under extreme pressures. The thesis contains an introductory part and a collection of research papers of which seven are published works and one is submitted for publication. The outline of this thesis is as follows. In Chapter 2 the theory of phase transitions is discussed with emphasis on continuous phase transitions, critical phenomena and phase transitions in gauge theories. In the next chapter the phases of the abelian Higgs model are presented, and the critical phenomena are discussed. Furthermore, the multicomponent Ginzburg-Landau theory and the applications to liquid metallic hydrogen are presented. Chapter 4 contains an overview of the Monte Carlo integration scheme, including the Metropolis algorithm, error estimates, and re weighting techniques. This chapter is followed by the papers I-VIII. Paper I: Criticality in the (2+1)-Dimensional Compact Higgs Model and Fractionalized Insulators. Paper II: Phase structure of (2+1)-dimensional compact lattice gauge theories and the transition from Mott insulator to fractionalized insulator. Paper III: Compact U(1) gauge theories in 2+1 dimensions and the physics of low dimensional insulating materials. Paper IV: Phase structure of Abelian Chern-Simons gauge theories. Paper V: Critical Properties of the N-Color London Model. Paper VI: Field- and temperature induced topological phase transitions in the three-dimensional N-component London superconductor. Paper VII: Vortex Sublattice Melting in a Two-Component Superconductor. Paper VIII: Observation of a metallic superfluid in a numerical experiment (ml)

  18. Formation of positive radial electric field by electron cyclotron heating in compact helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, H.; Ida, K.; Sanuki, H.

    1994-07-01

    The radial electric field is driven to positive value by off-axis second harmonic electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in the Compact Helical System. The observed positive electric field is associated with the outward particle flux enhanced with ECH. The enhanced particle flux triggered by the production of the electrons accelerated perpendicularly to the magnetic field with ECH results in the change of the electric field. (author)

  19. Fusion core start-up, ignition, and burn simulations of reversed-field pinch (RFP) reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Y.Y.

    1988-01-01

    A transient reactor simulation model is developed to investigate and simulate the start-up, ignition, and burn of a reversed-field pinch reactor. The simulation is based upon a spatially averaged plasma balance model with field profiles obtained from MHD quasi-equilibrium analysis. Alpha particle heating is estimated from Fokker-Planck calculations. The instantaneous plasma current is derived from a self-consistent circuit analysis for plasma/coil/eddy current interactions. The simulation code is applied to the TITAN RFP reactor design which features a compact, high-power-density reversed-field pinch fusion system. A contour analysis is performed using the steady-state global plasma balance. The results are presented with contours of constant plasma current. A saddle point is identified in the contour plot which determined the minimum value of plasma current required to achieve ignition. In the simulations of the TITAN RFP reactor, the OH-driven super-conducting EF coils are found to deviate from the required equilibrium values as the induced plasma current increases. A set of basic results from the simulation of TITAN RFP reactor yield a picture of RFP plasma operation in a reactor. Investigations of eddy currents are also presented and have very important in reactor design

  20. Field Assessment and Specification Review for Roller-Integrated Compaction Monitoring Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. White

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Roller-integrated compaction monitoring (RICM technologies provide virtually 100-percent coverage of compacted areas with real-time display of the compaction measurement values. Although a few countries have developed quality control (QC and quality assurance (QA specifications, broader implementation of these technologies into earthwork construction operations still requires a thorough understanding of relationships between RICM values and traditional in situ point test measurements. The purpose of this paper is to provide: (a an overview of two technologies, namely, compaction meter value (CMV and machine drive power (MDP; (b a comprehensive review of field assessment studies, (c an overview of factors influencing statistical correlations, (d modeling for visualization and characterization of spatial nonuniformity; and (e a brief review of the current specifications.

  1. Economically attractive features of steady-state neoclassical reversed field pinch equilibrium with low aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, S.; Yagi, Y.; Sugimoto, H.; Ashida, H.; Hirano, Y.; Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Taguchi, M.; Nagamine, Y.; Osanai, Y.; Saito, K.; Watanabe, M.; Aizawa, M.

    2005-01-01

    Dominant plasma self-induced current equilibrium is achieved together with the high β for the steady-state neoclassical reversed field pinch (RFP) equilibrium with low aspect ratio by broadening the plasma pressure profile. The RF-driven current, when the safety factor is smaller than unity, is much less than the self-induced current, which dominates (96%) the toroidal current. This neoclassical RFP equilibrium has strong magnetic shear or a high-stability beta (β t = 63%) due to its hollow current profile. It is shown that the obtained equilibrium is close to the relaxed-equilibrium state with a minimum energy, and is also robust against microinstabilities. These attractive features allow the economical design of compact steady-state fusion power plants with low cost of electricity (COE). (author)

  2. High beta plasma confinement and neoclassical effects in a small aspect ratio reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayase, K.; Sugimoto, H.; Ashida, H.

    2003-01-01

    The high β equilibrium and stability of a reversed field pinch (RFP) configuration with a small aspect ratio are theoretically studied. The equilibrium profile, high beta limit and the bootstrap current effect on those are calculated. The Mercier stable critical β decreases with 1/A, but β∼0.2 is permissible at A=2 with help of edge current profile modification. The effect of bootstrap current is evaluated for various pressure and current profiles and cross-sectional shapes of plasma by a self-consistent neoclassical PRSM equilibrium formulation. The high bootstrap current fraction (F bs ) increases the shear stabilization effect in the core region, which enhances significantly the stability β limit compared with that for the classical equilibrium. These features of small aspect ratio RFP, high β and high F bs , and a possibly easier access to the quasi-single helicity state beside the intrinsic compact structure are attractive for the feasible economical RFP reactor concept. (author)

  3. Electron temperature diagnostics in the RFX reversed field pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartiromo, R.; Carraro, L.; Marrelli, L.; Murari, A.; Pasqualotto, R.; Puiatti, M.E.; Scarin, P.; Valisa, M.; Franz, P.; Martin, P.; Zabeo, L.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated approach to the problem of electron temperature diagnostics of the plasma in a reversed field pinch. Three different methods, sampling different portions of the electron distribution function, are adopted, namely Thomson scattering, soft X-ray spectroscopy by pulse-height analysis and filtered soft X-ray intensity ratio. A careful analysis of the different sources of systematic errors is performed and a novel statistical approach is adopted to mutually validate the three independent measurements. A satisfactory agreement is obtained over a large range of experimental conditions, indicating that in the plasma core the energy distribution function is well represented by a maxwellian. (author)

  4. Reactor prospects and present status of field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Field-Reversed Configurations (FRC) have an ideal geometry for a reactor, combining high beta toroidal confinement, with a linear external geometry. Present small diameter FRCs are thought to be stabilized by kinetic effects, but recent experiments in the Large s Experiment (LSX) have demonstrated stability as well into the MHD regime. Present empirical transport coefficients are already sufficient for a small pulsed reactor, but small steady state reactors will require about an order of magnitude reduction in plasma diffusivity. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Fueling moving ring field-reversed mirror reactor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of small fusion reactors is being studied jointly by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory General Atomic Company, and Pacific Gas and Electric Company. The objective is to investigate alternatives and then to develop a conceptual design for a small reactor that could produce useful, though not necessarily economical, energy by the late 1980s. Three methods of fueling a small moving ring field-reversed mirror are considered: injection of fuel pellets accelerated by laser ablation, injection of fuel pellets accelerated by deflagration-gun ablation, and direct injection of plasma by a deflagration gun. 13 refs

  6. Tilting mode in rigidly rotating field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, R.A.; Milovich, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The tilting-mode stability of field-reversed configurations is analyzed taking into account plasma rotational effects that had not been included in previous theoretical treatments. It is shown that for a rigidly rotating plasma in stationary equilibrium, stability can be attained if the plasma rotational energy is of the same order as the thermal energy. Since presently available values of the rotational velocities are quite lower than required by the stabilization mechanism considered here, the contribution of this effect to the overall stability of the mode does not appear to be significant

  7. Asymmetric flux generation and its relaxation in reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimoto, H.; Masamune, S.; Nagata, A.

    1985-02-01

    The toroidally asymmetric flux enhancement [''dynamo effect''] and the axisymmetrization of the enhanced fluxes that follows in the setting up phase of Reversed Field Pinch are investigated on the STP-3[M] device. A rapid increase in the toroidal flux generated by the dynamo effect is first observed near the poloidal and toroidal current feeders. Then, this inhomogeneity of the flux propagates toroidally towards the plasma current. The axisymmetrization of the flux is attained just after the maximum of plasma current. The MHD activities decrease significantly after this axisymmetrization and the quiescent period is obtained. (author)

  8. Non-stationary classical diffusion in field - reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, R.A.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Mania, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma decay in field-reversed configurations (FRC) is described using resistive MHD equations. Assuming non-stationariety together with uniform but time dependent plasma temperature and neglecting inertial effects in the momentum balance equation, it is possible to show that the functional dependence of the plasma pressure with the poloidal magnetic flux remains fixed during diffusion. This allows to describe FRC evolution as a continuous sequence of plasma equilibria satisfying proper boundary conditions. The method is applied to pressure profiles linear with the poloidal magnetic flux obtaining the evolution of the flux, the number of confined particles and the size of the plasma boundary. (author) [pt

  9. Maintenance of a multi-cell field reversed mirror reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neef, W.S. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The Field Reversed Mirror Reactor is composed of a horizontal linear chain of cells, each of which requires neutral beam injection. Blanket replacement is achieved by lifting one complete cell module from the reactor and replacing it with a preassembled and tested identical module. Ioffe bar connectors eliminate redundant bus bars. Asymmetric cell design simplifies magnet construction and reduces replacement time. A tapered cylindrical coolant distributor simplifies blanket removal. An evacuated housing surrounds the reactor reducing cell-to-cell sealing problems related to maintenance. Remote couplings are used for coolant and accessories. Hot-cell location and design permits immediate reconditioning or storage of replacement cells

  10. Behaviour of the peripheral plasma in the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, A.; Sato, K.I.; Arimoto, H.; Yamada, S.; Nagata, A.; Murata, H.

    1986-01-01

    By using Langmuir probes installed behind limiters, time behaviour of the peripheral plasma in the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) are investigated. They are strongly affected by the confined RFP plasma and are divided into three phases (the initial phase before setting up the RFP configuration, the current rising phase, and the quiescent phase), which are just the same as those of the confined RFP plasma. Typical behaviour of the peripheral plasma have relations to the pump out phenomena and of the toroidal flux generation. (author)

  11. Field reversal experiments (FRX). [Equilibrium, confinement, and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.K.; Armstrong, W.T.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1978-01-01

    The equilibrium, confinement, and stability properties of the reversed-field configuration (RFC) are being studied in two theta-pinch facilities. The RFC is an elongated toroidal plasma confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. The open field lines of the linear theta pinch support the closed-field RFC much like the vertical field centers the toroidal plasma in a tokamak. Depending on stability and confinement properties, the RFC might be used to greatly reduce the axial losses in linear fusion devices such as mirrors, theta pinches, and liners. The FRX systems produce RFC's with a major radius R = 2-6 cm, minor radius a approximately 2 cm, and a total length l approximately 35 cm. The observed temperatures are T/sub e/ approximately 100 eV and T/sub i/ = 150-350 eV with a peak density n approximately 2 x 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/. After the plasma reaches equilibrium, the RFC remains stable for up to 30 ..mu..s followed by the rapid growth of the rotational m = 2 instability, which terminates the confinement. During the stable equilibrium, the particle and energy confinement times are more than 10 times longer than in an open-field system. The behavior of the m = 2 mode qualitatively agrees with the theoretically predicted instability for rotational velocities exceeding some critical value.

  12. Physics considerations of the Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual engineering design of a fusion reactor based on plasma confinement in a toroidal Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) configuration is described. The plasma is ohmically ignited by toroidal plasma currents which also inherently provide the confining magnetic fields in a toroidal chamber having major and minor radii of 12.7 and 1.5 m, respectively. The DT plasma ignites in 2 to 3 s and undergoes a transient, unrefueled burn at 10 to 20 keV for approx. 20 s to give a DT burnup of approx. 50%. Accounting for all major energy sinks yields a cost-optimized system with a recirculating power fraction of 0.17; the power output is 750 MWe

  13. Resistive m=o mode in reverse-field configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, R.M.O.; Santiago, M.A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The resistive m=0 mode is studied. Where m is the azimuthal mode number in magnetic confinement configurations with parallel field lines such that the magnetic field reverses direction inside the plasma. A cylindrical plasma column which rotates rigidly with a rotation velocity Ω is considered. It is found that the growth rate of the mode γ scales differently with the plasma resistivity depending on whether Ω vanishes or not; γα sup(3/5) for Ω=0 and γα sup(1/3) for Ω different 0. When the Hall term is also included in the generalized Ohm's law, γα sup(1/2) is obtained. This last result is in disagreement with the results of Krappraff et al. (Author) [pt

  14. Divertor design for the TITAN reversed-field-pinch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, P.I.H.; Bathke, C.G.; Blanchard, J.P.; Creedon, R.L.; Grotz, S.P.; Hasan, M.Z.; Orient, G.; Sharafat, S.; Werley, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the toroidal-field divertor for the TITAN high-power-density reversed-field-pinch reactor is described. The heat flux on the divertor target is limited to acceptable levels (≤ 10 MW/m 2 ) for liquid-lithium cooling by use of an open divertor geometry, strong radiation from the core and edge plasma, and careful shaping of the target surface. The divertor coils are based on the Integrated-Blanket-Coil approach to minimize the loss in breeding-blanket coverage due to the divertor. A tungsten-rhenium armour plate, chosen for reasons of sputtering resistance, and good thermal and mechanical properties, protects the vanadium-alloy coolant tubes

  15. Turbulent transport in the MST reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempel, T.D.; Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Hokin, S.A.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Shen, W.; Sidikman, K.L.; Spragins, C.W.; Sprott, J.C.; Stoneking, M.R.; Zita, E.J.

    1991-11-01

    Measurements of edge turbulence and the associated transport are ongoing in the Madison Symmetric Torus (R = 1.5 m, a = 0.52 m) reversed-field pinch using magnetic and electrostatic probes. Magnetic fluctuations are dominated by m = 1 and n ∼ 2R/a tearing modes. Particle losses induced by magnetic field fluctuations have been found to be ambipolar ( parallel B r > = O). Electrostatic fluctuations are broadband and turbulent, with mode widths δm ∼ 3--7 and δn ∼70--150. Particle, parallel current, and energy transport arising from coherent motion with the fluctuating ExB drift has been measured. Particle transport via this channel is comparable to the total particle loss from MST. Energy transport (from phi >/B o ) due to electrostatic fluctuations is relatively small, and parallel current transport (from parallel E chi >/B o ) may be small as well

  16. Nonlinear dynamics of tearing modes in the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Diamond, P.H.; Lynch, V.E.

    1987-05-01

    The results of investigations of nonlinear tearing-mode dynamics in reversed field pinch plasmas are described. The linear instabilities have poloidal mode number m = 1 and toroidal mode numbers 10 ≤ n ≤ 20, and the resonant surfaces are therefore in the plasma core. The nonlinear dynamics result in dual cascade processes. The first process is a rapid m = 1 spectral broadening toward high n, with a simultaneous spreading of magnetic turbulence radially outward toward the field-reversal surface. Global m = 0 perturbations, which are driven to large amplitudes by the m = 1 instabilities, in turn trigger the m = 1 spectral broadening by back-coupling to the higher n. The second process is a cascade toward large m and is mediated by m = 2 modes. The m = 2 perturbations have the structure of localized, driven current sheets and nonlinearly stabilize the m = 1 modes by transferring m = 1 energy to small-scale dissipation. The calculated spectrum has many of the qualitative features observed in experiments. 13 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab

  17. Plasma behaviour in large reversed-field pinches and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.P.; Bodin, H.A.B.; Carolan, P.G.; Johnston, J.W.; Newton, A.A.; Roberts, K.V.; Robinson, D.C.; Watts, M.R.C.; Piotrowicz, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Recent analytic and numerical results on large reversed-field-pinch (RFP) systems and RFP reactors are presented. Predictions are made of the plasma behaviour in Eta Beta II, HBTXIA (under construction) and RFX (planned). The setting-up phase of an RFP is studied by using turbulence theory in transport equilibrium calculations, and estimates are made of the volt-seconds consumption for four different modes of field control. A prescription is given for a dynamo producing self-reversal which yields finite-β configurations. Residual instabilities of these equilibria may be resistive pressure-driven g-modes, and a new study of these modes that includes parallel viscosity indicates stability for anti β approximately 10%. The sustainment phase of the RFP is examined with tokamak scaling laws assumed for the energy confinement time. Temperatures in excess of 1keV are predicted for currents of 2MA in RFX. An operating cycle for a pulsed RFP reactor including gas puffing to reach ignition is proposed following a study of the energy replacement time for an Ohmically heated plasma. The scaling of the reactor parameters with minor radius is also investigated. (author)

  18. Conceptual design of the field-reversed mirror reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Condit, W.C.; Devoto, R.S.; Fink, J.H.; Hanson, J.D.; Neef, W.S.; Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    For this reactor a reference case conceptual design was developed in some detail. The parameters of the design result partly from somewhat arbitrary physics assumptions and partly from optimization procedures. Two of the assumptions--that only 10% of the alpha-particle energy is deposited in the plasma and that particle confinement scales with the ion-ion collision time--may prove to be overly conservative. A number of possible start-up scenarios for the field-reversed plasmas were considered, but the choice of a specific start-up method for the conceptual design was deferred, pending experimental demonstration of one or more of the schemes in a mirror machine. Basic to our plasma model is the assumption that, once created, the plasma can be stably maintained by injection of a neutral-beam current sufficient to balance the particle-loss rate. The reference design is a multicell configuration with 11 field-reversed toroidal plasma layers arranged along the horizontal axis of a long-superconducting solenoid. Each plasma layer requires the injection of 3.6 MW of 200-keV deuterium and tritium, and produces 20 MW of fusion power. The reactor has a net electric output of 74 MWe. The preliminary estimate for the direct capital cost of the reference design is $1200/kWe. A balance-of-plant study is now underway and will result in a more accurate cost estimate

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of tearing modes in the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Diamond, P.H.; Lynch, V.E.

    1988-01-01

    The results of investigations of nonlinear tearing-mode dynamics in reversed field pinch plasmas are described. The linear instabilities have poloidal mode number m = 1 and toroidal mode numbers 10approx. < napprox. <20, and the resonant surfaces are therefore in the plasma core. The nonlinear dynamics result in dual cascade processes. The first process is a rapid m = 1 spectral broadening toward high n, with a simultaneous spreading of magnetic turbulence radially outward toward the field-reversal surface. Global m = 0 perturbations, which are driven to large amplitudes by the m = 1 instabilities, in turn trigger the m = 1 spectral broadening by back coupling to the higher n. The second process is a cascade toward large m and is mediated by m = 2 modes. The m = 2 perturbations have the structure of localized, driven current sheets and nonlinearly stabilize the m = 1 modes by transferring m = 1 energy to small-scale dissipation. The calculated spectrum has many of the qualitative features observed in experiments

  20. End-shorting and electric field in edge plasmas with application to field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, Loren C.

    2002-01-01

    The shorting of open field lines where they intersect external boundaries strongly modifies the transverse electric field all along the field lines. The modified electric field is found by an extension of the familiar Boltzmann relation for the electric potential. This leads to a prediction of the electric drift. Flow generation by electrical shorting is applied here to three aspects of elongated field-reversed configurations: plasma rotation rate; the particle-loss spin-up mechanism; and the sustainability of the rotating magnetic field current drive method

  1. Maintenance procedures for the TITAN-I and TITAN-II reversed field pinch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, S.P.; Duggan, W.; Krakowski, R.; Najmabadi, F.; Wong, C.P.C.

    1989-01-01

    The TITAN reactor is a compact, high-power-density (neutron wall loading 18 MW/m 2 ) machine, based on the reversed-field-pinch (RFP) confinement concept. Two designs for the fusion power core have been examined: TITAN-I is based on a self-cooled lithium loop with a vanadium-alloy structure for the first wall, blanket and shield; and TITAN-II is based on an aqueous loop-in-pool design with a LiNO 3 solution as the coolant and breeder. The compact design of the TITAN fusion power core, (FPC) reduces the system to a few small and relatively low mass components, making toroidal segmentation of the FPC unnecessary. A single-piece maintenance procedure is possible. The potential advantages of single-piece maintenance procedures are: (1) Short period of down time; (2) improved reliability; (3) no adverse effects resulting from unequal levels of irradiation; and (4) ability to continually modify the FPC design. Increased availability can be expected from a fully pre-tested, single-piece FPC. Pre-testing of the FPC throughout the assembly process and prior to installation into the reactor vault is discussed. (orig.)

  2. ZT-P: an advanced air core reversed field pinch prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberg, K.F.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Burkhardt, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    The ZT-P experiment, with a major radius of 0.45 m and a minor radius of 0.07 m, was designed to prototype the next generation of reversed field pinch (RFP) machines at Los Alamos. ZT-P utilizes an air-core poloidal field system, with precisely wound and positioned rigid copper coils, to drive the plasma current and provide plasma equilibrium with intrinsically low magnetic field errors. ZT-P's compact configuration is adaptable to test various first wall and limiter designs at reactor-relevant current densities in the range of 5 to 20 MA/m 2 . In addition, the load assembly design allows for the installation of toroidal field divertors. Design of ZT-P began in October 1983, and assembly was completed in October 1984. This report describes the magnetic, electrical, mechanical, vacuum, diagnostic, data acquisition, and control aspects of the machine design. In addition, preliminary data from initial ZT-P operation are presented. Because of ZT-P's prototypical function, many of its design aspects and experimental results are directly applicable to the design of a next generation RFP. 17 refs., 47 figs

  3. Confinement in TPE-RX reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Y.; Bolzonella, T.; Canton, A.

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of the confinement properties of a reversed field pinch (RFP), the TPE-RX (R/a=1.72/0.45 m, R and a are major and minor radii), are presented for the plasma current, I p of 0.2-0.4 MA. TPE-RX has been operational since 1998, and I p =0.5 MA and duration time of up to 0.1 s have been obtained separately. It is found that I p /N (=12x10 -14 Am, N is the line density) is higher than those of other RFPs and poloidal beta, β p , and energy confinement time, τ E , are 5-10% and 0.5-1 ms, respectively, which are comparable with those of other RFPs of comparable sizes (RFX and MST). Pulsed poloidal current drive has recently been tested and the result has shown a twofold improvement of β p and τ E . The improvement is discussed in terms of the dynamic trajectories in the F-Θ plane, where F and Θ are reversal and pinch parameters, respectively. The global confinement properties are compared between the locked and non-locked discharges, which yields a better understanding of the mode-locking phenomena in RFP plasmas. (author)

  4. Profile stabilization of tilt mode in a Field Reversed Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.W.; Tajima, T. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Barnes, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The possibility of stabilizing the tilt mode in Field Reversed Configurations without resorting to explicit kinetic effects such as large ion orbits is investigated. Various pressure profiles, P({Psi}), are chosen, including ``hollow`` profiles where current is strongly peaked near the separatrix. Numerical equilibria are used as input for an initial value simulation which uses an extended Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model that includes viscous and Hall terms. Tilt stability is found for specific hollow profiles when accompanied by high values of separatrix beta, {beta}{sub sep}. The stable profiles also have moderate to large elongation, racetrack separatrix shape, and lower values of 3, average ratio of Larmor radius to device radius. The stability is unaffected by changes in viscosity, but the neglect of the Hall term does cause stable results to become marginal or unstable. Implications for interpretation of recent experiments are discussed.

  5. Profile stabilization of tilt mode in a Field Reversed Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, J.W.; Tajima, T.

    1993-06-01

    The possibility of stabilizing the tilt mode in Field Reversed Configurations without resorting to explicit kinetic effects such as large ion orbits is investigated. Various pressure profiles, P(Ψ), are chosen, including ''hollow'' profiles where current is strongly peaked near the separatrix. Numerical equilibria are used as input for an initial value simulation which uses an extended Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model that includes viscous and Hall terms. Tilt stability is found for specific hollow profiles when accompanied by high values of separatrix beta, β sep . The stable profiles also have moderate to large elongation, racetrack separatrix shape, and lower values of 3, average ratio of Larmor radius to device radius. The stability is unaffected by changes in viscosity, but the neglect of the Hall term does cause stable results to become marginal or unstable. Implications for interpretation of recent experiments are discussed

  6. A vented pump limiter for the reversed field pinch RFX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonato, P.

    1998-01-01

    The reversed field pinch (RFP) plasma performance, as in the Tokamak, is strongly correlated with the edge neutral particle control. The drawbacks of the conventional magnetic divertors and throat limiters on the RFP plasma have slackened the application of an active particle control system in existing devices. An advanced solution, based on the idea of the 'vented pump limiter' experimented on Tore Supra, has been conceived for RFX. This type of pump limiter is very attractive for a RFP. In this paper, the design of a 'vented limiter' prototype for RFX is presented. Up to six modules of this limiter can be installed at the equatorial plane of RFX, allowing a particle exhaust efficiency comparable with a divertor or a throat limiter working in a Tokamak. Finally, the optimization of this concept for the next step RFP device is presented. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of Fringe Field Formed Inside LDA Measurement Volume Using Compact Two Hololens Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Nirala, A. K.; Yadav, H. L.

    2018-03-01

    We have designed and fabricated four LDA optical setups consisting of aberration compensated four different compact two hololens imaging systems. We have experimentally investigated and realized a hololens recording geometry which is interferogram of converging spherical wavefront with mutually coherent planar wavefront. Proposed real time monitoring and actual fringe field analysis techniques allow complete characterizations of fringes formed at measurement volume and permit to evaluate beam quality, alignment and fringe uniformity with greater precision. After experimentally analyzing the fringes formed at measurement volume by all four imaging systems, it is found that fringes obtained using compact two hololens imaging systems get improved both qualitatively and quantitatively compared to that obtained using conventional imaging system. Results indicate qualitative improvement of non-uniformity in fringe thickness and micro intensity variations perpendicular to the fringes, and quantitative improvement of 39.25% in overall average normalized standard deviations of fringe width formed by compact two hololens imaging systems compare to that of conventional imaging system.

  8. The large-s field-reversed configuration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.L.; Carey, L.N.; Crawford, E.A.; Harding, D.G.; DeHart, T.E.; McDonald, K.F.; McNeil, J.L.; Milroy, R.D.; Slough, J.T.; Maqueda, R.; Wurden, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Large-s Experiment (LSX) was built to study the formation and equilibrium properties of field-reversed configurations (FRCs) as the scale size increases. The dynamic, field-reversed theta-pinch method of FRC creation produces axial and azimuthal deformations and makes formation difficult, especially in large devices with large s (number of internal gyroradii) where it is difficult to achieve initial plasma uniformity. However, with the proper technique, these formation distortions can be minimized and are then observed to decay with time. This suggests that the basic stability and robustness of FRCs formed, and in some cases translated, in smaller devices may also characterize larger FRCs. Elaborate formation controls were included on LSX to provide the initial uniformity and symmetry necessary to minimize formation disturbances, and stable FRCs could be formed up to the design goal of s = 8. For x ≤ 4, the formation distortions decayed away completely, resulting in symmetric equilibrium FRCs with record confinement times up to 0.5 ms, agreeing with previous empirical scaling laws (τ∝sR). Above s = 4, reasonably long-lived (up to 0.3 ms) configurations could still be formed, but the initial formation distortions were so large that they never completely decayed away, and the equilibrium confinement was degraded from the empirical expectations. The LSX was only operational for 1 yr, and it is not known whether s = 4 represents a fundamental limit for good confinement in simple (no ion beam stabilization) FRCs or whether it simply reflects a limit of present formation technology. Ideally, s could be increased through flux buildup from neutral beams. Since the addition of kinetic or beam ions will probably be desirable for heating, sustainment, and further stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic modes at reactor-level s values, neutral beam injection is the next logical step in FRC development. 24 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs

  9. NEAR- AND FAR-FIELD RESPONSE TO COMPACT ACOUSTIC SOURCES IN STRATIFIED CONVECTION ZONES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cally, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    The role of the acoustic continuum associated with compact sources in the Sun's interior wave field is explored for a simple polytropic model. The continuum produces a near-field acoustic structure—the so-called acoustic jacket—that cannot be represented by a superposition of discrete normal modes. Particular attention is paid to monochromatic point sources of various frequency and depth, and to the surface velocity power that results, both in the discrete f- and p-mode spectrum and in the continuum. It is shown that a major effect of the continuum is to heal the surface wave field produced by compact sources, and therefore to hide them from view. It is found that the continuous spectrum is not a significant contributor to observable inter-ridge seismic power.

  10. NEAR- AND FAR-FIELD RESPONSE TO COMPACT ACOUSTIC SOURCES IN STRATIFIED CONVECTION ZONES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cally, Paul S., E-mail: paul.cally@monash.edu [Monash Centre for Astrophysics and School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2013-05-01

    The role of the acoustic continuum associated with compact sources in the Sun's interior wave field is explored for a simple polytropic model. The continuum produces a near-field acoustic structure-the so-called acoustic jacket-that cannot be represented by a superposition of discrete normal modes. Particular attention is paid to monochromatic point sources of various frequency and depth, and to the surface velocity power that results, both in the discrete f- and p-mode spectrum and in the continuum. It is shown that a major effect of the continuum is to heal the surface wave field produced by compact sources, and therefore to hide them from view. It is found that the continuous spectrum is not a significant contributor to observable inter-ridge seismic power.

  11. Self-consistent equilibria in cylindrical reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Surdo, C.; Paccagnella, R.; Guo, S.

    1995-03-01

    The object of this work is to study the self-consistent magnetofluidstatic equilibria of a 2-region (plasma + gas) reversed-field pinch (RFP) in cylindrical approximation (namely, with vanishing inverse aspect ratio). Differently from what happens in a tokamak, in a RFP a significant part of the plasma current is driven by a dynamo electric field (DEF), in its turn mainly due to plasma turbulence. So, it is worked out a reasonable mathematical model of the above self-consistent equilibria under the following main points it has been: a) to the lowest order, and according to a standard ansatz, the turbulent DEF say ε t , is expressed as a homogeneous transform of the magnetic field B of degree 1, ε t =(α) (B), with α≡a given 2-nd rank tensor, homogeneous of degree 0 in B and generally depending on the plasma state; b) ε t does not explicitly appear in the plasma energy balance, as it were produced by a Maxwell demon able of extract the corresponding Joule power from the plasma. In particular, it is showed that, if both α and the resistivity tensor η are isotropic and constant, the magnetic field is force-free with abnormality equal to αη 0 /η, in the limit of vanishing β; that is, the well-known J.B. Taylor'result is recovered, in this particular conditions, starting from ideas quite different from the usual ones (minimization of total magnetic energy under constrained total elicity). Finally, the general problem is solved numerically under circular (besides cylindrical) symmetry, for simplicity neglecting the existence of gas region (i.e., assuming the plasma in direct contact with the external wall)

  12. Pellet injection in the RFP (Reversed Field Pinch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurden, G. A.; Weber, P. G.; Munson, C. P.; Cayton, T. E.; Bunting, C. A.; Carolan, P. G.

    Observation of pellets injected into the ZT-40M Reversed Field Pinch has allowed a new twist on the usual tokamak ablation physics modeling. The RFP provides a strong ohmic heating regime with relatively high electron drift parameter (xi sub drift approx. 0.2), in the presence of a highly sheared magnetic field geometry. In situ photos of the pellet ablation cloud using a grated-intensified CCD camera, as well as two-view integrated photos of the pellet trajectory show substantial modification of the original pellet trajectory, in both direction and speed. Depending on the launch geometry, increases in the initial 500 m/s pellet speed by 50 percent were observed, and a ski jump deflector plate in the launch port has been used to counteract strong poloidal curvature. In contrast to the tokamak, the D sub alpha light signature is strongest near the edge, and weaker in the plasma center. Additional information on ion temperature response to pellet injection with 20 microsec time resolution has been obtained using a 5-channel neutral particle analyzer (NPA). The energy confinement is transiently degraded while the beta is largely unchanged. This may be indicative of pellet injection into a high-beta plasma operating at fixed beta.

  13. Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarff, J.S.; Almagri, A.F.; Anderson, J.K.; Borchardt, M.; Carmody, D.; Caspary, K.; Chapman, B.E.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Duff, J.; Eilerman, S.; Falkowski, A.; Forest, C.B.; Goetz, J.A.; Holly, D.J.; Kim, J.-H.; King, J.; Ko, J.; Koliner, J.; Kumar, S.; Lee, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    An overview of recent results from the MST programme on physics important for the advancement of the reversed field pinch (RFP) as well as for improved understanding of toroidal magnetic confinement more generally is reported. Evidence for the classical confinement of ions in the RFP is provided by analysis of impurity ions and energetic ions created by 1 MW neutral beam injection (NBI). The first appearance of energetic-particle-driven modes by NBI in a RFP plasma is described. MST plasmas robustly access the quasi-single-helicity state that has commonalities to the stellarator and ‘snake’ formation in tokamaks. In MST the dominant mode grows to 8% of the axisymmetric field strength, while the remaining modes are reduced. Predictive capability for tearing mode behaviour has been improved through nonlinear, 3D, resistive magnetohydrodynamic computation using the measured resistivity profile and Lundquist number, which reproduces the sawtooth cycle dynamics. Experimental evidence and computational analysis indicates two-fluid effects, e.g., Hall physics and gyro-viscosity, are needed to understand the coupling of parallel momentum transport and current profile relaxation. Large Reynolds and Maxwell stresses, plus separately measured kinetic stress, indicate an intricate momentum balance and a possible origin for MST's intrinsic plasma rotation. Gyrokinetic analysis indicates that micro-tearing modes can be unstable at high beta, with a critical gradient for the electron temperature that is larger than for tokamak plasmas by roughly the aspect ratio. (paper)

  14. Classical diffusion in a field-reversed mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, S.P.; Condit, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    Classical transport of particles and heat in field-reversed mirrors is discussed. The X-points (field nulls on axis) are shown to have no deleterious effect on transport; this conclusion is true for any transport model. For an elongated Hill's vortex equilibrium the classical diffusion coefficient is calculated analytically and used to construct an analytic solution to the transport equation for particles or energy; this yields exact results for particle and energy confinement times. These life-times are roughly 3 to 6 times shorter than previous heuristic estimates. Experimentally determined life-times are within a factor of 3 to 4 of our estimates. To assess the impact of these results on reactor designs, the authors construct an analytic reactor model in which neutral-beam input balances ion heat loss. Energy loss due to synchrotron radiation is calculated analytically and shown to be negligible, even with no wall reflection. Formulas are presented which give the reactor parameters in terms of plasma temperature, energy multiplication factor Q, and allowed neutron wall loading. The effect of anomalous resistivity is incorporated heuristically by assuming an anomalous resistivity which is enhanced by a factor A over classical resistivity. For large A the minimum power of a reactor scales as Asup(11/6). A=50 gives a reactor design which still seems reasonable, but A=200 leads to extremely large, high-power reactors. (author)

  15. Confinement properties of the RFP [Reversed Field Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.G.; Schoenberg, K.F.; Ingraham, J.C.; Miller, G.; Munson, C.P.; Pickrell, M.M.; Wurden; Tsui, H.Y.W.; Ritz, Ch.P.

