WorldWideScience

Sample records for field repository insights

  1. Long-term geochemical evolution of the near field repository: Insights from reactive transport modelling and experimental evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos, David; Grandia, Fidel; Domènech, Cristina; Fernández, Ana M.; Villar, María V.; Muurinen, Arto; Carlsson, Torbjörn; Sellin, Patrik; Hernán, Pedro

    2008-12-01

    The KBS-3 underground nuclear waste repository concept designed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) includes a bentonite buffer barrier surrounding the copper canisters and the iron insert where spent nuclear fuel will be placed. Bentonite is also part of the backfill material used to seal the access and deposition tunnels of the repository. The bentonite barrier has three main safety functions: to ensure the physical stability of the canister, to retard the intrusion of groundwater to the canisters, and in case of canister failure, to retard the migration of radionuclides to the geosphere. Laboratory experiments (MX-80 and Deponit CA-N, and one natural clay (Friedland type) for the backfill. They show differences in the composition of the exchangeable cations and in the accessory mineral content. Results from the simulations indicate that pore water chemistry is controlled by the equilibrium with the accessory minerals, especially carbonates. pH is buffered by precipitation/dissolution of calcite and dolomite, when present. The equilibrium of these minerals is deeply influenced by gypsum dissolution and cation exchange reactions in the smectite interlayer. If carbonate minerals are initially absent in bentonite, pH is then controlled by surface acidity reactions in the hydroxyl groups at the edge sites of the clay fraction, although its buffering capacity is not as strong as the equilibrium with carbonate minerals. The redox capacity of the bentonite pore water system is mainly controlled by Fe(II)-bearing minerals (pyrite and siderite). Changes in the groundwater composition lead to variations in the cation exchange occupancy, and dissolution-precipitation of carbonate minerals and gypsum. The most significant changes in the evolution of the system are predicted when ice-melting water, which is highly diluted and alkaline, enters into the system. In this case, the dissolution of carbonate minerals is enhanced, increasing pH in the bentonite

  2. Insights to repository performance through study of a nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D K; Kersting, A B; Thompson, J L; Finnegan, D L

    2000-07-12

    Underground nuclear test sites offer an unprecedented opportunity to evaluate processes relevant to high-level waste repository performance in the absence of engineered barriers. Radionuclide migration programs at the Nevada Test Site represent a twenty-five year systematic investigation of the diverse radiologic source terms residual from weapons testing and the evolution of the hydrologic source term which comprises those radionuclides dissolved in or otherwise available for transport by groundwater. The Nevada Test Site shares actinide source terms, correlative geology, an identical tectonic setting, similar climate, and a thick unsaturated zone with the adjacent proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository and provides a natural laboratory to assess long-term radionuclide transport in the near field. Analog studies may ultimately help validate predictions of radionuclide transport from the Yucca Mountain repository.

  3. Development of thermal analysis method for the near field of HLW repository using ABAQUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuh, Jung Eui; Kang, Chul Hyung; Park, Jeong Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-10-01

    An appropriate tool is needed to evaluate the thermo-mechanical stability of high level radioactive waste (HLW) repository. In this report a thermal analysis methodology for the near field of HLW repository is developed to use ABAQUS which is one of the multi purpose FEM code and has been used for many engineering area. The main contents of this methodology development are the structural and material modelling to simulate a repository, setup of side conditions, e.g., boundary and load conditions, and initial conditions, and the procedure to selection proper material parameters. In addition to these, the interface programs for effective production of input data and effective change of model size for sensitivity analysis for disposal concept development are developed. The results of this work will be apply to evaluate the thermal stability and to use as main input data for mechanical analysis of HLW repository. (author). 20 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Natural geochemical analogues of the near field of high-level nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    United States practice has been to design high-level nuclear waste (HLW) geological repositories with waste densities sufficiently high that repository temperatures surrounding the waste will exceed 100{degrees}C and could reach 250{degrees}C. Basalt and devitrified vitroclastic tuff are among the host rocks considered for waste emplacement. Near-field repository thermal behavior and chemical alteration in such rocks is expected to be similar to that observed in many geothermal systems. Therefore, the predictive modeling required for performance assessment studies of the near field could be validated and calibrated using geothermal systems as natural analogues. Examples are given which demonstrate the need for refinement of the thermodynamic databases used in geochemical modeling of near-field natural analogues and the extent to which present models can predict conditions in geothermal fields.

  5. Near-field chemistry of the spent nuclear fuel repository; Kemialliset vuorovaikutukset kaeytetyn ydinpolttoaineen loppusijoitustilan laehialueella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpulainen, H.; Lehikoinen, J.; Muurinen, A.; Ollila, K. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Industrial Physics

    1998-07-01

    Factors affecting near-field chemistry of the spent nuclear fuel repository as well as the involved mutual interactions are described on the basis of literature. The most important processes in the near-field (spent-fuel, canister and bentonite) are presented. The related examples on near-field chemistry models shed light on the extensive problematics of near-field chemistry. (authors) 80 refs.

  6. Open Science CBS Neuroimaging Repository: Sharing ultra-high-field MR images of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Christine Lucas; Schäfer, Andreas; Trampel, Robert; Villringer, Arno; Turner, Robert; Bazin, Pierre-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging at ultra high field opens the door to quantitative brain imaging at sub-millimeter isotropic resolutions. However, novel image processing tools to analyze these new rich datasets are lacking. In this article, we introduce the Open Science CBS Neuroimaging Repository: a unique repository of high-resolution and quantitative images acquired at 7 T. The motivation for this project is to increase interest for high-resolution and quantitative imaging and stimulate the development of image processing tools developed specifically for high-field data. Our growing repository currently includes datasets from MP2RAGE and multi-echo FLASH sequences from 28 and 20 healthy subjects respectively. These datasets represent the current state-of-the-art in in-vivo relaxometry at 7 T, and are now fully available to the entire neuroimaging community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. THM Coupled Modeling in Near Field of an Assumed HLW Deep Geological Disposal Repository

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Zhenyao; Li Guoding; Li Shushen

    2004-01-01

    One of the most suitable ways under study for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is isolation in deep geological repositories. It is very important to research the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) coupled processes associated with an HLW disposal repository. Non-linear coupled equations, which are used to describe the THM coupled process and are suited to saturated-unsaturated porous media, are presented in this paper. A numerical method to solve these equations is put forward, and a finite element code is developed. This code is suited to the plane strain or axis-symmetry problem. Then this code is used to simulate the THM coupled process in the near field of an ideal disposal repository. The temperature vs. time, hydraulic head vs. time and stress vs. time results show that, in this assumed condition, the impact of temperature is very long (over 10 000 a) and the impact of the water head is short (about 90 d). Since the stress is induced by temperature and hydraulic head in this condition, the impact time of stress is the same as that of temperature. The results show that THM coupled processes are very important in the safety analysis of an HLW deep geological disposal repository.

  8. Thermodynamic coupling of heat and matter flows in near-field regions of nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1983-11-01

    In near-field regions of nuclear waste repositories, thermodynamically coupled flows of heat and matter can occur in addition to the independent flows in the presence of gradients of temperature, hydraulic potential, and composition. The following coupled effects can occur: thermal osmosis, thermal diffusion, chemical osmosis, thermal filtration, diffusion thermal effect, ultrafiltration, and coupled diffusion. Flows of heat and matter associated with these effects can modify the flows predictable from the direct effects, which are expressed by Fourier's law, Darcy's law, and Fick's law. The coupled effects can be treated quantitatively together with the direct effects by the methods of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The extent of departure of fully coupled flows from predictions based only on consideration of direct effects depends on the strengths of the gradients driving flows, and may be significant at early times in backfills and in near-field geologic environments of repositories. Approximate calculations using data from the literature and reasonable assumptions of repository conditions indicate that thermal-osmotic and chemical-osmotic flows of water in semipermeable backfills may exceed Darcian flows by two to three orders of magnitude, while flows of solutes may be reduced greatly by ultrafiltration and chemical osmosis, relative to the flows predicted by advection and diffusion alone. In permeable materials, thermal diffusion may contribute to solute flows to a smaller, but still significant, extent.

  9. Expected near-field thermal environments in a sequentially loaded spent-fuel or high-level waste repository in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickertsen, L.D.; Arbital, J.G.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the effect of realistic waste emplacement schedules on repository thermal environments. Virtually all estimates to date have been based on instantaneous loading of wastes having uniform properties throughout the repository. However, more realistic scenarios involving sequential emplacement of wastes reflect the gradual filling of the repository over its lifetime. These cases provide temperatures that can be less extreme than with the simple approximation. At isolated locations in the repository, the temperatures approach the instantaneous-loading limit. However, for most of the repository, temperature rises in the near-field are 10 to 40 years behind the conservative estimates depending on the waste type and the location in the repository. Results are presented for both spent-fuel and high-level reprocessing waste repositories in salt, for a regional repository concept, and for a single national repository concept. The national repository is filled sooner and therefore more closely approximates the instantaneously loaded repository. However, temperatures in the near-field are still 20/sup 0/C or more below the values in the simple model for 40 years after startup of repository emplacement operations. The results suggest that current repository design concepts based on the instantaneous-loading predictions are very conservative. Therefore, experiments to monitor temperatures in a test and evaluation facility, for example, will need to take into account the reduced temperatures in order to provide data used in predicting repository performance.

  10. Evolution of near-field physico-chemical characteristics of the SFR repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, D. [Quintessa Ltd., Nottingham (United Kingdom); Stenhouse, M. [Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Benbow, S. [Quintessa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2000-08-01

    The evaluation of the post-closure performance of the SFR repository needs to consider time dependent evolution of the repository environment. Time-dependent reaction of near-field barriers (cement, steel, bentonite) with saturating groundwater will lead to the development of hyper alkaline repository pore fluids, chemically reducing conditions, and ultimately, the generation of gas through anaerobic corrosion of metals. Cement and concrete will act as chemical conditioning agents to minimise metal corrosion and ultimately, maximise radioelement sorption. The chemical and physical evolution of cement and concrete through reaction with ambient groundwater will thus affect sorption processes through changes in pH, complexing ligands, and solid surface properties. It is desirable that these changes be incorporated into the safety assessment. The sorption behaviour of radionuclides in cementitious systems has been reviewed in detail. The available evidence from experimental work carried out on the influence of organic materials on the sorption behaviour of radionuclides, indicates that most organic degradation products will not affect sorption significantly at the concentrations expected in a cementitious repository. The notable exception to this conclusion involves the degradation products of cellulose and, in particular, polycarboxylic acids represented by iso-saccharinic acid (ISA). Results using ISA indicate a significant reduction in sorption of Pu, by several orders of magnitude, for an ISA concentration of about 10{sup -3} M. More recent data indicate that the negative effect is not as great, though still significant. Therefore, some scoping calculations are advisable to determine how realistic an ISA concentration of about 10{sup -3} M would be for the SFR repository and to estimate concentrations of other relevant organic compounds, in particular EDTA, for comparison. Scoping calculations relevant to the longevity of hyper alkaline pore fluid conditions at SFR

  11. An Automated Force Field Topology Builder (ATB) and Repository: Version 1.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malde, Alpeshkumar K; Zuo, Le; Breeze, Matthew; Stroet, Martin; Poger, David; Nair, Pramod C; Oostenbrink, Chris; Mark, Alan E

    2011-12-13

    The Automated force field Topology Builder (ATB, http://compbio.biosci.uq.edu.au/atb ) is a Web-accessible server that can provide topologies and parameters for a wide range of molecules appropriate for use in molecular simulations, computational drug design, and X-ray refinement. The ATB has three primary functions: (1) to act as a repository for molecules that have been parametrized as part of the GROMOS family of force fields, (2) to act as a repository for pre-equilibrated systems for use as starting configurations in molecular dynamics simulations (solvent mixtures, lipid systems pre-equilibrated to adopt a specific phase, etc.), and (3) to generate force field descriptions of novel molecules compatible with the GROMOS family of force fields in a variety of formats (GROMOS, GROMACS, and CNS). Force field descriptions of novel molecules are derived using a multistep process in which results from quantum mechanical (QM) calculations are combined with a knowledge-based approach to ensure compatibility (as far as possible) with a specific parameter set of the GROMOS force field. The ATB has several unique features: (1) It requires that the user stipulate the protonation and tautomeric states of the molecule. (2) The symmetry of the molecule is analyzed to ensure that equivalent atoms are assigned identical parameters. (3) Charge groups are assigned automatically. (4) Where the assignment of a given parameter is ambiguous, a range of possible alternatives is provided. The ATB also provides several validation tools to assist the user to assess the degree to which the topology generated may be appropriate for a given task. In addition to detailing the steps involved in generating a force field topology compatible with a specific GROMOS parameter set (GROMOS 53A6), the challenges involved in the automatic generation of force field parameters for atomic simulations in general are discussed.

  12. Evolution of near-field physico-chemical characteristics of the SFR repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, D. [Quintessa Ltd., Nottingham (United Kingdom); Stenhouse, M. [Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Benbow, S. [Quintessa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2000-08-01

    The evaluation of the post-closure performance of the SFR repository needs to consider time dependent evolution of the repository environment. Time-dependent reaction of near-field barriers (cement, steel, bentonite) with saturating groundwater will lead to the development of hyper alkaline repository pore fluids, chemically reducing conditions, and ultimately, the generation of gas through anaerobic corrosion of metals. Cement and concrete will act as chemical conditioning agents to minimise metal corrosion and ultimately, maximise radioelement sorption. The chemical and physical evolution of cement and concrete through reaction with ambient groundwater will thus affect sorption processes through changes in pH, complexing ligands, and solid surface properties. It is desirable that these changes be incorporated into the safety assessment. The sorption behaviour of radionuclides in cementitious systems has been reviewed in detail. The available evidence from experimental work carried out on the influence of organic materials on the sorption behaviour of radionuclides, indicates that most organic degradation products will not affect sorption significantly at the concentrations expected in a cementitious repository. The notable exception to this conclusion involves the degradation products of cellulose and, in particular, polycarboxylic acids represented by iso-saccharinic acid (ISA). Results using ISA indicate a significant reduction in sorption of Pu, by several orders of magnitude, for an ISA concentration of about 10{sup -3} M. More recent data indicate that the negative effect is not as great, though still significant. Therefore, some scoping calculations are advisable to determine how realistic an ISA concentration of about 10{sup -3} M would be for the SFR repository and to estimate concentrations of other relevant organic compounds, in particular EDTA, for comparison. Scoping calculations relevant to the longevity of hyper alkaline pore fluid conditions at SFR

  13. Salton Sea Geothermal Field, California, as a near-field natural analog of a radioactive waste repository in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elders, W.A.; Cohen, L.H.

    1983-11-01

    Since high concentrations of radionuclides and high temperatures are not normally encountered in salt domes or beds, finding an exact geologic analog of expected near-field conditions in a mined nuclear waste repository in salt will be difficult. The Salton Sea Geothermal Field, however, provides an opportunity to investigate the migration and retardation of naturally occurring U, Th, Ra, Cs, Sr and other elements in hot brines which have been moving through clay-rich sedimentary rocks for up to 100,000 years. The more than thirty deep wells drilled in this field to produce steam for electrical generation penetrate sedimentary rocks containing concentrated brines where temperatures reach 365/sup 0/C at only 2 km depth. The brines are primarily Na, K, Ca chlorides with up to 25% of total dissolved solids; they also contain high concentrations of metals such as Fe, Mn, Li, Zn, and Pb. This report describes the geology, geophysics and geochemistry of this system as a prelude to a study of the mobility of naturally occurring radionuclides and radionuclide analogs within it. The aim of this study is to provide data to assist in validating quantitative models of repository behavior and to use in designing and evaluating waste packages and engineered barriers. 128 references, 33 figures, 13 tables.

  14. Report on Modeling Coupled Processes in the Near Field of a Clay Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui -Hai [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Houseworth, Jim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Lianchong [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Asahina, Daisuke [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Fei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world. Coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical (THMC) processes have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For example, the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) near repository tunnels can modify local permeability (resulting from induced fractures), potentially leading to less confinement capability. This report documents results from three R&D activities: (1) implementation and validation of constitutive relationships, (2) development of a discrete fracture network (DFN) model for investigating coupled processes in the EDZ, and (3) development of a THM model for the FE tests at Mont Terri, Switzerland, for the purpose of model validation. The overall objective of these activities is to provide an improved understanding of EDZ evolution in clay repositories and the associated coupled processes, and to develop advanced relevant modeling capabilities.

  15. Cementitious Near-Field Sorption Data Base for Performance Assessment of an ILW Repository in Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, E.; Van Loon, L. R

    2003-08-01

    The present report describes a cement sorption database (SDB) for the safety-relevant radionuclides to be disposed of in the planned Swiss repository for long-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes (ILW). This report is an update on earlier SDBs, which were compiled for the cementitious near field of a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (L/ILW) by BRADBURY + SAROTT (1995) and BRADBURY + VAN LOON (1998). The radionuclide inventories are determined by the waste streams to be disposed of in the ILW repository. A list of the safety-relevant radionuclides was provided based on the currently available information on ILW inventories. The compositions of the cement porewaters in the near fields of the L/ILW and ILW repositories, which had been calculated using well-established codes for modelling cement degradation, were compared to identify any differences in the near-field conditions and to assess their influence on radionuclide sorption. Sorption values were selected based on the previously reported SDBs for the near field of the L/ILW repository. Sorption values were revised if new information and/or data were available which allowed changes to or re-appraisals of the data to be made. The sorption values recommended in this report were either selected on the basis of data from in-house experimental studies or from literature data. For some key radioelements, i.e., Cs(l), Sr(II), Ni(II), Eu(lll), Th(IV) and Sn(IV), new data were available from in-house measurements. These elements had been selected for experimental studies due to their relevance to safety assessment and/or their importance as appropriate chemical analogues. Degradation products of bitumen and cellulose, concrete admixtures and cement-derived near-field colloids were taken into account as the main potential perturbations, which could reduce radionuclide sorption in the near field. Possible impacts of the perturbing factors on radionuclide mobility were considered and

  16. New three-dimensional far-field potential repository thermomechanical calculations; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, M.P.; Bai, M.; Goodrich, R.R.; Lin, M.; Carlisle, S. [Agapito (J.F.T.) and Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Bauer, S.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The thermomechanical effect on the exploratory ramps, drifts, and shafts as a result of high-level nuclear waste disposal is examined using a three-dimensional thermo-elastic model. The repository layout modeled is based on the use of mechanical mining of all excavations with equivalent waste emplacement areal power densities of 57 and 80 kW/acre. Predicted temperatures and stress changes for the north and south access drifts, east main drift, east-west exploratory drift, the north and south Calico Hills access ramps, the Calico Hills north-south exploratory drift, and the optional exploratory studies facility and man and materials shafts are presented for times 10, 35, 50, 100, 300, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000, and 10,000 years after the start of waste emplacement. The study indicates that the east-west exploratory drift at the repository horizon is subject to the highest thermomechanical impact because it is located closest the buried waste canisters. For most exploratory openings, the thermally induced temperatures and stresses tend to reach the maximum magnitudes at approximately 1000 years after waste emplacement.

  17. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL IMAGE REPOSITORIES FOR VIRTUAL RECONSTRUCTION IN THE FIELD OF DIGITAL HUMANITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Maiwald

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Historical photographs contain high density of information and are of great importance as sources in humanities research. In addition to the semantic indexing of historical images based on metadata, it is also possible to reconstruct geometric information about the depicted objects or the camera position at the time of the recording by employing photogrammetric methods. The approach presented here is intended to investigate (semi- automated photogrammetric reconstruction methods for heterogeneous collections of historical (city photographs and photographic documentation for the use in the humanities, urban research and history sciences. From a photogrammetric point of view, these images are mostly digitized photographs. For a photogrammetric evaluation, therefore, the characteristics of scanned analog images with mostly unknown camera geometry, missing or minimal object information and low radiometric and geometric resolution have to be considered. In addition, these photographs have not been created specifically for documentation purposes and so the focus of these images is often not on the object to be evaluated. The image repositories must therefore be subjected to a preprocessing analysis of their photogrammetric usability. Investigations are carried out on the basis of a repository containing historical images of the Kronentor ("crown gate" of the Dresden Zwinger. The initial step was to assess the quality and condition of available images determining their appropriateness for generating three-dimensional point clouds from historical photos using a structure-from-motion evaluation (SfM. Then, the generated point clouds were assessed by comparing them with current measurement data of the same object.

  18. Photogrammetric Analysis of Historical Image Repositories for Virtual Reconstruction in the Field of Digital Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiwald, F.; Vietze, T.; Schneider, D.; Henze, F.; Münster, S.; Niebling, F.

    2017-02-01

    Historical photographs contain high density of information and are of great importance as sources in humanities research. In addition to the semantic indexing of historical images based on metadata, it is also possible to reconstruct geometric information about the depicted objects or the camera position at the time of the recording by employing photogrammetric methods. The approach presented here is intended to investigate (semi-) automated photogrammetric reconstruction methods for heterogeneous collections of historical (city) photographs and photographic documentation for the use in the humanities, urban research and history sciences. From a photogrammetric point of view, these images are mostly digitized photographs. For a photogrammetric evaluation, therefore, the characteristics of scanned analog images with mostly unknown camera geometry, missing or minimal object information and low radiometric and geometric resolution have to be considered. In addition, these photographs have not been created specifically for documentation purposes and so the focus of these images is often not on the object to be evaluated. The image repositories must therefore be subjected to a preprocessing analysis of their photogrammetric usability. Investigations are carried out on the basis of a repository containing historical images of the Kronentor ("crown gate") of the Dresden Zwinger. The initial step was to assess the quality and condition of available images determining their appropriateness for generating three-dimensional point clouds from historical photos using a structure-from-motion evaluation (SfM). Then, the generated point clouds were assessed by comparing them with current measurement data of the same object.

  19. Numerical Modeling of Thermal-Hydrology in the Near Field of a Generic High-Level Waste Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteo, E. N.; Hadgu, T.; Park, H.

    2016-12-01

    Disposal in a deep geologic repository is one of the preferred option for long term isolation of high-level nuclear waste. Coupled thermal-hydrologic processes induced by decay heat from the radioactive waste may impact fluid flow and the associated migration of radionuclides. This study looked at the effects of those processes in simulations of thermal-hydrology for the emplacement of U. S. Department of Energy managed high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel. Most of the high-level waste sources have lower thermal output which would reduce the impact of thermal propagation. In order to quantify the thermal limits this study concentrated on the higher thermal output sources and on spent nuclear fuel. The study assumed a generic nuclear waste repository at 500 m depth. For the modeling a representative domain was selected representing a portion of the repository layout in order to conduct a detailed thermal analysis. A highly refined unstructured mesh was utilized with refinements near heat sources and at intersections of different materials. Simulations looked at different values for properties of components of the engineered barrier system (i.e. buffer, disturbed rock zone and the host rock). The simulations also looked at the effects of different durations of surface aging of the waste to reduce thermal perturbations. The PFLOTRAN code (Hammond et al., 2014) was used for the simulations. Modeling results for the different options are reported and include temperature and fluid flow profiles in the near field at different simulation times. References:G. E. Hammond, P.C. Lichtner and R.T. Mills, "Evaluating the Performance of Parallel Subsurface Simulators: An Illustrative Example with PFLOTRAN", Water Resources Research, 50, doi:10.1002/2012WR013483 (2014). Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under

  20. NREL's Field Data Repository Supports Accurate Home Energy Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-02-01

    This fact sheet discusses NREL's work to develop a repository of research-level residential building characteristics and historical energy use data to support ongoing efforts to improve the accuracy of residential energy analysis tools and the efficiency of energy assessment processes. The objective of this project is to create a robust empirical data source to support the research goals of the Department of Energy's Building America program, which is to improve the efficiency of existing U.S. homes by 30% to 50%. Researchers can use this data source to test the accuracy of building energy simulation software and energy audit procedures, ultimately leading to more credible and less expensive energy analysis.

  1. Near-field thermal-hydrological behavior for alternative repository designs at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.; Ramspott, L.D.

    1996-12-01

    three-dimensional calculations that explicitly represent a realistic mixture of waste packages (WPs) are used to analyze decay-heat-driven thermal-hydrological behavior around emplacement drifts in a potential high-level waste facility at Yucca Mountain, Calculations, using the NUFT code, compare two fundamentally different ways that WPs can be arranged in the repository, with a focus on temperature, relative humidity, and liquid-phase flux on WPs. These quantities strongly affect WP integrity and the mobilization and release of radionuclides from WPs. Point-load spacing, which places the WPs roughly equidistant from each other, thermally isolates WPs from each other, causing large variability in temperature, relative humidity, and liquid-phase flux among the drifts. Line-load spacing, which WPs nearly end to end in widely spaced drifts, results in more locally intensive and uniform heating along the drifts, causing hotter, drier and more uniform conditions. A larger and more persistent reduction in relative humidity on WPs occurs if the drifts are backfilled with a low thermal conductivity granular material with hydrologic properties that minimize moisture wicking.

  2. Geochemical evolution of the near field of a KBS-3 repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos, David; Grandia, Fidel; Domenech, Cristina [Enviros Spain S.L., Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    The Swedish concept developed by SKB for deep radioactive waste disposal, envisages an engineered multi-barrier system surrounding the nuclear waste (near field). In the present study we developed a numerical model to assess the geochemical evolution of the near field in the frame of the SKB's safety assessment SR-Can. These numerical models allow us to predict the long-term geochemical evolution of the near field system by means of reactive-transport codes and the information gathered in underground laboratory experiments and natural analogues. Two different scenarios have been defined to model this near field evolution, according to the pathway used by groundwater to contact the near field: a) through a fracture in the host rock intersecting the deposition hole; and b) through the material used to backfill the deposition tunnel. Moreover, we also modelled the effect of different groundwater compositions reaching the near field, as the up-rise of deep-seated brines and the intrusion of ice-melting derived groundwater. We also modelled the effect of the thermal stage due to the heat generated by spent fuel on the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier.

  3. Two Dimensional Near-field Calculations of Radionuclide Releases from the Vaults of the SFR 1 Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Antonio [AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm Center of Physics, Astronomy and Biotechnology (Sweden). Dept. of Physics; Sundstroem, Benny [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-12-01

    Radionuclide releases from the near-field for the vaults of the SFR 1 repository are examined in this report. To model those releases we have developed four models, one for each of the vaults; 2BTF, 1BTF, BMA and BLA. The respective codes are based on the finite element method and are called FEMBTF2, FEMBTF1, FEMBMA and FEMBLA, respectively. These codes are two-dimensional representations of the cross sections of the vaults. The different barriers of the vaults have been modelled individually using the physical dimensions of the cross sections. The same conceptual model has been used to estimate the releases from the near-field. This conceptual model is implemented by four different FEM codes that solve the two-dimensional transport equation, e.g. the advective-diffusive-reactive equation that also includes radioactive decay. An interesting property of the codes is that they allow the use of time-dependent properties to represent for instance the evolution of water flow, porosities, distribution coefficients etc. This capability of the code has been used only in some cases because the FEM codes put heavy requirements on the computer's CPU. The nuclides studied here were chosen from a set representing the highest release rates from the near-field obtained by SKB during their project SAFE. Some of the results reported here are somewhat lower than SKBs, other higher. Uncertainties in the conceptual models and differences in the input data are the reasons for the numerical differences. For most cases, the differences between our results and those of SKB should be considered relatively small within present context of near-field calculations.

  4. Simulation of groundwater and nuclide transport in the near-field of the high-level radioactive waste repository with TOUGHREACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xun; YANG Zeping; ZHENG Zhihong; WU Hongmei

    2008-01-01

    In order to know the mechanism of groundwater transport and the variation of ion concentrations in the near-field of the high-level radioactive waste repository, the whole process was simulated by EOS3 module of TOUGHREACT. Generally, the pH and cation concentrations vary obviously in the near-field saturated zone due to interaction between groundwater and bentonite. Moreover, the simulated results showed that calcite precipitation could not cause obvious variations in the porosity of media in the near-filed if the chemical components and their concentrations of groundwater and bentonite pore water are similar to those used in this study.

  5. The Genomic Observatories Metadatabase (GeOMe): A new repository for field and sampling event metadata associated with genetic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, John; Gaither, Michelle R; Ewing, Rodney; Bird, Christopher E; Davies, Neil; Meyer, Christopher; Riginos, Cynthia; Toonen, Robert J; Crandall, Eric D

    2017-08-01

    The Genomic Observatories Metadatabase (GeOMe, http://www.geome-db.org/) is an open access repository for geographic and ecological metadata associated with biosamples and genetic data. Whereas public databases have served as vital repositories for nucleotide sequences, they do not accession all the metadata required for ecological or evolutionary analyses. GeOMe fills this need, providing a user-friendly, web-based interface for both data contributors and data recipients. The interface allows data contributors to create a customized yet standard-compliant spreadsheet that captures the temporal and geospatial context of each biosample. These metadata are then validated and permanently linked to archived genetic data stored in the National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI's) Sequence Read Archive (SRA) via unique persistent identifiers. By linking ecologically and evolutionarily relevant metadata with publicly archived sequence data in a structured manner, GeOMe sets a gold standard for data management in biodiversity science.

  6. Repository Sealing Program Plan: repository in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Coons, W.E.; Meyer, D.

    1983-01-01

    The isolation of nuclear wastes in deep, mined repositories will require the sealing of all penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes into or nearby the repository. This Repository Sealing Program Plan describes the technical programs required to complete seal designs for a repository in salt prior to license application in 1988. The plan examines the current schematic seal designs for a repository in salt and identifies seven major technical programs which are required to advance the designs to the status required for licensing: (1) update designs to incorporate site-specific geologic and hydrologic characteristics; (2) reference designs to site-specific repository designs; (3) develop site-specific performance requirements; (4) salt consolidation testing and modeling; (5) materials development; (6) design analyses; (7) verification testing. Scedules for each of these programs are keyed to governing seal design and ONWI milestones. Conceptual seal designs will be completed in FY 84 and preliminary seal designs in FY 87.

  7. Repository Rodeo Redux

    CERN Document Server

    Anez, Melissa; Donohue, Tim; Fyson, Will; Simko, Tibor; Wilcox, David

    2017-01-01

    You’ve got more repository questions and we’ve got more answers! Last year’s Repository Rodeo panel was a huge success, so we’re taking the show on the road to Brisbane for OR2017. Join representatives from the DSpace, Eprints, Fedora, Hydra, and Islandora communities as we (briefly) explain what each of our repositories actually does. We'll also talk about the directions of our respective technical and community developments, and related to the conference theme of Open: Innovation Knowledge Repositories, offer brief observations about the latest, most promising and/or most surprising innovations in our space. This panel will be a great opportunity for newcomers to Open Repositories to get a crash course on the major repository options and meet representatives from each of their communities. After a brief presentation from each representative, we'll open the session up for questions from the audience.

  8. CAED Document Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compliance Assurance and Enforcement Division Document Repository (CAEDDOCRESP) provides internal and external access of Inspection Records, Enforcement Actions, and...

  9. Administrative Data Repository (ADR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Administrative Data Repository (ADR) was established to provide support for the administrative data elements relative to multiple categories of a person entity...

  10. Trustworthy SNS for Institutional Repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Sozo; Hori, Yuko; Ikeda, Daisuke

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, SNS (Social Networking Service) are attracting attention in the field of web services. SNS is the communication system which focuses on social relations between users, such as a friend and a group, named a community. Thus, SNS is useful for the institutional repositories in the sense that they can 1) increase the time and frequency of use by users, and 2) categorize or utilize the contents using the community information. However in SNS nowadays, the increase of spam messages...

  11. Far-field sorption data bases for performance assessment of a L/ILW repository in an undisturbed Palfris marl host rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    A Palfris marl formation at Wellenberg (Gemeinde Wolfenschiessen, NW) has been chosen by NAGRA as a potential repository site for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, L/ILW. In the coming years a series of performance assessment studies will be performed for this site. One set of key data required for such safety analysis calculations is sorption data bases (SDB) for safety relevant radionuclides in the far-field. The purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to generate sorption data bases appropriate for the in situ conditions existing along the different potential flow paths in an undisturbed marl host rock formation. An important aim was to document the sources of sorption data used and, in particular, the processes by which data selections were mad.e. The main guiding principles here were `transparency` and `traceability`. Inherent within this whole process is also the justification for, and defensibility of, the selected values. Much of the sorption data used to generate the SDB for marl came from the open literature. A major part of this report is concerned with describing the procedures whereby these initial literature values are modified so that they apply to the actual marl mineralogies and groundwater chemistries. The resulting `reference R{sub d} values` are then further modified using so called Lab -> Field transfer factors to produce sorption values which are appropriate to the in situ bulk rock conditions. The Lab -> Field transfer factors attempt to correct for the differences in sorption site availability between the crushed rock state used in batch tests and the intact rock state existing in reality in the host rock. There are two main groundwater chemistries and five characteristic mineralogical compositions which cover the three broad types of flow paths which have been identified in the Palfris marl formation. In principle the methodology described here to construct sorption data bases for marl is applicable to any

  12. Geothermal areas as analogues to chemical processes in the near-field and altered zone of the potential Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Meike, A.

    1995-02-01

    The need to bound system performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository for thousands of years after emplacement of high-level nuclear waste requires the use of computer codes. The use of such codes to produce reliable bounds over such long time periods must be tested using long-lived natural and historical systems as analogues. The geothermal systems of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand were selected as the site most amenable to study. The rocks of the TVZ are silicic volcanics that are similar in composition to Yucca Mountain. The area has been subjected to temperatures of 25 to 300 C which have produced a variety of secondary minerals similar to those anticipated at Yucca Mountain. The availability of rocks, fluids and fabricated materials for sampling is excellent because of widespread exploitation of the systems for geothermal power. Current work has focused on testing the ability of the EQ3/6 code and thermodynamic data base to describe mineral-fluid relations at elevated temperatures. Welfare starting long-term dissolution/corrosion tests of rocks, minerals and manufactured materials in natural thermal features in order to compare laboratory rates with field-derived rates. Available field data on rates of silica precipitation from heated fluids have been analyzed and compared to laboratory rates. New sets of precipitation experiments are being planned. The microbially influenced degradation of concrete in the Broadlands-Ohaaki geothermal field is being characterized. The authors will continue to work on these projects in FY 1996 and expand to include the study of naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides, as a prelude to studying radionuclide migration in heated silicic volcanic rocks. 32 refs.

  13. Geothermal areas as analogues to chemical processes in the near-field and altered zone of the potential Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Meike, A.

    1995-02-01

    The need to bound system performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository for thousands of years after emplacement of high-level nuclear waste requires the use of computer codes. The use of such codes to produce reliable bounds over such long time periods must be tested using long-lived natural and historical systems as analogues. The geothermal systems of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand were selected as the site most amenable to study. The rocks of the TVZ are silicic volcanics that are similar in composition to Yucca Mountain. The area has been subjected to temperatures of 25 to 300 C which have produced a variety of secondary minerals similar to those anticipated at Yucca Mountain. The availability of rocks, fluids and fabricated materials for sampling is excellent because of widespread exploitation of the systems for geothermal power. Current work has focused on testing the ability of the EQ3/6 code and thermodynamic data base to describe mineral-fluid relations at elevated temperatures. Welfare starting long-term dissolution/corrosion tests of rocks, minerals and manufactured materials in natural thermal features in order to compare laboratory rates with field-derived rates. Available field data on rates of silica precipitation from heated fluids have been analyzed and compared to laboratory rates. New sets of precipitation experiments are being planned. The microbially influenced degradation of concrete in the Broadlands-Ohaaki geothermal field is being characterized. The authors will continue to work on these projects in FY 1996 and expand to include the study of naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides, as a prelude to studying radionuclide migration in heated silicic volcanic rocks. 32 refs.

  14. Microbial Impacts to the Near-Field Environment Geochemistry: a model for estimating microbial communities in repository drifts at Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Darren M.; Ehrhorn, Thomas F.; Horn, Joanne

    2003-05-01

    Geochemical and microbiological modeling was performed to evaluate the potential quantities and impact of microorganisms on the geochemistry of the area adjacent to and within nuclear waste packages in the proposed repository drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The microbial growth results from the introduction of water, ground support, and waste package materials into the deep unsaturated rock. The simulations, which spanned 1 million years, were accomplished using a newly developed computer code, Microbial Impacts to the Near-Field Environment Geochemistry (MING). MING uses environmental thresholds for limiting microbial growth to temperatures below 120 °C and above relative humidities of 90% in repository drifts. Once these thresholds are met, MING expands upon a mass balance and thermodynamic approach proposed by McKinley et al. [FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 20 (1997) 545] by using kinetic rates to supply constituents from design materials and constituent fluxes including solubilized rock components into the drift to perform two separate mass balance calculations as a function of time. The first (nutrient limit) assesses the available nutrients (C, N, P and S) and calculates how many microorganisms can be produced based on a microorganism stoichiometry of C 160(H 280O 80)N 30P 2S. The second (energy limit) calculates the energy available from optimally combined redox couples for the temperature and pH at that time. This optimization maximizes those reactions that produce >15 kJ/mol (limit on useable energy) using an iterative linear optimization technique. The final available energy value is converted to microbial mass at a rate of 1 kg of biomass (dry weight) for every 64 MJ of energy. These two values (nutrient limit and energy limit) are then compared and the smaller value represents the number of microorganisms that can be produced over a specified time. MING can also be adapted to investigate other problems of interest as the model can be used in saturated and

  15. Microbial Impacts to the Near-Field Environment Geochemistry (MING): A Model for Estimating Microbial Communities in Repository Drifts at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.M. Jolley; T.F. Ehrhorn; J. Horn

    2002-03-19

    Geochemical and microbiological modeling was performed to evaluate the potential quantities and impact of microorganisms on the geochemistry of the area adjacent to and within nuclear waste packages in the proposed repository drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The microbial growth results from the introduction of water, ground support, and waste package materials into the deep unsaturated rock. The simulations, which spanned one million years, were accomplished using a newly developed computer code, Microbial Impacts to the Near-Field Environment Geochemistry (MING). MING uses environmental thresholds for limiting microbial growth to temperatures below 120 C and above relative humidities of 90 percent in repository drifts. Once these thresholds are met, MING expands upon a mass balance and thermodynamic approach proposed by McKinley and others (1997), by using kinetic rates to supply constituents from design materials and constituent fluxes including solubilized rock components into the drift, to perform two separate mass-balance calculations as a function of time. The first (nutrient limit) assesses the available nutrients (C, N, P and S) and calculates how many microorganisms can be produced based on a microorganism stoichiometry of C{sub 160}(H{sub 280}O{sub 80})N{sub 30}P{sub 2}S. The second (energy limit) calculates the energy available from optimally combined redox couples for the temperature, and pH at that time. This optimization maximizes those reactions that produce > 15kJ/mol (limit on useable energy) using an iterative linear optimization technique. The final available energy value is converted to microbial mass at a rate of 1 kg of biomass (dry weight) for every 64 MJ of energy. These two values (nutrient limit and energy limit) are then compared and the smaller value represents the number of microorganisms that can be produced over a specified time. MING can also be adapted to investigate other problems of interest as the model can be used in saturated

  16. Cementitious near-field sorption data bases for performance assessment of a L/ILW repository in a Palfris marl host rock. CEM-94: update I, June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Loon, L.R. van [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1998-01-01

    This report is an update on an earlier cementitious sorption data base (SDB) prepared by Bradbury and Sarott (1994). The aim is to review any new information or data which have become available in the intervening time and modify the existing SDB appropriately. Discussions will be confined predominantly to areas which have led to significant changes to or reappraisals of the data/values or procedures for obtaining/modifying them. From this point of view this update and the previous SDB are closely related and belong together. The complexation of radionuclides with organic ligands from the chemical degradation of cellulose, and the subsequent negative effects on sorption properties, were identified as being processes of great importance. Since 1994 significant progress has been made in this field and a major part of this work is devoted to a reassessment of the impact of `organics` on near-field sorption. In particular, the very conservative assumptions which had been made previously because of the general lack of good quality data available at that time, could be replaced by realistic parameter estimates based on new knowledge. For example, maximum likely concentrations of cellulose degradation products and cement additives in the cement pore waters could be calculated allowing the potential effects of these organic ligands on sorption to be bounded. Sorption values for safety relevant radionuclides corresponding to the three broad stages of cement/concrete degradation during the lifetime of the repository are presented in tabulated form. The influence of the wide variety of organic ligands existing in the different waste categories, SMA-1 to SMA-4, is quantified in terms of sorption reduction factors. In the compilation of this cement SDB update, radionuclide uptake onto the vast quantities of aggregate materials and corrosion products from iron/steel was not taken into account. (author) 10 figs., 8 tabs., refs.

  17. Insights into Contaminant Leaching Through An Intensive Field Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, D.; Ireson, A. M.; Ali, M.; Steele, C.; Penrod, D.

    2014-12-01

    Risks to groundwater quality from mobile contaminants in the unsaturated zone associated with active or legacy mines present significant challenges for land managers and policy makers worldwide. Unsaturated zone flow processes are a dominant control on contaminant loading. However, the presence of unsaturated zone heterogeneity results in spatially and temporally variable flow pathways, due to capillary breaks and hydraulic barriers forming in various locations. This can result in the development of focused flow paths from where rapid contaminant transport to the water table may occur. In this study we designed an intensive monitoring program to attempt to characterise time-varying flow paths through a highly heterogeneous unsaturated zone through a dense network of combined soil moisture, electric conductivity and temperature probes. Estimations of surface fluxes and soil drainage along with observed water table response at a waste management site in Chalk River, Canada are presented providing insights into flow and transport processes.

  18. Field effects and ictal synchronization: insights from in homine observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Shennan A; McKhann, Guy; Goodman, Robert; Emerson, Ronald G; Trevelyan, Andrew; Bikson, Marom; Schevon, Catherine A

    2013-12-05

    It has been well established in animal models that electrical fields generated during inter-ictal and ictal discharges are strong enough in intensity to influence action potential firing threshold and synchronization. We discuss recently published data from microelectrode array recordings of human neocortical seizures and speculate about the possible role of field effects in neuronal synchronization. We have identified two distinct seizure territories that cannot be easily distinguished by traditional EEG analysis. The ictal core exhibits synchronized neuronal burst firing, while the surrounding ictal penumbra exhibits asynchronous and relatively sparse neuronal activity. In the ictal core large amplitude rhythmic ictal discharges produce large electric fields that correspond with highly synchronous neuronal firing. In the penumbra rhythmic ictal discharges are smaller in amplitude, but large enough to influence spike timing, yet neuronal synchrony is not observed. These in homine observations are in accord with decades of animal studies supporting a role of field effects in neuronal synchronization during seizures, yet also highlight how field effects may be negated in the presence of strong synaptic inhibition in the penumbra.

  19. Field effects and ictal synchronization: insights from in homine observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shennan Aibel Weiss

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been well established in animal models that electrical fields generated during inter-ictal and ictal discharges are strong enough in intensity to influence action potential firing threshold and synchronization. We discuss recently published data from microelectrode array recordings of human neocortical seizures and what they imply about the possible role of field effects in neuronal synchronization. We have identified two distinct seizure territories that cannot be easily distinguished by traditional EEG analysis. The ictal core exhibits synchronized neuronal burst firing, while the surrounding ictal penumbra exhibits asynchronous and relatively sparse neuronal activity. In the ictal core large amplitude rhythmic ictal discharges produce large electric fields that correspond with relatively synchronous neuronal firing. In the penumbra rhythmic ictal discharges are smaller in amplitude, but large enough to influence spike timing, yet neuronal synchrony is not observed. These in homine observations are in accord with decades of animal studies supporting a role of field effects in neuronal synchronization during seizures, yet also highlight how field effects may be negated in the presence of strong synaptic inhibition in the penumbra.

  20. NIDDK Central Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Central Repository stores biosamples, genetic and other data collected in designated NIDDK-funded clinical studies. The purpose of the NIDDK Central...

  1. NIA Aging Cell Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To facilitate aging research on cells in culture, the NIA provides support for the NIA Aging Cell Repository, located at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research...

  2. NIH Data Sharing Repositories

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of NIH-supported repositories that accept submissions of appropriate scientific research data from biomedical researchers. It includes resources that...

  3. Repository seals requirements study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-03

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, managed by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) is conducting investigations to support the Viability Assessment and the License Application for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The sealing subsystem is part of the Yucca Mountain Waste Isolation System. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is currently evaluating the role of the sealing subsystem (shaft, ramp and exploratory borehole seals) in achieving the overall performance objectives for the Waste Isolation System. This report documents the results of those evaluations. This report presents the results of a repository sealing requirements study. Sealing is defined as the permanent closure of the shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes. Sealing includes those components that would reduce potential inflows above the repository, or that would divert flow near the repository horizon to allow vertical infiltration to below the repository. Sealing of such features as emplacement drifts was not done in this study because the current capability to calculate fracture flow into the drifts is not sufficiently mature. The objective of the study is to provide water or air flow performance based requirements for shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes located near the repository. Recommendations, as appropriate, are provided for developing plans, seals component testing, and other studies relating to sealing.

  4. New insights into chromospheric structures from vector magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagg, A.

    During the last decade advances in instrumentation atomic physics and modeling have greatly improved the access to the chromospheric magnetic field vector High sensitivity polarimeters like the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter TIP2 VTT or the Spectro-Polarimeter for Infrared and Optical Regions SPINOR HAO lead to reliable Zeeman measurements using the He I 10830 nm triplet Theoretical modeling of the Hanle and the Paschen Back effect helped to significantly improve the analysis of polarization measurements in this triplet allowing to directly visualize the magnetic structure of spicules polar prominences and active regions In this presentation I will summarize the results of chromospheric magnetic field measurements using this interesting triplet obtained in the last couple of years and discuss the great potential it has to further uncover the complex structure of the chromosphere

  5. Trust in Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Yakel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ISO 16363:2012, Space Data and Information Transfer Systems - Audit and Certification of Trustworthy Digital Repositories (ISO TRAC, outlines actions a repository can take to be considered trustworthy, but research examining whether the repository’s designated community of users associates such actions with trustworthiness has been limited. Drawing from this ISO document and the management and information systems literatures, this paper discusses findings from interviews with 66 archaeologists and quantitative social scientists. We found similarities and differences across the disciplines and among the social scientists. Both disciplinary communities associated trust with a repository’s transparency. However, archaeologists mentioned guarantees of preservation and sustainability more frequently than the social scientists, who talked about institutional reputation. Repository processes were also linked to trust, with archaeologists more frequently citing metadata issues and social scientists discussing data selection and cleaning processes. Among the social scientists, novices mentioned the influence of colleagues on their trust in repositories almost twice as much as the experts. We discuss the implications our findings have for identifying trustworthy repositories and how they extend the models presented in the management and information systems literatures.

  6. Far Field Sorption Data Bases for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in an Undisturbed Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradburry, M.; Baeyens, B

    2003-08-01

    An Opalinus Clay formation in the Zuercher Weinland is under consideration by Nagra as a potential location for a high-level and long-Iived intermediate-level radioactive waste repository. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and the purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop sorption data bases appropriate for an undisturbed Opalinus Clay host rock which are required for such safety analysis calculations. In tight, low water content argillaceous rock formations such as Opalinus Clay, there is uncertainty concerning the in situ pH/P{sub CO{sub 2}}. In order to take this intrinsic uncertainty into account porewater chemistries were calculated for a reference case, pH = 7.24, and for two other pH values, 6.3 and 7.8. Sorption data bases are given for the three cases. The basis for the sorption data bases is 'in-house' sorption measurements for Cs(I), Sr(II), Ni(II), Eu(III), Sn(IV), Se(IV), Th(IV) and I(-I) carried out on Opalinus Clay samples from Mont Terri (Canton Jura) since at the time the experiments were performed no core samples from the Benken borehole (Zuercher Weinland) were available. The Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri and Benken are part of the same geological formation . Despite having directly measured data for the above key radionuclides, some of the required distribution ratios (Rd) used to generate the sorption data bases still came from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing the procedures whereby these selected literature Rd values were modified so as to apply to the Benken Opalinus Clay mineralogy and groundwater chemistries calculated at the three pH values given above. The resulting Rd values were then further modified using so-called Lab{yields}Field transfer factors to produce sorption values which were appropriate to the in situ bulk rock for the selected range of water chemistry conditions. Finally, it is important to have some

  7. Comparing Repository Types - Challenges and barriers for subject-based repositories, research repositories, national repository systems and institutional repositories in serving scholarly communication

    CERN Document Server

    Armbruster, Chris

    2010-01-01

    After two decades of repository development, some conclusions may be drawn as to which type of repository and what kind of service best supports digital scholarly communication, and thus the production of new knowledge. Four types of publication repository may be distinguished, namely the subject-based repository, research repository, national repository system and institutional repository. Two important shifts in the role of repositories may be noted. With regard to content, a well-defined and high quality corpus is essential. This implies that repository services are likely to be most successful when constructed with the user and reader uppermost in mind. With regard to service, high value to specific scholarly communities is essential. This implies that repositories are likely to be most useful to scholars when they offer dedicated services supporting the production of new knowledge. Along these lines, challenges and barriers to repository development may be identified in three key dimensions: a) identific...

  8. Near Field sorption Data Bases for Compacted MX-80 Bentonite for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M.; Baeyens, B

    2003-08-01

    Bentonites of various types and compacted forms are being investigated in many countries as backfill materials in high-level radioactive waste disposal concepts. Nagra is currently considering an Opalinus clay (OPA) formation in the Zuercher Weinland as a potential location for a high-level radioactive waste repository. A compacted MX-80 bentonite is foreseen as a potential backfill material. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and one of the requirements for such an assessment are sorption data bases (SDB) for the bentonite near-field. The purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop the SDB. One of the pre-requisites for developing a SDB is a water chemistry for the compacted bentonite porewater. For a number of reasons mentioned in the report, and discussed in more detail elsewhere, this is not a straightforward task. There are considerable uncertainties associated with the major ion concentrations and in particular with the system pH and Eh. The MX-80 SDB was developed for a reference bentonite porewater (pH = 7.25) which was calculated using the reference OPA porewater. In addition, two further SDBs are presented for porewaters calculated at pH values of 6.9 and 7.9 corresponding to lower and upper bound values calculated for the range of groundwater compositions anticipated for the OPA host rock. 'In house' sorption isotherm data were measured for Cs(I), Ni(II), Eu(III), Th(IV), Se(IV) and 1(-1) on the 'as received' MX-80 material equilibrated with a simulated porewater composition. Complementary 'in house' sorption edge and isotherm measurements on conditioned Na/Ca montmorillonites were also available for many of these radionuclides. These data formed the core of the SDB. Nevertheless, some of the required sorption data still had to be obtained from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing selection procedures and the modifications

  9. The Computational Materials Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landis, David D.; Hummelshøj, Jens S.; Nestorov, Svetlozar

    2012-01-01

    The possibilities for designing new materials based on quantum physics calculations are rapidly growing, but these design efforts lead to a significant increase in the amount of computational data created. The Computational Materials Repository (CMR) addresses this data challenge and provides...

  10. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.P. Acthar Gel® ... Corticotropin repository injection comes as a long acting gel to inject under the skin or into a ... prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, or herbal products you are taking or plan to take. ...