    1990-01-01

    Research in ZT-40M has been focused on elucidating the confinement properties of the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). Recent improvements in diagnostic capability have permitted measurement of radial profiles, as well as a detailed study of the edge plasma. The emerging confinement picture for ZT-40M has several ingredients: Typically 0.3 of the Ohmic input power to ZT-40M is available to drive fluctuations. Evidence points to this fluctuational power heating the ions. Approximately one quarter of the input power is lost through radiation, with metal impurities playing a key role. Magnetic fluctations in ZT-40M are at the percent level, as measured in the edge plasma. Extrapolating these data to small radii shows stochasticity in the core plasma. Suprathermal electrons are measured in the edge plasma. These electrons originate in the core, and transport to the edge along the fluctuating magnetic field lines. Under typical conditions, these electrons constitute the major electron energy loss channel in ZT-40M. Electrostatic fluctuations dominate the edge electron particle flux, but not the electron thermal flux. The major ion loss process is charge exchange, with smaller contributions from conduction and convection. In examining these observations, and the parametric dependences of confinement, a working model for RFP confinement emerges. An overview of this model, together with implications for the multi-mega-ampere ZTH experiment will be presented

  16. Pellet injection in the RFP [Reversed Field Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurden, G.A.; Weber, P.G.; Munson, C.P.; Cayton, T.E.; Bunting, C.A.; Carolan, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Observation of pellets injected into the ZT-40M Reversed Field Pinch has allowed a new twist on the usual tokamak ablation physics modeling. The RFP provides a strong ohmic heating regime with relatively high electron drift parameter (ξ/sub drift/ /approximately/ 0.2), in the presence of a highly sheared magnetic field geometry. In situ photos of the pellet ablation cloud using a grated-intensified CCD camera, as well as two-view integrated photos of the pellet trajectory show substantial modification of the original pellet trajectory, in both direction and speed. Depending on the launch geometry, increases in the initial 500 m/s pellet speed by 50% have been observed, and a ski jump deflector plate in the launch port has been used to counteract strong poloidal curvature. In contrast to the tokamak, the D/sub α/ light signature is strongest near the edge, and weaker in the plasma center. Additional information on ion temperature response to pellet injection with 20 μsec time resolution has been obtained using a 5-channel neutral particle analyzer (NPA). The energy confinement is transiently degraded while the beta is largely unchanged. This may be indicative of pellet injection into a high-beta plasma operating at fixed beta. 10 refs., 6 figs

  17. [Are Visual Field Defects Reversible? - Visual Rehabilitation with Brains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, B A

    2017-02-01

    local activation of the visual cortex and global reorganisation of neuronal brain networks. Because modulation of neuroplasticity can strengthen residual vision, the brain deserves a better reputation in ophthalmology for its role in visual rehabilitation. For patients, there is now more light at the end of the tunnel, because vision loss in some areas of the visual field defect is indeed reversible. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Radial modes of slowly rotating compact stars in the presence of magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, N.R. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar (India); Siksha ' O' Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar (India); Mohanta, K.K. [Rairangpur College, Rairangpur, Odisha (India); Sahu, P.K. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2016-09-15

    Compact stars are composed of very high-density hadron matter. When the matter is above nuclear matter density, then there is a chance of different phases of matter such as hadron matter to quark matter. There is a possible phase which, having the quark core surrounded by a mixed phase followed by hadronic matter, may be considered as a hybrid phase inside the stars called hybrid star (HS). The star which consists of only u, d and s quarks is called quark star (QS) and the star which has only hadronic matter is called neutron star (NS). For the equation of state (EOS) of hadronic matter, we have considered the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) theory and we incorporated the effect of strong magnetic fields. For the EOS of the quark phase we use the simple MIT bag model. We have assumed Gaussian parametrization to make the density dependent for both bag pressure in quark matter and magnetic field. We have constructed the intermediate mixed phase by using the Glendenning conjecture. Eigenfrequencies of radial pulsations of slowly rotating magnetized compact stars (NS, QS, HS) are calculated in a general relativistic formalism given by Chandrasekhar and Friedman. We have studied the effect of central density on the square of the frequencies of the compact stars in the presence of zero and strong magnetic field. (orig.)

  19. Edge topology and flows in the reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spizzo, G.; Agostini, M.; Scarin, P.; Vianello, N.; Cappello, S.; Puiatti, M. E.; Valisa, M.; White, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    Edge topology and plasma flow deeply influence transport in the reversed-field pinch as well as in all fusion devices, playing an important role in many practical aspects of plasma performance, such as access to enhanced confinement regimes, the impact on global power balance and operative limits, such as the density limit (Spizzo G. et al 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 095011). A central role is played by the edge electric field, which is determined by the ambipolar constraint guaranteeing quasi-neutrality in a sheath next to the plasma wall. Its radial component is experimentally determined in RFX over the whole toroidal angle by means of a diagnostic set measuring edge plasma potential and flow with different techniques (Scarin P. et al 2011 Nucl. Fusion 51 073002). The measured radial electric field is used to construct the potential in the form Φ(ψ p , θ, ζ) (ψ p radial coordinate, θ, ζ angles), by means of the Hamiltonian guiding-centre code ORBIT. Simulations show that a proper functional form of the potential can balance the differential radial diffusion of electrons and ions subject to m = 0 magnetic island O- and X-points. Electrons spend more time in the X-points of such islands than in O-points; ions have comparatively larger drifts and their radial motion is more uniform over the toroidal angle. The final spatial distribution of Φ(ψ p , θ, ζ) results in a complex 3D pattern, with convective cells next to the wall. Generally speaking, an edge topology dominating parallel transport with a given symmetry brings about an edge potential with the same symmetry. This fact helps us to build a first step of a unified picture of the effect of magnetic topology on the Greenwald limit, and, more generally, on flows in the edge of RFPs and tokamaks. (paper)

  20. Compact approach to fusion power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) for development into an efficient, compact, copper-coil fusion reactor has been quantified by comprehensive parametric tradeoff studies. These compact systems promise to be competitive in size, power density, and cost to alternative energy sources. Conceptual engineering designs that largely substantiate these promising results have since been completed. This 1000-MWe(net) design is described along with a detailed rationale and physics/technology assessment for the compact approach to fusion

  1. Moving ring field-reversed mirror blanket design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Cheng, E.T.; Creedon, L.; Kessel, C.; Norman, J.; Schultz, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    A blanket design for the Moving Ring Field-Reversed Mirror Reactor (MRFRM) is presented in this paper. The design emphasis is placed on minimizing the induced radioactivities in the first-wall, blanket and shield. To this end, aluminum-alloy was selected as the reference structural material, giving dose rates two weeks after shutdown that are 3 to 4 orders of magnitude lower than comparable steel structures. The aluminum first-wall is water-cooled and thermally insulated from the high temperature SiC-clad Li 2 O tritium breeding zone. A local tritium breeding ratio of 1.05 was obtained for the design. The tritium is extracted from the Li 2 O by the use of a small dry helium purge stream through the SiC tubes. About 1 ppM hydrogen is added to the helium purge stream to enhance the tritium recovery rate. Helium at 28 atmospheres pressure is circulated through the blanket and shield, with an outlet temperature of 850 0 C, which is coupled with an existing small size closed-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power conversion system. The spatial and temporal variations of the first-wall temperature caused by the translational movement of the plasma rings along the axis of the cylindrical reactor were evaluated. The after-heat cooling problems of the first-wall were also considered

  2. Scaling of sustained ZT-40 M reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, J.; Haberstich, A.; Baker, D.A.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Caramana, E.J.; DiMarco, J.N.; Erickson, R.M.; Ingraham, J.C.; Jacobson, A.R.; Little, E.M.; Massey, R.S.; Phillips, J.A.; Schoenberg, K.F.; Schofield, A.E.; Thomas, K.S.; Watt, R.G.; Weber, P.G.

    1993-12-01

    Experiments aimed at evaluating the scaling properties of the ZT-40M Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) facility were conducted in 1983 at Los Alamos. Sustained discharges were produced at nominal toroidal currents ranging from 60 to 240 kA. The standard fill pressure was kept close to the lower limit of the usable pressure range, and the scaling data were acquired at a fixed time in the discharges while the plasma was in a quasi-steady state. Scalings of the diameter-averaged electron density, electron temperature on axis, product of these two parameters, and of various definitions of the electrical resistivity are presented. Trends of the toroidal voltage, energy containment time, and poloidal beta are shown. The impurity contents, particle containment time, and total radiation losses are described, and results obtained with and without poloidal limiters are compared. In addition, the performance of the facility at higher than standard density and at a constant ratio of the toroidal current over the electron line density is examined

  3. Chaos in reversed-field-pinch plasma simulation and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, C.; Newman, D.E.; Sprott, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that chaos and simple determinism are governing the dynamics of reversed-field-pinch (RFP) plasmas using data from both numerical simulations and experiment. A large repertoire of nonlinear-analysis techniques is used to identify low-dimensional chaos. These tools include phase portraits and Poincare sections, correlation dimension, the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents, and short-term predictability. In addition, nonlinear-noise-reduction techniques are applied to the experimental data in an attempt to extract any underlying deterministic dynamics. Two model systems are used to simulate the plasma dynamics. These are the DEBS computer code, which models global RFP dynamics, and the dissipative trapped-electron-mode model, which models drift-wave turbulence. Data from both simulations show strong indications of low-dimensional chaos and simple determinism. Experimental data were obtained from the Madison Symmetric Torus RFP and consist of a wide array of both global and local diagnostic signals. None of the signals shows any indication of low-dimensional chaos or other simple determinism. Moreover, most of the analysis tools indicate that the experimental system is very high dimensional with properties similar to noise. Nonlinear noise reduction is unsuccessful at extracting an underlying deterministic system

  4. Does shaping bring an advantage for reversed field pinch plasmas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, S.C.; Xu, X.Y.; Wang, Z.R.; Liu, Y.Q.

    2013-01-01

    The MHD–kinetic hybrid toroidal stability code MARS-K (Liu et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 112503) is applied to study the shaping effects on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stabilities in reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas, where both elongation and triangularity are taken into account. The ideal wall β (the ratio of the gaso-kinetic to magnetic pressures) limit set by the ideal kink mode/resistive wall mode in shaped RFP is investigated first, followed by a study of the kinetic damping on the resistive wall mode. Physics understanding of the results is provided by a systematic numerical analysis. Furthermore, the stability boundary of the linear resistive tearing mode in shaped RFP plasmas is computed and compared with that of the circular case. Finally, bootstrap currents are calculated for both circular and shaped RFP plasmas. Overall, the results of these studies indicate that the current circular cross-section is an appropriate choice for RFP devices, in the sense that the plasma shaping does not bring an appreciable advantage to the RFP performance in terms of macroscopic stabilities. In order to reach a steady-state operation, future RFP fusion reactors will probably need a substantial fraction of external current drives, due to the unfavourable scaling for the plasma-generated bootstrap current in the RFP configuration. (paper)

  5. Radio frequency wave experiments on the MST reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, C.B.; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Nornberg, M.D.; Prager, S.C.; Thomas, M.A.; Harvey, R.W.; Ram, A.K.

    1999-04-01

    Experiments, simulations, and theory all indicate that the magnetic fluctuations responsible for the poor confinement in the reversed field pinch (RFP) can be controlled by altering the radial profile of the current density. The magnetic fluctuations in the RFP are due to resistive MHD instabilities caused by current profile peaking; thus confinement in the RFP is ultimately the result of a misalignment between inductively driven current profiles and the stable current profiles characteristic of the Taylor state. If a technique such as rf current drive can be developed to non-inductively sustain a Taylor state (a current profile linearly stable to all tearing modes), the confinement of the RFP and its potential as a reactor concept are likely to increase. Whether there is a self-consistent path from poor confinement to greatly improved confinement through current profile modification is an issue for future experiments to address if and only if near term experiments can demonstrate: (1) coupling to and the propagation of rf waves in RFP plasmas, (2) efficient current drive, and (3) control of the power deposition which will make it possible to control the current profile. In this paper, modeling results and experimental plans are presented for two rf experiments which have the potential of satisfying these three goals: high-n parallel lower hybrid (LH) waves and electron Bernstein waves (EBWs)

  6. Design of a new large s field reversed configuration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.L.; Slough, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    The present TRX facility utilizes programmed formation techniques to form s = 2 plasmas in a 20 cm diameter by 1 m long plasma tube. LSX will have an 80 cm diameter by 4 m long plasma tube and will employ the same programmed formation techniques as TRX. This should result in s = 8 plasmas and FRC flux and energy lifetimes in the msec range if the presently measured scaling persists. LSX will be initially restricted to an external field of 7.5 kG, and typical plasma conditions will be 300 eV electron and ion temperatures and electron or ion densities of about 2x10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/. The low voltage formation techniques developed in TRX-2 (Eθ /sub values of about 100 volts/cm) will also be employed on LSX, so that relatively low voltage power supplies can be utilized. A modified form of second half cycle circuitry is planned to replace the function of a large reverse bias capacitor bank. The increase in total power supply efficiency allows the primary magnet energy storage to be less that 1 MJ

  7. Results from TRX-2 slow field-reversed-theta-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slough, J.T.; Harding, D.; Hoffman, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    FRCs have been successfully generated in the TRX-2 slow risetime theta pinch. Initial studies indicate that the flux trapping through field reversal is about as good (''50%) as on TRX-1, although the quarter cycle time of the main coil was increased from 3 to 10 μsec. Formation studies have been started using the programmed formation techniques developed on TRX-1. The plasma dynamics are very similar to those exhibited in the faster rise TRX-1 experiments. The formation phase shows the same high degree of symmetry and reproducibility that was observed in TRX-1. Equilibrium behaviour of the FRCs formed is very similar to that observed on TRX-1, as long as impurity content is kept low. T/sub e/ + T/sub i/ temperatures of 400 to 500 eV are obtained and confirmed by impurity line broadening and decay rates. Flux and particle lifetimes ≅ 100 μsec have been observed and show the same strong scaling with x/sub s/ that was observed on TRX-1

  8. Study of fusion product effects in field-reversed mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driemeyer, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of fusion products (fps) on Field-Reversed Mirror (FRM) reactor concepts has been evaluated through the development of two new computer models. The first code (MCFRM) treats fps as test particles in a fixed background plasma, which is represented as a fluid. MCFRM includes a Monte Carlo treatment of Coulomb scattering and thus provides an accurate treatment of fp behavior even at lower energies where pitch-angle scattering becomes important. The second code (FRMOD) is a steady-state, globally averaged, two-fluid (ion and electron), point model of the FRM plasma that incorporates fp heating and ash buildup values which are consistent with the MCFRM calculations. These codes have been used extensively in the development of an advanced-fuel FRM reactor design (SAFFIRE). A Catalyzed-D version of the plant is also discussed along with an investigation of the steady-state energy distribution of fps in the FRM. User guides for the two computer codes are also included

  9. Resonance and Chaotic Trajectories in Magnetic Field Reversed Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.S. Landsman; S.A. Cohen; M. Edelman; G.M. Zaslavsky

    2005-04-13

    The nonlinear dynamics of a single ion in a field-reversed configuration (FRC) were investigated. FRC is a toroidal fusion device which uses a specific type of magnetic field to confine ions. As a result of angular invariance, the full three-dimensional Hamiltonian system can be expressed as two coupled, highly nonlinear oscillators. Due to the high nonlinearity in the equations of motion, the behavior of the system is extremely complex, showing different regimes, depending on the values of the conserved canonical angular momentum and the geometry of the fusion vessel. Perturbation theory and averaging were used to derive the unperturbed Hamiltonian and frequencies of the two degrees of freedom. The derived equations were then used to find resonances and compare to Poincar{copyright} surface-of-section plots. A regime was found where the nonlinear resonances were clearly separated by KAM [Kolmogorov-Arnold-Mosher] curves. The structure of the observed island chains was explained. The condition for the destruction of KAM curves and the onset of strong chaos was derived, using Chirikov island overlap criterion, and shown qualitatively to depend both on the canonical angular momentum and geometry of the device. After a brief discussion of the adiabatic regime the paper goes on to explore the degenerate regime that sets in at higher values of angular momenta. In this regime, the unperturbed Hamiltonian can be approximated as two uncoupled linear oscillators. In this case, the system is near-integrable, except in cases of a universal resonance, which results in large island structures, due to the smallness of nonlinear terms, which bound the resonance. The linear force constants, dominant in this regime, were derived and the geometry for a large one-to-one resonance identified. The above analysis showed good agreement with numerical simulations and was able to explain characteristic features of the dynamics.

  10. Resonance and Chaotic Trajectories in Magnetic Field Reversed Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsman, A.S.; Cohen, S.A.; Edelman, M.; Zaslavsky, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a single ion in a field-reversed configuration (FRC) were investigated. FRC is a toroidal fusion device which uses a specific type of magnetic field to confine ions. As a result of angular invariance, the full three-dimensional Hamiltonian system can be expressed as two coupled, highly nonlinear oscillators. Due to the high nonlinearity in the equations of motion, the behavior of the system is extremely complex, showing different regimes, depending on the values of the conserved canonical angular momentum and the geometry of the fusion vessel. Perturbation theory and averaging were used to derive the unperturbed Hamiltonian and frequencies of the two degrees of freedom. The derived equations were then used to find resonances and compare to Poincar(copyright) surface-of-section plots. A regime was found where the nonlinear resonances were clearly separated by KAM [Kolmogorov-Arnold-Mosher] curves. The structure of the observed island chains was explained. The condition for the destruction of KAM curves and the onset of strong chaos was derived, using Chirikov island overlap criterion, and shown qualitatively to depend both on the canonical angular momentum and geometry of the device. After a brief discussion of the adiabatic regime the paper goes on to explore the degenerate regime that sets in at higher values of angular momenta. In this regime, the unperturbed Hamiltonian can be approximated as two uncoupled linear oscillators. In this case, the system is near-integrable, except in cases of a universal resonance, which results in large island structures, due to the smallness of nonlinear terms, which bound the resonance. The linear force constants, dominant in this regime, were derived and the geometry for a large one-to-one resonance identified. The above analysis showed good agreement with numerical simulations and was able to explain characteristic features of the dynamics

  11. Resonant effects on the low frequency vlasov stability of axisymmetric field reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.; Sudan, R.N.

    We investigate the effect of particle resonances on low frequency MHD modes in field-reversed geometries, e.g., an ion ring. It is shown that, for sufficiently high field reversal, modes which are hydromagnetically stable can be driven unstable by ion resonances. The stabilizing effect of a toroidal magnetic field is discussed

  12. Electric-Field-Induced Magnetization Reversal in a Ferromagnet-Multiferroic Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, J. T.; Trassin, M.; Ashraf, K.; Gajek, M.; He, Q.; Yang, S. Y.; Nikonov, D. E.; Chu, Y.-H.; Salahuddin, S.; Ramesh, R.

    2011-11-01

    A reversal of magnetization requiring only the application of an electric field can lead to low-power spintronic devices by eliminating conventional magnetic switching methods. Here we show a nonvolatile, room temperature magnetization reversal determined by an electric field in a ferromagnet-multiferroic system. The effect is reversible and mediated by an interfacial magnetic coupling dictated by the multiferroic. Such electric-field control of a magnetoelectric device demonstrates an avenue for next-generation, low-energy consumption spintronics.

  13. Microinstabilities and turbulent transport in the reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Daniel Richard

    The work presented in this thesis is concerned with addressing the nature of drift wave microturbulence in the reversed field pinch (RFP). Microturbulence is an important phenomenon and contributor to heat and particle transport in tokamaks, where it has been studied for several decades, but its role in the RFP is a rather new topic of study. As such, the nature of RFP drift waves and their relationship to their tokamak counterparts is still developing, and many of the results in this work are focused on addressing this challenge. Fundamental advances in microturbulence research have been made in recent decades through two parallel developments: the theoretical framework encompassed in the gyrokinetic model, and the computational power offered by massively-parallel, high-performance computing systems. Gyrokinetics is a formulation of kinetic theory in such a way that the fast timescale gyromotion of particles around magnetic field lines is averaged out. The implementation and use of RFP equilibrium models in gyrokinetic codes constitutes the bulk of this thesis. A simplified analytic equilibrium, the toroidal Bessel function model (TBFM), is used in the gyrokinetic code GYRO to explore the fundamental scaling properties of drift waves in the RFP geometry. Two drift wave instabilities, the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode and the microtearing mode (MTM) are found to occur, and the relationship of their critical threshold in driving gradients and plasma beta is explored. The critical values in these parameters are found to be above those of similar tokamak cases by roughly a factor of the flux surface aspect ratio. The MTM is found to be stabilized by increasing the RFP pinch parameter theta, making it unlikely for it to unstable in the high-theta improved confinement pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) discharges. Efforts are also made to address microinstabilities in specific experimental discharges of the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). A semi

  14. The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor study: Scoping phase report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The TITAN research program is a multi-institutional effort to determine the potential of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) magnetic fusion concept as a compact, high-power-density, and ''attractive'' fusion energy system from economic (cost of electricity, COE), environmental, and operational viewpoints. In particular, a high neutron wall loading design (18 MW/m 2 ) has been chosen as the reference case in order to quantify the issue of engineering practicality, to determine the physics requirements and plasma operating mode, to assess significant benefits of compact systems, and to illuminate the main drawbacks. The program has been divided into two phases, each roughly one year in length: the Scoping Phase and the Design Phase. During the scoping phase, the TITAN design team has defined the parameter space for a high mass power density (MPD) RFP reactor, and explored a variety of approaches to the design of major subsystems. Two major design approaches consistent with high MPD and low COE, the lithium-vanadium blanket design and aqueous loop-in-pool design, have been selected for more detailed engineering evaluation in the design phase. The program has retained a balance in its approach to investigating high MPD systems. On the one hand, parametric investigations of both subsystems and overall system performance are carried out. On the other hand, more detailed analysis and engineering design and integration are performed, appropriate to determining the technical feasibility of the high MPD approach to RFP fusion reactors. This report describes the work of the scoping phase activities of the TITAN program. A synopsis of the principal technical findings and a brief description of the TITAN multiple-design approach is given. The individual chapters on Plasma Physics and Engineering, Parameter Systems Studies, Divertor, Reactor Engineering, and Fusion Power Core Engineering have been cataloged separately

  15. The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor study: Scoping phase report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The TITAN research program is a multi-institutional effort to determine the potential of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) magnetic fusion concept as a compact, high-power-density, and ''attractive'' fusion energy system from economic (cost of electricity, COE), environmental, and operational viewpoints. In particular, a high neutron wall loading design (18 MW/m/sup 2/) has been chosen as the reference case in order to quantify the issue of engineering practicality, to determine the physics requirements and plasma operating mode, to assess significant benefits of compact systems, and to illuminate the main drawbacks. The program has been divided into two phases, each roughly one year in length: the Scoping Phase and the Design Phase. During the scoping phase, the TITAN design team has defined the parameter space for a high mass power density (MPD) RFP reactor, and explored a variety of approaches to the design of major subsystems. Two major design approaches consistent with high MPD and low COE, the lithium-vanadium blanket design and aqueous loop-in-pool design, have been selected for more detailed engineering evaluation in the design phase. The program has retained a balance in its approach to investigating high MPD systems. On the one hand, parametric investigations of both subsystems and overall system performance are carried out. On the other hand, more detailed analysis and engineering design and integration are performed, appropriate to determining the technical feasibility of the high MPD approach to RFP fusion reactors. This report describes the work of the scoping phase activities of the TITAN program. A synopsis of the principal technical findings and a brief description of the TITAN multiple-design approach is given. The individual chapters on Plasma Physics and Engineering, Parameter Systems Studies, Divertor, Reactor Engineering, and Fusion Power Core Engineering have been cataloged separately.

  16. Charged Compact Boson Stars in a Theory of Massless Scalar Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev

    2018-05-01

    In this work we present some new results obtained in a study of the phase diagram of charged compact boson stars in a theory involving a complex scalar field with a conical potential coupled to a U(1) gauge field and gravity. We obtain new bifurcation points in this model. We present a detailed discussion of the various regions of the phase diagram with respect to the bifurcation points. The theory is seen to contain rich physics in a particular domain of the phase diagram.

  17. Toroidal magnetic field system for a 2-MA reversed-field pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melton, J.G.; Linton, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    The engineering design of the toroidal magnetic field (TF) system for a 2-MA Reversed-Field Pinch experiment (ZT-H) is described. ZT-H is designed with major radius 2.15 meters, minor radius 0.40 meters, and a peak toroidal magnetic field of 0.85 Tesla. The requirement for highly uniform fields, with spatial ripple <0.2% leads to a design with 72 equally spaced circular TF coils, located at minor radius 0.6 meters, carrying a maximum current of 9.0 MA. The coils are driven by a 12-MJ capacitor bank which is allowed to ring in order to aid the reversal of magnetic field. A stress analysis is presented, based upon calculated hoop tension, centering force, and overturning moment, treating these as a combination of static loads and considering that the periodic nature of the loading causes little amplification. The load transfer of forces and moments is considered as a stress distribution resisted by the coils, support structures, wedges, and the structural shell

  18. Electron temperature in field reversed configurations and theta pinches with closed magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Field-reversed configurations (FRC) and theta pinches with trapped reversed bias field are essentially the same magnetic confinement systems using closed magnetic field lines inside an open-ended magnetic flux tube. A simple model of joule heating and parallel electron thermal conduction along the open flux lines to an external heat sink gives the electron temperature as Tsub(e)(eV) approx.= 0.05 Bsup(2/3)(G)Lsup(1/3)(cm), where B is the magnetic field and L is the coil length. This model appears to agree with measurements from present FRC experiments and past theta-pinch experiments which cover a range of 40-900 eV. The energy balance in the model is dominated by (a) parallel electron thermal conduction along the open field lines which has a steep temperature dependence, Q is proportional to Tsub(e)sup(7/2), and (b) the assumed rapid perpendicular transport in the plasma bulk which, in experiments to date, may be due to the small number of ion gyroradii across the plasma. (author)

  19. A compact broadband ion beam focusing device based on laser-driven megagauss thermoelectric magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertazzi, B., E-mail: bruno.albertazzi@polytechnique.edu [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); INRS-EMT, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-087 (Japan); D' Humières, E. [CELIA, Universite de Bordeaux, Talence 33405 (France); Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Lancia, L.; Antici, P. [Dipartimento SBAI, Universita di Roma “La Sapienza,” Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy); Dervieux, V.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Romagnani, L.; Fuchs, J., E-mail: Julien.fuchs@polytechnique.fr [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Böcker, J.; Swantusch, M.; Willi, O. [Institut für Laser- und Plasmaphysik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Düsseldorf D-40225 (Germany); Bonlie, J.; Cauble, B.; Shepherd, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Breil, J.; Feugeas, J. L.; Nicolaï, P.; Tikhonchuk, V. T. [CELIA, Universite de Bordeaux, Talence 33405 (France); Chen, S. N. [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Sentoku, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    Ultra-intense lasers can nowadays routinely accelerate kiloampere ion beams. These unique sources of particle beams could impact many societal (e.g., proton-therapy or fuel recycling) and fundamental (e.g., neutron probing) domains. However, this requires overcoming the beam angular divergence at the source. This has been attempted, either with large-scale conventional setups or with compact plasma techniques that however have the restriction of short (<1 mm) focusing distances or a chromatic behavior. Here, we show that exploiting laser-triggered, long-lasting (>50 ps), thermoelectric multi-megagauss surface magnetic (B)-fields, compact capturing, and focusing of a diverging laser-driven multi-MeV ion beam can be achieved over a wide range of ion energies in the limit of a 5° acceptance angle.

  20. Compact field color schlieren system for use in microgravity materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteet, W. M.; Owen, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    A compact color schlieren system designed for field measurement of materials processing parameters has been built and tested in a microgravity environment. Improvements in the color filter design and a compact optical arrangement allowed the system described here to retain the traditional advantages of schlieren, such as simplicity, sensitivity, and ease of data interpretation. Testing was accomplished by successfully flying the instrument on a series of parabolic trajectories on the NASA KC-135 microgravity simulation aircraft. A variety of samples of interest in materials processing were examined. Although the present system was designed for aircraft use, the technique is well suited to space flight experimentation. A major goal of this effort was to accommodate the main optical system within a volume approximately equal to that of a Space Shuttle middeck locker. Future plans include the development of an automated space-qualified facility for use on the Shuttle and Space Station.

  1. Unbounded dynamics and compact invariant sets of one Hamiltonian system defined by the minimally coupled field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, Konstantin E., E-mail: kstarkov@ipn.mx

    2015-06-12

    In this paper we study some features of global dynamics for one Hamiltonian system arisen in cosmology which is formed by the minimally coupled field; this system was introduced by Maciejewski et al. in 2007. We establish that under some simple conditions imposed on parameters of this system all trajectories are unbounded in both of time directions. Further, we present other conditions for system parameters under which we localize the domain with unbounded dynamics; this domain is defined with help of bounds for values of the Hamiltonian level surface parameter. We describe the case when our system possesses periodic orbits which are found explicitly. In the rest of the cases we get some localization bounds for compact invariant sets. - Highlights: • Domain with unbounded dynamics is localized. • Equations for periodic orbits are given in one level set. • Localizations for compact invariant sets are got.

  2. Internal magnetic field measurements in a translating field-reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, W.T.; Chrien, R.E.; McKenna, K.F.; Rej, D.J.; Sherwood, E.G.; Siemon, R.E.; Tuszewski, M.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic field probes have been employed to study the internal field structure of Field-Reversed Configurations (FRCs) translating past the probes in the FRX-C/T device. Internal closed flux surfaces can be studied in this manner with minimal perturbation because of the rapid transit of the plasma (translational velocity v/sub z/ approx. 10 cm/μs). Data have been taken using a low-field (5 kG), 5-mtorr-D 2 gas-puff mode of operation in the FRC source coil which yields an initial plasma density of approx. 1 x 10 15 cm -3 and x/sub s/ approx. 0.04. FRCs translate from the approx. 25 cm radius source coil into a 20 cm radius metal translation vessel. Two translation conditions are studied: (1) translation into a 4 kG guide field (matched guide-field case), resulting in similar plasma parameters but with x/sub s/ approx. .45, and (2) translation into a 1 kG guide field (reduced guide-field case), resulting in expansion of the FRC to conditions of density approx. 3 x 10 14 , external field B 0 approx. 2 kG and x/sub s/ approx. 0.7. The expected reversed B/sub z/ structure is observed in both cases. However, the field measurements indicate a possible sideways offset of the FRC from the machine axis in the matched case. There is also evidence of island structure in the reduced guide-field case. Fluctuating levels of B/sub theta/ are ovserved with amplitudes less than or equal to B 0 /3 in both cases. Field measurements on the FRC symmetry axis in the reduced guide-field case indicate β on the separatrix of β/sub s/ approx. = 0.3 (indexed to the external field) has been achieved. This decrease of β/sub s/ with increased x/sub s/ is expected, and desirable for improved plasma confinement

  3. Uniform magnetic field in the bending magneto for the compact proton synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Tokura, S; Miyauchi, Y; Nakajima, S; Arakawa, M

    2003-01-01

    Radiation therapy using high-energy protons is a very effective method of cancer treatment. To attain the necessary beam energy for cancer therapy using a very compact synchrotron, the magnetic field of the normal-conductive bending magnet must be excited up to 3-5 T. However, increasing the field up to 4 T produces a sextupole component in the field. The sextupole component can be reduced by changing the geometry of the coil, but establishing the optimal geometry is very time-consuming. A new optimization method has been developed to establish the uniform field in the bending magnet. As a result, the optimal geometry is obtained with less calculation time. (author)

  4. Formation and sustainment of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas by spheromak merging and neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masaaki [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey USA (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This paper briefly reviews a compact toroid reactor concept that addresses critical issues for forming, stabilizing and sustaining a field reversed configuration (FRC) with the use of plasma merging, plasma shaping, conducting shells, neutral beam injection (NBI). In this concept, an FRC plasma is generated by the merging of counter-helicity spheromaks produced by inductive discharges and sustained by the use of neutral beam injection (NBI). Plasma shaping, conducting shells, and the NBI would provide stabilization to global MHD modes. Although a specific FRC reactor design is outside the scope of the present paper, an example of a promising FRC reactor program is summarized based on the previously developed SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasmas by Induction, Reconnection and Injection Techniques) concept in order to connect this concept to the recently achieved the High Performance FRC plasmas obtained by Tri Alpha Energy [Binderbauer et al, Phys. Plasmas 22,056110, (2015)]. This paper includes a brief summary of the previous concept paper by M. Yamada et al, Plasma Fusion Res. 2, 004 (2007) and the recent experimental results from MRX.

  5. The safety designs for the TITAN reversed-field pinch reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Cheng, E.T.; Creedon, R.L.; Hoot, C.G.; Schultz, K.R.; Grotz, S.P.; Blanchard, J.; Sharafat, S.; Najmabadi, F.

    1989-01-01

    TITAN is a study to investigate the potential of the reversed-field pinch concept as a compact, high-power density energy system. Two reactor concepts were developed, a self-cooled lithium design with vanadium structure and an aqueous solution loop-in-pool design, both operating at 18 MW/m 2 . The key safety features of the TITAN-I lithium-vanadium blanket design are in material selection, fusion power core configuration selection, lithium piping connections, and passive lithium drain tank system. Based on these safety features and results from accident evaluation, TITAN-I can at least be rated at a level 3 of safety assurance. For the TITAN-II aqueous loop-in-pool design, the key passive feature is the complete submersion of the fusion power core and the corresponding primary coolant loop system into a pool of low temperature water. Based on this key safety design feature, the TITAN-II design can be rated at a level 2 of safety assurance. (orig.)

  6. A conceptual design study of a reversed field pinch fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, S.; Tanaka, S.; Terai, T.; Hashizume, H.

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design of a Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) fusion reactor with a solid breeder blanket REPUTER-1 has been studied through parametric system studies and detailed design and analysis in order to clarify the technical feasibility of a compact fusion reactor. F-θ pumping is used for driving the plasma current necessary for steady state operation. A maintenance policy of replacing a whole fusion power core including TF coils is proposed to cope with the requirements of high wall loading and high mass power density. For the same reason a normal conductor is selected for most of the coils. The first wall is structurally independent of the blanket. The blanket module is composed of SiC reinforced blocks which form a stable arch so as to keep the stresses in SiC basically compressive. The coolant for the first wall and the limiter is pressurized water, while the coolant for the blanket is helium gas. A number of thin Li 2 O and thick beryllium tiles are packed into the blanket block so as to obtain a proper tritium breeding ratio. A pumped limiter is chosen for the plasma exhaust system. The study has shown the technical feasibility of a high power density fusion power reactor (330 kWe/tonne) with solid breeder blanket and many key physics and engineering issues are also clarified. (orig.)

  7. The safety designs for the TITAN reversed-field pinch reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Cheng, E.T.; Creedon, R.L.; Hoot, C.G.; Schultz, K.R.; Grotz, S.P.; Blanchard, J.P.; Sharafat, S.; Najmabadi, F.