  11. CRIS and Institutional Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Asserson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available CRIS (Current Research Information Systems provide researchers, research managers, innovators, and others with a view over the research activity of a domain. IRs (institutional repositories provide a mechanism for an organisation to showcase through OA (open access its intellectual property. Increasingly, organizations are mandating that their employed researchers deposit peer-reviewed published material in the IR. Research funders are increasingly mandating that publications be deposited in an open access repository: some mandate a central (or subject-based repository, some an IR. In parallel, publishers are offering OA but replacing subscription-based access with author (or author institution payment for publishing. However, many OA repositories have metadata based on DC (Dublin Core which is inadequate; a CERIF (Common-European Research Information Format CRIS provides metadata describing publications with formal syntax and declared semantics thus facilitating interoperation or homogeneous access over heterogeneous sources. The formality is essential for research output metrics, which are increasingly being used to determine future funding for research organizations.

  12. New Quantitative Study for Dissertations Repository System

    CERN Document Server

    Alshammari, Fahad H; Zaidan, M A; Hmood, Ali K; Zaidan, B B; Zaidan, A A

    2010-01-01

    In the age of technology, the information communication technology becomes very important especially in education field. Students must be allowed to learn anytime, anywhere and at their own place. The facility of library in the university should be developed. In this paper we are going to present new Quantitative Study for Dissertations Repository System and also recommend future application of the approach.

  13. GreyGuide Forum and Repository

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Farace, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    We present the GreyGuide: an online forum and repository of good practice in the field of grey literature. The launch of the GreyGuide Repository took place in December 2013 at the Fifteenth International Conference on Grey Literature. Since then, the acquisition of both proposed and published good practices are underway. The GreyGuide as an online forum is currently in a developmental stage and is influenced by the changes that have taken place in GreyNet's new infrastructure commencing in J...

  14. [The subject repositories of strategy of the Open Access initiative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Guimarães, M C; da Silva, C H; Horsth Noronha, I

    2012-11-01

    The subject repositories are defined as a set of digital objects resulting from the research related to a specific disciplinary field and occupy a still restricted space in the discussion agenda of the Free Access Movement when compared to amplitude reached in the discussion of Institutional Repositories. Although the Subject Repository comes to prominence in the field, especially for the success of initiatives such as the arXiv, PubMed and E-prints, the literature on the subject is recognized as very limited. Despite its roots in the Library and Information Science, and focus on the management of disciplinary collections (subject area literature), there is little information available about the development and management of subject repositories. The following text seeks to make a brief summary on the topic as a way to present the potential to develop subject repositories in order to strengthen the initiative of open access.

  15. Publishers and repositories

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The impact of self-archiving on journals and publishers is an important topic for all those involved in scholarly communication. There is some evidence that the physics arXiv has had no impact on physics journals, while 'economic common sense' suggests that some impact is inevitable. I shall review recent studies of librarian attitudes towards repositories and journals, and place this in the context of IOP Publishing's experiences with arXiv. I shall offer some possible reasons for the mis-match between these perspectives and then discuss how IOP has linked with arXiv and experimented with OA publishing. As well as launching OA journals we have co-operated with Cornell and the arXiv on Eprintweb.org, a platform that offers new features to repository users. View Andrew Wray's biography

  16. Distributed Web Service Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Nawrocki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability and popularity of computer systems has resulted in a demand for new, language- and platform-independent ways of data exchange. That demand has in turn led to a significant growth in the importance of systems based on Web services. Alongside the growing number of systems accessible via Web services came the need for specialized data repositories that could offer effective means of searching of available services. The development of mobile systems and wireless data transmission technologies has allowed the use of distributed devices and computer systems on a greater scale. The accelerating growth of distributed systems might be a good reason to consider the development of distributed Web service repositories with built-in mechanisms for data migration and synchronization.

  17. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, T

    2003-10-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to

  18. Repository performance confirmation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-09-01

    Repository performance confirmation links the technical bases of repository science and societal acceptance. This paper explores the myriad aspects of what has been labeled performance confirmation in U.S. programs, which involves monitoring as a collection of distinct activities combining technical and social significance in radioactive waste management. This paper is divided into four parts: (1) A distinction is drawn between performance confirmation monitoring and other testing and monitoring objectives; (2) A case study illustrates confirmation activities integrated within a long-term testing and monitoring strategy for Yucca Mountain; (3) A case study reviews compliance monitoring developed and implemented for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; and (4) An approach for developing, evaluating and implementing the next generation of performance confirmation monitoring is presented. International interest in repository monitoring is exhibited by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme 'Monitoring Developments for Safe Repository Operation and Staged Closure' (MoDeRn) Project. The MoDeRn partners are considering the role of monitoring in a phased approach to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. As repository plans advance in different countries, the need to consider monitoring strategies within a controlled framework has become more apparent. The MoDeRn project pulls together technical and societal experts to assimilate a common understanding of a process that could be followed to develop a monitoring program. A fundamental consideration is the differentiation of confirmation monitoring from the many other testing and monitoring activities. Recently, the license application for Yucca Mountain provided a case study including a technical process for meeting regulatory requirements to confirm repository performance as well as considerations related to the preservation of retrievability. The performance confirmation plan developed as part

  19. Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories: TIPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Caplan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories (TIPR is a project funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services to create and test a Repository eXchange Package (RXP. The package will make it possible to transfer complex digital objects between dissimilar preservation repositories.  For reasons of redundancy, succession planning and software migration, repositories must be able to exchange copies of archival information packages with each other. Every different repository application, however, describes and structures its archival packages differently. Therefore each system produces dissemination packages that are rarely understandable or usable as submission packages by other repositories. The RXP is an answer to that mismatch. Other solutions for transferring packages between repositories focus either on transfers between repositories of the same type, such as DSpace-to-DSpace transfers, or on processes that rely on central translation services.  Rather than build translators between many dissimilar repository types, the TIPR project has defined a standards-based package of metadata files that can act as an intermediary information package, the RXP, a lingua franca all repositories can read and write.

  20. Geochemical impact of a low-pH cement liner on the near field of a repository for spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Urs; Kulik, Dmitrii A.; Kosakowski, Georg

    In Switzerland the geological storage in the Opalinus Clay formation is the preferred option for the disposal of spent fuel (SF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The waste will be encapsulated in steel canisters and emplaced into long tunnels that are backfilled with bentonite. Due to uncertainties in the depth of the repository and the associated stress state, a concrete liner might be used for support of emplacement tunnels. Numerical reactive transport calculations are presented that investigate the influence of a concrete liner on the adjacent barrier materials, namely bentonite and Opalinus Clay. The geochemical setup was tailored to the specific materials foreseen in the Swiss repository concept, namely MX-80 bentonite, low-pH concrete (ESDRED) and Opalinus Clay. The heart of the bentonite model is a new conceptual approach for representing thermodynamic properties of montmorillonite which is formulated as a multi-component solid solution comprised of several end-members. The presented calculations provide information on the extent of pH fronts, on the sequence and extent of mineral phase transformations, and on porosity changes on cement-clay interfaces. It was found that the thickness of the zone containing significant mineralogical alterations is at most a few tens of centimeters thick in both the bentonite and the Opalinus Clay adjacent to the liner. Near both interfaces, bentonite-concrete liner and concrete liner-Opalinus Clay, the precipitation of minerals causes a reduction in the porosity. The effect is more pronounced and faster at the concrete liner-Opalinus Clay interface. The simulations reveal that significant pH-changes (i.e. pH > 9) in bentonite and Opalinus Clay are limited to small zones, less than 10 cm thick at the end of the simulations. It is not to be expected that the zone of elevated pH will extend much further at longer times.

  1. An insight into pre-Columbian raised fields: the case of San Borja, Bolivian lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Trauerstein, Mareike; Huber, Perrine; Mohr, Sandra; Veit, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Pre-Columbian raised field agriculture in the tropical lowlands of South America has received increasing attention and been the focus of heated debates regarding its function, productivity, and role in the development of pre-Columbian societies. Even though raised fields are all associated to permanent or semi-permanent high water levels, they occur in different environmental contexts. Very few field-based studies on raised fields have been carried out in the tropical lowlands and little is known about their use and past management. Based on topographic surveying and mapping, soil physical and chemical analysis and OSL and radiocarbon dating, this paper provides insight into the morphology, functioning and time frame of the use of raised fields in the south-western Llanos de Moxos, Bolivian Amazon. We have studied raised fields of different sizes that were built in an area near the town of San Borja, with a complex fluvial history. The results show that differences in field size and height are the result of an adaptation to a site where soil properties vary significantly on a scale of tens to hundreds of metres. The analysis and dating of the raised fields sediments point towards an extensive and rather brief use of the raised fields, for about 100-200 years at the beginning of the 2nd millennium.

  2. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  3. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task A. Influence of near field coupled THM phenomena on the performance of a spent fuel repository. Report of Task A1: Preliminary scoping calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Son (ed.) [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (Canada); Lanru Jing (ed.) [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Boergesson, Lennart [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Chijimatzu, Masakazu [Hazama Corporation (Japan); Jussila, Petri [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Helsinki (Finland); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory CA (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The DECOVALEX-THMC project is an ongoing international co-operative project that was stared in 2004 to support the development of mathematical models of coupled Thermal (T), Hydrological (H), Mechanical (M) and Chemical (C) processes in geological media for siting potential nuclear fuel waste repositories. The general objective is to characterise and evaluate the coupled THMC processes in the near field and far field of a geological repository and to assess their impact on performance assessment: - during the three phases of repository development: excavation phase, operation phase and post-closure phase; - for three different rocks types: crystalline, argillaceous and tuff; - with specific focus on the issues of: Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ), permanent property changes of rock masses, and glaciation and permafrost phenomena. The project involves a large number of research teams supported by radioactive waste management agencies or governmental regulatory bodies in Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden and USA, who conducted advanced studies and numerical modelling of coupled THMC processes under five tasks. This report presents the definition of the first phase, Task A-1, of the Task A of the project. The task is a working example of how interaction between THMC modelling and SA analysis could be performed. Starting with the technical definition of the Task A, the report presents the results of preliminary THM calculations with a purpose of an initial appreciation of the phenomena and material properties that must be better understood in subsequent phases. Many simplifications and assumptions were introduced and the results should be considered under these assumptions. Based on the evaluation of the multiple teams' results, a few points of concern were identified that may guide the successive phases of Task A studies: 1. The predicted maximum total stress in the MX-80 bentonite could slightly exceed the 15 MPa design pressure for the

  4. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, F.; Basset, R.; Bellodi, G.; Benedetto, E.; Dorda, U.; Giovannozzi, M.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pieloni, T.; Ruggiero, F.; Rumolo, G.; Schmidt, F.; Todesco, E.; Zotter, B.W.; /CERN; Payet, J.; /Saclay; Bartolini, R.; /RAL, Diamond; Farvacque, L.; /ESRF, Grenoble; Sen, T.; /Fermilab; Chin, Y.H.; Ohmi, K.; Oide, K.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Furman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley /Oak Ridge /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /SLAC /TRIUMF /Tech-X, Boulder /UC, San Diego /Darmstadt, GSI /Rutherford /Brookhaven

    2006-10-24

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  5. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  6. A comparative study of discrete fracture network and equivalent continuum models for simulating flow and transport in the far field of a hypothetical nuclear waste repository in crystalline host rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadgu, Teklu; Karra, Satish; Kalinina, Elena; Makedonska, Nataliia; Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Klise, Katherine; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Wang, Yifeng

    2017-10-01

    One of the major challenges of simulating flow and transport in the far field of a geologic repository in crystalline host rock is related to reproducing the properties of the fracture network over the large volume of rock with sparse fracture characterization data. Various approaches have been developed to simulate flow and transport through the fractured rock. The approaches can be broadly divided into Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) and Equivalent Continuum Model (ECM). The DFN explicitly represents individual fractures, while the ECM uses fracture properties to determine equivalent continuum parameters. We compare DFN and ECM in terms of upscaled observed transport properties through generic fracture networks. The major effort was directed on making the DFN and ECM approaches similar in their conceptual representations. This allows for separating differences related to the interpretation of the test conditions and parameters from the differences between the DFN and ECM approaches. The two models are compared using a benchmark test problem that is constructed to represent the far field (1 × 1 × 1 km3) of a hypothetical repository in fractured crystalline rock. The test problem setting uses generic fracture properties that can be expected in crystalline rocks. The models are compared in terms of the: 1) effective permeability of the domain, and 2) nonreactive solute breakthrough curves through the domain. The principal differences between the models are mesh size, network connectivity, matrix diffusion and anisotropy. We demonstrate how these differences affect the flow and transport. We identify the factors that should be taken in consideration when selecting an approach most suitable for the site-specific conditions.

  7. Trusted Data Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaretta, D.

    2008-08-01

    Data is valuable, expensive to create, and may be impossible to re-create, so who can be trusted to look after it in the long term? This is a question which applies to all the types of digital data on which most astronomical research, and much of the rest of civilisation, depends. This talk will outline the work which has been, and continues to be, carried out to provide an answer to the question of how to judge whether any given data repository is up to the task and deserves to be funded. The OAIS Reference Model (ISO 14721) forms the basis of most serious work on digital preservation and the aim of the work described here is to build on OAIS to create an international standard on which an accreditation and certification process can be based. The talk will touch on some of the fundamental ideas about preservation of digital objects and on ways to detect preservation snakeoil salesmen.

  8. Influence analysis of Github repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Bai, Xiaomei; Yu, Shuo; Yang, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    With the support of cloud computing techniques, social coding platforms have changed the style of software development. Github is now the most popular social coding platform and project hosting service. Software developers of various levels keep entering Github, and use Github to save their public and private software projects. The large amounts of software developers and software repositories on Github are posing new challenges to the world of software engineering. This paper tries to tackle one of the important problems: analyzing the importance and influence of Github repositories. We proposed a HITS based influence analysis on graphs that represent the star relationship between Github users and repositories. A weighted version of HITS is applied to the overall star graph, and generates a different set of top influential repositories other than the results from standard version of HITS algorithm. We also conduct the influential analysis on per-month star graph, and study the monthly influence ranking of top repositories.

  9. New Rapid Evaluation for Long-Term Behavior in Deep Geological Repository by Geotechnical Centrifuge. Part 1: Test of Physical Modeling in Near Field Under Isotropic Stress-Constraint Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Soshi; Sawada, Masataka; Okada, Tetsuji

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the long-term geomechanical behavior of a geological repository for high-level radioactive waste disposal, using the centrifugal near-field model test. The model consisted of a sedimentary rock mass, bentonite buffer, and model overpack, and was enclosed within a pressure vessel. Tests were conducted with a centrifugal force field of 30 G under isotropic stress-constraint conditions with confining pressures of 5-10 MPa and injection of pore water up through a time period equivalent to about 165 years in the field. Our results showed that the measured values and the temporal changes in the displacement of the overpack, the soil pressure of the bentonite, and the strain of the rock mass were clearly dependent on the confining pressure. These data were not convergent during the test. Our data experimentally revealed that long-term behavior in the near field was changed by the geomechanical interaction between the deformation stress of the bedrock/disposal hole and the swelling behavior of the bentonite buffer.

  10. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Raymond, J. R.; Brandley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K.; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  11. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Bradley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  12. A surface chemical model of the bentonite-water interface and its implications for modelling the near field chemistry in a repository for spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, E.; Wanner, H. [MBT Umwelttechnik AG, Zuerich, (Switzerland); Albinsson, Y. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wersin, P. [MBT Tecnologia Ambiental, Cerdanyola (Spain); Karnland, O. [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    1994-07-01

    Understanding the surface chemical properties of montmorillonite in near-neutral and alkaline media is essential for establishing a chemical model of the bentonite/water interaction applicable for repository conditions. A pretreated and well-characterised Wyoming MX-80 bentonite has been used for investigating the acid/base characteristics of Na-montmorillonite. The CEC of Na-montmorillonite was determined to 108 meq/100 g for pretreated bentonite and to 85 meq/100 g for the bulk material. The BET surface area was (31.53{+-}0.16)m{sup 2}/g. Potentiometric titrations of montmorillonite suspensions at ionic strengths I=0.005 M, 0.05 M and 0.5 M were conducted as batch-type experiments. Deprotonation of surface OH groups possibly exposed at the edge surface causes an overall negative charge on the surface of montmorillonite in the alkaline pH range. In this pH range, the protolysis degree of OH groups increases with increasing pH and ionic strength. The proton density on the surface of montmorillonite increases with decreasing pH in the acidic pH range (pH<7.5). In this pH range, two simultaneously occurring surface reactions account for the observed proton density on montmorillonite: Protonation of edge OH groups and ion exchange of the major cations for H{sup +} at the structural-charge sites. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of a two-site model with structural-charge surface sites (X layer sites) and variable-charge surface sites (edge OH groups) as the reactive surface functionalities. The total population of the surface sites are estimated to TOT-OH=2.84*10{sup -5} mol/g, TOT-X=2.22*10{sup -5} mol/g. The intrinsic acidity constants for the OH groups are determined to pK{sup int}{sub al}= (5.4{+-}0.1) and pK{sup int}{sub a2}=(6-7{+-}0.1), respectively, using th configuration of the diffuse double layer model (DDLM). 43 refs, 18 figs, 11 tabs.

  13. Pain and Interoception Imaging Network (PAIN): A multimodal, multisite, brain-imaging repository for chronic somatic and visceral pain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labus, Jennifer S; Naliboff, Bruce; Kilpatrick, Lisa; Liu, Cathy; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; dos Santos, Ivani R; Alaverdyan, Mher; Woodworth, Davis; Gupta, Arpana; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A

    2016-01-01

    The Pain and Interoception Imaging Network (PAIN) repository (painrepository.org) is a newly created NIH (NIDA/NCCAM) funded neuroimaging data repository that aims to accelerate scientific discovery regarding brain mechanisms in pain and to provide more rapid benefits to pain patients through the harmonization of efforts and data sharing. The PAIN Repository consists of two components, an Archived Repository and a Standardized Repository. Similar to other 'open' imaging repositories, neuroimaging researchers can deposit any dataset of chronic pain patients and healthy controls into the Archived Repository. Scans in the Archived Repository can be very diverse in terms of scanning procedures and clinical metadata, complicating the merging of datasets for analyses. The Standardized Repository overcomes these limitations through the use of standardized scanning protocols along with a standardized set of clinical metadata, allowing an unprecedented ability to perform pooled analyses. The Archived Repository currently includes 741 scans and is rapidly growing. The Standardized Repository currently includes 433 scans. Pain conditions currently represented in the PAIN repository include: irritable bowel syndrome, vulvodynia, migraine, chronic back pain, and inflammatory bowel disease. Both the PAIN Archived and Standardized Repositories promise to be important resources in the field of chronic pain research. The enhanced ability of the Standardized Repository to combine imaging, clinical and other biological datasets from multiple sites in particular make it a unique resource for significant scientific discoveries.

  14. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  15. VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository serves as a centralized location to collect and report on agreements that share VHA data with entities outside of VA. It...

  16. Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This repository contains Privacy Impact Assessments (PIA) that have been vetted/approved. Section 208 of the Electronic Government Act of 2002 (E-Gov Act) requires...

  17. Book Review: The Institutional Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Galina

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available At a time when the future nature of scholarly communication and publishing are being debated this book serves as a useful reference guide for one of the key aspects- the institutional repository. Institutional repositories are a popular recent development for distributing and communicating research. They are a useful academic tool for administrating and publishing electronic resources produced by university members in order to increase access to these, both at an institutional and global level. However, there is still no general concensus about the characteristics of an institutional repository. What types of material are deposited? Who is responsible for building and maintaing a repository, how will copyright be managed, who will cover installation and maintenance costs? How will quality, integrity and preservation of the materials be assured?

  18. Project Opalinus Clay: Radionuclide Concentration Limits in the Near-Field of a Repository for Spent Fuel and Vitrified High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U

    2002-10-01

    The disposal feasibility study currently performed by Nagra includes a succession of quantitative models, aiming at describing the fate of radionuclides potentially escaping from the repository system. In this chain of models the present report provides the so called 'solubility limits' (maximum expected concentrations) for safety relevant radionuclides from SF/HLW wastes, disposed of in a reducing clay (Opalinus Clay, bentonite) environment. Solubility and speciation calculations in bentonite pore waters were performed using the very recently updated Nagra/PSI Chemical Thermodynamic Data Base (TDB) for the majority of the 37 elements addressed as potentially relevant. Particularly for the most relevant actinides, the straightforward applications with this updated TDB yielded results in contradiction to chemical analogy considerations. This was a consequence of incomplete data and called for problem specific TDB extensions, which were evaluated in a separate study. However, a summary of these problem specific extensions is provided in section 4.1. The results presented in this report solely depend on geochemical model calculations. Thus, it is of utmost importance that the underlying data and assumptions are made clear to the reader. In order to ensure traceability, all thermodynamic data not included in the Nagra/PSI TDB are explicitly specified in the report, in order to provide complete documentation for quality assurance and for comprehensibility. In order to clearly distinguish between results derived from data carefully reviewed in the Nagra/PSI TDB and those calculated from 'other' data, the summary of expected maximum concentrations provided in Table 1 includes two columns. The heading CALCULATED provides maximum concentrations based on data fully documented in the updated TDB, whereas maximum concentrations, which include additional problem specific data and/or data from other sources, are given under the heading RECOMMENDED. The

  19. Management of Indian Institutional Repositories

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates various issues concerning the management of institutional repositories (IRs) developed in India. Data collection done using a web based questionnaire, created using software provided by surveymonkey.com. The entire population i.e. all IRs identified in India were surveyed. It was observed that in 42.86% (6) of Institutional Repositories implementation programmes were headed by librarians. No special staff was appointed by any institution for carrying out different jobs...

  20. Spatial variability of herbicide mobilisation and transport at catchment scale: insights from a field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Doppler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During rain events, herbicides can be transported from their point of application to surface waters, where they may harm aquatic organisms. Since the spatial pattern of mobilisation and transport is heterogeneous, the contributions of different fields to the herbicide load in the stream may vary considerably within one catchment. Therefore, the prediction of contributing areas could help to target mitigation measures efficiently to those locations where they reduce herbicide pollution the most.

    Such spatial predictions require sufficient insight into the underlying transport processes. To improve the understanding of the process chain of herbicide mobilisation on the field and the subsequent transport through the catchment to the stream, we performed a controlled herbicide application on corn fields in a small agricultural catchment (ca. 1 km2 with intensive crop production in the Swiss Plateau. Water samples were collected at different locations in the catchment (overland flow, tile drains and open channel for two months after application in 2009, with a high temporal resolution during rain events. We also analysed soil samples from the experimental fields and measured discharge, groundwater level, soil moisture and the occurrence of overland flow at several locations. Several rain events with varying intensities and magnitudes occurred during the study period. Overland flow and erosion were frequently observed in the entire catchment. Infiltration excess and saturation excess overland flow were both observed. However, the main herbicide loss event was dominated by infiltration excess.

    Despite the frequent and wide-spread occurrence of overland flow, most of this water did not reach the channel directly, but was retained in small depressions in the catchment. From there, it reached the stream via macropores and tile drains. Manholes of the drainage system and storm drains for road and farmyard runoff acted as

  1. Spatial variability of herbicide mobilisation and transport at catchment scale: insights from a field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Doppler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During rain events, herbicides can be transported from their point of application to surface waters where they may harm aquatic organisms. Since the spatial pattern of mobilisation and transport is heterogeneous, the contributions of different fields to the herbicide load in the stream may differ considerably within one catchment. Therefore, the prediction of contributing areas could help to target mitigation measures efficiently to those locations where they reduce herbicide pollution the most.

    Such spatial predictions require sufficient insight into the underlying transport processes. To improve the understanding of the process chain of herbicide mobilisation on the field and the subsequent transport through the catchment to the stream, we performed a controlled herbicide application on corn fields in a small agricultural catchment (ca. 1 km2 with intensive crop production in the Swiss Plateau. For two months after application in 2009, water samples were taken at different locations in the catchment (overland flow, tile drains and open channel with a high temporal resolution during rain events. We also analysed soil samples from the experimental fields and measured discharge, groundwater level, soil moisture and the occurrence of overland flow at several locations. Several rain events with varying intensities and magnitudes occurred during the study period. Overland flow and erosion were frequently observed in the entire catchment. Infiltration excess and saturation excess overland flow were both observed. However, the main herbicide loss event was dominated by infiltration excess. This is in contrast to earlier studies in the Swiss Plateau, demonstrating that saturation excess overland flow was the dominant process.

    Despite the frequent and wide-spread occurrence of overland flow, most of this water did not directly reach the channel. It mostly got retained in small sinks in the catchment. From there, it reached

  2. Demystifying the institutional repository for success

    CERN Document Server

    Buehler, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Institutional repositories remain key to data storage on campus, fulfilling the academic needs of various stakeholders. Demystifying the Institutional Repository for Success is a practical guide to creating and sustaining an institutional repository through marketing, partnering, and understanding the academic needs of all stakeholders on campus. This title is divided into seven chapters, covering: traditional scholarly communication and open access publishing; the academic shift towards open access; what the successful institutional repository looks like; institutional repository collaboratio

  3. Tracing river gravels: Insights into dispersion from a long-term field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2013-10-01

    Sediment dispersion is a fundamental component of the sediment transfer process in gravel-bed rivers. Modeling this process requires an understanding of the collective movement of mixed-size clasts. This study explores the temporal evolution of gravel dispersion to underscore the importance of field observation in informing modeling efforts. Magnetically tagged gravels deployed in Carnation Creek have been monitored repeatedly over 17 years. Four metrics used to describe the extent of dispersion document that the overall shape in the spatial distribution of grain location changes over time. The general trends mask the complexity of the dispersion process, expressed by channel sections where tracers are concentrated regardless of grain size. The distribution of total grain displacement responsible for dispersion evolves as tracers become well mixed. Results demonstrate that observations from the field are crucial to the understanding and modeling of sediment dispersion because they provide key insights into the dispersion process that must be known a priori for mathematical modeling and similar observations cannot be collected using laboratory flumes.

  4. Multibarrier system preventing migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olszewska Wioleta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Safety of radioactive waste repositories operation is associated with a multibarrier system designed and constructed to isolate and contain the waste from the biosphere. Each of radioactive waste repositories is equipped with system of barriers, which reduces the possibility of release of radionuclides from the storage site. Safety systems may differ from each other depending on the type of repository. They consist of the natural geological barrier provided by host rocks of the repository and its surroundings, and an engineered barrier system (EBS. The EBS may itself comprise a variety of sub-systems or components, such as waste forms, canisters, buffers, backfills, seals and plugs. The EBS plays a major role in providing the required disposal system performance. It is assumed that the metal canisters and system of barriers adequately isolate waste from the biosphere. The evaluation of the multibarrier system is carried out after detailed tests to determine its parameters, and after analysis including mathematical modeling of migration of contaminants. To provide an assurance of safety of radioactive waste repository multibarrier system, detailed long term safety assessments are developed. Usually they comprise modeling of EBS stability, corrosion rate and radionuclide migration in near field in geosphere and biosphere. The principal goal of radionuclide migration modeling is assessment of the radionuclides release paths and rate from the repository, radionuclides concentration in geosphere in time and human exposure to ionizing radiation

  5. Representation of an open repository in groundwater flow models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott; Sun, Alexander [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    2005-08-01

    The effect of repository tunnels on groundwater flow has been identified as a potential issue for the nuclear waste repository being considered by SKB for a fractured granite formation in Sweden. In particular, the following pre-closure and post-closure processes have been identified as being important: inflows into open tunnels as functions of estimated grouting efficiencies, drawdown of the water table in the vicinity of the repository, upcoming of saline water, 'turnover' of surface water in the upper bedrock, and resaturation of backfilled tunnels following repository closure. The representation of repository tunnels within groundwater models is addressed in this report. The primary focus is on far-field flow that is modeled with a continuum porous medium approximation. Of particular interest are the consequences of the tunnel representation on the transient response of the groundwater system to repository operations and repository closure, as well as modeling issues such as how the water-table free surface and the coupling to near-surface hydrogeology should be handled. The overall objectives are to understand the consequences of current representations and to identify appropriate approximations for representing open tunnels in future groundwater modeling studies. The following conclusions can be drawn from the results of the simulations: 1. Two-phase flow may be induced in the vicinity of repository tunnels during repository pre-closure operations, but the formation of a two-phase flow region will not significantly affect far-field flow or inflows into tunnels. 2. The water table will be drawn down to the repository horizon and tunnel inflows will reach a steady-state value within about 5 years. 3. Steady-state inflows at the repository edge are estimated to be about 250 m{sup 3}/year per meter of tunnel. Inflows will be greater during the transient de-watering period and less for tunnel locations closer to the repository center. 4. Significant

  6. The joys of mapping: qualitative insights into the student experience of a residential geoscience field course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Alison

    2010-05-01

    Using a mixed-format survey instrument, Boyle et al. (2007) identify significant effects in the affective domain resulting from participation in residential fieldwork. These findings are echoed by Stokes & Boyle (2009) in a separate, more detailed, study into the experiences of geoscience students when learning geologic mapping. While providing a quantifiable measure of changes in the students' attitudes and feelings, however, these survey data provide limited information about the experiences that have resulted in these changes, or of the factors likely to have influenced them. In order to gain a deeper insight into the students' affective responses, the quantitative data collected during this study were supplemented with qualitative data from in-situ and group interviews, open (free-text) survey questions, and direct observation of fieldwork activities. This provided a richness and depth of information that could not be achieved from quantitative data alone, and thus afforded a greater understanding of the students' experiences of this particular field activity. The survey findings showed that positive feelings and attitudes present at the start of the mapping field course became reinforced, but closer scrutiny of the data revealed that over half of the student cohort (57%) embarked on the fieldwork with some degree of worry, concern, or anxiety. The qualitative data enabled the source of these negative feelings to be identified, and provided evidence that these were overcome as a result of participating in the fieldwork. Thematic content analysis of the data resulted in the emergence of ten major themes; these provided a clear indication of factors significant to the student experience, and of specific aspects of the field course likely to generate either positive or negative affective responses. Further, these data highlighted the complexity of the learning process, and demonstrated the extent to which experiences varied between individual students. The social

  7. The Fermilab Lattice Information Repository

    CERN Document Server

    Ostiguy, Jean-Francois; McCusker-Whiting, Michele; Michelotti, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Fermilab is a large accelerator complex with six rings and sixteen transfer beamlines operating in various modes and configurations, subject to modifications, improvements and occasional major redesign. Over the years, it became increasingly obvious that a centralized lattice repository with the ability to track revisions would be of great value. To that end, we evaluated potentially suitable revision systems, either freely available or commercial, and decided that expecting infrequent users to become fully conversant with complex revision system software was neither realistic nor practical. In this paper, we discuss technical aspects of the recently introduced FNAL Accelerator Division's Lattice Repository, whose fully web-based interface hides the complexity of Subversion, a comprehensive open source revision system. In particular we emphasize how the architecture of Subversion was a key ingredient in the technical success of the repository's implementation.

  8. Criticality issues with highly enriched fuels in a repository environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.L. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sanchez, L.C.; Rath, J.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents preliminary analysis of a volcanic tuff repository containing a combination of low enrichment commercial spent nuclear fuels (SNF) and DOE-owned SNF packages. These SNFs were analyzed with respect to their criticality risks. Disposal of SNF packages containing significant fissile mass within a geologic repository must comply with current regulations relative to criticality safety during transportation and handling within operational facilities. However, once the repository is closed, the double contingency credits for criticality safety are subject to unremediable degradation, (e.g., water intrusion, continued presence of neutron absorbers in proximity to fissile material, and fissile material reconfiguration). The work presented in this paper focused on two attributes of criticality in a volcanic tuff repository for near-field and far-field scenarios: (1) scenario conditions necessary to have a criticality, and (2) consequences of a nuclear excursion that are components of risk. All criticality consequences are dependent upon eventual water intrusion into the repository and subsequent breach of the disposal package. Key criticality parameters necessary for a critical assembly are: (1) adequate thermal fissile mass, (2) adequate concentration of fissile material, (3) separation of neutron poison from fissile materials, and (4) sufficient neutron moderation (expressed in units of moderator to fissile atom ratios). Key results from this study indicated that the total energies released during a single excursion are minimal (comparable to those released in previous solution accidents), and the maximum frequency of occurrence is bounded by the saturation and temperature recycle times, thus resulting in small criticality risks.

  9. Implementing digital preservation in repositories: Knowledge and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Groposo Pavão

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital preservation has to be undertaken by institutional repositories, which are responsible for the preservation of the scientific output from academic institutions. However, due to the constant evolution of the field, to gain domain knowledge and recognise best practices is a complex task for people responsible for digital preservation in those institutions. Digital preservation research, practices and solutions address specific problems, such as formats, curation, reference models, authenticity, policies and preservation plans, tools, etc., while stakeholders need an integrated, contextualized and applicable overview. This paper focuses on the implementation of digital preservation in repositories, from the perspective of the team responsible for the project, regarding the necessary knowledge and best practices. Initially, it defines and contextualizes digital preservation repositories. The following section presents a conceptual model of digital preservation, synthesized from conceptual models developed in influential projects in the field, which allows us to identify the domain knowledge in digital preservation. Finally, aspects represented in the model are discussed in the light of the performance of teams implementing digital preservation repositories. It provides recommendations, guides and examples that may be useful for the implementation of digital preservation. It points to the need to strengthen the relationship between domain knowledge in digital preservation repositories with practices developed in numerous projects developed worldwide.

  10. Repository operational criteria comparative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the ``Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies`` (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations considering the interfaces among the components of the regulations and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The ROC task addresses regulatory criteria and uncertainties related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. Those parts of 10 CFR Part 60 that require routine guidance or minor changes to the rule were addressed in Hageman and Chowdhury, 1992. The ROC task shows a possible need for further regulatory clarity, by major changes to the rule, related to the design bases and siting of a geologic repository operations area and radiological emergency planning in order to assure defense-in-depth. The analyses, presented in this report, resulted in the development and refinement of regulatory concepts and their supporting rationale for recommendations for potential major changes to 10 CFR Pan 0 regulations.

  11. Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to broaden access and facilitate efficient data sharing, the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) has created the Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR), a centralized, controlled-access database, where Investigators can deposit individual-level de-identified observational cancer datasets.

  12. Semantic repository and ontology mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia, J.; Trna, M.; Lozano, E.; Nguyen, T.T.; Gómez-Pérez, A.; Montaña, C.; Liem, J.

    2010-01-01

    This document discusses the core Semantic Technologies in DynaLearn: i) The semantic repository, which supports the online storage and access of qualitative reasoning models, ii) the grounding process, which establishes semantic equivalences between the concepts in the models and the concepts in a

  13. The MEANING multilingual central repository

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atserias, J.; Villarejo, L.; Rigau, G.; Agirre, E.; Carroll, J.; Magnini, B.; Vossen, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the first version of the Multilingual Central Repository, a lexical knowledge base developed in the framework of the MEANING project. Currently the MCR integrates into the EuroWordNet framework five local wordnets (including four versions of the English WordNet from Princeton),

  14. Faulty assumptions for repository requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutcliffe, W G

    1999-06-03

    Long term performance requirements for a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste are based on assumptions concerning water use and subsequent deaths from cancer due to ingesting water contaminated with radio isotopes ten thousand years in the future. This paper argues that the assumptions underlying these requirements are faulty for a number of reasons. First, in light of the inevitable technological progress, including efficient desalination of water, over the next ten thousand years, it is inconceivable that a future society would drill for water near a repository. Second, even today we would not use water without testing its purity. Third, today many types of cancer are curable, and with the rapid progress in medical technology in general, and the prevention and treatment of cancer in particular, it is improbable that cancer caused by ingesting contaminated water will be a sign&ant killer in the far future. This paper reviews the performance requirements for geological repositories and comments on the difficulties in proving compliance in the face of inherent uncertainties. The already tiny long-term risk posed by a geologic repository is presented and contrasted with contemporary every day risks. A number of examples of technological progress, including cancer treatments, are advanced. The real and significant costs resulting from the overly conservative requirements are then assessed. Examples are given of how money (and political capital) could be put to much better use to save lives today and in the future. It is concluded that although a repository represents essentially no long-term risk, monitored retrievable dry storage (above or below ground) is the current best alternative for spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Repository Software

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This proposal outlines the design of a comparative analysis of the four institutional repository software packages that were represented at the 4th International Conference on Open Repositories held in 2009 in Atlanta, Georgia: EPrints, DSpace, Fedora and Zentity (The 4th International Conference on Open Repositories website, https://or09.library.gatech.edu). The study includes 23 qualitative and quantitative measures taken from default installations of the four repositories on a benchmark ma...

  16. Digital Preservation Initiatives in Ontario: Trusted Digital Repositories and Research Data Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Johnston

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first in a series of two articles dealing with digital preservation, this article discusses repositories, more specifically Trusted Digital Repositories (TDR and Research Data Repositories. The focus will be on the TDRs at Scholars Portal and Library and Archives Canada (LAC, and the data repository at the University of Guelph.

  17. Consistency Analysis of Network Traffic Repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Pras, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    Traffic repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffic that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for var

  18. Consistency of Network Traffic Repositories: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, E.; Pras, A.

    2009-01-01

    Traffc repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffc that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for vario

  19. Analytical performance models for geologic repositories. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Fujita, A.; Kanki, T.; Kobayashi, A.; Lung, H.; Ting, D.; Sato, Y.; Zavoshy, S.J.

    1982-10-01

    This report presents analytical solutions of the dissolution and hydrogeologic transport of radionuclides in geologic repositories. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the equations resulting from these analyses. The subjects treated in this report are: solubility-limited transport with transverse dispersion (chapter 2); transport of a radionuclide chain with nonequilibrium chemical reactions (chapter 3); advective transport in a two-dimensional flow field (chapter 4); radionuclide transport in fractured media (chapter 5); a mathematical model for EPA's analysis of generic repositories (chapter 6); and dissolution of radionuclides from solid waste (chapter 7). Volume 2 contains chapters 5, 6, and 7.

  20. Experimental DML over digital repositories in Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Namiki, Takao; Naruse, Shunsuke

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the authors show an overview of Virtual Digital Mathematics Library in Japan (DML-JP), contents of which consist of metadata harvested from institutional repositories in Japan and digital repositories in the world. DML-JP is, in a sense, a subject specific repository which collaborate with various digital repositories. Beyond portal website, DML-JP provides subject-specific metadata through OAI-ORE. By the schema it is enabled that digital repositories can load the rich metadata which were added by mathematicians.

  1. Online educational repositories for promoting agricultural knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Costopoulou

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Towards promoting sustainable agriculture and economic growth, the development of the agricultural workforce and set up of innovative agricultural systems are required. Agricultural educational repositories are systems used for storing, reusing and sharing agricultural learning resources. They contribute to agricultural education at different educational levels and target groups. Thus, this paper firstly provides an overview of Institutional repositories (IRs and Open Access Archives (OAAs in Greece and agricultural repositories worldwide. Also, it describes the agricultural repositories that provide access to educational content in Greek and presents experiences from the establishment of Agricultural University of Athens’ (AUA repository.

  2. Pulsed high-magnetic-field experiments: New insights into the magnetocaloric effect in Ni-Mn-In Heusler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Mejía, C.; Ghorbani Zavareh, M.; Nayak, A. K.; Skourski, Y.; Wosnitza, J.; Felser, C.; Nicklas, M.

    2015-05-01

    The present pulsed high-magnetic-field study on Ni50Mn35In15 gives an extra insight into the thermodynamics of the martensitic transformation in Heusler shape-memory alloys. The transformation-entropy change, ΔS, was estimated from field-dependent magnetization experiments in pulsed high magnetic fields and by heat-capacity measurements in static fields. We found a decrease of ΔS with decreasing temperature. This behavior can be understood by considering the different signs of the lattice and magnetic contributions to the total entropy. Our results further imply that the magnetocaloric effect will decrease with decreasing temperature and, furthermore, the martensitic transition is not induced anymore by changing the temperature in high magnetic fields.

  3. Pulsed high-magnetic-field experiments: New insights into the magnetocaloric effect in Ni-Mn-In Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar Mejía, C., E-mail: Catalina.Salazar@cpfs.mpg.de; Nayak, A. K.; Felser, C.; Nicklas, M. [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Ghorbani Zavareh, M.; Wosnitza, J. [Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD-EMFL), Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Institut für Festkörperphysik, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Skourski, Y. [Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD-EMFL), Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-05-07

    The present pulsed high-magnetic-field study on Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} gives an extra insight into the thermodynamics of the martensitic transformation in Heusler shape-memory alloys. The transformation-entropy change, ΔS, was estimated from field-dependent magnetization experiments in pulsed high magnetic fields and by heat-capacity measurements in static fields. We found a decrease of ΔS with decreasing temperature. This behavior can be understood by considering the different signs of the lattice and magnetic contributions to the total entropy. Our results further imply that the magnetocaloric effect will decrease with decreasing temperature and, furthermore, the martensitic transition is not induced anymore by changing the temperature in high magnetic fields.

  4. University digital repositories and authors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Keefer

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The Open Access movement offers two strategies for making scientific information available without economic, technical or legal obstacles: the publication of articles in OA journals and the deposit by authors of their Works in stable institutional or discipline-based repositories. This article explores the implementation of the second “route” on the part of authors, because it is the strategy that offers the greatest possibility of attaining OA in the short term. However, it does require repositories to exert great effort in informing the authors of the advantages of self-archiving and of the procedures for depositing their work and, even helping them to do so – through services and promotional activities.

  5. A Study of Scala Repositories on Github

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Coleman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional programming appears to be enjoying a renaissance of interest for developing practical, “real-world” applications. Proponents have long maintained that the functional style is a better way to modularize programs and reduce complexity. What is new in this paper is we test this claim by studying the complexity of open source codes written in Scala, a modern language that unifies functional and object programming. We downloaded from GitHub, Inc., a portfolio of mostly “trending” Scala repositories that included the Scala compiler and standard library, much of them written in Scala; the Twitter, Inc., server and its support libraries; and many other repositories, several of them production-oriented and commercially inspired. In total we investigated approximately 22,000 source files with 2 millions lines of code and 223,000 methods written by hundreds of programmers. To analyze these sources, we developed a novel compiler kit that measures lines of code and adaptively learns to estimate the cyclomatic complexity of functional-object codes. The data show, first, lines of code and cyclomatic complexity are positively correlated as we expected but only weakly which we did not expect with Kendall’s t=0.258–0.274. Second, 75% of the Scala methods are straight-line, that is, they have the lowest possible cyclomatic complexity. Third, nearly 70% of methods have three or fewer lines. Fourth, the distributions of lines of code and cyclomatic complexity are both non-Gaussian (P<0.01, which is as surprising as it is interesting. These data may offer new insights into software complexity and the large-scale structure of applications including but not necessarily limited to Scala.

  6. Digital Repository of Mathematical Formulae

    OpenAIRE

    Howard S. Cohl; McClain, Marjorie A.; Saunders, Bonita V.; Schubotz, Moritz; Williams, Janelle C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the NIST Digital Repository of Mathematical Formulae (DRMF) is to create a digital compendium of mathematical formulae for orthogonal polynomials and special functions (OPSF) and of associated mathematical data. The DRMF addresses needs of working mathematicians, physicists and engineers: providing a platform for publication and interaction with OPSF formulae on the web. Using MediaWiki extensions and other existing technology (such as software and macro collections developed f...

  7. Towards an enterprise repository framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, D

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available addresses the business and man- agement decisions, portfolio of businesses, mission, business strategies and visions. On the domain level the business architecture includes the definition of the services and products, as well as the business processes..., List and Schiefer [14]: ‘A data warehouse is a subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant, and non-volatile collection of data to support decision-making’. Component D introduces the concept of an enterprise repository as warehouse...

  8. Repository development status in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, Alvaro; Zuloaga, Pablo [ENRESA (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    The paper describes the status of repository development for the different waste categories. Low and Intermediate Waste Disposal facility of El Cabril was commissioned in 1992 and is in normal operation. The major modifications and activities during the last years are the adaptation to waste streams not initially foreseen such as some decommissioning waste or waste from steel industry, and the improvement of its performance assessment, supported by a R and D and refined models. As part of this facility, a new disposal facility specifically intended for very low activity waste has been constructed and commissioned in July 2008. Its design is based on the European Directive for hazardous waste disposal. National policy for Nuclear Spent Fuel and High-Level waste is focused on the development of a centralized storage facility of the vault type, whose site location would be selected through a volunteering process. Meanwhile, with the aim of solving specific problems, three individual storage facilities are in different status at reactor sites. Research on final solution, including some repository aspects as well as separation and transmutation are being carried out in accordance to ENRESA's R and D program. ENRESA has developed conceptual designs for non site specific repositories, both in granite and clay, and has carried out their corresponding performance assessment exercises. (authors)

  9. An evaluation of repository-induced disturbances for a KBS-3 type repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, D.; McLeod, R.; McEwen, T. [QuantiSci, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom)

    1998-03-01

    This report considers the potential physical and chemical perturbations caused by the excavation, operation and backfilling and sealing of a KBS-3 type repository for spent fuel in Sweden. Parts of the underground excavations are likely to remain open to the atmosphere for up to several decades. Time-dependent changes to the chemical environment and the properties of the geological formation will be occurring as well as the initial disturbance of construction and subsequent changes after backfilling. In addition, this report also discusses issues that arise from the co-disposal of spent fuel and intermediate level waste. The processes which are likely to act during each stage of a repository from construction through to backfilling and sealing have been reviewed and the degree to which these processes are understood and represented within the performance assessment is discussed. The areas of particular interest are: The coupling of thermal, hydrogeological and mechanical processes with particular reference to the development of the near-field; Understanding the transient process of re-saturation with particular reference to the buffer material surrounding the waste canisters, including chemical changes to the material; The impact of accidental events during the construction and operational phases of work and their possible consequence on the long term performance of the repository; Chemical issues relating to the co-disposal of spent fuel and intermediate level wastes within a single facility. When consideration of transient processes and coupling is discussed, it is apparent that numerical tools and a complete understanding to provide quantitative information is lacking. The importance of the engineered barrier system within the performance assessment for spent fuel disposal is recognised and the emphasis is placed on the understanding of the coupled processes in the evolution in the near-field of the geosphere 45 refs, 4 fig, 2 tabs

  10. Slovac Republic repository of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bartko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Slovac Republic Repository of Radioactive Waste (radwaste in place Mochovce presents a multi-barrier repository of the surface type designed as an ultimate storage of treated solid and fixed, low-and very low-level radwaste generated during the operation and decommissioning of the nuclear power plants, in research institutes, laboratories and hospitals in the Slovak Republic. The isolation of the radwaste and retardation of the radionuclides are provided by the barrier system of the repository. To assess the complete system and parts of one of the most important barriers – the multi-barrier ultimate shielding of the repository – the model of the ultimate shielding of the repository was designed. The monitoring results of the model “ in situ“ will be applicable for projecting the ultimate shielding of the repository.

  11. Author Identifiers in Scholarly Repositories

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Simeon

    2010-01-01

    Bibliometric and usage-based analyses and tools highlight the value of information about scholarship contained within the network of authors, articles and usage data. Less progress has been made on populating and using the author side of this network than the article side, in part because of the difficulty of unambiguously identifying authors. I briefly review a sample of author identifier schemes, and consider use in scholarly repositories. I then describe preliminary work at arXiv to implement public author identifiers, services based on them, and plans to make this information useful beyond the boundaries of arXiv.

  12. Corrosion of the copper canister in the repository environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, H.P.; Eriksson, Sture [Studsvik Material AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The present report accounts for studies on copper corrosion performed at Studsvik Material AB during 1997-1999 on commission by SKI. The work has been focused on localised corrosion and electrochemistry of copper in the repository environment. The current theory of localised copper corrosion is not consistent with recent practical experiences. It is therefore desired to complete and develop the theory based on knowledge about the repository environment and evaluations of previous as well as recent experimental and field results. The work has therefore comprised a thorough compilation and up-date of literature on copper corrosion and on the repository environment. A selection of a 'working environment', defining the chemical parameters and their ranges of variation has been made and is used as a fundament for the experimental part of the work. Experiments have then been performed on the long-range electrochemical behaviour of copper in selected environments simulating the repository. Another part of the work has been to further develop knowledge about the thermodynamic limits for corrosion in the repository environment. Some of the thermodynamic work is integrated here. Especially thermodynamics for the system Cu-Cl-H-O up to 150 deg C and high chloride concentrations are outlined. However, there is also a rough overview of the whole system Cu-Fe-Cl-S-C-H-O as a fundament for the discussion. Data are normally accounted as Pourbaix diagrams. Some of the conclusions are that general corrosion on copper will probably not be of significant importance in the repository as far as transportation rates are low. However, if such rates were high, general corrosion could be disastrous, as there is no passivation of copper in the highly saline environment. The claim on knowledge of different kinds of localised corrosion and pitting is high, as pitting damages can shorten the lifetime of a canister dramatically. Normal pitting can happen in oxidising environment, but

  13. Building didactic content repositories: method and tools

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Marciniak

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the method and tools which allows to build repositories of didactic materials in SCORM using UCTS taxonomic system and Content Repository software. SCORM is a universal specification designed to create reusable materials in digital format. UCTS is a taxonomic model which allows to attribute didactic interpretations to content components. Content Repository is a web software designed to create, store and process didactic content in SCORM. The method was verified while crea...

  14. Field evaporation of insulators and semiconductors: Theoretical insights for ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahka, Markus; Kreuzer, H J

    2015-12-01

    We look at the new challenges associated with Atom Probe Tomography of insulators and semiconductors with regard to local fields inside and on the surface of such materials. The theoretical discovery that in high fields the band gap in these materials is drastically reduced to the point where at the evaporation field strength it vanishes will be crucial in our discussion. To understand Atom Probe results on the field evaporation of insulators and semiconductors we use density functional theory on ZnO clusters to follow the structural and electronic changes during field evaporation and to obtain potential energy curves, HOMO-LUMO gaps, field distributions, desorption pathways and fragments, dielectric constants, and polarizabilities. We also examine the effects of electric field reversal on the evaporation of ZnO and compare the results with Si.

  15. The European Repository Landscape 2008 Inventory of Digital Repositories for Research Output

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Graaf, Maurits

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that a common knowledge base for European research is necessary. Research repositories are an important innovation to the scientific information infrastructure. In 2006, digital repositories in the 27 countries of the European we

  16. Center for Leadership Development (CLD) Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Center for Leadership Development Repository stores various data including policies, procedures, governance, guidance, security, and financial documents of the...

  17. E-Thesis Repositories: The Asian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantashree Sengupta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Across the globe, people are trying to find out ways to make the findings of research freely available to the public through open access institutional repositories. Theses and dissertations are considered to be one of the most important sources of scholarly communication. Due to various benefits of electronic theses and dissertations over the print format, various institutions are developing their own e-thesis repositories. Various Asian countries have contributed to the development of e-thesis repositories. The present study gives an overview of the growth and development of e-thesis repositories in Asia with the data from the OpenDOAR database.

  18. Workshop: Creating Your Institutional Research Repository

    KAUST Repository

    Grenz, Daryl M.