    1988-01-01

    TITAN is a study to investigate the potential of the reversed-field pinch concept as a compact, high-power density energy system. Two reactor concepts were developed, a self-cooled lithium design with vanadium structure and an aqueous solution loop-in-pool design, both operating at 18 MW/m 2 . The key safety features of the TITAN-I lithium-vanadium blanket design are in material selection, fusion power core configuration selection, lithium piping connections and passive lithium drain tank system. Based on these safety features and results from accident evaluation, TITAN-I can at least be rated as level 3 of safety assurance. For the TITAN-II aqueous loop-in-pool design, the key passive feature is the complete submersion of the fusion power core and the corresponding primary coolant loop system into a pool of low temperature water. Based on this key safety design feature, the TITAN-II design can be rated as level 2 of safety assurance. 7 refs., 2 figs

  8. Production of field-reversed configurations with a magnetized coaxial plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Linford, R.K.; Marshali, J.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    Compact toroids were generated which can be made to come to rest in a cylindrical resistive flux conserver. They are observed to rotate so that their major axis is perpendicular to the axis of the flux conserver. Subsequently they appear to remain stationary and decay with a time constant of about 100 μs. We have also generated compact toroids in an oblate geometry which remain aligned with the axis of the flux conserver and decay with a time constant of 150 μs. The magnetic field reconnection time for compact toroid formation is measured in the latter case to be much shorter than the decay time

  9. Production of field-reversed configurations with a magnetized coaxial plasma gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Linford, R.K.; Marshali, J.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    Compact toroids were generated which can be made to come to rest in a cylindrical resistive flux conserver. They are observed to rotate so that their major axis is perpendicular to the axis of the flux conserver. Subsequently they appear to remain stationary and decay with a time constant of about 100 ..mu..s. We have also generated compact toroids in an oblate geometry which remain aligned with the axis of the flux conserver and decay with a time constant of 150 ..mu..s. The magnetic field reconnection time for compact toroid formation is measured in the latter case to be much shorter than the decay time.

  10. Formation of Field-reversed-Configuration Plasma with Punctuated-betatron-orbit Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, D.R.; Cohen, S.A.; Genoni, T.C.; Glasser, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    We describe ab initio, self-consistent, 3D, fully electromagnetic numerical simulations of current drive and field-reversed-configuration plasma formation by odd-parity rotating magnetic fields (RMFo). Magnetic-separatrix formation and field reversal are attained from an initial mirror configuration. A population of punctuated-betatron-orbit electrons, generated by the RMFo, carries the majority of the field-normal azimuthal electrical current responsible for field reversal. Appreciable current and plasma pressure exist outside the magnetic separatrix whose shape is modulated by the RMFo phase. The predicted plasma density and electron energy distribution compare favorably with RMFo experiments.

  11. Theory of field-reversed mirrors and field-reversed plasma-gun experiments. Paper IAEA-CN-38/R-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.V.; Auerbach, S.P.; Berk, H.L.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of field reversal in a mirror machine are reported. Plasma-gun experiments demonstrate that reversed-field plasma layers are formed. Low energy plasma flowing behind the initially produced plasma front prevents tearing of the layer from the gun muzzle. MHD simulation shows that tearing can be obtained by impeding the slow plasma flow with a plasma divider. It is demonstrated theoretically that a field-reversed mirror imbedded in a multipole field can be sustained in steady state with neutral-beam injection even in the absence of impurities. MHD stability analysis shows that growth rates of elongated reversed-field theta-pinch configurations decrease with axial extension, which indicates the importance of including finite Larmor radius in the analysis. Tilting-mode criteria are improved by proper shaping, and a problimak shape is proposed. Tearing mode stability of reversed-field theta-pinches is greatly enhanced by flux exclusion. Self-consistent, 1-1/2-dimensional transport codes have been developed, and initial results are presented

  12. Theory of field-reversed mirrors and field-reversed plasma-gun experiments. Paper IAEA-CN-38/R-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.V.; Auerbach, S.P.; Berk, H.L.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of field reversal in a mirror machine are reported. Plasma-gun experiments demonstrate that reversed-field plasma layers are formed. Low energy plasma flowing behind the initially produced plasma front prevents tearing of the layer from the gun muzzle. MHD simulation shows that tearing can be obtained by impeding the slow plasma flow with a plasma divider. It is demonstrated theoretically that a field-reversed mirror imbedded in a multipole field can be sustained in steady state with neutral-beam injection even in the absence of impurities. MHD stability analysis shows that growth rates of elongated reversed-field theta-pinch configurations decrease with axial extension, which indicates the importance of including finite Larmor radius in the analysis. Tilting-mode criteria are dramatically improved by proper shaping, and a problimak shape is proposed. Tearing mode stability of reversed-field theta-pinches is greatly enhanced by flux exclusion. Self-consistent, 1-1/2-dimensional transport codes have been developed, and initial results are presented

  13. Proposal for the ZT-40 reversed-field Z-pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.; Machalek, M.D.

    1977-08-01

    A next-generation, toroidal, reversed-field Z-pinch experiment to be constructed at LASL is proposed. On the basis of encouraging ZT-I and ZT-S experimental results, a larger device with a 40-cm bore and a 114-cm major radius is proposed, to extend the confinement time by about an order of magnitude. The new experiment will explore the physics of programming reversed-field pinches in a size range unexplored by previous reversed-field pinch experiments. Model reversed-field pinch reactor calculations show that, if stability is assumed, small fusion reactors are possible if the pinch current density is high. A basic aim will be to delineate the plasma and current density ranges in which stable reversed-field pinches can be produced. Improved vacuum techniques will be used to overcome the radiation losses that probably kept electron temperatures low in the earlier, smaller experiments

  14. A compact HV supply for field/PC based nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, A.; Nikhare, D.M.; Madhavi, V.; Bayala, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Kataria, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    In the recent years, most of the nuclear instruments that were earlier based on NIM Bin standards, are becoming available as PC Add-on cards. This trend is due to the decreasing prices of desktop personal computers and the necessity for automation in radioactivity measurements. This paper describes the design and development of a HV supply module and its PC Add-on card version for field portable/ PC based nuclear instrumentation. The HV supply though being very compact in size meets all the stringent specifications required for detector biasing applications and it has been tested for use with NaI, BF 3 . (author)

  15. Scattering effects on the performance of carbon nanotube field effect transistor in a compact model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamieh, S. D.; Desgreys, P.; Naviner, J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFET) are being extensively studied as possible successors to CMOS. Device simulators have been developed to estimate their performance in sub-10-nm and device structures have been fabricated. In this work, a new compact model of single-walled semiconducting CNTFET is proposed implementing the calculation of energy conduction sub-band minima and the treatment of scattering effects through energy shift in CNTFET. The developed model has been used to simulate I-V characteristics using VHDL-AMS simulator.

  16. Compact deuterium-tritium neutron generator using a novel field ionization source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsworth, J. L., E-mail: ellsworth7@llnl.gov; Falabella, S.; Sanchez, J.; Tang, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Wang, H. [Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-11-21

    Active interrogation using neutrons is an effective method for detecting shielded nuclear material. A lightweight, lunch-box-sized, battery-operated neutron source would enable new concepts of operation in the field. We have developed at-scale components for a highly portable, completely self-contained, pulsed Deuterium-Tritium (DT) neutron source producing 14 MeV neutrons with average yields of 10{sup 7} n/s. A gated, field ionization ion source using etched electrodes has been developed that produces pulsed ion currents up to 500 nA. A compact Cockcroft-Walton high voltage source is used to accelerate deuterons into a metal hydride target for neutron production. The results of full scale DT tests using the field ionization source are presented.

  17. A bi-stable SOC model for Earth's magnetic field reversals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papa, A.R.R.; Espírito Santo, M.A. do; Barbosa, C.S.; Oliva, D.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a simple model for Earth's magnetic field reversals. The model consists in random nodes simulating vortices in the liquid core which through a simple updating algorithm converge to a self-organized critical state, with inter-reversal time probability distributions functions in the form of power-laws for long persistence times (as supposed to be in actual reversals). A detailed description of reversals should not be expected. However, we hope to reach a profounder knowledge on reversals through some of the basic characteristic that are well reproduced. The work opens several future research trends.

  18. Field-effect magnetization reversal in ferromagnetic semiconductor quantum wellls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lee, B.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 19 (2002), s. 193311-1-193311-4 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC P5.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductor quantum wells * magnetization reversal process Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2002

  19. Flux loss and heating during the formation of a field-reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgro, A.G.; Armstrong, W.T.; Lipson, J.; Tuszewski, M.G.; Cochrane, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The simulated time evolution of magnetic field profiles and trapped flux in a field-reversed configuration, when compared with the experiment, implies that the rapid decay of the initial reversed flux is due to a resistivity that is anomalously enhanced over its classical value. A tenuous plasma between the field-reversed configuration and the wall carries a significant fraction of the current, and about half of the anomalous Joule heating must be deposited directly in the ions in order to calculate the correct ion temperature. The fractional flux retention is most sensitive to an increase of applied bias field

  20. Recent advances of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors: principles and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittel, Frank; Gluszek, Aleksander; Hudzikowski, Arkadiusz; Dong, Lei; Li, Chunguang; Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Wojtas, Jacek

    2016-04-01

    The recent development of compact interband cascade lasers(ICLs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based trace gas sensors will permit the targeting of strong fundamental rotational-vibrational transitions in the mid-infrared which are one to two orders of magnitude more intense than transitions in the overtone and combination bands in the near-infrared. This has led to the design and fabrication of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors for use in the petrochemical industry, environmental monitoring and atmospheric chemistry. Specifically, the spectroscopic detection and monitoring of four molecular species, methane (CH4) [1], ethane (C2H6), formaldehyde (H2CO) [2] and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) [3] will be described. CH4, C2H6 and H2CO can be detected using two detection techniques: mid-infrared tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) using a compact multi-pass gas cell and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS). Both techniques utilize state-of-the-art mid-IR, continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback (DFB) ICLs and QCLs. TDLAS was performed with an ultra-compact 54.6m effective optical path length innovative spherical multipass gas cell capable of 435 passes between two concave mirrors separated by 12.5 cm. QEPAS used a small robust absorption detection module (ADM) which consists of a quartz tuning fork (QTF), two optical windows, gas inlet/outlet ports and a low noise frequency pre-amplifier. Wavelength modulation and second harmonic detection were employed for spectral data processing. TDLAS and QEPAS can achieve minimum detectable absorption losses in the range from 10-8 to 10-11cm-1/Hz1/2. Several recent examples of real world applications of field deployable gas sensors will be described. For example, an ICL based TDLAS sensor system is capable of detecting CH4 and C2H6 concentration levels of 1 ppb in a 1 sec. sampling time, using an ultra-compact, robust sensor architecture. H2S detection was realized with a THz QEPAS sensor

  1. Large-scale dynamic compaction demonstration using WIPP salt: Fielding and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, E.H.; Hansen, F.D.

    1995-10-01

    Reconsolidation of crushed rock salt is a phenomenon of great interest to programs studying isolation of hazardous materials in natural salt geologic settings. Of particular interest is the potential for disaggregated salt to be restored to nearly an impermeable state. For example, reconsolidated crushed salt is proposed as a major shaft seal component for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project. The concept for a permanent shaft seal component of the WIPP repository is to densely compact crushed salt in the four shafts; an effective seal will then be developed as the surrounding salt creeps into the shafts, further consolidating the crushed salt. Fundamental information on placement density and permeability is required to ensure attainment of the design function. The work reported here is the first large-scale compaction demonstration to provide information on initial salt properties applicable to design, construction, and performance expectations. The shaft seals must function for 10,000 years. Over this period a crushed salt mass will become less permeable as it is compressed by creep closure of salt surrounding the shaft. These facts preclude the possibility of conducting a full-scale, real-time field test. Because permanent seals taking advantage of salt reconsolidation have never been constructed, performance measurements have not been made on an appropriately large scale. An understanding of potential construction methods, achievable initial density and permeability, and performance of reconsolidated salt over time is required for seal design and performance assessment. This report discusses fielding and operations of a nearly full-scale dynamic compaction of mine-run WIPP salt, and presents preliminary density and in situ (in place) gas permeability results

  2. Structural and temporal requirements for geomagnetic field reversal deduced from lava flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brad S; Hoffman, Kenneth A; Coe, Robert S; Brown, Laurie L; Jicha, Brian R; Pringle, Malcolm S; Chauvin, Annick

    2005-03-31

    Reversals of the Earth's magnetic field reflect changes in the geodynamo--flow within the outer core--that generates the field. Constraining core processes or mantle properties that induce or modulate reversals requires knowing the timing and morphology of field changes that precede and accompany these reversals. But the short duration of transitional field states and fragmentary nature of even the best palaeomagnetic records make it difficult to provide a timeline for the reversal process. 40Ar/39Ar dating of lavas on Tahiti, long thought to record the primary part of the most recent 'Matuyama-Brunhes' reversal, gives an age of 795 +/- 7 kyr, indistinguishable from that of lavas in Chile and La Palma that record a transition in the Earth's magnetic field, but older than the accepted age for the reversal. Only the 'transitional' lavas on Maui and one from La Palma (dated at 776 +/- 2 kyr), agree with the astronomical age for the reversal. Here we propose that the older lavas record the onset of a geodynamo process, which only on occasion would result in polarity change. This initial instability, associated with the first of two decreases in field intensity, began approximately 18 kyr before the actual polarity switch. These data support the claim that complete reversals require a significant period for magnetic flux to escape from the solid inner core and sufficiently weaken its stabilizing effect.

  3. Effects of Field Distortions in IH-APF Linac for a Compact Medical Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kapin, Valery; Yamada, Satoru

    2004-01-01

    The project on developing compact medical accelerators for the tumor therapy using carbon ions has been started at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Alternating-phase-focused (APF) linac using an interdigital H-mode (IH) cavity has been proposed for the injector linac. The IH-cavity is a doubly ridged circular resonator loaded by the drift-tubes mounted on ridges with supporting stems. The effects of intrinsic and random field distortions in a practical design of the 4-Mev/u 200-MHz IH-APF linac are considered. The intrinsic field distortions in the IH-cavity are caused by an asymmetry of the gap fields due to presence of the stems and pair of ridges. The random field distortions are caused by drift-tube misalignments and non-regular deviations of the gap voltages from programmed values. The RF fields in the IH-cavity have been calculated using Microwave Studio (MWS) code. The effects of field distortions on beam dynamics have been simulated numerically. The intrinsic field distortions a...

  4. Innovative compact focal plane array for wide field vis and ir orbiting telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, Emmanuel; Vives, Sébastien; Ferrari, Marc; Gaeremynck, Yann; Jahn, Wilfried

    2017-11-01

    The future generation of high angular resolution space telescopes will require breakthrough technologies to combine large diameters and large focal plane arrays with compactness and lightweight mirrors and structures. Considering the allocated volume medium-size launchers, short focal lengths are mandatory, implying complex optical relays to obtain diffraction limited images on large focal planes. In this paper we present preliminary studies to obtain compact focal plane arrays (FPA) for earth observations on low earth orbits at high angular resolution. Based on the principle of image slicers, we present an optical concept to arrange a 1D FPA into a 2D FPA, allowing the use of 2D detector matrices. This solution is particularly attractive for IR imaging requiring a cryostat, which volume could be considerably reduced as well as the relay optics complexity. Enabling the use of 2D matrices for such an application offers new possibilities. Recent developments on curved FPA allows optimization without concerns on the field curvature. This innovative approach also reduces the complexity of the telescope optical combination, specifically for fast telescopes. This paper will describe the concept and optical design of an F/5 - 1.5m telescope equipped with such a FPA, the performances and the impact on the system with a comparison with an equivalent 1.5m wide field Korsch telescope.

  5. A Compact Magnetic Field-Based Obstacle Detection and Avoidance System for Miniature Spherical Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to their efficient locomotion and natural tolerance to hazardous environments, spherical robots have wide applications in security surveillance, exploration of unknown territory and emergency response. Numerous studies have been conducted on the driving mechanism, motion planning and trajectory tracking methods of spherical robots, yet very limited studies have been conducted regarding the obstacle avoidance capability of spherical robots. Most of the existing spherical robots rely on the “hit and run” technique, which has been argued to be a reasonable strategy because spherical robots have an inherent ability to recover from collisions. Without protruding components, they will not become stuck and can simply roll back after running into bstacles. However, for small scale spherical robots that contain sensitive surveillance sensors and cannot afford to utilize heavy protective shells, the absence of obstacle avoidance solutions would leave the robot at the mercy of potentially dangerous obstacles. In this paper, a compact magnetic field-based obstacle detection and avoidance system has been developed for miniature spherical robots. It utilizes a passive magnetic field so that the system is both compact and power efficient. The proposed system can detect not only the presence, but also the approaching direction of a ferromagnetic obstacle, therefore, an intelligent avoidance behavior can be generated by adapting the trajectory tracking method with the detection information. Design optimization is conducted to enhance the obstacle detection performance and detailed avoidance strategies are devised. Experimental results are also presented for validation purposes.

  6. Quantum memory for nonstationary light fields based on controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, B.; Tittel, W.; Gisin, N.; Nilsson, M.; Kroell, S.; Cirac, J. I.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a method for efficient storage and recall of arbitrary nonstationary light fields, such as, for instance, single photon time-bin qubits or intense fields, in optically dense atomic ensembles. Our approach to quantum memory is based on controlled, reversible, inhomogeneous broadening and relies on a hidden time-reversal symmetry of the optical Bloch equations describing the propagation of the light field. We briefly discuss experimental realizations of our proposal

  7. Estimation of neutral-beam-induced field reversal in MFTF by an approximate scaling law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Scaling rules are derived for field-reversed plasmas whose dimensions are common multiples of the ion gyroradius in the vacuum field. These rules are then applied to the tandem MFTF configuration, and it is shown that field reversal appears to be possible for neutral beam currents of the order of 150 amperes, provided that the electron temperature is at least 500 eV

  8. Compact torus equilibria set up in the rotamak by rotating magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storer, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    In the Rotamak, a rotating magnetic field is used to drive a steady toroidal current in a compact torus device. High power, short duration (approx.=80 μs) and low power, long duration experiments (approx.=3 ms) have been studied. In both of these experiments a steady phase exists which is well described by the assumption that the plasma is in an averaged magnetohydrodynamic pressure balance situation. Using a model based on this assumption, self-consistency imposes conditions relating the temperature and density of the plasma to the steady components of the internal magnetic fields. In the high power experiment, this steady phase evolves into a second steady phase, with lower toroidal current, which has a #betta#=1, mirror-like configuration which also appears to satisfy local pressure balance but with the magnetic axis (minimum of the poloidal flux) at the centre of the spherical vessel. (orig.)

  9. The effect of magnetic field configuration on particle pinch velocity in compact helical system (CHS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, H.; Ida, K.; Yamada, H.

    1994-01-01

    Radial particle transport has been experimentally studied in the low-aspect-ratio heliotron/torsatron device CHS. A non-diffusive outward particle flow (inverse pinch) is observed in the magnetic configuration with the magnetic axis shifted outward, while an inward pinch, like in tokamaks, is observed with the magnetic axis shifted inward. This change in the direction of anomalous particle flow is not due to the reversal of temperature gradient nor the radial electric field. The observation suggests that the particle pinch velocity is sensitive to the magnetic field structure. (author)

  10. What drives the evolution of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies in Clusters vs. the Field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Gregory D.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Crawford, Steven M.; Hunt, Lucas; Pisano, Daniel J.; Randriamampandry, Solohery M.

    2018-06-01

    Low-mass dwarf ellipticals are the most numerous members of present-day galaxy clusters, but the progenitors of this dominant population remain unclear. A prime candidate is the class of objects known as Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs), common in intermediate-redshift clusters but virtually extinct today. Recent cosmological simulations suggest that present-day dwarf galaxies begin as irregular field galaxies, undergo an environmentally-driven starburst phase as they enter the cluster, and stop forming stars earlier than their counterparts in the field. This model predicts that cluster dwarfs should have lower stellar mass per unit dynamical mass than their counterparts in the field. We are undertaking a two-pronged archival research program to test this key prediction using the combination of precision photometry from space and high-quality spectroscopy. First, we are combining optical HST/ACS imaging of five z=0.55 clusters (including two HST Frontier Fields) with Spitzer IR imaging and publicly-released Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to measure stellar-to-dynamical-mass ratios for a large sample of cluster LCBGs. Second, we are exploiting a new catalog of LCBGs in the COSMOS field to gather corresponding data for a significant sample of field LCBGs. By comparing mass ratios from these datasets, we aim to test theoretical predictions and determine the primary physical driver of cluster dwarf-galaxy evolution.

  11. Initial reversed-field pinch experiments on ZT-40 and recent advances in RFP theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Burkhardt, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    The ZT-40 reversed-field pinch (RFP) has been operated in several modes: (1) without reversed toroidal field, (2) with self reversal, and (3) with aided reversal. An analytic ohmic heating and ignition model both confirm and provide guidance for transport codes. Nondissipative formation schemes have been analyzed and ideal MHD stable evolution and burn scenarios have been found. Particle and fluid simulations have produced qualitative agreement with respect to the nonlinear behavior of m = 0 resistive g-modes. Helical ohmic reversed field states are produced by a 2-D dynamical simulation, and nonlinear analytic work describes the final state. A fast resistive MHD code for linear stability has clarified the relations between several kinds of resistive instabilities. Ballooning modes and g-modes in systems with arbitrary magnetic shear including resistivity and viscosity, have been studied in a unified treatment with growth rate vs wavenumber showing the existence of important cutoffs

  12. Mean field limit for bosons with compact kernels interactions by Wigner measures transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liard, Quentin; Pawilowski, Boris

    2014-01-01

    We consider a class of many-body Hamiltonians composed of a free (kinetic) part and a multi-particle (potential) interaction with a compactness assumption on the latter part. We investigate the mean field limit of such quantum systems following the Wigner measures approach. We prove in particular the propagation of these measures along the flow of a nonlinear (Hartree) field equation. This enhances and complements some previous results of the same type shown in Z. Ammari and F. Nier and Fröhlich et al. [“Mean field limit for bosons and propagation of Wigner measures,” J. Math. Phys. 50(4), 042107 (2009); Z. Ammari and F. Nier and Fröhlich et al., “Mean field propagation of Wigner measures and BBGKY hierarchies for general bosonic states,” J. Math. Pures Appl. 95(6), 585–626 (2011); Z. Ammari and F. Nier and Fröhlich et al., “Mean-field- and classical limit of many-body Schrödinger dynamics for bosons,” Commun. Math. Phys. 271(3), 681–697 (2007)

  13. Solar to hydrogen: Compact and cost effective CPV field for rooftop operation and hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-11-25

    Current commercial CPV systems are designed as large units which are targeted to be installed in open desert fields with high DNI availability. It appeared that the CPV is among some of those technologies which gained very little attention of people, with less customers and market. For conventional PV systems, the installations at the rooftop of commercial and residential buildings have a significant share in the total installed capacity of PV systems. That is why for most of the countries, the PV installations at the rooftop of commercial and residential buildings are aimed to be increased to half of total installed PV. On the other hand, there is no commercial CPV system available to be suitable for rooftop operation, giving motivation for the development of CPV field of compact systems. This paper discusses the development of a CPV field for the rooftop operation, comprising of compact CPV system with cost effective but highly accurate solar tracking sensor and wireless master slave control. In addition, the performance of the developed CPV systems is evaluated for production of hydrogen, which can be used as energy carrier or energy storage and a maximum solar to hydrogen efficiency of 18% is obtained. However, due to dynamic nature of the weather data and throughout the day variations in the performance of CPV and electrolyser, the solar to hydrogen performance is proposed to be reported as daily and long term average efficiency. The CPV-Hydrogen system showed daily average conversion efficiency of 15%, with solar to hydrogen production rate of 218 kW h/kg.

  14. Joint interpretation of two tracer tests with reversed flow fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstmann, H.; Kinzelbach, W.; Marschall, P.; Li, G.

    1995-01-01

    Two dipole tracer experiments were performed in a fractured rock at the Grimsel Test Site in February/March 1993. In both experiments NaCl was used as a tracer. The extraction rate was twice the injection rate. In the second experiment injection and extraction were interchanged (Reverse-Experiment). Long tailing was characteristic for the breakthrough curves in both experiments. The tests were interpreted using a single fracture flow model. Tracer transport is described by advection/dispersion along the fracture allowing for diffusion into an immobile matrix. The authors were able to interpret the breakthrough curves for both experiments by one unique set of parameters, describing transport and baseflow. Uniqueness could only be achieved when using the information of both experiments. The authors conclude that performing a Reverse-Experiment is an indispensable tool for parameter identification in dipole tracer tests. A sensitivity analysis suggested that not only matrix diffusion is responsible for the tailing in the breakthrough curves but also transversal dispersivity. Further, the typical exchange time between mobile and immobile media was too small to be attributed to matrix diffusion in the strict sense which will cause tailing even at large spatial and temporal scales. Analysis of the covariance matrices showed that the parameters have small errors but high correlation

  15. Formation of field reversed configurations in a slow, multi-turn coil system: Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slough, J.T.; Hoffman, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    A previous field-reversed theta pinch, TRX-1, has been modified by replacing the single turn main compression coil with an array of three-turn coils. Field reversed configurations (FRCs) have been formed at relatively low values of azimuthal electric field, where ohmic dissipation and axial compressive heating are substituted for the radial shock heating which is dominant in high voltage theta pinches. The longer magnetic field risetime has allowed various controls to be applied to the formation timing, so that the axial implosion can be made to coincide with the peak of the applied magnetic field. This 'programmed formation' control results in maximum plasma heating, and minimizes the formation dynamics

  16. Production of field-reversed plasma with a magnetized coaxial plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, W.C.; Granneman, E.H.A.; Hartman, C.W.; Prono, D.S.; Taska, J.; Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental data are presented on the production of field-reversed deuterium plasma by a modified coaxial plasma gun. The coaxial gun is constructed with solenoid coils along the inner and outer electrodes that, together with an external guide field solenoid, form a magnetic cusp at the gun muzzle. The net flux inside the inner electrode is arranged to be opposite the external guide field and is the source of field-reversed flux trapped by the plasma. The electrode length is 145 cm, the diameter of the inner (outer) electrode is 15 cm (32 cm). The gun discharge is driven with a 232-μF 40-kV capacitor bank. Acceleration of plasma through the magnetic cusp at the gun muzzle results in entrainment of field-reversed flux that is detected by magnetic probes 75 cm from the gun muzzle. Field-reversed plasma has been produced for a variety of experimental conditions. In one typical case, the guide magnetic field was B 0 =4.8 kG and the change in axial magnetic field ΔB/sub z/ normalized to B 0 was ΔB/sub z/ /B 0 =-3.1. Total field-reversed flux (poloidal flux) obtained by integrating ΔB/sub z/ profiles is in the range 2 x 10 3 kG cm 2 . Measurement of the orthogonal field component indicates a sizable toroidal field peaked off axis at rapprox. =10 cm with a magnitude of roughly one-half the poloidal field component that is measured on magnetic axis. Reconnection of the poloidal field lines has not been established for the data reported in the paper and will be addressed in future experiments which attempt to trap and confine the field-reversed plasma in a magnetic mirror

  17. Tokamak-like confinement at high beta and low field in the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarff, J S; Anderson, J K; Biewer, T M; Brower, D L; Chapman, B E; Chattopadhyay, P K; Craig, D; Deng, B; Hartog, D J Den; Ding, W X; Fiksel, G; Forest, C B; Goetz, J A; O'Connell, R; Prager, S C; Thomas, M A

    2003-01-01

    For several reasons, improved-confinement achieved in the reversed field pinch (RFP) during the last few years can be characterized as 'tokamak-like'. Historically, RFP plasmas have had relatively poor confinement due to tearing instability which causes magnetic stochasticity and enhanced transport. Tearing reduction is achieved through modification of the inductive current drive, which dramatically improves confinement. The electron temperature increases to >1 keV and the electron heat diffusivity decreases to approx. 5 m 2 s -1 , comparable with the transport level expected in a tokamak plasma of the same size and current. This corresponds to a 10-fold increase in global energy confinement. Runaway electrons are confined, and Fokker-Planck modelling of the electron distribution reveals that the diffusion at high energy is independent of the parallel velocity, uncharacteristic of stochastic transport. Improved-confinement occurs simultaneously with increased beta approx. 15%, while maintaining a magnetic field strength ten times weaker than a comparable tokamak. Measurements of the current, magnetic, and electric field profiles show that a simple Ohm's Law applies to this RFP sustained without dynamo relaxation

  18. Equilibrium poloidal-field distributions in reversed-field-pinch toroidal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.; Mann, L.W.; Schoenberg, K.F.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison between the approximate analytic formulae of Shafranov for equilibrium in axisymmetric toroidal systems and fully toroidal numerical solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equation for reversed-field-pinch (RFP) configurations is presented as a function of poloidal beta, internal plasma inductance, and aspect ratio. The Shafranov formula for the equilibrium poloidal-field distribution at the conducting shell that surrounds the plasma is accurate to within 5% for aspect ratios greater than 2, poloidal betas less than 50%, and for plasma current channels that exceed one third of the minor toroidal radius. The analytic description for the centre shift of the innermost flux surface that encloses the plasma current (the Shafranov shift) is accurate to within 15% for aspect ratios greater than 2 and poloidal betas below 50%, provided the shift does not exceed one tenth of the minor conducting boundary radius. The Shafranov formulae provide a convenient method for describing the gross equilibrium behaviour of an axisymmetric RFP discharge, as well as an effective tool for designing the poloidal-field systems of RFP experiments. (author)

  19. Electron transport in the stochastic fields of the reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.-H.; Punjabi, A.

    1996-01-01

    We employ the Monte Carlo method for the calculation of anomalous transport developed by Punjabi and Boozer to calculate the particle diffusion coefficient for electrons in the stochastic magnetic fields of the reversed-field pinch (RFP). In the Monte Carlo calculations represented here, the transport mechanism is the loss of magnetic surfaces due to resistive perturbations. The equilibrium magnetic fields are represented by the Bessel function model for the RFP. The diffusion coefficient D is calculated as a function of a, the amplitude of the perturbation. We see three regimes as the amplitude of the tearing modes is increased: the Rechester-Rosenbluth regime where D scales as a 2 ; the anomalous regime where D scales more rapidly than a 2 ; and the Mynick-Krommes regime where D scales more slowly than a 2 . Inclusion of the effects of loop voltage on the particle drift orbits in the RFP does not affect the intervals in the amplitude a where these regimes operate. (Author)

  20. Field-reversal experiments in the mirror fusion test facility (MFTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.; Condit, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed consideration of several aspects of a field-reversal experiment was begun in the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF): Model calculations have provided some plausible parameters for a field-reversed deuterium plasma in the MFTF, and a buildup calculation indicates that the MFTF neutral-beam system is marginally sufficient to achieve field reversal by neutral injection alone. However, the many uncertainties indicate the need for further research and development on alternate buildup methods. A discussion of experimental objectives is presented and important diagnostics are listed. The range of parameter space accessible with the MFTF magnet design is explored, and we find that with proper aiming of the neutral beams, meaningful experiments can be performed to advance toward these objectives. Finally, it is pointed out that if we achieve enhanced n tau confinement by means of field reversal, then quasi-steady-state operation of MFTF is conceivable

  1. Importance of field-reversing ion ring formation in hot electron plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikuta, K.

    1975-11-01

    Formation of the field reversing ion ring in the mirror confined hot electron plasma may offer a device to confine the fusion plasma even under the restriction of the present technology. (Author) (GRA)

  2. Observations of plasma tearing instabilities and associated axial translation in field-reversed experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, W.T.; Cochrane, J.C.; Lipson, J.; Tuszewski, M.

    1981-02-01

    Tearing and reconnection processes during the formation and quiescent periods of a field-reversed configuration are studied with an axial array of compensated diamagnetic loops. Several representative plasma shots are documented

  3. Flux loss during the equilibrium phase of field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuszewski, M.; Armstrong, W.T.; Bartsch, R.R.; Chrien, R.E.; Cochrane, J.C. Jr.; Kewish, R.W. Jr.; Klingner, P.; Linford, R.K.; McKenna, K.F.; Rej, D.J.; Sherwood, E.G.; Siemon, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Field-reversed configurations are consistently formed at low filling pressures in the FRX-C device, with decay time of the trapped flux after formation much larger than the stable period. This contrasts with previous experimental observations

  4. Flux loss during the equilibrium phase of field-reversed configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuszewski, M.; Armstrong, W.T.; Bartsch, R.R.; Chrien, R.E.; Cochrane, J.C. Jr.; Kewish, R.W. Jr.; Klingner, P.; Linford, R.K.; McKenna, K.F.; Rej, D.J.; Sherwood, E.G.; Siemon, R.E.

    1982-10-01

    Field-reversed configurations are consistently formed at low filling pressures in the FRX-C device, with decay time of the trapped flux after formation much larger than the stable period. This contrasts with previous experimental observations.

  5. A simple compact UHV and high magnetic field compatible inertial nanopositioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zongqiang; Li, Xiang; Xu, Lei; Rong, Zhou; Liu, Ruilan

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel simple piezoelectric nanopositioner which just has one piezoelectric scanner tube (PST) and one driving signal, using two short quartz rods and one BeCu spring which form a triangle to press the central shaft and can promise the nanopositioner's rigidity. Applying two pulse inverted voltage signals on the PST's outer and inner electrodes, respectively, according to the principle of piezoelectricity, the PST will elongate or contract suddenly while the central shaft will keep stationary for its inertance, so the central shaft will be sliding a distance relative to quartz rods and spring, and then withdraw the pulse voltages slowly, the central shaft will move upward or downward one step. The heavier of the central shaft, the better moving stability, so the nanopositioner has high output force. Due to its compactness and mechanical stability, it can be easily implanted into some extreme conditions, such as ultrahigh vacuum, ultralow temperature, and high magnetic field.

  6. Elastic-plastic analysis of the toroidal field coil inner leg of the compact ignition tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, T.

    1987-07-01

    Elastic-plastic analyses were made for the inner leg of the Compact Ignition Tokamak toroidal field (TF) coil, which is made of copper-Inconel composite material. From the result of the elastic-plastic analysis, the effective Young's moduli of the inner leg were determined by the analytical equations. These Young's moduli are useful for the three-dimensional, elastic, overall TF coil analysis. Comparison among the results of the baseline design (R = 1.324 m), the bucked pressless design, the 1.527-m major radius design, and the 1.6-m major radius design was also made, based on the elastic-plastic TF coil inner leg analyses

  7. Torus C-I field reversed theta-pinch at UNICAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, M.; Collares, M.P.; Honda, R.Y.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Scheid, V.H.B.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of multipole fields (octopole and quadrupole) on supressing the n=2 rotational instability, field reconnection, particle loss effects is studied, and the viability of transforming the theta-pinch from Campinas, Brazil (100Kv, 55Kj) to the field reversed theta-pinch with plasma translation program is analyzed. (E.G.) [pt

  8. Compact toroids with Alfvenic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhehui; Tang, X.Z.

    2004-01-01

    The Chandrasekhar equilibria form a class of stationary ideal magnetohydrodynamics equilibria stabilized by magnetic-field-aligned Alfvenic flows. Analytic solutions of the Chandrasekhar equilibria are explicitly constructed for both field-reversed configurations and spheromaks. Favorable confinement property of nested closed flux surfaces and the ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability of the compact toroids are of interest for both magnetic trapping of high energy electrons in astrophysics and confinement of high temperature plasmas in laboratory

  9. Necessary stability condition for field-reversed theta pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    Toroidal systems of arbitrary cross section without toroidal magnetic field are analyzed via the double adiabatic fluid equations. Such systems are shown to be unstable if there exists one closed field line on which the average of kapparB 2 is positive, where kappa is the curvature. A similar criterion is derived for linear systems and is applied to a noncircular z-pinch

  10. Global properties of ohmically heated reversed-field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, R.A.

    The simultaneous requirements of power balance and pressure balance have been considered. The treatment generalizes the Pease-Braginskii pinch current limit by including toroidal magnetic field, anomalous resistivity, nonradiative losses, and time-dependent fields. The rise of the temperature to a state of power balance proves to be amenable to a very simple and unified description. Finally, the practical parameter windows implied by the joint action of power balance and pressure balance are displayed

  11. Compressibility Effects in the Dynamics of the Reversed-Field Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.

    2008-01-01

    We study the reversed-field pinch through the numerical solution of the compressible magnetohydrodynamic equations. Two cases are investigated: In the first case the pressure is derived from an adiabatic condition, and in the second case the pressure equation includes heating terms due to resistivity and viscosity. In the adiabatic case a single helicity state is observed, and the reversed-field pinch configuration is formed for short time intervals and is finally lost. In the nonadiabatic case the system reaches a multiple helicity state, and the reversal parameter remains negative for a longer time. The results show the importance of compressibility in determining the large scale dynamics of the system

  12. Magnetic fluctuation driven cross-field particle transport in the reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, J.; Liu, D.

    1997-01-01

    Electrostatic and electromagnetic fluctuations generally cause cross-field particle transport in confined plasmas. Thus core localized turbulence must be kept at low levels for sufficient energy confinement in magnetic fusion plasmas. Reversed-field pinch (RFP) equilibria can, theoretically, be completely stable to ideal and resistive (tearing) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes at zero beta. Unstable resistive interchange modes are, however, always present at experimentally relevant values of the poloidal beta β θ . An analytical quasilinear, ambipolar diffusion model is here used to model associated particle transport. The results indicate that core density fluctuations should not exceed a level of about 1% for plasmas of fusion interest. Parameters of experimentally relevant stationary states of the RFP were adjusted to minimize growth rates, using a fully resistive linearized MHD stability code. Density gradient effects are included through employing a parabolic density profile. The scaling of particle diffusion [D(r)∝λ 2 n 0.5 T/aB, where λ is the mode width] is such that the effects of particle transport are milder in present day RFP experiments than in future reactor-relevant plasmas. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  13. Equilibrium poloidal field distributions in reversed-field-pinch toroidal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.; Mann, L.W.; Schoenberg, K.F.

    1982-04-01

    A comparison between the analytic formulae of Shafranov for equilibrium in axisymmetric toroidal reversed field pinch (RFP) systems and fully toroidal numerical solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equation is presented as a function of poloidal beta, internal plasma inductance, and aspect ratio. The Shafranov formula for the equilibrium poloidal field distribution is accurate to within 5% for aspect ratios greater than 2, poloidal betas less than 50%, and for plasma current channels that exceed one-third of the minor toroidal radius. The analytic description for the center shift of the innermost flux surface that encloses the plasma current (the Shafranov shift) is accurate to within 15% for aspect ratios greater than 2 and poloidal betas below 50%, provided the shift does not exceed one-tenth of the minor conducting boundary radius. The behavior of the magnetic axis shift as a function of plasma parameters is included. The Shafranov formulae provide a convenient method for describing the equilibrium behavior of an RFP discharge. Examples illustrating the application of the analytic formulae to the Los Alamos ZT-40M RFP experiment are given

  14. Modelling and experimental characterisation of a residual stress field in a ferritic compact tension specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenman, M.R.; Price, A.J.; Steuwer, A.; Chard-Tuckey, P.R.; Crocombe, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the work is to elucidate the influence of plasticity behaviour on the residual stress field in a ferritic reactor pressure vessel steel. To this end, we investigate two compressively pre-loaded compact tension (CT) specimens to generate a mechanical residual stress field. One specimen was subsequently pre-cracked by fatigue before both specimens were measured using high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. A fine grain size microstructure (∼5-10 μm grain size) allowed a small X-ray beam slit size and therefore gauge volume. The results provide an excellent data set for validation of finite element (FE) modelling predictions against which they have been compared. The results of both mechanical testing and modelling suggest that the use of a combined hardening model is needed to accurately predict the residual stress field present in the specimen after pre-loading. Some discrepancy between the modelled crack tip stress values and those found by X-ray diffraction remain which can be partly explained by volume averaging effects in the presence of very high stress/strain gradients.

  15. Modelling and experimental characterisation of a residual stress field in a ferritic compact tension specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenman, M.R., E-mail: m.wenman@imperial.ac.u [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Price, A.J. [Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences (J5), University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Steuwer, A. [ESS Scandinavia, Stora Algatan 4, 22350 Lund (Sweden) and Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Chard-Tuckey, P.R. [Nuclear Department, Defence College of Management and Technology, HMS Sultan, Gosport, Hants PO12 3BY (United Kingdom); Crocombe, A. [Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences (J5), University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of the work is to elucidate the influence of plasticity behaviour on the residual stress field in a ferritic reactor pressure vessel steel. To this end, we investigate two compressively pre-loaded compact tension (CT) specimens to generate a mechanical residual stress field. One specimen was subsequently pre-cracked by fatigue before both specimens were measured using high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. A fine grain size microstructure (approx5-10 mum grain size) allowed a small X-ray beam slit size and therefore gauge volume. The results provide an excellent data set for validation of finite element (FE) modelling predictions against which they have been compared. The results of both mechanical testing and modelling suggest that the use of a combined hardening model is needed to accurately predict the residual stress field present in the specimen after pre-loading. Some discrepancy between the modelled crack tip stress values and those found by X-ray diffraction remain which can be partly explained by volume averaging effects in the presence of very high stress/strain gradients.

  16. Polar Magnetic Field Reversals of the Sun in Maunder Minimum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    The data on polar migration of solar magnetic fields were obtained on the basis of. Η alpha magnetic synoptic charts for 1880 1991 using Kodaikanal, Kislovodsk and Italian observations, and Atlas of Η alpha charts (Mclntosh 1979; Makarov &. Fatianov 1980; Makarov & Sivaraman 1989; Makarov 1994). The Wolf numbers ...

  17. Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Yaglidere, Oguzhan; Su, Ting-Wei; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2011-01-21

    We demonstrate wide-field fluorescent and darkfield imaging on a cell-phone with compact, light-weight and cost-effective optical components that are mechanically attached to the existing camera unit of the cell-phone. For this purpose, we used battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to pump the sample of interest from the side using butt-coupling, where the pump light was guided within the sample cuvette to uniformly excite the specimen. The fluorescent emission from the sample was then imaged using an additional lens that was positioned right in front of the existing lens of the cell-phone camera. Because the excitation occurs through guided waves that propagate perpendicular to our detection path, an inexpensive plastic colour filter was sufficient to create the dark-field background required for fluorescent imaging, without the need for a thin-film interference filter. We validate the performance of this platform by imaging various fluorescent micro-objects in 2 colours (i.e., red and green) over a large field-of-view (FOV) of ∼81 mm(2) with a raw spatial resolution of ∼20 μm. With additional digital processing of the captured cell-phone images, through the use of compressive sampling theory, we demonstrate ∼2 fold improvement in our resolving power, achieving ∼10 μm resolution without a trade-off in our FOV. Further, we also demonstrate darkfield imaging of non-fluorescent specimen using the same interface, where this time the scattered light from the objects is detected without the use of any filters. The capability of imaging a wide FOV would be exceedingly important to probe large sample volumes (e.g., >0.1 mL) of e.g., blood, urine, sputum or water, and for this end we also demonstrate fluorescent imaging of labeled white-blood cells from whole blood samples, as well as water-borne pathogenic protozoan parasites such as Giardia Lamblia cysts. Weighing only ∼28 g (∼1 ounce), this compact and cost-effective fluorescent imaging platform

  18. Particle-in-cell simulations of Earth-like magnetosphere during a magnetic field reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, M. V. G.; Alves, M. V.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Schmitz, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    The geologic record shows that hundreds of pole reversals have occurred throughout Earth's history. The mean interval between the poles reversals is roughly 200 to 300 thousand years and the last reversal occurred around 780 thousand years ago. Pole reversal is a slow process, during which the strength of the magnetic field decreases, become more complex, with the appearance of more than two poles for some time and then the field strength increases, changing polarity. Along the process, the magnetic field configuration changes, leaving the Earth-like planet vulnerable to the harmful effects of the Sun. Understanding what happens with the magnetosphere during these pole reversals is an open topic of investigation. Only recently PIC codes are used to modeling magnetospheres. Here we use the particle code iPIC3D [Markidis et al, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 2010] to simulate an Earth-like magnetosphere at three different times along the pole reversal process. The code was modified, so the Earth-like magnetic field is generated using an expansion in spherical harmonics with the Gauss coefficients given by a MHD simulation of the Earth's core [Glatzmaier et al, Nature, 1995; 1999; private communication to L.E.A.V.]. Simulations show the qualitative behavior of the magnetosphere, such as the current structures. Only the planet magnetic field was changed in the runs. The solar wind is the same for all runs. Preliminary results show the formation of the Chapman-Ferraro current in the front of the magnetosphere in all the cases. Run for the middle of the reversal process, the low intensity magnetic field and its asymmetrical configuration the current structure changes and the presence of multiple poles can be observed. In all simulations, a structure similar to the radiation belts was found. Simulations of more severe solar wind conditions are necessary to determine the real impact of the reversal in the magnetosphere.

  19. Electric field and temperature scaling of polarization reversal in silicon doped hafnium oxide ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dayu; Guan, Yan; Vopson, Melvin M.; Xu, Jin; Liang, Hailong; Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin; Mueller, Johannes; Schenk, Tony; Schroeder, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    HfO 2 -based binary lead-free ferroelectrics show promising properties for non-volatile memory applications, providing that their polarization reversal behavior is fully understood. In this work, temperature-dependent polarization hysteresis measured over a wide applied field range has been investigated for Si-doped HfO 2 ferroelectric thin films. Our study indicates that in the low and medium electric field regimes (E < twofold coercive field, 2E c ), the reversal process is dominated by the thermal activation on domain wall motion and domain nucleation; while in the high-field regime (E > 2E c ), a non-equilibrium nucleation-limited-switching mechanism dominates the reversal process. The optimum field for ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) applications was determined to be around 2.0 MV/cm, which translates into a 2.0 V potential applied across the 10 nm thick films

  20. The paleomagnetic field and possible mechanisms for the formation of reversed rock magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trukhin, Vladimir I.; Bezaeva, Natalia; Kurochkina, Evgeniya

    2006-01-01

    Investigations of ancient magnetized rocks show that their natural remanent magnetization (NRM) can be oriented in the direction of modern geomagnetic field (GMF) as well as in the opposite direction. It is supposed that reversed NRM is related to reversals of the GMF in the past geological periods. During reversals, the strength of the GMF is near zero and can cause the destruction of living organisms as a result of powerful space and solar radiation, which, in the absence of the GMF, can reach the Earth's surface. That is why the question of reality of the GMF reversals is of global ecological importance. There is also another natural mechanism for the formation of reversed NRM-the self-reversal of magnetization as a result of thermomagnetization of rocks. In the paper, both natural processes for the formation of reversed NRM in rocks are discussed, and the results of experimental research on the physical mechanism of self-reversal of magnetization in continental and oceanic rocks are presented. The results of computer modeling of the self-reversal phenomenon are also presented

  1. The paleomagnetic field and possible mechanisms for the formation of reversed rock magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trukhin, Vladimir I. [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: trukhin@phys.msu.ru; Bezaeva, Natalia [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kurochkina, Evgeniya [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-05-15

    Investigations of ancient magnetized rocks show that their natural remanent magnetization (NRM) can be oriented in the direction of modern geomagnetic field (GMF) as well as in the opposite direction. It is supposed that reversed NRM is related to reversals of the GMF in the past geological periods. During reversals, the strength of the GMF is near zero and can cause the destruction of living organisms as a result of powerful space and solar radiation, which, in the absence of the GMF, can reach the Earth's surface. That is why the question of reality of the GMF reversals is of global ecological importance. There is also another natural mechanism for the formation of reversed NRM-the self-reversal of magnetization as a result of thermomagnetization of rocks. In the paper, both natural processes for the formation of reversed NRM in rocks are discussed, and the results of experimental research on the physical mechanism of self-reversal of magnetization in continental and oceanic rocks are presented. The results of computer modeling of the self-reversal phenomenon are also presented.

  2. Transport simulations of the oscillating field current drive experiment in the ZT-40M reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scardovelli, R.A.; Nebel, R.A.; Werley, K.A.; Miley, G.H.

    1987-01-01

    Oscillating Field Current Drive (OFCD) is based on the premise that in order to sustain a relaxing Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) plasma, one needs only to supply magnetic helicity at the same rate it is consumed. The purpose of this work is to try to better understand the possible mechanisms underlying these relaxations within the context of different kinds of resistive MHD instabilities

  3. Stable Alfven wave dynamo action in the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Recent advances in linear resistive MHD stability analysis are used to calculate the quasi-linear dynamo mean electromotive force of Alfven waves. This emf is incorporated into a one-dimensional transport and mean-field evolution code. The changing equilibrium is then fed back to the stability code to complete a computational framework that self-consistently evaluates a dynamic plasma dynamo. Static quasi-linear Alfven wave calculations have shown that dynamo emfs on the order of eta vector J are possible. This suggested a possible explanation of RFP behavior and a new (externally driven) mechanism for extending operation and controlling field profiles (possibly reducing plasma transport). This thesis demonstrates that the dynamo emf can quickly induce plasma currents whose emf cancels the dynamo effect. This thesis also contains extensive studies of resistive Alfven wave properties. This includes behavior versus spectral location, magnetic Reynolds number and wave number

  4. Polarized radial magnetic fields and outward plasma fluxes during shallow-reversal discharges in the ZT-40M reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.R.; Rusbridge, M.G.; Burkhardt, L.C.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of edge-region electromagnetic disturbances and of pulsed radial fluxes of plasma to the liner as well as the detailed interrelationship among these processes have been studied on the ZT-40M reversed-field pinch in its normal, shallow-reversal operating regime. The dominant magnetic disturbances are spiky (pulsewidth approx.5--10 μs) low-amplitude (Vertical BarB/sub r//B/sub theta/Vertical Bar -2 )= poloidally symmetric radial-field structures intersecting the vacuum wall and precessing toroidally in the anti-I/sub phi/ sense. The effect of even slight toroidal-field reversal (Vertical BarB/sub phi/(a)Vertical Barroughly-equalB/sub theta/(a)/10) is to polarize these radial-field spikes preferentially positive (i.e., B/sub r/>0) and to increase the speed of the minority (B/sub r/ 0) spikes. Synchronous with the polarized B/sub r/ spikes are intense radially outward fluxes of plasma (instantaneously > or approx. =10 22 m -2 s -1 ) leading to recurrent, large amplitude (Vertical BarΔn/n> or approx. =25%) depletion of the density in the outer quarter of minor radius. The resulting time-averaged global loss-rate per particle is significant (approx.10 3 s -1 )

  5. Compact magnetic confinement fusion: Spherical torus and compact torus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The spherical torus (ST and compact torus (CT are two kinds of alternative magnetic confinement fusion concepts with compact geometry. The ST is actually a sub-category of tokamak with a low aspect ratio; while the CT is a toroidal magnetic configuration with a simply-connected geometry including spheromak and field reversed pinch. The ST and CT have potential advantages for ultimate fusion reactor; while at present they can also provide unique fusion science and technology contributions for mainstream fusion research. However, some critical scientific and technology issues should be extensively investigated.

  6. Magnetic field induced flow pattern reversal in a ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-12-21

    We investigate the dynamics of ferrofluidic wavy vortex flows in the counter-rotating Taylor-Couette system, with a focus on wavy flows with a mixture of the dominant azimuthal modes. Without external magnetic field flows are stable and pro-grade with respect to the rotation of the inner cylinder. More complex behaviors can arise when an axial or a transverse magnetic field is applied. Depending on the direction and strength of the field, multi-stable wavy states and bifurcations can occur. We uncover the phenomenon of flow pattern reversal as the strength of the magnetic field is increased through a critical value. In between the regimes of pro-grade and retrograde flow rotations, standing waves with zero angular velocities can emerge. A striking finding is that, under a transverse magnetic field, a second reversal in the flow pattern direction can occur, where the flow pattern evolves into pro-grade rotation again from a retrograde state. Flow reversal is relevant to intriguing phenomena in nature such as geomagnetic reversal. Our results suggest that, in ferrofluids, flow pattern reversal can be induced by varying a magnetic field in a controlled manner, which can be realized in laboratory experiments with potential applications in the development of modern fluid devices.

  7. Theoretical and experimental studies of field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.; Hugrass, W.N.; Armstrong, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    The FRX-C/T formation region has been enlarged in diameter by 50%, and quasi-steady cusp coils have been installed to compare tearing and non-tearing formation. FRCs with significantly larger poloidal flux (≤8 mWb) and s (≤4) have been formed. However, their flux confinement was degraded compared with earlier FRX-C results. The n = 2 rotational instability has been completely suppressed on translated FRCs in FRX-C/T. Nearly equal stabilization thresholds were observed for straight and helical quadrupole fields, in contrast with another experiment

  8. Theoretical and experimental studies of field-reversed configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrien, R.E.; Hugrass, W.N.; Armstrong, W.T.; Caramana, E.J.; Lewis, H.R.; Linford, R.K.; Ling, K.M.; McKenna, K.F.; Rej, D.J.; Schwarzmeier, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The FRX-C/T formation region has been enlarged in diameter by 50%, and quasi-steady cusp coils have been installed to compare tearing and non-tearing formation. FRCs with significantly larger poloidal flux (less than or equal to8 mWb) and s (less than or equal to4) have been formed. However, their flux confinement was degraded compared with earlier FRX-C results. The n = 2 rotational instability has been completely suppressed on translated FRCs in FRX-C/T. Nearly equal stabilization thresholds were observed for straight and helical quadrupole fields, in contrast with another experiment.

  9. Non ideal instabilities in field reversed O-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, M.A.M.; Gomes, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Rotational instabilities and resistive tearing modes are the most striking modes observed in high temperature θ-pinches with zero orversed bias field. The configurations which have the effect of a rigid rotation of the plasma column are studied. Some recent experimental data indicate that an m=2 mode appears after the rotation reaches a critical value. It is shown that the growth rate of the m=2 mode may be greater than that of the m=1 resistive kink mode, depending on the experimental conditions. The result are applied to several experimental data in the literature. (author) [pt

  10. Statistical magnetohydrodynamics and reversed-field-pinch quiescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.

    1982-01-01

    A statistical model of a bounded, incompressible, cylindrical magnetofluid is presented. This model predicts the presence of magnetic fluctuations about a cylindrically-symmetric, Bessel-function-model, mean magnetic field, which satisfies del x = μ . As theta → 1.56, the model predicts that the significant region of the fluctuation spectrum narrows down to a single (coherent) m = 1 mode. An analogy between the Debye length of an electrostatic plasma and μ -1 suggests the physical validity o the model's prediction of when /r - r'/ greater than or equal to μ -1

  11. ARC: A compact, high-field, disassemblable fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbom, Brandon; Ball, Justin; Palmer, Timothy; Mangiarotti, Franco; Sierchio, Jennifer; Bonoli, Paul; Kasten, Cale; Sutherland, Derek; Barnard, Harold; Haakonsen, Christian; Goh, Jon; Sung, Choongki; Whyte, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable, Robust, Compact (ARC) reactor conceptual design aims to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a combined Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion pilot power plant. ARC is a 270 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils with joints to allow disassembly, allowing for removal and replacement of the vacuum vessel as a single component. Inboard-launched current drive of 25 MW LHRF power and 13.6 MW ICRF power is used to provide a robust, steady state core plasma far from disruptive limits. ARC uses an all-liquid blanket, consisting of low pressure, slowly flowing Fluorine Lithium Beryllium (FLiBe) molten salt. The liquid blanket acts as a working fluid, coolant, and tritium breeder, and minimizes the solid material that can become activated. The large temperature range over which FLiBe is liquid permits blanket operation at 800-900 K with single phase fluid cooling and allows use of a high-efficiency Brayton cycle for electricity production in the secondary coolant loop.

  12. Compact toroid challenge experiment with the increasing in the energy input into plasma and the level of trapped magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romadanov, I.V.; Ryzhkov, S.V., E-mail: ryzhkov@power.bmstu.ru

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Compact torus formation method with high level of magnetic flux is proposed. • A compact torus is produced in a theta-pinch-coil with pulse mode of operation. • Key feature is a pulse of current in an axial direction. • We report a level of linked magnetic flux is higher than theta-pinch results. - Abstract: The present work reports on compact toroid hydrogen plasma creation by means of a specially designed discharge system and results of magnetic fields introduction. Experiments in the compact toroid challenge (CTC) device at P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (FIAN) have been conducted since 2005. The CTC device differs from the conventional theta-pinch formation in the use of an axial current for enhanced efficiency. We have used a novel technique to maximize the flux linked to the plasma. The purpose of this method is to increase the energy input into the plasma and the level of trapped magnetic flux using an additional toroidal magnetic field. A study of compact torus formation with axial and toroidal currents was done and a new method is proposed and implemented.

  13. Current driven instabilities of the kinetic shear Alfven wave: application to reversed field pinches and spheromaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhofer, D.D.; Perkins, F.W.

    1984-04-01

    The kinetic Alfven wave is studied in a cylindrical force-free plasma with self-consistent magnetic fields. This equilibrium represents a reversed field pinch or a spheromak. The stability of the wave is found to depend on the ratio of the electron drift velocity to the Alfven velocity. This ratio varies inversely with the square root of the plasma line density. The critical line density using the Spitzer-Harm electron distribution function is found for reversed field pinches with deuterium plasmas to be approximately 2 x 10 18 m -1 and is 5 x 10 17 m -1 in spheromaks with hydrogen plasmas. The critical line density is in reasonable agreement with experimental data for reversed field pinches

  14. Edge plasmas and plasma/wall interactions in an ignition-class reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    A range of limiter, armor, and divertor options are examined as a means to minimize plasma/wall interactions for a high-power-density, ignition-class reversed field pinch. An open, toroidal-field divertor can operate at maximum powers, while isolating the core plasma from impurities and protecting the wall. 16 refs

  15. Chrometric properties of curvilinear beam transport channels with reverses of longitudinal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapchinskij, M.I.; Korenev, I.L.; Roginskij, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamics of charged particle beams in curvilinear transport channels comprising sections with counter direction of longitudinal focusing magnetic field is considered. It is shown that such magnetic field reverses reduce sufficiently the particle deflections conditioned by momentum spread of longitudinal motion and their application allows one to completely project the achromatic channel

  16. Passive Superconducting Flux Conservers for Rotating-Magnetic-Field-Driven Field-Reversed Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EOz, E.; Myers, C.E.; Edwards, M.R.; Berlinger, B.; Brooks, A.; Cohen, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Princeton Field-Reversed Configuration (PFRC) experiment employs an odd-parity rotating magnetic field (RMFo) current drive and plasma heating system to form and sustain high-β plasmas. For radial confinement, an array of coaxial, internal, passive, flux-conserving (FC) rings applies magnetic pressure to the plasma while still allowing radio-frequency RMF o from external coils to reach the plasma. The 3 ms pulse duration of the present experiment is limited by the skin time (τ fc ) of its room-temperature copper FC rings. To explore plasma phenomena with longer characteristic times, the pulse duration of the next-generation PFRC-2 device will exceed 100 ms, necessitating FC rings with τ fc > 300 ms. In this paper we review the physics of internal, discrete, passive FCs and describe the evolution of the PFRC's FC array. We then detail new experiments that have produced higher performance FC rings that contain embedded high-temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. Several HTS tape winding configurations have been studied and a wide range of extended skin times, from 0.4 s to over 10 3 s, has been achieved. The new FC rings must carry up to 3 kA of current to balance the expected PFRC-2 plasma pressure, so the dependence of the HTS-FC critical current on the winding configuration and temperature was also studied. From these experiments, the key HTS-FC design considerations have been identified and HTS-FC rings with the desired performance characteristics have been produced.

  17. Ohmic heating of the reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, R.

    1980-04-01

    Simple analytic expressions are found for the global heating rate and the time needed to achieve global power balance with radiation and other losses, in useful agreement with large RFP transport codes. A simple condition is noted, which insures that the heating can be accomplished before appreciable resistive evolution occurs in the pinch profile. The product of poloidal beta, β/sub theta/, and toroidal current, I, that characterizes a condition of global power balance is derived subject to the above-mentioned condition without making key assumptions used by earlier investigators. First, a perfectly steady state (with local power balance) is not assumed, nor is it appropriate to do so. Secondly, the cross-field resistivity is not required to be classical. Since the value of (β/sub theta/ I) plays a fundamental role in determining the kind of device one requires, the foundations of this value are important

  18. Observation of tilt asymmetries in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuszewski, M.; Barnes, D.C.; Klingner, P.; Ng, Chung.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, part of the experimental effort on the FRX-C/LSM device has been devoted to understanding why good FRC confinement is observed only in a narrow window of the operating parameter space (fill pressures less than 5 mtorr and bias fields less than 0.8--0.9 kG). The transition from good to bad confinement has been shown for some time to correlate with strong axial shocks, suggesting a formation or stability problem. More recently, FRC magnetic asymmetries have been observed whenever the confinement was poor. To gain further understanding, a 64-coil probe array was built, and data from over 700 discharges were collected during the summer of 1989. We summarize in this paper the results of a preliminary analysis of these data. 5 refs., 4 figs

  19. The future of subsidence modelling: compaction and subsidence due to gas depletion of the Groningen gas field in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thienen-Visser, K. van; Fokker, P.A.

    2017-01-01

    The Groningen gas field has shown considerable compaction and subsidence since starting production in the early 1960s. The behaviour is understood from the geomechanical response of the reservoir pressure depletion. By integrating surface movement measurements and modelling, the model parameters can

  20. Possible relationship between the Earth's rotation variations and geomagnetic field reversals over the past 510 Myr

    OpenAIRE

    Pacca, Igor G.; Frigo, Everton; Hartmann, Gelvam A.

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's rotation can change as a result of several internal and external processes, each of which is at a different timescale. Here, we present some possible connections between the Earth's rotation variations and the geomagnetic reversal frequency rates over the past 120 Myr. In addition, we show the possible relationship between the geomagnetic field reversal frequency and the δ18O oscillations. Because the latter reflects the glacial and interglacial periods, we hypothesize that it can...

  1. PIC simulations of post-pulse field reversal and secondary ionization in nanosecond argon discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. Y.; Gołkowski, M.; Gołkowski, C.; Stoltz, P.; Cohen, M. B.; Walker, M.

    2018-05-01

    Post-pulse electric field reversal and secondary ionization are investigated with a full kinetic treatment in argon discharges between planar electrodes on nanosecond time scales. The secondary ionization, which occurs at the falling edge of the voltage pulse, is induced by charge separation in the bulk plasma region. This process is driven by a reverse in the electric field from the cathode sheath to the formerly driven anode. Under the influence of the reverse electric field, electrons in the bulk plasma and sheath regions are accelerated toward the cathode. The electron movement manifests itself as a strong electron current generating high electron energies with significant electron dissipated power. Accelerated electrons collide with Ar molecules and an increased ionization rate is achieved even though the driving voltage is no longer applied. With this secondary ionization, in a single pulse (SP), the maximum electron density achieved is 1.5 times higher and takes a shorter time to reach using 1 kV 2 ns pulse as compared to a 1 kV direct current voltage at 1 Torr. A bipolar dual pulse excitation can increase maximum density another 50%–70% above a SP excitation and in half the time of RF sinusoidal excitation of the same period. The first field reversal is most prominent but subsequent field reversals also occur and correspond to electron temperature increases. Targeted pulse designs can be used to condition plasma density as required for fast discharge applications.

  2. Damping Dependence of Reversal Magnetic Field on Co-based Nano-Ferromagnetic with Thermal Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ananda Herianto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, hard disk development has used HAMR technology that applies heat to perpendicular media until near Curie temperature, then cools it down to room temperature. The use of HAMR technology is significantly influence by Gilbert damping constants. Damping affects the magnetization reversal and coercivity field. Simulation is used to evaluate magnetization reversal by completing Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert explicit equation. A strong ferromagnetic cobalt based material with size 50×50×20 nm3 is used which parameters are anisotropy materials 3.51×106 erg/cm3, magnetic saturation 5697.5 G, exchange constant 1×10-7 erg/cm, and various Gilbert damping from 0.09 to 0.5. To observe the thermal effect, two schemes are used which are Reduced Barrier Writing and Curie Point Writing. As a result, materials with high damping is able to reverse the magnetizations faster and reduce the energy barrier. Moreover, it can lower the minimum field to start the magnetizations reversal, threshold field, and probability rate. The heating near Curie temperature has succeeded in reducing the reversal field to 1/10 compared to writing process in absence of thermal field.

  3. Mode dynamics and confinement in the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunsell, P.R.; Bergsaker, H.; Brzozowski, J.H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J.R.; Malmberg, J.-A.; Scheffel, J.; Schnack, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    Tearing mode dynamics and toroidal plasma flow in the RFP has been experimentally studied in the Extrap T2 device. A toroidally localised, stationary magnetic field perturbation, the 'slinky mode' is formed in nearly all discharges. There is a tendency of increased phase alignment of different toroidal Fourier modes, resulting in higher localised mode amplitudes, with higher magnetic fluctuation level. The fluctuation level increases slightly with increasing plasma current and plasma density. The toroidal plasma flow velocity and the ion temperature has been measured with Doppler spectroscopy. Both the toroidal plasma velocity and the ion temperature clearly increase with I/N. Initial, preliminary experimental results obtained very recently after a complete change of the Extrap T2 front-end system (first wall, shell, TF coil), show that an operational window with mode rotation most likely exists in the rebuilt device, in contrast to the earlier case discussed above. A numerical code DEBSP has been developed to simulate the behaviour of RFP confinement in realistic geometry, including essential transport physics. Resulting scaling laws are presented and compared with results from Extrap T2 and other RFP experiments. (author)

  4. Recent results in the Los Alamos compact torus program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuszewski, M.; Armstrong, W.T.; Barnes, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    A Compact Toroid is a toroidal magnetic-plasma-containment geometry in which no conductors or vacuum-chamber walls pass through the hole in the torus. Two types of compact toroids are studied experimentally and theoretically at Los Alamos: spheromaks that are oblate in shape and contain both toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields, and field-reversed configurations (FRC) that are very prolate and contain poloidal field only

  5. Dual wavelength imaging of a scrape-off layer in an advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osin, D.; Schindler, T., E-mail: dosin@trialphaenergy.com [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688-7010 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A dual wavelength imaging system has been developed and installed on C-2U to capture 2D images of a He jet in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) of an advanced beam-driven Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma. The system was designed to optically split two identical images and pass them through 1 nm FWHM filters. Dual wavelength images are focused adjacent on a large format CCD chip and recorded simultaneously with a time resolution down to 10 μs using a gated micro-channel plate. The relatively compact optical system images a 10 cm plasma region with a spatial resolution of 0.2 cm and can be used in a harsh environment with high electro-magnetic noise and high magnetic field. The dual wavelength imaging system provides 2D images of either electron density or temperature by observing spectral line pairs emitted by He jet atoms in the SOL. A large field of view, combined with good space and time resolution of the imaging system, allows visualization of macro-flows in the SOL. First 2D images of the electron density and temperature observed in the SOL of the C-2U FRC are presented.

  6. Evaluation of using ferrofluid as an interface material for a field-reversible thermal connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Ahmed S.

    The electrical functionality of an avionics chassis is limited due to heat dissipation limits. The limits arise due to the fact that components in an avionic computer boxes are packed very compactly, with the components mounted onto plug-in cards, and the harsh environment experienced by the chassis limits how heat can be dissipated from the cards. Convective and radiative heat transfer to the ambient are generally not possible. Therefore it is necessary to have heat transferred from the components conducted to the edge of the plug-in cards. The heat then needs to conduct from the card edge to a cold block that not only holds the card in place, but also removes the generated heat by some heat transfer fluid that is circulated through the cold block. The interface between the plug-in card and the cold block typically has a high thermal resistance since it is necessary for the card to have the capability to be re-workable, meaning that the card can be removed and then returned to the chassis. Reducing the thermal resistance of the interface is the objective of the current study and the topic of this thesis. The current design uses a pressure interface between the card and cold block. The contact pressure is increased through the addition of a wedgelock, which is a field-reversible mechanical connector. To use a wedgelock, the cold block has channels milled on the surface with widths that are larger than the thickness of the plug-in card and the un-expanded wedgelock. The card edge is placed in the channel and placed against one of the channel walls. A wedgelock is then placed between the card and the other channel wall. The wedgelock is then expanded by using either a screw or a lever. As the wedgelock expands it fills in the remaining channel gap and bears against the other face of the plug-in card. The majority of heat generated by the components on the plug-in card is forced to conduct from the card into the wall of the cold block, effectively a single sided, dry

  7. Particle-confinement criteria for axisymmetric field-reversed magnetic configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, M.Y.; Miley, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Based on two constants of motion, H and Psub(theta), where H is the total energy of a particle and Psub(theta) is its canonical angular momentum, particle confinement criteria are derived which impose constraints on H and Psub(theta). With no electric field at the ends of field-reversed magnetic configurations, confinement criteria for closed-field and absolute confinements are obtained explicitly, including both lower and upper bounds of Psub(theta)/q, where q is the charge of the species considered, for a class of Hill's vortex field-reversed magnetic configurations. The commonly used criterion for the Hamiltonian, H 0 Psub(theta), where ω 0 is identical to qB 0 /mc, is deduced from a more general form as a special case. In this special case, it is found necessary to impose a new criterion, -B 0 R 2 sub(w)/2c 0 is the vacuum field, which reduces the confinement region in (H,Psub(theta)) space. With the presence of electric fields at the ends of field-reversed magnetic configurations, confinement criteria are obtained for two interesting cases. In addition to lower and upper bounds of H, both lower and upper bounds of Psub(theta)/q are found. For axially confined particles, the lower bound of Psub(theta)/q reduces the confinement region in (H,Psub(theta)) space and represents a new criterion. These results can be applied to calculations for field-reversed mirrors and field-reversed theta pinches. (author)

  8. Stochastic disk dynamo as a model of reversals of the Earth's magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    A stochastic model is given of a system composed of N similar disk dynamos interacting with one another. The time evolution of the system is governed by a master equation of the class introduced by van Kampen as relevant to stochastic macrosystems. In the model, reversals of the Earth's magnetic field are regarded as large deviations caused by a small random force of O(N/sup -1/2/) from one of the field polarities to the other. Reversal processes are studied by simulation, which shows that the model explains well the activities of the paleomagnetic field inclusive of statistical laws of the reversal sequence and the intensity distribution. Comparison are made between the model and dynamical disk dynamo models

  9. Irradiation and testing of compact ignition tokamak toroidal field coil insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, G.K.; Sherick, M.J.; Sparks, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    This report documents the results of an irradiation and testing program performed on behalf of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. in support of the Compact Ignition Tokamak Research and Development program. The purpose of the irradiation and testing program was to determine the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on the mechanical and electrical properties of candidate toroidal field coil insulation materials. Insulation samples were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in a large I-hole. The insulation samples were irradiated within a lead shield to reduce exposure to gamma radiation to better approximate the desired ration of neutron to gamma exposure. Two different exposure levels were specified for the insulation samples. To accomplish this, the samples were encapsulated in two separate aluminum capsules; the capsules positioned at the ATR core mid-plane and at the top of the fueled region to take advantage of the axial cosine distribution of the neutron and gamma flux; and by varying the length of irradiation time of the two capsules. Disassembly of the irradiated capsules and testing of the insulation samples were performed at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) Hot Cell Facilities. Testing of the samples included shear compression static, shear compression fatigue, flexure static, and electrical resistance measurements

  10. Curved sensors for compact high-resolution wide-field designs: prototype demonstration and optical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambion, Bertrand; Gaschet, Christophe; Behaghel, Thibault; Vandeneynde, Aurélie; Caplet, Stéphane; Gétin, Stéphane; Henry, David; Hugot, Emmanuel; Jahn, Wilfried; Lombardo, Simona; Ferrari, Marc

    2018-02-01

    Over the recent years, a huge interest has grown for curved electronics, particularly for opto-electronics systems. Curved sensors help the correction of off-axis aberrations, such as Petzval Field Curvature, astigmatism, and bring significant optical and size benefits for imaging systems. In this paper, we first describe advantages of curved sensor and associated packaging process applied on a 1/1.8'' format 1.3Mpx global shutter CMOS sensor (Teledyne EV76C560) into its standard ceramic package with a spherical radius of curvature Rc=65mm and 55mm. The mechanical limits of the die are discussed (Finite Element Modelling and experimental), and electro-optical performances are investigated. Then, based on the monocentric optical architecture, we proposed a new design, compact and with a high resolution, developed specifically for a curved image sensor including optical optimization, tolerances, assembly and optical tests. Finally, a functional prototype is presented through a benchmark approach and compared to an existing standard optical system with same performances and a x2.5 reduction of length. The finality of this work was a functional prototype demonstration on the CEA-LETI during Photonics West 2018 conference. All these experiments and optical results demonstrate the feasibility and high performances of systems with curved sensors.