    2016-11-08

    In 2002, the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) proposed the concept of an institutional repository to simultaneously disrupt and enhance the state of scholarly communications in the academic world. Thirteen years later, thousands of universities and other institutions have answered this call, but many more have not due to gaps in budgets, awareness and, most of all, practical guidance on creating an institutional repository. This workshop provides you with an essential primer on what it takes to establish a fully-functioning institutional repository. Every aspect of the process will be covered, including policies, procedures, staffing guidelines, workflows and repository technologies.

  19. Mont Terri Project - Heater experiment : rock and bentonite thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in the near field of a thermal source for development of deep underground high level radioactive waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, I.; Alheid, H.-J.; Kaufhold, St.; Naumann, M.; Pletsch, Th.; Plischke, I.; Schnier, H.; Schuster, K.; Sprado, K. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Meyer, T.; Miehe, R.; Wieczorek, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany); Mayor, J.C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J.; Rey, M. [Asociacion para la Investigacion y Desarollo Industrial de los Recursos Naturales (AITEMIN), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, E.; Lloret, A.; Munoz, J.J. [Centre Internacional de Metodos Numerics en Ingenyeria (CIMNE), Barcelona (Spain); Weber, H. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Wettingen (Switzerland); Ploetze, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Institut fuer Geotechnik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Klubertanz, G. [Colenco Power Engineering Ltd, Baden (Switzerland); Ammon, Ch. [Rothpletz Lienhard und Cie AG, Aarau (Switzerland); Graf, A.; Nussbaum, Ch.; Zingg, A. [Goetechnical Institute Ltd, Saint-Ursanne (Switzerland); Bossart, P. [Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo), Wabern (Switzerland); Buehler, Ch.; Kech, M.; Trick, Th. [Solexperts AG, Moenchaltorf (Switzerland); Emmerich, K. [ITC-WGT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fernandez, A. M. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The long-term safety of underground permanent repositories for radioactive waste relies on a combination of several engineered and geological barriers. The interactions between a host rock formation of the type 'Opalinus Clay' and an engineered barrier of the type 'bentonite buffer' are observed in the Heater Experiment (HE) during a hydration and a heating phase. The objective of the experiment is an improved understanding of the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in a host rock-buffer system achieved by experimental observations as well as numerical modelling. The basic objectives are in detail: a) Long-term monitoring in the vicinity of the heater during hydration and heating; especially observation and study of coupled THM processes in the near field, i.e. continuous measurements of temperatures, pore pressures, displacements, electric conductivity, and analysis of the gases and water released into the rock by effect of heating; b) Determination of the properties of barrier and host rock done mainly by laboratory and in situ experiments, i.e. general mechanical and mineralogical properties, mechanical state in-situ, and changes induced by the experiment; c) Study of the interaction between host rock and bentonite buffer as well as validation and refinement of existing tools for modelling THM processes; d) Study of the behaviour and reliability of instrumentation and measuring techniques, i.e. inspection of sensors after dismantling the experimental setting. To achieve the objectives, the experiment was accompanied by an extensive programme of continuous monitoring, experimental investigations on-site as well as in laboratories, and numerical modelling of the coupled THM processes. Finally, the experiment was dismantled to provide laboratory specimens of post-heating buffer and host rock material. The continuous monitoring of the experiment by a multitude of sensors (for temperature, pore pressure, total pressure, relative

  20. Data sharing, small science and institutional repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragin, Melissa H; Palmer, Carole L; Carlson, Jacob R; Witt, Michael

    2010-09-13

    Results are presented from the Data Curation Profiles project research, on who is willing to share what data with whom and when. Emerging from scientists' discussions on sharing are several dimensions suggestive of the variation in both what it means 'to share' and how these processes are carried out. This research indicates that data curation services will need to accommodate a wide range of subdisciplinary data characteristics and sharing practices. As part of a larger set of strategies emerging across academic institutions, institutional repositories (IRs) will contribute to the stewardship and mobilization of scientific research data for e-Research and learning. There will be particular types of data that can be managed well in an IR context when characteristics and practices are well understood. Findings from this study elucidate scientists' views on 'sharable' forms of data-the particular representation that they view as most valued for reuse by others within their own research areas-and the anticipated duration for such reuse. Reported sharing incidents that provide insights into barriers to sharing and related concerns on data misuse are included.

  1. Modeling transient heat transfer in nuclear waste repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaw-Yang; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2009-09-30

    The heat of high-level nuclear waste may be generated and released from a canister at final disposal sites. The waste heat may affect the engineering properties of waste canisters, buffers, and backfill material in the emplacement tunnel and the host rock. This study addresses the problem of the heat generated from the waste canister and analyzes the heat distribution between the buffer and the host rock, which is considered as a radial two-layer heat flux problem. A conceptual model is first constructed for the heat conduction in a nuclear waste repository and then mathematical equations are formulated for modeling heat flow distribution at repository sites. The Laplace transforms are employed to develop a solution for the temperature distributions in the buffer and the host rock in the Laplace domain, which is numerically inverted to the time-domain solution using the modified Crump method. The transient temperature distributions for both the single- and multi-borehole cases are simulated in the hypothetical geological repositories of nuclear waste. The results show that the temperature distributions in the thermal field are significantly affected by the decay heat of the waste canister, the thermal properties of the buffer and the host rock, the disposal spacing, and the thickness of the host rock at a nuclear waste repository.

  2. The Open Data Repository's Data Publisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, N.; Lafuente, B.; Downs, R. T.; Bristow, T.; Blake, D. F.; Fonda, M.; Pires, A.

    2015-12-01

    Data management and data publication are becoming increasingly important components of research workflows. The complexity of managing data, publishing data online, and archiving data has not decreased significantly even as computing access and power has greatly increased. The Open Data Repository's Data Publisher software (http://www.opendatarepository.org) strives to make data archiving, management, and publication a standard part of a researcher's workflow using simple, web-based tools and commodity server hardware. The publication engine allows for uploading, searching, and display of data with graphing capabilities and downloadable files. Access is controlled through a robust permissions system that can control publication at the field level and can be granted to the general public or protected so that only registered users at various permission levels receive access. Data Publisher also allows researchers to subscribe to meta-data standards through a plugin system, embargo data publication at their discretion, and collaborate with other researchers through various levels of data sharing. As the software matures, semantic data standards will be implemented to facilitate machine reading of data and each database will provide a REST application programming interface for programmatic access. Additionally, a citation system will allow snapshots of any data set to be archived and cited for publication while the data itself can remain living and continuously evolve beyond the snapshot date. The software runs on a traditional LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) server and is available on GitHub (http://github.com/opendatarepository) under a GPLv2 open source license. The goal of the Open Data Repository is to lower the cost and training barrier to entry so that any researcher can easily publish their data and ensure it is archived for posterity. We gratefully acknowledge the support for this study by the Science-Enabling Research Activity (SERA), and NASA NNX11AP82A

  3. The Open Data Repositorys Data Publisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, N.; Lafuente, B.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D.; Bristow, T.; Fonda, M.; Pires, A.

    2015-01-01

    Data management and data publication are becoming increasingly important components of researcher's workflows. The complexity of managing data, publishing data online, and archiving data has not decreased significantly even as computing access and power has greatly increased. The Open Data Repository's Data Publisher software strives to make data archiving, management, and publication a standard part of a researcher's workflow using simple, web-based tools and commodity server hardware. The publication engine allows for uploading, searching, and display of data with graphing capabilities and downloadable files. Access is controlled through a robust permissions system that can control publication at the field level and can be granted to the general public or protected so that only registered users at various permission levels receive access. Data Publisher also allows researchers to subscribe to meta-data standards through a plugin system, embargo data publication at their discretion, and collaborate with other researchers through various levels of data sharing. As the software matures, semantic data standards will be implemented to facilitate machine reading of data and each database will provide a REST application programming interface for programmatic access. Additionally, a citation system will allow snapshots of any data set to be archived and cited for publication while the data itself can remain living and continuously evolve beyond the snapshot date. The software runs on a traditional LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) server and is available on GitHub (http://github.com/opendatarepository) under a GPLv2 open source license. The goal of the Open Data Repository is to lower the cost and training barrier to entry so that any researcher can easily publish their data and ensure it is archived for posterity.

  4. Promoting Field Trip Confidence: Teachers Providing Insights for Pre-Service Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateskan, Armagan; Lane, Jennie F.

    2016-01-01

    Pre-service teachers need experiences in practical matters as a part of field trip preparations programmes. For 14 years, a private, non-profit university in Turkey has involved pre-service teachers in field trip planning, implementation and evaluation. A programme assessment was conducted through a case study to examine the long-term effects of…

  5. Anticipated Degradation Modes of Metallic Engineered Barriers for High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Martín A.

    2014-03-01

    Metallic engineered barriers must provide a period of absolute containment to high-level radioactive waste in geological repositories. Candidate materials include copper alloys, carbon steels, stainless steels, nickel alloys, and titanium alloys. The national programs of nuclear waste management have to identify and assess the anticipated degradation modes of the selected materials in the corresponding repository environment, which evolves in time. Commonly assessed degradation modes include general corrosion, localized corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, hydrogen-assisted cracking, and microbiologically influenced corrosion. Laboratory testing and modeling in metallurgical and environmental conditions of similar and higher aggressiveness than those expected in service conditions are used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the materials. This review focuses on the anticipated degradation modes of the selected or reference materials as corrosion-resistant barriers in nuclear repositories. These degradation modes depend not only on the selected alloy but also on the near-field environment. The evolution of the near-field environment varies for saturated and unsaturated repositories considering backfilled and unbackfilled conditions. In saturated repositories, localized corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking may occur in the initial aerobic stage, while general corrosion and hydrogen-assisted cracking are the main degradation modes in the anaerobic stage. Unsaturated repositories would provide an oxidizing environment during the entire repository lifetime. Microbiologically influenced corrosion may be avoided or minimized by selecting an appropriate backfill material. Radiation effects are negligible provided that a thick-walled container or an inner shielding container is used.

  6. Discrete fracture network modelling of a KBS-3H repository at Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanyon, G.W. (Fracture Systems Ltd, St Ives (United Kingdom)); Marschall, P. (Nagra, Wettingen (Switzerland))

    2008-06-15

    This report presents Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) models of groundwater flow around a KBS-3H repository situated at Olkiluoto. The study was performed in support of the Safety Case for the KBS-3H Concept, being jointly studied by SKB and Posiva. As part of the preliminary assessment of long term safety of a KBS-3H repository, a Process Report and an Evolution Report (evolution of the disposal system from the emplacement of the first canister to the long term) are being produced. In the course of the task definition the project team identified the need for complementary modelling studies aimed at increasing insight into the hydrodynamic evolution of the disposal system after waste emplacement. In particular, the following issues were identified as requiring input from hydrodynamic models: Probability of high inflow points which may cause buffer erosion. Time transients of inflows after construction of deposition drifts. Interference between deposition drifts and transport tunnels. The DFN models represent the fault and fracture system in the planned repository volume at Olkiluoto. In particular, they represent the hydro geologically significant features. The types of hydrogeological features included in the models are: Major Fracture Zones (MFZs). Local Fracture Zones (LFZs) and associated water conducting features (LFZ-WCFs). Water Conducting Features in the background rock (BR-WCFs). These feature types are derived from the current geological and hydrogeological interpretations developed by Posiva. Several model variants were developed during the study and these variants were used for geometric simulations of the WCF network around the deposition drifts. A simple layout adaptation scheme has been applied to the network models to derive statistics for performance measures relating to the deposition drifts, compartments, plugs and super-containers. A single fracture transient flow model was developed to provide insight to transient flow behaviour around

  7. An Open Challenge Problem Repository for Systems Supporting Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Felty

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A variety of logical frameworks support the use of higher-order abstract syntax in representing formal systems; however, each system has its own set of benchmarks. Even worse, general proof assistants that provide special libraries for dealing with binders offer a very limited evaluation of such libraries, and the examples given often do not exercise and stress-test key aspects that arise in the presence of binders. In this paper we design an open repository ORBI (Open challenge problem Repository for systems supporting reasoning with BInders. We believe the field of reasoning about languages with binders has matured, and a common set of benchmarks provides an important basis for evaluation and qualitative comparison of different systems and libraries that support binders, and it will help to advance the field.

  8. Asset Reuse of Images from a Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    According to Markus's theory of reuse, when digital repositories are deployed to collect and distribute organizational assets, they supposedly help ensure accountability, extend information exchange, and improve productivity. Such repositories require a large investment due to the continuing costs of hardware, software, user licenses, training,…

  9. Decompression of magma into repository tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; Woods, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    It is nontrivial to find and design safe repository sites for nuclear waste. It appears common sense to drill tunnels as repository sites in a mountain in remote and relatively dry regions. However, erosion of the waste canisters by naturally abundant chemicals in the mountains water cycle remains a

  10. Learning frameworks as an alternative to repositories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    a learning object repository contains all kinds of materials, a learning framework consists of an organisation of materials related to a common theme. Further, a repository consists of single, self-contained objects, whereas a learning framework is an open-ended environment which presents a number...... of different possibilities and potentials for student activities....

  11. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  12. Insight into electric field-induced rupture mechanism of water-in-toluene emulsion films from a model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Desislava; Pisov, Stoyan; Panchev, Nikolay; Nedyalkova, Miroslava; Madurga, Sergio; Proykova, Ana

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a model, which we have designed to get insight into the development of electro-induced instability of a thin toluene emulsion film in contact with the saline aqueous phase. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations demonstrate the role of charge accumulation in the toluene-film rupture induced by a DC electric field. Two ensembles—NVT and NPT—are used to determine the critical value of the external field at which the film ruptures, the charge distribution and capacitance of the thin film, number densities, and the film structure. The rupture mechanism as seen from this model is the following: in both NVT and NPT ensembles, condenser plates, where the charge density is maximal, are situated at the very border between the bulk aqueous (water) phase and the mixed layer. No ion penetration is observed within the toluene core, thus leaving all the distribution of charges within the mixed zone and the bulk phase that could be attributed to the formation of hydration shells. When the critical electric field is reached within a certain time after the field application, electric discharge occurs indicating the beginning of the rupturing process. The MD simulations indicate that the NPT ensemble predicts a value of the critical field that is closer to the experimental finding.

  13. Development of database systems for safety of repositories for disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Hun; Han, Jeong Sang; Shin, Hyeon Jun; Ham, Sang Won; Kim, Hye Seong [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    In the study, GSIS os developed for the maximizing effectiveness of the database system. For this purpose, the spatial relation of data from various fields that are constructed in the database which was developed for the site selection and management of repository for radioactive waste disposal. By constructing the integration system that can link attribute and spatial data, it is possible to evaluate the safety of repository effectively and economically. The suitability of integrating database and GSIS is examined by constructing the database in the test district where the site characteristics are similar to that of repository for radioactive waste disposal.

  14. Building didactic content repositories: method and tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Marciniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the method and tools which allows to build repositories of didactic materials in SCORM using UCTS taxonomic system and Content Repository software. SCORM is a universal specification designed to create reusable materials in digital format. UCTS is a taxonomic model which allows to attribute didactic interpretations to content components. Content Repository is a web software designed to create, store and process didactic content in SCORM. The method was verified while creating E-archeology Content Repository which stores e-learning materials on protection and management of archeological heritage. The repository contains approximately 4500 Learning Objects in 5 languages and about 800 components of didactically useful e-learning components described in UCTS.

  15. Some insights in the structure of correlation functions in Liouville and Toda field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Parikshit

    2014-01-01

    We discuss some aspects of Liouville field theory, starting from operator equation of motion in presence of two screening charges and re-derive the dual zero mode Schwinger Dyson equations for the two screening charges from the path integral. Using functional methods we show the familiar pole structure of Liouville correlation function using the partition function. Next we discuss a generalized structure of the correlation functions obtained from the zero mode functional equations. From this structure we infer the use of the Barnes double Gamma functions to construct a part of the denominator of the correlators and also use Weyl symmetry of the theory to deduce more information about the rest. We similarly extend these arguments in the case of Toda field theories where we make a general statement about the denominator of the three point function and Sine-Liouvile field theory where we only obtain an infinite product structure.

  16. Micromagnetic insight into a magnetoreceptor in birds: existence of magnetic field amplifiers in the beak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2009-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field provides an important source of directional information for many living organisms, especially birds, but the sensory receptor responsible for magnetic field detection still has to be identified. Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles were detected in dendritic endings...... of the ophthalmic nerves in the skin of the upper beak of homing pigeons and were shown to fulfill the special prerequisites of a biological receptor. Here we study the proposed receptor theoretically and formulate the criteria for which it becomes operational and can be used for registering the weak magnetic...

  17. 核废料处置库近场的热-水-力耦合分析%Numerical analysis for coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in near field of nuclear waste repository

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大斌; 李子善

    2012-01-01

    为研究高放射性核废料地质处置的热-水-力耦合过程,以FEBEX原位试验为计算模型,利用有限元软件code-bright进行数值模拟分析,得到热-水-力耦合作用下处置库关闭后近场膨润土和岩石内温度、饱和度、吸力、应力及位移的变化规律,其结果可为核废料处置库的规划、设计以及缓冲/回填材料的选取提供参考.%To analyze coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical process for geological disposal of high level radioactive nuclear waste,a numerical analysis taking the FEBEX in-situ test for geological disposal of high level radioactive nuclear waste as the modeling object was carried out by using code-bright program. The variations of temperature, saturation degree, the suction, the stress and the displacement in bentonite and rock under the coupled thermo-hydro-mechancial action after the closure of nuclear waste repository are obtained. Valuable reference is presented for planning,designing of the nuclear waste repository and the selection of the buffer material.

  18. Random-field Ising model: Insight from zero-temperature simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Theodorakis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We enlighten some critical aspects of the three-dimensional (d=3 random-field Ising model (RFIM from simulations performed at zero temperature. We consider two different, in terms of the field distribution, versions of model, namely a Gaussian RFIM and an equal-weight trimodal RFIM. By implementing a computational approach that maps the ground-state of the system to the maximum-flow optimization problem of a network, we employ the most up-to-date version of the push-relabel algorithm and simulate large ensembles of disorder realizations of both models for a broad range of random-field values and systems sizes V=LxLxL, where L denotes linear lattice size and Lmax=156. Using as finite-size measures the sample-to-sample fluctuations of various quantities of physical and technical origin, and the primitive operations of the push-relabel algorithm, we propose, for both types of distributions, estimates of the critical field hmax and the critical exponent ν of the correlation length, the latter clearly suggesting that both models share the same universality class. Additional simulations of the Gaussian RFIM at the best-known value of the critical field provide the magnetic exponent ratio β/ν with high accuracy and clear out the controversial issue of the critical exponent α of the specific heat. Finally, we discuss the infinite-limit size extrapolation of energy- and order-parameter-based noise to signal ratios related to the self-averaging properties of the model, as well as the critical slowing down aspects of the algorithm.

  19. DECOVALEX III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Implications of Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Coupling on the Near-Field Safety of a Nuclear Waste Repository in a Homogeneous Rock Mass. Report of BMT1B/WP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, L. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Engineering Geology; Nguyen, T.S. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] (eds.)

    2005-02-15

    This report presents the works performed for the second phase (BMT1B) of BMT1 of the DECOVALEX III project for the period of 1999-2002. The works of BMT1 is divided into three phases: BMT1A, BMT1B and BMT1C. The BMT1A concerns with calibration of the computer codes with a reference T-H-M experiment at Kamaishi Mine, Japan. The objective is to validate the numerical approaches, computer codes and material models, so that the teams simulating tools are at a comparable level of maturity and sophistication. The BMT1B uses the calibrated codes to perform scoping calculations, considering varying degrees of THM coupling and varying permeability values of the surrounding rock for a reference generic repository design without fractures. The aim is to identify the coupling mechanisms of importance for construction, performance and safety of the repository. The chosen measures for evaluating the long term safety and performance of the repository are the maximal temperature created by the thermal loading from the emplaced wastes, the time for re-saturation of the buffer, the maximal swelling stress developed in the buffer, the structural integrity of the rock mass and the permeability evolution in the rock mass. Six teams participated in BMT1B: IRSN/CEA (France), CNSC (Canada), ANDRA/INERIS (France), JNC (Japan), BGR/ISEB-ZAG (Germany) and SKI/KTH (Sweden). All teams used FEM approach except the ANDRA/INERIS team who used the FDM approach, with different codes. All research teams except ISEB/ZAG used models with full THM coupling capabilities. The governing equations in these models were derived within the framework of Biot's theory of consolidation and have for primary unknown variables: temperature, pore fluid pressure and displacements of the solid skeleton. Since the original Biot's theory of consolidation is applicable to saturated materials and isothermal conditions, the research teams have to extend Biot's theory in order to deal with thermal effects and

  20. The upper crust of the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone: Insights from potential fields inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmayr, Enrico; Vlahovic, Gordana

    2016-08-01

    The study investigates the crustal structure of the eastern Tennessee seismic zone (ETSZ) by means of potential field inversion through the located Euler deconvolution method. Inversion of magnetic field data shows that the top of the magnetic basement ranges between 6 and 12 km depth in the Valley and Ridge physiographic province while it is shallower (< 2 km depth) and locally outcropping in the Blue Ridge and Cumberland Plateau provinces. The estimated depth to the top of the magnetic basement is in general agreement with existing sedimentary cover maps of the broad study area. The inversion of gravity data is much more ambiguous, pointing to a generally deeper source, than magnetic data inversion. The findings support the interpretation of ETSZ seismicity as originating in basement structures not related to Appalachian orogeny and likely dating to Grenville age.

  1. The Influence of Dissolution on Bedrock Channel Evolution: Insights from Modelling and Field Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, E.; Myre, J. M.; Covington, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the large global distribution of soluble bedrock, fluvial geomorphological studies typically regard dissolution as a negligible erosion mechanism in bedrock channels when compared to rates of mechanical erosion. Limited prior field observations have suggested that at the transition from insoluble to soluble substrate bedrock channels become wider, less steep, or both. By extending the Fastscape landscape evolution model to include dissolution as an erosion mechanism, we repeatedly produce landscapes with trunk streams consistent with field observations. However, in small tributaries, channel steepening occurs at the contact of the insoluble and soluble lithologies. Furthermore, as the main channel in a basin encounters the soluble layer, the increased erosion due to dissolution acts produces a local increase in the rate of base level lowering, resulting in steepening of channels upstream of the lithologic contact. The increased erosion at the lithological contact in the main stem also causes hillsope steepening in the soluble reaches. Independent field observations in the Buffalo National River Basin agree with the model results. Knickpoints and slot canyons are common at the lithologic contact in small tributaries, and channel widening occurs in soluble reaches in the main stem.

  2. Insights on proximity effect and multiphoton induced luminescence from gold nanospheres in far field optical microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borglin, Johan [Biomedical Photonics Group, Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Kemivägen 10, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Kemivägen 10, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Guldbrand, Stina [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Kemivägen 10, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Evenbratt, Hanne [Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemigården 4, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Kirejev, Vladimir; Ericson, Marica B., E-mail: marica.ericson@chem.gu.se [Biomedical Photonics Group, Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Kemivägen 10, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Grönbeck, Henrik [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivägen 9, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-12-07

    Gold nanoparticles can be visualized in far-field multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy (MPM) based on the phenomena of multiphoton induced luminescence (MIL). This is of interest for biomedical applications, e.g., for cancer diagnostics, as MPM allows for working in the near-infrared (NIR) optical window of tissue. It is well known that the aggregation of particles causes a redshift of the plasmon resonance, but its implications for MIL applying far-field MPM should be further exploited. Here, we explore MIL from 10 nm gold nanospheres that are chemically deposited on glass substrates in controlled coverage gradients using MPM operating in NIR range. The substrates enable studies of MIL as a function of inter-particle distance and clustering. It was shown that MIL was only detected from areas on the substrates where the particle spacing was less than one particle diameter, or where the particles have aggregated. The results are interpreted in the context that the underlying physical phenomenon of MIL is a sequential two-photon absorption process, where the first event is driven by the plasmon resonance. It is evident that gold nanospheres in this size range have to be closely spaced or clustered to exhibit detectable MIL using far-field MPM operating in the NIR region.

  3. Phosphorus dynamics in lake sediments: Insights from field study and reactive-transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Maria; Markovic, Stefan; Cadena, Sandra; Doan, Phuong T. K.; Watson, Sue; Mugalingam, Shan

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus is an indispensable nutrient for organisms in aquatic systems and its availability often controls primary productivity. At the sediment-water interface, intensive microbiological, geochemical and physical processes determine the fraction of organic matter, nutrients and pollutants released into the overlying water. Therefore, detailed understanding of the processes occurring in the top centimeters of the sediment is essential for the assessment of water quality and the management of surface waters. In cases where measurements are impossible or expensive, diagenetic modelling is required to investigate the interplay among the processes, verify concepts and predict potential system behavior. The main aims of this study are to identify and predict the dynamics of phosphorus (P) in sediments and gain insight into the mechanism of P release from sediments under varying environmental conditions. We measured redox, O2 and pH profiles with micro-sensors at the sediment-water interface; analyzed phosphate and metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Ca) content in pore waters collected using in situ samplers, so called "peepers"; determined P binding forms using sequential extraction and analyzed metals associated with each fraction. Following the sediment analysis, P binding forms were divided in five groups: inert, carbonate-bound, organic, redox-sensitive, and labile P. Using the flux of organic and inorganic matter as dynamic boundary conditions, the diagenetic model simulates P internal loading and predicts P retention. This presentation will discuss the results of two years studies on P dynamics at the sediment-water interface in three different lakes ranging from heavy-polluted Hamilton Harbor and Bay of Quinte to pristine Georgian Bay in Ontario, Canada.

  4. Increased tree establishment in Lithuanian peat bogs--insights from field and remotely sensed approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Johannes; Šimanauskienė, Rasa; Taminskas, Julius; Baužienė, Ieva; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-02-01

    Over the past century an ongoing establishment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), sometimes at accelerating rates, is noted at three studied Lithuanian peat bogs, namely Kerėplis, Rėkyva and Aukštumala, all representing different degrees of tree coverage and geographic settings. Present establishment rates seem to depend on tree density on the bog surface and are most significant at sparsely covered sites where about three-fourth of the trees have established since the mid-1990s, whereas the initial establishment in general was during the early to mid-19th century. Three methods were used to detect, compare and describe tree establishment: (1) tree counts in small plots, (2) dendrochronological dating of bog pine trees, and (3) interpretation of aerial photographs and historical maps of the study areas. In combination, the different approaches provide complimentary information but also weigh up each other's drawbacks. Tree counts in plots provided a reasonable overview of age class distributions and enabled capturing of the most recently established trees with ages less than 50 years. The dendrochronological analysis yielded accurate tree ages and a good temporal resolution of long-term changes. Tree establishment and spread interpreted from aerial photographs and historical maps provided a good overview of tree spread and total affected area. It also helped to verify the results obtained with the other methods and an upscaling of findings to the entire peat bogs. The ongoing spread of trees in predominantly undisturbed peat bogs is related to warmer and/or drier climatic conditions, and to a minor degree to land-use changes. Our results therefore provide valuable insights into vegetation changes in peat bogs, also with respect to bog response to ongoing and future climatic changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Interrelation of geomagnetic storms and earthquakes: Insight from lab experiments and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzhin, Yuri; Kamogawa, Masashi; Novikov, Victor

    Investigations of possible relations between variations of geomagnetic field and seismicity, including Sq-variations and geomagnetic storms, are overviewed and discussed. There are many papers demonstrating positive correlations between geomagnetic field variations and subsequent earthquake occurrence that allows to authors to talk about triggering impact on earthquake source provided by ionospheric disturbances [e.g., 1]. Nevertheless, there is another opinion on negligible impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the earthquake source supported by statistical analysis of correlation between variations of geomagnetic field and global and regional seismicity. In general, the both points of view on this problem are based on statistical research without detailed consideration of possible physical mechanisms which may be involved into the supposed earthquake triggering, or very rough estimations of possible increase of stresses in the faults under critical (near-to-failure) state were made. It is clear that verification of hypothesis of earthquake triggering by geomagnetic storms should be based on physical mechanisms of generation of additional stresses in the earthquake source or some secondary mechanisms resulted in change of the fault properties. Recently it was shown that the fluids may play very important role in the electromagnetic earthquake triggering [2], and the secondary triggering mechanism should be considered when the fluid migrating into the fault under electromagnetic action may provide fault weakening up to the earthquake triggering threshold. At the same time, depending on fault orientation, local hydrological structure of the crust around the fault, location of fluid reservoirs, etc. it may be possible that the fluid migration from the fault may provide the fault strengthening, and in this case the impact of variation of geomagnetic field may provide an opposite effect, and earthquake will not occur. In so doing, it is useless to apply only

  6. The role of nitrogen fixation in neotropical dry forests: insights from ecosystem modeling and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trierweiler, A.; Xu, X.; Gei, M. G.; Powers, J. S.; Medvigy, D.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) have immense functional diversity and face multiple resource constraints (both water and nutrients). Legumes are abundant and exhibit a wide diversity of N2-fixing strategies in TDFs. The abundance and diversity of legumes and their interaction with N2-fixing bacteria may strongly control the coupled carbon-nitrogen cycle in the biome and influence whether TDFs will be particularly vulnerable or uniquely adapted to projected global change. However, the importance of N2-fixation in TDFs and the carbon cost of acquiring N through symbiotic relationships are not fully understood. Here, we use models along with field measurements to examine the role of legumes, nitrogen fixation, and plant-symbiont nutrient exchanges in TDFs. We use a new version of the Ecosystem Demography (ED2) model that has been recently parameterized for TDFs. The new version incorporates plant-mycorrhizae interactions and multiple resource constraints (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and water). We represent legumes and other functional groups found in TDFs with a range of resource acquisition strategies. In the model, plants then can dynamically adjust their carbon allocation and nutrient acquisition strategies (e.g. N2-fixing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi) according to the nutrient limitation status. We test (i) the model's performance against a nutrient gradient of field sites in Costa Rica and (ii) the model's sensitivity to the carbon cost to acquire N through fixation and mycorrhizal relationships. We also report on simulated tree community responses to ongoing field nutrient fertilization experiments. We found that the inclusion of the N2-fixation legume plant functional traits were critical to reproducing community dynamics of Costa Rican field TDF sites and have a large impact on forest biomass. Simulated ecosystem fixation rates matched the magnitude and temporal patterns of field measured fixation. Our results show that symbiotic nitrogen fixation plays an

  7. Web Interface Security Vulnerabilities of European Academic Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matus Formanek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The given analysis summarizes the status quo of the level of security of web interfaces of selected European academic repositories in the field of library and information science. It focuses on the presence and qualities of the secure HTTPS protocol via SSL/TLS protocols. The security of the transmitted data is particularly important in the network environment of the Internet, especially if log-in user data is transmitted. Disclosure may have a direct impact on saved digital objects and their metadata which together represent the most valuable parts of systems of digital libraries and repositories. Furthermore, the paper points to the most noticeable vulnerabilities of protocols of web interfaces and presents practical recommendations for the expert public. These may contribute to the increase of the level of security of the discussed systems. The authors base their proposals on the currently available scientific publications and scientific articles about the given topic.

  8. Three-dimensional phase-field study of crack-seal microstructures - Insights from innovative post-processing techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ankit, Kumar; Nestler, Britta

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of vein evolution contribute to a better understanding of processes involved in their formation and possess the potential to provide invaluable insights into the rock deformation history and fluid flow pathways. The primary aim of the present article is to investigate the influence of a realistic boundary condition, i.e. an algorithmically generated fractal surface, on the vein evolution in 3-D using a thermodynamically consistent approach, while explaining the benefits of accounting for an extra dimensionality. The 3-D simulation results are supplemented by innovative numerical post-processing and advanced visualization techniques. The new methodologies to measure the tracking efficiency demonstrate the importance of accounting the temporal evolution; no such information is usually accessible in field studies and notoriously difficult to obtain from laboratory experiments as well. The grain growth statistics obtained by numerically post-processing the 3-D computational microstructures e...

  9. Personal Insights and Anecdotes about the Weatherization Assistance Program Process Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treitler, Inga [Anthropology Imagination, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The present report is based on the research conducted for the Process Field Study between March and September 2011. The Process Field Study documents how Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) services were delivered to clients, and the quality with which those services were delivered. The assessments were conducted by visiting 19 agencies in 19 states around the country interviewing agency managers, staff, and contractors; observing program intake along, with 43 audits, 45 measure installation and 37 final inspections; and conducting debriefing interviews with clients and weatherization staff following the observation of service delivery. In this report, we turn to detailed observations of a few field interactions. The client stories from our observations illustrate some of the ways clients and crew interact to build the success of the program, but shows there will always be unanticipated obstacles to building trust and getting the program to the public. Stories of staff and crew career paths indicate that weatherization technology and techniques are being learned and used by technicians out of the new home construction industry and that their new knowledge provides them with technical tools and methods that many hope to take back into the construction industry if and when they return. This report is organized according to the four stages of weatherization: intake, audit, installation, and inspection. It contributes to our understanding of the area where policy, environment, culture, and individual decisions influence social innovation. The anecdotes reveal the realities of implementing programs for the benefit of the greater good at minimal cost and sacrifice in times of ever restricting budgets. As the authors revisited their field notes and compiled memorable narratives to communicate the essence of the weatherization experience, they identified three key takeaways that summarize the major issues. First, in WAP as in all services there will always be

  10. Deep geological isolation of nuclear waste: numerical modeling of repository scale hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettinger, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    The Scope of Work undertaken covers three main tasks, described as follows: (Task 1) CDM provided consulting services to the University on modeling aspects of the study having to do with transport processes involving the local groundwater system near the repository and the flow of fluids and vapors through the various porous media making up the repository system. (Task 2) CDM reviewed literature related to repository design, concentrating on effects of the repository geometry, location and other design factors on the flow of fluids within the repository boundaries, drainage from the repository structure, and the eventual transport of radionucldies away from the repository site. (Task 3) CDM, in a joint effort with LLL personnel, identified generic boundary and initial conditions, identified processes to be modeled, and recommended a modeling approach with suggestions for appropriate simplifications and approximations to the problem and identifiying important parameters necessary to model the processes. This report consists of two chapters and an appendix. The first chapter (Chapter III of the LLL report) presents a detailed description and discussion of the modeling approach developed in this project, its merits and weaknesses, and a brief review of the difficulties anticipated in implementing the approach. The second chapter (Chapter IV of the LLL report) presents a summary of a survey of researchers in the field of repository performance analysis and a discussion of that survey in light of the proposed modeling approach. The appendix is a review of the important physical processes involved in the potential hydrologic transport of radionuclides through, around and away from deep geologic nuclear waste repositories.

  11. Ediacaran paleomagnetic field records from Laurentia: Insights into the evolution of the diversity of life and Earth's deep interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, R. K.; Tarduno, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Ediacaran to early Cambrian interval (~635-530 Ma) marks a tremendous increase in biotic diversity known as the Cambrian explosion. The magnitude of the biotic evolution has motivated hypotheses evoking a role for abiotic/environmental causal factors. For example, a rotation of the entire solid Earth by 90°, in what has been called an inertial interchange true polar wander (IITPW) event, has been linked to these events. One of the primary data sets motivating IITPW has been the report of nearly orthogonal directions from the Sept-Îles (ca. 565 Ma) intrusion (Quebec, Canada) on the basis of whole rock paleomagnetic analyses. We have found that only one direction (shallow) from our sampling of the Sept-Îles intrusion is carried by single domain magnetic grains and thus can be considered primary (Bono and Tarduno, Geology, 2015). Moreover, we find that the geomagnetic field was reversing during cooling of the intrusion; the small spatial scales on which we see antipodal directions suggest a very rapid reversal rate. Preliminary total-TRM paleointensity results from the Sept-Îles intrusion suggest a low field strength. The high geomagnetic reversal rate and low geomagnetic field intensity that characterize a portion of the Jurassic (ca. 165 Ma) may be an analog for field behavior during the Ediacaran to early Cambrian. This model may provide insight into the development of Earth's interior; if high thermal core conductivity values are correct, the onset of inner core growth is predicted to have an age similar to that of our directional and paleointensity data. To test these linkages, we investigate dated localities of the Grenville dikes (ca. 590 Ma) from which classic paleomagnetic results on whole rocks (Murthy, 1971) have long figured into debates over the paleolatitude history of Laurentia. New rock- and paleo-magnetic experiments testing single crystal feldspars from Laurentian Ediacaran intrusive units will be discussed, along with new estimates of

  12. Will salt repositories be dry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John D.

    The National Academy of Science committee that considered geologic disposal of nuclear waste in the mid-1950s recommended salt as a repository medium, partly because of its high thermal conductivity and because it was believed to be “dry” (perhaps the appropriate thought is “impermeable”). Certainly, the fact that Paleozoic salt deposits exist in many parts of t h e world is evidence for very low rates of dissolution by moving groundwater. The fact that the dissolution rates were so small led many scientists to the conclusion that the salt beds were nearly impermeable. The major source of brine within the salt beds was thought to be fluid inclusions within salt crystals, which could migrate through differential solution toward a source of high heat. The idea that salt was uniformly “dry” was revised when exploratory drilling in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico encountered brines within the Castile Formation, an evaporite deposit below the Salado Formation. The brine reservoirs were thought to be isolated pockets of brine in an otherwise “impermeable” salt section.

  13. Salt Repository Project Repository (WBS 1. 3. 4) Program Plan: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingsley, R.S.; Hume, H.R.; McNulty, E.G.

    1986-06-01

    This program plan will describe Salt Repository Project activities conducted under the repository Work Breakdown Structure element. The plan will describe those activities occurring from FY 1986 through the license application in 1991. During this period, the SRP program has three main objectives involving WBS. These include developing repository designs to the extent necessary to support the preparation of the principal licensing documents, the license application, and the final repository site selection report; conducting the RandD studies necessary to support repository design, licensing, and postclosure performance assessment; and analyzing the postclosure performance and waste isolation capabilities of the repository design. Meeting these objectives will require close coordination among all SRP WBS elements. 23 refs., 1 fig., 27 tabs.

  14. CBP for Field Workers – Results and Insights from Three Usability and Interface Design Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bly, Aaron Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Medema, Heather Dawne [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Wyatt Orcutt [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Nearly all activities that involve human interaction with the systems in a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. Even though the paper-based procedures (PBPs) currently used by industry have a demonstrated history of ensuring safety, improving procedure use could yield significant savings in increased efficiency as well as improved nuclear safety through human performance gains. The nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. As a step toward the goal of improving procedure use and adherence, researchers in the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, together with the nuclear industry, have been investigating the possibility and feasibility of replacing the current paper-based procedure process with a computer-based procedure (CBP) system. This report describes a field evaluation of new design concepts of a prototype computer-based procedure system.

  15. New insights into measurement variability in glaucomatous visual fields from computer modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Russell

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a model to simulate visual fields (VFs in glaucoma patients, and to characterize variability of the Mean Deviation (MD VF summary measurement using real VFs and simulations. METHODS: Pointwise VF variability was previously approximated using longitudinal VF data (24-2 SITA Standard, Humphrey Field Analyzer from 2,736 patients; these data were used to build a non-parametric model to simulate VFs. One million VF simulations were generated from 1,000 VFs (1,000 simulations per 'ground-truth' VF, and the variability of simulated MDs was characterized as a function of ground-truth MD and Pattern Standard Deviation (PSD. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range, IQR patient age and MD was 66 (56 to 75 years and -3.5 (-8.3 to -1.1 decibels, respectively. The inferred variability as a function of ground-truth MD and PSD indicated that variability, on average, increased rapidly as glaucoma worsened. However, the pattern of VF damage significantly affects the level of MD variability, with more than three-fold differences between patients with approximately the same levels of MD but different patterns of loss. CONCLUSIONS: A novel approach for simulating VFs is introduced. A better understanding of VF variability will help clinicians to differentiate real VF progression from measurement variability. This study highlights that, overall, MD variability increases as the level of damage increases, but variability is highly dependent on the pattern of VF damage. Future research, using VF simulations, could be employed to provide benchmarks for measuring the performance of VF progression detection algorithms and developing new strategies for measuring VF progression.

  16. NIMH Repository and Genomics Resources (RGR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIMH Repository and Genomics Resource (RGR) stores biosamples, genetic, pedigree and clinical data collected in designated NIMH-funded human subject studies. The...

  17. Evaluasi Website Repositori Institusi Universitas Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Ulum

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The  development  of  institutional  repositories  (IRs  in Indonesia within the broader framework of open access has significant impact on preserving intellectual capital and scholarly communication. Institutional  repositories  play  a  fundamental  role  in  centralizing, preserving,  and  making  accessible  institution’s  intellectual  capital. Evaluation of the system is to determine the functionality the system to meet the users need. Using a descriptive analysis this study wants to evaluate institutional repositories of University of Surabaya. The result is usefull for institution to develop the repository systems.

  18. Biospecimen Repository Access and Data Sharing (BRADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BRADS is a repository for data and biospecimens from population health research initiatives and clinical or interventional trials designed and implemented by NICHD’s...

  19. Insights into organic carbon oxidation potential during fluvial transport from controlled laboratory and natural field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Dellinger, Mathieu; Golombek, Nina; Hilton, Robert G.; Hovius, Niels; Sachse, Dirk; Turowski, Jens M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Wittmann, Hella

    2017-04-01

    Over geologic timescales, the exchange of organic carbon (OC) between the atmosphere, biosphere and geosphere is thought to be a major control on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, and hence global climate. The carbon fluxes from the oxidation of rock-derived OC (a CO2 source) and erosion and transport of biospheric OC (a potential CO2 sink) during fluvial transit are approximately the same order of magnitude or larger than those from silicate weathering (France-Lanord and Derry, 1997; Bouchez et al., 2010). Despite field data showing oxidation of OC moving downstream in lowland rivers, it is unclear if losses occur primarily during active fluvial transport within the river, where OC is in continual motion within an aerated environment, or during longer periods when OC is temporarily stored in river floodplains which may be anoxic. This represents a major knowledge gap, as the unknown location of OC oxidation (i.e., river vs. floodplain) limits our ability to develop process-based models that can be employed to predict OC losses, constrain carbon budgets, and unravel links between climate, tectonics, and erosion. To fill this gap, we investigated the potential for OC oxidation in both controlled laboratory experiments and a simplified field setting. We consider both rock-derived and biospheric OC. Our experiments simulated fluvial transport without floodplain storage, allowing mixtures of OC-rich and siliciclastic sediment to be transported for distances of 1000 km in annular flumes while making time-series measurements of OC concentration in both the solid (POC) and dissolved (DOC) loads, as well as measurements of rhenium concentration, which serves as a proxy for the oxidation of rock-derived OC. These transport experiments were compared to static, control experiments where water and sediment in the same proportion were placed in still water. Initial results for transport of OC-rich soil show similar behavior between the transport and static

  20. Business model metrics: an open repository

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkila, M.; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.; Heikkila, J; Solaimani, S.; Janssen, W

    2015-01-01

    Development of successful business models has become a necessity in turbulent business environments, but compared to research on business modeling tools, attention to the role of metrics in designing business models in literature is limited. Building on existing approaches to business models and performance measurement literature, we develop a generic open repository of metrics related to core business model concepts. We validate and assess the practical value of the repository based on four ...

  1. Learning object repositories as knowledge management systems

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, a number of international initiatives that recognize the importance of sharing and reusing digital educational resources among educational communities through the use of Learning Object Repositories (LORs) have emerged. Typically, these initiatives focus on collecting digital educational resources that are offered by their creators for open access and potential reuse. Nevertheless, most of the existing LORs are designed more as digital repositories, rather than as Knowled...

  2. Fault zone properties in carbonate rocks: insights for well logs, core and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgioni, Maurizio; Cilona, Antonino; Tondi, Emanuele; Agosta, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    In the last few years, numerous works addressed the deformation processes in carbonate rocks. These studies, generally sponsored by the oil industry, aimed to a better understanding of the structural and hydraulic properties of fault zones as well as of the subsurface fluid pathways in deformed carbonate rocks. This effort was mainly driven by the economic significance that carbonate rocks have for the oil industry, since they represent important natural reservoirs of hydrocarbons. According to the many field-based research scientific articles published in the recent past, both structural and hydraulic properties of fault zones, and their evolution trough time, exert a first order control on subsurface fluid flow and accumulation in fractured carbonate reservoirs. In order to convert this knowledge into predictive modeling tools that would help to optimize their exploitation, it should be useful to integrate the field-based data together with the subsurface data, which generally consist of core and well log (resistivity, acoustic, gamma ray etc.) analyses usually gathered to assess the formation evaluation of carbonate reservoir. The presented work aims at filling this cognitive gap by the acquisition and elaboration of subsurface geophysical properties of a hydrocarbon-bearing oblique normal fault zone characterized by 10's of m offset, and cropping out in an exposed analogue of fractured carbonate reservoir (Maiella Mountain, Italy). The deformation mechanisms associated to the processes of fault nucleation and development within the Oligo-Miocene shallow-water carbonate rocks were documented in the recent past by our research group. In this present contribution, we present the results of our elaboration of the geophysical data, obtained from well logs oriented perpendicular to the study fault zone. These results are consistent with the following statements: a) there is a meaningful correlations between cores and digital images; b) a detailed structural analysis

  3. Insights into the damage zones in fault-bend folds from geomechanical models and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Wei; Hou, Guiting; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the rock mass deformation and stress states, the fracture development and distribution are critical to a range of endeavors including oil and gas exploration and development, and geothermal reservoir characterization and management. Geomechanical modeling can be used to simulate the forming processes of faults and folds, and predict the onset of failure and the type and abundance of deformation features along with the orientations and magnitudes of stresses. This approach enables the development of forward models that incorporate realistic mechanical stratigraphy (e.g., the bed thickness, bedding planes and competence contrasts), include faults and bedding-slip surfaces as frictional sliding interfaces, reproduce the geometry of the fold structures, and allow tracking strain and stress through the whole deformation process. In this present study, we combine field observations and finite element models to calibrate the development and distribution of fractures in the fault-bend folds, and discuss the mechanical controls (e.g., the slip displacement, ramp cutoff angle, frictional coefficient of interlayers and faults) that are able to influence the development and distribution of fractures during fault-bend folding. A linear relationship between the slip displacement and the fracture damage zone, the ramp cutoff angle and the fracture damage zone, and the frictional coefficient of interlayers and faults and the fracture damage zone was established respectively based on the geomechanical modeling results. These mechanical controls mentioned above altogether contribute to influence and control the development and distribution of fractures in the fault-bend folds.

  4. Insight into glacier climate interaction: reconstruction of the mass balance field using ice extent data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnjevic, Vjeran; Herman, Frédéric; Licul, Aleksandar

    2016-04-01

    With the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), about 20 000 years ago, ended the most recent long-lasting cold phase in Earth's history. We recently developed a model that describes large-scale erosion and its response to climate and dynamical changes with the application to the Alps for the LGM period. Here we will present an inverse approach we have recently developed to infer the LGM mass balance from known ice extent data, focusing on a glacier or ice cap. The ice flow model is developed using the shallow ice approximation and the developed codes are accelerated using GPUs capabilities. The mass balance field is the constrained variable defined by the balance rate β and the equilibrium line altitude (ELA), where c is the cutoff value: b = max(βṡ(S(z) - ELA), c) We show that such a mass balance can be constrained from the observed past ice extent and ice thickness. We are also investigating several different geostatistical methods to constrain spatially variable mass balance, and derive uncertainties on each of the mass balance parameters.

  5. Intermediate length scale organisation in tin borophosphate glasses: new insights from high field correlation NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricot, G; Saitoh, A; Takebe, H

    2015-11-28

    The structure of tin borophosphate glasses, considered for the development of low temperature sealing glasses or anode materials for Li-batteries, has been analysed at the intermediate length scale by a combination of high field standard and advanced 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The nature and extent of B/P mixing were analysed using the (11)B((31)P) dipolar heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence NMR sequence and the data interpretation allowed (i) detecting the presence and analysing the nature of the B-O-P linkages, (ii) re-interpreting the 1D (31)P spectra and (iii) extracting the proportion of P connected to borate species. Interaction between the different borate species was analysed using the (11)B double quantum-simple quantum experiment to (i) investigate the presence and nature of the B-O-B linkage, (ii) assign the different borate species observed all along the composition line and (iii) monitor the borate network formation. In addition, (119)Sn static NMR was used to investigate the evolution of the chemical environment of the tin polyhedra. Altogether, the set of data allowed determining the structural units constituting the glass network and quantifying the extent of B/P mixing. The structural data were then used to explain the non-linear and unusual evolution of the glass transition temperature.

  6. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  7. Monitored Geologic Repository Test Evaluation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.B. Skorska

    2002-01-02

    The Monitored Geologic Repository test & evaluation program will specify tests, demonstrations, examinations, and analyses, and describe procedures to conduct and document testing necessary to verify meeting Monitored Geologic Repository requirements for a safe and effective geologic repository for radioactive waste. This test program will provide assurance that the repository is performing as designed, and that the barriers perform as expected; it will also develop supporting documentation to support the licensing process and to demonstrate compliance with codes, standards, and regulations. This comprehensive program addresses all aspects of verification from the development of test requirements to the performance of tests and reporting of the test results. The ''Monitored Geologic Repository Test & Evaluation Plan'' provides a detailed description of the test program approach necessary to achieve the above test program objectives. This test plan incorporates a set of test phases focused on ensuring repository safety and operational readiness and implements a project-wide integrated product management team approach to facilitate test program planning, analysis, and implementation. The following sections provide a description of the individual test phases, the methodology for test program planning and analyses, and the management approach for implementing these activities.

  8. Supporting multiple domains in a single reuse repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David

    1992-01-01

    Domain analysis typically results in the construction of a domain-specific repository. Such a repository imposes artificial boundaries on the sharing of similar assets between related domains. A lattice-based approach to repository modeling can preserve a reuser's domain specific view of the repository, while avoiding replication of commonly used assets and supporting a more general perspective on domain interrelationships.

  9. Scientific information repository assisting reflectance spectrometry in legal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenki, Liudmila; Sterzik, Vera; Bohnert, Michael; Zimmermann, Klaus; Liehr, Andreas W

    2012-06-01

    Reflectance spectrometry is a fast and reliable method for the characterization of human skin if the spectra are analyzed with respect to a physical model describing the optical properties of human skin. For a field study performed at the Institute of Legal Medicine and the Freiburg Materials Research Center of the University of Freiburg, a scientific information repository has been developed, which is a variant of an electronic laboratory notebook and assists in the acquisition, management, and high-throughput analysis of reflectance spectra in heterogeneous research environments. At the core of the repository is a database management system hosting the master data. It is filled with primary data via a graphical user interface (GUI) programmed in Java, which also enables the user to browse the database and access the results of data analysis. The latter is carried out via Matlab, Python, and C programs, which retrieve the primary data from the scientific information repository, perform the analysis, and store the results in the database for further usage.

  10. On-line remote monitoring of radioactive waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calì Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost array of modular sensors for online monitoring of radioactive waste was developed at INFN-LNS. We implemented a new kind of gamma counter, based on Silicon PhotoMultipliers and scintillating fibers, that behaves like a cheap scintillating Geiger-Muller counter. It can be placed in shape of a fine grid around each single waste drum in a repository. Front-end electronics and an FPGA-based counting system were developed to handle the field data, also implementing data transmission, a graphical user interface and a data storage system. A test of four sensors in a real radwaste storage site was performed with promising results. Following the tests an agreement was signed between INFN and Sogin for the joint development and installation of a prototype DMNR (Detector Mesh for Nuclear Repository system inside the Garigliano radwaste repository in Sessa Aurunca (CE, Italy. Such a development is currently under way, with the installation foreseen within 2014.