  11. Detailed Jaramillo field reversals recorded in lake sediments from Armenia - Lower mantle influence on the magnetic field revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirscher, U.; Winklhofer, M.; Hackl, M.; Bachtadse, V.

    2018-02-01

    While it is well established that the Earth's magnetic field is generated by a self sustaining dynamo that reversed its polarity at irregular intervals in the geological past, the very mechanisms causing field reversals remain obscure. Paleomagnetic reconstructions of polarity transitions have been essential for physically constraining the underlying mechanisms in terms of time scale, but thus far remain ambiguous with regard to the transitional field geometry. Here we present new paleomagnetic records from a rapidly deposited lacustrine sediment sequence with extraordinarily stable paleomagnetic signals, which has captured in unprecedented detail the bottom (reverse to normal: R-N) and top (normal to reverse: N-R) transitions of the Jaramillo subchron (at 1.072 Ma and at 0.988 Ma). The obtained virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) path indicates an oscillatory transitional field behavior with four abrupt transequatorial precursory jumps across the Pacific. The distribution of VGP positions indicates regions of preferred occurrence. Our results are in agreement with previously proposed bands of transitional VGP occurrence over the Americas and Australia/northwest Pacific. Additionally, our VGP positions seem to avoid large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) above the core mantle boundary (CMB). Thus, our data supports the idea that the transitional field geometry is controlled by heat flux heterogeneities at the CMB linked to LLSVPs.

  12. Reversed-field pinch configuration with minimum energy and finite beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peng

    1989-01-01

    The reversed-field pinch (RFP) configuration has been studied for the case of finite beta. Suydam's condition and the sufficient criterion have been used to examine this configuration. Results of numerical calculations show that the critical value of the pinch parameter Θ for the appearance of the reverse toroidal field increases as the β-value increases. The critical value of Θ for the helical state increases with β as well. Suydam's and Robinson's stability regions increase and shift towards higher values of Θ with increasing β. Theoretical results for finite β coincide with recent RFP experimental results

  13. Application of the fluid dynamics model to the field of fibre reinforced self-compacting concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svec, Oldrich; Skocek, Jan; Stang, Henrik

    Ability to properly simulate a form filling process with steel fibre reinforced self-compacting concrete is a challenging task. Such simulations may clarify the evolution of fibre orientation and distribution which in turn significantly influences final mechanical properties of the cast body. We...... have developed such a computational model and briefly introduce it in this paper. The main focus of the paper is towards validation of the ability of the model to properly mimic the flow of the fibre reinforced self-compacting concrete. An experiment was conducted where a square slab was filled...... behaviour of the self-compacting fibre reinforced concrete....

  14. Mechanics of Ballast Compaction. Volume 3 : Field Test Results for Ballast Physical State Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    The important mechanical processes which influence the ballast physical state in track are tamping, crib and shoulder compaction and train traffic. Three methods of assessing physical state were used at four railroad sites to obtain needed data on th...

  15. On the reversal of the dipolar field of the sun and its possible implication for the reversal of the earth's field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.; Akasofu, S.

    1987-01-01

    Changes of the neutral line on the source surface (analogous to the magnetic dip equator of the earth) during the period between 1976 and 1983 are examined on the basis of the Stanford solar magnetic field data. Instead of the standard Mercator-like projection, the neutral line is shown on a spherical surface for 16 selected Carrington rotations. In spite of great complexity of the field variations, this presentation depicts clearly a fairly systematic rotational reversal of the dipolar field on the source surface during the sunspot maximum years. It is suggested that this solar situation is somewhat analogous to the planet earth in the sense that the core surface and the earth's surface may correspond to the photosphere and the source surface, respectively. Copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  16. Formation of a compact toroid for enhanced efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozgovoy, A. G. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Romadanov, I. V.; Ryzhkov, S. V., E-mail: ryzhkov@power.bmstu.ru [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    We report here our results on the formation of a plasma configuration with the generic name of compact toroid (CT). A method of compact toroid formation to confine, heat and compress a plasma is investigated. Formation of a compact torus using an additional toroidal magnetic field helps to increase the plasma current to a maintainable level of the original magnetic field. We design the Compact Toroid Challenge (CTC) experiment in order to improve the magnetic flux trapping during field reversal in the formation of a compact toroid. The level of the magnetic field immersed in the plasma about 70% of the primary field is achieved. The CTC device and scheme of high level capturing of magnetic flux are presented.

  17. On the origin of pre-reversal enhancement of the zonal equatorial electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Kelley

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In November 2004, a large and variable interplanetary electric field (IEF was felt in the reference frame of the Earth. This electric field penetrated to the magnetic equator and, when the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO was in the dusk sector, resulted in a reversal of the normal zonal component of the field. In turn, this caused a counter-electrojet (CEJ, a westward current rather than the usual eastward current. At the time of the normal pre-reversal enhancement (PRE of the eastward field, the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar (ISR observed that the westward component became even more westward. Two of the three current explanations for the PRE depend on the neutral wind patterns. However, this unique event was such that the neutral wind-driven dynamos could not have changed. The implication is that the Haerendel-Eccles mechanism, which involves partial closure of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ after sunset, must be the dominant mechanism for the PRE.

  18. Role of magnetic reconnection phenomena in the reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    The reversed-field pinch (RFP), an axisymmetric toroidal magnetic confinement experiment, has physics rich in the area commonly called field line reconnection or merging. This paper reviews the topics where reconnection plays a vital role: (a) RFP formation and the phenomenon of self-reversal, (b) RFP sustainment in which the RFP configuration has been shown to be capable of maintaining itself for times much longer than earlier predictions from classical resistive MHD theory, (c) steady state current drive in which dynamo action and associated reconnection processes give rise to the possibility of sustaining the configuration indefinitely by means of low frequency ac modulation of the toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields, (d) the effects of reconnection on the formation and evolution of the magnetic surfaces which are intimately related to the plasma containment properties. It appears that all phases of the RFP operation are intimately related to the reconnection and field regeneration processes similar to those encountered in space and astrophysics

  19. Time-resolved VUV spectroscopy in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedqvist, A.; Rachlew-Kaellne, E.

    1998-01-01

    Time-resolved VUV spectroscopy has been used to investigate the effects of impurities in a reversed field pinch operating with a resistive shell. Results of electron temperature, impurity ion densities, particle confinement time and Z eff together with a description of the interpretation and the equipment are presented. (author)

  20. Changes in transport and confinement in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallander, E.; Sallander, J.; Hedqvist, A.

    1999-09-01

    At the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch a non-intrusive approach has been undertaken to monitor transport driven by magnetic fluctuations. Correlations are presented between fluctuations observed in the core and at the edge of the plasma. The fluctuations are characterized and their effect on the confinement of core electron energy is estimated.

  1. Time-resolved VUV spectroscopy in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedqvist, Anders; Rachlew-Källne, Elisabeth

    1998-09-01

    Time-resolved VUV spectroscopy has been used to investigate the effects of impurities in a reversed field pinch operating with a resistive shell. Results of electron temperature, impurity ion densities, particle confinement time and 0741-3335/40/9/004/img1 together with a description of the interpretation and the equipment are presented.

  2. Changes in transport and confinement in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallander, E.; Sallander, J.; Hedqvist, A.

    1999-01-01

    At the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch a non-intrusive approach has been undertaken to monitor transport driven by magnetic fluctuations. Correlations are presented between fluctuations observed in the core and at the edge of the plasma. The fluctuations are characterized and their effect on the confinement of core electron energy is estimated. (author)

  3. Edge fluctuations in the MST [Madison Symmetric Torus] reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almagri, A.; Assadi, S.; Beckstead, J.; Chartas, G.; Crocker, N.; Den Hartog, D.; Dexter, R.; Hokin, S.; Holly, D.; Nilles, E.; Prager, S.; Rempel, T.; Sarff, J.; Scime, E.; Shen, W.; Spragins, C.; Sprott, J.; Starr, G.; Stoneking, M.; Watts, C.

    1990-10-01

    Edge magnetic and electrostatic fluctuations are measured in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch. At low frequency ( e > p e /p e where φ and p e are the fluctuating potential and pressure, respectively). From measurements of the fluctuating density, temperature, and potential we infer that the electrostatic fluctuation induced transport of particles and energy can be substantial. 13 refs., 11 figs

  4. Use of coaxial plasma guns to start up field-reversed-mirror reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.; Carlson, G.A.; Eddleman, J.L.; Hartman, C.W.; Neef, W.S. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Application of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun for start-up of a field-reversed-mirror reactor is considered. The design is based on preliminary scaling laws and is compared to the design of the start-up gun used in the Beta II experiment

  5. Computational study of the influence of mirror parameters on FRC (field-reversed configuration) equilibria:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, N.O.; Sakanaka, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    Field-reversed configuration equilibria are studied by solving the Grad-Shafranov equation. A multiple coil system (main coil and end mirrors) is considered to simulate the coil geometry of CNEA device. First results are presented for computed two-dimensional FRC equilibria produced varying the mirror coil current with two different mirror lenghts. (Author)

  6. Analytical study of a reversed-field pinch with rectangular cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peng

    1990-01-01

    An analyic solution of the force-free equation for a toroidal configuration of rectangular cross section is presented. It is shown that the critical value of contraction ratio for the appearance of a reversed field as well as of the ohmic current increases as the elongation of the cross section increases

  7. Experiments on the ZT-S reversed-field pinch, August--December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.R.

    1979-06-01

    During the latter half of 1978 the ZT-S reversed-field pinch was used to explore the utility of pitch-programming techniques in setting up stable diffuse pinch profiles. Several experimental observations relating to this goal are presented

  8. Hall magnetohydrodynamics simulations of end-shorting induced rotation in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macnab, A. I. D.; Milroy, R. D.; Kim, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2007-01-01

    End-shorting of the open field lines that surround a field-reversed configuration (FRC) is believed to contribute to its observed rotation. In this study, nonlinear extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations were performed that detail the end-shorting process and the resulting spin-up of the FRC. The tangential component of the electric field E T is set to zero at the axial boundaries in an extended MHD model that includes the Hall and ∇P e terms. This shorting of the electric field leads to the generation of toroidal fields on the open field lines, which apply a torque leading to a rotation of the ions on the open field lines. The FRC then gains angular momentum through a viscous transfer from the open field line region. In addition, it is shown that spin-up is still induced when insulating boundaries are assumed

  9. Production of field-reversed mirror plasma with a coaxial plasma gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C.W.; Shearer, J.W.

    The use of a coaxial plasma gun to produce a plasma ring which is directed into a magnetic field so as to form a field-reversed plasma confined in a magnetic mirror. Plasma thus produced may be used as a target for subsequent neutral beam injection or other similarly produced and projected plasma rings or for direct fusion energy release in a pulsed mode.

  10. Sudden motility reversal indicates sensing of magnetic field gradients in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lina M; Ruder, Warren C; Mitchell, Aaron P; Messner, William C; LeDuc, Philip R

    2015-06-01

    Many motile unicellular organisms have evolved specialized behaviors for detecting and responding to environmental cues such as chemical gradients (chemotaxis) and oxygen gradients (aerotaxis). Magnetotaxis is found in magnetotactic bacteria and it is defined as the passive alignment of these cells to the geomagnetic field along with active swimming. Herein we show that Magnetospirillum magneticum (AMB-1) show a unique set of responses that indicates they sense and respond not only to the direction of magnetic fields by aligning and swimming, but also to changes in the magnetic field or magnetic field gradients. We present data showing that AMB-1 cells exhibit sudden motility reversals when we impose them to local magnetic field gradients. Our system employs permalloy (Ni(80)Fe(20)) islands to curve and diverge the magnetic field lines emanating from our custom-designed Helmholtz coils in the vicinity of the islands (creating a drop in the field across the islands). The three distinct movements we have observed as they approach the permalloy islands are: unidirectional, single reverse and double reverse. Our findings indicate that these reverse movements occur in response to magnetic field gradients. In addition, using a permanent magnet we found further evidence that supports this claim. Motile AMB-1 cells swim away from the north and south poles of a permanent magnet when the magnet is positioned less than ∼30 mm from the droplet of cells. All together, these results indicate previously unknown response capabilities arising from the magnetic sensing systems of AMB-1 cells. These responses could enable them to cope with magnetic disturbances that could in turn potentially inhibit their efficient search for nutrients.

  11. Production of field-reversed mirror plasma with a coaxial plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Shearer, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a coaxial plasma gun to produce a plasma ring which is directed into a magnetic field so as to form a field-reversed plasma confined in a magnetic mirror. Plasma thus produced may be used as a target for subsequent neutral beam injection or other similarly produced and projected plasma rings or for direct fusion energy release in a pulsed mode

  12. Pioneer 7 observations of plasma flow and field reversal regions in the distant geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.C.; Villante, U.; Lazarus, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    We present the results of an extensive analysis of plasma and magnetic field data from Pioneer 7 taken in the geomagnetic tail approximately 1000 R/sub E/ downstream from earth. The principal observations are (1) measurable fluxes of protons in the tail, flowing away from earth, sometimes with a double-peaked velocity distribution; (2) field reversal regions in which the field changes from radial to antiradial by a vector rotation in the north-south plane; and (3) general characteristics of the tail similar to those observed near earth with good correlation between taillike magnetic fields and plasma

  13. Pioneer 7 observations of plasma flow and field reversal regions in the distant geomagnetic tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. C.; Lazarus, A. J.; Villante, U.

    1975-01-01

    The present paper gives the results of an extensive analysis of plasma and magnetic-field data from Pioneer 7 taken in the geomagnetic tail approximately 1000 earth radii downstream from earth. The principal observations are: (1) measurable fluxes of protons in the tail, flowing away from earth, sometimes with a double-peaked velocity distribution; (2) field reversal regions in which the field changes from radial to antiradial by a vector rotation in the north-south plane; and (3) general characteristics of the tail similar to those observed near earth with good correlation between taillike magnetic fields and plasma.

  14. CFRX, a one-and-a-quarter-dimensional transport code for field-reversed configuration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao Mingyuan

    1989-01-01

    A one-and-a-quarter-dimensional transport code, which includes radial as well as some two-dimensional effects for field-reversed configurations, is described. The set of transport equations is transformed to a set of new independent and dependent variables and is solved as a coupled initial-boundary value problem. The code simulation includes both the closed and open field regions. The axial effects incorporated include global axial force balance, axial losses in the open field region, and flux surface averaging over the closed field region. A typical example of the code results is also given. (orig.)

  15. Rapid Identification of Dengue Virus by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction Using Field-Deployable Instrumentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAvin, James C; Escamilla, Elizabeth M; Blow, James A; Turell, Micahel J; Quintana, Miguel; Bowles, David E; Swaby, James A; Barnes, William J; Huff, William B; Lahman, Kenton L

    2005-01-01

    ...) reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays were developed for screening and seroype identification of infected mosquito vectors and human sera using a field-deployable, fluorometric thermocycler...

  16. Configuration development of a hydraulic press for preloading the toroidal field coils of the Compact Ignition Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, V.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) is part of a national design team that is developing the conceptual design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT). To achieve a compact device with the minimum major radius, a vertical preload system is being developed to react the vertical separating force normally carried by the inboard leg of the toroidal field (TF) coils. The preload system is in the form of a hydraulic press. Challenges in the design include the development of hydraulic and structural systems for very large force requirements, which could interface with the CIT machine, while allowing maximum access to the top, bottom, and radial periphery of the machine. Maximum access is necessary for maintenance, diagnostics, instrumentation, and control systems. Materials used in the design must function in the nuclear environment and in the presence of high magnetic fields. This paper presents the configuration development of the hydraulic press used to vertically preload the CIT device

  17. Development of compact integral field unit for spaceborne solar spectro-polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Y.; Koyama, M.; Sukegawa, T.; Enokida, Y.; Saito, K.; Okura, Y.; Nakayasu, T.; Ozaki, S.; Tsuneta, S.

    2017-11-01

    A 1.5-m class aperture Solar Ultra-violet Visible and IR telescope (SUVIT) and its instruments for the Japanese next space solar mission SOLAR-C [1] are under study to obtain critical physical parameters in the lower solar atmosphere. For the precise magnetic field measurements covering field-of-view of 3 arcmin x3 acmin, a full stokes polarimetry at three magnetic sensitive lines in wavelength range of 525 nm to 1083 nm with a four-slit spectrograph of two dinesional image scanning mechanism is proposed: one is a true slit and the other three are pseudo-slits from integral field unit (IFU). To suit this configuration, besides a fiber bundle IFU, a compact mirror slicer IFU is designed and being developed. Integral field spectroscopy (IFS), which is realized with IFU, is a two dimensional spectroscopy, providing spectra simultaneously for each spatial direction of an extended two-dimensional field. The scientific advantages of the IFS for studies of localized and transient solar surface phenomena are obvious. There are in general three methods [2][3] to realize the IFS depending on image slicing devices such as a micro-lenslet array, an optical fiber bundle and a narrow rectangular image slicer array. So far, there exist many applications of the IFS for ground-based astronomical observations [4]. Regarding solar instrumentations, the IFS of micro-lenslet array was done by Suematsu et al. [5], the IFS of densely packed rectangular fiber bundle with thin clads was realized [6] and being developed for 4-m aperture solar telescope DKIST by Lin [7] and being considered for space solar telescope SOLAR-C by Katsukawa et al. [8], and the IFS with mirror slicer array was presented by Ren et al. [9] and under study for up-coming large-aperture solar telescope in Europe by Calcines et al. [10] From the view point of a high efficiency spectroscopy, a wide wavelength coverage, a precision spectropolarimetry and space application, the image slicer consisting of all reflective

  18. Reassessment of the requirements to obtain field reversal in mirror machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, D.E.; Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Requirements to obtain field reversal by neutral injection are re-examined to take account of a cancellation of currents at a field null caused by electron-ion collisions that drag the electrons along with the moving ions. We find that for cases of interest even a small admixture of higher-Z ions generates a residual current (the Ohkawa current) that is sufficient to maintain field reversal in steady state with a lifetime comparable to the usual magnetic diffusion time. An approximate prescription is given for buildup to such a state; namely, the neutral injection current must be sufficient to reduce the field to zero on axis with open confinement for an initial plasma radius of r 1 = 4r/sub Li/, where r/sub Li/ is the ion Larmor radius in the vacuum field. Again high-Z ions are needed to bring about the transition to a field-reversed state, r 1 = 4r/sub Li/ being the initial radius that minimizes the injection current needed to do this for a reasonable high-Z ion content (10% helium, or less of a higher-Z gas). Since 4r/sub Li/ is about 2 times the radius in past 2XIIB experiments, it is concluded that either the injection current or the energy confinement time must be substantially increased, by about a factor of 3, if field reversal is to be achieved in 2XIIB. Auxiliary injection by pulsed ion sources or plasma guns might reduce the current requirements significantly if 6 kilojoules of energy could be deposited in the plasma

  19. Effects of compressibility and heating in magnetohydrodynamics simulations of a reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.

    2009-01-01

    The reversed field pinch is studied using numerical simulations of the compressible magnetohydrodynamics equations. Contrary to what has been done in previous works, the hypotheses of constant density and vanishing pressure are not used. Two cases are investigated. In the first case the pressure is derived from an adiabatic condition and in the second case the pressure equation includes heating terms due to resistivity and viscosity. The evolution of the reversal parameter and the production of single helicity or multiple helicity states are different in the two cases. The simulations show that the results are affected by compressibility and are very sensitive to hypotheses on heat production.

  20. MHD computation of feedback of resistive-shell instabilities in the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zita, E.J.; Prager, S.C.

    1992-05-01

    MHD computation demonstrates that feedback can sustain reversal and reduce loop voltage in resistive-shell reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas. Edge feedback on ∼2R/a tearing modes resonant near axis is found to restore plasma parameters to nearly their levels with a close-fitting conducting shell. When original dynamo modes are stabilized, neighboring tearing modes grow to maintain the RFP dynamo more efficiently. This suggests that experimentally observed limits on RFP pulselengths to the order of the shell time can be overcome by applying feedback to a few helical modes

  1. Heating of field-reversed plasma rings estimated with two scaling models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, J.W.

    1978-05-18

    Scaling calculations are presented of the one temperature heating of a field-reversed plasma ring. Two sharp-boundary models of the ring are considered: the long thin approximation and a pinch model. Isobaric, adiabatic, and isovolumetric cases are considered, corresponding to various ways of heating the plasma in a real experiment by using neutral beams, or by raising the magnetic field. It is found that the shape of the plasma changes markedly with heating. The least sensitive shape change (as a function of temperature) is found for the isovolumetric heating case, which can be achieved by combining neutral beam heating with compression. The complications introduced by this heating problem suggest that it is desirable, if possible, to create a field reversed ring which is already quite hot, rather than cold.

  2. Paleomagnetic record of a geomagnetic field reversal from late miocene mafic intrusions, southern nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, C D; Geissman, J W; Perry, F V; Crowe, B M; Zeitler, P K

    1994-10-21

    Late Miocene (about 8.65 million years ago) mafic intrusions and lava flows along with remagnetized host rocks from Paiute Ridge, southern Nevada, provide a high-quality paleomagnetic record of a geomagnetic field reversal. These rocks yield thermoremanent magnetizations with declinations of 227 degrees to 310 degrees and inclinations of -7 degrees to 49 degrees , defining a reasonably continuous virtual geomagnetic pole path over west-central Pacific longitudes. Conductive cooling estimates for the intrusions suggest that this field transition, and mafic magmatism, lasted only a few hundred years. Because this record comes principally from intrusive rocks, rather than sediments or lavas, it is important in demonstrating the longitudinal confinement of the geomagnetic field during a reversal.

  3. Plasma-gun-assisted field-reversed configuration formation in a conical θ-pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, T. E., E-mail: tweber@lanl.gov; Intrator, T. P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Smith, R. J. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Injection of plasma via an annular array of coaxial plasma guns during the pre-ionization phase of field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation is shown to catalyze the bulk ionization of a neutral gas prefill in the presence of a strong axial magnetic field and change the character of outward flux flow during field-reversal from a convective process to a much slower resistive diffusion process. This approach has been found to significantly improve FRC formation in a conical θ-pinch, resulting in a ∼350% increase in trapped flux at typical operating conditions, an expansion of accessible formation parameter space to lower densities and higher temperatures, and a reduction or elimination of several deleterious effects associated with the pre-ionization phase.

  4. Plasma-gun-assisted field-reversed configuration formation in a conical θ-pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T. E.; Intrator, T. P.; Smith, R. J.

    2015-04-01

    Injection of plasma via an annular array of coaxial plasma guns during the pre-ionization phase of field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation is shown to catalyze the bulk ionization of a neutral gas prefill in the presence of a strong axial magnetic field and change the character of outward flux flow during field-reversal from a convective process to a much slower resistive diffusion process. This approach has been found to significantly improve FRC formation in a conical θ-pinch, resulting in a ˜350% increase in trapped flux at typical operating conditions, an expansion of accessible formation parameter space to lower densities and higher temperatures, and a reduction or elimination of several deleterious effects associated with the pre-ionization phase.

  5. Effects of spin-polarized current on pulse field-induced precessional magnetization reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-fu Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate effects of a small DC spin-polarized current on the pulse field-induced precessional magnetization reversal in a thin elliptic magnetic element by micromagnetic simulations. We find that the spin-polarized current not only broadens the time window of the pulse duration, in which a successful precessional reversal is achievable, but also significantly suppresses the magnetization ringing after the reversal. The pulse time window as well as the decay rate of the ringing increase with increasing the current density. When a spin-polarized current with 5 MA/cm2 is applied, the time window increases from 80 ps to 112 ps, and the relaxation time of the ringing decreases from 1.1 ns to 0.32 ns. Our results provide useful information to achieve magnetic nanodevices based on precessional switching.

  6. 40Ar/39Ar Dating of the Brunhes-Matuyama Geomagnetic Field Reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, A K; Hsu, V; McWilliams, M O; Farrar, E

    1992-04-17

    Magnetostratigraphic studies are widely used in conjunction with the geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) to date events in the range 0 to 5 million years ago. A critical tie point on the GPTS is the potassium-argon age of the most recent (Brunhes-Matuyama) geomagnetic field reversal. Astronomical values for the forcing frequencies observed in the oxygen isotope record in Ocean Drilling Project site 677 suggest that the age of this last reversal is 780 ka (thousand years ago), whereas the potassium-argon-based estimate is 730 ka. Results from 4039; Ar incremental heating studies on a series of lavas from Maui that straddle the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal give an age of 783 + 11 ka, in agreement with the astronomically derived value. The astronomically based technique appears to be a viable tool for dating young sedimentary sequences.

  7. FRC formation studies in a field reversed theta pinch with a variable length coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqueda, R.; Sobehart, J.; Rodrigo, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    The formation phase of field reversed configurations (FRC) produced using a theta pinch has received considerable attention lately in connection with the possibility of developing formation methods in time scales longer than the Alven radial time, which would permit the use of low-voltage technology and represent an important engineering simplification in the trend towards larger scale machines sup (1)). The mechanisms leading to the loss of trapped reversed flux during the preheating 2 ) and formation sup (3,4)) stages, looking for maximization of this quantity in order to improve on the stability and transport properties of the configuration in its final equilibrium state are investigated. As a result, semi-emperical scaling laws have been obtained relating the reversed flux loss with experimental operating parameters during the early stages of the formation process 1 ). (author) [pt

  8. Control of coercive field in lithium niobate crystals with repeated polarization reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Jung Hoon; Jeong, Doun; Park, Taeyong; Kim, Chulhan; Kwon, Soon-Bok; Cha, Myoungsik; Choi, Byeong Cheol; Yu, Nanei; Kurimura, Sunao; Jeon, Gyerok

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the amount of decrease in coercive field of congruent lithium niobate during repeated poling and back-poling was measured. The polarization is reversed in 300 ms and then back-poled during the rest period. The coercive field can be decreased around 1 kV/mm with a repeated poling interval of 5 s. As the interval prolonged, the poling field decrease became smaller, and a stretched exponential function is suggested for the experimental fitting resulting in a set of meaningful parameters. These values are essential for the design of high quality domain engineering

  9. Carbon Nanotube Field Emitters Synthesized on Metal Alloy Substrate by PECVD for Customized Compact Field Emission Devices to Be Used in X-Ray Source Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjun Park

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a simple, efficient, and economical process is reported for the direct synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT field emitters on metal alloy. Given that CNT field emitters can be customized with ease for compact and cold field emission devices, they are promising replacements for thermionic emitters in widely accessible X-ray source electron guns. High performance CNT emitter samples were prepared in optimized plasma conditions through the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD process and subsequently characterized by using a scanning electron microscope, tunneling electron microscope, and Raman spectroscopy. For the cathode current, field emission (FE characteristics with respective turn on (1 μA/cm2 and threshold (1 mA/cm2 field of 2.84 and 4.05 V/μm were obtained. For a field of 5.24 V/μm, maximum current density of 7 mA/cm2 was achieved and a field enhancement factor β of 2838 was calculated. In addition, the CNT emitters sustained a current density of 6.7 mA/cm2 for 420 min under a field of 5.2 V/μm, confirming good operational stability. Finally, an X-ray generated image of an integrated circuit was taken using the compact field emission device developed herein.

  10. A self-organized plasma with induction, reconnection, and injection techniques: the SPIRIT concept for field reversed configuration research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masaaki; JI, Hantao; Gerhardt, Stefan P.; Belova, Elena V.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Mikkelsen, David R.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive research concept, known as SPIRIT, is described for the investigation of the formation, stability, and sustainment of oblate field reversed configurations (FRCs). This concept, whose name stands for Self-organized Plasma with Induction, Reconnection, and Injection Techniques (SPIRIT), allows for the study of FRC stability properties on time scales much longer than the energy confinement time. Counter-helicity merging of inductively formed spheromaks is utilized to form large-flux FRCs. These FRCs are sustained by neutral beam injection with the initial aid of compact ohmic solenoids. Stability to n=1 tilt/shift modes is provided by plasma shaping and conducting shells. Stability to n ≥ 2 co-interchange modes is achieved by a distribution of high-energy non-thermal ions provided by the neutral beam. The combination of plasma shaping, conducting shells, current sustainment, and the non-thermal beam component are expected to lead to a configuration with stability to all global MHD modes, a regime recently discovered through hybrid-MHD simulation using the HYM code. An experimental test of the concept, utilizing the existing Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) facility, is described. Initial experiments in MRX have confirmed the viability of the SPIRIT concept, and calculations indicate that the confinement of high-energy ions in MRX should be sufficient to test the SPIRIT concept. (author)

  11. Electric field controlled reversible magnetic anisotropy switching studied by spin rectification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hengan; Fan, Xiaolong, E-mail: fanxiaolong@lzu.edu.cn; Wang, Fenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Rao, Jinwei; Zhao, Xiaobing; Xue, Desheng [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2014-03-10

    In this letter, spin rectification was used to study the electric field controlled dynamic magnetic properties of the multiferroic composite which is a Co stripe with induced in-plane anisotropy deposited onto a Pb(Mg{sub 1∕3}Nb{sub 2∕3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} substrate. Due to the coupling between piezoelectric and magnetoelastic effects, a reversible in-plane anisotropy switching has been realized by varying the history of the applied electric field. This merit results from the electric hysteresis of the polarization in the nonlinear piezoelectric regime, which has been proved by a butterfly type electric field dependence of the in-plane anisotropy field. Moreover, the electric field dependent effective demagnetization field and linewidth have been observed at the same time.

  12. Electric field controlled reversible magnetic anisotropy switching studied by spin rectification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hengan; Fan, Xiaolong; Wang, Fenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Rao, Jinwei; Zhao, Xiaobing; Xue, Desheng; Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M.

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, spin rectification was used to study the electric field controlled dynamic magnetic properties of the multiferroic composite which is a Co stripe with induced in-plane anisotropy deposited onto a Pb(Mg 1∕3 Nb 2∕3 )O 3 -PbTiO 3 substrate. Due to the coupling between piezoelectric and magnetoelastic effects, a reversible in-plane anisotropy switching has been realized by varying the history of the applied electric field. This merit results from the electric hysteresis of the polarization in the nonlinear piezoelectric regime, which has been proved by a butterfly type electric field dependence of the in-plane anisotropy field. Moreover, the electric field dependent effective demagnetization field and linewidth have been observed at the same time

  13. Effect of double-shell structure on reduction of field errors in the STP-3(M) reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, S.; Masamune, S.; Nagata, A.; Arimoto, H.; Oshiyama, H.; Sato, K.I.

    1988-08-01

    Reversed-field pinch (RFP) operation on STP-3 (M) proved that the adition of a quasistational vertical field B sub(perpendicular) together with large reduction of irregular magnetic field at the shell gap could remarkably improve properties of the plasma confinement. Here, the gaps of a thick shell is wholely covered with the single primary coil having a shell shape. The measured field error at the gap is as small as 7.5 % of the poloidal field. The application of B sub(perpendicular) sets the plasma at a more perfect equilibrium. In this operation, the plasma resistivety much decreased by a factor 2 and the electron temperature rose up to 0.8 keV. (author)

  14. Macroscopic electromagnetic properties of the Irvine Field-Reversed Configuration: Equilibrium, power balance and fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Erik Harold

    The plasma parameters and characteristics of the Irvine Field-Reversed Configuration (IFRC) are summarized in this thesis. Particular emphasis is placed on the development of the different diagnostics used to make measurements in the experiment, as well as the measurements themselves. Whenever possible, actual measurements are used in lieu of theoretical or analytical fits to data. Analysis of magnetic probes (B-dots) comprises the bulk of what is known about the IFRC. From these B-dot probes, the magnetic field structure in a two dimensional plane at constant toroidal position has been determined, and has been found to be consistent with a field-reversed configuration. Peak reversed fields of approximately 250 Gauss have been observed. Further analyses have been developed to extract information from the magnetic field structure, including components of the electric field, the current density, and plasma pressure in the same two dimensional plane. Electric field magnitudes reach 600 V/m, concurrent with current densities greater than 105 Amps/m2 and thermal pressures over 200 Pa. Spectroscopic analysis of hydrogen lines has been done to make estimates of the electron temperature, while spectroscopic measurements of the Doppler broadening of the Halpha line31 have allowed an estimate of the ion temperature. Particle losses out one axial end plane measured by an array of Faraday cups quantify the how well the configuration traps particles. Spectral information derived from B-dot probes indicates that there is substantial power present at frequencies lying between the hydrogen cyclotron and mean gyrofrequency. These various measurements are used to find the following parameters that characterize the Irvine FRC: (1) Electromagnetic and thermal stored energies as functions of time. (2) Power balance, including input power from the field coils, resistive heating, power lost by particle transport and radiation, and particle and energy confinement times. (3) Strong

  15. Electron currents in field reversed mirror dynamics: Theory and hybrid simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    To model the dynamics of the Field-Reversed Mirror (FRM) as a whole we have developed a 1-D radical hybrid code which also incorporates the above electron null current model. This code, named FROST, models the plasma as azimuthally symmetric with no axial dependence. A multi-group method in energy and canonical angular momentum describes the large-orbit ions from the beam. Massless fluid equations describe electrons and low energy ions. Since a fluid treatment for electrons is invalid near a field null, the null region electron current model discussed above has been included for this region, a unique feature. Results of simulation of neutral beam start-up in a 2XIIB-like plasma is discussed. There FROST predicts that electron currents will retard, but not prevent reversal of the magnetic field at the plasma center. These results are optimistic when compared to actual reversal experiments in 2XIIB, because there finite axial length effects and micro-instabilities substantially deteriorated the ion confinement. Nevertheless, because of the importance of the electron current in a low field region in the FRM, FROST represents a valuable intermediate step toward a more complete description of FRM dynamics. 54 refs., 50 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Compact vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Marques, M.A.; Zafalan, I. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    We study a family of Maxwell-Higgs models, described by the inclusion of a function of the scalar field that represent generalized magnetic permeability. We search for vortex configurations which obey first-order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. We first deal with the asymptotic behavior of the field configurations, and then implement a numerical study of the solutions, the energy density and the magnetic field. We work with the generalized permeability having distinct profiles, giving rise to new models, and we investigate how the vortices behave, compared with the solutions of the corresponding standard models. In particular, we show how to build compact vortices, that is, vortex solutions with the energy density and magnetic field vanishing outside a compact region of the plane. (orig.)

  17. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming; Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  18. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xu, E-mail: emmazhang103@gmail.com [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir [BEST Cyclotron Inc (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN–LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  19. Plasma current sustained by fusion charged particles in a field reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Momota, H.; Tajima, T.