  11. Insights into the movements of landslides from combinations of field monitoring and novel direct shear testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, D. N.; Carey, J.; Massey, C. I.; Brain, M.

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms of pre- and post-failure movement of translational landslides remain surprisingly poorly investigated. Previous approaches have focussed on field monitoring, for example through high resolution automated surveying and/or GPS measurements, or from modelling using dedicated codes. There has been some experimental work too, most notably using ring shear devices, although there are limitations as to the type of analyses that can be completed in these devices. In recent years the author has been involved in a series of studies that have sought to understand pre- and post-failure behaviour in translational landslides using both high precision monitoring and experimental investigation using novel apparatus. The latter approach has involved the use of the back pressured shear box, a direct shear machine that allows near-infinite variation of the normal and shear stress state, and measurement and control of the pore water pressure. More recently, a more advanced version of this machine has been developed that allows dynamic loading of both direct and normal shear stresses. This paper presents key lessons learnt about the behaviour of translational landslides from these approaches. The data highlight a number of key elements: The important differences in pre-failure behaviour for materials that show a brittle response compared with those that are ductile. In particular, some aspects of behaviour (e.g. the hyperbolic acceleration to failure) can only be replicated in materials that show brittle cracking processes; In the post-failure domain, all materials show a high level of sensitivity to small changes in pore water pressure when the Factor of Safety is close to unity; Rates of strain are not simply related to pore water pressure / stress state. In particular, some materials show a different deformation response during phases of increasing pore water pressure to that during periods of pore water pressure reduction. The reasons for this require further study

  12. Controls on Yardang Morphology: Insights from Field Measurements, Lidar Topographic Analyses, and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J. D.; Kapp, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Yardangs are streamlined bedforms sculpted by the wind and wind-blown sand. They can form as relatively resistant exposed rocks erode more slowly than surrounding exposed rocks, thus causing the more resistant rocks to stand higher in the landscape and deflect the wind and wind-blown sand into adjacent troughs in a positive feedback. How this feedback gives rise to streamlined forms that locally have a consistent size is not well understood theoretically. In this study we combine field measurements in the yardangs of Ocotillo Wells SVRA with analyses of airborne and terrestrial lidar datasets and numerical modeling to quantify and understand the controls on yardang morphology. The classic model for yardang morphology is that they evolve to an ideal 4:1 length-to-width aspect ratio that minimizes aerodynamic drag. We show using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling that this model is incorrect: the 4:1 aspect ratio is the value corresponding to minimum drag for free bodies, i.e. obstacles around which air flows on all sides. Yardangs, in contrast, are embedded in Earth's surface. For such rough streamlined half-bodies, the aspect ratio corresponding to minimum drag is larger than 20:1. As an alternative to the minimum-drag model, we propose that the aspect ratio of yardangs not significantly influenced by structural controls is controlled by the angle of dispersion of the aerodynamic jet created as deflected wind and wind-blown sand exits the troughs between incipient yardang noses. Aerodynamic jets have a universal dispersion angle of 11.8 degrees, thus predicting a yardang aspect ratio of ~5:1. We developed a landscape evolution model that combines the physics of boundary layer flow with aeolian saltation and bedrock erosion to form yardangs with a range of sizes and aspect ratios similar to those observed in nature. Yardangs with aspect ratios both larger and smaller than 5:1 occur in the model since the strike and dip of the resistant rock unit also exerts

  13. Novel insight into soil and ecosystem COS fluxes in an agricultural field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseyk, Kadmiel; Seibt, Ulrike; Billesbach, David; Campbell, John E.; Torn, Margaret; Berry, Joe

    2013-04-01

    A promising new approach to partition net ecosystem carbon and water fluxes is the use of carbonyl sulfide (COS) as a tracer of the canopy components. COS is taken up by leaves via the same pathway as CO2 (stomatal diffusion followed by hydration by carbonic anhydrase), leading to a close coupling of vegetation COS and CO2 fluxes during photosynthesis and the potential to estimate gross photosynthesis from concurrent measurements of COS and CO2. A necessary requirement for this approach at ecosystem and continental scales is knowledge of soil COS fluxes. Considered small in magnitude relative to the vegetation fluxes, soil is also largely considered a sink for COS, but our knowledge of in situ soil COS fluxes remains very limited. We measured soil COS fluxes in a wheat field in Oklahoma from April to June 2012, using a novel combination of an automated soil chamber coupled to a COS laser analyzer, in parallel with some of the first eddy covariance measurements of ecosystem COS fluxes. We provide the first continuous record of soil COS fluxes under natural conditions, and report on some unique responses. In contrast to the majority of published results, we found that the agricultural soil was a source of COS under most conditions during the campaign. Mean COS flux over the study period was 1.9 pmol m-2 s-1 and highly correlated with soil temperature, shifting from a sink to a source at a soil temperature of around 15°C. Diel amplitudes of up to 15 pmol m-2 s-1 and fluxes of up to 25 pmol m-2 s-1 were observed. To locate the source of the COS production, we investigated different soil components. Wheat roots were found to be emitting COS under all conditions. Root-free soil was a COS sink up to a soil temperature of around 25°C, but turned into a COS source at higher soil temperatures. We also observed COS production from the roots of several other species, indicating that this may be a widespread phenomenon. The soil component was small relative to canopy uptake

  14. Influence of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements: insights from field and laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Sandro M.; Pietsch, Helga; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Rieder, Harald E.

    2016-04-01

    A precise knowledge of the surface energy budget, which includes the solar and terrestrial radiation fluxes, is needed to accurately characterize the global energy balance which is largely determining Earth's climate. To this aim national and global monitoring networks for surface radiative fluxes have been established in recent decades. The most prominent among these networks is the so-called Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) operating under the auspices of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) (Ohmura et al., 1998). National monitoring networks such as the Austrian RADiation Monitoring Network (ARAD), which has been established in 2010 by a consortium of the Central Agency of Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), the University of Graz, the University of Innsbruck, and the University of Natural Resources and Applied Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), orient themselves on BSRN standards (McArthur, 2005). ARAD comprises to date five sites (Wien Hohe Warte, Graz/University, Innsbruck/University, Kanzelhöhe Observatory and Sonnblick (which is also a BSRN site)) and aims to provide long-term monitoring of radiation budget components at highest accuracy and to capture the spatial patterns of radiation climate in Austria (Olefs et al., 2015). Given the accuracy requirement for the local monitoring of radiative fluxes instrument offsets, triggered by meteorological factors and/or instrumentation, pose a major challenge in radiation monitoring. Within this study we investigate effects of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements performed with pyranometers contained in various heating/ventilation systems (HV-systems), all of which used in regular operation within the ARAD network. We focus particularly on instrument offsets observed following precipitation events. To quantify pyranometer responses to precipitation we performed a series of controlled laboratory experiments as well as targeted field campaigns in 2015 and 2016. Our results indicate

  15. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Randle

    2000-01-07

    The primary purpose of this document is to develop a preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architecture for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines an overall control system concept that encompasses and integrates the many diverse process and communication systems being developed for the subsurface repository design. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System design will be composed of a series of diverse process systems and communication networks. The subsurface repository design contains many systems related to instrumentation and control (I&C) for both repository development and waste emplacement operations. These systems include waste emplacement, waste retrieval, ventilation, radiological and air monitoring, rail transportation, construction development, utility systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire protection, backfill emplacement, and performance confirmation. Each of these systems involves some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communications network throughout the subsurface facility. The subsurface I&C systems will also interface with multiple surface-based systems such as site operations, rail transportation, security and safeguards, and electrical/piped utilities. In addition to the I&C systems, the subsurface repository design also contains systems related to voice and video communications. The components for each of these systems will be distributed and linked over voice and video communication networks throughout the subsurface facility. The scope and primary objectives of this design analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system-level functions and interfaces (Section 6.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels the engineered process systems will be monitored, controlled, and

  16. Fons antic i repositoris universitaris a Espanya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Morillas, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Es mostra la presència de col·leccions de fons antic en els repositoris de les biblioteques universitàries espanyoles després d'analitzar tots els repositoris. Per a aquesta anàlisi, com a part de la metodologia emprada, s'ha elaborat un model o llista que consta d'onze elements. Del conjunt de les universitats espanyoles, seixanta tenen repositoris, vint-i-vuit dels quals (16,8 % disposen de col·leccions de fons antic. Com que del concepte de repositori institucional no sembla desprendre's que tingui com a finalitat incloure aquest tipus de col·leccions, es reflexiona sobre la peculiaritat que una part dels repositoris universitaris espanyols inclogui col·leccions d'aquestes característiques.Se muestra la presencia de colecciones de fondo antiguo en los repositorios de las bibliotecas universitarias españolas después de analizar todos los repositorios. Para este análisis, como parte de la metodología empleada, se ha elaborado un modelo o lista que consta de once elementos. Del conjunto de las universidades españolas, sesenta cuentan con repositorios y, de estos, veintiocho (16,8 % disponen de colecciones de fondo antiguo. Debido a que del concepto de repositorio institucional no parece desprenderse que tenga como finalidad albergar este tipo de colecciones, se hace una reflexión sobre la peculiaridad de que parte de los repositorios universitarios españoles incluya colecciones de estas características.This paper uses an analysis of the repositories of Spanish universities to identify which institutions contain rare book and manuscript collections. The method used in this analysis involved examining each university on the basis of a list comprising eleven elements. A total of 60 universities were found to have repositories but only 28 (16.8 % of these contained rare book and manuscript collections. In the light of these figures, which suggest that Spanish university repositories do not generally consider the preservation of rare

  17. Analysis of computational vulnerabilities in digital repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdete Fernandes Belarmino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Demonstrates the results of research that aimed to analyze the computational vulnerabilities of digital directories in public Universities. Argues the relevance of information in contemporary societies like an invaluable resource, emphasizing scientific information as an essential element to constitute scientific progress. Characterizes the emergence of Digital Repositories and highlights its use in academic environment to preserve, promote, disseminate and encourage the scientific production. Describes the main software for the construction of digital repositories. Method. The investigation identified and analyzed the vulnerabilities that are exposed the digital repositories using Penetration Testing running. Discriminating the levels of risk and the types of vulnerabilities. Results. From a sample of 30 repositories, we could examine 20, identified that: 5% of the repositories have critical vulnerabilities, 85% high, 25% medium and 100% lowers. Conclusions. Which demonstrates the necessity to adapt actions for these environments that promote informational security to minimizing the incidence of external and / or internal systems attacks.Abstract Grey Text – use bold for subheadings when needed.

  18. Plugs for deposition tunnels in a deep geologic repository in granitic rock. Concepts and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.A. (AECL, Chalk River (Canada)); Boergesson, L. (Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)); Gunnarsson, D. (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Stockholm (Sweden)); Hansen, J. (Posiva Oy, Eurajoki (Finland))

    2009-11-15

    -nuclear applications where plugs are needed in an underground environment are also examined and their potential for use in a repository application is discussed. Several generic plug designs have also been developed by SKB and Posiva as part of their repository engineering programs and these are presented, together with a brief discussion of some of the key advantages, disadvantages and issues associated with them. Based on this review it would seem that the most appropriate plug for use in a spent-fuel repository will be some form of a composite construction, consisting of both low-pH concrete and compacted swelling clay components. Final design of plugs will of course be site-dependant and must be tailored to the field conditions

  19. Identifying and Interpreting Stratification in Sedimentary Rocks on Mars: Insight from Rover and Orbital Observations and Terrestrial Field Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Lauren A.

    Sedimentary rocks on Mars provide insight into past aqueous and atmospheric processes, climate regimes, and potential habitability. The stratigraphic architecture of sedimentary rocks on Mars is similar to that of Earth, indicating that the processes that govern deposition and erosion on Mars can be reasonably inferred through reference to analogous terrestrial systems. This dissertation aims to understand Martian surface processes through the use of (1) ground-based observations from the Mars Exploration Rovers, (2) orbital data from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and (3) the use of terrestrial field analogs to understand bedforms and sediment transport on Mars. Chapters 1 and 2 trace the history of aqueous activity at Meridiani Planum, through the reconstruction of eolian bedforms at Victoria crater, and the identification of a potential mudstone facies at Santa Maria crater. Chapter 3 uses Terrestrial Laser Scanning to study cross-bedding in pyroclastic surge deposits on Earth in order to understand sediment transport in these events and to establish criteria for their identification on Mars. The final chapter analyzes stratal geometries in the Martian North Polar Layered Deposits using tools for sequence stratigraphic analysis, to better constrain past surface processes and past climate conditions on Mars.

  20. Three-dimensional phase-field study of crack-seal microstructures – insights from innovative post-processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ankit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of vein evolution contribute to a better understanding of processes involved in their formation and possess the potential to provide invaluable insights into the rock deformation history and fluid flow pathways. The primary aim of the present article is to investigate the influence of a "realistic" boundary condition, i.e. an algorithmically generated "fractal" surface, on the vein evolution in 3-D using a thermodynamically consistent approach, while explaining the benefits of accounting for an extra dimensionality. The 3-D simulation results are supplemented by innovative numerical post-processing and advanced visualization techniques. The new methodologies to measure the tracking efficiency demonstrate the importance of accounting the temporal evolution; no such information is usually accessible in field studies and notoriously difficult to obtain from laboratory experiments as well. The grain growth statistics obtained by numerically post-processing the 3-D computational microstructures explain the pinning mechanism which leads to arrest of grain boundaries/multi-junctions by crack peaks, thereby, enhancing the tracking behavior.

  1. Repository Services and the Challenge of Trustworthiness 131836

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R.

    2016-12-01

    Digital data repositories of one sort or another have been springing up since the dawn of the digital era in the mid-20th century. Some repositories are specialized and serve a particular audience, often a scientific domain; while others, such as an organizational institutional repository, may handle data from every discipline represented within their organization. The range of services provided users also varies widely from repository to repository complicating the question of trustworthiness. Many users simply do not have the experience or time to make informed comparisons between repositories with vastly different capabilities. This makes the concept of repository certification a matter of importance for helping users select repositories that meet some minimal set of criteria. Yet is that enough to ensure that the data so entrusted will actually be reusable in the future? This talk tackles the variety of repository types and certification mechanisms to discuss the reusability challenges particular to each.

  2. Opinion: Why we need a centralized repository for isotopic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Jonathan N.; Newsome, Seth D.; Cook, Joseph A.; Harrod, Chris; Steffan, Shawn A.; Baker, Christopher J. O.; Ben-David, Merav; Bloom, David; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Cerling, Thure E.; Cicero, Carla; Cook, Craig; Dohm, Michelle; Dharampal, Prarthana S.; Graves, Gary; Gropp, Robert; Hobson, Keith A.; Jordan, Chris; MacFadden, Bruce; Pilaar Birch, Suzanne; Poelen, Jorrit; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Russell, Laura; Stricker, Craig A.; Uhen, Mark D.; Yarnes, Christopher T.; Hayden, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Stable isotopes encode and integrate the origin of matter; thus, their analysis offers tremendous potential to address questions across diverse scientific disciplines (1, 2). Indeed, the broad applicability of stable isotopes, coupled with advancements in high-throughput analysis, have created a scientific field that is growing exponentially, and generating data at a rate paralleling the explosive rise of DNA sequencing and genomics (3). Centralized data repositories, such as GenBank, have become increasingly important as a means for archiving information, and “Big Data” analytics of these resources are revolutionizing science and everyday life.

  3. Web-based tribology design repository system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tribology design is one of the most important parts of mechanical product design as thestrength design. Unfortunately, because tribology design knowledge is often m ulti-disciplinary,complicated and piecemeal, it is therefore difficult for a mechanical designer to capture the neededtribology design knowledge. The concept of tribology design repository is proposed in this paper totry to address this problem. This paper presents an object-oriented knowledge representation lan-guage based on the modeling of tribology design component and it makes the complicated tribol-ogy knowledge represented has such advantages as inheritance, encapsulation, and consistency.A web-based triblogy design repository is then established and it enables the edition, retrieve,sharing and reuse of corporate tribology design knowledge in the repository from the Internet.

  4. Reducing Psychological Resistance to Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Quinn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential value of digital repositories is dependent on the cooperation of scholars to deposit their work. Although many researchers have been resistant to submitting their work, the literature on digital repositories contains very little research on the psychology of resistance. This article looks at the psychological literature on resistance and explores what its implications might be for reducing the resistance of scholars to submitting their work to digital repositories. Psychologists have devised many potentially useful strategies for reducing resistance that might be used to address the problem; this article examines these strategies and how they might be applied.

  5. Video Playback Modifications for a DSpace Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Gilbertson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on modifications to an institutional repository system using the open source DSpace software to support playback of digital videos embedded within item pages. The changes were made in response to the formation and quick startup of an event capture group within the library that was charged with creating and editing video recordings of library events and speakers. This paper specifically discusses the selection of video formats, changes to the visual theme of the repository to allow embedded playback and captioning support, and modifications and bug fixes to the file downloading subsystem to enable skip-ahead playback of videos via byte-range requests. This paper also describes workflows for transcoding videos in the required formats, creating captions, and depositing videos into the repository.

  6. Developing Criteria to Establish Trusted Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Faundeen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the drivers, methods, and outcomes of the U.S. Geological Survey’s quest to establish criteria by which to judge its own digital preservation resources as Trusted Digital Repositories. Drivers included recent U.S. legislation focused on data and asset management conducted by federal agencies spending $100M USD or more annually on research activities. The methods entailed seeking existing evaluation criteria from national and international organizations such as International Standards Organization (ISO, U.S. Library of Congress, and Data Seal of Approval upon which to model USGS repository evaluations. Certification, complexity, cost, and usability of existing evaluation models were key considerations. The selected evaluation method was derived to allow the repository evaluation process to be transparent, understandable, and defensible; factors that are critical for judging competing, internal units. Implementing the chosen evaluation criteria involved establishing a cross-agency, multi-disciplinary team that interfaced across the organization.

  7. Developing criteria to establish Trusted Digital Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper details the drivers, methods, and outcomes of the U.S. Geological Survey’s quest to establish criteria by which to judge its own digital preservation resources as Trusted Digital Repositories. Drivers included recent U.S. legislation focused on data and asset management conducted by federal agencies spending $100M USD or more annually on research activities. The methods entailed seeking existing evaluation criteria from national and international organizations such as International Standards Organization (ISO), U.S. Library of Congress, and Data Seal of Approval upon which to model USGS repository evaluations. Certification, complexity, cost, and usability of existing evaluation models were key considerations. The selected evaluation method was derived to allow the repository evaluation process to be transparent, understandable, and defensible; factors that are critical for judging competing, internal units. Implementing the chosen evaluation criteria involved establishing a cross-agency, multi-disciplinary team that interfaced across the organization. 

  8. Investigative study of standards for digital repositories and related services

    CERN Document Server

    Foulonneau, Muriel; Badolato, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and applications in the domain of digital repositories. Special attention is being paid to the interoperability of repositories to enhance the exchange of data in repositories. It aims to stimulate discussion about these topics and supports initiatives for the integration of and, where needed, development of

  9. Summary of four release consequence analyses for hypothetical nuclear waste repositories in salt and granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.

    1980-12-01

    Release consequence methology developed under the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) program has now been applied to four hypothetical repository sites. This paper summarizes the results of these four studies in order to demonstrate that the far-field methodology developed under the AEGIS program offers a practical approach to the post-closure safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories sited in deep continental geologic formations. The four studies are briefly described and compared according to the following general categories: physical description of the repository (size, inventory, emplacement depth); geologic and hydrologic description of the site and the conceptual hydrologic model for the site; description of release scenario; hydrologic model implementation and results; engineered barriers and leach rate modeling; transport model implementation and results; and dose model implementation and results. These studies indicate the following: numerical modeling is a practical approach to post-closure safety assessment analysis for nuclear waste repositories; near-field modeling capability needs improvement to permit assessment of the consequences of human intrusion and pumping well scenarios; engineered barrier systems can be useful in mitigating consequences for postulated release scenarios that short-circuit the geohydrologic system; geohydrologic systems separating a repository from the natural biosphere discharge sites act to mitigate the consequences of postulated breaches in containment; and engineered barriers of types other than the containment or absorptive type may be useful.

  10. Radiation chemical effects in the near-field environment of a radwaste repository: {gamma} radiolysis in 6 molal NaCl solutions; Strahlenchemische Effekte im Endlagernahbereich: {gamma}-Radiolyse in 6 molarer NaCl-Loesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelm, M.; Bohnert, E.

    1997-12-01

    The radiation emitted from high-level radioactive wastes in a radwaste repository causes radiolysis products to be formed in brines resulting from water intrusion. The products may alter via redox and complexing reactions the mobilisation processes of radionuclides. The major products of {gamma} radiolysis determined in 6 molal NaCl solution as a function of radiation dose are hydrogen, oxygen, and chlorate. Hypochlorite and chlorite were found to have concentrations in the {mu}Mol/kg range. There was no dependence on dose rate. For the experiments under atmospheric pressure, which allowed radiolytic gas to escape from the solution, the G values measured are 0.46 (H{sub 2}), 0.16 (O{sub 2}), and 0.074 (ClO{sub 3}). In pressurized experiments, with radiolytic gas remaining contained in the solution, the radiolytic effect was much smaller. After approx. 100 days, at a dose of about 2 MGy, gas equilibrium concentrations of some mMol/kg were measured. The results can be qualitatively described by a system of parallel running reaction rate equations. As to quantitative analysis, the reaction model needs to be refined. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Strahlung von hochradioaktiven Abfaellen in einem Endlager im Salz hat zur Folge, dass bei einem Wasserzutritt in den entstehenden Laugen Radiolyseprodukte gebildet werden. Die Radiolyseprodukte koennen durch Redox- und Komplexierungsreaktionen die Mobilisierbarkeit von Radionukliden veraendern. Als Hauptprodukte der {gamma}-Radiolyse wurden in 6 molaler NaCl-Loesung Wasserstoff, Sauerstoff und Chlorat in Abhaengigkeit von der Dosis bestimmt. Hypochlorit und Chlorit erreichten nur Konzentrationen im {mu}Mol/kg-Bereich. Eine Dosisleistungsabhaengigkeit war nicht festzustellen. Bei den Experimenten unter Normaldruck, bei denen die Radiolysegase aus der Loesung entweichen konnten, betrugen die G-Werte 0.46 (H{sub 2}), 0,16 (O{sub 2}) und 0,074 (ClO{sub 3}{sup -}). Bei den Experimenten unter Druck wurden die Radiolysegase in Loesung

  11. Framework of collagen type I - vasoactive vessels structuring invariant geometric attractor in cancer tissues: insight into biological magnetic field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A Díaz

    Full Text Available In a previous research, we have described and documented self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal-like complex organizations (GTCHC in human pathological tissues. This article documents and gathers insights into the magnetic field in cancer tissues and also how it generates an invariant functional geometric attractor constituted for collider partners in their entangled environment. The need to identify this hierarquic attractor was born out of the concern to understand how the vascular net of these complexes are organized, and to determine if the spiral vascular subpatterns observed adjacent to GTCHC complexes and their assembly are interrelational. The study focuses on cancer tissues and all the macroscopic and microscopic material in which GTCHC complexes are identified, which have been overlooked so far, and are rigorously revised. This revision follows the same parameters that were established in the initial phase of the investigation, but with a new item: the visualization and documentation of external dorsal serous vascular bed areas in spatial correlation with the localization of GTCHC complexes inside the tumors. Following the standard of the electro-optical collision model, we were able to reproduce and replicate collider patterns, that is, pairs of left and right hand spin-spiraled subpatterns, associated with the orientation of the spinning process that can be an expansion or contraction disposition of light particles. Agreement between this model and tumor data is surprisingly close; electromagnetic spiral patterns generated were identical at the spiral vascular arrangement in connection with GTCHC complexes in malignant tumors. These findings suggest that the framework of collagen type 1 - vasoactive vessels that structure geometric attractors in cancer tissues with invariant morphology sets generate collider partners in their magnetic domain with opposite biological behavior. If these principles are incorporated

  12. Reexamination of the mean-field phase diagram of biaxial nematic liquid crystals: Insights from Monte Carlo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala Latha, B.; Jose, Regina; Murthy, K. P. N.; Sastry, V. S. S.

    2015-07-01

    Investigations of the phase diagram of biaxial liquid-crystal systems through analyses of general Hamiltonian models within the simplifications of mean-field theory (MFT), as well as by computer simulations based on microscopic models, are directed toward an appreciation of the role of the underlying molecular-level interactions to facilitate its spontaneous condensation into a nematic phase with biaxial symmetry. Continuing experimental challenges in realizing such a system unambiguously, despite encouraging predictions from MFT, for example, are requiring more versatile simulational methodologies capable of providing insights into possible hindering barriers within the system, typically gleaned through its free-energy dependences on relevant observables as the system is driven through the transitions. The recent paper from this group [Kamala Latha et al., Phys. Rev. E 89, 050501(R) (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.050501], summarizing the outcome of detailed Monte Carlo simulations carried out employing an entropic sampling technique, suggested a qualitative modification of the MFT phase diagram as the Hamiltonian is asymptotically driven toward the so-called partly repulsive regions. It was argued that the degree of (cross) coupling between the uniaxial and biaxial tensor components of neighboring molecules plays a crucial role in facilitating a ready condensation of the biaxial phase, suggesting that this could be a plausible factor in explaining the experimental difficulties. In this paper, we elaborate this point further, providing additional evidence from curious variations of free-energy profiles with respect to the relevant orientational order parameters, at different temperatures bracketing the phase transitions.

  13. Scientific basis for a safety case of deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseck, Ulrich; Becker, Dirk-Alexander; Brasser, Thomas [and others

    2012-11-15

    : - The current state-of-the-art in long-term safety assessment has been evaluated within a sub project of the Integration Group for the safety case (IGSC) of OECD/NEA. GRS has strongly contributed to this project called Methods for Safety Assessments (MeSA), by leading working groups and with contributions to selected chapters of the NEA state-of-the-art report. - As an outcome of the MeSA project it was decided to compile the status in the OECD member countries on the use of indicators complementary to dose and risk in the safety case. GRS played a leading role in drafting and finalizing a state-of-the-art report on indicators. Further the applicability of a specific set of indicators previously proposed in Germany was tested and evaluated for repositories in clay and rock salt formations. - GRS is involved in several international working groups to follow the state-of-the-art at the international level as well as to introduce results from German R and D into the international discussion. Important working groups are the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) of OECD/NEA with the Integration Group for the Safety Case, its subgroups Clay Club and Salt Club and correlated projects like the NEA sorption project. - The current literature dealing with the role of microbial processes related to repositories in clay formations has been compiled. The potential negative and positive impact of microbes on the long-term integrity of the repository system in clay has been qualitatively evaluated. - Radionuclide inventories of CSD-V containers received from reprocessing in LA Hague have been evaluated and an updated data set for long-term safety assessment is proposed. - The non-isothermal re-saturation of bentonite is investigated by specific laboratory experiments accompanied by modelling with the code VIPER. In addition the model was applied to lab and field experiments provided by the EBS task force and all results have been discussed in this international working group

  14. Siting Patterns of Nuclear Waste Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Shelley, Fred M.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an inventory of international radioactive waste-management policies and repository siting decisions for North America, Central and South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. This discussion stresses the important role of demographic, geologic, and political factors in siting decisions. (Author/BSR)

  15. Learning frameworks as an alternative to repositories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of ‘learning frameworks’. The purpose of the paper is to discuss and question collections of digital learning objects in large repositories and to argue for large learning frameworks which organise a number of thematically related digital learning materials. Whereas...

  16. Refactoring Process Models in Large Process Repositories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, B.; Reichert, M.U.

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of process-aware information systems (PAIS), large process model repositories have emerged. Over time respective models have to be re-aligned to the real-world business processes through customization or adaptation. This bears the risk that model redundancies are introdu

  17. Ontology-based Software Repository System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    and domains. Current State of the Art Improvements to the current state of the art for software reuse repositories are required ( Shiva & Shala, 2007...model of architecture. IEEE Software, 12(6), 42-50. Object Management Group. (2005). Reusable asset specification (Vers. 2.2). Shiva , S., & Shala

  18. Two-dimensional magma-repository interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, O.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional simulations of magma-repository interactions reveal that the three phases --a shock tube, shock reflection and amplification, and shock attenuation and decay phase-- in a one-dimensional flow tube model have a precursor. This newly identified phase ``zero'' consists of the impact of

  19. Structuring and presenting annotated media repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutledge, L.; Ossenbruggen, J.R. van; Hardman, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Semantic Web envisions a Web that is both human readable and machine processible. In practice, however, there is still a large conceptual gap between annotated content repositories on the one hand, and coherent, human readable Web pages on the other. To bridge this conceptual gap, one needs to s

  20. Sharing Data between LSDBs and Central Repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dunnen, Johan T.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Andersen, Paal S.; Vihinen, Mauno; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Rossetti, Sandro; Talbot, C. Conover; Hardison, Ross C.; Povey, Sue; Cotton, Richard G. H.

    2009-01-01

    Several Locus-Specific DataBases (LSDBs) have recently been approached by larger, more general data repositories (including NCBI and UCSC) with the request to share the DNA variant data they have collected. Within the Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) a document was generated summarizing the iss

  1. Refactoring Process Models in Large Process Repositories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, B.; Reichert, M.U.

    With the increasing adoption of process-aware information systems (PAIS), large process model repositories have emerged. Over time respective models have to be re-aligned to the real-world business processes through customization or adaptation. This bears the risk that model redundancies are

  2. Astromaterials Curation Digital Repository: Data Availability and New Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, N. S.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2017-06-01

    The Astromaterials Curation office maintains a public digital repository containing sample data and other digital resources. The purpose of this data repository, its features, available data products, and recent enhancements will be discussed.

  3. Interactive tag cloud visualization of software version control repositories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greene, GJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Visualization of Software: Version Control Repositories Gillian J. Greene and Bernd Fischer Abstract: Version control repositories contain a wealth of implicit information that can be used to answer many questions about a project’s development process...

  4. Open DOAR the Directory of Open Access Repositories

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The last year has seen wide-spread growth in the idea of using open access repositories as a part of a research institution's accepted infrastructure. Policy development from institutions and funding bodies has also supported the growth of the repository network. The next stage of expansion will be in the provision of services and cross-repository facilities and resources. Of course, it is hoped that these will then establish a feed-back loop to encourage repository population and further repository establishment, as the potential of open access to research materials is realised. The growth of repositories has been organic, with a variety of different repositories based in departments, institutions, funding agencies or subject communities, with a range of content, both in type and subject. Existing repositories are expanding their holdings, from eprints to associated research data-sets, or with learning objects and multimedia material. This presentation will look at the development of the Directory of Open Ac...

  5. Visual querying and analysis of large software repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voinea, Lucian; Telea, Alexandru

    2009-01-01

    We present a software framework for mining software repositories. Our extensible framework enables the integration of data extraction from repositories with data analysis and interactive visualization. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by presenting several case studies performed on

  6. The repository ecology an approach to understanding repository and service interactions

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Hagemann, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    An increasing number of university institutions and other organisations are deciding to deploy repositories and a growing number of formal and informal distributed services are supporting or capitalising on the information these repositories provide. Despite reasonably well understood technical architectures, early majority adopters may struggle to articulate their place within the actualities of a wider information environment. The idea of a repository ecology provides developers and administrators with a useful way of articulating and analysing their place in the information environment, and the technical and organisational interactions they have, or are developing, with other parts of such an environment. This presentation will provide an overview of the concept of a repository ecology and examine some examples from the domains of scholarly communications and elearning.

  7. The repository ecology: an approach to understanding repository and service interactions

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    An increasing number of university institutions and other organisations are deciding to deploy repositories and a growing number of formal and informal distributed services are supporting or capitalising on the information these repositories provide. Despite reasonably well understood technical architectures, early majority adopters may struggle to articulate their place within the actualities of a wider information environment. The idea of a repository ecology provides developers and administrators with a useful way of articulating and analysing their place in the information environment, and the technical and organisational interactions they have, or are developing, with other parts of such an environment. This presentation will provide an overview of the concept of a repository ecology and examine some examples from the domains of scholarly communications and elearning. View John Robertson's biography

  8. The cathedral and the bazaar of e-repository development: encouraging community engagement with moving pictures and sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Wong

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an insight into the development, use and governance of e-repositories for learning and teaching, illustrated by Eric Raymond's bazaar and cathedral analogies and by a comparison of collection strategies that focus on content coverage or on the needs of users. It addresses in particular the processes that encourage and achieve community engagement. This insight is illustrated by one particular e-repository, the Education Media On-Line (EMOL service. This paper draws analogies between the bazaar approach for open source software development and its possibilities for developing e-repositories for learning and teaching. It suggests in particular that the development, use and evaluation of online moving pictures and sound objects for learning and teaching can benefit greatly from the community engagement lessons provided by the development, use and evaluation of open source software. Such lessons can be underpinned by experience in the area of learning resource collections, where repositories have been classified as ‘collections-based' or ‘user-based'. Lessons from the open source movement may inform the development of e-repositories such as EMOL in the future.

  9. 2{sup nd} Essen specialized discussions about repository mining; 2. Essener Fachgespraech Endlagerbergbau (28. Februar 2013 im Technologiepark Essen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinartz, Jerome [atw (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    The final storage of nuclear waste in Germany right now is more a political and societal than technical process. To promote the exchange of experience in the sophisticated field of mining technology, and put the focus back on finding a repository solution, the DMT in cooperation with GNS and DBE Technology initiated the Essen Specialized Discussions about Repository Mining. On February 28, more than 120 participants sought information about recent developments, exchanged experience, and maintained contacts. (orig.)

  10. Institutional Repositories as Infrastructures for Long-Term Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Helena; Gamalielsson, Jonas; Lundell, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The study describes the conditions for long-term preservation of the content of the institutional repositories of Swedish higher education institutions based on an investigation of how deposited files are managed with regards to file format and how representatives of the repositories describe the functions of the repositories.…

  11. The Use of Digital Repositories for Enhancing Teacher Pedagogical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anat; Kalimi, Sharon; Nachmias, Rafi

    2013-01-01

    This research examines the usage of local learning material repositories at school, as well as related teachers' attitudes and training. The study investigates the use of these repositories for enhancing teacher performance and assesses whether the assimilation of the local repositories increases their usage of and contribution to by teachers. One…

  12. Investigative study of standards for Digital Repositories and related services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foulonneau, Muriel; André, Francis

    2007-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and applic

  13. Institutional Repositories in Indian Universities and Research Institutes: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, M.; Kemparaju, T. D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study of the institutional repositories (IRs) in use in Indian universities and research institutes. Design/methodology/approach: Repositories in various institutions in India were accessed and described in a standardised way. Findings: The 20 repositories studied covered collections of diverse…

  14. Repositories for Research: Southampton's Evolving Role in the Knowledge Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Pauline; Hey, Jessie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an overview of how open access (OA) repositories have grown to take a premier place in the e-research knowledge cycle and offer Southampton's route from project to sustainable institutional repository. Design/methodology/approach: The evolution of institutional repositories and OA is outlined raising questions of multiplicity…

  15. Albedo Neutron Dosimetry in a Deep Geological Disposal Repository for High-Level Nuclear Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bo; Becker, Frank

    2016-06-24

    Albedo neutron dosemeter is the German official personal neutron dosemeter in mixed radiation fields where neutrons contribute to personal dose. In deep geological repositories for high-level nuclear waste, where neutrons can dominate the radiation field, it is of interest to investigate the performance of albedo neutron dosemeter in such facilities. In this study, the deep geological repository is represented by a shielding cask loaded with spent nuclear fuel placed inside a rock salt emplacement drift. Due to the backscattering of neutrons in the drift, issues concerning calibration of the dosemeter arise. Field-specific calibration of the albedo neutron dosemeter was hence performed with Monte Carlo simulations. In order to assess the applicability of the albedo neutron dosemeter in a deep geological repository over a long time scale, spent nuclear fuel with different ages of 50, 100 and 500 years were investigated. It was found out, that the neutron radiation field in a deep geological repository can be assigned to the application area 'N1' of the albedo neutron dosemeter, which is typical in reactors and accelerators with heavy shielding.

  16. Scientific basis for a safety case of deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseck, Ulrich; Becker, Dirk-Alexander; Brasser, Thomas [and others

    2012-11-15

    : - The current state-of-the-art in long-term safety assessment has been evaluated within a sub project of the Integration Group for the safety case (IGSC) of OECD/NEA. GRS has strongly contributed to this project called Methods for Safety Assessments (MeSA), by leading working groups and with contributions to selected chapters of the NEA state-of-the-art report. - As an outcome of the MeSA project it was decided to compile the status in the OECD member countries on the use of indicators complementary to dose and risk in the safety case. GRS played a leading role in drafting and finalizing a state-of-the-art report on indicators. Further the applicability of a specific set of indicators previously proposed in Germany was tested and evaluated for repositories in clay and rock salt formations. - GRS is involved in several international working groups to follow the state-of-the-art at the international level as well as to introduce results from German R and D into the international discussion. Important working groups are the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) of OECD/NEA with the Integration Group for the Safety Case, its subgroups Clay Club and Salt Club and correlated projects like the NEA sorption project. - The current literature dealing with the role of microbial processes related to repositories in clay formations has been compiled. The potential negative and positive impact of microbes on the long-term integrity of the repository system in clay has been qualitatively evaluated. - Radionuclide inventories of CSD-V containers received from reprocessing in LA Hague have been evaluated and an updated data set for long-term safety assessment is proposed. - The non-isothermal re-saturation of bentonite is investigated by specific laboratory experiments accompanied by modelling with the code VIPER. In addition the model was applied to lab and field experiments provided by the EBS task force and all results have been discussed in this international working group

  17. Exploring the Role of Network Effects in IT Implementation: The Case of Knowledge Repositories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2004-01-01

    of network effects in relation to other technologies and organizational contexts. It underscores the need to be aware of – and try to manage – network effects when implementing knowledge repositories and other "networked" technologies. By and large, IS researchers have overlooked the role of network effects......This paper seeks to analyze the role of network effects in relation to the adoption and use of systems for knowledge sharing in organizations and draws on recent developments within network economics to outline a theoretical perspective on the implementation of knowledge repositories...... and communication technologies are introduced. The analysis of the field study data shows that knowledge repositories exhibit strong network effects, which can complicate the implementation process in multiple ways. The research is based on a single, in-depth case study. Future research should study the role...

  18. Design aspects of the alpha repository. II. Conceptual layouts of underground storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grams, W.H.

    1975-06-30

    Five conceptual repository layouts are presented: linear repository, 1 panel; bow tie repository, 2 panels; maltese cross repository, 4 panels; snowflake repository; 5 panels, and sash window repository, 8 panels. The layouts are compared with respect to excavation requirements, haulage distances, ventilation flow path designs, and safety features. (LK)

  19. Numerical modeling capabilities to predict repository performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This report presents a summary of current numerical modeling capabilities that are applicable to the design and performance evaluation of underground repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. The report includes codes that are available in-house, within Golder Associates and Lawrence Livermore Laboratories; as well as those that are generally available within the industry and universities. The first listing of programs are in-house codes in the subject areas of hydrology, solute transport, thermal and mechanical stress analysis, and structural geology. The second listing of programs are divided by subject into the following categories: site selection, structural geology, mine structural design, mine ventilation, hydrology, and mine design/construction/operation. These programs are not specifically designed for use in the design and evaluation of an underground repository for nuclear waste; but several or most of them may be so used.

  20. Managing an Institutional Repository with CDS Invenio

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, N; Simko, T

    2007-01-01

    CERN has long been committed to the free dissemination of scientific research results and theories. Towards this end, CERN's own institutional repository, the CERN Document Server (CDS) offers access to CERN works and to all related scholarly literature in the HEP domain. Hosting over 500 document collections containing more than 900,000 records, CDS provides access to anything from preprints and articles, to multimedia information such as photographs, movies, posters and brochures. The software that powers this service, CDS Invenio, is distributed freely under the GNU GPL and is currently used in approximately 15 institutions worldwide. In this paper, we discuss the use of CDS Invenio to manage a repository of scientific literature. We outline some of the issues faced during the lifecycle of a document from acquisition, processing and indexing to dissemination. In particular, we focus on the features and technology developed to meet the complexities of managing scientific information in the LHC era of large ...

  1. Bedded-salt repository analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiffre, M.S.; Kaplan, M.F.; Ensminger, D.A.; Oston, S.G.; Nalbandian, J.Y.

    1980-03-31

    This report contains a description of an analysis of generic nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. This analysis was performed by TASC for inclusion in a major Lawrence Livermore Laboratory report to NRC; this report therefore should be viewed as providing more complete and detailed information about this analysis than was possible to include in the LLL report. The analysis is performed with the NUTRAN computer codes which are described in the report. The model to be analyzed is defined, and the results of a series of possible waste migration scenarios are presented. Several of these scenarios are used as the basis for a sensitivity analysis, and an uncertainty analysis utilizing Monte Carlo techniques is also performed. A new method for defining the consequences to users of a well drilled near the repository is also described, and results are presented based on two of the waste migration scenarios.

  2. Fukushima Daiichi Information Repository FY13 Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Phelan, Cherie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schwieder, Dave [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in Japan is one of the most serious in commercial nuclear power plant operating history. Much will be learned that may be applicable to the U.S. reactor fleet, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and supporting systems, and the international reactor fleet. For example, lessons from Fukushima Daiichi may be applied to emergency response planning, reactor operator training, accident scenario modeling, human factors engineering, radiation protection, and accident mitigation; as well as influence U.S. policies towards the nuclear fuel cycle including power generation, and spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and disposal. This document describes the database used to establish a centralized information repository to store and manage the Fukushima data that has been gathered. The data is stored in a secured (password protected and encrypted) repository that is searchable and available to researchers at diverse locations.

  3. Digital Repository of Research Institutes – RCIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kaczyńska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the project of Digital Repository of Scientific Institutes RCIN and presents opportunities for promoting science by digitization and sharing them on the Internet. The Repository has been created by the 16 Scientific Institutes in Warsaw, Krakow and Bialowieza to modernize the science-research and IT infrastructure, to increase digital resources of mathematical, technical, natural and medical sciences, and to popularize and promote of Polish science. That dissemination and popularization of science affects its development and competitiveness in the international arena and it allows transfer of research results to the economy. In addition, Institutes of RCIN providing contemporary and archival materials of science, support the intellectual capital of Polish science and raise awareness of professional literature of search on the Internet. Project RCIN is implemented in the years 2010–2014 and financing is provided by the funds of the European Fund of Regional Development.

  4. Institutional Repositories in India: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary study investigates various aspects of institutional repositories (IR’s) developed in India. The present study has identified the existence of 16 functional IRs some of which were not registered in any of the directories such as ROAR, Open DOAR. The study explores the timeline involved in planning, pilot testing, to system implementation of IR, exploratory activities conducted before implementing IR, its anticipated benefits.

  5. The once & future repository, HKU's Scholars Hub

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, DT; Castro, P.; Bollini, A; Mennielli, M

    2015-01-01

    The HKU Scholars Hub (the Hub) began service as a traditional institutional repository of The University of Hong Kong (HKU). However this format was not compelling to HKU researchers. Fortunately a subsequent reformation of the HKU statement on university mission and vision infused new life and purpose into the project. Over the next five years, in partnership with the Italian University Consortium, Cineca, the HKU Libraries transformed the Hub from an IR to a Current Research Information ...

  6. Repository-based software engineering program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James

    1992-01-01

    The activities performed during September 1992 in support of Tasks 01 and 02 of the Repository-Based Software Engineering Program are outlined. The recommendations and implementation strategy defined at the September 9-10 meeting of the Reuse Acquisition Action Team (RAAT) are attached along with the viewgraphs and reference information presented at the Institute for Defense Analyses brief on legal and patent issues related to software reuse.

  7. Dissertations Repository System Using Context Module

    CERN Document Server

    Hmood, Ali K; Alanazi, Hamdan O; Alnaqeib, Rami; Al-Nabhani, Yahya

    2010-01-01

    Without a doubt, the electronic learning makes education quite flexible. Nowadays, all organizations and institutions are trying to avoid Monotony and the delay and inertia. As well the universities should be improving their systems continually to achieve success. Whereas, the students need to access the dissertations in the library. In this paper we will present Dissertations Repository System Using Context Module to allow the students to benefit the dissertations which is in the library flexibly.

  8. Salt repository project closeout status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Switching activation barriers: new insights in E-field driven processes at the interface: perspectives in physical chemistry and catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susarrey Arce, A.

    2014-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aimed to explore new concepts in catalysis with the use of a homemade ATR-IR silicon-based microreactor. During this journey we have performed multidisciplinary research at the interface between physics and chemistry. New insights in the fabrication, integration

  10. Numerical study of the thm effects on the near-field safety of a hypothetical nuclear waste repository - bmt1 of the decovalex iii project. part 1: conceptualization and characterization of the problems and summary of results

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Geological disposal of the spent nuclear fuel uses often the concept of multiple barrier systems. In order to predict the performance of these barriers, mathematical models have been developed, verified and validated against analytical solutions, laboratory tests and field experiments within the international DECOVALEX III project. These models in general consider the full coupling of thermal (T), hydraulic (H) and mechanical (M) processes that would prevail in the geological media aroun...

  11. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-09-17

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I&C) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I&C systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures that

  12. A Review of Beneficial Effects of Reducing Environment at the Near-Field of KBS-3 Repository%综述KBS-3处置库近场还原性环境对处置安全的裨益(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔大庆

    2011-01-01

    核能为减小温室气体排放引起的气候变化的风险起到了重要的不可替代的作用,但是自福岛核电站事故以来公众对核能安全越来越关注。为了消除人们的忧虑,确保核能的持续发展,国际社会将加强旨在提高整个核燃料循环各个领域安全的研究。核废物,特别是高水平放射性废物的处置安全,同核电反应堆运行安全一样是核能安全的一个重要环节。乏燃料占世界高放废物中的大部分,其中所含放射性核素需要与世隔绝十万年才能衰变到无害水平。因为很难预知此时段环境的变化,评价乏燃料中放射性核素从深地层处置库通过地质圈和生物圈向人类环境的迁移将具有很大的不%The recent research activities,i.e.relevant publications and the author's experiments on chemical behaviors of spent nuclear fuel(SNF) and canister materials at near-field of KBS-3 deep geological repository were reviewed.The advantages of reductive substances at KBS-3 repository to the spent fuel disposal safety were discussed.Using data from literatures and experiments,the author demonstrated the blocking effect of hydrogen generated for iron canister corrosion on SNF dissolution,and discussed the reaction mechanism.It is also proved that the γ radiation expected at the early stage of disposal and micro mole level oxidative species in water solution can only slightly enhance the corrosion rate of copper canister to μm/y level,still 103 times slower than that at air saturated conditions.During a long period of time after copper canister leaks,under combined effects of iron canister material,hydrogen and fission product alloy particle catalysts,SNF dissolution can be depressed or blocked,and most radiotoxic multivalent radionuclides U,Np,Tc and Se released from SNF can be reduced and precipitated.This paper supplies scientific bases for the sitting of a SNF repository at a stable reducing area,and designing of canisters

  13. jPOSTrepo: an international standard data repository for proteomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Shujiro; Watanabe, Yu; Moriya, Yuki; Kawano, Shin; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Matsumoto, Masaki; Takami, Tomoyo; Kobayashi, Daiki; Araki, Norie; Yoshizawa, Akiyasu C.; Tabata, Tsuyoshi; Sugiyama, Naoyuki; Goto, Susumu; Ishihama, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Major advancements have recently been made in mass spectrometry-based proteomics, yielding an increasing number of datasets from various proteomics projects worldwide. In order to facilitate the sharing and reuse of promising datasets, it is important to construct appropriate, high-quality public data repositories. jPOSTrepo (https://repository.jpostdb.org/) has successfully implemented several unique features, including high-speed file uploading, flexible file management and easy-to-use interfaces. This repository has been launched as a public repository containing various proteomic datasets and is available for researchers worldwide. In addition, our repository has joined the ProteomeXchange consortium, which includes the most popular public repositories such as PRIDE in Europe for MS/MS datasets and PASSEL for SRM datasets in the USA. Later MassIVE was introduced in the USA and accepted into the ProteomeXchange, as was our repository in July 2016, providing important datasets from Asia/Oceania. Accordingly, this repository thus contributes to a global alliance to share and store all datasets from a wide variety of proteomics experiments. Thus, the repository is expected to become a major repository, particularly for data collected in the Asia/Oceania region. PMID:27899654

  14. New Roles, New Responsibilities: Examining Training Needs of Repository Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Simons

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Institutional repositories play a critical role in the research lifecycle. Funding agencies are increasingly seeking an improved return on their investment in research. Repositories facilitate this process by providing storage of, and access to, institutional research outputs and, more recently, research data. While repositories are generally managed within the academic library, repository staff require different skills and knowledge compared with traditional library roles. This study reports on a survey of Australasian institutional repository staff to identify skills and knowledge sets. METHODS Institutional repository staff working at universities in Australia and New Zealand were invited to participate in an online survey which incorporated both open and closed-ended question types. RESULTS The survey found significant gaps in the current provision of formal training and coursework related to institutional repositories, which echoed findings in the United Kingdom, Italy, and the United States. DISCUSSION There is clearly a need for more and varied training opportunities for repository professionals. Repository work requires a specific set of skills that can be difficult to find and institutions will benefit from investing in training and ongoing development opportunities for repository staff. CONCLUSION The data from this study could be used to facilitate staff recruitment, development, training, and retention strategies.

  15. Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Visualization of information: a proposal to improve the search and access to digital resources in repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Alonso Gaona García

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE Presently, the most notable challenges associated with repositories in resolving problems of searches of digital resources, lie in providing an understanding of resource classification according to a knowledge representation scheme and the relationship between them. However, one of the areas with very little research in the field is the study of visual search interfaces that provide access to relevant materials in digital repositories; more specifically, in the access of digital resources according to areas and sub-areas of a particular knowledge domain through a taxonomy classification. In this article, we focus in proposing a best practice for the search and access to relevant digital resources in repositories through visualization techniques. The article presents a prototype tool as one possible approach to facilitate searches and access to digital resources. Finally, we present the conclusions and future work in the field in order to improve access to relevant materials in digital repositories.