    1987-04-01

    The distribution of energetic charged particles generated by thermonuclear fusion reactions in a field reversed configuration (FRC) are studied analytically and numerically. A fraction of the charged fusion products escapes directly while the others are trapped to form a directed particle flow parallel to the plasma current. It is shown that the resultant current density produced by these fusion charged particles can be comparable to background plasma current density that produces the original field reversed configuration in a D- 3 He reactor. Self-consistent equilibria arising from the currents of the background plasma and proton fusion products are constructed where the Larmor radius of the fusion product is of arbitrary size. Reactor relevant parameters are examined, such as how the fusion reactivity rate varies as a result of supporting the pressure associated with the fusion products. We also model the synchrotron emission from various pressure profiles and quantitatively show how synchrotron losses vary with different pressure profiles in an FRC configuration

  20. Method and apparatus for producing average magnetic well in a reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, T.

    1983-01-01

    A magnetic well reversed field plasma pinch method and apparatus produces hot magnetically confined pinch plasma in a toroidal chamber having a major toroidal axis and a minor toroidal axis and a small aspect ratio, e.g. < 6. A pinch current channel within the plasma and at least one hyperbolic magnetic axis outside substantially all of the plasma form a region of average magnetic well in a region surrounding the plasma current channel. The apparatus is operated so that reversal of the safety factor q and of the toroidal magnetic field takes place within the plasma. The well-producing plasma cross section shape is produced by a conductive shell surrounding the shaped envelope and by coils. A shell is of copper or aluminium with non-conductive breaks, and is bonded to a thin aluminium envelope by silicone rubber. (author)

  1. High Fidelity Modeling of Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) Thrusters (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-24

    THRUSTERS (Briefing Charts) Robert Martin , Eder Sousa, Jonathan Tran Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RQRS 1 Ara Drive Edwards AFB, CA 93524... Martin N/A HIGH FIDELITY MODELING OF FIELD-REVERSED CONFIGURATION (FRC) THRUSTERS Robert Martin1, Eder Sousa2, Jonathan Tran2 1AIR FORCE RESEARCH...Distribution is unlimited. PA Clearance No. 17314 MARTIN , SOUSA, TRAN (AFRL/RQRS) DISTRIBUTION A - APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. PA

  2. Enhanced confinement with plasma biasing in the MST reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.; Almagri, A.F.; Anderson, J.K.

    1997-06-01

    We report an increase in particle confinement with plasma biasing in a reversed field pinch. Miniature plasma sources are used as electrodes to negatively bias the plasma at the edge (r/a ∼ 0.9). Particle content increases and H α radiation decreases upon application of bias and global particle confinement roughly doubles as a result. Measurements of plasma potential, impurity flow, and floating potential fluctuations indicate that strong flows are produced and that electrostatic fluctuations are reduced

  3. Final report for the field-reversed configuration power plant critical-issue scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarius, John F.; Mogahed, Elsayed A.; Emmert, Gilbert A.; Khater, Hesham Y.; Nguyen, Canh N.; Ryzhkov, Sergei V.; Stubna, Michael D.; Steinhauer, Loren C.; Miley, George H.

    2001-03-01

    This report describes research in which a team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Washington, and Illinois performed a scoping study of critical issues for field-reversed configuration (FRC) power plants. The key tasks for this research were (1) systems analysis of deuterium-tritium (D-T) FRC fusion power plants, and (2) conceptual design of the blanket and shield module for an FRC fusion core.

  4. Electron density and temperature profile diagnostics for C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, B. H.; Kinley, J. S.; Schroeder, J. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The 9-point Thomson scattering diagnostic system for the C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas is improved and the measured electron temperature profiles are consistent with theoretical expectations. Rayleigh scattering revealed a finite line width of the ruby laser emission, which complicates density calibration. Taking advantage of the plasma wobble motion, density profile reconstruction accuracy from the 6-chord two-color CO{sub 2}/HeNe interferometer data is improved.

  5. Kink stability of a field-reversed ion layer in a background plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, A.; Sudan, R.N.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Engquist, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    By means of the two-fluid energy principle, the kink stability boundary of a field-reversed ion layer of arbitrary thickness immersed in a dense low-temperature background plasma is investigated theoretically. This system is found to have a stability window against kinks. The dependence of the kink stability regime on the equilibrium properties of the system is also shown. In the thin layer limit, a comparison is made between the previous theories and the present theory

  6. The reversal of the Sun’s magnetic field in cycle 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mordvinov A.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of synoptic data from the Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM of the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS and the NASA/NSO Spectromagnetograph (SPM at the NSO/Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope facility shows that the reversals of solar polar magnetic fields exhibit elements of a stochastic process, which may include the development of specific patterns of emerging magnetic flux, and the asymmetry in activity between Northern and Southern hemispheres. The presence of such irregularities makes the modeling and prediction of polar field reversals extremely hard if possible. In a classical model of solar activity cycle, the unipolar magnetic regions (UMRs of predominantly following polarity fields are transported polewards due to meridional flows and diffusion. The UMRs gradually cancel out the polar magnetic field of the previous cycle, and rebuild the polar field of opposite polarity setting the stage for the next cycle. We show, however, that this deterministic picture can be easily altered by the developing of a strong center of activity, or by the emergence of an extremely large active region, or by a ‘strategically placed’ coronal hole. We demonstrate that the activity occurring during the current cycle 24 may be the result of this randomness in the evolution of the solar surface magnetic field.

  7. Effects of Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity in Magnetohydrodynamics Simulations of a Reversed-Field Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.

    2010-01-01

    A compressible magnetohydrodynamics simulation of the reversed-field pinch is performed including anisotropic thermal conductivity. When the thermal conductivity is much larger in the direction parallel to the magnetic field than in the perpendicular direction, magnetic field lines become isothermal. As a consequence, as long as magnetic surfaces exist, a temperature distribution is observed displaying a hotter confined region, while an almost uniform temperature is produced when the magnetic field lines become chaotic. To include this effect in the numerical simulation, we use a multiple-time-scale analysis, which allows us to reproduce the effect of a large parallel thermal conductivity. The resulting temperature distribution is related to the existence of closed magnetic surfaces, as observed in experiments. The magnetic field is also affected by the presence of an anisotropic thermal conductivity.

  8. Electrical design of a high current density air-core reversed-field pinch ''ZTP''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reass, W.A.; Cribble, R.F.; Melton, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the electrical design of a small, high current density (10 MA/m 2 ) toroidal reversed-field Z-Pinch (RFP) presently being constructed at Los Alamos. Special purpose magnetic field programs were used to calculate self and mutual inductances for the poloidal field windings. The network analysis program MINI-SCEPTRE was then used to predict plasma current, including the interaction between toroidal and poloidal field circuits, as described by the Bessel function model for RFP's. Using these programs, coil geometry was obtained for minimal field errors and the pulse power systems were optimized to minimize equilibrium control power. Results of computer modeling and implementation of the electrical circuits are presented

  9. Ohm close-quote s law for plasmas in reversed field pinch configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martines, E.; Vallone, F.

    1997-01-01

    An analytical relationship between current density and applied electric field in reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas has been derived in the framework of the kinetic dynamo theory, that is assuming a radial field-aligned momentum transport caused by the magnetic field stochasticity. This Ohm close-quote s law yields current density profiles with a poloidal current density at the edge which can sustain the magnetic field configuration against resistive diffusion. The dependence of the loop voltage on plasma current and other plasma parameters for RFP experiments has been obtained. The results of the theoretical work have been compared with experimental data from the RFX experiment, and a good agreement has been found. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Electrical design of a high current density air-core reversed-field pinch ZTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reass, W.A.; Melton, J.G.; Gribble, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the electrical design of a small, high current density (10 MA/m 2 ) toroidal reversed-field Z-Pinch (RFP) presently being constructed at Los Alamos. Special purpose magnetic field programs were used to calculate self and mutual inductances for the poloidal field windings. The network analysis program MINI-SCEPTRE was then used to predict plasma current, including the interaction between toroidal and poloidal field circuits, as described by the Bessel function model for RFP's. Using these programs, coil geometry was obtained for minimal field errors and the pulse power systems were optimized to minimize equilibrium control power. Results of computer modeling and implementation of the electrical circuits are presented

  11. Measurement of core velocity fluctuations and the dynamo in a reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, D.J.; Craig, D.; Fiksel, G.; Fontana, P.W.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Chapman, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Plasma flow velocity fluctuations have been directly measured in the high temperature magnetically confined plasma in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP). These measurements show that the flow velocity fluctuations are correlated with magnetic field fluctuations. This initial measurement is subject to limitations of spatial localization and other uncertainties, but is evidence for sustainment of the RFP magnetic field configuration by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo. Both the flow velocity and magnetic field fluctuations are the result of global resistive MHD modes of helicity m = 1, n = 5--10 in the core of MST. Chord-averaged flow velocity fluctuations are measured in the core of MST by recording the Doppler shift of impurity line emission with a specialized high resolution and throughput grating spectrometer. Magnetic field fluctuations are recorded with a large array of small edge pickup coils, which allows spectral decomposition into discrete modes and subsequent correlation with the velocity fluctuation data

  12. Electron Acceleration in the Field-reversed Configuration (FRC) by Slowly Rotation Odd-parity Magnetic Fields (RMFo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, A.H.; Cohen, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    The trajectories of individual electrons are studied numerically in a 3D, prolate, FRC [field-reversed configuration] equilibrium magnetic geometry with added small-amplitude, slowly rotating, odd-parity magnetic fields (RMFos). RMFos cause electron heating by toroidal acceleration near the O-point line and by field-parallel acceleration away from it, both followed by scattering from magnetic-field inhomogeneities. Electrons accelerated along the O-point line move antiparallel to the FRC's current and attain average toroidal angular speeds near that of the RMFo, independent of the sense of RMFo rotation. A conserved transformed Hamiltonian, dependent on electron energy and RMFo sense, controls electron flux-surface coordinate

  13. Flow Field Dynamics in a High-g Ultra-Compact Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Aeronautics and Astronautics Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and...exceeded 10%, more than double the accepted state -of-the- art value of 5%. By way of a 2D CFD optimization, the ID of the centerbody was modified to create... States . 14. ABSTRACT The Ultra Compact Combustor (UCC) presents a novel solution to the advancement of aircraft gas turbine engine performance. A

  14. Poloidal field system design for the ZT-H reversed field pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberg, K.F.; Gribble, R.F.; Linton, T.W.; Reass, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    This report discusses each of the following areas: (1) equilibrium specification, (2) the equilibrium winding, (3) the magnetizing winding, (4) numerical poloidal field system analysis, (5) coil cross section, turns, minimum field error, (6) coil stresses and cooling, (7) the upper structure, (8) the loads, (9) boundary conditions and method of analysis, and (10) design description

  15. Proceedings of the third symposium on the physics and technology of compact toroids in the magnetic fusion energy program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemon, R.E.

    1981-03-01

    This document contains papers contributed by the participants of the Third Symposium on Physics and Technology of Compact Toroids in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. Subjects include reactor aspects of compact toroids, energetic particle rings, spheromak configurations (a mixture of toroidal and poloidal fields), and field-reversed configurations

  16. END effects on the n = 2 rotational instability in the reversed field theta-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Y.; Wu, Ch.; Himeno, S.; Hirano, K.

    1981-07-01

    It is observed that n = 2 rotational mode which appears in the field reversed configuration created by a theta-pinch can be stabilized if the ejected plasmas from the ends are guided out to the far ends of the apparatus by long axial solenoidal fields. This is understood from the fact that endshorting becomes no longer possible before the ejecting plasma tips reach to the ends. Measurement of plasma rotations just outside the separatrix suggests that both preferential diffusion loss and endshorting play a very important role for the n = 2 mode. (author)

  17. The separatrix radius measurement of field-reversed configuration plasma in FRX-L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shouyin; Tejero, Erik M.; Taccetti, Jose Martin; Wurden, Glen A.; Intrator, Thomas; Waganaar, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic pick-up coils and single turn flux loops are installed on the FRX-L device. The combination of the two measurements provides the excluded flux radius that approximates the separatrix radius of the field-reversed configuration plasma. Arrays of similar probes are used to map out local magnetic field dynamics beyond both ends of the theta-coil confinement region to help understand the effects of cusp locations on flux trapping during the FRC formation process. Details on the probe design and system calibrations are presented. The overall system calibration of excluded flux radius measurement is examined by replacing FRC plasma with a known radius aluminum conductor cylinder.

  18. Alpha effect of Alfven waves and current drive in reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litwin, C.; Prager, S.C.

    1997-10-01

    Circularly polarized Alfven waves give rise to an α-dynamo effect that can be exploited to drive parallel current. In a open-quotes laminarclose quotes magnetic the effect is weak and does not give rise to significant currents for realistic parameters (e.g., in tokamaks). However, in reversed field pinches (RFPs) in which magnetic field in the plasma core is stochastic, a significant enhancement of the α-effect occurs. Estimates of this effect show that it may be a realistic method of current generation in the present-day RFP experiments and possibly also in future RFP-based fusion reactors

  19. Ion heating and MHD dynamo fluctuations in the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scime, E.; Hokin, S.; Watts, C.; Mattor, N.

    1992-01-01

    Ion temperature measurements, time resolved to 10 μs, have been made in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch with a five channel charge exchange analyzer. The ion temperature, T i ∼ 200 eV for I = 350 kA, increases by as much as 100% during discrete dynamo bursts in MST discharges. Magnetic field fluctuations in the range 0.5--5 MHz were also measured. Structure in the fluctuation frequency spectrum at the ion cyclotron frequency appears as the bursts terminate, suggesting that the mechanism of ion heating involves the dissipation of dynamo fluctuations at ion gyro-orbit scales

  20. Numerical studies of active current profile control in the reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlin, J-E; Scheffel, J; Anderson, J K

    2007-01-01

    Quenching of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) dynamo is observed in numerical simulations using current profile control. A novel algorithm employing active feedback of the dynamo field has been utilized. The quasi-steady state achieved represents an important improvement as compared with earlier numerical work and may indicate a direction for the design of future experiments. Both earlier and the novel schemes of feedback control result in quasi-single helicity states. The energy confinement time and poloidal beta are observed to be substantially increased, as compared with the conventional RFP, in both the cases. Different techniques for experimental implementation are discussed

  1. Electron Bernstein wave emission from an overdense reversed field pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Anderson, J.K.; Biewer, T.M.; Craig, D.; Forest, C.B.; Harvey, R.W.; Smirnov, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Blackbody levels of emission in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies have been observed from an overdense (ω pe ∼3ω ce ) Madison Symmetric Torus [Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] reversed field pinch plasma, a result of electrostatic electron Bernstein waves emitted from the core and mode converted into electromagnetic waves at the extreme plasma edge. Comparison of the measured radiation temperature with profiles measured by Thomson scattering indicates that the mode conversion efficiency can be as high as ∼75%. Emission is preferentially in the X-mode polarization, and is strongly dependent upon the density and magnetic field profiles at the mode conversion point

  2. Effects of the resistivity profile on the formation of a reversed configuration and single helicity states in compressible simulations of the reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofri, M.; Malara, F.

    2013-01-01

    Compressible magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) are presented. Previous simulations of the RFP, including density and pressure evolution, showed that a stationary state with a reversed toroidal magnetic field could not be obtained, contrary to the results produced with numerical codes neglecting density and pressure dynamics. The simulations described in the present paper show that including density and pressure evolution, a stationary RFP configuration can be obtained if the resistivity has a radial profile steeply increasing close to the wall. Such resistivity profile is more realistic than a uniform resistivity, since the temperature at the wall is lower than in the plasma core

  3. Temperature evolution in a magnetohydrodynamics simulation of a reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature evolution in a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of a reversed-field pinch (RFP) is investigated including thermal conductivity. For numerical reasons, an isotropic thermal conductivity is used, even though in a RFP plasma the parallel conductivity is much larger than the perpendicular one so that magnetic field lines tend to become isothermal. The system shows alternating multiple helicity states and quasi-single helicity states. Single-helical-axis states are formed when the amplitude of the dominant mode is above a determined threshold, as observed in experiments. The relation between heat transport and magnetic field topology that is observed in RFP experiments cannot be found in the simulation, since thermal conductivity is independent of the magnetic field. This difficulty should be taken into account in the numerical investigation of the RFP dynamics. In this paper, the first description of the temperature evolution in a compressible MHD simulation of a RFP is given.

  4. Compact field programmable gate array-based pulse-sequencer and radio-frequency generator for experiments with trapped atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruttivarasin, Thaned, E-mail: thaned.pruttivarasin@riken.jp [Quantum Metrology Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Katori, Hidetoshi [Quantum Metrology Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Innovative Space-Time Project, ERATO, JST, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    We present a compact field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based pulse sequencer and radio-frequency (RF) generator suitable for experiments with cold trapped ions and atoms. The unit is capable of outputting a pulse sequence with at least 32 transistor-transistor logic (TTL) channels with a timing resolution of 40 ns and contains a built-in 100 MHz frequency counter for counting electrical pulses from a photo-multiplier tube. There are 16 independent direct-digital-synthesizers RF sources with fast (rise-time of ∼60 ns) amplitude switching and sub-mHz frequency tuning from 0 to 800 MHz.

  5. Possible relationship between the Earth’s rotation variations and geomagnetic field reversals over the past 510 Myr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Gil Pacca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s rotation can change as a result of several internal and external processes, each of which is at a different timescale. Here, we present some possible connections between the Earth’s rotation variations and the geomagnetic reversal frequency rates over the past 120 Myr. In addition, we show the possible relationship between the geomagnetic field reversal frequency and the δ18O oscillations. Because the latter reflects the glacial and interglacial periods, we hypothesize that it can be used as a possible indicator to explain the length of day (LOD variations and consequently the reversal field frequency over the past 510 Myr. Therefore, our analysis suggests that the relationships between the geomagnetic reversal frequency rates and the Earth’s rotation changes during the Phanerozoic. However, more reversal data are required for periods before the KRS to strengthen the perspective of using the geomagnetic reversal data as a marker for the LOD variations through geological times.

  6. Compact magnetic-field sensor based on optical microfiber Michelson interferometer and Fe3O4 nanofluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ming; Sun, Xiaokang; Han, Meng; Li, Decai

    2013-02-01

    We report a magnetic-field sensor by merging the advantages of optical fiber Michelson interferometers with that of magnetic fluid. Compact and low-cost optical fiber Michelson interferometers were first fabricated by a high-frequency CO(2) laser, and then they were inserted into glass capillaries with water-based Fe(3)O(4) magnetic fluid as sensing elements. The sensing characteristics have been investigated and the experimental results show that the reflective spectrum of the fiber-magnetic sensor linearly shifted with the change of the magnetic-field strength that is perpendicular to the axial of the devices. The fiber-magnetic sensor with interference arm's diameter of 50 μm is most sensitive to the external magnetic field, and the sensitivity is up to 64.9 pm/mT, which is 20 times higher than that of 125 μm diameter.

  7. Localization of supersymmetric field theories on non-compact hyperbolic three-manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assel, Benjamin; Martelli, Dario; Murthy, Sameer; Yokoyama, Daisuke [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London,The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-17

    We study supersymmetric gauge theories with an R-symmetry, defined on non-compact, hyperbolic, Riemannian three-manifolds, focusing on the case of a supersymmetry-preserving quotient of Euclidean AdS{sub 3}. We compute the exact partition function in these theories, using the method of localization, thus reducing the problem to the computation of one-loop determinants around a supersymmetric locus. We evaluate the one-loop determinants employing three different techniques: an index theorem, the method of pairing of eigenvalues, and the heat kernel method. Along the way, we discuss aspects of supersymmetry in manifolds with a conformal boundary, including supersymmetric actions and boundary conditions.

  8. A Statistical Model of the Fluctuations in the Geomagnetic Field from Paleosecular Variation to Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps; Prevot

    1996-08-09

    The statistical characteristics of the local magnetic field of Earth during paleosecular variation, excursions, and reversals are described on the basis of a database that gathers the cleaned mean direction and average remanent intensity of 2741 lava flows that have erupted over the last 20 million years. A model consisting of a normally distributed axial dipole component plus an independent isotropic set of vectors with a Maxwellian distribution that simulates secular variation fits the range of geomagnetic fluctuations, in terms of both direction and intensity. This result suggests that the magnitude of secular variation vectors is independent of the magnitude of Earth's axial dipole moment and that the amplitude of secular variation is unchanged during reversals.

  9. The effects of field reversal on the Alcator C-Mod divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.H.; LaBombard, B.; Goetz, J.A.; Lipschultz, B.; McCracken, G.M.; Snipes, J.A.; Terry, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Imbalances between the inboard and outboard legs of the single null divertor in tokamak Alcator C-Mod are observed to reverse when the direction of the toroidal field is reversed. These imbalances are measured by embedded probes in the target plates, tomographic reconstructions of bolometry and line radiation, and visible imaging. Density imbalances of about a factor of ten at the targets are observed at moderate density, decreasing as the density is raised until they are almost balanced. The data indicate that the electron pressure is not imbalanced, thus arguing against momentum imbalance as the cause of these drift-induced effects. Instead, power flux imbalance caused by E r ''and'' B convection, and enhanced by radiation, is suggested as the underlying cause. (Author)

  10. Permutation entropy and statistical complexity in characterising low-aspect-ratio reversed-field pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onchi, T; Fujisawa, A; Sanpei, A; Himura, H; Masamune, S

    2017-01-01

    Permutation entropy and statistical complexity are measures for complex time series. The Bandt–Pompe methodology evaluates probability distribution using permutation. The method is robust and effective to quantify information of time series data. Statistical complexity is the product of Jensen–Shannon divergence and permutation entropy. These physical parameters are introduced to analyse time series of emission and magnetic fluctuations in low-aspect-ratio reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma. The observed time-series data aggregates in a region of the plane, the so-called C – H plane, determined by entropy versus complexity. The C – H plane is a representation space used for distinguishing periodic, chaos, stochastic and noisy processes of time series data. The characteristics of the emissions and magnetic fluctuation change under different RFP-plasma conditions. The statistical complexities of soft x-ray emissions and magnetic fluctuations depend on the relationships between reversal and pinch parameters. (paper)

  11. CONFIRMATION OF THE COMPACTNESS OF A z = 1.91 QUIESCENT GALAXY WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE'S WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szomoru, Daniel; Franx, Marijn; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Trenti, Michele; Illingworth, Garth D.; Labbe, Ivo; Oesch, Pascal A.; Carollo, C. Marcella

    2010-01-01

    We present very deep Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) photometry of a massive, compact galaxy located in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. This quiescent galaxy has a spectroscopic redshift z = 1.91 and has been identified as an extremely compact galaxy by Daddi et al. We use new H F160W imaging data obtained with Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 to measure the deconvolved surface brightness profile to H ∼ 28 mag arcsec -2 . We find that the surface brightness profile is well approximated by an n = 3.7 Sersic profile. Our deconvolved profile is constructed by a new technique which corrects the best-fit Sersic profile with the residual of the fit to the observed image. This allows for galaxy profiles which deviate from a Sersic profile. We determine the effective radius of this galaxy: r e = 0.42 ± 0.14 kpc in the observed H F160W band. We show that this result is robust to deviations from the Sersic model used in the fit. We test the sensitivity of our analysis to faint 'wings' in the profile using simulated galaxy images consisting of a bright compact component and a faint extended component. We find that due to the combination of the WFC3 imaging depth and our method's sensitivity to extended faint emission we can accurately trace the intrinsic surface brightness profile, and that we can therefore confidently rule out the existence of a faint extended envelope around the observed galaxy down to our surface brightness limit. These results confirm that the galaxy lies a factor ∼10 off from the local mass-size relation.

  12. Effect of magnetic field gradient on power absorption in compact microwave plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Indranuj; Shamim, Md.; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2006-01-01

    We study the effect of the change in magnetic field gradient at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) point, on the generated plasma for two different cylindrical minimum B-field configurations, viz. the hexapole and the octupole. The plasma parameters such as the electron and ion density, electron temperature including the wave field characteristics (B-field and E-field) in the plasma will be measured and compared for the two configurations. (author)

  13. Collisional tearing in a field-reversed sheet pinch assuming nonparallel propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quest, K.B.; Coroniti, F.V.

    1985-01-01

    We examine the linear stability properties of the collisional tearing mode in a reversed-field sheet pinch assuming that the wave vector is not parallel to B, where B is the equilibrium magnetic field. We show that pressure balance in the direction of the equilibrium current requires a nonzero perturbed current component deltaJ/sub z/ that is driven toward tyhe center of the pinch. At the center of the pinch, deltaJ/sub z/ goes to zero, and momentum is balanced by coupling to the ion-acoustic mode. In order to achieve current closure, a large perturbed field-aligned current is generated that is strongly localized about the dissipative tearing layer. The relation of this work to the collisionless case is discussed

  14. Role of anisotropic thermal conductivity in the reversed-field pinch dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.

    2011-01-01

    Two compressible magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the reversed-field pinch are performed, with isotropic and anisotropic thermal conductivity. We describe in detail the numerical method we use to reproduce the effect of a large parallel thermal conductivity, which makes magnetic field lines almost isothermal. We compare the results of the two simulations, showing that the anisotropic thermal conductivity causes the formation of a hot island when closed magnetic surfaces exist, while temperature becomes almost uniform when the magnetic field is chaotic. After a transient single-helicity state that is formed in the initial phase, a stationary state is reached where the RFP configuration exists in a multiple helicity state, even though the Hartmann number is below the threshold found in previous simulations for the formation of multiple helicity states.

  15. Research on external flow field of a car based on reverse engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shushan; Liu, Ronge

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the point cloud data of FAW-VOLKSWAGEN car body shape is obtained by three coordinate measuring instrument and laser scanning method. The accurate three dimensional model of the car is obtained using CATIA software reverse modelling technology. The car body is gridded, the calculation field and boundary condition type of the car flow field are determined, and the numerical simulation is carried out in Hyper Mesh software. The pressure cloud diagram, velocity vector diagram, air resistance coefficient and lift coefficient of the car are obtained. The calculation results reflect the aerodynamic characteristics of the car's external flow field. The motion of the separation flow on the surface of the vehicle body is well simulated, and the area where the vortex motion is relatively intense has been determined. The results provide a theoretical basis for improving and optimizing the body shape.

  16. Conceptual design for an air core 2 meg-amp reversed field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    The Los Alamos CTR Division is involved in the conceptual design of a next phase Reversed Field Pinch experiment. The paper will discuss, in general, some of the physics questions that the experiment will address. Also in more detail it will discuss the engineering parameters and the possible hardware design solutions. The experiment is designed to produce a plasma current of about 2 MA which can be sustained for about 200 ms. The electrical energy for the system is provided by a large motor generator set. An inductive energy store is used to drive the magnetizing and poloidal field windings. A capacitor bank provides the energy for the toroidal field windings. The current in both circuits is maintained by using SCR controlled transformer rectifiers

  17. Conceptual design for an AIR CORE 2 MEG-AMP Reversed field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    The Los Alamos CTR Division is involved in the conceptual design of a next phase Reversed Field Pinch experiment. The paper will discuss, in general, some of the physics questions that the experiment will address. Also in more detail it will discuss the engineering parameters and the possible hardware design solutions. The experiment is designed to produce a plasma current of about 2 MA which can be sustained for about 200 ms. The electrical energy for the system is provided by a large motor generator set. An inductive energy store is used to drive the magnetizing and poloidal field windings. A capacitor bank provides the energy for the toroidal field windings. The current in both circuits is maintained by using SCR controlled transformer rectifiers

  18. Tilt stability and compression heating studies of field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rej, D.J.; Tuszewski, M.; Barnes, D.C.; Barnes, G.A.; Chrien, R.E.; Siemon, R.E.; Taggart, D.P.; Webster, R.B.; Wright, B.L.; Milroy, R.D.; Crawford, E.A.; Slough, J.T.; Steinhauer, L.C.; Bailey, A.D.; Baron, M.H.; Cobb, J.W.; Staudenmeier, J.L.; Sugimoto, S.; Takahashi, T.

    1990-01-01

    The first observations of internal tilt instabilities in field-reversed configurations (FRCs) are reported. Detailed comparisons with theory establish that data from an array of external magnetic probes are signatures of these destructive plasma instabilities. This work reconciles theory and experiments and suggests that grossly stable FRCs are restricted to very kinetic and elongated plasmas. Self-consistent three-dimensional numerical simulations demonstrate tilt stabilization by the addition of a beam ion component. High-power compression heating experiments with stable equilibrium FRCs are also reported. Plasmas formed in a tapered theta-pinch coil have been translated along a guide magnetic field into a new single-turn compression coil where the external field is increased up to 7 times the initial value in 55 μs. Substantial heating is observed accompanied by a decrease in confinement time. 17 refs

  19. Resistive wall modes in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Malmberg, J.-A.; Yadikin, D.; Cecconello, M.

    2003-10-01

    Resistive wall modes (RWM) in the reversed field pinch are studied and a detailed comparison of experimental growth rates and linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory is made. RWM growth rates are experimentally measured in the thin shell device EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43, 1 (2001)]. Linear MHD calculations of RWM growth rates are based on experimental equilibria. Experimental and linear MHD RWM growth rate dependency on the equilibrium profiles is investigated experimentally by varying the pinch parameter Θ=Bθ(a)/ in the range Θ=1.5-1.8. Quantitative agreement between experimental and linear MHD growth rates is seen. The dominating RWMs are the internal on-axis modes (having the same helicity as the central equilibrium field). At high Θ, external nonresonant modes are also observed. For internal modes experimental growth rates decrease with Θ while for external modes, growth rates increase with Θ. The effect of RWMs on the reversed-field pinch plasma performance is discussed.

  20. Toroidal fusion reactor design based on the reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.

    1978-07-01

    The toroidal reversed-field pinch (RFP) achieves gross equilibrium and stability with a combination of high shear and wall stabilization, rather than the imposition of tokamak-like q-constraints. Consequently, confinement is provided primarily by poloidal magnetic fields, poloidal betas as large as approximately 0.58 are obtainable, the high ohmic-heating (toroidal) current densities promise a sole means of heating a D-T plasma to ignition, and the plasma aspect ratio is not limited by stability/equilibrium constraints. A reactor-like plasma model has been developed in order to quantify and to assess the general features of a power system based upon RFP confinement. An ''operating point'' has been generated on the basis of this plasma model and a relatively detailed engineering energy balance. These results are used to generate a conceptual engineering model of the reversed-field pinch reactor (RFPR) which includes a general description of a 750 MWe power plant and the preliminary consideration of vacuum/fueling, first wall, blanket, magnet coils, iron core, and the energy storage/transfer system

  1. Ultrasmall magnetic field-effect and sign reversal in transistors based on donor/acceptor systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reichert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present magnetoresistive organic field-effect transistors featuring ultrasmall magnetic field-effects as well as a sign reversal. The employed material systems are coevaporated thin films with different compositions consisting of the electron donor 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methylphenylamino-9,9'-spirobifluorene (Spiro-TTB and the electron acceptor 1,4,5,8,9,12-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN. Intermolecular charge transfer between Spiro-TTB and HAT-CN results in a high intrinsic charge carrier density in the coevaporated films. This enhances the probability of bipolaron formation, which is the process responsible for magnetoresistance effects in our system. Thereby even ultrasmall magnetic fields as low as 0.7 mT can influence the resistance of the charge transport channel. Moreover, the magnetoresistance is drastically influenced by the drain voltage, resulting in a sign reversal. An average B0 value of ≈2.1 mT is obtained for all mixing compositions, indicating that only one specific quasiparticle is responsible for the magnetoresistance effects. All magnetoresistance effects can be thoroughly clarified within the framework of the bipolaron model.

  2. Experimental profile evolution of a high-density field-reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruden, E. L.; Zhang, Shouyin; Intrator, T. P.; Wurden, G. A.

    2006-01-01

    A field-reversed configuration (FRC) gains angular momentum over time, eventually resulting in an n=2 rotational instability (invariant under rotation by π) terminating confinement. To study this, a laser interferometer probes the time history of line integrated plasma density along eight chords of the high-density (∼10 17 cm -3 ) field-reversed configuration experiment with a liner. Abel and tomographic inversions provide density profiles during the FRC's azimuthally symmetric phase, and over a period when the rotational mode has saturated and rotates with a roughly fixed profile, respectively. During the latter part of the symmetric phase, the FRC approximates a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium, allowing the axial magnetic-field profile to be calculated from pressure balance. Basic FRC properties such as temperature and poloidal flux are then inferred. The subsequent two-dimensional n=2 density profiles provide angular momentum information needed to set bounds on prior values of the stability relevant parameter α (rotational to ion diamagnetic drift frequency ratio), in addition to a view of plasma kinematics useful for benchmarking plasma models of higher order than MHD

  3. Switching field distribution and magnetization reversal process of FePt dot patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishio, S., E-mail: ishio@gipc.akita-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Takahashi, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Arakawa, A.; Sasaki, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Yan, Z.; Liu, X. [Venture Business Laboratory, Akita University, Tegata Gakuen-machi, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Kondo, Y.; Yamane, H.; Ariake, J. [Akita Prefectural R and D Center, 4-21 Sanuki, Akita 010-1623 (Japan); Suzuki, M.; Kawamura, N.; Mizumaki, M. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    The fabrication of FePt nanodots with a high structural quality and the control of their switching fields are key issues in realizing high density bit pattern recording. We have prepared FePt dot patterns for dots with 15–300 nm diameters by electron beam lithography and re-annealing, and studied the relation between magnetization reversal process and structure of FePt nanodots. The switching field (H{sub sw}) of dot patterns re-annealed at 710 °C for 240 min showed a bimodal distribution, where a higher peak was found at 5–6 T, and a lower peak was found at ∼2 T. It was revealed by cross-sectional TEM analysis that the structure of dots in the pattern can be classified into two groups. One group has a high degree of order with well-defined [0 0 1] crystalline growth, and the other group includes structurally-disturbed dots like [1 1 1] growth and twin crystals. This structural inhomogeneity causes the magnetic switching field distribution observed. - Highlights: • FePt dot patterns with 15–100 nm dot diameters were prepared by EB lithography. • Maximum coercivity of 30 kOe was found in the dot pattern with 30 nm in diameter. • Magnetization reversal was studied on the base of TEM analysis and LLG simulation.

  4. A study of reversed field pinch experiments using a new programming mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Y.

    1979-08-01

    A new mode of external-field programming for setting up a reversed-field pinch (RFP) is tested in STP-1. It involves creating an initial plasma with a screw pinch followed by external-field reversal. The program is done carefully so as to satisfy the equilibrium relation with respect to the minor radius throughout the setting-up phase. Increase of the trapped flux in the plasma by a factor of two is consequently attained, as compared with previous usual programming mode. Actually, at a plasma current of 58 kA, a stable operation time of 13 μsec is achieved with a density of 3.5 x 10 15 cm -3 and a temperature of 20 eV. After 13 μsec stable operation time, the plasma is suddenly crashed down by a violent MHD instability. One dimensional stability analysis based on ideal MHD model is applied to the experimental results. It is found that the instability is m = 1 resistive tearing mode under the influence of viscosity. Using the new programming high current operation at 110 kA is done and results in higher plasma temperature and density of 40 eV and 4.5 x 10 15 cm -3 , respectively. The duration of stable discharge, however, is limited to about 10 μsec, in spite of the expected longer confinement time at the higher temperature. (author)

  5. Numerical modeling of formation of helical structures in reversed-field-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuguchi, N.; Ichiguchi, K.; Todo, Y.; Sanpei, A.; Oki, K.; Masamune, S.; Himura, H.

    2012-11-01

    Nonlinear three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) simulations have been executed for the low-aspect-ratio reversed-field-pinch (RFP) plasma to reveal the physical mechanism of the formation processes of helical structures. The simulation results show a clear formation of n=4 structure as a result of dominant growth of resistive modes, where n represents the toroidal mode number. The resultant relaxed helical state consists of a unique bean-shaped and hollow pressure profile in the poloidal cross section for both cases of resonant and non-resonant triggering instability modes. The results are partially comparable to the experimental observations. The physical mechanisms of those processes are examined. (author)

  6. Reynolds and Maxwell stress measurements in the reversed field pinch experiment Extrap-T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2005-08-01

    The complete Reynolds stress (RS) has been measured in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. The RS exhibits a strong gradient in the region where a high E × B shear takes place. Experimental results show this gradient to be almost entirely due to the electrostatic contribution. This has been interpreted as experimental evidence of flow generation via turbulence mechanism. The scales involved in flow generation are deduced from the frequency decomposition of RS tensor. They are found related to magnetohydrodynamic activity but are different with respect to the scales responsible for turbulent transport.

  7. Reynolds and Maxwell stress measurements in the reversed field pinch experiment Extrap-T2R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsaaker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    The complete Reynolds stress (RS) has been measured in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. The RS exhibits a strong gradient in the region where a high E x B shear takes place. Experimental results show this gradient to be almost entirely due to the electrostatic contribution. This has been interpreted as experimental evidence of flow generation via turbulence mechanism. The scales involved in flow generation are deduced from the frequency decomposition of RS tensor. They are found related to magnetohydrodynamic activity but are different with respect to the scales responsible for turbulent transport

  8. Characteristics of a large reversed field pinch machine, TPE-RX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Y.; Shimada, T.; Hirano, Y.; Sekine, S.; Sakakita, H.; Koguchi, H.; Kiyama, S.; Maejima, Y.; Hirota, I.; Hayase, K.; Sato, Y.; Sugisaki, K.; Oyabu, I.; Hasegawa, M.; Yamane, M.; Sato, F.; Kuno, K.; Minato, T.; Kiryu, A.; Takagi, S.; Sako, K.; Kudough, F.; Urata, K.; Orita, J.; Kaguchi, H.; Sago, H.; Ue, K.

    1998-01-01

    Construction of a new, large reversed field pinch (RFP) machine called TPE-RX was complete at the end of 1997 as a successor of the previous TPE-1RM20 machine at the Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL). RFP configuration has been successfully obtained in March 1998. The optimization of the operating condition and discharge cleaning of the wall are presently undergoing with the first physics experiments. This paper is the first report of TPE-RX especially on the goals, overall machine characteristics and the present status. Other papers accompanying with this one will present specific topics on the magnetic coil system and the vacuum vessel system. (author)

  9. Characteristics of a large reversed field pinch machine, TPE-RX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Y.; Shimada, T.; Hirano, Y.; Sekine, S.; Sakakita, H.; Koguchi, H.; Kiyama, S.; Maejima, Y.; Hirota, I.; Hayase, K.; Sato, Y.; Sugisaki, K. [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki (Japan); Oyabu, I.; Hasegawa, M.; Yamane, M.; Sato, F.; Kuno, K.; Minato, T.; Kiryu, A.; Takagi, S.; Sako, K. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp. (Japan); Kudough, F.; Urata, K.; Orita, J.; Kaguchi, H.; Sago, H.; Ue, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Construction of a new, large reversed field pinch (RFP) machine called TPE-RX was complete at the end of 1997 as a successor of the previous TPE-1RM20 machine at the Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL). RFP configuration has been successfully obtained in March 1998. The optimization of the operating condition and discharge cleaning of the wall are presently undergoing with the first physics experiments. This paper is the first report of TPE-RX especially on the goals, overall machine characteristics and the present status. Other papers accompanying with this one will present specific topics on the magnetic coil system and the vacuum vessel system. (author)

  10. Tearing relaxation and the globalization of transport in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, Loren; Barnes, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    Tearing instability of field-reversed configurations (FRC) is investigated using the method of neighboring equilibria. It is shown that the conducting wall position in experiment lies very close to the location needed for tearing stability. This strongly suggests that vigorous but benign tearing modes, acting globally, are the engine of continual self-organization in FRCs, i.e., tearing relaxation. It also explains the ''profile consistency'' and anomalous loss rate of magnetic flux. In effect, tearing globalizes the effect of edge-driven transport.

  11. The reversed-field-pinch (RFP) fusion neutron source: A conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Werley, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    The conceptual design of an ohmically heated, reversed-field pinch (RFP) operating at ∼5-MW/m 2 steady-state DT fusion neutron wall loading and ∼124-MW total fusion power is presented. These results are useful in projecting the development of a cost effective, low input power (∼206 MW) source of DT neutrons for large-volume (∼10 m 3 ), high-fluence (3.4 MW yr/m 2 ) fusion nuclear materials and technology testing. 19 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs

  12. Transient loss of plasma from a theta pinch having an initially reversed magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidrich, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the transient loss of plasma from a 25-cm-long theta pinch initially containing a reversed trapped magnetic field are presented. The plasma, amenable to MHD analyses, was a doubly ionized helium plasma characterized by an ion density N/sub i/ = 2 x 10 16 cm -3 and an ion temperature T/sub i/ = 15 eV at midcoil and by N/sub i/ = 0.5 x 10 16 cm -3 and T/sub i/ = 6 eV at a position 2.5 cm beyond the end of the theta coil

  13. Interim report on the assessment of engineering issues for compact high-field ignition devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, C.A.

    1986-04-01

    The engineering issues addressed at the workshop included the overall configuration, layout, and assembly; limiter and first-wall energy removal; magnet system structure design; fabricability; repairability; and costs. In performing the assessment, the primary features and characteristics of each concept under study were reviewed as representative of this class of ignition device. The emphasis was to understand the key engineering areas of concern for this class of device and deliberately not attempt to define an optimum design or to choose a best approach. The assessment concluded that compact ignition tokamaks, as represented by the three concepts under study, are feasible. A number of critical engineering issues were identified, and all appear to have tractable solutions. The engineering issues appear quite challenging, and to obtain increased confidence in the apparent design solutions requires completion of the next level of design detail, complemented by appropriate development programs and testing

  14. Effects of internal structure on equilibrium of field-reversed configuration plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Inomoto, Michiaki; Okada, Shigefumi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Asai, Tomohiko

    2008-01-01

    The effects of an internal structure on the equilibrium of a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field is investigated by using detailed electrostatic probe measurements in the FRC Injection Experiment apparatus [S. Okada, et al., Nucl. Fusion. 45, 1094 (2005)]. An internal structure installed axially on the geometrical axis, which simulates Ohmic transformer or external toroidal field coils on the FRC device, brings about substantial changes in plasma density profile. The internal structure generates steep density-gradients not only on the inner side but on the outer side of the torus. The radial electric field is observed to sustain the ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC without the internal structure; however, the radial electric field is not sufficient to sustain the increased ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC with the internal structure. Spontaneously driven azimuthal ion flow will be accountable for the imbalance of the radial pressure which is modified by the internal structure.

  15. Flow cytometric assessment of microbial abundance in the near-field area of seawater reverse osmosis concentrate discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Merwe, Riaan; Hammes, Frederik A.; Lattemann, Sabine; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    The discharge of concentrate and other process waters from seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant operations into the marine environment may adversely affect water quality in the near-field area surrounding the outfall. The main concerns

  16. The magnetic source imaging of pattern reversal stimuli of various visual fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuqian; Ye Yufang; Sun Jilin; Wu Jie; Jia Xiuchuan; Li Sumin; Wu Jing; Zhao Huadong; Liu Lianxiang; Wu Yujin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To have acknowledgement of characteristics of normal volunteers visual evoked fields about full field, vertical half field and quadrant field and their dipole location by magnetoencephalography. Methods: The visual evoked fields of full field, vertical half field and quadrant field were detected with 13 subjects. The latency, dipole strength and dipoles' location on x, y and z axis were analyzed. The exact locations of the dipoles were detected by overlapping on MR images. Results: The isocontour map of M100 of full field stimulation demonstrated two separate sources. The two M100 dipoles had same peak latency and different strength. And for vertical half field and quadrant field stimulation, evoked magnetic fields of M100 distributed contralateral to the stimulated side. The M100 dipoles on the z-axis to the lower quadrant field stimulation were located significantly higher than those to the upper quadrant field stimulation. The Z value median of left upper quadrant was 49.6 (35.1-72.8) mm. The Z value median of left lower quadrant was 53.5 (44.8-76.3) mm. The different of two left quadrant medians, 3.9 mm, was significant (P<0.05). The Z value median of right upper quadrant was 40.0 (34.8-44.6) mm. The Z value median of right lower quadrant was 53.8 (40.6-61.3) mm. The different of two right quadrant medians, 13.8 mm, was also significant (P<0.05). Although each of the visual evoked fields waveforms and dipole locations demonstrated large intra- and inter-individual variations, the dipole of M100 was mainly located at area Brodmann 17, which includes superior lingual gyrus, posterior cuneus-lingual gyrus and inferior cuneus gyms. Conclusion: The M100 of visual evoked fields of pattern reversal stimulation is mainly generated by the neurons of striate cortex of contralateral to the stimulated side, which is at the lateral bottom of the calcarine fissure. (authors)

  17. Electric-field-controlled spin reversal in a quantum dot with ferromagnetic contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, J. R.; Paaske, J.; Lindelof, P. E.

    2008-05-01

    Manipulation of the spin states of a quantum dot by purely electrical means is a highly desirable property of fundamental importance for the development of spintronic devices such as spin filters, spin transistors and single spin memories as well as for solid-state qubits. An electrically gated quantum dot in the Coulomb blockade regime can be tuned to hold a single unpaired spin-1/2, which is routinely spin polarized by an applied magnetic field. Using ferromagnetic electrodes, however, the quantum dot becomes spin polarized by the local exchange field. Here, we report on the experimental realization of this tunnelling-induced spin splitting in a carbon-nanotube quantum dot coupled to ferromagnetic nickel electrodes with a strong tunnel coupling ensuring a sizeable exchange field. As charge transport in this regime is dominated by the Kondo effect, we can use this sharp many-body resonance to read off the local spin polarization from the measured bias spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the exchange field can be compensated by an external magnetic field, thus restoring a zero-bias Kondo resonance, and we demonstrate that the exchange field itself, and hence the local spin polarization, can be tuned and reversed merely by tuning the gate voltage.

  18. Plasma performance and scaling laws in the RFX-mod reversed-field pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innocente, P.; Alfier, A.; Canton, A.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2009-01-01

    The large range of plasma currents (I p = 0.2-1.6 MA) and feedback-controlled magnetic boundary conditions of the RFX-mod experiment make it well suited to performing scaling studies. The assessment of such scaling, in particular those on temperature and energy confinement, is crucial both for improving the operating reversed-field pinch (RFP) devices and for validating the RFP configuration as a candidate for the future fusion reactors. For such a purpose scaling laws for magnetic fluctuations, temperature and energy confinement have been evaluated in stationary operation. RFX-mod scaling laws have been compared with those obtained from other RFP devices and numerical simulations. The role of the magnetic boundary has been analysed, comparing discharges performed with different active control schemes of the edge radial magnetic field.

  19. Symmetric dynamic behaviour of a superconducting proximity array with respect to field reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankhorst, M; Poccia, N

    2017-01-01

    As the complexity of strongly correlated systems and high temperature superconductors increases, so does also the essential complexity of defects found in these materials and the complexity of the supercurrent pathways. It can be therefore convenient to realize a solid-state system with regular supercurrent pathways and without the disguising effects of disorder in order to capture the essential characteristics of a collective dynamics. Using a square array of superconducting islands placed on a normal metal, we observe a state in which magnetic field-induced vortices are frozen in the dimples of the egg crate potential by their strong repulsion interaction. In this system a dynamic vortex Mott insulator transition has been previously observed. In this work, we will show the symmetric dynamic behaviour with respect to field reversal and we will compare it with the asymmetric behaviour observed at the dynamic vortex Mott transition. (paper)

  20. Formation of a field reversed configuration for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl

    2003-12-16

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  1. Field-reversed configuration produced by a linear theta-pinch, Tupa-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayama, M.E.; Boeckelmann, H.K.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Machida, M.

    1987-01-01

    The formation of field reversed configuration, FRC, in one meter mirrorless linear theta-pinch device Tupa-I was observed. This configuration was studied during the first half magnetic cycle of ringing main bank discharge using magnetic probes. The separatrix radius by the exclude flux probe and the ion temperature by visible spectroscopy were measured. The plasma dynamics was observed by the image converter camera. A clear indication of the formation of FRC due to reconnection of the antiparallel bias to the main field and a fast reconnection, less than 0.2 microsec, that is explained in terms of forced reconnection driven by the Kruskal-Schwarzschild instability, are also observed. (author) [pt

  2. Thermal instabilities in the edge region of reversed-field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedert, J.; Mondt, J.P.

    1984-04-01

    Thermal stability of the edge region of reversed-field pinch configurations is analyzed within the context of a two-fluid model. Two major sources of instability are identified in combination with a parallel electric field: either an electron temperature gradient and/or a density gradient that leads to rapid growth (of several to many ohmic heating rates) over a region of several millimeters around the mode-rational surfaces in the edge region. The basic signature of both instabilities is electrostatic. In the case of the density gradient mode, the signature relies on the effects of electron compressibility, whereas the temperature gradient mode can be identified as the current-convective instability by taking the limit of zero diamagnetic drift, density gradient, thermal force, drift heat flux, and electron compressibility

  3. A comprehensive theory of the equilibria in a tokamak and a reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiyoda, Katsuji

    1996-01-01

    The equilibrium configuration of a tokamak is analysed by the equilibrium equations derived for analysing a reversed field pinch (RFP). The expressions of the magnetic field and the toroidal shift in the internal plasma region and the external vacuum region are obtained. The expressions in the vacuum region become the Shafranov's expressions, when the plasma-center coordinates is used. Discontinuities of the equilibrium quantities are considered. It is concluded that the equilibrium equations are applicable also to the tokamak plasma and that the difference of the equilibria between the tokamak and the RFP stems from the choices of the pressure and the toroidal current function. A feature of our theory is that any ordering to the safety factor is not imposed. (author)

  4. Design and development of a lower-hybrid antenna for the MST reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.; Cekic, M.; Lovell, T.W.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Uchimoto, E.

    1995-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies strongly motivated the development of a radio-frequency current drive scheme for current density gradient reduction in the outer region of a reversed field pinch. The preliminary experiments using inductive current drive indicate that such current density profile modification reduces the magnetic fluctuation amplitude and related energy and particle losses. To test the theoretical predictions and to further improve confinement in the MST, the authors are planning a series of lower-hybrid wave experiments. The initial phase is the design and optimization of a low-power antenna to study slow wave propagation in a frequency range 2--3 f LH (200--300 MHz) with parallel index of refraction n parallel ∼10. Ray-tracing calculations, for typical MST plasma parameters, indicate that such a wave will spiral radially into a target zone inside the reversal layer. The antenna consists of an array of tunable loops arranged in the poloidal direction. The design is compatible with the existing box-port openings in the MST conductive shell to prevent additional magnetic field errors associated with large portholes. Antenna vacuum characteristics are studied on a test-stand designed to approximate the geometry of the MST shell. For the initial measurements of plasma response and antenna loading, the authors designed a reduced, easily insertable, vacuum antenna structure. The results of plasma impedance measurements will be compared with the numerical modeling results and incorporated in the optimized design of the antenna for wave propagation experiments

  5. Far-infrared laser interferometry measurements on the STP-3(M) reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Shigeyuki; Nagatsu, Masaaki; Tsukishima, Takashige; Arimoto, Hideki; Sato, Koichi; Matsuoka, Akio.

    1993-09-01

    Far-infrared laser interferometry at 432 μm was carried out on the STP-3(M) reversed-field pinch. Measurements along two vertical chords showed a change from a parabolic-like to a flat-like electron density profile after field reversal. A density profile inversion and a correlated toroidal magnetic flux perturbation were also observed during the transition from the current rising to the current decay phase. Measurements of electron density fluctuations indicated relative fluctuation levels of ∼10% for both chords during the current rising phase and ∼5% and ∼15% during the current decay phase for the central and outer chords, respectively. Spectral analysis showed a ∼30 kHz mode consistent with poloidal mode number m=0 magnetic fluctuations, and a ∼90 kHz mode localized to the outer region of the plasma, which was strongly excited during the current decay phase and may be connected to particle and energy transport in STP-3(M). (author)

  6. Energetic electron measurements in the edge of a reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingraham, J.C.; Ellis, R.F.; Downing, J.N.; Munson, C.P.; Weber, P.G.; Wurden, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The edge plasma of the ZT-40M [Fusion Technol. 8, 1571 (1985)] reversed-field pinch has been studied using a combination of three different plasma probes: a double-swept Langmuir probe, an electrostatic energy analyzer, and a calorimeter--Langmuir probe. The edge plasma has been measured both with and without a movable graphite tile limiter present nearby in the plasma. Without a limiter a fast nonthermal tail of electrons (T congruent 350 eV) is detected in the edge plasma with nearly unidirectional flow along B and having a density between 2% and 10% of the cold edge plasma (T congruent 20 eV). The toroidal sense of this fast electron flow is against the force of the applied electric field. A large power flux along B is measured flowing in the same direction as the fast electrons and is apparently carried by the fast electrons. With the limiter present the fast electrons are still detected in the plasma, but are strongly attenuated in the shadow of the limiter. The measured scrape-off lengths for both the fast electrons and the cold plasma indicate cross-field transport at the rate of, or less than, Bohm diffusion. Estimates indicate that the fast electrons could carry the reversed-field pinch current density at the edge and, from the measured transverse diffusion rates, could also account for the electron energy loss channel in ZT-40 M. The long mean-free-path kinetic nature of these fast electrons suggests that a kinetic process, rather than a magnetohydrodynamic process that is based upon a local Ohm's law formulation, is responsible for their generation

  7. Configuration development of a hydraulic press for preloading the toroidal field coils of the Compact Ignition Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, V.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) is part of a national design team that is developing the conceptual design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT). To achieve a compact device with the minimum major radius, a vertical preload system is being developed to react the vertical separating force normally carried by the inboard leg of the toroidal field (TF) coils. The preload system is in the form of a hydraulic press. Challenges in the design include the development of hydraulic and structural systems for very large force requirements, which could interface with the CIT machine, while allowing maximum access to the top, bottom, and radial periphery of the machine. Maximum access is necessary for maintenance, diagnostics, instrumentation, and control systems. Materials used in the design must function in the nuclear environment and in the presence of high magnetic fields. The structural system developed is an arrangement in which the CIT device is installed in the jaws of the press. Large built-up beams above and below the CIT span the machine and deliver the vertical force to the center cylinder formed by the inboard legs of the TF coils. During the conceptual design study, the vertical force requirement has ranged between 25,000 and 52,000 t. The access requirement on top and bottom limits the width of the spanning beams. Nonmagnetic steel materials are also required because of operation in the high magnetic fields. In the hydraulic system design for the press, several options are being explored. These range from small-diameter jacks operating at very high pressure [228 MPa (33 ksi)] to large-diameter jacks operating at pressures up to 69 MPa (10 ksi). Configurations with various locations for the hydraulic cylinders have also been explored. The nuclear environment and maintenance requirements are factors that affect cylinder location. This paper presents the configuration development of the hydraulic press used to vertically preload the CIT device

  8. Reversed field pinch operation with intelligent shell feedback control in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Menmuir, S.; Cecconello, M.; Hedqvist, A.; Yadikin, D.; Drake, J. R.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-11-01

    Discharges in the thin shell reversed field pinch (RFP) device EXTRAP T2R without active feedback control are characterized by growth of non-resonant m = 1 unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) in agreement with linear MHD theory. Resonant m = 1 tearing modes (TMs) exhibit initially fast rotation and the associated perturbed radial fields at the shell are small, but eventually TMs wall-lock and give rise to a growing radial field. The increase in the radial field at the wall due to growing RWMs and wall-locked TMs is correlated with an increase in the toroidal loop voltage, which leads to discharge termination after 3-4 wall times. An active magnetic feedback control system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R. A two-dimensional array of 128 active saddle coils (pair-connected into 64 independent m = 1 coils) is used with intelligent shell feedback control to suppress the m = 1 radial field at the shell. With feedback control, active stabilization of the full toroidal spectrum of 16 unstable m = 1 non-resonant RWMs is achieved, and TM wall locking is avoided. A three-fold extension of the pulse length, up to the power supply limit, is observed. Intelligent shell feedback control is able to maintain the plasma equilibrium for 10 wall times, with plasma confinement parameters sustained at values comparable to those obtained in thick shell devices of similar size.

  9. Reversed field pinch operation with intelligent shell feedback control in EXTRAP T2R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunsell, P.R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Menmuir, S.; Cecconello, M.; Hedqvist, A.; Yadikin, D.; Drake, J.R.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-01-01

    Discharges in the thin shell reversed field pinch (RFP) device EXTRAP T2R without active feedback control are characterized by growth of non-resonant m = 1 unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) in agreement with linear MHD theory. Resonant m = 1 tearing modes (TMs) exhibit initially fast rotation and the associated perturbed radial fields at the shell are small, but eventually TMs wall-lock and give rise to a growing radial field. The increase in the radial field at the wall due to growing RWMs and wall-locked TMs is correlated with an increase in the toroidal loop voltage, which leads to discharge termination after 3-4 wall times. An active magnetic feedback control system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R. A two-dimensional array of 128 active saddle coils (pair-connected into 64 independent m = 1 coils) is used with intelligent shell feedback control to suppress the m = 1 radial field at the shell. With feedback control, active stabilization of the full toroidal spectrum of 16 unstable m = 1 non-resonant RWMs is achieved, and TM wall locking is avoided. A three-fold extension of the pulse length, up to the power supply limit, is observed. Intelligent shell feedback control is able to maintain the plasma equilibrium for 10 wall times, with plasma confinement parameters sustained at values comparable to those obtained in thick shell devices of similar size

  10. Analysis of resistive tearing-mode in the reversed-field pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiyama, Hiroshi; Masamune, Sadao; Hamuro, Eitaro; Tamaki, Reiji.

    1985-01-01

    As one of the methods of confining high temperature plasma by magnetic stress, attention has been paid to reversed field pinch (RFP). This RFP is the method of maintaining plasma pressure by combining the poloidal field generated by plasma current and the toroidal field having nearly same intensity, thus forming the toroidal shape, closed magnetic surface. As the typical RFP equipment, there have been TPE-1R(M), HBTX-1A, ZT-40M and OHTE, but in order to anticipate the further development, one of the problems is the resistive instability. In this study, the critical beta value determined by the tearing mode in RFP configuration was examined by analytical and numerical calculation methods. The position of a wall required for the stability was determined by solving a second order differential equation for a radial perturbed magnetic field. The propriety of the computer code for determining the position was examined. The magnetic field configuration having a finite beta value was determined, and its stability against a tearing mode was investigated. For this judgement of the stability, the developed computer code was used. The tearing mode in a Bessel function model, the tearing mode of a finite beta value and others are described. (Kako, I.)

  11. Compaction of LiBH4-LiAlH4 nanoconfined in activated carbon nanofibers: Dehydrogenation kinetics, reversibility, and mechanical stability during cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plerdsranoy, Praohatsorn; Javadian-Deylami, Seyd Payam; Jensen, Nicholai Daugaard

    2017-01-01

    To enhance volumetric hydrogen capacity for on-board fuel cells, compaction of LiAlH4-LiBH4 nanoconfined in activated carbon nanofibers (ACNF) is for the first time proposed. Loose powders of milled and nanoconfined LiAlH4-LiBH4 samples are compacted under 976 MPa to obtain the pellet samples...... with thickness and diameter of ∼1.20–1.30 and 8.0 mm, respectively. Dehydrogenation temperature of milled LiAlH4-LiBH4 increases from 415 to 434 °C due to compaction, while those of both compacted and loose powder samples of nanoconfined LiAlH4-LiBH4 are lower at comparable temperature of 330–335 °C. Hydrogen...

  12. Dynamics of a reconnection-driven runaway ion tail in a reversed field pinch plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J. K., E-mail: jkanders@wisc.edu; Kim, J.; Bonofiglo, P. J.; Capecchi, W.; Eilerman, S.; Nornberg, M. D.; Sarff, J. S.; Sears, S. H. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    While reconnection-driven ion heating is common in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, the underlying mechanisms for converting magnetic to kinetic energy remain not fully understood. Reversed field pinch discharges are often characterized by rapid ion heating during impulsive reconnection, generating an ion distribution with an enhanced bulk temperature, mainly perpendicular to magnetic field. In the Madison Symmetric Torus, a subset of discharges with the strongest reconnection events develop a very anisotropic, high energy tail parallel to magnetic field in addition to bulk perpendicular heating, which produces a fusion neutron flux orders of magnitude higher than that expected from a Maxwellian distribution. Here, we demonstrate that two factors in addition to a perpendicular bulk heating mechanism must be considered to explain this distribution. First, ion runaway can occur in the strong parallel-to-B electric field induced by a rapid equilibrium change triggered by reconnection-based relaxation; this effect is particularly strong on perpendicularly heated ions which experience a reduced frictional drag relative to bulk ions. Second, the confinement of ions varies dramatically as a function of velocity. Whereas thermal ions are governed by stochastic diffusion along tearing-altered field lines (and radial diffusion increases with parallel speed), sufficiently energetic ions are well confined, only weakly affected by a stochastic magnetic field. High energy ions traveling mainly in the direction of toroidal plasma current are nearly classically confined, while counter-propagating ions experience an intermediate confinement, greater than that of thermal ions but significantly less than classical expectations. The details of ion confinement tend to reinforce the asymmetric drive of the parallel electric field, resulting in a very asymmetric, anisotropic distribution.

  13. Post-acceleration of laser driven protons with a compact high field linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Turchetti, Giorgio; Bolton, Paul R.

    2013-05-01

    We present a start-to-end 3D numerical simulation of a hybrid scheme for the acceleration of protons. The scheme is based on a first stage laser acceleration, followed by a transport line with a solenoid or a multiplet of quadrupoles, and then a post-acceleration section in a compact linac. Our simulations show that from a laser accelerated proton bunch with energy selection at ~ 30MeV, it is possible to obtain a high quality monochromatic beam of 60MeV with intensity at the threshold of interest for medical use. In the present day experiments using solid targets, the TNSA mechanism describes accelerated bunches with an exponential energy spectrum up to a cut-off value typically below ~ 60MeV and wide angular distribution. At the cut-off energy, the number of protons to be collimated and post-accelerated in a hybrid scheme are still too low. We investigate laser-plasma acceleration to improve the quality and number of the injected protons at ~ 30MeV in order to assure efficient post-acceleration in the hybrid scheme. The results are obtained with 3D PIC simulations using a code where optical acceleration with over-dense targets, transport and post-acceleration in a linac can all be investigated in an integrated framework. The high intensity experiments at Nara are taken as a reference benchmarks for our virtual laboratory. If experimentally confirmed, a hybrid scheme could be the core of a medium sized infrastructure for medical research, capable of producing protons for therapy and x-rays for diagnosis, which complements the development of all optical systems.

  14. The importance of gravitational self-field effects in binary systems with compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, E.; Boerner, G.

    1978-01-01

    The attraction force of two massive bodies connected by a rod is calculated in a post-post-Newtonian approximation. As far as is known to the authors this is the first calculation in such an order of approximation. Although the result already shows a complicated field-field interaction Newton's attraction force M 1 /M 2 /R 2 is reproduced as the leading term in powers of 1/R. (author)

  15. Dependence of CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak] PF [poloidal field] coil currents on profile and shape parameters using the Control Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickler, D.J.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Jardin, S.C.; Pomphrey, N.

    1990-01-01

    The plasma shaping flexibility of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) poloidal field (PF) coil set is demonstrated through MHD equilibrium calculations of optimal PF coil current distributions and their variation with poloidal beta, internal inductance, plasma 95% elongation, and 95% triangularity. Calculations of the magnetic stored energy are used to compare solutions associated with various plasma parameters. The Control Matrix (CM) equilibrium code, together with the nonlinear equation and numerical optimization software packages HYBRD, and VMCON, respectively, are used to find equilibrium coil current distributions for fixed divertor geometry, volt-seconds, and plasma profiles in order to isolate the dependence on individual parameters. A reference equilibrium and coil current distribution are chosen, and correction currents dI are determined using the CM equilibrium method to obtain other specified plasma shapes. The reference equilibrium is the κ = 2 divertor at beginning of flattop (BOFT) with a minimum stored energy solution for the coil current distribution. The pressure profile function is fixed

  16. Advanced feedback control methods in EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadikin, D.; Brunsell, P. R.; Paccagnella, R.

    2006-07-01

    Previous experiments in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch device have shown the possibility of suppression of multiple resistive wall modes (RWM). A feedback system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R having 100% coverage of the toroidal surface by the active coil array. Predictions based on theory and the previous experimental results show that the number of active coils should be sufficient for independent stabilization of all unstable RWMs in the EXTRAP T2R. Experiments using different feedback schemes are performed, comparing the intelligent shell, the fake rotating shell, and the mode control with complex feedback gains. Stabilization of all unstable RWMs throughout the discharge duration of td≈10τw is seen using the intelligent shell feedback scheme. Mode rotation and the control of selected Fourier harmonics is obtained simultaneously using the mode control scheme with complex gains. Different sensor signals are studied. A feedback system with toroidal magnetic field sensors could have an advantage of lower feedback gain needed for the RWM suppression compared to the system with radial magnetic field sensors. In this study, RWM suppression is demonstrated, using also the toroidal field component as a sensor signal in the feedback system.

  17. Advanced feedback control methods in EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadikin, D.; Brunsell, P. R.; Paccagnella, R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous experiments in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch device have shown the possibility of suppression of multiple resistive wall modes (RWM). A feedback system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R having 100% coverage of the toroidal surface by the active coil array. Predictions based on theory and the previous experimental results show that the number of active coils should be sufficient for independent stabilization of all unstable RWMs in the EXTRAP T2R. Experiments using different feedback schemes are performed, comparing the intelligent shell, the fake rotating shell, and the mode control with complex feedback gains. Stabilization of all unstable RWMs throughout the discharge duration of t d ≅10τ w is seen using the intelligent shell feedback scheme. Mode rotation and the control of selected Fourier harmonics is obtained simultaneously using the mode control scheme with complex gains. Different sensor signals are studied. A feedback system with toroidal magnetic field sensors could have an advantage of lower feedback gain needed for the RWM suppression compared to the system with radial magnetic field sensors. In this study, RWM suppression is demonstrated, using also the toroidal field component as a sensor signal in the feedback system

  18. Rethermalization of a field-reversed configuration plasma in translation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himura, H.; Okada, S.; Sugimoto, S.; Goto, S.

    1995-01-01

    A translation experiment of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma is performed on the FIX machine [Shiokawa and Goto, Phys. Fluids B 5, 534 (1993)]. The translated FRC bounces between magnetic mirror fields at both ends of a confinement region. The plasma loses some of its axial kinetic energy when it is reflected by the magnetic mirror field, and eventually settles down in the confinement region. In this reflection process, the plasma temperature rises significantly. Such plasma rethermalization has been observed in OCT-L1 experiments [Ito et al., Phys. Fluids 30, 168 (1987)], but rarely in FRX-C/T experiments [Rej et al., Phys. Fluids 29, 852 (1986)]. It is found that the rethermalization depends on the relation between the plasma temperature and the translation velocity. The rethermalization occurs only in the case where the translation velocity exceeds the sound velocity. This result implies the rethermalization is caused by a shock wave induced within the FRC when the plasma is reflected by the magnetic mirror field. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  19. Magnetized Reverse Shock: Density-fluctuation-induced Field Distortion, Polarization Degree Reduction, and Application to GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Wei; Zhang Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Li Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Stone, James M., E-mail: deng@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: hli@lanl.gov, E-mail: jstone@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The early optical afterglow emission of several gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) shows a high linear polarization degree (PD) of tens of percent, suggesting an ordered magnetic field in the emission region. The light curves are consistent with being of a reverse shock (RS) origin. However, the magnetization parameter, σ , of the outflow is unknown. If σ is too small, an ordered field in the RS may be quickly randomized due to turbulence driven by various perturbations so that the PD may not be as high as observed. Here we use the “Athena++” relativistic MHD code to simulate a relativistic jet with an ordered magnetic field propagating into a clumpy ambient medium, with a focus on how density fluctuations may distort the ordered magnetic field and reduce PD in the RS emission for different σ values. For a given density fluctuation, we discover a clear power-law relationship between the relative PD reduction and the σ value of the outflow. Such a relation may be applied to estimate σ of the GRB outflows using the polarization data of early afterglows.

  20. Interaction of Fast Ions with Global Plasma Modes in the C-2 Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Artem; Dettrick, Sean; Clary, Ryan; Korepanov, Sergey; Thompson, Matthew; Trask, Erik; Tuszewski, Michel

    2012-10-01

    A high-confinement operating regime [1] with plasma lifetimes significantly exceeding past empirical scaling laws was recently obtained by combining plasma gun edge biasing and tangential Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) in the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment [2, 3]. We present experimental and computational results on the interaction of fast ions with the n=2 rotational and n=1 wobble modes in the C-2 FRC. It is found that the n=2 mode is similar to quadrupole magnetic fields in its detrimental effect on the fast ion transport due to symmetry breaking. The plasma gun generates an inward radial electric field, thus stabilizing the n=2 rotational instability without applying the quadrupole magnetic fields. The resultant FRCs are nearly axisymmetric, which enables fast ion confinement. The NBI further suppresses the n=2 mode, improves the plasma confinement characteristics, and increases the plasma configuration lifetime [4]. The n=1 wobble mode has relatively little effect on the fast ion transport, likely due to the approximate axisymmetry about the displaced plasma column. [4pt] [1] M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012).[0pt] [2] M. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 045003 (2010).[0pt] [3] H.Y. Guo et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056110 (2011).[0pt] [4] M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 056108 (2012)

  1. New reversing freeform lens design method for LED uniform illumination with extended source and near field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhili; Zhang, Honghai; Zheng, Huai; Liu, Sheng

    2018-03-01

    In light-emitting diode (LED) array illumination (e.g. LED backlighting), obtainment of high uniformity in the harsh condition of the large distance height ratio (DHR), extended source and near field is a key as well as challenging issue. In this study, we present a new reversing freeform lens design algorithm based on the illuminance distribution function (IDF) instead of the traditional light intensity distribution, which allows uniform LED illumination in the above mentioned harsh conditions. IDF of freeform lens can be obtained by the proposed mathematical method, considering the effects of large DHR, extended source and near field target at the same time. In order to prove the claims, a slim direct-lit LED backlighting with DHR equal to 4 is designed. In comparison with the traditional lenses, illuminance uniformity of LED backlighting with the new lens increases significantly from 0.45 to 0.84, and CV(RMSE) decreases dramatically from 0.24 to 0.03 in the harsh condition. Meanwhile, luminance uniformity of LED backlighting with the new lens is obtained as high as 0.92 at the condition of extended source and near field. This new method provides a practical and effective way to solve the problem of large DHR, extended source and near field for LED array illumination.

  2. Error field assessment from driven rotation of stable external kinks at EXTRAP-T2R reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, F. A.; Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.; Olofsson, K. E. J.