  17. A Natural Analogue for Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical Coupled Processes at the Proposed Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Carey; Gordon Keating; Peter C. Lichtner

    1999-08-01

    Dike and sill complexes that intruded tuffaceous host rocks above the water table are suggested as natural analogues for thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) processes at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Scoping thermal-hydrologic calculations of temperature and saturation profiles surrounding a 30-50 m wide intrusion suggest that boiling conditions could be sustained at distances of tens of meters from the intrusion for several thousand years. This time scale for persistence of boiling is similar to that expected for the Yucca Mountain repository with moderate heat loading. By studying the hydrothermal alteration of the tuff host rocks surrounding the intrusions, insight and relevant data can be obtained that apply directly to the Yucca Mountain repository and can shed light on the extent and type of alteration that should be expected. Such data are needed to bound and constrain model parameters used in THC simulations of the effect of heat produced by the waste on the host rock and to provide a firm foundation for assessing overall repository performance. One example of a possible natural analogue for the repository is the Paiute Ridge intrusive complex located on the northeastern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The complex consists of dikes and sills intruded into a partially saturated tuffaceous host rock that has stratigraphic sequences that correlate with those found at Yucca Mountain. The intrusions were emplaced at a depth of several hundred meters below the surface, similar to the depth of the proposed repository. The tuffaceous host rock surrounding the intrusions is hydrothermally altered to varying extents depending on the distance from the intrusions. The Paiute Ridge intrusive complex thus appears to be an ideal natural analogue of THC coupled processes associated with the Yucca Mountain repository. It could provide much needed physical and chemical data for understanding the influence of heat

  18. Elements of Resource Representation in Institutional Repositories: a Bibliographic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel Texier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on identifying how the literature studies the existing problems in the Resource Representation (RR of Institutional Repositories (IR. RR is a process of recording in a persistent manner a set of data (metadata as a synthesis and replacement of the "real" object, to allow its identification, retrieval and dissemination. RR is defined by certain elements: resources, metadata schema, storage and cataloging. On the other hand, IRs are based on functional processes according to the material that is deposited and the ISO 14.721 standard: ingest, storage, cataloging,indexing, search engine and browsing. The results of this review show that identifying the problems found in these elements and functional processes is not a subject of study for the researchers, which leads to a vacant area in this field, and in this way to solve some of the problems present in the RI, from the point of view of functional elements and processes.

  19. Russian Geologic Repository Technical Papers and Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L

    2002-02-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been actively and continuously engaged in Russian geologic disposal activities since 1995. The first joint US-Russian meeting on Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium was held in January 1995 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The meeting resulted in the appointment of Dr. L. J. Jardine from LLNL and Dr. T. A. Gupalo from the All-Russian Research and Design Institute of Production Engineering (VNIPIPT) as the US-Russian Federation (RF) joint co-chairs for geologic disposal of plutonium-containing materials, respectively. The initial joint studies focused on the geologic disposal of plutonium-containing materials and immobilized plutonium waste forms. These studies started in 1995, and continue in 2002. The first joint work of LLNL and VNIPIPT was documented in the October 1996 Paris P8 Nuclear Experts Meeting [1]. In summary, LLNL has been actively and continuously involved in various ways since 1995 in developing and participating in the current Russian geologic disposal program activities near the Mayak and MCC K-26 sites. Figure 1 illustrates how these various LLNL activities have been integrated, coordinated, and focused on developing geologic disposal in Russia. The various LLNL contracts are shown in the figure with the specific LLNL contract number. Reference 13 provides a summary of the status in 2000 of the past Russian repository program activities for the K-26 and Mayak sites. Because of this unique continuous and direct participation in the RF geologic disposal program activities, LLNL has either obtained or generated numerous technical papers and reports documenting various aspects of the RF geologic repository activities for the two sites near the Minatom industrial sites at Mayak and K-26. As a result, LLNL decided to collect these unique documents into one referenceable set and generated this report. This report collects these technical papers, technical reports, plans, and proposals for

  20. The French Geological Repository Project Cigeo - 12023

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, Alain; Labalette, Thibaud; Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Ouzounian, Gerald [ANDRA, Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2012-07-01

    The French Agency for Radioactive Waste Management, ANDRA, was launched by law in 1991 to perform and develop the research programme for managing high level and intermediate level long-lived radioactive waste generated by the French nuclear fleet. After a 15-year intensive research programme, including the study of alternative solutions, an overall review and assessment of the results was organized, including a national public debate. As a result, the Parliament passed a Planning Act on radioactive waste management in 2006. Commissioning of a geological repository by 2025 was one of the most important decisions taken at that time. To reach this goal, a license application must be submitted and reviewed by the competent authorities by 2015. A detailed review and consultation process is, as well, defined in the Planning Act. Beside the legal framework the project needs to progress on two fronts. The first one is on siting. A significant milestone was reached in 2009 with the definition of a defined area to locate the underground repository facilities. This area was approved in March 2010 by the Government, after having collected the opinions and positions of all the interested parties, at both National and local levels. A new phase of dialogue with local players began to refine the implementation scenarios of surface facilities. The final site selection will be approved after a public debate planned for 2013. The second one is the industrial organization, planning and costing. The industrial project of this geological repository was called Cigeo (Centre Industriel de Stockage Geologique). Given the amount of work to be done to comply with the given time framework, a detailed organization with well-defined milestones must be set-up. Cigeo will be a specific nuclear facility, built and operated underground for over a hundred years. The consequence of this long duration is that the development of the repository facilities will take place in successive operational phases

  1. Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. M. Curry

    2001-01-30

    The primary objective of the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (PDD) is to allocate the functions, requirements, and assumptions to the systems at Level 5 of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) architecture identified in Section 4. It provides traceability of the requirements to those contained in Section 3 of the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Requirements Document'' (MGR RD) (YMP 2000a) and other higher-level requirements documents. In addition, the PDD allocates design related assumptions to work products of non-design organizations. The document provides Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) technical requirements in support of design and performance assessment in preparing for the Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA) milestones. The technical requirements documented in the PDD are to be captured in the System Description Documents (SDDs) which address each of the systems at Level 5 of the CRWMS architecture. The design engineers obtain the technical requirements from the SDDs and by reference from the SDDs to the PDD. The design organizations and other organizations will obtain design related assumptions directly from the PDD. These organizations may establish additional assumptions for their individual activities, but such assumptions are not to conflict with the assumptions in the PDD. The PDD will serve as the primary link between the technical requirements captured in the SDDs and the design requirements captured in US Department of Energy (DOE) documents. The approved PDD is placed under Level 3 baseline control by the CRWMS Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) and the following portions of the PDD constitute the Technical Design Baseline for the MGR: the design characteristics listed in Table 1-1, the MGR Architecture (Section 4.1), the Technical Requirements (Section 5), and the Controlled Project Assumptions (Section 6).

  2. Environmental Degradation of Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories Engineered Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B

    2006-12-24

    Several countries are considering geological repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. Most of the environments for these repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, copper, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  3. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.B. Rebak

    2006-08-28

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  4. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B

    2006-06-01

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  5. Status of Proposed Repository for Latin-American Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2004-10-04

    This report compiles preliminary information that supports the premise that a repository is needed in Latin America and analyzes the nuclear situation (mainly in Argentina and Brazil) in terms of nuclear capabilities, inventories, and regional spent-fuel repositories. The report is based on several sources and summarizes (1) the nuclear capabilities in Latin America and establishes the framework for the need of a permanent repository, (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approach for a regional spent-fuel repository and describes the support that international institutions are lending to this issue, (3) the current situation in Argentina in order to analyze the Argentinean willingness to find a location for a deep geological repository, and (4) the issues involved in selecting a location for the repository and identifies a potential location. This report then draws conclusions based on an analysis of this information. The focus of this report is mainly on spent fuel and does not elaborate on other radiological waste sources.

  6. Microbial processes in a clay repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canniere, Pierre de [Federal Agency of Nuclear Control (FANC), Brussels (Belgium); Meleshyn, Artur [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The safety of a deep geologic repository (DGR) for nuclear waste must be ensured for geological times exceeding human imagination taking into account large uncertainties. The long-term effects of complex biogeochemical processes potentially affecting the integrity and the long-term safety of engineered barriers might still be unknown. The aim of this presentation is to give a general overview of some microbial processes which have contributed to shape the Earth since probably billions of years and whose unexpected consequences for nuclear waste disposal should be appropriately tackled. (orig.)

  7. Un repository semantico per la Special Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Benigno

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La ricerca nella mole sconfinata di informazioni e risorse disponibili in rete rappresenta sicuramente un problema che oggi viene riconosciuto come sovraccarico informativo . Una possibile soluzione arriva dalle tecnologie di knowledge e dalla semantica. Nell’ambito del presente contributo verrà descritta la metodologia per lo sviluppo dello user modelling finalizzato a descrivere il profilo e il contesto di riferimento degli utenti nell’utilizzo di un repository semantico sviluppato per la Special Education, il Knowledge Hub (KH. In relazione al KH verranno descritte le principali funzionalità e le tipologie di risorse presenti.

  8. A Framework for Integrating Oceanographic Data Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozell, E.; Maffei, A. R.; Beaulieu, S. E.; Fox, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    Oceanographic research covers a broad range of science domains and requires a tremendous amount of cross-disciplinary collaboration. Advances in cyberinfrastructure are making it easier to share data across disciplines through the use of web services and community vocabularies. Best practices in the design of web services and vocabularies to support interoperability amongst science data repositories are only starting to emerge. Strategic design decisions in these areas are crucial to the creation of end-user data and application integration tools. We present S2S, a novel framework for deploying customizable user interfaces to support the search and analysis of data from multiple repositories. Our research methods follow the Semantic Web methodology and technology development process developed by Fox et al. This methodology stresses the importance of close scientist-technologist interactions when developing scientific use cases, keeping the project well scoped and ensuring the result meets a real scientific need. The S2S framework motivates the development of standardized web services with well-described parameters, as well as the integration of existing web services and applications in the search and analysis of data. S2S also encourages the use and development of community vocabularies and ontologies to support federated search and reduce the amount of domain expertise required in the data discovery process. S2S utilizes the Web Ontology Language (OWL) to describe the components of the framework, including web service parameters, and OpenSearch as a standard description for web services, particularly search services for oceanographic data repositories. We have created search services for an oceanographic metadata database, a large set of quality-controlled ocean profile measurements, and a biogeographic search service. S2S provides an application programming interface (API) that can be used to generate custom user interfaces, supporting data and application

  9. Digital Archive Policies and Trusted Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKenzie Smith

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The MIT Libraries, the San Diego Supercomputer Center, and the University of California San Diego Libraries are conducting the PLEDGE Project to determine the set of policies that affect operational digital preservation archives and to develop standardized means of recording and enforcing them using rules engines. This has the potential to allow for automated assessment of “trustworthiness” of digital preservation archives. We are also evaluating the completeness of other efforts to define policies for digital preservation such as the RLG/NARA Trusted Digital Repository checklist and the PREMIS metadata schema. We present our results to date.

  10. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  11. Cross Institutional Cooperation on a Shared Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2010-01-01

    for systematically analysing the technical and organizational requirements of institutions for a remote bit repository. Instead of viewing a bit repository simply as Archival Storage for the institutions’ repositories, we argue for viewing it as consisting of a subset of functions from all entities defined...... architecture and its strengths in being flexible in order to offer differentiated services with respect to, among other things, bit safety and cost. Furthermore, the challenges in formulating various aspects, such as risk requirements, are described....

  12. DAR: A Modern Institutional Repository with a Scalability Twist

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail, Youssef; Adly, Noha; Nagi, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Assets Repository (DAR) is an Institutional Repository developed at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina to manage the full lifecycle of a digital asset: its creation and ingestion, its metadata management, storage and archival in addition to the necessary mechanisms for publishing and dissemination. DAR was designed with a focus on integrating DAR with different sources of digital objects and metadata in addition to integration with applications built on top of the repository. As a modern...

  13. National Geoscience Data Repository System, Phase III: Implementation and Operation of the Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    American Geological Institute

    1999-11-09

    The NGDRS steering committee met at Unocal's offices on October 1, 1998 in Sugar Land, Texas to review and discuss issues of data transfer and the continued development of the Stapleton prospect for establishment of a national core repository. Company representatives reaffirmed their commitment to donate geoscience data to the NGDRS once appropriate facilities are available.

  14. Is There a Role for Research Students in an Institutional Repository? Some Repository Managers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickton, Margaret; McKnight, Cliff

    2007-01-01

    Although a number of studies have investigated the attitudes of published academic authors with respect to open access (OA) publishing and institutional repositories (IRs), none have considered the views of other institutional stakeholders. Research students, in particular, are a group that could make a major contribution to an IR, both currently…

  15. Use of One-On Analysis to Evaluate Total System Performance of the Proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.J. Saulnier, Jr.; K.P. Lee; S. Mehta; S.D. Sevougian; D. Kalinich; J.A. McNeish

    2002-09-12

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is currently evaluating the future performance of the proposed U.S. high-level nuclear waste repository. Using the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model, a stylized analysis was conducted to evaluate the relative importance of natural and engineered barriers to movement of radionuclides from the proposed repository. These stylized ''one-on'' analyses consist of sequentially adding features, components, and processes, associated with the natural and engineered barriers, incorporated within the TSPA model and evaluating the effect of these elements on repository performance, as measured by the total mean annual dose to a reasonably maximally exposed individual. The analyses are ''stylized'' in the sense that they are performed to gain insight only. They are not meant to represent a real physical system in most cases, and in some cases allow the TSPA model to simulate results using parameter ranges outside the normal bounds of the TSPA model. In particular, the analyses provide insight into the relative contributions of repository features and processes in a way that is not possible using the full TSPA performance-assessment model. For example, in the nominal scenario of the TSPA model, the contribution of the natural system is masked by the contribution of the engineered system.

  16. New content in digital repositories the changing research landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Simons, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Research institutions are under pressure to make their outputs more accessible in order to meet funding requirements and policy guidelines. Libraries have traditionally played an important role by exposing research output through a predominantly institution-based digital repository, with an emphasis on storing published works. New publishing paradigms are emerging that include research data, huge volumes of which are being generated globally. Repositories are the natural home for managing, storing and describing institutional research content. New Content in Digital Repositories explores the diversity of content types being stored in digital repositories with a focus on research data, creative works, and the interesting challenges they pose.

  17. Oceanographic Data Repositories: An Analysis of the International Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Couto Corrêa da Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The preservation and organization of oceanographic research data enables the scientific community to consult and reuse information of different kinds, and this is made possible by the repositories, meaning the services that facilitate data storage and dissemination. This paper reviews the current situation of oceanographic data repositories across different countries and evaluates them according to a series of indicators. The writers propose that although interest in storing and reusing oceanographic data has increased in recent years, the repositories are still in the process of developing their systems for processing, disseminating and reusing data. The repositories also differ in terms of architecture and the organizational level of the content they offer.

  18. Digital Repositories An investigation of best practices for content recruitment to academic digital repositories and the conditions for their livelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen, Reidun Anette

    2009-01-01

    A digital repository is a web accessible database, aimed at preserving the research material of an institution or scientific community. A digital repository serves as a tool for dissemination of research material and can increase the impact of the research by making it freely accessible. Digital repositories are often mentioned as a possible aid in relation to the Open Access debate; how research material should be freely accessible to anyone, anywhere at any time. However, for a digital repository to fully unleash its potential as a crucial component of Open Access, it is reliant on the ability to successfully collect and organize content. To a large extent this involves initiating self-archiving of research material by scientists throughout the academic world. This is not a trivial task, and many current repositories are inadequate in this respect, remaining empty, unvisited shelves. This thesis explores best practices for content recruitment to digital repositories, through the review of literature, and an...

  19. Field geologic observation and sample collection strategies for planetary surface exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS geologist crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, José M.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W.

    2013-10-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic fieldwork, the Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crewmembers who participated in the 2010 field test. We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies related to duplication of samples and observations; logistical constraints on the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to "flexibly execute" their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  20. Tools and Technologies Needed for Conducting Planetary Field Geology While On EVA: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kelsey; Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Bleisath, Scott; Buffington, Jesse; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic fieldwork, the Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crewmembers who participated in the 2010 field test. We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies related to duplication of samples and observations; logistical constraints on the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to "flexibly execute" their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  1. Learning object repositories as knowledge management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios G. Sampson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, a number of international initiatives that recognize the importance of sharing and reusing digital educational resources among educational communities through the use of Learning Object Repositories (LORs have emerged. Typically, these initiatives focus on collecting digital educational resources that are offered by their creators for open access and potential reuse. Nevertheless, most of the existing LORs are designed more as digital repositories, rather than as Knowledge Management Systems (KMS. By exploiting KMSs functionalities in LORs would bare the potential to support the organization and sharing of educational communities’ explicit knowledge (depicted in digital educational resources constructed by teachers and/or instructional designers and tacit knowledge (depicted in teachers’ and students’ experiences and interactions of using digital educational resources available in LORs. Within this context, in this paper we study the design and the implementation of fourteen operating LORs from the KMSs’ perspective, so as to identify additional functionalities that can support the management of educational communities’ explicit and tacit knowledge. Thus, we propose a list of essential LORs’ functionalities, which aim to facilitate the organization and sharing of educational communities’ knowledge. Finally, we present the added value of these functionalities by identifying their importance towards addressing the current demands of web-facilitated educational communities, as well as the knowledge management activities that they execute.

  2. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF NON-REPOSITORY LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC LAYERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. JONES

    2004-10-22

    This model report addresses activities described in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport Thermal Properties and Analysis Reports Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171708]). The model develops values for thermal conductivity, and its uncertainty, for the nonrepository layers of Yucca Mountain; in addition, the model provides estimates for matrix porosity and dry bulk density for the nonrepository layers. The studied lithostratigraphic units, as identified in the ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM 2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]), are the Timber Mountain Group, the Tiva Canyon Tuff, the Yucca Mountain Tuff, the Pah Canyon Tuff, the Topopah Spring Tuff (excluding the repository layers), the Calico Hills Formation, the Prow Pass Tuff, the Bullfrog Tuff, and the Tram Tuff. The deepest model units of the GFM (Tund and Paleozoic) are excluded from this study because no data suitable for model input are available. The parameter estimates developed in this report are used as input to various models and calculations that simulate heat transport through the rock mass. Specifically, analysis model reports that use product output from this report are: (1) Drift-scale coupled processes (DST and TH seepage) models; (2) Drift degradation analysis; (3) Multiscale thermohydrologic model; and (4) Ventilation model and analysis report. In keeping with the methodology of the thermal conductivity model for the repository layers in ''Thermal Conductivity of the Potential Repository Horizon'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169854]), the Hsu et al. (1995 [DIRS 158073]) three-dimensional (3-D) cubic model (referred to herein as ''the Hsu model'') was used to represent the matrix thermal conductivity as a function of the four parameters (matrix porosity, thermal conductivity of the saturating fluid, thermal conductivity of the solid, and geometric connectivity of the solid). The Hsu model requires input data

  3. FunGene: the Functional Gene Pipeline and Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A. Fish

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ribosomal RNA genes have become the standard molecular markers for microbial community analysis for good reasons, including universal occurrence in cellular organisms, availability of large databases, and ease of rRNA gene region amplification and analysis. As markers, however, rRNA genes have some significant limitations. The rRNA genes are often present in multiple copies, unlike most protein-coding genes. The slow rate of change in rRNA genes means that multiple species sometimes share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, while many more species share identical sequences in the short 16S rRNA regions commonly analyzed. In addition, the genes involved in many important processes are not distributed in a phylogenetically coherent manner, potentially due to gene loss or horizontal gene transfer.While rRNA genes remain the most commonly used markers, key genes in ecologically important pathways, e.g., those involved in carbon and nitrogen cycling, can provide important insights into community composition and function not obtainable through rRNA analysis. However, working with ecofunctional gene data requires some tools beyond those required for rRNA analysis. To address this, our Functional Gene Pipeline and Repository (FunGene; http://fungene.cme.msu.edu/ offers databases of many common ecofunctional genes and proteins, as well as integrated tools that allow researchers to browse these collections and choose subsets for further analysis, build phylogenetic trees, test primers and probes for coverage, and download aligned sequences. Additional FunGene tools are specialized to process coding gene amplicon data. For example, FrameBot produces frameshift-corrected protein and DNA sequences from raw reads while finding the most closely related protein reference sequence. These tools can help provide better insight into microbial communities by directly studying key genes involved in important ecological processes.

  4. Transient boundary conditions in the frame of THM-processes at nuclear waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schanz Tom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear waste repositories, initially unsaturated buffer is subjected to constant heat emitted by waste canister in conjunction with peripheral hydration through water from host rock. The transient hydration process can be potraied as transformation of initial heterogeneity towards homogeneity as final stage. In this context, this paper addresses the key issue of hydro mechanical behaviour of compacted buffer in context of clay microstructure and its evolution under repository relevant loading paths and material heterogeneity. This paper also introduces a unique column experiment facility available at Ruhr Universität Bochum, Germany. The facility has been designed as a forerunner of field scale testing program to simulate the transient hydration process of compacted buffer as per German reference disposal concept. The device is unique in terms of having proficiency to capture the transient material response under various possible repository relevant loading paths with higher precision level by monitor the key parameters like temperature, total suction, water content and axial & radial swelling pressure at three different sections along the length of compacted soil sample. In general, a larger spectrum of loading paths/scenarios, which may arise in the nuclear repository, can be covered precisely with existing device.

  5. SAFOD Phase III Core Sampling and Data Management at the Gulf Coast Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lockner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFODproject is yielding new insight into the San Andreas Fault (Zoback et al., 2010; Zoback et al., this issue. SAFOD drilling started in 2002 with a pilot hole, and proceeded with three phrases of drilling and coring during the summers of 2004, 2005, and 2007 (Fig. 1. One key component of theproject is curation, sampling, and documentation of SAFOD core usage at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program’s (IODP Gulf Coast Repository (GCR at Texas A&M University. We present here the milestones accomplished over the past two years of sampling Phase III core at the GCR.

  6. Post Closure Safety of the Morsleben Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preuss, J.; Eilers, G.; Mauke, R.; Moeller-Hoeppe, N.; Engelhardt, H.-J.; Kreienmeyer, M.; Lerch, C.; Schrimpf, C.

    2002-02-26

    After the completion of detailed studies of the suitability the twin-mine Bartensleben-Marie, situated in the Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt (Germany), was chosen in 1970 for the disposal of low and medium level radioactive waste. The waste emplacement started in 1978 in rock cavities at the mine's fourth level, some 500 m below the surface. Until the end of the operational phase in 1998 in total about 36,800 m{sup 3} of radioactive waste was disposed of. The Morsleben LLW/ILW repository (ERAM) is now under licensing for closure. After completing the licensing procedure the repository will be sealed and backfilled to exclude any undue future impact onto man or the environment. The main safety objective is to protect the biosphere from the harmful effects of the disposed radionuclides. Furthermore, classical or conventional requirements call for ruling out or minimizing other unfavorable environmental effects. The ERAM is an abandoned rock salt and potash mine. As a consequence it has a big void volume, however small parts of the cavities are backfilled with crushed salt rocks. Other goals of the closure concept are therefore a long-term stabilization of the cavities to prevent a dipping or buckling of the ground surface. In addition, groundwater protection shall be assured. For the sealing of the repository a closure concept was developed to ensure compliance with the safety protection objectives. The concept anticipates the backfilling of the cavities with hydraulically setting backfill materials (salt concretes). The reduction of the remaining void volume in the mine causes in the case of brine intrusions a limitation of the leaching processes of the exposed potash seams. However, during the setting process the hydration heat of the concrete will lead to an increase of the temperature and hence to thermally induced stresses of the concrete and the surrounding rocks. Therefore, the influence of these stresses and deformations on the stability of the salt body

  7. Modelling spent fuel and HLW behaviour in repository conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparza, A. M.; Esteban, J. A.

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this report is to give the reader an overall insight of the different models, which are used to predict the long-term behaviour of the spent fuels and HLW disposed in a repository. The models must be established on basic data and robust kinetics describing the mechanisms controlling spent fuel alteration/dissolution in a repository. The UO2 matrix, or source term, contains embedded in it the , majority of radionuclides of the spent fuel (some are in the gap cladding). For this reason the SF radionuclides release models play a significant role in the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The differences existing between models published in the literature are due to the conceptual understanding of the processes and the degree of the conservatism used with the parameter values, and the boundary conditions. They mainly differ in their level of simplification and their final objective. Sometimes are focused the show compliance with regulatory requirements, other to support decision making, to increase the level of confidence of public and scientific community, could be empirical, semi-empirical or analytical. The models take into account the experimental results from radionuclides releases and their extrapolation to the very long term. Its necessary a great statistics for have a representative dissolution rate, due at the number of experimental results is not very high and many of them show a great scatter, independently of theirs different compositions by axial and radial variations, due to linear power or local burnup. On the other hand, it is difficult to predict the spent fuel behaviour over the long term, based in short term experiments. In this report is given a little description of the radionuclides distribution in the spent fuel and also in the cladding/pellet gap, grain boundary, cracks and rim zones (the matrix rim zone can be considered with an especial characteristics very different to the rest of the spent fuel), and structural

  8. DSA-WDS Common Requirements: Developing a New Core Data Repository Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minster, J. B. H.; Edmunds, R.; L'Hours, H.; Mokrane, M.; Rickards, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Data Seal of Approval (DSA) and the International Council for Science - World Data System (ICSU-WDS) have both developed minimally intensive core certification standards whereby digital repositories supply evidence that they are trustworthy and have a long-term outlook. Both DSA and WDS applicants have found core certification to be beneficial: building stakeholder confidence, enhancing the repository's reputation, and demonstrating that it is following good practices; as well as stimulating the repository to focus on processes and procedures, thereby achieving ever higher levels of professionalism over time.The DSA and WDS core certifications evolved independently serving initially different communities but both initiatives are multidisciplinary with catalogues of criteria and review procedures based on the same principles. Hence, to realize efficiencies, simplify assessment options, stimulate more certifications, and increase impact on the community, the Repository Audit and Certification DSA-WDS Partnership Working Group (WG) was established under the umbrella of the Research Data Alliance (RDA). The WG conducted a side-by-side analysis of both frameworks to unify the wording and criteria, ultimately leading to a harmonized Catalogue of Common Requirements for core certification of repositories—as well as a set of Common Procedures for their assessment.This presentation will focus on the collaborative effort by DSA and WDS to establish (1) a testbed comprising DSA and WDS certified data repositories to validate both the new Catalogue and Procedures, and (2) a joint Certification Board towards their practical implementation. We will describe:• The purpose and methodology of the testbed, including selection of repositories to be assessed against the common standard.• The results of the testbed, with an in-depth look at some of the comments received and issues highlighted.• General insights gained from evaluating the testbed results, the subsequent

  9. Recharge-area nuclear waste repository in southeastern Sweden. Demonstration of hydrogeologic siting concepts and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provost, A.M.; Voss, C.I. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    2001-11-01

    approach, potential repository sites are evaluated using a three-dimensional, variable-density flow and solute transport model of southeastern Sweden under present interglacial conditions. The analysis considers four structural models of the bedrock that represent the possible range of regional anisotropy in permeability. Results indicate that potential repository sites at Hultsfred and another comparison site have travel times ten times or longer than sites at Simpevarp and Oskarshamn, and at worst, have travel times equivalent to the latter sites. Potential repository sites at Simpevarp and Oskarshamn have flow paths of less than 3 kilometers (lower values cannot be resolved by the current model), while the Hultsfred and comparison sites have path lengths ranging from 25 kilometers to 130 kilometers, and much greater flow path volumes. Given the uncertainties in bedrock structure, thus, it is more likely that the Hultsfred site will provide greater flow path, travel time, and flow path volume than the coastal Simpevarp and Oskarshamn sites, and may therefore be preferable in terms of the hydrogeologic safety margin. Additionally, there are other repository locations in southeastern Sweden, such as the comparison site, that improve substantially on the Hultsfred site. Three techniques are introduced for illuminating important aspects of the three-dimensional flow field in a numerical model. (1) A technique for tracing the flow paths and flow path volume from potential repository sites in a three-dimensional variable-density ground-water model involves a solute transport simulation that fills the flow tube passing through the repository with a non-zero concentration. (2) Recharge areas may be mapped in the model by means of a transport simulation that delineates where inflow occurs to the top surface of the model. (3) Travel times may be determined in a 'return-flow time' transport simulation, in which the flow field is reversed and the solute undergoes a zero

  10. Digital Libraries and Repositories in India: An Evaluative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rekha; Mahesh, G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify and evaluate the collections within digital libraries and repositories in India available in the public domain. Design/methodology/approach: The digital libraries and repositories were identified through a study of the literature, as well as internet searching and browsing. The resulting digital…

  11. 15 CFR 1180.10 - NTIS permanent repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NTIS permanent repository. 1180.10... ENGINEERING INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.10 NTIS permanent repository. A product, or category of product, will normally be accepted and maintained as part of NTIS'...

  12. Digital Libraries and Repositories in India: An Evaluative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rekha; Mahesh, G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify and evaluate the collections within digital libraries and repositories in India available in the public domain. Design/methodology/approach: The digital libraries and repositories were identified through a study of the literature, as well as internet searching and browsing. The resulting digital…

  13. Neural network-based retrieval from software reuse repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David A.; Srinivas, Kankanahalli

    1992-01-01

    A significant hurdle confronts the software reuser attempting to select candidate components from a software repository - discriminating between those components without resorting to inspection of the implementation(s). We outline an approach to this problem based upon neural networks which avoids requiring the repository administrators to define a conceptual closeness graph for the classification vocabulary.

  14. Digital Preservation in the Context of Institutional Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockx-Yu, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the issues and challenges of digital preservation facing institutional repositories and to illustrate the Joint Information Systems Committee's (JISC) view on institutional repositories and its key initiatives in helping UK institutions address these issues. Design/methodology/approach: A combination of published work and JISC…

  15. Science Is the First Step to Siting Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C. E.

    2014-02-01

    As Shaw [2014] notes, U.S. research on shale as a repository host was halted before expending anything close to the effort devoted to studying crystalline rock, salt, and—most notably—tuff at Yucca Mountain. The new political reality regarding Yucca Mountain may allow reconsideration of the decision to abandon research on shale as a repository host.

  16. Structure, Features, and Faculty Content in ARL Member Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Holly; Koenig, Jay; McGeachin, Robert B.; Tucker, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    Questions about the optimal way to present repository content to authors, submitters, and end-users, prompted this study. The authors examined, through an observation and a survey, the institutional repositories of peer institutions in the ARL for good practices related to the presentation and organization of faculty-authored institutional…

  17. Collaboration Nation: The Building of the Welsh Repository Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to disseminate information about the Welsh Repository Network (WRN), innovative work being undertaken to build an integrated network of institutional digital repositories. A collaborative approach, in particular through the provision of centralised technical and organisational support, has demonstrated…

  18. 10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental information concerning geologic repositories... information concerning geologic repositories. (a) In lieu of an environmental report, the Department of Energy... if it makes a substantial change in its proposed action that is relevant to environmental concerns...

  19. Exploring the Coming Repositories of Reproducible Experiments: Challenges and Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire, Juliana; Bonnet, Philippe; Shasha, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Computational reproducibility efforts in many communities will soon give rise to validated software and data repositories of high quality. A scientist in a field may want to query the components of such repositories to build new software workflows, perhaps after adding the scientist’s own algorithm...

  20. Current developments in container design testing for the Konrad repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelzke, Holger; Nieslony, Gregor; Noack, Volker; Hagenow, Peter; Kovacs, Oliver [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    In 2002, the Konrad repository was licensed as a repository for radioactive waste generating no heat. That permit subsequently became the object of litigation and was confirmed by a court of last resort as late as in 2007. The Federal Office of Radiation Protection (BfS) then started planning and converting the former iron ore mine into a repository. The licensed repository volume is 303,000 m{sup 3} based on estimates of expected waste arisings. The mine proper would offer a much larger volume. However, cask emplacement can be started only after completion of the repository which, according to the present status, will not be before the end of this decade. Nevertheless, there is great interest even now in conditioning and packaging for repository storage of the radioactive waste planned for Konrad, which also requires casks type tested by the Federal Institute of Materials Testing (BAM) and approved by the BfS. The key items in the license for the repository are comprehensive requirements to be met by waste forms and casks. As far as continuous revision of repository requirements and consideration of materials hazardous to water are concerned, it is assumed that the key requirements applying to type tests of casks with respect to waste forms and casks will be affected by this either not at all or only very slightly. (orig.)

  1. Insights into the field carcinogenesis of ovarian cancer based on the nanocytology of endocervical and endometrial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damania, Dhwanil; Roy, Hemant K.; Kunte, Dhananja; Hurteau, Jean A.; Subramanian, Hariharan; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Krosnjar, Nela; Shah, Maitri; Backman, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer fatalities among American women. Although curable at early stages with surgery, most women are diagnosed with symptoms of late-stage metastatic disease. Moreover, none of the current diagnostic techniques are clinically recommended for at-risk women as they preferentially target low-grade tumors (which do not affect longevity) and fail to capture early signatures of more lethal serous tumors which originate in the fimbrae region of the fallopian tubes. Hence, the early detection of ovarian cancer is challenging given the current strategy. Recently, our group has developed a novel optical imaging technique, partial wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy, that can quantify the nanoscale macromolecular density fluctuations within biological cells via a biomarker, disorder strength (Ld). Using the concept of field carcinogenesis, we propose a method of detecting ovarian cancer by PWS assessment of endometrial and endocervical columnar cells. The study includes 26 patients (controls = 15, cancer = 11) for endometrium and 23 (controls = 13, cancer = 10) for endocervix. Our results highlight a significant increase in Ld (% fold-increase > 50%, P-value < 0.05) for columnar epithelial cells obtained from cancer patients compared to controls for both endocervix and endometrium. Overall, the quantification of field carcinogenic events in the endometrium and the novel observation of its extension to the cervix are unique findings in the understanding of ovarian field carcinogenesis. We further show independent validation of the presence of cervical field carcinogenesis with mico-RNA expression data. PMID:23436651

  2. The role of the second heart field in pulmonary vein development : new insights in the origin of clinical abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, Yvonne Louise

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we describe normal and abnormal pulmonary vein development in human and mouse hearts, and focus on the histo(patho)logy of the pulmonary venous and left atrial dorsal wall, in order to elucidate the role of the posterior heart field in the formation and differentiation of the pulmonar

  3. Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard C. Logan

    2001-07-30

    This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents.

  4. SCOAP3 where libraries, scientists and publishers meet repositories, peer-reviewed journals and Open Access

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    The inexorable growth of both Open Access and library budgetary concerns are calling for innovation in scholarly communication. The field of High-Energy Physics has decades of tradition in cross-border collaboration and Open Access and is now proposing an innovative model for scientific publishing: SCOAP3. This article presents a synopsis of this opportunity for libraries, scientists and publishers to invent a new future at the interface of Open Access, peer-reviewed journals and repositories.

  5. Exploring Characterizations of Learning Object Repositories Using Data Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Alejandra; Vidal, Christian; Menendez, Victor; Zapata, Alfredo; Prieto, Manuel

    Learning object repositories provide a platform for the sharing of Web-based educational resources. As these repositories evolve independently, it is difficult for users to have a clear picture of the kind of contents they give access to. Metadata can be used to automatically extract a characterization of these resources by using machine learning techniques. This paper presents an exploratory study carried out in the contents of four public repositories that uses clustering and association rule mining algorithms to extract characterizations of repository contents. The results of the analysis include potential relationships between different attributes of learning objects that may be useful to gain an understanding of the kind of resources available and eventually develop search mechanisms that consider repository descriptions as a criteria in federated search.

  6. Design and production of the KBS-3 repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moren, Lena

    2010-12-15

    The report contains the common basis for a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report presents the role of the Production reports within the safety report and their common purposes and objectives. An important part of the report is to present the background and sources to the principles to be applied in the design, the functions of the KBS-3 repository and the barrier functions the engineered barriers and rock. Further, the methodology to substantiate detailed design premises for the engineered barriers, underground openings and other parts of the KBS-3 repository is presented. The report also gives an overview of the KBS-3 system and its facilities and the production lines for the spent fuel, the engineered barriers and underground openings. Finally, an introduction to quality management, safety classification and their application is given

  7. Repositories in an institutional context : Technical discussion Group 4

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Repositories are starting to take their place within an institution¹s infrastructure, sitting alongside portals, course management systems, virtual research environments and others. But in considering how a repository can best serve an institution it is important to consider how this technology will integrate with existing systems, so that it doesn¹t become a standalone white elephant that is a nuisance to use. This breakout will consider the technical ways in which repositories can be presented as a system that is easy to use and interact with, from the searcher¹s, depositor¹s and administrator¹s perspectives. It will look at potential interaction through other institutional environments and seek to identify ways in which repositories can become a more integral part of the technical landscape. Bring along your examples of how repositories are being technically embedded within institutions to help share experience and ideas.

  8. Cross Institutional Cooperation on a Shared Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how independent institutions, such as archives and libraries, can cooperate on managing a shared bit repository with bit preservation, in order to use their resources for preservation in a more cost-effective way. It uses the OAIS Reference Model to provide a framework...... for systematically analysing institutions technical and organisational requirements for a remote bit repository. Instead of viewing a bit repository simply as Archival Storage for the institutions repositories, we argue for viewing it as consisting of a subset of functions from all entities defined by the OAIS...... Reference Model. The work is motivated by and used in a current Danish feasibility study for establishing a national bit repository. The study revealed that depending on their missions and the collections they hold, the institutions have varying requirements e.g. for bit safety, accessibility...

  9. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis document describes the STRS application repository for software-defined radio (SDR) applications intended to be compliant to the STRS Architecture Standard. The document provides information about the submission of artifacts to the STRS application repository, to provide information to the potential users of that information, and for the systems engineer to understand the requirements, concepts, and approach to the STRS application repository. The STRS application repository is intended to capture knowledge, documents, and other artifacts for each waveform application or other application outside of its project so that when the project ends, the knowledge is retained. The document describes the transmission of technology from mission to mission capturing lessons learned that are used for continuous improvement across projects and supporting NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for performing software engineering projects and NASAs release process.

  10. Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Curry

    2001-06-26

    The primary objective of the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (PDD) is to allocate the functions, requirements, and assumptions to the systems at Level 5 of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) architecture identified in Section 4. It provides traceability of the requirements to those contained in Section 3 of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Requirements Document (YMP RD) (YMP 2001a) and other higher-level requirements documents. In addition, the PDD allocates design related assumptions to work products of non-design organizations. The document provides Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) technical requirements in support of design and performance assessment in preparing for the Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA) milestones. The technical requirements documented in the PDD are to be captured in the System Description Documents (SDDs) which address each of the systems at Level 5 of the CRWMS architecture. The design engineers obtain the technical requirements from the SDDs and by reference from the SDDs to the PDD. The design organizations and other organizations will obtain design related assumptions directly from the PDD. These organizations may establish additional assumptions for their individual activities, but such assumptions are not to conflict with the assumptions in the PDD. The PDD will serve as the primary link between the technical requirements captured in the SDDs and the design requirements captured in US Department of Energy (DOE) documents. The approved PDD is placed under Level 3 baseline control by the CRWMS Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) and the following portions of the PDD constitute the Technical Design Baseline for the MGR: the design characteristics listed in Table 1-1, the MGR Architecture (Section 4.1), the Technical Requirements (Section 5), and the Controlled Project Assumptions (Section 6).

  11. Repository surface design site layout analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-02-27

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Yucca Mountain Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD, including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond.

  12. The PBase Scientific Workflow Provenance Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Cuevas-Vicenttín

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific workflows and their supporting systems are becoming increasingly popular for compute-intensive and data-intensive scientific experiments. The advantages scientific workflows offer include rapid and easy workflow design, software and data reuse, scalable execution, sharing and collaboration, and other advantages that altogether facilitate “reproducible science”. In this context, provenance – information about the origin, context, derivation, ownership, or history of some artifact – plays a key role, since scientists are interested in examining and auditing the results of scientific experiments. However, in order to perform such analyses on scientific results as part of extended research collaborations, an adequate environment and tools are required. Concretely, the need arises for a repository that will facilitate the sharing of scientific workflows and their associated execution traces in an interoperable manner, also enabling querying and visualization. Furthermore, such functionality should be supported while taking performance and scalability into account. With this purpose in mind, we introduce PBase: a scientific workflow provenance repository implementing the ProvONE proposed standard, which extends the emerging W3C PROV standard for provenance data with workflow specific concepts. PBase is built on the Neo4j graph database, thus offering capabilities such as declarative and efficient querying. Our experiences demonstrate the power gained by supporting various types of queries for provenance data. In addition, PBase is equipped with a user friendly interface tailored for the visualization of scientific workflow provenance data, making the specification of queries and the interpretation of their results easier and more effective.

  13. Performance analysis for waste repositories in the nordic countries. Report for project AFA-1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuori, S. [VTT Energy (Finland); Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB (Sweden); Carugati, S.; Brodersen, K. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark); Walderhaug, T. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute (Iceland); Helgason, J. [Ekra Geological Consulting (Iceland); Sneve, M.; Hornkjoel, S. [Norwegian Radiation Protection (Norway); Backe, S. [IFE (Norway)

    1997-02-01

    The Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) project (AFA-1) focused on safety in the final disposal of long-lived low and medium level radioactive waste and its sub project (AFA-1.2), where this report has been produced, is dealing with the performance analysis of the engineered barrier system (near-field) of the repositories for low-and medium level wastes. The topic intentionally excludes the discussion of the characteristics of the geological host medium. Therefore a more generic discussion of the features of performance analysis is possible independent of the fact that different host media are considered in the Nordic countries. The different waste management systems existing and planned in the Nordic countries are shortly described in the report. In the report main emphasis is paid on the general repositories. Some of the phenomena and interactions relevant for a generic type of repository are discussed as well. Among the different approaches for the development of scenarios for safety and performance analyses one particular method - the Rock Engineering System (RES) - was chosen to be demonstratively tested in a brainstorming session, where the possible interactions and their safety significance were discussed employing a simplified and generic Nordic repository system as the reference system. As an overall impression, the AFA-project group concludes that the use of the RES approach is very easy to learn even during a short discussion session. The use of different ways to indicate the safety significance of various interactions in a graphical user interface increases the clarity. Within the project a simple software application was developed employing a generally available spread sheet programme. The developed tool allows an easy opportunity to link the cell specific comments readily available for the `reader` of the obtained results. A short review of the performance analyses carried out in the Nordic countries for actual projects concerning repositories for

  14. Perturbation of hydration layer in solvated proteins by external electric and electromagnetic fields: Insights from non-equilibrium molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Prithwish K.; Futera, Zdenek; English, Niall J.

    2016-11-01

    Given the fundamental role of water in governing the biochemistry of enzymes, and in regulating their wider biological activity (e.g., by local water concentration surrounding biomolecules), the influence of extraneous electric and electromagnetic (e/m) fields thereon is of central relevance to biophysics and, more widely, biology. With the increase in levels of local and atmospheric microwave-frequency radiation present in modern life, as well as other electric-field exposure, the impact upon hydration-water layers surrounding proteins, and biomolecules generally, becomes a particularly pertinent issue. Here, we present a (non-equilibrium) molecular-dynamics-simulation study on a model protein (hen egg-white lysozyme) hydrated in water, in which we determine, inter alia, translational self-diffusivities for both hen egg-white lysozyme and its hydration layer together with relaxation dynamics of the hydrogen-bond network between the protein and its hydration-layer water molecules on a residue-per-residue basis. Crucially, we perform this analysis both above and below the dynamical-transition temperature (at ˜220 K), at 300 and 200 K, respectively, and we compare the effects of external static-electric and e/m fields with linear-response-régime (r.m.s.) intensities of 0.02 V/Å. It was found that the translational self-diffusivity of hen egg-white lysozyme and its hydration-water layer are increased substantially in static fields, primarily due to the induced electrophoretic motion, whilst the water-protein hydrogen-bond-network-rearrangement kinetics can also undergo rather striking accelerations, primarily due to the enhancement of a larger-amplitude local translational and rotational motion by charged and dipolar residues, which serves to promote hydrogen-bond breakage and re-formation kinetics. These external-field effects are particularly evident at 200 K, where they serve to induce the protein- and solvation-layer-response effects redolent of dynamical

  15. Local-scale modelling of density-driven flow for the phases of repository operation and post-closure at Beberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaquet, O.; Siegel, P. [Colenco Power Engineering Ltd, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2004-09-01

    A hydrogeological model was developed for Beberg with the aim of evaluating the impact of a repository (for the operational and post-closure phases) while accounting for the effects of density-driven flow. Two embedded scales were taken into account for this modelling study: a local scale at which the granitic medium was considered as a continuum and a repository scale, where the medium is fractured and therefore was regarded to be discrete. The following step-wise approach was established to model density-driven flow at both repository and local scale: (a) modelling fracture networks at the repository scale, (b) upscaling the hydraulic properties to a continuum at local scale and (c) modelling density-driven flow to evaluate repository impact at local scale. The results demonstrate the strong impact of the repository on the flow field during the phase of operation. The distribution of the salt concentration is affected by a large upcoming effect with increased relative concentration and by the presence of fracture zones carrying freshwater from the surface. The concentrations obtained for the reference case, expressed in terms of percentage with respect to the maximum (prescribed) value in the model, are as follows: ca 30% for the phase of desaturation, and ca 20% for the resaturation phase. For the reference case, the impact of repository operations appears no longer visible after a resaturation period of about 20 years after repository closure; under resaturation conditions, evidence of the operational phase has already disappeared in terms of the observed hydraulic and concentration fields. Sensitivity calculations have proven the importance of explicitly discretising repository tunnels when assessing resaturation time and maximum concentration values. Furthermore, the definition of a fixed potential as boundary condition along the model's top surface is likely to provide underestimated values for the maximum concentration and overestimated flow rates in

  16. Electric Field Modulation of Semiconductor Quantum Dot Photoluminescence: Insights Into the Design of Robust Voltage-Sensitive Cellular Imaging Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Clare E; Susumu, Kimihiro; Stewart, Michael H; Oh, Eunkeu; Mäkinen, Antti J; O'Shaughnessy, Thomas J; Kushto, Gary; Wolak, Mason A; Erickson, Jeffrey S; Efros, Alexander L; Huston, Alan L; Delehanty, James B

    2015-10-14

    The intrinsic properties of quantum dots (QDs) and the growing ability to interface them controllably with living cells has far-reaching potential applications in probing cellular processes such as membrane action potential. We demonstrate that an electric field typical of those found in neuronal membranes results in suppression of the QD photoluminescence (PL) and, for the first time, that QD PL is able to track the action potential profile of a firing neuron with millisecond time resolution. This effect is shown to be connected with electric-field-driven QD ionization and consequent QD PL quenching, in contradiction with conventional wisdom that suppression of the QD PL is attributable to the quantum confined Stark effect.

  17. Family-planning services in a low-performing rural area of Bangladesh: insights from field observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifi, S M; Bhuiya, A

    2001-09-01

    This paper mainly reports the results of an observational study carried out during 1994-1995 in five rural unions of Bangladesh to identify the barriers to adoption of family-planning methods. At the time of the survey, one-fifth of 1,889 mothers with a living child, aged less than five years, were practising modern family-planning methods. Of the methods used, oral pill was the most common (50%), followed by injectables (20%), female sterilization (13%), IUD (11%), and condom (4%). Various factors that were responsible for the low performance of the family-planning programme included: inadequacy of motivational work by the field workers, poor counselling on the management of contraceptive-related side-effects, inadequate response to the needs of clients, irregular field visits, and poor supervision and monitoring. The efficiency of the programme needs to be improved to meet the demand for family-planning methods in Chakaria, Bangladesh.

  18. Insights into the field carcinogenesis of ovarian cancer based on the nanocytology of endocervical and endometrial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damania, Dhwanil; Roy, Hemant K; Kunte, Dhananja; Hurteau, Jean A; Subramanian, Hariharan; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Krosnjar, Nela; Shah, Maitri; Backman, Vadim

    2013-09-01

    Ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer fatalities among American women. Although curable at early stages with surgery, most women are diagnosed with symptoms of late-stage metastatic disease. Moreover, none of the current diagnostic techniques are clinically recommended for at-risk women as they preferentially target low-grade tumors (which do not affect longevity) and fail to capture early signatures of more lethal serous tumors which originate in the fimbrae region of the fallopian tubes. Hence, the early detection of ovarian cancer is challenging given the current strategy. Recently, our group has developed a novel optical imaging technique, partial wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy, that can quantify the nanoscale macromolecular density fluctuations within biological cells via a biomarker, disorder strength (Ld ). Using the concept of field carcinogenesis, we propose a method of detecting ovarian cancer by PWS assessment of endometrial and endocervical columnar cells. The study includes 26 patients (controls = 15, cancer = 11) for endometrium and 23 (controls = 13, cancer = 10) for endocervix. Our results highlight a significant increase in Ld (% fold-increase > 50%, p-value < 0.05) for columnar epithelial cells obtained from cancer patients compared to controls for both endocervix and endometrium. Overall, the quantification of field carcinogenic events in the endometrium and the novel observation of its extension to the cervix are unique findings in the understanding of ovarian field carcinogenesis. We further show independent validation of the presence of cervical field carcinogenesis with micro-RNA expression data.

  19. The Research Library's Role in Digital Repository Services: Final Report of the ARL Digital Repository Issues Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Research Libraries, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Libraries are making diverse contributions to the development of many types of digital repositories, particularly those housing locally created digital content, including new digital objects or digitized versions of locally held works. In some instances, libraries are managing a repository and its related services entirely on their own, but often…

  20. Recent Advances in the Field of Bionanotechnology: An Insight into Optoelectric Bacteriorhodopsin, Quantum Dots, and Noble Metal Nanoclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Knoblauch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular sensors and molecular electronics are a major component of a recent research area known as bionanotechnology, which merges biology with nanotechnology. This new class of biosensors and bioelectronics has been a subject of intense research over the past decade and has found application in a wide variety of fields. The unique characteristics of these biomolecular transduction systems has been utilized in applications ranging from solar cells and single-electron transistors (SETs to fluorescent sensors capable of sensitive and selective detection of a wide variety of targets, both organic and inorganic. This review will discuss three major systems in the area of molecular sensors and electronics and their application in unique technological innovations. Firstly, the synthesis of optoelectric bacteriorhodopsin (bR and its application in the field of molecular sensors and electronics will be discussed. Next, this article will discuss recent advances in the synthesis and application of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs. Finally, this article will conclude with a review of the new and exciting field of noble metal nanoclusters and their application in the creation of a new class of fluorescent sensors.

  1. New insights into the tropospheric oxidation of isoprene: combining field measurements, laboratory studies, chemical modelling and quantum theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Lisa; Stone, Daniel; Heard, Dwayne

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss some of the recent work directed at further understanding the chemistry of our atmosphere in regions of low NO x , such as forests, where there are considerable emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, for example reactive hydrocarbons such as isoprene. Recent field measurements have revealed some surprising results, for example that OH concentrations are measured to be considerably higher than can be understood using current chemical mechanisms. It has also not proven possible to reconcile field measurements of other species, such as oxygenated VOCs, or emission fluxes of isoprene, using current mechanisms. Several complementary approaches have been brought to bear on formulating a solution to this problem, namely field studies using state-of-the-art instrumentation, chamber studies to isolate sub-sections of the chemistry, laboratory studies to measure rate coefficients, product branching ratios and photochemical yields, the development of ever more detailed chemical mechanisms, and high quality ab initio quantum theory to calculate the energy landscape for relevant reactions and to enable the rates of formation of products and intermediates for previously unknown and unstudied reactions to be predicted. The last few years have seen significant activity in this area, with several contrasting postulates put forward to explain the experimental findings, and here we attempt to synthesise the evidence and ideas.