    2013-04-01

    A new non-disruptive error field (EF) assessment technique not restricted to low density and thus low beta was demonstrated at the EXTRAP-T2R reversed field pinch. Stable and marginally stable external kink modes of toroidal mode number n = 10 and n = 8, respectively, were generated, and their rotation sustained, by means of rotating magnetic perturbations of the same n. Due to finite EFs, and in spite of the applied perturbations rotating uniformly and having constant amplitude, the kink modes were observed to rotate non-uniformly and be modulated in amplitude. This behaviour was used to precisely infer the amplitude and approximately estimate the toroidal phase of the EF. A subsequent scan permitted to optimize the toroidal phase. The technique was tested against deliberately applied as well as intrinsic EFs of n = 8 and 10. Corrections equal and opposite to the estimated error fields were applied. The efficacy of the error compensation was indicated by the increased discharge duration and more uniform mode rotation in response to a uniformly rotating perturbation. The results are in good agreement with theory, and the extension to lower n, to tearing modes and to tokamaks, including ITER, is discussed.

  3. Review of compact, alternate concepts for magnetic confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, S.B.; Shmayda, W.T.; Dinner, P.J.; Gierszewski, P.

    1984-06-01

    This report documents a study of compact alternate magnetic confinement fusion experiments and conceptual reactor designs. The purpose of this study is to identify those devices with a potential to burn tritium in the near future. The bulk of the report is made up of a review of the following compact alternates: compact toroids, high power density tokamaks, linear magnetic systems, compact mirrors, reversed field pinches and some miscellaneous concepts. Bumpy toruses and stellarators were initially reviewed but were not pursued since no compact variations were found. Several of the concepts show promise of either burning tritium or evolving into tritium burning devices by the early 1990's: RIGGATRON, Ignitor, OHTE, Frascati Tokamak upgrade, several driven (low or negative net power) mirror experiments and several Reversed Field Pinch experiments that may begin operation around 1990. Of the above only the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade has had funds allocated. Also identified in this report are groups who may have tritium burning experiments in the mid to late 1990's. There is a discussion of the differences between the reviewed devices and the mainline tokamak experiments. This discussion forms the basis of recommendations for R and D aimed at the compact alternates and the applicability of the present CFFTP program to the needs of the compact alternates. These recommendations will be presented in a subsequent report

  4. Experimental studies of tearing mode and resistive wall mode dynamics in the reversed field pinch configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmberg, Jenny-Ann

    2003-06-01

    It is relatively straightforward to establish equilibrium in magnetically confined plasmas, but the plasma is frequently susceptible to a variety of instabilities that are driven by the free energy in the magnetic field or in the pressure gradient. These unstable modes exhibit effects that affect the particle, momentum and heat confinement properties of the configuration. Studies of the dynamics of several of the most important modes are the subject of this thesis. The studies are carried out on plasmas in the reversed field pinch (RFP) configuration. One phenomenon commonly observed in RFPs is mode wall locking. The localized nature of these phase- and wall locked structures results in localized power loads on the wall which are detrimental for confinement. A detailed study of the wall locked mode phenomenon is performed based on magnetic measurements from three RFP devices. The two possible mechanisms for wall locking are investigated. Locking as a result of tearing modes interacting with a static field error and locking due to the presence of a non-ideal boundary. The characteristics of the wall locked mode are qualitatively similar in a device with a conducting shell system (TPE-RX) compared to a device with a resistive shell (Extrap T2). A theoretical model is used for evaluating the threshold values for wall locking due to eddy currents in the vacuum vessel in these devices. A good correlation with experiment is observed for the conducting shell device. The possibility of successfully sustaining discharges in a resistive shell RFP is introduced in the recently rebuilt device Extrap T2R. Fast spontaneous mode rotation is observed, resulting in low magnetic fluctuations, low loop voltage and improved confinement. Wall locking is rarely observed. The low tearing mode amplitudes allow for the theoretically predicted internal non-resonant on-axis resistive wall modes to be observed. These modes have not previously been distinguished due to the formation of wall

  5. ARC: A compact, high-field, fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant with demountable magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorbom, B.N., E-mail: bsorbom@mit.edu; Ball, J.; Palmer, T.R.; Mangiarotti, F.J.; Sierchio, J.M.; Bonoli, P.; Kasten, C.; Sutherland, D.A.; Barnard, H.S.; Haakonsen, C.B.; Goh, J.; Sung, C.; Whyte, D.G.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • ARC reactor designed to have 500 MW fusion power at 3.3 m major radius. • Compact, simplified design allowed by high magnetic fields and jointed magnets. • ARC has innovative plasma physics solutions such as inboardside RF launch. • High temperature superconductors allow high magnetic fields and jointed magnets. • Liquid immersion blanket and jointed magnets greatly simplify tokamak reactor design. - Abstract: The affordable, robust, compact (ARC) reactor is the product of a conceptual design study aimed at reducing the size, cost, and complexity of a combined fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion Pilot power plant. ARC is a ∼200–250 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has rare earth barium copper oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils, which have joints to enable disassembly. This allows the vacuum vessel to be replaced quickly, mitigating first wall survivability concerns, and permits a single device to test many vacuum vessel designs and divertor materials. The design point has a plasma fusion gain of Q{sub p} ≈ 13.6, yet is fully non-inductive, with a modest bootstrap fraction of only ∼63%. Thus ARC offers a high power gain with relatively large external control of the current profile. This highly attractive combination is enabled by the ∼23 T peak field on coil achievable with newly available REBCO superconductor technology. External current drive is provided by two innovative inboard RF launchers using 25 MW of lower hybrid and 13.6 MW of ion cyclotron fast wave power. The resulting efficient current drive provides a robust, steady state core plasma far from disruptive limits. ARC uses an all-liquid blanket, consisting of low pressure, slowly flowing fluorine lithium beryllium (FLiBe) molten salt. The liquid blanket is low-risk technology and provides effective neutron moderation and shielding, excellent

  6. The correlation between geomagnetic field reversals, Hawaiian volcanism, and the motion of the Pacific plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dong

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between geomagnetic field reversals and volcanism is investigated, according to the speculated consequence on volcanoes of the transient electric currents in the geodynamo, through Joule's heating, before and after every reversal event. We evaluate the temporal variation during the last ~ 70 Ma both of the magma emplacement rate Q(t from the Hawaii hot spot, and of the speed v(t of the Pacific plate, by means of the observed volumes of islands and seamounts along the Hawaii/Emperor Seamounts chain, and their respective radiometric datings. Results confirm expectations. A justification of the volcanic crises that lead to the generation of the large igneous provinces during the last ~ 250 Ma also emerged. We describe in detail the complex pattern of the timings of the different effects. Joule's power is generally responsible for ~ 75-80% of magmatism, and friction power only for ~ 20-25%; but, on some occasions almost ~ 100% is fuelled by friction alone. The visco-elastic coupling between lithosphere and asthenosphere results ~ 96% viscous, and ~ 4% elastic.

  7. Current drive by neutral beams, rotating magnetic fields and helicity injection in compact toroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farengo, R.; Arista, N.R.; Lifschitz, A.F.; Clemente, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of neutral beams (NB) for current drive and heating in spheromaks, the relaxed states of flux core spheromaks (FCS) sustained by helicity injection and the effect of ion dynamics on rotating magnetic field (RMF) current drive in spherical tokamaks (ST) are studied. (author)

  8. Generation of strong pulsed magnetic fields using a compact, short pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanuka, D.; Efimov, S.; Nitishinskiy, M.; Rososhek, A.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2016-04-01

    The generation of strong magnetic fields (˜50 T) using single- or multi-turn coils immersed in water was studied. A pulse generator with stored energy of ˜3.6 kJ, discharge current amplitude of ˜220 kA, and rise time of ˜1.5 μs was used in these experiments. Using the advantage of water that it has a large Verdet constant, the magnetic field was measured using the non-disturbing method of Faraday rotation of a polarized collimated laser beam. This approach does not require the use of magnetic probes, which are sensitive to electromagnetic noise and damaged in each shot. It also avoids the possible formation of plasma by either a flashover along the conductor or gas breakdown inside the coil caused by an induced electric field. In addition, it was shown that this approach can be used successfully to investigate the interesting phenomenon of magnetic field enhanced diffusion into a conductor.

  9. Acoustic Longitudinal Field NIF Optic Feature Detection Map Using Time-Reversal & MUSIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, S K

    2006-02-09

    We developed an ultrasonic longitudinal field time-reversal and MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) based detection algorithm for identifying and mapping flaws in fused silica NIF optics. The algorithm requires a fully multistatic data set, that is one with multiple, independently operated, spatially diverse transducers, each transmitter of which, in succession, launches a pulse into the optic and the scattered signal measured and recorded at every receiver. We have successfully localized engineered ''defects'' larger than 1 mm in an optic. We confirmed detection and localization of 3 mm and 5 mm features in experimental data, and a 0.5 mm in simulated data with sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio. We present the theory, experimental results, and simulated results.

  10. Advanced Biasing Experiments on the C-2 Field-Reversed Configuration Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Korepanov, Sergey; Garate, Eusebio; Yang, Xiaokang; Gota, Hiroshi; Douglass, Jon; Allfrey, Ian; Valentine, Travis; Uchizono, Nolan; TAE Team

    2014-10-01

    The C-2 experiment seeks to study the evolution, heating and sustainment effects of neutral beam injection on field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. Recently, substantial improvements in plasma performance were achieved through the application of edge biasing with coaxial plasma guns located in the divertors. Edge biasing provides rotation control that reduces instabilities and E × B shear that improves confinement. Typically, the plasma gun arcs are run at ~ 10 MW for the entire shot duration (~ 5 ms), which will become unsustainable as the plasma duration increases. We have conducted several advanced biasing experiments with reduced-average-power plasma gun operating modes and alternative biasing cathodes in an effort to develop an effective biasing scenario applicable to steady state FRC plasmas. Early results show that several techniques can potentially provide effective, long-duration edge biasing.

  11. Impurity profiles and radial transport in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallander, J.

    1999-01-01

    Radially resolved spectroscopy has been used to measure the radial distribution of impurity ions (O III-O V and C III-CVI) in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch (RFP). The radial profile of the emission is reconstructed from line emission measured along five lines of sight. The ion density profile is the fitted quantity in the reconstruction of the brightness profile and is thus obtained directly in this process. These measurements are then used to adjust the parameters in transport calculations in order to obtain consistency with the observed ion density profiles. Comparison between model and measurements show that a radial dependence in the diffusion is needed to explain the measured ion densities. (author)

  12. Reversed-field pinch experiments in EXTRAP T2R with a resistive shell boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmberg, J.-A.; Cecconello, M.; Brunsell, P.R.; Yadikin, D.; Drake, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    The EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch has a resistive shell with a magnetic penetration time of 6 ms. This time is intermediate between the dynamo/relaxation cycle time scale (<2ms) and the pulse length (∼20ms). The resonant tearing modes do not wall-lock. They rotate with angular phase velocities in the range of 20 to 600 krad/s. As a result of the rotation the radial component of the perturbations at the shell from the resonant modes is suppressed. Non-resonant (resistive-wall) kink modes are unstable and their linear growth rates have been measured. The measured growth rates follow the trend expected from theoretical estimates for a range of equilibrium parameters. Furthermore, when the resonant modes are rotating, the loop voltage and confinement parameters have values comparable to those of a conducting shell RFP. The poloidal beta is around 10% for a range of current and density. (author)

  13. Impurity profiles and radial transport in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallander, J.

    1999-05-01

    Radially resolved spectroscopy has been used to measure the radial distribution of impurity ions (O III-O V and C III-CVI) in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch (RFP). The radial profile of the emission is reconstructed from line emission measured along five lines of sight. The ion density profile is the fitted quantity in the reconstruction of the brightness profile and is thus obtained directly in this process. These measurements are then used to adjust the parameters in transport calculations in order to obtain consistency with the observed ion density profiles. Comparison between model and measurements show that a radial dependence in the diffusion is needed to explain the measured ion densities.

  14. Tritium systems for the TITAN reversed-field pinch fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Sze, D.K.; Bartlit, J.R.; Gierszewski, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Tritium systems for the TITAN reversed-field pinch (RFP) fusion reactor study have been designed for two blanket concepts. The TITAN-1 design uses a self-cooled liquid-lithium blanket. The TITAN-2 design uses a self-cooled aqueous-solution blanket, with lithium nitrate dissolved in the water for tritium breeding. Tritium inventory, release, and safety margins are within regulatory limits, at acceptable costs. Major issues for TITAN-1 are plasma-driven permeation, the need for a secondary coolant loop, tritium storage requirements, redundancy in the plasma exhaust system, and minimal isotopic distillation of the exhaust. TITAN-1 fuel cleanup, reprocessing, and air detritiation systems are described in detail

  15. Equilibrium of field reversed configurations with rotation. II. One space dimension and many ion species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qerushi, Artan; Rostoker, Norman

    2002-01-01

    In a previous paper [N. Rostoker and A. Qerushi, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3057 (2002)] it was shown that a complete description of equilibria of field reversed configurations with rotation can be obtained by solving a generalized Grad-Shafranov equation for the flux function. In this paper we show how to solve this equation in the case of one space dimension and many ion species. The following fusion fuels are considered: D-T, D-He 3 , and p-B 11 . Using a Green's function the generalized Grad-Shafranov equation is converted to an equivalent integral equation. The integral equation can be solved by iteration. Approximate analytic solutions for a plasma with many ion species are found. They are used as starting trial functions of the iterations. They turn out to be so close to the true solutions that only a few iterations are needed

  16. Equilibrium of field reversed configurations with rotation. IV. Two space dimensions and many ion species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qerushi, Artan; Rostoker, Norman

    2003-01-01

    In a previous paper [N. Rostoker and A. Qerushi, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3057 (2002)] a generalized Grad-Shafranov equation for the plasma flux function was derived which provides a complete description of equilibria of field reversed configurations with rotation. In this paper this fundamental equation is solved for two space dimensions and many ion species. The following fusion fuels are considered: D-T, D-He 3 , and p-B 11 . Using periodic boundary conditions the original differential equation is converted to an equivalent integral equation which involves a Green's function. The integral equation is solved by iteration. Approximate solutions are found for all the fusion fuels considered using a two-dimensional equilibrium model for one type of ion [A. Qerushi and N. Rostoker, Phys. Plasmas 9, 5001 (2002)]. They are used as starting trial functions of the iterations. They turn out to be so close to the real solutions that only a few iterations are needed

  17. Soft x-ray measurement of internal tearing mode structure in a reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartas, G.; Hokin, S.

    1991-01-01

    The structure of internally resonant tearing modes has been studied in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch with a soft x-ray detector system consisting of an imaging array at one toroidal location and several detectors at different toroidal locations. The toroidal mode numbers of m = 1 structures are in the range n = -5, -6, -7. The modes propagate with phase velocity v = 1--6 x 10 6 cm/s, larger than the diamagnetic drift velocity v d ∼ 5 x 10 5 cm/s. Phase locking between modes with different n in manifested as a beating of soft x-ray signals which is found to be strongest near the resonant surfaces of the modes (r/a = 0.1 -- 0.5). 15 refs., 5 figs

  18. Field-Reversed Configuration Formation Scheme Utilizing a Spheromak and Solenoid Induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardt, S.P.; Belova, E.V.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Ren, Y.; McGeehan, B.; Inomoto, M.

    2008-01-01

    A new field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation technique is described, where a spheromak transitions to a FRC with inductive current drive. The transition is accomplished only in argon and krypton plasmas, where low-n kink modes are suppressed; spheromaks with a lighter majority species, such as neon and helium, either display a terminal tilt-mode, or an n=2 kink instability, both resulting in discharge termination. The stability of argon and krypton plasmas through the transition is attributed to the rapid magnetic diffusion of the currents that drive the kink-instability. The decay of helicity during the transition is consistent with that expected from resistivity. This observation indicates a new scheme to form a FRC plasma, provided stability to low-n modes is maintained, as well as a unique situation where the FRC is a preferred state

  19. Confinement dynamics and boundary condition studies in the Reversed Field Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberg, K.F.; Ingraham, J.C.; Moses, R.W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The study of confinement dynamics, including investigation of the boundary conditions required for plasma sustainment, are central to the development of the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) concept. Recently, several insights into confinement have emerged from a detailed investigation RFP electron and ion dynamics. These insights derive from the recognition that both magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and electron kinetic effects play an important and coupled role in RFP stability, sustainment, and confinement. In this paper, we summarize the results of confinement studies on the ZT-40M experiment, and boundary condition studies on the Wisconsin non-circular RFP experiment. A brief description of the newly commissioned Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) is also presented. 28 refs., 3 figs

  20. Adiabatic, chaotic and quasi-adiabatic charged particle motion in two-dimensional magnetic field reversals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechner, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    For a number of problems in the Plasma Astrophysics it is necessary to know the laws, which govern the non adiabatic charged particle dynamics in strongly curves magnetic field reversals. These are, e.q., the kinetic theory of the microscopic and macroscopicstability of current sheets in collionless plasma, of microturbulence, causing anomalous resistivity and dissipating currents, the problem of spontaneous reconnection, the formation of non Maxwellian distribution functions, particle acceleration and the use of particles as a diagnostic tool ('tracers'). To find such laws we derived from the differential equations of motion discrete mappings. These mappings allow an investigation of the motion after the break down of the adiabaticity of the magnetic moment. (author). 32 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  1. Field-Reversed Configuration Power Plant Critical-Issue Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarius, J. F.; Mogahed, E. A.; Emmert, G. A.; Khater, H. Y.; Nguyen, C. N.; Ryzhkov, S. V.; Stubna, M. D.

    2000-03-31

    A team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Washington, and Illinois performed an engineering scoping study of critical issues for field-reversed configuration (FRC) power plants. The key tasks for this research were (1) systems analysis for deuterium-tritium (D-T) FRC fusion power plants, and (2) conceptual design of the blanket and shield module for an FRC fusion core. For the engineering conceptual design of the fusion core, the project team focused on intermediate-term technology. For example, one decision was to use steele structure. The FRC systems analysis led to a fusion power plant with attractive features including modest size, cylindrical symmetry, good thermal efficiency (52%), relatively easy maintenance, and a high ratio of electric power to fusion core mass, indicating that it would have favorable economics.

  2. Field-Reversed Configuration Power Plant Critical-Issue Scoping Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarius, J. F.; Mogahed, E. A.; Emmert, G. A.; Khater, H. Y.; Nguyen, C. N.; Ryzhkov, S. V.; Stubna, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    A team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Washington, and Illinois performed an engineering scoping study of critical issues for field-reversed configuration (FRC) power plants. The key tasks for this research were (1) systems analysis for deuterium-tritium (D-T) FRC fusion power plants, and (2) conceptual design of the blanket and shield module for an FRC fusion core. For the engineering conceptual design of the fusion core, the project team focused on intermediate-term technology. For example, one decision was to use steele structure. The FRC systems analysis led to a fusion power plant with attractive features including modest size, cylindrical symmetry, good thermal efficiency (52%), relatively easy maintenance, and a high ratio of electric power to fusion core mass, indicating that it would have favorable economics

  3. A one-dimensional plasma and impurity transport model for reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerasingam, R.

    1991-11-01

    In this thesis a one-dimensional (1-D) plasma and impurity transport model is developed to address issues related to impurity behavior in Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) fusion plasmas. A coronal non-equilibrium model is used for impurities. The impurity model is incorporated into an existing one dimensional plasma transport model creating a multi-species plasma transport model which treats the plasma and impurity evolution self-consistently. Neutral deuterium particles are treated using a one-dimensional (slab) model of neutral transport. The resulting mode, RFPBI, is then applied to existing RFP devices such as ZT-40M and MST, and also to examine steady state behavior of ZTH based on the design parameters. A parallel algorithm for the impurity transport equations is implemented and tested to determine speedup and efficiency

  4. One-dimensional modeling of plasma diffusion in field reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasaki, S.; Krall, N.A.

    1986-03-01

    Over the past several years, a picture has emerged of transport in field reversed configuration (FRC) which explains many, though not all, of the loss phenomena observed in that device. That picture is complicated by the geometry, which includes both magnetically connected and magnetically isolated regions, and by the transport process, which includes a substantial contribution from short wavelength, fast time scale processes. This paper extends our previous work on this topic by carrying a one-dimensional model as far as it can be carried, in terms of goemetrical and physical consistency, and isolates the difference between the model and experiment as coming from phenomena beyond the scope of 1-D anomalous transport

  5. Profile relaxation and tilt instability in a field-reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, H.; Horiuchi, R.; Sato, T.

    2003-01-01

    The profile relaxation from a magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) profile to a kinetic equilibrium in field-reversed configurations (FRCs) is investigated by two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulation. The radial oscillation takes place in order to relax an excess energy in the MHD profile, and the system spontaneously relaxes toward a kinetic equilibrium. In this kinetic equilibrium, the hollow electron current profile is realized as a result of the combined effects of the single particle orbits and the ion finite Larmor radius, and the ion current profile becomes peaked due to the effect of the ion meandering motion. Three-dimensional full electromagnetic particle simulation is also performed to study the stability of these kinetic equilibrium against the tilt mode. The growth rate of the tilt instability is reduced by the kinetic effects. It is found that the stabilization effect of tilt mode becomes much distinct when the current density changes from the peaked profile to the hollow one. (author)

  6. Profile relaxation and tilt instability in a field-reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, H.; Horiuchi, R.; Sato, T.

    2002-10-01

    The profile relaxation from a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) profile to a kinetic equilibrium in field-reversed configurations (FRCs) is investigated by two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulation. The radial oscillation takes place in order to relax an excess energy in the MHD profile, and the system spontaneously relaxes toward a kinetic equilibrium. In this kinetic equilibrium, the hollow electron current profile is realized as a result of the combined effects of the single particle orbits and the ion finite Larmor radius, and the ion current profile becomes peaked due to the effect of the ion meandering motion. Three-dimensional full electromagnetic particle simulation is also performed to study the stability of these kinetic equilibrium against the tilt mode. The growth rate of the tilt instability is reduced by the kinetic effects. It is found that the stabilization effect of tilt mode becomes much distinct when the current density changes from the peaked profile to the hollow one. (author)

  7. Profile relaxation and tilt instability in a field-reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, H.; Horiuchi, R.; Sato, T.

    2002-01-01

    The profile relaxation from a magnetichydrodynamic (MHD) profile to a kinetic equilibrium in field-reversed configurations (FRCs) in investigated by two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulation. The radial oscillation takes place in order to relax an excess energy in the MHD profile, and the system spontaneously relaxes toward a kinetic equilibrium. In this kinetic equilibrium, the hollow electron current profile is realized as a result of the combined effects of the single particle orbits and the ion finite Larmor radius, and the ion current profile becomes peaked due to the effect of the ion meandering motion. Three-dimensional full electromagnetic particle simulations is also performed to study the stability of these kinetic equilibrium against the tilt mode. The growth rate of the tilt instability is reduced by the kinetic is effects. It is found that the stabilization effect of tilt mode becomes much distinct when the current density changes from the peaked profile to the hollow one. (author)

  8. Simulations of the lower-hybrid antenna in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Johan; Smithe, David; Kaufman, Michael; Goetz, John; Thomas, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Due to constraints inherent to a reversed-field pinch plasma configuration, an unusual launch structure—the interdigital line—was used for lower-hybrid current-drive experiments in the Madison Symmetric Torus. The antenna design and performance were analyzed using an array of codes (including RANT3D/AORSA1D-H, Microwave Studio and VORPAL). It was found that the voltage phasing was not the intended one. As a result, the parallel-wavenumber spectrum of the launched wave peaks at a value lower than desired, making the accessibility marginal. Further simulations demonstrated that the error can largely be corrected by either lowering the antenna operating frequency or shortening the length of the resonators. (paper)

  9. Confinement improvement with rf poloidal current drive in the reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokin, S.; Sarff, J.; Sovinec, C.; Uchimoto, E.

    1994-01-01

    External control of the current profile in a reversed-field pinch (RFP), by means such as rf poloidal current drive, may have beneficial effects well beyond the direct reduction of Ohmic input power due to auxiliary heating. Reduction of magnetic turbulence associated with the dynamo, which drives poloidal current in a conventional RFP, may allow operation at lower density and higher electron temperature, for which rf current drive becomes efficient and the RFP operates in a more favorable regime on the nτ vs T diagram. Projected parameters for RFX at 2 MA axe studied as a concrete example. If rf current drive allows RFX to operate with β = 10% (plasma energy/magnetic energy) at low density (3 x 10 19 m -3 ) with classical resistivity (i.e. without dynamo-enhanced power input), 40 ms energy confinement times and 3 keV temperatures will result, matching the performance of tokamaks of similar size

  10. Positional stability of field-reversed-configurations in the presence of resistive walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, N., E-mail: nrath@trialphanenergy.com; Onofri, M.; Barnes, D. C. [Tri Alpha Energy, P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688-7010 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    We show that in a field-reversed-configuration, the plasma is unstable to either transverse or axial rigid displacement, but never to both. Driving forces are found to be parallel to the direction of displacement with no orthogonal components. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the properties of a resistive wall (geometry and resistivity) in the vicinity of the plasma do not affect whether the plasma is stable or unstable, but in the case of an unstable system determine the instability growth rate. Depending on the properties of the wall, the instability growth is dominated by plasma inertia (and not affected by wall resistivity) or dominated by ohmic dissipation of wall eddy currents (and thus proportional to the wall resistivity).

  11. Comparison between the boundary layer and global resistivity methods for tearing modes in reversed field configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, M.A.M.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the problem of growth rate calculations for tearing modes in field reversed Θ-pinches is presented. Its shown that in the several experimental data, the methods used for analysing the plasma with a global finite resistivity has a better quantitative agreement than the boundary layer analysis. A comparative study taking into account the m = 1 resistive kindmode and the m = 2 mode, which is more dangerous for the survey of rotational instabilities of the plasma column is done. It can see that the imaginary component of the eigenfrequency, which determinates the growth rate, has a good agreement with the experimental data and the real component is different from the rotational frequency as it has been measured in some experiments. (author) [pt

  12. High-β, improved confinement reversed-field pinch plasmas at high density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyman, M. D.; Chapman, B. E.; Ahn, J. W.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Ebrahimi, F.; Ennis, D. A.; Fiksel, G.; Gangadhara, S.; Goetz, J. A.; O'Connell, R.; Oliva, S. P.; Prager, S. C.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.; Stephens, H. D.; Bonomo, F.; Franz, P.; Brower, D. L.

    2008-01-01

    In Madison Symmetric Torus [Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] discharges where improved confinement is brought about by modification of the current profile, pellet injection has quadrupled the density, reaching n e =4x10 19 m -3 . Without pellet injection, the achievable density in improved confinement discharges had been limited by edge-resonant tearing instability. With pellet injection, the total beta has been increased to 26%, and the energy confinement time is comparable to that at low density. Pressure-driven local interchange and global tearing are predicted to be linearly unstable. Interchange has not yet been observed experimentally, but there is possible evidence of pressure-driven tearing, an instability usually driven by the current gradient in the reversed-field pinch

  13. Current-driven instabilities of the kinetic shear Alfven wave: Application to reversed field pinches and spheromaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhofer, D.D.; Perkins, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetic Alfven wave is studied in a cylindrical force-free plasma with self-consistent magnetic fields. This equilibrium represents a reversed field pinch or a spheromak. The stability of the wave is found to depend on the ratio of the electron drift velocity to the Alfven velocity. This ratio varies inversely with the square root of the plasma line density. The critical line density using the Spitzer--Harm electron distribution function is found for reversed field pinches with deuterium plasmas to be approximately 2 x 10 18 and is 5 x 10 17 m -1 in spheromaks with hydrogen plasmas. The critical line density is in reasonable agreement with experimental data for reversed field pinches

  14. Fluctuation reduction and enhanced confinement in the MST reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, B.E.

    1997-10-01

    Plasmas with a factor of ≥3 improvement in energy confinement have been achieved in the MST reversed-field pinch (RFP). These plasmas occur spontaneously, following sawtooth crashes, subject to constraints on, eg, toroidal magnetic field reversal and wall conditioning. Possible contributors to the improved confinement include a reduction of core-resonant, global magnetic fluctuations and a reduction of electrostatic fluctuations over the entire plasma edge. One feature of these plasmas is a region of strong ExB flow shear in the edge. Never before observed in conjunction with enhanced confinement in the RFP, such shear is common in enhanced confinement discharges in tokamaks and stellarators. Another feature of these plasmas is a new type of discrete dynamo event. Like sawtooth crashes, a common form of discrete dynamo, these events correspond to bursts of edge parallel current. The reduction of electrostatic fluctuations in these plasmas occurs within and beyond the region of strong ExB flow shear, similar to what is observed in tokamaks and stellarators. However, the reductions in the MST include fluctuations whose correlation lengths are larger than the width of the shear region. The reduction of the global magnetic fluctuations is most likely due to flattening of the μ=μ 0 rvec J· rvec B/B 2 profile. Flattening can occur, eg, due to the new type of discrete dynamo event and reduced edge resistivity. Enhanced confinement plasmas are also achieved in the MST when auxiliary current is applied to flatten the μ profile and reduce magnetic fluctuations. Unexpectedly, these plasmas also exhibit a region (broader than in the case above) of strong ExB flow shear in the edge, an edge-wide reduction of electrostatic fluctuations, and the new type of discrete dynamo event. Auxiliary current drive has historically been viewed as the principal route to fusion reactor viability for the RFP

  15. Increasing The Electric Field For An Improved Search For Time-Reversal Violation Using Radium-225

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Radium-225 atoms, because of their unusual pear-shaped nuclei, have an enhanced sensitivity to the violation of time reversal symmetry. A breakdown of this fundamental symmetry could help explain the apparent scarcity of antimatter in the Universe. Our goal is to improve the statistical sensitivity of an ongoing experiment that precisely measures the EDM of Radium-225. This can be done by increasing the electric field acting on the Radium atoms. We do this by increasing the voltage that can be reliably applied between two electrodes, and narrowing the gap between them. We use a varying high voltage system to condition the electrodes using incremental voltage ramp tests to achieve higher voltage potential differences. Using an adjustable gap mount to change the distance between the electrodes, specific metals for their composition, and a clean room procedure to keep particulates out of the system, we produce a higher and more stable electric field. Progress is marked by measurements of the leakage current between the electrodes during our incremental voltage ramp tests or emulated tests of the actual experiment, with low and constant current showing stability of the field. This project is supported by Michigan State University, and the US DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  16. Detection and Analysis of X Ray Emission from the Princeton-Field-Reversed Configuration (PFRC-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosh, Alexandra; Swanson, Charles; Jandovitz, Peter; Cohen, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    The PFRC is an odd-parity rotating-magnetic-field-driven field-reversed-configuration magnetic confinement experiment. Studying X rays produced via electron Bremsstrahlung with neutral particles is crucial to the further understanding of the energy and particle confinement of the PFRC. The data on the x rays are collected using a detector system comprised of two, spatially scannable Amptek XR-100 CR detectors and a Amptek XR-100 SDD detector that view the plasma column at two axial locations, one in the divertor and one near the axial midplane. These provide X-ray energy and arrival-time information. (Data analysis requires measurement of each detector's efficiency, a parameter that is modified by window transmission. Detector calibrations were performed with a custom-made X-ray tube that impinged 1-microamp 1-5 kV electron beams onto a carbon target.) From the analyzed data, the average electron energy, effective temperature, and electron density can be extracted. Spatial scans then allow the FRC's internal energy to be measured. We present recent measurements of the Bremsstrahlung spectrum from 0.8 to 6 keV and the inferred electron temperature in the PFRC device as functions of heating power, magnetic field and fill gas pressure. This work was supported, in part, by DOE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  17. Core fluctuations and current profile dynamics in the MST reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, D.L.; Ding, W.X.; Lei, J.

    2003-01-01

    First measurements of the current density profile, magnetic field fluctuations and electrostatic (e.s.) particle flux in the core of a high-temperature reversed-field pinch (RFP) are presented. We report three new results: (1) The current density peaks during the slow ramp phase of the sawtooth cycle and flattens promptly at the crash. Profile flattening can be linked to magnetic relaxation and the dynamo which is predicted to drive anti-parallel current in the core. Measured core magnetic fluctuations are observed to increases four-fold at the crash. Between sawtooth crashes, measurements indicate the particle flux driven by e.s. fluctuations is too small to account for the total radial particle flux. (2) Core magnetic fluctuations are observed to decrease at least twofold in plasmas where energy confinement time improves ten-fold. In this case, the radial particle flux is also reduced, suggesting core e.s. fluctuation-induced transport may play role in confinement. (3) The parallel current density increases in the outer region of the plasma during high confinement, as expected, due to the applied edge parallel electric field. However, the core current density also increases due to dynamo reduction and the emergence of runaway electrons. (author)

  18. Field reversal experiments: FRX-A and FRX-B results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, W.T.; Linford, R.K.; Lipson, J.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    The equilibrium, stability, and confinement properties of the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) are being studied in two theta pinch facilities referred to as FRX-A, and FRX-B. The configuration is a toroidal plasma confined in a purely poloidal field configuration containing both closed and open field lines. The FRX system produces highly elongated tori with major radius R=3 to 5 cm, minor radius a approx. 2 cm, and a full length l approx. 35 to 50 cm. Plasma conditions have ranged from T/sub e/ approx. 150 eV, T/sub i/ approx. 800 eV, and n/sub max/ approx. 10 15 /cm 3 to T/sub e/ approx. 100 eV, T/sub i/ approx. 150 eV, and n/sub max/ approx. 4 x 10 15 /cm 3 . The plasma remains in a stable equilibrium for up to 50 μs followed by an n = 2 rotational instability which results in termination of the FRC. The plasma behavior with respect to equilibrium, stability, and rotation is consistent with recent theoretical work in these areas

  19. Field-reversed configuration translation studies in FRX-C/T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.; Armstrong, W.T.; Klingner, P.L.; Linford, R.K.; McKenna, K.F.; Rej, D.J.; Sherwood, E.G.; Siemon, R.E.; Tuszewski, M.

    1984-01-01

    Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) translation is being studied in the FRX-C/T device. The main goals of this experiment are to demonstrate translation into a dc field region with minimal losses and to study modification of the equilibrium profiles of the FRC by varying x/sub s/, the ratio of separatrix radius (r/sub s/) to conducting wall radius (r/sub w/), through translation. FRC's are formed with a range of densities (1→5 x 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/) and x/sub s/ (0.35→0.55) in the FRX-C source, configured as a slightly conical theta pinch coil (r/sub w/ increases from 0.22 m to 0.28 m in four steps over 2 m). In 10→40 μs after formation, the FRC enters a 0.20-m radius stainless steel vessel with a dc field up to 8 kG. The translation velocity varies from 5→12 cm/μs and is typically about one-half the FRC Alfven velocity

  20. Plasma-column instabilities in a reversed-field pinch without a shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma column instabilities in a Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) without a shell were investigated in the Colorado Reversatron RFP. The Reversatron RFP (aspect ration R/a = 50 cm/8cm) is a toroidal plasma containment device consisting of a vacuum chamber, a thick conducting shell, modular shells, magnetic field producing coils and diagnostics to characterize the plasma. RFP discharges were set up in the Reversatron in three different experimental configurations: with a thick conducting shell, with a modular shell and with no shell. In two of the configurations, a shell enclosed the plasma column to provide some plasma stability. A vertical magnetic field provided equilibrium in experiments without a shell. Data from discharges without a shell indicated that the plasma duration was greatly reduced and the plasma resistance increased compared to the discharges with a thick shell. Plasma position probes indicated large plasma centriod displacements corresponding to a n = 1 and a n = 3 kink coincident with the peak of the plasma current and the start of a discharge termination phase. The modular shell lengthened the discharge duration and lowered the plasma resistance to values intermediate between the plasma with a thick shell and the plasma with no shell. The modular shell suppressed the large plasma column displacements observed in the RFP plasma without a shell.