  2. Insights from a Geophysical and Geomorphological Mars Analog Field Study at the Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, Northwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, R. N.; Dinwiddie, C. L.; Stillman, D.; Bjella, K.; Hooper, D. M.; Grimm, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial dune systems are used as natural analogs to improve understanding of the processes by which planetary dunes form and evolve. Selected terrestrial analogs are often warm-climate dune fields devoid of frozen volatiles, but cold-climate dunes offer a better analog for polar dunes on Mars. The cold-climate Great Kobuk Sand Dunes (GKSD) of Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska, are a high-latitude, slowly migrating analog for polar, inter- and intracrater dune fields on Mars. The 67°N latitude, 62 km2 GKSD consist of moderately well sorted, fine-grained sands deposited within the Kobuk River valley ~50 km north of the Arctic Circle and ~160 km inland from Kotzebue Sound. Winds at the GKSD are influenced significantly by complex surrounding topography, an influence that is similar to many high-latitude inter- and intracrater dune fields on Mars. Average annual temperature and precipitation at the GKSD are -5°C and 430 mm. The dune field is generally resistant to atmospheric forcing (wind) for a significant portion of the year because of snowcover, similar to the effect that seasonal CO2 and H2O frost mantling have on Martian polar dunes. The dune field, which ranges in elevation from 33 to 170 m above mean sea level, consists of sand sheets as well as climbing and reversing barchanoid, transverse, longitudinal, and star dunes. Several tributaries to the Kobuk River bound and dissect the GKSD, producing cutbank exposures and alcoves that reveal internal structure. We report results from our detailed geophysical and geomorphological site characterization field study, which was conducted near peak freeze conditions from March 15 through April 2, 2010. We used multifrequency ground-penetrating radar (25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 MHz) and capacitively coupled resistivity methods to image the internal structure of representative dunes, and performed ground truthing using a sampling auger, natural exposures, and Real-Time Kinematic Differential GPS. Data from twenty

  3. The Next Step in Deployment of Computer Based Procedures For Field Workers: Insights And Results From Field Evaluations at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya L.; Bly, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    The paper-based procedures currently used for nearly all activities in the commercial nuclear power industry have a long history of ensuring safe operation of the plants. However, there is potential to greatly increase efficiency and safety by improving how the human operator interacts with the procedures. One way to achieve these improvements is through the use of computer-based procedures (CBPs). A CBP system offers a vast variety of improvements, such as context driven job aids, integrated human performance tools (e.g., placekeeping, correct component verification, etc.), and dynamic step presentation. The latter means that the CBP system could only display relevant steps based on operating mode, plant status, and the task at hand. A dynamic presentation of the procedure (also known as context-sensitive procedures) will guide the operator down the path of relevant steps based on the current conditions. This feature will reduce the operator’s workload and inherently reduce the risk of incorrectly marking a step as not applicable and the risk of incorrectly performing a step that should be marked as not applicable. The research team at the Idaho National Laboratory has developed a prototype CBP system for field workers, which has been evaluated from a human factors and usability perspective in four laboratory studies. Based on the results from each study revisions were made to the CBP system. However, a crucial step to get the end users' (e.g., auxiliary operators, maintenance technicians, etc.) acceptance is to put the system in their hands and let them use it as a part of their everyday work activities. In the spring 2014 the first field evaluation of the INL CBP system was conducted at a nuclear power plant. Auxiliary operators conduct a functional test of one out of three backup air compressors each week. During the field evaluation activity, one auxiliary operator conducted the test with the paper-based procedure while a second auxiliary operator

  4. Are BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachy, Aurélie; Aubinet, Marc; Schoon, Niels; Amelynck, Crist; Bodson, Bernard; Moureaux, Christine; Heinesch, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Although maize is the second most important crop worldwide, and the most important C4 crop, no study on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) has yet been conducted on this crop at ecosystem scale and over a whole growing season. This has led to large uncertainties in cropland BVOC emission estimations. This paper seeks to fill this gap by presenting, for the first time, BVOC fluxes measured in a maize field at ecosystem scale (using the disjunct eddy covariance by mass scanning technique) over a whole growing season in Belgium. The maize field emitted mainly methanol, although exchanges were bi-directional. The second most exchanged compound was acetic acid, which was taken up mainly in the growing season. Bi-directional exchanges of acetaldehyde, acetone and other oxygenated VOCs also occurred, whereas the terpenes, benzene and toluene exchanges were small, albeit significant. Surprisingly, BVOC exchanges were of the same order of magnitude on bare soil and on well developed vegetation, suggesting that soil is a major BVOC reservoir in agricultural ecosystems. Quantitatively, the maize BVOC emissions observed were lower than those reported in other maize, crops and grasses studies. The standard emission factors (SEFs) estimated in this study (231 ± 19 µg m-2 h-1 for methanol, 8 ± 5 µg m-2 h-1 for isoprene and 4 ± 6 µg m-2 h-1 for monoterpenes) were also much lower than those currently used by models for C4 crops, particularly for terpenes. These results suggest that maize fields are small BVOC exchangers in north-western Europe, with a lower BVOC emission impact than that modelled for growing C4 crops in this part of the world. They also reveal the high variability in BVOC exchanges across world regions for maize and suggest that SEFs should be estimated for each region separately.

  5. Resonant activation in polymer translocation: new insights into the escape dynamics of molecules driven by an oscillating field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolato, N; Fiasconaro, A; Adorno, D Persano; Spagnolo, B

    2010-08-04

    The translocation of molecules across cellular membranes or through synthetic nanopores is strongly affected by thermal fluctuations. In this work we study how the dynamics of a polymer in a noisy environment changes when the translocation process is driven by an oscillating electric field. An improved version of the Rouse model for a flexible polymer has been adopted to mimic the molecular dynamics, by taking into account the harmonic interactions between adjacent monomers and the excluded-volume effect by introducing a Lennard-Jones potential between all beads. A bending recoil torque has also been included in our model. The polymer dynamics is simulated in a two-dimensional domain by numerically solving the Langevin equations of motion. Thermal fluctuations are taken into account by introducing a Gaussian uncorrelated noise. The mean first translocation time of the polymer centre of inertia shows a minimum as a function of the frequency of the oscillating forcing field. This finding represents the first evidence of the resonant activation behaviour in the dynamics of polymer translocation.

  6. Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockgaard, Niclas (Golder Associates AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

  7. A close-up view of Jupiter's magnetic field from Juno: New insights into the planet's deep interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Chris A.; Holme, Richard

    2017-06-01

    The first results from the Juno mission magnetometer have recently become available. Juno provides us with the closest view of any planetary dynamo, flying to within 1.25 of the radius of the dynamo region, whereas for the Earth, we cannot get closer than 1.83 of the core-mantle boundary radius. We compare the Juno results with those from first principles dynamo simulations of Jupiter's magnetic field. Intense flux patches at Jupiter's surface are found in both the data and the simulations, though the simulations have them mainly at slightly higher latitudes than the observations. We consider the prospects for determining more accurately the location of the top of the metallic hydrogen region and the implications of possible weak flux patches at the poles.

  8. Mechanical and chemical processes affecting the chalk during burial, insights from combined reflection seismics, well data and field work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Boussaha, Myriam; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph

    2014-01-01

    and cores analyses, respectively.However, few sites allow to combine all the different scale of observation for chalk diagenesis. Onshore and offshore high resolution seismics, two fully cored >350 m wells with wireline logging tools and very high quality exposures from a coastal cliff and a quarry form...... works have been performed with astronomical calibration based on stable isotope stratigraphy, wireline logs as well as several palaeontological proxies and detailed sedimentological analysis. Since a couple of decades, a specific kind of fractures has been described in the Chalk of Denmark, the so......-called hairline fractures. They have recently been interpreted as compaction bands associated with the pore collapse of the chalk. We have observed these fractures on the field and on the cores in specific intervals. At depth, these fractures are in genetic relation with the formation of some stylolithes...

  9. A laboratory validation study of the time-lapse oscillatory pumping test for leakage detection in geological repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Alexander Y.; Lu, Jiemin; Islam, Akand

    2017-05-01

    Geologic repositories are extensively used for disposing byproducts in mineral and energy industries. The safety and reliability of these repositories are a primary concern to environmental regulators and the public. Time-lapse oscillatory pumping test (OPT) has been introduced recently as a pressure-based technique for detecting potential leakage in geologic repositories. By routinely conducting OPT at a number of pulsing frequencies, an operator may identify the potential repository anomalies in the frequency domain, alleviating the ambiguity caused by reservoir noise and improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Building on previous theoretical and field studies, this work performed a series of laboratory experiments to validate the concept of time-lapse OPT using a custom made, stainless steel tank under relatively high pressures. The experimental configuration simulates a miniature geologic storage repository consisting of three layers (i.e., injection zone, caprock, and above-zone aquifer). Results show that leakage in the injection zone led to deviations in the power spectrum of observed pressure data, and the amplitude of which also increases with decreasing pulsing frequencies. The experimental results are further analyzed by developing a 3D flow model, using which the model parameters are estimated through frequency domain inversion.

  10. Results From an International Simulation Study on Couples Thermal, Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes Near Geological Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Rutqvist; D. Barr; J.T. Birkholzer; M. Chijimatsu; O. Kolditz; Q. Liu; Y. Oda; W. Wang; C. Zhang

    2006-08-02

    As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near waste emplacement drifts of geological nuclear waste repositories. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower postclosure temperatures, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses is currently being resolved. In particular, good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglected complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level.

  11. Predicting organic floc transport dynamics in shallow aquatic ecosystems: Insights from the field, the laboratory, and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, L.G.; Harvey, J.W.; Noe, G.B.; Crimaldi, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Transport of particulate organic material can impact watershed sediment and nutrient budgets and can alter the geomorphologic evolution of shallow aquatic environments. Prediction of organic aggregate ("floc") transport in these environments requires knowledge of how hydraulics and biota affect the entrainment, settling, and aggregation of particles. This study evaluated the aggregation and field transport dynamics of organic floc from a low-gradient floodplain wetland with flow-parallel ridges and sloughs in the Florida Everglades. floc dynamics were evaluated in a rotating annular flume and in situ in the field. Under present managed conditions in the Everglades, floc is not entrained by mean flows but is suspended via biological production in the water column and bioturbation. Aggregation was a significant process affecting Everglades floc at high flume flow velocities (7.0 cm s-1) and during recovery from high flow; disaggregation was not significant for the tested flows. During moderate flows when floc dynamics are hydrodynamically controlled, it is possible to model floc transport using a single "operative floc diameter" that accurately predicts fluxes downstream and to the bed. In contrast, during high flows and recovery from high flows, aggregation dynamics should be simulated. When entrained by flow in open-water sloughs, Everglades floc will be transported downstream in multiple deposition and reentrainment events but will undergo net settling when transported onto ridges of emergent vegetation. We hypothesize that net transport of material from open to vegetated areas during high flows is critical for forming and maintaining distinctive topographic patterning in the Everglades and other low-gradient floodplains. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Predicting organic floc transport dynamics in shallow aquatic ecosystems: insights from the field, laboratory, and numerical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Noe, Gregory B.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Crimaldi, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Transport of particulate organic material can impact watershed sediment and nutrient budgets and can alter the geomorphologic evolution of shallow aquatic environments. Prediction of organic aggregate (“floc”) transport in these environments requires knowledge of how hydraulics and biota affect the entrainment, settling, and aggregation of particles. This study evaluated the aggregation and field transport dynamics of organic floc from a low-gradient floodplain wetland with flow-parallel ridges and sloughs in the Florida Everglades. Floc dynamics were evaluated in a rotating annular flume and in situ in the field. Under present managed conditions in the Everglades, floc is not entrained by mean flows but is suspended via biological production in the water column and bioturbation. Aggregation was a significant process affecting Everglades floc at high flume flow velocities (7.0 cm s-1) and during recovery from high flow; disaggregation was not significant for the tested flows. During moderate flows when floc dynamics are hydrodynamically controlled, it is possible to model floc transport using a single “operative floc diameter” that accurately predicts fluxes downstream and to the bed. In contrast, during high flows and recovery from high flows, aggregation dynamics should be simulated. When entrained by flow in open-water sloughs, Everglades floc will be transported downstream in multiple deposition and reentrainment events but will undergo net settling when transported onto ridges of emergent vegetation. We hypothesize that net transport of material from open to vegetated areas during high flows is critical for forming and maintaining distinctive topographic patterning in the Everglades and other low-gradient floodplains.

  13. Environmental Forensics: Molecular Insight into Oil Spill Weathering Helps Advance High Magnetic Field FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Amy

    2013-03-01

    events in the FT-ICR experiment. For example, the high density of peaks at each nominal mass unit provides unprecedented insight into how excitation conditions affect ion motion during detection. Aggregated oil (i.e., tar balls, tar mats) that reached the surface exhibits a more than two-fold increase in the total number of detected species, with an increased number of oxygenated species. Principal component analysis (PCA) applied to two possible source oils (contained within the same ship) and weathered samples provide the first application of FT-ICR MS for source identification. Molecular formulae from parent and weathered oil indicate that the lightest petroleum fractions (saturated hydrocarbons) are the most readily oxidized components, and can serve as a template to determine chemical transformations that occur throughout the water column. The ability to differentiate and catalogue compositional changes that occur to oil after its release into the environment relies heavily on gains achieved in nearly all steps in the FT-ICR mass spectral experiment required to accommodate larger ion populations inherent to heavily weathered crude oil. Here, we present the requirement for FT-ICR MS for comprehensive oil spill characterization, and highlight advances made to FT-ICR MS experimental conditions developed from petroleum characterization. Work supported by DMR-06-54118, NSF CHE-10-49753 (RAPID), BP/The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative, and the State of Florida

  14. Rock and Core Repository Coming Digital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maicher, Doris; Fleischer, Dirk; Czerniak, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In times of whole city centres being available by a mouse click in 3D to virtually walk through, reality sometimes becomes neglected. The reality of scientific sample collections not being digitised to the essence of molecules, isotopes and electrons becomes unbelievable to the upgrowing generation of scientists. Just like any other geological institute the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research GEOMAR accumulated thousands of specimen. The samples, collected mainly during marine expeditions, date back as far as 1964. Today GEOMAR houses a central geological sample collection of at least 17 000 m of sediment core and more than 4 500 boxes with hard rock samples and refined sample specimen. This repository, having been dormant, missed the onset of the interconnected digital age. Physical samples without barcodes, QR codes or RFID tags need to be migrated and reconnected, urgently. In our use case, GEOMAR opted for the International Geo Sample Number IGSN as the persistent identifier. Consequentially, the software CurationDIS by smartcube GmbH as the central component of this project was selected. The software is designed to handle acquisition and administration of sample material and sample archiving in storage places. In addition, the software allows direct embedding of IGSN. We plan to adopt IGSN as a future asset, while for the initial inventory taking of our sample material, simple but unique QR codes act as "bridging identifiers" during the process. Currently we compile an overview of the broad variety of sample types and their associated data. QR-coding of the boxes of rock samples and sediment cores is near completion, delineating their location in the repository and linking a particular sample to any information available about the object. Planning is in progress to streamline the flow from receiving new samples to their curation to sharing samples and information publically. Additionally, interface planning for linkage to GEOMAR databases Ocean

  15. Locating a Radioactive Waste Repository in the Ring of Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apted, Mick; Berryman, Kelvin; Chapman, Neil; Cloos, Mark; Connor, Chuck; Kitayama, Kazumi; Sparks, Steve; Tsuchi, Hiroyuki

    2004-11-01

    The scientific, technical, and sociopolitical challenges of finding a secure site for a geological repository for radioactive wastes have created a long and stony path for many countries. Japan carried out many years of research and development before taking its first steps in site selection. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) began looking for a high-level waste repository site (HLW, vitrified residue from reprocessing power reactor fuel) 2 years ago. Over the next 10-20 years, NUMO hopes to find a site to dispose of ~20,000 tons of HLW in a robustly engineered repository constructed at a depth of several hundred meters.

  16. Building Scientific Data's list of recommended data repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufton, A. L.; Khodiyar, V.; Hrynaszkiewicz, I.

    2016-12-01

    When Scientific Data launched in 2014 we provided our authors with a list of recommended data repositories to help them identify data hosting options that were likely to meet the journal's requirements. This list has grown in size and scope, and is now a central resource for authors across the Nature-titled journals. It has also been used in the development of data deposition policies and recommended repository lists across Springer Nature and at other publishers. Each new addition to the list is assessed according to a series of criteria that emphasize the stability of the resource, its commitment to principles of open science and its implementation of relevant community standards and reporting guidelines. A preference is expressed for repositories that issue digital object identifiers (DOIs) through the DataCite system and that share data under the Creative Commons CC0 waiver. Scientific Data currently lists fourteen repositories that focus on specific areas within the Earth and environmental sciences, as well as the broad scope repositories, Dryad and figshare. Readers can browse and filter datasets published at the journal by the host repository using ISA-explorer, a demo tool built by the ISA-tools team at Oxford University1. We believe that well-maintained lists like this one help publishers build a network of trust with community data repositories and provide an important complement to more comprehensive data repository indices and more formal certification efforts. In parallel, Scientific Data has also improved its policies to better support submissions from authors using institutional and project-specific repositories, without requiring each to apply for listing individually. Online resources Journal homepage: http://www.nature.com/scientificdata Data repository criteria: http://www.nature.com/sdata/policies/data-policies#repo-criteria Recommended data repositories: http://www.nature.com/sdata/policies/repositories Archived copies of the list: https

  17. New insights from deep VLA data on the potentially recoiling black hole CID-42 in the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Mladen; Civano, Francesca; Bondi, Marco; Ciliegi, Paolo; Wang, Xiawei; Loeb, Abraham; Banfield, Julie; Bourke, Stephen; Elvis, Martin; Hallinan, Gregg; Intema, Huib T; Klockner, Hans-Rainer; Mooley, Kunal; Navarrete, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    We present deep 3 GHz VLA observations of the potentially recoiling black hole CID-42 in the COSMOS field. This galaxy shows two optical nuclei in the HST/ACS image and a large velocity offset of ~ 1300 km/s between the broad and narrow H beta emission line although the spectrum is not spacially resolved (Civano et al. 2010). The new 3 GHz VLA data has a bandwidth of 2 GHz and to correctly interpret the flux densities imaging was done with two different methods: multi-scale multi-frequency synthesis and spectral windows stacking. The final resolutions and sensitivities of these maps are 0.7" with rms = 4.6 muJy/beam and 0.9" with rms = 4.8 muJy/beam respectively. With a 7 sigma detection we find that the entire observed 3 GHz radio emission can be associated with the South-Eastern component of CID-42, coincident with the detected X-ray emission. We use our 3 GHz data combined with other radio data from the literature ranging from 320 MHz to 9 GHz, which include the VLA, VLBA and GMRT data, to construct a radi...

  18. Runaway electrons mitigation by 3D fields: new insights from ASDEX Upgrade and RFX-mod experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbin, M.; Papp, G.; Marrelli, L.; McCarthy, P. J.; Nocente, M.; Pautasso, G.; Suttrop, W.; Piovesan, P.; Terranova, D.; Valisa, M.

    2016-10-01

    Disruption-generated runaway electron (RE) beams represent a severe threat for tokamak plasma-facing components, thus motivating the search of mitigation techniques. The application of optimized 3D fields might aid this purpose, as was recently investigated in ASDEX Upgrade and RFX-mod. In ASDEX Upgrade discharges, the application of n =1 resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) by the B-coils before and during the disruption results in a longer current quench time together with a lower RE current in the post-disruption phase. The strength of the observed effects depends on the upper-to-lower B-coil phasing, i.e. on the poloidal spectrum of the RMPs. These results are analyzed by means of numerical tools, like the guiding center code ORBIT, and the role of plasma response is also investigated. Similar experiments have been performed in RFX-mod low density plasmas where magnetic perturbations of various amplitudes, applied by non-axisymmetric coils, have been found to partially suppress REs. ORBIT simulations indicate, in this case, that RE orbit losses are associated to a raised level of stochasticity in the edge plasma region.

  19. The Role of Geoelectrical Methods in Monitoring Stimulated Sulfate-Reduction: Insights Gained From Field-Scale Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K. H.; Kemna, A.; Long, P.; Druhan, J.; Hubbard, S.; Banfield, J.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding how microorganisms influence the physical and chemical properties of the subsurface is hindered by our inability to observe microbial dynamics in real time and with high spatial resolution. Here we investigate the use of time-lapse geoelectrical methods to monitor stimulated sulfate-reduction at the field scale during in-situ acetate amendment at the Rifle, Colorado uranium mill tailings site. Modification of the pore fluid and sediment composition as a result of bisulfide production and mineral precipitation was concomitant with changes in induced polarization (IP) and self-potential (SP) signals. With data collected from both the surface and between boreholes, temporal variations in the IP response were characterized by the development of pronounced phase anomalies related to the precipitation of disordered mackinawite (FeS). Sediment samples recovered from the aquifer showed a close correlation between the location of the IP phase anomalies and the enrichment of acid volatile sulfides. Variations in borehole SP signals closely tracked the onset of sulfate-reduction and primarily resulted from an increase in the concentration of bisulfide adjacent to the measurement electrodes. The magnitude of the SP response was dominated by the galvanic interaction of metallic copper and bisulfide, and it closely approximated the electrochemical cell potential of the anodic and cathodic reactions occurring at the electrode surfaces. Both geolectrical techniques delineated spatially discrete anomalies that appear to reflect the interaction of biostimulation with lithological variability within the aquifer.

  20. Benefits, Facilitators, Barriers, and Strategies to Improve Pesticide Protective Behaviors: Insights from Farmworkers in North Carolina Tobacco Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, AnnMarie Lee; LePrevost, Catherine E; Linnan, Laura; Sanchez-Birkhead, Ana; Mooney, Kathi

    2017-06-23

    Pesticide exposure is associated with deleterious health effects. Prior studies suggest Latino farmworkers perceive little control over their occupational health. Using the Health Belief Model as a theoretical guide, we explored the perceptions of Latino farmworkers working in tobacco in North Carolina (n = 72) about benefits and facilitators of pesticide protective behaviors as well as barriers, and strategies to overcome barriers to their use. Interviews were conducted with participants at farmworker housing during non-work time. Qualitative data were analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Farmworkers recognized pesticide protective behaviors as helping them to not get sick and stay healthy. Farmworkers perceived work experience as facilitating protective behaviors. Wetness in the field was the most commonly cited barrier to protective behavior use. To overcome this barrier, farmworkers suggested use of water-resistant outerwear, as well as packing a change of clothes for mid-day, with space and time to change provided by employers. Examination of the efficacy and feasibility of farmworkers' suggestions for addressing barriers is warranted. Training and behavior modeling by experienced peers may improve behavior adoption and perceived control.

  1. Coupled Multi-physical Simulations for the Assessment of Nuclear Waste Repository Concepts: Modeling, Software Development and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massmann, J.; Nagel, T.; Bilke, L.; Böttcher, N.; Heusermann, S.; Fischer, T.; Kumar, V.; Schäfers, A.; Shao, H.; Vogel, P.; Wang, W.; Watanabe, N.; Ziefle, G.; Kolditz, O.

    2016-12-01

    As part of the German site selection process for a high-level nuclear waste repository, different repository concepts in the geological candidate formations rock salt, clay stone and crystalline rock are being discussed. An open assessment of these concepts using numerical simulations requires physical models capturing the individual particularities of each rock type and associated geotechnical barrier concept to a comparable level of sophistication. In a joint work group of the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) and the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), scientists of the UFZ are developing and implementing multiphysical process models while BGR scientists apply them to large scale analyses. The advances in simulation methods for waste repositories are incorporated into the open-source code OpenGeoSys. Here, recent application-driven progress in this context is highlighted. A robust implementation of visco-plasticity with temperature-dependent properties into a framework for the thermo-mechanical analysis of rock salt will be shown. The model enables the simulation of heat transport along with its consequences on the elastic response as well as on primary and secondary creep or the occurrence of dilatancy in the repository near field. Transverse isotropy, non-isothermal hydraulic processes and their coupling to mechanical stresses are taken into account for the analysis of repositories in clay stone. These processes are also considered in the near field analyses of engineered barrier systems, including the swelling/shrinkage of the bentonite material. The temperature-dependent saturation evolution around the heat-emitting waste container is described by different multiphase flow formulations. For all mentioned applications, we illustrate the workflow from model development and implementation, over verification and validation, to repository-scale application simulations using methods of high performance computing.

  2. Introducing the slime mold graph repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirnberger, M.; Mehlhorn, K.; Mehlhorn, T.

    2017-07-01

    We introduce the slime mold graph repository or SMGR, a novel data collection promoting the visibility, accessibility and reuse of experimental data revolving around network-forming slime molds. By making data readily available to researchers across multiple disciplines, the SMGR promotes novel research as well as the reproduction of original results. While SMGR data may take various forms, we stress the importance of graph representations of slime mold networks due to their ease of handling and their large potential for reuse. Data added to the SMGR stands to gain impact beyond initial publications or even beyond its domain of origin. We initiate the SMGR with the comprehensive Kist Europe data set focusing on the slime mold Physarum polycephalum, which we obtained in the course of our original research. It contains sequences of images documenting growth and network formation of the organism under constant conditions. Suitable image sequences depicting the typical P. polycephalum network structures are used to compute sequences of graphs faithfully capturing them. Given such sequences, node identities are computed, tracking the development of nodes over time. Based on this information we demonstrate two out of many possible ways to begin exploring the data. The entire data set is well-documented, self-contained and ready for inspection at http://smgr.mpi-inf.mpg.de.

  3. Traits and types of health data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ted D

    2014-01-01

    We review traits of reusable clinical data and offer a typology of clinical repositories with a range of known examples. Sources of clinical data suitable for research can be classified into types reflecting the data's institutional origin, original purpose, level of integration and governance. Primary data nearly always come from research studies and electronic medical records. Registries collect data on focused populations primarily to track outcomes, often using observational research methods. Warehouses are institutional information utilities repackaging clinical care data. Collections organize data from more organizations than a data warehouse, and more original data sources than a registry. Therefore even if they are heavily curated, their level of internal integration, and thus ease of use, can be less than other types. Federations are like collections except that physical control over data is distributed among donor organizations. Federations sometimes federate, giving a second level of organization. While the size, in number of patients, varies widely within each type of data source, populations over 10 K are relatively numerous, and much larger populations can be seen in warehouses and federations. One imagined ideal structure for research progress has been called an "Information Commons". It would have longitudinal, multi-leveled (environmental through molecular) data on a large population of identified, consenting individuals. These are qualities whose achievement would require long term commitment on the part of many data donors, including a willingness to make their data public.

  4. Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The LWR spent fuels discussed in Volume 1 of this report comprise about 99% of all domestic non-reprocessed spent fuel. In this report we discuss other types of spent fuels which, although small in relative quantity, consist of a number of diverse types, sizes, and compositions. Many of these fuels are candidates for repository disposal. Some non-LWR spent fuels are currently reprocessed or are scheduled for reprocessing in DOE facilities at the Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It appears likely that the reprocessing of fuels that have been reprocessed in the past will continue and that the resulting high-level wastes will become part of defense HLW. However, it is not entirely clear in some cases whether a given fuel will be reprocessed, especially in cases where pretreatment may be needed before reprocessing, or where the enrichment is not high enough to make reprocessing attractive. Some fuels may be canistered, while others may require special means of disposal. The major categories covered in this chapter include HTGR spent fuel from the Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom-1 reactors, research and test reactor fuels, and miscellaneous fuels, and wastes generated from the decommissioning of facilities.

  5. The National Ignition Facility Data Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, R W; Adams, P A; Azevedo, S G; Beeler, R G; Foxworthy, C B; Frazier, T M; Hutton, M S; Lagin, L J; Townsend, S L

    2009-09-24

    NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. This presentation discusses the design, architecture, and implementation of the NIF Data Repository (NDR), which provides for the capture and long-term digital storage of peta-scale datasets produced by conducting experimental campaigns. The NDR is a federated database that provides for the capture of: experimental campaign plans, machine configuration & calibration data, raw experimental results and the processed results produced by scientific workflows. The NDR provides for metadata, pedigree, quality, effectivity, versioning and access control for each of the data categories. A critical capability of the NDR is its extensive data provisioning capabilities and protocols that enable scientists, local and remote alike, to review the results of analysis produced by the NDR's analysis pipeline or to download datasets for offline analysis. The NDR provides for the capture of these locally-produced analysis results to enable both peer review and follow-on automated analysis.

  6. Compositional and Microstructural Evolution of Olivine During Pulsed Laser Irradiation: Insights Based on a FIB/Field-Emission TEM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Loeffler, M. J.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The use of pulsed laser irradiation to simulate the short duration, high-energy conditions characteristic of micrometeorite impacts is now an established approach in experimental space weathering studies. The laser generates both melt and vapor deposits that contain nanophase metallic Fe (npFe(sup 0)) grains with size distributions and optical properties similar to those in natural impact-generated melt and vapor deposits. There remains uncertainty, however, about how well lasers simulate the mechanical work and internal (thermal) energy partitioning that occurs in actual impacts. We are currently engaged in making a direct comparison between the products of laser irradiation and experimental/natural hypervelocity impacts. An initial step reported here is to use analytical TEM is to attain a better understanding of how the microstructure and composition of laser deposits evolve over multiple cycles of pulsed laser irradiation. Experimental Methods: We irradiated pressed-powder pellets of San Carlos olivine (Fo(sub 90)) with up to 99 rastered pulses of a GAM ArF excimer laser. The irradiated surface of the sample were characterized by SEM imaging and areas were selected for FIB cross sectioning for TEM study using an FEI Quanta dual-beam electron/focused ion beam instrument. FIB sections were characterized using a JEOL2500SE analytical field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM) optimized for quantitative element mapping at less than 10 nm spatial resolutions. Results: In the SEM the 99 pulse pressed pellet sample shows a complex, inhomogeneous, distribution of laser-generated material, largely concentrated in narrow gaps and larger depressions between grains. Local concentrations of npFe0 spherules 0.1 to 1 micrometers in size are visible within these deposits in SEM back-scatter images. Fig. 1 shows bright-field STEM images of a FIB cross-section of a one of these deposits that continuously covers the top and sloping side of an

  7. Estimability of recharge through groundwater model calibration: Insights from a field-scale steady-state example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowling, Matthew J.; Werner, Adrian D.

    2016-09-01

    The ability of groundwater models to inform recharge through calibration is hampered by the correlation between recharge and aquifer parameters such as hydraulic conductivity (K), and the insufficient information content of observation datasets. These factors collectively result in non-uniqueness of parameter estimates. Previous studies that jointly estimate spatially distributed recharge and hydraulic parameters are limited to synthetic test cases and/or do not evaluate the effect of non-uniqueness. The extent to which recharge can be informed by calibration is largely unknown for practical situations, in which complexities such as parameter heterogeneities are inherent. In this study, a systematic investigation of recharge, inferred through model calibration, is undertaken using a series of numerical experiments that include varying degrees of hydraulic parameter information. The analysis involves the use of a synthetic reality, based on a regional-scale, highly parameterised, steady-state groundwater model of Uley South Basin, South Australia. Parameter identifiability is assessed to evaluate the ability of parameters to be estimated uniquely. Results show that a reasonable inference of recharge (average recharge error 100 K values across the 129 km2 study area). The introduction of pumping data into the calibration reduces error in both the average recharge and its spatial variability, whereas submarine groundwater discharge (as a calibration target) reduces average recharge error only. Nonetheless, the estimation of steady-state recharge through inverse modelling may be impractical for real-world settings, limited by the need for unrealistic amounts of hydraulic parameter and groundwater level data. This study provides a useful benchmark for evaluating the extent to which field-scale groundwater models can be used to inform recharge subject to practical data-availability limitations.

  8. National Geoscience Data Repository System, Phase III: Implementation and operation of the repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    American Geological Institute

    2000-03-13

    The American Geological Institute's (AGI) National Geoscience Data Repository System (NGDRS) was initiated in response to the fact that billions of dollars worth of domestic geoscience data are in jeopardy of being irrevocably lost or destroyed as a consequence of the ongoing downsizing of the U.S. energy and minerals industry. Preservation and access to domestic geological and geophysical data are critical to the energy security and economic prosperity of the nation. There is a narrow window of opportunity to act before valuable data are destroyed. The data truly represent a national treasure and immediate steps must be taken to assure their preservation.

  9. Feeding the fledgling repository: starting an institutional repository at an academic health sciences library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Ann; Kipnis, Dan

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the Scott Memorial Library at Thomas Jefferson University started an institutional repository (IR), the Jefferson Digital Commons (JDC) . Originally intended as a showcase for faculty scholarship, it has evolved to serve also as a university press for original journals and newsletters, and as an institutional archive. Many lessons have been learned about marketing techniques, common IR issues, and advantages of an IR for a library. IR recruitment has come to be viewed as yet another form of collection development and has been integrated into all forms of the Library's outreach. Jefferson's academic health sciences environment has proven similar to other academic environments on issues of acceptance and participation.

  10. SLOPE FAILURE MECHANISMS IN COHESIVE SOILS: INSIGHTS FROM THEORETICAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF FIELD AND LABORATORY-TRIGGERED EVENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malet, J.; Spickermann, A.; van Asch, T.

    2009-12-01

    A landslide can show a variety of failure modes which depends on the given conditions of the slope such as geometry, material characteristics and presence of discontinuities. Besides the gravity as main loading factor, it is assumed that slope failures are often caused by hydrological processes. The identification and modelling of failure modes and triggering mechanisms are essential requirements in landslide forecasting and in the design of reliable early warning systems. This work is an attempt to get a better understanding of the mode of failure and possible failure mechanisms taking place in cohesive slopes. Theoretical analysis has been carried out on the basis of (1) field observations of two failure events of the clay-rich Super-Sauze mudslide (Southeast France) and (2) small-scale landslides triggered in a flume using clay from Zoelen (Netherlands) and reworked black marls from Super-Sauze. To investigate the failure behaviour numerically a simple analytical model, named 2LM (Landslide Liquefaction Model) (van Asch et al. 2006; van Asch & Malet, in press) is used. The model assumes that liquefaction is related to previous development of slip surfaces, i.e. deformation of the landslide body (sliding blocks, slumps) during motion leading to the generation of excess pore water pressure and thus to fluidization. The model is based on the theory of limiting equilibrium dividing the area above an estimated slip surface into slices of constant width. Immediately after failure, the difference in movement for each slice is calculated assuming a viscous shear band and using the Coulomb-viscous model. The differential movements conduct to differential strains which are transferred to excess pore water pressures. The potential fluidization is then evaluated for each slice in relation to the displacements. Results from an application of this model on the two slump-type failures that occurred in the Super-Sauze mudslide are presented. Then the model is applied to the

  11. The stoichiometry of root exudation- insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, J. E.; Finzi, A. C.

    2011-12-01

    Forest trees allocate large amounts of C belowground to fuel root processes and the activity of soil microbes through root exudation, rhizodeposition, and the support of mycorrhizal associations. There is a growing recognition that the microbial response to this flux of C belowground can have large impacts on ecosystem function. Here, we use a theoretical enzyme-driven model of decomposition and a field experiment of exudation treatments using root simulators to develop the idea that the response of decomposition to root exudation (i.e. priming of decomposition) depends on the interaction between exudate and microbial stoichiometry (C:N ratios). We added an exudation module to an existing model of decomposition (Schimel and Weintraub, 2003, Soil Biology & Biochemistry). In this model, microbes expend resources (C and N) for maintenance, growth, and the synthesis of exo-enzymes. These exo-enzymes solubilize soil organic C and N (SOC and SON) into dissolved forms (DOC and DON), which are then available for microbial uptake. Exuding DOC had little influence on priming of SOC decomposition, because microbes became N-limited following an exudate pulse and were thus unable to synthesize the N-rich exo-enzymes. However, exuding small amounts of DON in addition to DOC resulted in a large priming pulse of SOC decomposition, as the microbes utilized the DON for exo-enzyme synthesis, and the resulting pulse of enzyme activity decomposed SOC and SON. We tested these model simulations at Harvard Forest (MA- USA) by pumping exudation solutions into forest soils at realistic rates for 6-weeks using an automated system of peristaltic pumps and microlysimeters. Delivering C and N exudates with a C:N ratio of 10 significantly increased soil respiration, microbial biomass, and rates of exo-enzyme activity, while adding C exudates or water only did not affect these measurements of microbial biomass and activity. These results suggest that plants may achieve a positive return on

  12. Xylem embolism alleviated by ion-mediated increase in hydraulic conductivity of functional xylem: insights from field measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifilò, Patrizia; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Salleo, Sebastiano; Callea, Katia; Nardini, Andrea

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that, in some species, xylem hydraulic conductivity (K(h)) increases with increasing cation concentration of xylem sap. Evidence indicates that K(h) increases as a result of the de-swelling of pit membrane pectins caused by cation neutralization of polygalacturonanes. We tested whether this ionic effect partly compensates for the embolism-induced loss of stem hydraulic conductivity (PLC) by increasing K(h) of functioning conduits. We report changes in PLC, leaf water status and potassium concentration ([K(+)]) of xylem sap measured in April and July in two evergreens (Ceratonia siliqua L. and Phytolacca dioica L.) and one deciduous tree (Platanus orientalis L.) growing in the field in Sicily. In summer, Ceratonia siliqua and Phytolacca dioica showed similar native embolism (PLC = 30-40%) and [K(+)] of xylem sap (14 to 17 mM), and K(h) of stems perfused with 10 to 25 mM KCl increased by 15 to 18% compared with K(h) of stems perfused with a low concentration of a multi-ionic solution. In contrast, native [K(+)] of sap of Platanus orientalis was 50% of that in the two evergreens in summer, with a parallel lack of detectable changes in PLC that was below 10% in both spring and summer. The ionic effect was PLC-dependent: the enhancement of K(h) induced by 10 to 25 mM KCl changed from 15% for fully hydrated stems to 50-75% for stems with PLC = 50%. In Ceratonia siliqua, PLC was less than 10% in spring and about 40% in summer; concurrently, xylem sap [K(+)] increased from 3 to about 15 mM. This [K(+)] at the recorded PLC would cause an increase in residual K(h) of about 30%. Hence, the actual reduction in water transport capacity of Ceratonia siliqua stems in summer is about 20%. Similar calculations for Phytolacca dioica suggest that the actual loss of hydraulic conductivity in stems of this species in summer would be only about 10%, and not 30% as suggested by hydraulic measurements performed in the laboratory. We conclude that an increase in

  13. Are BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachy, Aurélie; Aubinet, Marc; Schoon, Niels; Amelynck, Crist; Bodson, Bernard; Moureaux, Christine; Heinesch, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Maize is the most important C4 crop worldwide. It is also the second most important crop worldwide (C3 and C4 mixed), and is a dominant crop in some world regions. Therefore, it can potentially influence local climate and air quality through its exchanges of gases with the atmosphere. Among others, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are known to influence the atmospheric composition and thereby modify greenhouse gases lifetime and pollutant formation in the atmosphere. However, so far, only two studies have dealt with BVOC exchanges from maize. Moreover, these studies were conducted on a limited range of meteorological and phenological conditions, so that the knowledge of BVOC exchanges by this crop remains poor. Here, we present the first BVOC measurement campaign performed at ecosystem-scale on a maize field during a whole growing season. It was carried out in the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (LTO), an ICOS site. BVOC fluxes were measured by the disjunct by mass-scanning eddy covariance technique with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer for BVOC mixing ratios measurements. Outstanding results are (i) BVOC exchanges from soil were as important as BVOC exchanges from maize itself; (ii) BVOC exchanges observed on our site were much lower than exchanges observed by other maize studies, even under normalized temperature and light conditions, (iii) they were also lower than those observed on other crops grown in Europe. Lastly (iv), BVOC exchanges observed on our site under standard environmental conditions, i.e., standard emission factors SEF, were much lower than those currently considered by BVOC exchange up-scaling models. From those observations, we deduced that (i) soil BVOC exchanges should be better understood and should be incorporated in terrestrial BVOC exchanges models, and that (ii) SEF for the C4 crop plant functional type cannot be evaluated at global scale but should be determined for each important agronomic and pedo-climatic region

  14. Preservation of Earth Science Data History with Digital Content Repository Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Pan, J.; Shrestha, B.; Cook, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    provide intuitive graphic representation of the data processing history. Each data product is also associated with a formal metadata record in FGDC standards, and the main fields of the FGDC record are indexed for search, and are displayed as attributes of the data product. These features enable data users to better understand and consume a data product. The representation of data processing history in digital repository can further promote long-term data preservation. Lineage information is a major aspect to make digital data understandable and usable long time into the future. Derivation references can be setup between digital objects not only within a single digital repository, but also across multiple distributed digital repositories. Along with emerging identification mechanisms, such as Digital Object Identifier (DOI), a flexible distributed digital repository network can be setup to better preserve digital content. In this presentation, we describe how digital content repository technology can be used to manage, preserve, and deliver digital data processing history information in Earth Science research domain, with selected data archived in ORNL DAAC and Model and Synthesis Thematic Data Center (MAST-DC) as testing targets.

  15. Open and regionalised spectrum repositories for emerging countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Arcia-Moret, A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available the motivations and challenges for collecting spectrum measurements in developing regions and discuss a scalable system for communities to gather and provide access to White Spaces information through open and regionalised repositories. We further discuss two...

  16. Study of Womens Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Biospecimen Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SWAN Repository is the biospecimen bank of the SWAN study. All stored specimens are from the 3,302 SWAN participants, collected across the 14 clinic visits...

  17. Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BioGRID is an online interaction repository with data on raw protein and genetic interactions from major model organism species. All interaction data are freely...

  18. Waste package/repository impact study: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-09-01

    The Waste Package/Repository Impact Study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the current reference salt waste package in the salt repository conceptual design. All elements of the repository that may impact waste package parameters, i.e., (size, weight, heat load) were evaluated. The repository elements considered included waste hoist feasibility, transporter and emplacement machine feasibility, subsurface entry dimensions, feasibility of emplacement configuration, and temperature limits. The evaluations are discussed in detail with supplemental technical data included in Appendices to this report, as appropriate. Results and conclusions of the evaluations are discussed in light of the acceptability of the current reference waste package as the basis for salt conceptual design. Finally, recommendations are made relative to the salt project position on the application of the reference waste package as a basis for future design activities. 31 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Spent nuclear fuel for disposal in the KBS-3 repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahn, Per; Moren, Lena; Wiborgh, Maria

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input to the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site as well as to the operational safety report, SR-Operation. The report presents the spent fuel to be deposited, and the requirements on the handling and selection of fuel assemblies for encapsulation that follows from that it shall be deposited in the KBS-3 repository. An overview of the handling and a simulation of the encapsulation and the resulting canisters to be deposited are presented. Finally, the initial state of the encapsulated spent nuclear fuel is given. The initial state comprises the radionuclide inventory and other data required for the assessment of the long-term safety

  20. On-line repository of audiovisual material feminist research methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Prado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes a collection of audiovisual material available in the repository of the Interdisciplinary Seminar of Feminist Research Methodology SIMReF (http://www.simref.net.

  1. DRIVER: Building a Sustainable Infrastructure of European Scientific Repositories

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The acronym DRIVER stands for “Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research”. Ten partners from eight countries have entered into an international partnership, to connect and network as a first step more than 50 physically distributed institutional repositories to one, large-scale, virtual Knowledge Base of European research. Universities and research organisations around the world currently build repositories, whose overall number is estimated to exceed 600 by far. As the academic information landscape is already highly fragmented, DRIVER is the trans-national catalyst to overcome local, isolated efforts and to stop fragmentation by offering one harmonised, virtual knowledge resource. DRIVER currently builds a production quality test-bed to assist the development of a knowledge infrastructure across Europe. DRIVER as a project, funded by the “Research Infrastructure” unit of the European Commission, is also preparing for the future expansion and upgrade of the Digital Repository in...

  2. Enforcing Interoperability with the Open Archives Initiative Repository Explorer

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the Open Archives Initiative (OAI), protocol validation procedures, interactive browsing, and the OAI repository explorer tool. Presented at the ACM/IEEE JCDL 2001 Conference

  3. PEPlife: A Repository of the Half-life of Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Deepika; Prakash, Satya; Anand, Priya; Kaur, Harpreet; Agrawal, Piyush; Mehta, Ayesha; Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Sandeep; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2016-11-01

    Short half-life is one of the key challenges in the field of therapeutic peptides. Various studies have reported enhancement in the stability of peptides using methods like chemical modifications, D-amino acid substitution, cyclization, replacement of labile aminos acids, etc. In order to study this scattered data, there is a pressing need for a repository dedicated to the half-life of peptides. To fill this lacuna, we have developed PEPlife (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/peplife), a manually curated resource of experimentally determined half-life of peptides. PEPlife contains 2229 entries covering 1193 unique peptides. Each entry provides detailed information of the peptide, like its name, sequence, half-life, modifications, the experimental assay for determining half-life, biological nature and activity of the peptide. We also maintain SMILES and structures of peptides. We have incorporated web-based modules to offer user-friendly data searching and browsing in the database. PEPlife integrates numerous tools to perform various types of analysis such as BLAST, Smith-Waterman algorithm, GGSEARCH, Jalview and MUSTANG. PEPlife would augment the understanding of different factors that affect the half-life of peptides like modifications, sequence, length, route of delivery of the peptide, etc. We anticipate that PEPlife will be useful for the researchers working in the area of peptide-based therapeutics.

  4. Assessment of backfill design for KBS-3V repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keto, Paula (B+tech, Eurajoki (Finland)); Dixon, David (AECL, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Jonsson, Esther; Gunnarsson, David (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Boergesson, Lennart (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Hansen, Johanna (Posiva (Finland))

    2009-12-15

    Posiva and SKB initiated a joint programme BACLO (Backfilling and Closure of the Deep repository) in 2003 with the aim to develop methods and materials for backfilling of deposition tunnels. This report summarises the work done in the third and final phase of the BACLO programme. The main objective of this phase was to study how the various processes active during backfill installation and saturation as well as technical constraints affect its design basis. The work focused on the performance and technical feasibility of a block backfill concept, which calls for filling the majority of the tunnel volume with pre-compacted backfill blocks and the remaining volume with bentonite pellets. Several backfill composition alternatives were chosen for study and they consisted of clay materials with differing amounts of swelling minerals. A large body of information was gained on the effect of different processes on the performance of these backfill options, e.g. water inflow, piping, erosion, self-healing, homogenisation and interaction between backfill and buffer in various laboratory and small-scale field tests. More practical tests included e.g. studies how the blocks and pellets could be installed to the deposition tunnel. Based on the new information on the effect of the processes investigated and the estimated achievable block filling degree and backfill density, recommendations were made concerning material selection, backfill layout and technical issues. In addition, issues requiring further attention to verify the long-term performance of the proposed backfill concept are identified and listed

  5. Geometries of hyperextended continental crust in northeastern continental brazilian margin: insights from potential field and seismic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, José; Barbosa, José; Ribeiro, Vanessa; Oliveira, Jefferson; Filho, Osvaldo; Buarque, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The study region encompasses a set of three basins located at Northeast Brazilian continental margin: Pernambuco (south sector), Paraíba and Natal platform (north sector). These basins were formed during the last stage of separation between South America and African plates during Cretaceous. The continental breakup in these regions occurred probably during the Middle-Upper Albian (~102 m.y). The adjacent basement rocks belong to Borborema Province (BP), which was formed due a complex superposition between Pre-Cambrian orogenic cycles. The structural framework of BP is dominated by large shear zones that divided this province in three main tectonic domains: South, Central and North. The Pernambuco Basin is located in the South Domain and the Paraíba and Natal platform basins are related to the Central Domain. The tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Pernambuco Basin was influenced by oblique rifting (~ 35° to rift axis) and a thermal anomaly probably caused by the Santa Helena hotspot. The north sector represents a continental shelf characterized by basement high with a narrow platform and an abrupt shelf break on transition to the abyssal plain. The continental platform break of this sector was parallel to the rift axis. In this way, we present a regional structural interpretation of these sectors of Brazilian rifted margin based on interpretation and 2D forward modeling of potential field and 2D seismic data. The magnetic maps (Reduction to magnetic pole and Analytic signal) revealed the influence of an alternating pattern of large narrow magnetic and non-magnetic lineaments, oriented NE-SW, E-W and NW-SE. In the Pernambuco Basin these lineaments (NE-SW and E-W) are related to shear zones in the hyperextended basement which is interpreted as a continuation of the granitic-gneissic and metasedimentary rocks of the South Domain of BP. The Paraíba and Natal platform basins show a slight change in the orientation of structures trending E-W (shear zones in

  6. Relative strength of lithospheric mantle compared to granulite lower crust in orogenic roots: insight from field laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusbach, V.; Ulrich, S.; Schulmann, K.

    2009-04-01

    The continental lithosphere is composed by strong lithospheric mantle and weak lower crust for average and hot geotherms. However, some experiments and seismic studies show that the strength contrast between mantle and crust can vary in order of several magnitudes. The internal zone of the European Variscan orogen (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic) contains large complexes of Ky - K-feldspar granulites with incorporated spinel and garnet peridotites that can respond to question of mantle-lower crust strength contrast from the field perspective. The studied spinel-garnet harzburgite body (the Mohelno peridotite) represents probably a fragment of strongly depleted oceanic lithosphere showing peak conditions of 22,4-27,6 kbar and 1120-1275°C. The peridotite forms large folded sheet with steep hinge and vertical axial plane. It exhibits presence of spinel along the outer arc and the internal part of the fold and garnet along inner arc, both related to coarse-grained orthopyroxene - olivine microstructure. This coarse microstructure is dynamically recrystallized forming fine-grained matrix (~10 - 20 microns) and the EBSD measurements show presence of axial [100] LPO olivine pattern dominantly along the outer arc of the fold and in spinel harzburgite, while the inner arc of the fold and partly also garnet harzburgite reveals presence of axial [010] LPO pattern. Steep foliation and sub-horizontal to moderately plunging lineation determined from olivine EBSD data defines the shape of the megafold. Host rocks exhibit transposed mylonitic fabric S1-2 revealing peak conditions of 18 kbar, 800°C and heterogeneous D3 retrogression at about 10 - 7 kbar, 650°C. The foliation S2-3 is fully concordant with limbs of peridotite megafold, but close to the outer arc it is affected by asymmetrical folds with axial planar leucosomes coherent with the shape of the megafold hinge zone. In contrast, the S2 in the internal part of the megafold is affected by sinistral and dextral melt

  7. SBOLme: a Repository of SBOL Parts for Metabolic Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-12

    The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) is a community-driven open language to promote standardization in synthetic biology. To support the use of SBOL in metabolic engineering, we developed SBOLme, the first open-access repository of SBOL 2-compliant biochemical parts for a wide range of metabolic engineering applications. The URL of our repository is http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/sbolme.

  8. NIDDK data repository: a central collection of clinical trial data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall R David

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases have established central repositories for the collection of DNA, biological samples, and clinical data to be catalogued at a single site. Here we present an overview of the site which stores the clinical data and links to biospecimens. Description The NIDDK Data repository is a web-enabled resource cataloguing clinical trial data and supporting information from NIDDK supported studies. The Data Repository allows for the co-location of multiple electronic datasets that were created as part of clinical investigations. The Data Repository does not serve the role of a Data Coordinating Center, but rather as a warehouse for the clinical findings once the trials have been completed. Because both biological and genetic samples are collected from many of the studies, a data management system for the cataloguing and retrieval of samples was developed. Conclusion The Data Repository provides a unique resource for researchers in the clinical areas supported by NIDDK. In addition to providing a warehouse of data, Data Repository staff work with the users to educate them on the datasets as well as assist them in the acquisition of multiple data sets for cross-study analysis. Unlike the majority of biological databases, the Data Repository acts both as a catalogue for data, biosamples, and genetic materials and as a central processing point for the requests for all biospecimens. Due to regulations on the use of clinical data, the ultimate release of that data is governed under NIDDK data release policies. The Data Repository serves as the conduit for such requests.

  9. A metadata-driven approach to data repository design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Matthew J; McLean, Andrew; Rzepa, Henry S

    2017-01-01

    The design and use of a metadata-driven data repository for research data management is described. Metadata is collected automatically during the submission process whenever possible and is registered with DataCite in accordance with their current metadata schema, in exchange for a persistent digital object identifier. Two examples of data preview are illustrated, including the demonstration of a method for integration with commercial software that confers rich domain-specific data analytics without introducing customisation into the repository itself.

  10. Interdisciplinary differences in attitudes towards deposit in institutional repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, James

    2005-01-01

    The attitudes and behaviours of academics from different disciplines towards depositing their work in institutional repositories are compared. This is achieved through the use of a survey strategy, and by examination of the contents of a twenty-five UK institutional repositories. The survey targets humanities academics, and the data is compared to that from previous surveys focusing on scientific, technical and medical (STM) disciplines. The number of humanities documents in institutiona...

  11. Training Librarians for 21st Century Repository Services: Emerging Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Emasealu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviewed the emerging roles of the 21st century librarians, charged with the responsibility to manage repository services across libraries in present-day information technology environment. Librarians need to be trained and empowered with requisite skills and knowledge needed for successful management of the ICT driven repository initiatives that the 21st century demands. Literature was reviewed on the roles and responsibilities of librarians, training needs and opportunities, career path and recruitment of librarians, and community support necessary for effective and efficient implementation and management of repository initiatives. This entails the ability to comprehend trends and change patterns which are essential for providing research focused and user-friendly models in open repository services that are based on thorough analytical understanding of the challenges of emerging trends. To achieve this requires the training and retraining of librarians to reposition them as information specialists in their career path. The role of the library as an integral part of its social environment is to educate the community about the existence of an open repository by building partnership with community-oriented research centres through seminars, workshops, symposium, training, and awareness programmes. The study recommends that librarians should strategize and collaborate with researchers to make open repository an essential research tool.

  12. Eprints Institutional Repository Software: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike R. Beazley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting up an institutional repository (IR can be a daunting task. There are many software packages out there, some commercial, some open source, all of which offer different features and functionality. This article will provide some thoughts about one of these software packages: Eprints. Eprints was one of the first IR software packages to appear and has been available for 10 years. It is under continual development by its creators at the University of Southampton and the current version is v3.2.3. Eprints is open-source, meaning that anyone can download and make use of the software for free and the software can be modified however the user likes. This presents clear advantages for institutions will smaller budgets and also for institutions that have programmers on staff. Eprints requires some additional software to run: Linux, Apache, MySQL, and Perl. This software is all open-source and already present on the servers of many institutions. There is now a version of Eprints that will run on Windows servers as well, which will make the adoption of Eprints even easier for some. In brief, Eprints is an excellent choice for any institution looking to get an IR up and running quickly and easily. Installation is straightforward as is the initial configuration. Once the IR is up and running, users may upload documents and provide the necessary metadata for the records by filling out a simple web form. Embargoes on published documents are handled elegantly by the software, and the software links to the SHERPA/RoMEO database so authors can easily verify their rights regarding IR submissions. Eprints has some drawbacks, which will be discussed later in the review, but on the whole it is easy to recommend to anyone looking to start an IR. However, It is less clear that an institution with an existing IR based on another software package should migrate to Eprints.

  13. IMPLEMENTATION AND OPERATION OF THE REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus Milling

    2003-10-01

    The NGDRS has facilitated 85% of cores, cuttings, and other data identified available for transfer to the public sector. Over 12 million linear feet of cores and cuttings, in addition to large numbers of paleontological samples and are now available for public use. To date, with industry contributions for program operations and data transfers, the NGDRS project has realized a 6.5 to 1 return on investment to Department of Energy funds. Large-scale transfers of seismic data have been evaluated, but based on the recommendation of the NGDRS steering committee, cores have been given priority because of the vast scale of the seismic data problem relative to the available funding. The rapidly changing industry conditions have required that the primary core and cuttings preservation strategy evolve as well. Additionally, the NGDRS clearinghouse is evaluating the viability of transferring seismic data covering the western shelf of the Florida Gulf Coast. AGI remains actively involved in working to realize the vision of the National Research Council's report of geoscience data preservation. GeoTrek has been ported to Linux and MySQL, ensuring a purely open-source version of the software. This effort is key in ensuring long-term viability of the software so that is can continue basic operation regardless of specific funding levels. Work has been on a major revision of GeoTrek, using the open-source MapServer project and its related MapScript language. This effort will address a number of key technology issues that appear to be rising for 2003, including the discontinuation of the use of Java in future Microsoft operating systems. The recent donation of BPAmoco's Houston core facility to the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology has provided substantial short-term relief of the space constraints for public repository space.

  14. Review of Quality Assurance in SKB's Repository Research Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, T.W. [Galson Sciences Ltd, 5 Grosvenor House, Melton Road, Oakham(United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    term experiments might influence the repository development programme and licence application. It is not clear whether or how data acquired before SKB's current QA system was introduced have been formally qualified, or whether the QA system includes procedures for such data qualification. SKB's QA programme requires that contractors working on research projects produce their own, or use SKB's, quality plan. Clay Technology appears only recently to have implemented a formal QA system for work in its laboratories. Some of the experiments at the HRL involve collaborations of several radioactive waste management organisations. It is unclear how SKB's QA requirements are implemented through all components of the work on these experiments that might be relevant to the SKB repository programme. SKB has undertaken pilot studies, over-specified controls and instrumentation, and installed alarmed monitoring systems in order to mitigate risks of experiment failure. These measures are proving invaluable in ensuring the success of the experiments because numerous equipment failures have occurred. Work on experiments at the HRL is recorded on logs and field notes. There has been no systematic use of scientific notebooks for the experiments undertaken at the Clay Technology laboratories, although project information and data are stored in spreadsheets. SKB maintains lists of documents produced for experiments at the HRL, including information on the review and approval status of each document. Reports of experiments undertaken at the Clay Technology laboratories are published by SKB, but this project was unable to identify any systematic formal document review process. Little information has been obtained with regard to the usability of results from ongoing experiments. Generally. there appear to be no firm plans on how to abstract data from such experiments for use in repository safety assessments.

  15. International perspective on repositories for low level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Pers, Karin; Almen, Ylva (SKB International AB (Sweden))

    2011-12-15

    Nuclear energy production gives rise to different types of radioactive waste. The use of nuclear isotopes within the research, industry and medical sectors also generates radioactive waste. To protect man and the environment from radiation the waste is isolated and contained by deposition in repositories. These repositories may have various designs regarding location, barriers etc depending on the potential danger of the waste. In Sweden, low- and intermediate level waste (LILW) is disposed of in the SFR repository in Forsmark. The repository is located 60 metres down into the bedrock under the bottom of the sea and covered by 6 metres of water. It is planned to extend SFR to accommodate decommissioning waste from the dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power facilities and also for the additional operation waste caused by the planned prolonged operation time. When planning the extension consultations will be carried out with the host municipality, authorities, organisations and general public. In planning the extension, SKB has performed a worldwide compilation of how other countries have, or plan to, handle the final disposal of similar wastes. The aim of this report is to give a brief description of LILW repositories worldwide; including general brief descriptions of many facilities, descriptions of the waste and the barriers as well as safety assessments for a few chosen repositories which represent different designs. The latter is performed, where possible, to compare certain features against the Swedish SFR. To provide a background and context to this study, international organisations and conventions are also presented along with internationally accepted principles regarding the management of radioactive waste. Similar to SFR, suitable locations for the repositories have, in many countries, been found at sites that already have, or used to have nuclear activities, such as reactor sites. Abandoned and disused mines, such as the salt mines in Germany, also

  16. Southern Nevada residents` views about the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository and related issues: A comparative analysis of urban and rural survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krannich, R.S.; Little, R.L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Mushkatel, A.; Pijawka, K.D.; Jones, P. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1991-10-01

    two separate surveys were undertaken in 1988 to ascertain southern Nevadans` views about the Yucca Mountain repository and related issues. The first of these studies focused on the attitudes and perceptions of residents in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The second study addressed similar issues, but focused on the views of residents in six rural communities in three counties adjacent to the Yucca Mountain site. However, parallel findings from the two data sets have not been jointly analyzed in order to identify ways in which the views and orientations of residents in the rural and urban study areas may be similar or different. The purpose of this report is to develop and present a comparative assessment of selected issues addressed in the rural and urban surveys. Because both urban and rural populations would potentially be impacted by the Yucca Mountain repository, such an analysis will provide important insights into possible repository impacts on the well-being of residents throughout southern Nevada.

  17. Role of natural analogs in performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, B.; Wittmeyer, G.W. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analysis, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Mathematical models of the flow of water and transport of radionuclides in porous media will be used to assess the ability of deep geologic repositories to safely contain nuclear waste. These models must, in some sense, be validated to ensure that they adequately describe the physical processes occurring within the repository and its geologic setting. Inasmuch as the spatial and temporal scales over which these models must be applied in performance assessment are very large, validation of these models against laboratory and small-scale field experiments may be considered inadequate. Natural analogs may provide validation data that are representative of physico-chemical processes that occur over spatial and temporal scales as large or larger than those relevant to repository design. The authors discuss the manner in which natural analog data may be used to increase confidence in performance assessment models and conclude that, while these data may be suitable for testing the basic laws governing flow and transport, there is insufficient control of boundary and initial conditions and forcing functions to permit quantitative validation of complex, spatially distributed flow and transport models. The authors also express their opinion that, for collecting adequate data from natural analogs, resources will have to be devoted to them that are much larger than are devoted to them at present.

  18. OPRM: Challenges to Including Open Peer Review in Open Access Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandelis Perakakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The peer review system is the norm for many publications. It involves an editor and several experts in the field providing comments for a submitted article. The reviewer remains anonymous to the author, with only the editor knowing the reviewer´s identity. This model is now being challenged and open peer review (OPR models are viewed as the new frontier of the review process. OPR is a term that encompasses diverse variations in the traditional review process. Examples of this are modifications in the way in which authors and reviewers are aware of each other’s identity (open identities, the visibility of the reviews carried out (open reviews or the opening up of the review to the academic community (open participation. We present the project for the implementation of an Open Peer Review Module in two major Spanish repositories, DIGITAL.CSIC and e-IEO, together with some promising initial results and challenges in the take-up process. The OPR module, designed for integration with DSpace repositories, enables any scholar to provide a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of any research object hosted in these repositories.

  19. Geological criteria for site selection of an LILW radioactive waste repository in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurelio, Mario; Taguibao, Kristine Joy [National Institute of Geological Sciences, University of the Philippines, Quezon City (Philippines); Vargas, Edmundo; Palattao, Maria Visitacion; Reyes, Rolando; Nohay, Carl; Singayan, Alfonso [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2013-07-01

    In the selection of sites for disposal facilities involving low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations require that 'the region in which the site is located shall be such that significant tectonic and surface processes are not expected to occur with an intensity that would compromise the required isolation capability of the repository'. Evaluating the appropriateness of a site therefore requires a deep understanding of the geological and tectonic setting of the area. The Philippines sits in a tectonically active region frequented by earthquakes and volcanic activity. Its highly variable morphology coupled with its location along the typhoon corridor in the west Pacific region subjects the country to surface processes often manifested in the form of landslides. The Philippine LILW near surface repository project site is located on the north eastern sector of the Island of Luzon in northern Philippines. This island is surrounded by active subduction trenches; to the east by the East Luzon Trough and to the west by the Manila Trench. The island is also traversed by several branches of the Philippine Fault System. The Philippine LILW repository project is located more than 100 km away from any of these major active fault systems. In the near field, the project site is located less than 10 km from a minor fault (Dummon River Fault) and more than 40 km away from a volcanic edifice (Mt. Caguas). This paper presents an analysis of the potential hazards that these active tectonic features may pose to the project site. The assessment of such geologic hazards is imperative in the characterization of the site and a crucial input in the design and safety assessment of the repository. (authors)

  20. Integrating rock mechanics issues with repository design through design process principles and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniawski, Z.T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A good designer needs not only knowledge for designing (technical know-how that is used to generate alternative design solutions) but also must have knowledge about designing (appropriate principles and systematic methodology to follow). Concepts such as {open_quotes}design for manufacture{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}concurrent engineering{close_quotes} are widely used in the industry. In the field of rock engineering, only limited attention has been paid to the design process because design of structures in rock masses presents unique challenges to the designers as a result of the uncertainties inherent in characterization of geologic media. However, a stage has now been reached where we are be able to sufficiently characterize rock masses for engineering purposes and identify the rock mechanics issues involved but are still lacking engineering design principles and methodology to maximize our design performance. This paper discusses the principles and methodology of the engineering design process directed to integrating site characterization activities with design, construction and performance of an underground repository. Using the latest information from the Yucca Mountain Project on geology, rock mechanics and starter tunnel design, the current lack of integration is pointed out and it is shown how rock mechanics issues can be effectively interwoven with repository design through a systematic design process methodology leading to improved repository performance. In essence, the design process is seen as the use of design principles within an integrating design methodology, leading to innovative problem solving. In particular, a new concept of {open_quotes}Design for Constructibility and Performance{close_quotes} is introduced. This is discussed with respect to ten rock mechanics issues identified for repository design and performance.

  1. Expected environments in high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel repositories in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Rickertsen, L.D., Graham, R.F.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the expected environments associated with high-level waste (HLW) and spent fuel (SF) repositories in salt formations. These environments include the thermal, fluid, pressure, brine chemistry, and radiation fields predicted for the repository conceptual designs. In this study, it is assumed that the repository will be a room and pillar mine in a rock-salt formation, with the disposal horizon located approx. 2000 ft (610 m) below the surface of the earth. Canistered waste packages containing HLW in a solid matrix or SF elements are emplaced in vertical holes in the floor of the rooms. The emplacement holes are backfilled with crushed salt or other material and sealed at some later time. Sensitivity studies are presented to show the effect of changing the areal heat load, the canister heat load, the barrier material and thickness, ventilation of the storage room, and adding a second row to the emplacement configuration. The calculated thermal environment is used as input for brine migration calculations. The vapor and gas pressure will gradually attain the lithostatic pressure in a sealed repository. In the unlikely event that an emplacement hole will become sealed in relatively early years, the vapor space pressure was calculated for three scenarios (i.e., no hole closure - no backfill, no hole closure - backfill, and hole closure - no backfill). It was assumed that the gas in the system consisted of air and water vapor in equilibrium with brine. A computer code (REPRESS) was developed assuming that these changes occur slowly (equilibrium conditions). The brine chemical environment is outlined in terms of brine chemistry, corrosion, and compositions. The nuclear radiation environment emphasized in this report is the stored energy that can be released as a result of radiation damage or crystal dislocations within crystal lattices.

  2. Application of integral methods to prediction of heat transfer from a nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blesch, C J; Kulacki, F A; Christensen, R N

    1983-10-01

    Integral methods have been developed and applied to the prediction of the far field thermal impact of a nuclear waste repository. Specifically, the heat balance integral has been applied to a semi-infinite layered domain in which a limited number of sublayers form the repository overburden, and the repository is represented by an infinite plane beneath either one or two sublayers. Calculations for PWR spent fuel with an initial areal thermal loading of 60 kW/acre are carried out for various stratigraphies and overburden compositions. Results of the analyses are temperature distributions and heat fluxes to the surface as a function to time. Based on this study, the thermophysical properties of the individual layers are identified as the most important influence on temperature distributions and maximum temperature rise at any position above the repository. The thicknesses of the sublayers play a secondary role for a given rock composition. Where a comparison to exact or numerical solutions is possible, the method predicts maximum temperature increases in the overburden to within 10 percent. Heat fluxes to the surface are found to be relatively insensitive to overburden composition. For dome salt, a maximum of 1.2 percent to 2.7 percent of the initial areal thermal power of a five-term source reaches the surface. For bedded salt, a maximum of 1 percent to 1.8 percent of the initial areal thermal power reaches the surface over a wide range of sublayer compositions. Similarly, low percentages of initial areal thermal power reach the surface for the other stratigraphies considered in the calculations.

  3. LIFE Materials: Fuel Cycle and Repository Volume 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, H; Blink, J A

    2008-12-12

    The fusion-fission LIFE engine concept provides a path to a sustainable energy future based on safe, carbon-free nuclear power with minimal nuclear waste. The LIFE design ultimately offers many advantages over current and proposed nuclear energy technologies, and could well lead to a true worldwide nuclear energy renaissance. When compared with existing and other proposed future nuclear reactor designs, the LIFE engine exceeds alternatives in the most important measures of proliferation resistance and waste minimization. The engine needs no refueling during its lifetime. It requires no removal of fuel or fissile material generated in the LIFE engine. It leaves no weapons-attractive material at the end of life. Although there is certainly a need for additional work, all indications are that the 'back end' of the fuel cycle does not to raise any 'showstopper' issues for LIFE. Indeed, the LIFE concept has numerous benefits: (1) Per unit of electricity generated, LIFE engines would generate 20-30 times less waste (in terms of mass of heavy metal) requiring disposal in a HLW repository than does the current once-through fuel cycle. (2) Although there may be advanced fuel cycles that can compete with LIFE's low mass flow of heavy metal, all such systems require reprocessing, with attendant proliferation concerns; LIFE engines can do this without enrichment or reprocessing. Moreover, none of the advanced fuel cycles can match the low transuranic content of LIFE waste. (3) The specific thermal power of LIFE waste is initially higher than that of spent LWR fuel. Nevertheless, this higher thermal load can be managed using appropriate engineering features during an interim storage period, and could be accommodated in a Yucca-Mountain-like repository by appropriate 'staging' of the emplacement of waste packages during the operational period of the repository. The planned ventilation rates for Yucca Mountain would be sufficient for LIFE waste

  4. Have digital repositories come of age? The views of library directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nicholas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This survey of approximately 150 repositories assessed the achievements, impact, and success of digital repositories. Results show that while the size and use of repositories has been relatively modest, almost half of all institutions either have, or are planning, a repository mandate requiring deposit and small gains have been made in raising the profile of the library within the institution. Repositories, then, have made a good deal of progress, but they have not quite come of age.

  5. Knowledge, transparency, refutability, and consequences: Using models to evaluate geologic repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M. C.; Kavetski, D.; Clark, M. P.; Ye, M.; Tiedeman, C. R.; Arabi, M.; Lu, D.

    2012-04-01

    other methods. Results suggest that the more computationally frugal methods can capture about 70% of the insight for 2% of the model runs. This rapidly obtained insight can be used directly and, if practical, to design clearly focused computationally demanding numerical analyses. Also, when one conceptual model can be analyzed relatively quickly, consideration of more alternative conceptual models becomes possible. This produces a more defensible uncertainty evaluation of simulated consequences, such as predictions. Here, we highlight analyses related to predictions, including confidence intervals. Also included are the OPR (Observation-PRediction) and PPR (Parameter-PRediction) statistics, precursors to the Predunc and Predvar statistics in PEST. These statistics all use the model to identify new measurements of state variables and system characteristics most important to reducing prediction uncertainty. Methods for evaluating what might be several future climate or development scenarios are briefly discussed. The examples demonstrate that the proposed set of methods provide a rich environment for evaluating many questions commonly of interest when developing and evaluating geologic repositories. Consistent use of these methods, along with other methods as practical, would serve to achieve greater transparency and refutability in the simulation of geologic repositories.

  6. Principal organic materials in a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    The largest pool of organic material in a repository at closure is the organic material in the bentonite in buffer and backfill. It is impossible to make any assumptions as to how much of this material will be available for biodegradation, since the character of the material is unknown. However, it is unlikely that this organic material can dissolve in groundwater unless the bentonite loses its swelling capacity. The second largest pool will be the biofilms formed on the rock surfaces. This assumption presupposes that no cleaning is undertaken before repository closure. The third largest pool is the organic material produced by microorganisms using hydrogen from the anaerobic corrosion of iron in steel as an energy source. The following provides summary descriptions of the different pools of organic material that will remain in the repository: 1. Microorganisms. Their effect would mainly be to reduce the redox potential soon after repository closure. They may contribute to the depletion of the oxygen entrapped during repository construction, an effect that would not jeopardise repository stability. If the dominant microorganisms in the anaerobic environment are sulphate-reducing bacteria, oxidation of organic material would lead to the formation of HS-. The produced sulphide could corrode the copper canisters under anaerobic conditions if it reaches them. Another effect of microorganisms would be to increase the complexing capacity of the groundwater due to excreted metabolites. The impact of these compounds is not yet clear, although it will surely not be very important, due to the small amounts of such substances. 2. Materials in the ventilation air. Their effect will probably be to help maintain reducing conditions in the area, although this effect will likely be minimal or negligible. 3. Construction materials. Among these materials, we emphasise the organic materials present in concrete, asphalt, bentonite, and wood. Hydrocarbons from asphalt may help reduce

  7. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 3: Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This volume reports the development of TSPA for the VA. This first section defines the general process involved in developing any TSPA, it describes the overall TSPA process as implemented by programs in the US and elsewhere in the world, and discusses the acceptability of TSPA as a process or tool for analyzing a nuclear waste repository system. Section 2 discusses the more specific use of the TSPA process for the TSPA-VA for Yucca Mountain, including goals, approach, and methods. It also includes a very brief synopsis of TSPA-VA results. Section 3 briefly discusses each of the component models that comprise the TSPA-VA. Each TSPA component model represents a discrete set of processes. The TSPA-VA components are: unsaturated zone flow, thermal hydrology, near- field geochemical environment, waste package degradation, waste form alteration and mobilization, unsaturated zone transport, saturated zone flow and transport, and biosphere. For each of these components, this section introduces the conceptualization of each individual process, describes the data sources, and discusses model parameter development and computer methods used to simulate each component. Section 4 explains the mechanics of how the individual TSPA components were combined into a ''base case'' and then provides the ''expected value'' results of a deterministic base case analysis. Section 4 also contains a description of the probabilistic analyses and results that help determine the relative importance of the various TSPA components and the data used to describe the components. Section 5 addresses sensitivity studies run for each of the TSPA components to understand how uncertainty in various parameters within a component change the TSPA results. Section 6 presents the findings of the sensitivity studies run on the various components in Section 5, and prioritizes the findings of the entire set of uncertainty and sensitivity studies of the components relative

  8. Design information verification (DIV) of operating geological repositories (SAGOR activity 3b)[Nuclear waste disposal; Security; Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myatt, J

    1998-02-01

    Following IAEA Advisory and Consultants Group meetings in September 1988 and in May 1991 respectively an IAEA multi-national Support Programme Task was initiated to consider the 'Development of Safeguards for Final Disposal of Spent Fuel in Geological Repositories' (SAGOR). A 'Technical Coordination Committee' (TCC) was set up with invited representatives from those Member State Support Programmes wishing to be involved. The joint programme, through the TCC, was given the task of studying the safeguards requirements in: conditioning plant (where the spent fuel is prepared for transfer to the repository); operating repositories (i.e. those in which the fuel is being emplaced); closed repositories. At the first meeting of the TCC in Washington in July 1994 the UK undertook to provide a study of the Design Information Verification (DIV) required in all three areas. For this activity the requirements, techniques and procedures for the Design Information Verification (DIV) of operating repositories have been considered. In completing the study the findings reported for activities 1b and 2b (descriptions of a Model Repository and Potential Diversion Paths, respectively) have been used in formulating any conclusions reached. As with any facility there are a number of stages in its lifetime. For the purposes of this report the operating life of a repository is deemed to extend from its inception to when it is finally closed and the ground surface returned to being a green field. Areas where repositories differ from other safeguarded activities are highlighted in the model facility described in SAGOR activity 1b/c. Their impact makes it inevitable that DIV will play a key role in safeguarding an operational repository. They include: continual expansion during its operational life (the only current possible exception is that being proposed in Finland), flexible design during construction as geological features may be exposed which require that the

  9. The Polar Rock Repository: Rescuing Polar Collections for New Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, A.

    2016-12-01

    Geological field expeditions in polar regions are logistically difficult, financially expensive and can have a significant environmental impact on pristine regions. The scarcity of outcrop in Antarctica (98% ice-covered) makes previously collected rock samples very valuable to the science community. NSF recognized the need for preserving rock, dredge, and terrestrial core samples from polar areas and created the Polar Rock Repository (PRR). The PRR collection allows for full and open access to both samples and metadata via the PRR website. In addition to the physical samples and their basic metadata, the PRR archives supporting materials from the collector, field notebooks, images of the samples, field maps, air photos, thin sections and any associated bibliography/DOI's. Many of these supporting materials are unique. More than 40,000 samples are available from the PRR for scientific analysis to researchers around the globe. Most of the samples cataloged at the PRR were collected more than 30 years ago, some more than 100 years ago. The rock samples and metadata are made available online through an advanced search engine for the PRR website. This allows scientists to "drill down" into search results using categories and look-up object fields similar to websites like Amazon. Results can be viewed in a table, downloaded as a spreadsheet, or plotted on an interactive map that supports display of satellite imagery and bathymetry layers. Samples can be requested by placing them in the `shopping cart'. These old sample collections have been repeatedly used by scientists from around the world. One data request involved locating coal deposits in Antarctica for a global compilation and another for looking at the redox state of batholithic rocks from the Antarctic Peninsula using magnetic susceptibilities of PRR rocks. Sample usage has also included non-traditional geologic studies, such as a search for monopoles in Cenozoic volcanic samples, and remote sensing

  10. Proceedings of the scientific visit on crystalline rock repository development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Miksova, Jitka [RAWRA, Czech Republic

    2013-02-01

    A scientific visit on Crystalline Rock Repository Development was held in the Czech Republic on September 24-27, 2012. The visit was hosted by the Czech Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA), co-hosted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The purpose of the visit was to promote technical information exchange between participants from countries engaged in the investigation and exploration of crystalline rock for the eventual construction of nuclear waste repositories. The visit was designed especially for participants of countries that have recently commenced (or recommenced) national repository programmes in crystalline host rock formations. Discussion topics included repository programme development, site screening and selection, site characterization, disposal concepts in crystalline host rock, regulatory frameworks, and safety assessment methodology. Interest was surveyed in establishing a %E2%80%9Cclub,%E2%80%9D the mission of which would be to identify and address the various technical challenges that confront the disposal of radioactive waste in crystalline rock environments. The idea of a second scientific visit to be held one year later in another host country received popular support. The visit concluded with a trip to the countryside south of Prague where participants were treated to a tour of the laboratory and underground facilities of the Josef Regional Underground Research Centre.

  11. Federated repositories of X-ray diffraction images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis, Steve; Schmidberger, Jason; Bate, Mark A; DeGori, Ross; Beitz, Anthony; Keong, Cyrus; Cameron, Bob; McGowan, Sheena; Porter, Corrine J; Harrison, Andrew; Hunter, Jane; Martin, Jennifer L; Kobe, Bostjan; Dobson, Renwick C J; Parker, Michael W; Whisstock, James C; Gray, Joan; Treloar, Andrew; Groenewegen, David; Dickson, Neil; Buckle, Ashley M

    2008-07-01

    There is a pressing need for the archiving and curation of raw X-ray diffraction data. This information is critical for validation, methods development and improvement of archived structures. However, the relatively large size of these data sets has presented challenges for storage in a single worldwide repository such as the Protein Data Bank archive. This problem can be avoided by using a federated approach, where each institution utilizes its institutional repository for storage, with a discovery service overlaid. Institutional repositories are relatively stable and adequately funded, ensuring persistence. Here, a simple repository solution is described, utilizing Fedora open-source database software and data-annotation and deposition tools that can be deployed at any site cheaply and easily. Data sets and associated metadata from federated repositories are given a unique and persistent handle, providing a simple mechanism for search and retrieval via web interfaces. In addition to ensuring that valuable data is not lost, the provision of raw data has several uses for the crystallographic community. Most importantly, structure determination can only be truly repeated or verified when the raw data are available. Moreover, the availability of raw data is extremely useful for the development of improved methods of image analysis and data processing.

  12. Convergence of advances in genomics, team science, and repositories as drivers of progress in psychiatric genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Thomas; Senthil, Geetha; Addington, Anjené M

    2015-01-01

    After many years of unfilled promise, psychiatric genetics has seen an unprecedented number of successes in recent years. We hypothesize that the field has reached an inflection point through a confluence of four key developments: advances in genomics; the orientation of the scientific community around large collaborative team science projects; the development of sample and data repositories; and a policy framework for sharing and accessing these resources. We discuss these domains and their effect on scientific progress and provide a perspective on why we think this is only the beginning of a new era in scientific discovery.

  13. Seismic activity parameters of the Finnish potential repository sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J. [Fortum Engineering Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2000-10-01

    Posiva Oy has started a project for estimating the possible earthquake induced rock movements on the deposition holes containing canisters of spent nuclear fuel. These estimates will be made for the four investigation sites, Romuvaara, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Haestholmen. This study deals with the current and future seismicity associated with the above mentioned sites. Seismic belts that participate the seismic behaviour of the studied sites have been identified and the magnitude-frequency distributions of these belts have been estimated. The seismic activity parameters of the sites have been deduced from the characteristics of the seismic belts in order to forecast the seismicity during the next 100,000 years. The report discusses the possible earthquakes induced by future glaciation. The seismic interpretation seems to indicate that the previous postglacial faults in Finnish Lapland have been generated in compressional environment. The orientation of the rather uniform compression has been NW-SE, which coincide with the current stress field. It seems that, although the impact of postglacial crustal rebound must have been significant, the impact of plate tectonics has been dominant. A major assumption of this study has been that future seismicity will generally resemble the current seismicity. However, when the postglacial seismicity is concerned, the magnitude-frequency distribution is likely different and the expected maximum magnitude will be higher. Maximum magnitudes of future postglacial earthquakes have been approximated by strain release examinations. Seismicity has been examined within the framework of the lineament maps, in order to associate the future significant earthquakes with active fault zones in the vicinity of the potential repository sites. (orig.)

  14. WORKSHOP ON DEVELOPMENT OF RADIONUCLIDE GETTERS FOR THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Holt

    2006-03-13

    hand, durable materials, such as hydrotalcite, do not have sufficient affinity to be useful getters. Despite these problems, the great increase in the repository performance and corresponding decrease in uncertainty promised by a useful getter has generated significant interest in these materials. This report is the result a workshop sponsored by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management and Office of Science and Technology and International of the DOE to assess the state of research in this field.

  15. Institutional Repository saber.ula.ve: A testimonial perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Briceno, Y; Nunez, L A; Salager-Meyer, F; Rojas, A; Torrens, R

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our decade-long experience of building and operating one of the most active Institutional Repository in the world: www.saber.ula.ve (University of the Andes, Merida-Venezuela). In order to share our experience with other institutions, we firstly explain the steps we followed to preserve and disseminate the scientific production of the University of Los Andes' researchers. We then present some recent quantitative results about our repository activities and we outline some methodological guidelines that could be applied in order to replicate similar experiences. These guidelines list the ingredients or building blocks as well as the processes followed for developing and maintaining the services of an Institutional Repository. These include technological infrastructure; institutional policies on preservation, publication and dissemination of knowledge; recommendations on incentives for open access publication; the process of selection, testing and adaptation of technological tools; th...

  16. Interaction of Plutonium with Bacteria in the Repository Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J. B.; Francis, A. J.; Lucero, D. A.; Papenguth, H. W.

    2000-07-01

    Microorganisms in the nuclear waste repository environment may interact with plutonium through (1) sorption, (2) intracellular accumulation, and (3) transformation speciation. These interactions may retard or enhance the mobility of Pu by precipitation reactions, biocolloid formation, or production of more soluble species. Current and planned radioactive waste repository environments, such as deep subsurface halite and granite formations, are considered extreme relative to life processes in the near-surface terrestrial environment. There is a paucity of information on the biotransformation of radionuclides by microorganisms present in such extreme environments. In order to gain a better understanding of the interaction of plutonium with microorganisms present in the waste repository sites we investigated a pure culture (Halomonas sp.) and a mixed culture of bacteria (Haloarcula sinaiiensis, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Altermonas sp., and a {gamma}-proteobacterium) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and an Acetobacterium sp. from alkaline groundwater at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland.

  17. Reliable predictions of waste performance in a geologic repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.

    1985-08-01

    Establishing reliable estimates of long-term performance of a waste repository requires emphasis upon valid theories to predict performance. Predicting rates that radionuclides are released from waste packages cannot rest upon empirical extrapolations of laboratory leach data. Reliable predictions can be based on simple bounding theoretical models, such as solubility-limited bulk-flow, if the assumed parameters are reliably known or defensibly conservative. Wherever possible, performance analysis should proceed beyond simple bounding calculations to obtain more realistic - and usually more favorable - estimates of expected performance. Desire for greater realism must be balanced against increasing uncertainties in prediction and loss of reliability. Theoretical predictions of release rate based on mass-transfer analysis are bounding and the theory can be verified. Postulated repository analogues to simulate laboratory leach experiments introduce arbitrary and fictitious repository parameters and are shown not to agree with well-established theory. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Archaeological data as a basis for repository marker design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1982-10-01

    This report concerns the development of a marking system for a nuclear waste repository which is very likely to survive for 10,000 years. In order to provide a background on the subject, and for the preliminary design presented in this report, a discussion is presented about the issues involved in human interference with the repository system and the communication of information. A separate chapter summarizes six ancient man-made monuments including: materials, effects of associated textual information on our understanding of the monument, and other features of the ancient monument relevant to marking a repository site. The information presented in the two chapters is used to provide the basis and rationale for a preliminary marker system design presented in a final chapter. 86 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Functional requirements for a central research imaging data repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Gruetz, Romanus; Dickmann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The current situation at many university medical centers regarding the management of biomedical research imaging data leaves much to be desired. In contrast to the recommendations of the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the German Council of Sciences and Humanities regarding the professional management of research data, there are commonly many individual data pools for research data in each institute and the management remains the responsibility of the researcher. A possible solution for this situation would be to install local central repositories for biomedical research imaging data. In this paper, we developed a scenario based on abstracted use-cases for institutional research undertakings as well as collaborative biomedical research projects and analyzed the functional requirements that a local repository would have to fulfill. We determined eight generic categories of functional requirements, which can be viewed as a basic guideline for the minimum functionality of a central repository for biomedical research imaging data.

  20. Digital repositories certification: the Data Seal of Approval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Allegrezza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become increasingly common to entrust records to digital repositories; this assumes an implicit confidence in the repositories reliability, and therefore is urgent to identify the criteria on which to evaluate them. The Data Seal of Approval is a set of sixteen criteria that can be used to ensure that archived data can still be found, understood and used in the future. It is a basic level of certification but it is very useful to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the deposit; in any case, it constitutes a solid basis for further certification of compliance to ISO 16363 or DIN 31644. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of Data Seal of Approval in the wider context of digital repositories' certification.

  1. A comparative simulation study of coupled THM processes and their effect on fractured rock permeability around nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Barr, Deborah; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Fujisaki, Kiyoshi; Kolditz, Olf; Liu, Quan-Shen; Fujita, tomoo; Wang, Wenqing; Zhang, Cheng-Yuan

    2008-10-23

    This paper presents an international, multiple-code, simulation study of coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes and their effect on permeability and fluid flow in fractured rock around heated underground nuclear waste emplacement drifts. Simulations were conducted considering two types of repository settings: (a) open emplacement drifts in relatively shallow unsaturated volcanic rock, and (b) backfilled emplacement drifts in deeper saturated crystalline rock. The results showed that for the two assumed repository settings, the dominant mechanism of changes in rock permeability was thermal-mechanically-induced closure (reduced aperture) of vertical fractures, caused by thermal stress resulting from repository-wide heating of the rock mass. The magnitude of thermal-mechanically-induced changes in permeability was more substantial in the case of an emplacement drift located in a relatively shallow, low-stress environment where the rock is more compliant, allowing more substantial fracture closure during thermal stressing. However, in both of the assumed repository settings in this study, the thermal-mechanically-induced changes in permeability caused relatively small changes in the flow field, with most changes occurring in the vicinity of the emplacement drifts.

  2. Eruptive and shallow conduit dynamics during Vulcanian explosions: insights from the Episode IV block field of the 1912 eruption of Novarupta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgett, S. J.; Houghton, B. F.; Fagents, S. A.; Biass, S.; Burgisser, A.; Arbaret, L.

    2017-08-01

    The study of 1300 juvenile and lithic blocks from a Vulcanian phase of the 1912 eruption of Novarupta provides new insight into the state of the magma as an eruption passes from sustained Plinian to dome growth. Blocks that were predominantly ballistically ejected were measured and sampled within an 2-3-km radius from vent and supply a picture of a dynamic and complex shallow conduit prior to magma fragmentation in repeated small explosions. Extreme conduit heterogeneity is expressed in the diverse range of dacitic block types, including pumiceous, dense, banded, and variably welded breccia clasts, all with varied degrees of surface breadcrusting. We present new maps of block lithology and size, making Episode IV the most thoroughly mapped Vulcanian deposit to date. Sectorial regions rich in specific lithologies together with the block size data suggest multiple, small explosions. Modeling of block trajectories to reproduce the field data indicates that ejection velocities range from 50 to 124 m/s with a median of 70 m/s. We propose that individual explosions originated from a heterogeneous shallow conduit characterized both by the juxtaposition of magma domains of contrasting texture and vesiculation state and by the intimate local mingling of different textures on short vertical and horizontal length scales at the contacts between these domains. In our model, each explosion disrupted the conduit to only shallow depths and tapped diverse, localized pockets within the conduit. This contrasts with existing models for repetitive Vulcanian explosions, and suggests that the dynamics of Episode IV were more complex than a simple progressive top-down evacuation of a horizontally stratified conduit.

  3. GIS for the needs of the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Mikšová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA is a state organisation responsible for the management of activities related to the disposal of all existing and future radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel classed as a waste in Czech Republic. Worldwide, a deep geological repository is considered the highest degree of safety for a nuclear waste disposal. Such a repository has to be built in a stable geological environment ensuring the isolation of the stored radioactive waste from the surrounding environment for a long period of time. The selection of suitable site for the deep geological repository construction is a complicated and long term process. Considering this fact and also in respect to an assumed volume of varied datasets the GIS RAWRA was established to ensure convenient management and availability of data containing spatial information.The system is based on ESRI (ArcInfo including extensions, ArcSDE, ArcIMS, Leica Geosystems (Image Analysis and Microsoft software (MS SQL Server. Resulting datasets from six recommended potentially suitable sites for the location of a geological repository have been incorporated into the geodatabase to date. The necessary analysis was made using ESRI software tools and, in addition, custom applications were developed including the metadata editor, etc. This analysis was carried out with respect to existing geological and non-geological criteria defined for a nuclear waste repository. Finally, all six investigated sites with a total area of 240 km2 were reduced in area, each of them resulting in an area of approximately 10km2 for further detailed characterisation.

  4. Implementation of the Brazilian National Repository - RBMN Project - 13008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassia Oliveira de Tello, Cledola [CDTN - Center for Development of Nuclear Technology, Av. Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6.627 - Campus UFMG - Pampulha, CEP 31270-901 - Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). Besides this NPP, in the National Energy Program is previewed the installation of four more plants, by 2030. In November 2008, CNEN launched the Project RBMN (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes), which aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (authors)

  5. Final repository for Denmark's low- and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, B.; Gravesen, P.; Petersen, S. S.; Binderup, M.

    2012-12-01

    Bertel Nilsson*, Peter Gravesen, Stig A. Schack Petersen, Merete Binderup Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark, * email address bn@geus.dk The Danish Parliament decided in 2003 that the temporal disposal of the low- and intermediate level radioactive waste at the nuclear facilities at Risø should find another location for a final repository. The Danish radioactive waste must be stored on Danish land territory (exclusive Greenland) and must hold the entire existing radioactive waste, consisting of the waste from the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risø, and the radioactive waste produced in Denmark from hospitals, universities and industry. The radioactive waste is estimated to a total amount of up to 10,000 m3. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, GEUS, is responsible for the geological studies of suitable areas for the repository. The task has been to locate and recognize non-fractured Quaternary and Tertiary clays or Precambrian bedrocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surroundings the coming more than 300 years. Twenty two potential areas have been located and sequential reduced to the most favorable two to three locations taking into consideration geology, hydrogeology, nature protection and climate change conditions. Further detailed environmental and geology investigations will be undertaken at the two to three potential localities in 2013 to 2015. This study together with a study of safe transport of the radioactive waste and an investigation of appropriate repository concepts in relation to geology and safety analyses will constitute the basis upon which the final decision by the Danish Parliament on repository concept and repository location. The final repository is planned to be established and in operation at the earliest 2020.

  6. Public concerns and choices regarding nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, W.L.; Nealey, S.M.

    1981-06-01

    Survey research on nuclear power issues conducted in the late 1970's has determined that nuclear waste management is now considered to be one of the most important nuclear power issues both by the US public and by key leadership groups. The purpose of this research was to determine the importance placed on specific issues associated with high-level waste disposal. In addition, policy option choices were asked regarding the siting of both low-level and high-level nuclear waste repositories. A purposive sampling strategy was used to select six groups of respondents. Averaged across the six respondent groups, the leakage of liquid wastes from storage tanks was seen as the most important high-level waste issue. There was also general agreement that the issue regarding water entering the final repository and carrying radioactive wastes away was second in importance. Overall, the third most important issue was the corrosion of the metal containers used in the high-level waste repository. There was general agreement among groups that the fourth most important issue was reducing safety to cut costs. The fifth most important issue was radioactive waste transportation accidents. Overall, the issues ranked sixth and seventh were, respectively, workers' safety and earthquakes damaging the repository and releasing radioactivity. The eighth most important issue, overall, was regarding explosions in the repository from too much radioactivity, which is something that is not possible. There was general agreement across all six respondent groups that the two least important issues involved people accidentally digging into the site and the issue that the repository might cost too much and would therefore raise electricity bills. These data indicate that the concerns of nuclear waste technologists and other public groups do not always overlap.

  7. NSNFP Activities in Support of Repository Licensing for Disposal of DOE SNF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry H. Loo; Brett W.. Carlsen; Sheryl L. Morton; Larry L. Taylor; Gregg W. Wachs

    2004-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is in the process of preparing the Yucca Mountain license application for submission to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as the nation’s first geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste. Because the DOE SNF will be part of the license application, there are various components of the license application that will require information relative to the DOE SNF. The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) is the organization that directs the research, development, and testing of treatment, shipment, and disposal technologies for all DOE SNF. This report documents the work activities conducted by the NSNFP and discusses the relationship between these NSNFP technical activities and the license application. A number of the NSNFP activities were performed to provide risk insights and understanding of DOE SNF disposal as well as to prepare for anticipated questions from the regulatory agency.

  8. 缓冲材料参数对核废料处置库近场影响的二维有限元分析%Two-Dimensional FEM Analysis of Near Field Influence of Buffer Material Parameters on High Level Radioactive Nuclear Waste Repository

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦爱芳; 赵飞; 赵小龙

    2012-01-01

    以高放射性核废料地质处置的FEBEX原位试验作为数值计算模型,利用有限元软件Code-Bright,通过改变膨润土初始渗透系数、初始吸力和初始进气值,得到热-水-力(thermo-hydro-mechanical,THM)耦合作用下处置库关闭后缓冲层饱和度和吸力的变化规律,以及以上3个因素对这些性状影响的敏感程度,研究结果可为核废料处置库缓冲材料的选取提供参考.%The FEBEX in-situ test for geological disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear waste is used as a calculation model. By changing the initial permeability, the initial suction and the air entry value, variation of saturation, and suction under the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) action are analyzed using a Code-Bright program after the closure of nuclear waste repository. By analyzing sensitivity of the three parameters on these traits, valuable reference is presented for the selection of buffer materials of the nuclear waste repository.

  9. Data Storing Proposal from Heterogeneous Systems into a Specialized Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václavová Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze and to propose an appropriate system for processing and simultaneously storing a vast volume of structured and unstructured data. The paper consists of three parts. The first part addresses the issue of structured and unstructured data. The second part provides the detailed analysis of data repositories and subsequent evaluation indicating which system would be for the given type and volume of data optimal. The third part focuses on the use of gathered information to transfer data to the proposed repository.

  10. DRIVER: Building a Sustainable Infrastructure of European Scientific Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Lossau

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available DRIVER has a clear vision: All research institutions in Europe and worldwide make all their research publications openly accessible through institutional repositories. The vision follows the Berlin Declaration, which called in October 2003 for ‘free and unrestricted access to sciences and human knowledge representation worldwide’. Initiated by the internationally renowned German research organisation the Max-Planck-Society, and signed by many international research organisations and institutes, the Berlin Declaration has set a political statement. In building a sustainable infrastructure for scientific repositories, DRIVER brings to this statement the reality of scholarly communication in the future.

  11. Software Aspects of the Geant4 Validation Repository

    CERN Document Server

    Dotti, Andrea; Elvira, Daniel; Genser, Krzysztof; Yarba, Julia; Carminati, Federico; Folger, Gunter; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Pokorski, Witold; Ribon, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The Geant4, GeantV and GENIE collaborations regularly perform validation and regression tests for simulation results. DoSSiER (Database of Scientic Simulation and Experimental Results) is being developed as a central repository to store the simulation results as well as the experimental data used for validation. DoSSiER is easily accessible via a web application. In addition, a web service allows for programmatic access to the repository to extract records in JSON or XML exchange formats. In this article, we describe the functionality and the current status of various components of DoSSiER as well as the technology choices we made.

  12. The Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository From A Corrosion Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.H. Payer

    2005-03-10

    Corrosion is a primary determinant of waste package performance at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository and will control the delay time for radionuclide transport from the waste package. Corrosion is the most probable and most likely degradation process that will determine when packages will be penetrated and the shape size and distribution of those penetrations. The general issues in corrosion science, materials science and electrochemistry are well defined, and the knowledge base is substantial for understanding corrosion processes. In this paper, the Yucca Mountain Repository is viewed from a corrosion perspective.

  13. Groundwater chemistry around a repository for spent nuclear fuel over a glacial cycle. Evaluation for SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auque, L.F.; Gimeno, M.J.; Gomez, J.B. [University of Zaragoza (Spain); Puigdomenech, I. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Smellie, J. [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Tullborg, E.L. [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    , and indicate that far-field groundwaters during the temperate period will not affect negatively the performance of the safety functions of the repository. For the permafrost and glacial periods, groundwater compositions are proposed based on the results from hydrological evaluations performed within the SR-Can project. It is concluded that for permafrost conditions groundwaters in the rock volume surrounding a repository will not affect negatively its performance. However, under glacial conditions meltwaters are expected to penetrate deep into the bedrock and, on the whole, groundwaters would then have such low salinities that it would affect negatively the stability of the bentonite buffer surrounding the canisters in the repository. An analysis of the possibility of penetration of O{sub 2}-rich meltwaters down to repository depths during glacial periods is made based on studies performed within the SR-Can project and elsewhere. It is concluded the inflow of oxygen in single fractures is neutralised by the process of matrix diffusion and dissolution of Fe(II) minerals in the rock matrix. For fracture zones, with water advective times down to repository depths of only a few years, advancement of O{sub 2}-rich waters to repository depth does not occur if variables are cautiously selected. For extreme situations, and given our present understanding of fracture zones, the occurrence of oxidizing conditions at repository depths within large fracture zones can not at present be completely ruled out, but at least they can be avoided in the repository design.

  14. Natural analogs for far-field environment/hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoxie, D.T. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper discusses the applicability of natural-analog studies to characterize far-field conditions in the vicinity of geologic repository systems for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Conditions in the far field are determined by the natural state and evolution of the repository geosphere and its environment.

  15. [Distribution and activity of microorganisms in the deep repository for liquid radioactive waste at the Siberian Chemical Combine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazina, T N; Luk'ianova, E A; Zakharova, E V; Ivoĭlov, V S; Poltaraus, A B; Kalmykov, S N; Beliaev, S S; Zubkov, A A

    2006-01-01

    The physicochemical conditions, composition of microbial communities, and the rates of anaerobic processes in the deep sandy horizons used as a repository for liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) at the Siberian Chemical Combine (Seversk, Tomsk oblast), were studied. Formation waters from the observation wells drilled into the production horizons of the radioactive waste disposal site were found to be inhabited by microorganisms of different physiological groups, including aerobic organotrophs, anaerobic fermentative, denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic bacteria. The density of microbial population, as determined by cultural methods, was low and usually did not exceed 10(4) cells/ml. Enrichment cultures of microorganisms producing gases (hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide) and capable of participation in the precipitation of metal sulfides were obtained from the waters of production horizons. The contemporary processes of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were assayed; the rates of these terminal processes of organic matter destruction were found to be low. The denitrifying bacteria from the underground repository were capable of reducing the nitrates contained in the wastes, provided sources of energy and biogenic elements were available. Biosorption of radionuclides by the biomass of aerobic bacteria isolated from groundwater was demonstrated. The results obtained give us insight into the functional structure of the microbial community inhabiting the waters of repository production horizons. This study indicates that the numbers and activity of microbial cells are low both inside and outside the zone of radioactive waste dispersion, in spite of the long period of waste discharge.

  16. Citing and Reading Behaviours in High-Energy Physics : How a Community Stopped Worrying about Journals and Learned to Love Repositories

    CERN Document Server

    Gentil-Beccot, A; Brooks, T

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary scholarly discourse follows many alternative routes in addition to the three-century old tradition of publication in peer-reviewed journals. The field of High- Energy Physics (HEP) has explored alternative communication strategies for decades, initially via the mass mailing of paper copies of preliminary manuscripts, then via the inception of the first online repositories and digital libraries. This field is uniquely placed to answer recurrent questions raised by the current trends in scholarly communication: is there an advantage for scientists to make their work available through repositories, often in preliminary form? Is there an advantage to publishing in Open Access journals? Do scientists still read journals or do they use digital repositories? The analysis of citation data demonstrates that free and immediate online dissemination of preprints creates an immense citation advantage in HEP, whereas publication in Open Access journals presents no discernible advantage. In addition, the analys...

  17. Revision history aware repositories of computational models of biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickerson David P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Building repositories of computational models of biological systems ensures that published models are available for both education and further research, and can provide a source of smaller, previously verified models to integrate into a larger model. One problem with earlier repositories has been the limitations in facilities to record the revision history of models. Often, these facilities are limited to a linear series of versions which were deposited in the repository. This is problematic for several reasons. Firstly, there are many instances in the history of biological systems modelling where an 'ancestral' model is modified by different groups to create many different models. With a linear series of versions, if the changes made to one model are merged into another model, the merge appears as a single item in the history. This hides useful revision history information, and also makes further merges much more difficult, as there is no record of which changes have or have not already been merged. In addition, a long series of individual changes made outside of the repository are also all merged into a single revision when they are put back into the repository, making it difficult to separate out individual changes. Furthermore, many earlier repositories only retain the revision history of individual files, rather than of a group of files. This is an important limitation to overcome, because some types of models, such as CellML 1.1 models, can be developed as a collection of modules, each in a separate file. The need for revision history is widely recognised for computer software, and a lot of work has gone into developing version control systems and distributed version control systems (DVCSs for tracking the revision history. However, to date, there has been no published research on how DVCSs can be applied to repositories of computational models of biological systems. Results We have extended the Physiome Model

  18. Geology and hydrogeology of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and the surrounding area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, S.R.; Broxton, D.E.; Crowe, B.M.; Buono, A.; Orkild, P.P.

    1989-07-01

    In late 1987 Congress issued an amendment to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 which directed the characterization of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the only remaining potential site for the Nation`s first underground high-level radioactive waste repository. The evaluation of a potential underground repository is guided and regulated by policy established by the Department of Energy (DOE), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Transportation (DOT), and the US Congress. The Yucca Mountain Project is the responsibility of the DOE. The purpose of this field trip is to introduce the present state of geologic and hydrologic knowledge concerning this site. This report describes the field trip. 108 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Fundamentals of the NEA Thermochemical Database and its influence over national nuclear programs on the performance assessment of deep geological repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragoussi, Maria-Eleni; Costa, Davide

    2017-03-14

    For the last 30 years, the NEA Thermochemical Database (TDB) Project (www.oecd-nea.org/dbtdb/) has been developing a chemical thermodynamic database for elements relevant to the safety of radioactive waste repositories, providing data that are vital to support the geochemical modeling of such systems. The recommended data are selected on the basis of strict review procedures and are characterized by their consistency. The results of these efforts are freely available, and have become an international point of reference in the field. As a result, a number of important national initiatives with regard to waste management programs have used the NEA TDB as their basis, both in terms of recommended data and guidelines. In this article we describe the fundamentals and achievements of the project together with the characteristics of some databases developed in national nuclear waste disposal programs that have been influenced by the NEA TDB. We also give some insights on how this work could be seen as an approach to be used in broader areas of environmental interest.

  20. Proteomics data repositories: Providing a safe haven for your data and acting as a springboard for further research

    OpenAIRE

    Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Foster, Joseph M; Martens, Lennart

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that data deposition is not a generalised fact yet in the field of proteomics, several mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomics repositories are publicly available for the scientific community. The main existing resources are: the Global Proteome Machine Database (GPMDB), PeptideAtlas, the PRoteomics IDEntifications database (PRIDE), Tranche, and NCBI Peptidome. In this review the capabilities of each of these will be described, paying special attention to four key properties:...

  1. National Geoscience Data Repository System, Phase III: Implementation and Operation of the Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    American Geological Institute

    1999-05-14

    The NGDRS steering committee met at Chevron's office on March 2, 1999 in Houston, Texas to review and discuss issues of data transfer and the future of the Stapleton prospect for establishment of a national core repository. Company representatives reaffirmed their commitment in principal to the NGDRS project. Given the downturn in oil prices and final results from the due diligence of the Stapleton property, AGI has decided to forego pursuing acquisition and build-out of the Stapleton Airport property. The major petroleum companies indicated that rising the $10-12 million endowment would be difficult in the current climate. The completion of the due diligence of the property also revealed major concerns about the environmental liability associated with the property, which would require indemnification of the AGI by the City of Denver. Given these complicating results, AGI officially terminated efforts regarding the Stapleton property effective March 31, 1999. Several steering committee members put forth a proposal that the companies make their non-proprietary holdings public and list them in the NGDRS GeoTrek metadata catalog. Most of these holdings are at C&M Storage in Schulemburg, Texas. The companies are discussing methods to allow for public access to these data with C&M.

  2. Practices of research data curation in institutional repositories: A qualitative view from repository staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Joon; Stvilia, Besiki

    2017-01-01

    The importance of managing research data has been emphasized by the government, funding agencies, and scholarly communities. Increased access to research data increases the impact and efficiency of scientific activities and funding. Thus, many research institutions have established or plan to establish research data curation services as part of their Institutional Repositories (IRs). However, in order to design effective research data curation services in IRs, and to build active research data providers and user communities around those IRs, it is essential to study current data curation practices and provide rich descriptions of the sociotechnical factors and relationships shaping those practices. Based on 13 interviews with 15 IR staff members from 13 large research universities in the United States, this paper provides a rich, qualitative description of research data curation and use practices in IRs. In particular, the paper identifies data curation and use activities in IRs, as well as their structures, roles played, skills needed, contradictions and problems present, solutions sought, and workarounds applied. The paper can inform the development of best practice guides, infrastructure and service templates, as well as education in research data curation in Library and Information Science (LIS) schools.

  3. LLNL/JNC repository collaboration interim progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, W.L.; Couch, R.G.; Gansemer, J.; Halsey, W.G.; Palmer, C.E.; Sinz, K.H.; Stout, R.B.; Wijesinghe, A.; Wolery, T.J.

    1999-07-01

    Under this Annex, a research program on the near-field performance assessment related to the geological disposal of radioactive waste will be carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in close collaboration with the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan (PNC). This program will focus on activities that provide direct support for PNC's near-term and long-term needs that will, in turn, utilize and further strengthen US capabilities for radioactive waste management. The work scope for two years will be designed based on the PNC's priorities for its second progress report (the H12 report) of research and development for high-level radioactive waste disposal and on the interest and capabilities of the LLNL. The work will focus on the chemical modeling for the near-field environment and long-term mechanical modeling of engineered barrier system as it evolves. Certain activities in this program will provide for a final iteration of analyses to provide additional technical basis prior to the year 2000 as determined in discussions with the PNC's technical coordinator. The work for two years will include the following activities: Activity 1: Chemical Modeling of EBS Materials Interactions--Task 1.1 Chemical Modeling of Iron Effects on Borosilicate Glass Durability; and Task 1.2 Changes in Overpack and Bentonite Properties Due to Metal, Bentonite and Water Interactions. Activity 2: Thermodynamic Database Validation and Comparison--Task 2.1 Set up EQ3/6 to Run with the Pitzer-based PNC Thermodynamic Data Base; Task 2.2 Provide Expert Consultation on the Thermodynamic Data Base; and Task 2.3 Provide Analysis of Likely Solubility Controls on Selenium. Activity 3: Engineered Barrier Performance Assessment of the Unsaturated, Oxidizing Transient--Task 3.1 Apply YMIM to PNC Transient EBS Performance; Task 3.2 Demonstrate Methods for Modeling the Return to Reducing Conditions; and Task 3.3 Evaluate the Potential for

  4. Analogues to features and processes of a high-level radioactive waste repository proposed for Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Stuckless, John S.; with a Foreword by Abraham Van Luik, U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-01-01

    Natural analogues are defined for this report as naturally occurring or anthropogenic systems in which processes similar to those expected to occur in a nuclear waste repository are thought to have taken place over time periods of decades to millennia and on spatial scales as much as tens of kilometers. Analogues provide an important temporal and spatial dimension that cannot be tested by laboratory or field-scale experiments. Analogues provide one of the multiple lines of evidence intended to increase confidence in the safe geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Although the work in this report was completed specifically for Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste under the U.S. Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the applicability of the science, analyses, and interpretations is not limited to a specific site. Natural and anthropogenic analogues have provided and can continue to provide value in understanding features and processes of importance across a wide variety of topics in addressing the challenges of geologic isolation of radioactive waste and also as a contribution to scientific investigations unrelated to waste disposal. Isolation of radioactive waste at a mined geologic repository would be through a combination of natural features and engineered barriers. In this report we examine analogues to many of the various components of the Yucca Mountain system, including the preservation of materials in unsaturated environments, flow of water through unsaturated volcanic tuff, seepage into repository drifts, repository drift stability, stability and alteration of waste forms and components of the engineered barrier system, and transport of radionuclides through unsaturated and saturated rock zones.

  5. Usability Evaluation of a Research Repository and Collaboration Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Maron, Deborah J.; Charles, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports results from an empirical usability evaluation of Human-Animal Bond Research Initiative Central as part of the effort to develop an open access research repository and collaboration platform for human-animal bond researchers. By repurposing and altering key features of the original HUBzero system, Human-Animal Bond Research…

  6. Assessing the Quality of a Student-Generated Question Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Simon P.; Galloway, Ross K.; Riise, Jonathan; Homer, Danny

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a study that categorizes and assesses the quality of questions and explanations authored by students in question repositories produced as part of the summative assessment in introductory physics courses over two academic sessions. Mapping question quality onto the levels in the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy, we find…

  7. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-03-07

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized. (JRD)

  8. Digital Repository for Life-long Competence Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorov, Alexander; Georgiev, Atanas; Petrov, Milen; Stefanov, Krassen

    2009-01-01

    Grigorov, A., Georgiev, A., Petrov, M., & Stefanov, K. (2009). Digital Repository for Life-long Competence Development. Paper presented at the 'Open workshop of TENCompetence - Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty-event'. November, 19-20, 2009, Manchester, UK: TENComp

  9. A Miniature Data Repository on a Raspberry Pi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samourkasidis, Argyrios; Athanasiadis, Ioannis N.

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates a low-cost, miniature data repository proof-of-concept. Such a system needs to be resilient to power and network failures, and expose adequate processing power for persistent, long-term storage. Additional services are required for interoperable data sharing and visualization.

  10. Malaysian Education Index (MEI): An Online Indexing and Repository System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Yaakub, Rohizani; Yusof, Najeemah Mohd; Idros, Sharifah Noraidah Syed; Umar, Irfan Naufal; Arshad, Muhammad Rafie Mohd.; Idrus, Rosnah; Rahman, Habsah Abdul

    2010-01-01

    This "Project Sheet" describes an on-going project that is being carried out by a group of educational researchers, computer science researchers and librarians from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. The Malaysian Education Index (MEI) has two main functions--(1) Online Indexing System, and (2) Online Repository System. In this brief…

  11. Framing a bilateral US-Russian geologic repository initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J

    1998-09-08

    This document summarizes a framework for the development of a bilateral United States-Russian geologic repository initiative to enable cooperative work on the science and technology of geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes and fissile-containing materials. Three different types of integrated technical activities in Russia are employed to focus and organize a Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) FY00 initiative. We have specified the items for initial negotiations with the Russians for start-up activities in FY99 and early FY00. These first interactions will generate other activities which, by utilizing Russia's unique capabilities, may assist us in the development and validation of the US geologic repository program. The current International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) cooperative study of 30years of heat effects on underground hardrock rock media at the closed city of Krasnoyarsk-26 (Zheleznorgorsk) is but one example of such a Russian geologic repository analogue project that may assist the US geologic repository program.

  12. Preservation Health Check: Monitoring Threats to Digital Repository Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Wouter; van der Werf, Titia; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The Preservation Health Check (PHC) project, undertaken as a joint effort by Open Planets Foundation (OPF) and OCLC Research, aims to evaluate the usefulness of the preservation metadata created and maintained by operational repositories for assessing basic preservation properties. The PHC project seeks to develop an implementable logic to support…

  13. Test case for a near-surface repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elert, M.; Jones, C. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, L.B. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Co, Stockholm (Sweden); Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-09-01

    A test case is presented for assessment of a near-surface disposal facility for radioactive waste. The case includes waste characterization and repository design, requirements and constraints in an assessment context, scenario development, model description and test calculations 6 refs, 12 tabs, 16 figs

  14. Performance assessment implementation plan for the geologic repository program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    Performance assessment is a major constituent of the program being conducted in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a geologic repository. Performance assessment is the set of activities needed for quantitative evaluations of repository-system performance to access compliance with regulations and to support the development of the geologic repository. To define the strategy for these evaluations, the DOE has developed this performance assessment strategy plan. This document discusses the need for such a strategy, the objectives and scope of the strategy plan, the relationship of the plan to other program plans. Additionally, it defines performance assessment and describes the roles of performance assessment in this program, discusses concepts and general strategies needed for performance assessment, outlines the content of the Safety Analysis Report, summarizes the requirements for the repository Environmental Impact Statement, discusses the requirements that apply to the site-suitability analyses and describes the site characterization. 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford Site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  16. Digital Repository for Life-long Competence Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorov, Alexander; Georgiev, Atanas; Petrov, Milen; Stefanov, Krassen

    2009-01-01

    Grigorov, A., Georgiev, A., Petrov, M., & Stefanov, K. (2009). Digital Repository for Life-long Competence Development. Paper presented at the 'Open workshop of TENCompetence - Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty-event'. November, 19-20, 2009, Manchester, UK: TENComp

  17. Building a Knowledge Repository for Life-long Competence Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorov, Alexander; Georgiev, Atanas; Petrov, Milen; Varbanov, Sergey; Stefanov, Krassen

    2008-01-01

    Grigorov, A., Georgiev, A., Petrov, M., Varbanov, S., & Stefanov, K. (2008). Building a Knowledge Repository for Life-long Competence Development. In R. Koper, K. Stefanov & D. Dicheva (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International TENCompetence Open Workshop "Stimulating Personal Development and Know

  18. /facet: A Browser for Heterogeneous Semantic Web Repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrand, M.; Ossenbruggen, J.R. van; Hardman, L.

    2006-01-01

    Facet browsing has become popular as a user friendly interface to data repositories. The Semantic Web raises new challenges due to the heterogeneous character of the data. First, users should be able to select and navigate through facets of resources of any type and to make selections based on prope

  19. /facet: A browser for heterogeneous semantic web repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrand, M.; Ossenbruggen, J.R. van; Hardman, L.

    2006-01-01

    Facet browsing has become popular as a user friendly interface to data repositories. We extend facet browsing of Semantic Web data in four ways. First, users are able to select and navigate through facets of resources of any type and to make selections based on properties of other, semantically rela

  20. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that is is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites available for characterization.

  1. Indian Institutional Repositories: A Study of User's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Sarika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aims to investigate the experience, contribution and opinions of users of respective institutional repositories (IRs) developed in India. Design/methodology/approach: The survey method was used. The data collection tool was a web questionnaire, which was created with the help of software provided by surveymonkey.com…

  2. Motivations of Faculty Self-Archiving in Institutional Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyun

    2011-01-01

    Professors contribute to Institutional Repositories (IRs) to make their materials widely accessible in keeping with the benefits of Open Access. However, universities' commitment to IRs depends on building trust with faculty and solving copyright concerns. Digital preservation and copyright management in IRs should be strengthened to increase…

  3. Evaluation of storage mechanisms for a content repository

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G.M. Beekman

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis, we describe and evaluate different storage mechanisms for the content repository powering a content platform. In certain usage scenarios the current RDBMS-based implementation exhibits severe performance degradation. The evaluation will focus on performance and

  4. A Miniature Data Repository on a Raspberry Pi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samourkasidis, Argyrios; Athanasiadis, Ioannis N.

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates a low-cost, miniature data repository proof-of-concept. Such a system needs to be resilient to power and network failures, and expose adequate processing power for persistent, long-term storage. Additional services are required for interoperable data sharing and visualization.

  5. INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORY FOR ACCOUNTING RESEARCH RESULTS (PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkova L. M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of the number of consumers using the advancements in technology search and delivery of scientific information, creates a need for institutional repositories that manage, preserve and maintain digital assets and intellectual products, as well as multiply the speed and convenience of obtaining the necessary information

  6. Understanding Faculty to Improve Content Recruitment for Institutional Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Nancy Fried.; Gibbons, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Institutional repositories (IRs) offer many clear benefits yet faculty authors have not demonstrated much interest in depositing their content into them. Without the content, IRs will not succeed, because institutions will sustain IRs for only so long without evidence of success. A yearlong study of faculty members at the University of Rochester…

  7. Institutional Repositories at Small Institutions in America: Some Current Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykanen, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this article was undertaken to determine the level of implementation of institutional repositories (IRs) at small institutions enrolling fewer than 10,000 students. The study analyzed quantitative and qualitative data from IRs at a number of small institutions with the aim of observing relevant patterns and trends that may…

  8. Institutional Repositories: The Experience of Master's and Baccalaureate Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Karen; St. Jean, Beth; Soo, Young Rieh; Yakel, Elizabeth; Kim, Jihyun

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, MIRACLE Project investigators censused library directors at all U.S. academic institutions about their activities planning, pilot testing, and implementing the institutional repositories on their campuses. Out of 446 respondents, 289 (64.8 percent) were from master's and baccalaureate institutions (M&BIs) where few operational…

  9. Assessment of Self-Archiving in Institutional Repositories: Across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jingfeng

    2007-01-01

    This research examined self-archiving practices by four disciplines in seven institutional repositories. By checking each individual item for its metadata and deposition status, the research found that a disciplinary culture is not obviously presented. Rather, self-archiving is regulated by a liaison system and a mandate policy.

  10. Evaluation of storage mechanisms for a content repository

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, C.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we describe and evaluate different storage mechanisms for the content repository powering a content platform. In certain usage scenarios the current RDBMS-based implementation exhibits severe performance degradation. The evaluation will focus on performance and implementation complex

  11. Different Mass Processing Services in a Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette; Zierau, Eld

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how a general bit repository mass processing service using different programming models and platforms can be specified. Such a service is needed in large data archives, especially libraries, where different ways of doing mass processing is needed for different digital libr...

  12. Environmental effects on corrosion in the Tuff repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavers, J.A.; Thompson, N.G. [Cortest Columbus, Inc., OH (USA)

    1990-02-01

    Cortest Columbus is investigating the long-term performance of container materials used for high-level waste packages as part of the information needed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to assess the Department of Energy`s application to construct a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. The scope of work consists of employing short-term techniques, to examine a wide range of possible failure modes. Long-term tests are being used to verify and further examine specific failure modes identified as important by the short-term studies. The original focus of the program was on the salt repository but the emphasis was shifted to the Tuff repository. This report summarizes the results of a literature survey performed under Task 1 of the program. The survey focuses on the influence of environmental variables on the corrosion behavior of candidate container materials for the Tuff repository. Environmental variables considered include: radiation, thermal and microbial effects. 80 refs., 44 figs., 44 tabs.

  13. User Oriented Platform for Data Analytics in Medical Imaging Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Miguel; Godinho, Tiago Marques; Costa, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The production of medical imaging studies and associated data has been growing in the last decades. Their primary use is to support medical diagnosis and treatment processes. However, the secondary use of the tremendous amount of stored data is generally more limited. Nowadays, medical imaging repositories have turned into rich databanks holding not only the images themselves, but also a wide range of metadata related to the medical practice. Exploring these repositories through data analysis and business intelligence techniques has the potential of increasing the efficiency and quality of the medical practice. Nevertheless, the continuous production of tremendous amounts of data makes their analysis difficult by conventional approaches. This article proposes a novel automated methodology to derive knowledge from medical imaging repositories that does not disrupt the regular medical practice. Our method is able to apply statistical analysis and business intelligence techniques directly on top of live institutional repositories. It is a Web-based solution that provides extensive dashboard capabilities, including complete charting and reporting options, combined with data mining components. Moreover, it enables the operator to set a wide multitude of query parameters and operators through the use of an intuitive graphical interface.

  14. Capturing knowledge in institutional repositories: playing leapfrog with giraffes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pienaar, H

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available are stored and can be searched and retrieved for future use. A repository thus enables staff and institutions to manage and preserve content and thus driving maximum value from the content. The University of Pretoria with Dr Heila Pienaar started the move...

  15. An approach to improve Romanian geological repository planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei, Veronica [Romanian Association for Nuclear Energy, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Prisecaru, Ilie [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-04-15

    International standards recommend typical phases to be included within any national program for the development of a geological repository dedicated to disposal of the high level radioactive wastes generated in countries using nuclear power. However, these are not universally applicable and the content of each of these phases may need to be adapted for each national situation and regulatory and institutional framework. Several national geological repository programs have faced failures in schedules and have revised their programs to consider an adapted phased management approach. The authors have observed that in the case of those countries in the early phases of a geological repository program where boundary conditions have not been fully defined, international recommendations for handling delays/failures in the national program might not immediately help. This paper considers a case study of the influences of the national context risks on the current planning schedule of the Romanian national geological repository. It proposes an optimum solution for an integrated response to any significant adverse impact arising from these risks, enabling sustainable program planning.

  16. Content Analysis of a Computer-Based Faculty Activity Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Eveleth, Lori; Stone, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The research presents an analysis of faculty opinions regarding the introduction of a new computer-based faculty activity repository (FAR) in a university setting. The qualitative study employs content analysis to better understand the phenomenon underlying these faculty opinions and to augment the findings from a quantitative study. A web-based…

  17. ERM Ideas and Innovations: Digital Repository Management as ERM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, María M.; Lin, Na

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the application of electronic resources management (ERM) to digital repository management at the Health Sciences and Human Services Library at the University of Maryland, Baltimore. The authors discuss electronic resources management techniques, through the application of "Techniques for Electronic Management,"…

  18. Digital repository service (DRS) at National Institute of Oceanography: A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sahu, S.R.

    Open access to the publications over Internet has become a reality. The software likes DSpace help in creating institutional repositories to place the publications on Internet. Implementation of an institutional repository at National Institute...

  19. The United States Polar Rock Repository: A geological resource for the Earth science community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, Annie M.; Elliot, David H.; Codispoti, Julie E.

    2007-01-01

    The United States Polar Rock Repository (USPRR) is a U. S. national facility designed for the permanent curatorial preservation of rock samples, along with associated materials such as field notes, annotated air photos and maps, raw analytic data, paleomagnetic cores, ground rock and mineral residues, thin sections, and microfossil mounts, microslides and residues from Polar areas. This facility was established by the Office of Polar Programs at the U. S. National Science Foundation (NSF) to minimize redundant sample collecting, and also because the extreme cold and hazardous field conditions make fieldwork costly and difficult. The repository provides, along with an on-line database of sample information, an essential resource for proposal preparation, pilot studies and other sample based research that should make fieldwork more efficient and effective. This latter aspect should reduce the environmental impact of conducting research in sensitive Polar Regions. The USPRR also provides samples for educational outreach. Rock samples may be borrowed for research or educational purposes as well as for museum exhibits.

  20. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Standards and Semantics for Open Access to Research Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, Robert; Carbotte, Suzanne; Chandler, Cynthia; Smith, Shawn; Stocks, Karen

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, a growing number of funding agencies and professional societies have issued policies calling for open access to research data. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is working to ensure open access to the environmental sensor data routinely acquired by the U.S. academic research fleet. Currently 25 vessels deliver 7 terabytes of data to R2R each year, acquired from a suite of geophysical, oceanographic, meteorological, and navigational sensors on over 400 cruises worldwide. R2R is working to ensure these data are preserved in trusted repositories, discoverable via standard protocols, and adequately documented for reuse. R2R maintains a master catalog of cruises for the U.S. academic research fleet, currently holding essential documentation for over 3,800 expeditions including vessel and cruise identifiers, start/end dates and ports, project titles and funding awards, science parties, dataset inventories with instrument types and file formats, data quality assessments, and links to related content at other repositories. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is published for 1) each cruise, 2) each original field sensor dataset, 3) each post-field data product such as quality-controlled shiptrack navigation produced by the R2R program, and 4) each document such as a cruise report submitted by the science party. Scientists are linked to personal identifiers, such as the Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID), where known. Using standard global identifiers such as DOIs and ORCIDs facilitates linking with journal publications and generation of citation metrics. Since its inception, the R2R program has worked in close collaboration with other data repositories in the development of shared semantics for oceanographic research. The R2R cruise catalog uses community-standard terms and definitions hosted by the NERC Vocabulary Server, and publishes ISO metadata records for each cruise that use community-standard profiles developed with the NOAA Data

  1. Coupling of Nuclear Waste Form Corrosion and Radionuclide Transports in Presence of Relevant Repository Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Nathalie A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ryan, Joseph V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Assessments of waste form and disposal options start with the degradation of the waste forms and consequent mobilization of radionuclides. Long-term static tests, single-pass flow-through tests, and the pressurized unsaturated flow test are often employed to study the durability of potential waste forms and to help create models that predict their durability throughout the lifespan of the disposal site. These tests involve the corrosion of the material in the presence of various leachants, with different experimental designs yielding desired information about the behavior of the material. Though these tests have proved instrumental in elucidating various mechanisms responsible for material corrosion, the chemical environment to which the material is subject is often not representative of a potential radioactive waste repository where factors such as pH and leachant composition will be controlled by the near-field environment. Near-field materials include, but are not limited to, the original engineered barriers, their resulting corrosion products, backfill materials, and the natural host rock. For an accurate performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository, realistic waste corrosion experimental data ought to be modeled to allow for a better understanding of waste form corrosion mechanisms and the effect of immediate geochemical environment on these mechanisms. Additionally, the migration of radionuclides in the resulting chemical environment during and after waste form corrosion must be quantified and mechanisms responsible for migrations understood. The goal of this research was to understand the mechanisms responsible for waste form corrosion in the presence of relevant repository sediments to allow for accurate radionuclide migration quantifications. The rationale for this work is that a better understanding of waste form corrosion in relevant systems will enable increased reliance on waste form performance in repository environments and potentially

  2. Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of Bentonite Buffer in a Deep Geological HLW Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J.; Lee, J. O

    2008-08-15

    This work aims to investigate the influence of bentonite buffer and backfill, which will role as important engineered barriers, on the thermo-mechanical behaviors of a disposal system at a deep underground HLW repository. It will contribute to the disposal system development and performance assessment of the system. In this study, three-dimensional computer simulations were carried out with a consideration of the thermal and mechanical characteristics of the buffer and backfill for the investigation of the behavior of buffer and backfill under different disposal conditions. The understanding of the near field response to the variation of buffer and backfill properties will contribute to the development of an adequate buffer and backfill design in disposal conditions as well as the selection of a disposal site. The following conclusions could be drawn from the three-dimensional thermo-mechanical coupling analysis for investigating the possible influence of the bentonite buffer on the thermo-mechanical behavior around an underground repository, which is located at several hundred meters deep underground. o The bentonite swelling pressure can influence on the mechanical behavior of canister. Further detailed modeling is required in the future. o It is required to consider the water content and density of bentonite as important design parameters, because it was found that those influence the thermo-mechanical behavior of near field significantly. o A horizontal deposition hole and multi-level repository can results different maximum temperatures, stress concentration, and the required time for the maximum temperatures of canister, buffer, and rock compared to those of vertical deposition hole and single level repository. o Even though, the same laboratory results were used for driving the parameters for the plastic models used in the modeling, the mechanical behaviors were different. It is, therefore, required to use adequate plastic models for buffer and backfill

  3. Viability assessment of a repository at Yucca Mountain: Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1998-12-01

    Based on the viability assessment, DOE believes that Yucca Mountain remains a promising site for a geologic repository and that work should proceed to support a decision in 2001 on whether to recommend the site to the President for development as a repository. Over 15 years, extensive research has validated many of the expectations of the scientists who first suggested that remote, desert regions of the Southwest are well-suited for a geologic repository. Engineered barriers can be designed to contain waste for thousands of years, and the natural barriers can delay and dilute any radioactive material that migrates from the waste packages. Current models indicate that the possible radiation exposure to future populations living nearby could be comparable to present-day exposure levels from natural background radiation. Design alternatives that may improve performance and reduce remaining uncertainties are now being evaluated. The performance of a geologic repository over such long time periods--longer than recorded human history--cannot be proven beyond all doubt. Forecasts about future geologic and climatic conditions and engineering estimates of how long the waste packages will remain intact cannot be directly validated. The mathematical models used in the performance assessment are subject to uncertainties that can be reduced but never completely eliminated. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's general standard for meeting geologic repository regulatory criteria and objectives is reasonable assurance. While considerable uncertainties remain today, DOE believes that reasonable assurance should be achievable in the licensing process after the planned work is completed. The DOE believes, therefore, that ongoing work at Yucca Mountain should proceed as planned.

  4. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M&O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use).

  5. Viability assessment of a repository at Yucca Mountain: Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1998-12-01

    Based on the viability assessment, DOE believes that Yucca Mountain remains a promising site for a geologic repository and that work should proceed to support a decision in 2001 on whether to recommend the site to the President for development as a repository. Over 15 years, extensive research has validated many of the expectations of the scientists who first suggested that remote, desert regions of the Southwest are well-suited for a geologic repository. Engineered barriers can be designed to contain waste for thousands of years, and the natural barriers can delay and dilute any radioactive material that migrates from the waste packages. Current models indicate that the possible radiation exposure to future populations living nearby could be comparable to present-day exposure levels from natural background radiation. Design alternatives that may improve performance and reduce remaining uncertainties are now being evaluated. The performance of a geologic repository over such long time periods--longer than recorded human history--cannot be proven beyond all doubt. Forecasts about future geologic and climatic conditions and engineering estimates of how long the waste packages will remain intact cannot be directly validated. The mathematical models used in the performance assessment are subject to uncertainties that can be reduced but never completely eliminated. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's general standard for meeting geologic repository regulatory criteria and objectives is reasonable assurance. While considerable uncertainties remain today, DOE believes that reasonable assurance should be achievable in the licensing process after the planned work is completed. The DOE believes, therefore, that ongoing work at Yucca Mountain should proceed as planned.

  6. [Structure, use, and risks of biomaterial repositories of embryonal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernestus, K; Pietsch, T; Gessler, M; Simon, T; Hero, B; Berthold, F

    2006-01-01

    Availability of statistically sufficient numbers of tumor samples and other biomaterials in high quality together with corresponding clinical data is crucial for biomedical research. Tumor repositories from individual scientists are mostly not sufficient to satisfy these criteria, especially since pediatric tumors are rare. In 2000 three centralized tumor repositories (neuroblastoma in Cologne, nephroblastoma in Würzburg, hepatoblastoma, brain tumors in Bonn) have been established by the "German Competence Net Pediatric Oncology und Hematology". The aim was to collect biomaterial including tumor samples, normal tissue, and blood in high quality for research and diagnostic purposes at a central institution. Informed consent of the parents or patients is a prerequisite for scientific use of the samples and is requested by the therapy trial. The samples are collected according to accepted standards and shipped in the specially designed Tumorbox. The tumor repository organizes the distribution of the samples to the cooperating diagnostic laboratories. The number of collected tumor samples has increased over the years. In 2000, samples from 200 patients were collected while the patient number increased to 321 in 2005. Over the years the tumor repositories collected more than 7,150 samples (fresh frozen tumor, fresh frozen normal tissue, and blood). Through links with clinical trial databases the samples can be connected with clinical data. 12 of 14 applications for tumor material to be used in specific scientific projects have been approved by an independent supervisory board. The establishment of central tumor repositories represents a major step for biomedical research activities and quality control in pediatric oncology.

  7. Consumer Insights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANKOT

    2004-01-01

    Fang Jun, the head of consumer and market insights of Unilever Shanghai, has summarized his early life as a market in two sentences: rush about to study market changes;act all day to observe consumer behavior. And now?"Tell stories, conduct interviews and piece together different data; calculate numbers,build models and write reports."

  8. Mountain building, from subduction to collision and erosion: insights from 30 years of field and analog modeling studies (Stephan Mueller Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavieille, J.

    2012-04-01

    the subducting plate, and a high-tapered retro-wedge on the internal side. Erosion has rapidly been added as a significant parameter because the impact of material transfer on the mechanics and structural evolution of sub-aerial wedges relative to submarine ones is major. Following this general approach, I will address major open questions regarding the global and local responses (i.e., at orogenic scale and at the scale of faults or ridges) of an orogenic wedge under the impact of tectonic or climatic forcing at different time scales. Insights from analog models are used to; - characterize the behavior of orogenic wedges subject to different geometric, kinematic and rheologic boundary conditions and - to show how the interactions between surface processes and tectonics influence the structures, kinematics of deformation, exhumation mechanisms, and long-term evolution. Impact of first order parameters such as the initial geodynamic subduction setting, material transfer in the wedge, structural inheritance (OCT and inherited extensional structures), and their role on the tectonic evolution of orogenic wedges will be successively reviewed. Several case studies of active or fossil orogens (Taiwan, the western Alps and the Variscan belt) representative of first order tectonic processes will be presented in the light of field observation and analog experiments.

  9. Design information verification (DIV) of closed geological repositories (SAGOR activity 3c)[Nuclear waste disposal; Security; Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myatt, J

    1998-02-01

    green field. The repository is then said to be 'closed' and this report addresses the DIV issues of this post closure phase. Following an introduction in section 1 the DIV requirements are described in section 2. Here, in section 2.1, the physical characteristics which make repositories different from any other type of safeguarded facility are highlighted. Of special significance is the fact that it is hidden underground and covert activities may prove to be very difficult to detect. The tools available for DIV are described in section 3 where it is pointed out that the only useful standard tool is visual observation. This will not be sufficient to maintain reliable safeguards and will have to be supplemented by one or more of the techniques new to safeguards described in section 3.2. They include: (a) Ground penetrating radar - to enable the concrete seal plugs to be tested to see if they have been tampered with. (b) Passive seismic monitoring - to monitor evidence of undeclared underground activity in the vicinity of the repository. Newly developing mining techniques may, however, make this ineffective. (c) Active seismic monitoring - to provide evidence of new, undeclared, underground tunnels. A proven technique for oil surveys but one which will have to be proven in this application where finer detail is being sought. (d) Satellite observations - to look for evidence of underground tunnelling from evidence of aboveground activities, within say 10 km of the periphery of the repository's emplacement areas, such as the sinking and use of mine shafts, the disposal of waste material, and the suspicious movement of vehicles. The general DIV requirements are discussed in section 4. In section 4.2, it is pointed out how important it is to consider how the closed repository will be safeguarded even before construction starts. Its location relative to other features can make safeguarding it more or less difficult and expensive. Old and current mine

  10. 10 CFR 60.131 - General design criteria for the geologic repository operations area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Repository Operations Area § 60.131 General design criteria for the geologic repository operations area. (a... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General design criteria for the geologic repository operations area. 60.131 Section 60.131 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF...

  11. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Building a Reference Cruise Catalog for the Research Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Clark, P. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. A core element of this infrastructure is a master catalog of research vessels, cruises, sensor systems, underway datasets, navigation products, field reports, event logs, file formats, people, organizations, and funding awards that is maintained uniformly across the research fleet. All NSF-supported vessel operators now submit their underway cruise data and documentation directly to R2R, per the revised Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Sample and Data Policy published in 2011. R2R ingests this content into the fleet catalog, assigning globally unique and persistent identifiers at the cruise, dataset, and file (granule) levels. The catalog is aligned with community-standard vocabularies, working collaboratively with the NOAA Data Centers, UNOLS Office, and pan-European SeaDataNet project; and includes links to related data at other inter/national repositories. In response to community demand, we are extending the catalog to include instrument-specific metadata such as installation details, patch tests, and calibration results. The entire R2R catalog is published on the Web as "Linked Data", making it easily accessible to encourage integration with other repositories. Selected content is also published in formal metadata records according to ISO and W3C standards, suitable for submission to long-term archives. We are deploying both faceted (classification/filter) and Web map-based browse and search interfaces.

  12. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Collaborative Development of Linked Data for Oceanographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Stocks, Karen; Smith, Shawn; Clark, Paul; Shepherd, Adam; Moore, Carla; Beaulieu, Stace

    2013-04-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from U.S. academic oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. The entire R2R Catalog is published online as a Linked Data collection, making it easily accessible to encourage discovery and integration with data at other repositories. We are developing the R2R Linked Data collection with specific goals in mind: 1.) We facilitate data access and reuse by publishing the richest possible collection of resources to describe vessels, cruises, instruments, and datasets from the U.S. academic fleet, including data quality assessment results and clean trackline navigation; 2.) We facilitate data citation through the entire lifecycle from field acquisition to shoreside archiving to journal articles and global syntheses, by publishing Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for datasets and encoding them directly into our Linked Data resources; and 3.) We facilitate federation with other repositories such as the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO), InterRidge Vents Database, and Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS), by reciprocal linking between RDF resources and supporting the RDF Query Language. R2R participates in the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), a joint European-U.S.-Australian partnership to facilitate the sharing of data and documentation across international borders. We publish our controlled vocabularies as a Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concept collection, and are working toward alignment with SeaDataNet and other community-standard terms using the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS). http://rvdata.us/

  13. Principal organic materials in a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    The largest pool of organic material in a repository at closure is the organic material in the bentonite in buffer and backfill. It is impossible to make any assumptions as to how much of this material will be available for biodegradation, since the character of the material is unknown. However, it is unlikely that this organic material can dissolve in groundwater unless the bentonite loses its swelling capacity. The second largest pool will be the biofilms formed on the rock surfaces. This assumption presupposes that no cleaning is undertaken before repository closure. The third largest pool is the organic material produced by microorganisms using hydrogen from the anaerobic corrosion of iron in steel as an energy source. The following provides summary descriptions of the different pools of organic material that will remain in the repository: 1. Microorganisms. Their effect would mainly be to reduce the redox potential soon after repository closure. They may contribute to the depletion of the oxygen entrapped during repository construction, an effect that would not jeopardise repository stability. If the dominant microorganisms in the anaerobic environment are sulphate-reducing bacteria, oxidation of organic material would lead to the formation of HS-. The produced sulphide could corrode the copper canisters under anaerobic conditions if it reaches them. Another effect of microorganisms would be to increase the complexing capacity of the groundwater due to excreted metabolites. The impact of these compounds is not yet clear, although it will surely not be very important, due to the small amounts of such substances. 2. Materials in the ventilation air. Their effect will probably be to help maintain reducing conditions in the area, although this effect will likely be minimal or negligible. 3. Construction materials. Among these materials, we emphasise the organic materials present in concrete, asphalt, bentonite, and wood. Hydrocarbons from asphalt may help reduce

  14. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Evolution report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Paul; Johnson, Lawrence; Snellman, Margit; Pastina, Barbara; Gribi, Peter

    2008-01-15

    important differences between KBS-3H and KBS-3V occur. The description of evolution in this phase addresses in turn the (i), thermal evolution, (ii), groundwater flow and evolution of groundwater composition, (iii), mechanical evolution, (iv), saturation and buffer swelling, (v) evolution of chemical and microbiological conditions and (vi), evolution of the canister surface and interior. A key issue is the local variability of the near-field rock around the KBS-3H repository drifts, which, together with the effects of gas from the corrosion of the supercontainer shells and other steel repository components, results in widely differing saturation times for different drift sections. Nevertheless, even in the tightest drift sections, the buffer is expected to retain its initial water content, and will eventually fully saturate, at which time it is expected to perform its full range of safety functions. In the more distant future, the evolution of conditions at repository depth may be significantly affected by major climate change, and, in particular, by the formation of ice sheets at the ground surface. Key issues, which are common to KBS-3H and KBS.3V, are (i), the possibility that meltwater penetrating to repository depth may lead to some erosion of the buffer, and (ii), the impact of post-glacial earthquakes on canister integrity. The impact of anthropogenic emissions on the magnitude and timing of future major climate changes is a key uncertainty that is also common to the two alternatives. The description of repository evolution provides the basis for the identification of evolution scenarios, an assessment of canister longevity and the analysis of radionuclide release and transport in the event of canister failure. Scenarios involving canister failure and radionuclide release are, however, also identified based on the discussion in this report and in the KBS-3H Process Report. These are initiated, in the first place, by: . the presence of an initial, penetrating defect

  15. Results from an International Simulation Study on Coupled Thermal,Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes near Geological NuclearWaste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Barr, D.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liu, Q.-S; Oda, Y.; Wang, W.; Zhang, C.-Y.

    2007-10-23

    As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near waste emplacement drifts of geological nuclear waste repositories. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower postclosure temperatures, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses is currently being resolved. In particular, good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglected complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level.

  16. Data Publication: The Role of Community-Based, Disciplinary Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Kerstin; Hsu, Leslie

    2013-04-01

    Data publication is increasingly recognized as a new paradigm to achieve broad and open access to data for their re-use while ensuring proper citation and attribution of the data to their creator. Current models of data publication include special data journals, institutional repositories, and programmatic or disciplinary repositories. This presentation focuses on the critical role that community-based disciplinary repositories should play, using the example of the IEDA data facility (www.iedadata.org). Disciplinary repositories ensure that data publication is successfully implemented and adopted by the science community, so that it can fulfill its promise to advance data reuse, enhance reproducibility of scientific results, and offer new opportunities for scientific discoveries. Disciplinary repositories are ideally poised to address the challenges that can lead to 'data reuse failure' (Rees 2010), which in turn obstruct the successful development and implementation of new data infrastructures for the sciences. Among these challenges are: professional motivation for investigators to publish the data; effort and economic burden of publication; discovery and long-term accessibility of data; adequate documentation of data provenance (measured parameters, uncertainty, reproducibility, materials, methods, data manipulation); and usability (file formats, interfaces to software tools for data analysis, visualization, modeling). The relevant function of a disciplinary repository is to coordinate and bridge the needs of its community with recognized requirements for data curation and demands of evolving technologies. IEDA meets that function, gathering regular guidance from the community, developing community-approved best practices and guidelines; providing guidance and tools to investigators that facilitate the process of data publication; and performing data quality control. IEDA's sustainable infrastructure supports the discovery and access of the data, and IEDA

  17. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Linking and Integrating Data for Oceanographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Clark, P. D.; Shepherd, A.; Moore, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. We have published the entire R2R Catalog as a Linked Data collection, making it easily accessible to encourage linking and integration with data at other repositories. We are developing the R2R Linked Data collection with specific goals in mind: 1.) We facilitate data access and reuse by providing the richest possible collection of resources to describe vessels, cruises, instruments, and datasets from the U.S. academic fleet, including data quality assessment results and clean trackline navigation. We are leveraging or adopting existing community-standard concepts and vocabularies, particularly concepts from the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) ontology and terms from the pan-European SeaDataNet vocabularies, and continually re-publish resources as new concepts and terms are mapped. 2.) We facilitate data citation through the entire data lifecycle from field acquisition to shoreside archiving to (ultimately) global syntheses and journal articles. We are implementing globally unique and persistent identifiers at the collection, dataset, and granule levels, and encoding these citable identifiers directly into the Linked Data resources. 3.) We facilitate linking and integration with other repositories that publish Linked Data collections for the U.S. academic fleet, such as BCO-DMO and the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS). We are initially mapping datasets at the resource level, and plan to eventually implement rule-based mapping at the concept level. We work collaboratively with partner repositories to develop best practices for URI patterns and consensus on shared vocabularies. The R2R Linked Data collection is implemented as a

  18. DECOVALEX III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Evaluation of the Impact of Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Couplings in Bentonite and Near-Field Rock Barriers on a Nuclear Waste Repository in a Sparsely Fractured Hard Rock. Report of BMT1C/WP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, L. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Engineering Geology; Nguyen, T.S. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] (eds.)

    2005-02-15

    This report presents the works performed for the third, also the last, phase (BMT1C) of BMT1 of the DECOVALEX III project for the period of 1999-2002. The works of BMT1 is divided into three phases: BMT1A, BMT1B and BMT1C. The BMT1A concerns with calibration of the computer codes with a reference Thermal (T), Hydrological (H) and Mechanical (M) experiment at Kamaishi Mine, Japan. The objective is to validate the numerical approaches, computer codes and material models, so that the teams simulating tools are at a comparable level of maturity and sophistication. The BMT1B uses the calibrated codes to perform scoping calculations, considering varying degrees of THM coupling and varying permeability values of the surrounding rock for a reference generic repository design without fractures. The aim is to identify the coupling mechanisms of importance for construction, performance and safety of the repository. BMT1C concerns with scoping calculations with different coupling combinations for the case where a horizontal fracture intersects the deposition hole and a vertical fracture zone divides two adjacent deposition tunnel/hole system. A hydrostatic condition is applied along the vertical fracture as a hydraulic boundary condition. In addition, the SKI/KTH team performed an additional calculation case of a highly fractured rock mass with two orthogonal sets of fractures with a spacing of 0.5 m. The chosen measures for evaluating the long term safety and performance of the repository are the maximal temperature created by the thermal loading from the emplaced wastes, the time for resaturation of the buffer, the maximal swelling stress developed in the buffer, the structural integrity of the rock mass and the permeability evolution in the rock mass. The analyses fro BMT1C were conducted by four research teams: SKI/KTH (Sweden), CNSC (Canada), IRSN/CEA(France) and JNC (Japan), using FEM approach with different computer codes. From the results, it is clear that the

  19. A Summary of Properties Used to Evaluate INEEL Calcine Disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, C.A.

    2003-07-14

    To support evaluations of the direct disposal of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory calcines to the repository at Yucca Mountain, an evaluation of the performance of the calcine in the repository environment must be performed. This type of evaluation demonstrates, through computer modeling and analysis, the impact the calcine would have on the ability of the repository to perform its function of containment of materials during the repository lifetime. This report discusses parameters that were used in the scoping evaluation conducted in FY 2003. It provides nominal values for the parameters, with explanation of the source of the values, and how the values were modified for use in repository analysis activities.

  20. Evaluation of the thermal effect in a KBS-3 type repository. A literary survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goblet, P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris, Fontainebleau (France). Centre d' Informatique Geologique; Marsily, Ghislain de [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France). Laboratoire de Geologie Appliquee

    2000-03-01

    repository is known, as well as the geometry of the disposal option, the properties of the buffer and the host rock and potential gaps between the canister and the rock. The heat transfer is generally assumed to occur mostly by conduction, but in some cases, vaporisation and condensation of water with a large 'heat pipe' effect must also be considered. In simple cases, analytical solutions can be used, but generally, numerical techniques are preferred, in particular when other processes are coupled with the temperature in the model: mechanical effects, geochemical effects, hydrological effects. A general conclusion from this work is that thermal calculations constitute the 'easy' part of the much more general problem of the hydro-thermo-mechanical behaviour of a geological host rock under the influence of a heat-producing repository. It is clear that at their present stage of development, models are not able to simultaneously cover all the scales, from the regional to the near-field: choices must be made as to what scale is appropriate for a particular aspect. The development of specific models for various scales, although cumbersome, may have advantages, because one is forced to correctly assess the orders of magnitude of various mechanisms to make the appropriate approximations. The Equivalent Continuous Medium approach is well suited to the modelling of heat transfer, because this phenomenon is rather insensitive to the presence of fractures. Fractures must, however, be taken into account when the effect of heat on water trajectories is assessed. Generally, the density coupling for sparsely-fractured rocks is a one-way coupling: heat transfer is insensitive to the flow in fractures, but the flow in fractures can be modified by the temperature long after the thermal perturbation of the medium has vanished. Various numerical techniques are available to solve the heat transfer equation: Finite Elements, Finite Differences, Distinct Elements or even

  1. Geoscientific programme for investigation and evaluation of sites for the deep repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    -term safety is ensured for the planned deep repository based on reported investigation results and the proposed repository layout. The safety assessment includes analyses of technical, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical processes around a deep repository as well as calculations of radionuclide transport. Data after completed site investigation should serve as a basis for an assessment of at least the same scope as the SR 97 safety assessment. The methodology in SR 97 hereby comprises a basis for the methodology to be used in future safety assessments. The need for data is the primary factor that will guide field activities during the site investigations. What is possible and suitable to do is, however, also determined to a great extent by environmental conditions on the site. Measurements will be made from the air, from the ground and in boreholes. To enable the measurements to be performed quickly and conveniently, some small roads may have to be built and power lines run up to the drilling sites. Drilling is the 'heaviest' activity during the site investigations. Protected areas will be avoided wherever possible. The same applies to other areas that may be sensitive to disturbances, such as breeding areas for unusual bird species and localities with rare plants. With good knowledge concerning the study site's flora and fauna, the field activities can be adapted so that any disturbances will be limited. The initial site investigations are estimated to take around 2 years. The time required is projected to be different for the different sites because the conditions and level of knowledge are different. To enable the resources to be utilized efficiently, the timetables for the investigations at the different sites will be somewhat staggered. The complete site investigations include several drilling stages, where 3-4 deep core boreholes are drilled simultaneously. This is followed by measurements and evaluation of the results. Each drilling stage is estimated to

  2. Compliance with minimum information guidelines in public metabolomics repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Rachel A; Salek, Reza; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2017-09-26

    The Metabolomics Standards Initiative (MSI) guidelines were first published in 2007. These guidelines provided reporting standards for all stages of metabolomics analysis: experimental design, biological context, chemical analysis and data processing. Since 2012, a series of public metabolomics databases and repositories, which accept the deposition of metabolomic datasets, have arisen. In this study, the compliance of 399 public data sets, from four major metabolomics data repositories, to the biological context MSI reporting standards was evaluated. None of the reporting standards were complied with in every publicly available study, although adherence rates varied greatly, from 0 to 97%. The plant minimum reporting standards were the most complied with and the microbial and in vitro were the least. Our results indicate the need for reassessment and revision of the existing MSI reporting standards.

  3. The Peer Review Process: An Expanded Role for Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Richardson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Peer review has been regarded as a cornerstone of scientific research for a considerable time. Journals seeking to attract high quality scholarship rely on peer review to maintain their credentials in the publishing industry. However, over a period of time—and especially given the advent of the Internet—complaints have arisen from authors, reviewers and even editors as to the efficacy of the system. The authors outline a range of models which have evolved that either complement or replace evaluation processes which characterise traditional peer review. Research data is presented in the context of quality assessment. The authors introduce several approaches which are utilising repositories to support the process. Consideration is given as to how this might change the current institutional repository environment.

  4. A Miniature Data Repository on a Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyrios Samourkasidis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates a low-cost, miniature data repository proof-of-concept. Such a system needs to be resilient to power and network failures, and expose adequate processing power for persistent, long-term storage. Additional services are required for interoperable data sharing and visualization. We designed and implemented a software tool called Airchive to run on a Raspberry Pi, in order to assemble a data repository for archiving and openly sharing timeseries data. Airchive employs a relational database for storing data and implements two standards for sharing data (namely the Sensor Observation Service by the Open Geospatial Consortium and the Protocol for Metadata Harvesting by the Open Archives Initiative. The system is demonstrated in a realistic indoor air pollution data acquisition scenario in a four-month experiment evaluating its autonomy and robustness under power and network disruptions. A stress test was also conducted to evaluate its performance against concurrent client requests.

  5. Simulated geophysical monitoring of radioactive waste repository barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukov, Anton

    Estimation of attenuation of the elastic waves in clays and high clay-content rocks is important for the quality of geophysical methods relying on processing the recorded waveforms. Time-lapse imaging is planned to be employed for monitoring of the condition of high-radioactive waste repositories. Engineers can analyze and optimize configuration of the monitoring system using numerical modelling tools. The reliability of modeling requires proper calibration. The purpose of this thesis is threefold: (i) propose a calibration methodology for the wave propagation tools based on the experimental data, (ii) estimate the attenuation in bentonite as a function of temperature and water content, and (iii) investigate the feasibility of active sonic monitoring of the engineered barriers. The results suggest that pronounced inelastic behavior of bentonite has to be taken into account in geophysical modeling and analysis. The repository--scale models confirm that active sonic monitoring is capable of depicting physical changes in the bentonite barrier.

  6. Cross Institutional Cooperation on a Shared Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how independent institutions, such as archives and libraries, can cooperate on managing a shared bit repository with bit preservation in order to use their resources for preservation n in a more cost-effective way. It uses the OAIS Reference Model to provide a framework......, and confidentiality. This study further revealed that requirements for the level of bit safety must be supplemented by risk analysis, which needs to involve elements of the architecture; for example, the number of copies and how independence between the copies is ensured. The paper describes bit repository...... architecture and its strengths in being flexible in order to offer differentiated services with respect to, among other things, bit safety and cost. Furthermore, the challenges in formulating various aspects, such as risk requirements, are described....

  7. Cross Institutional Cooperation on a Shared Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how independent institutions, such as archives and libraries, can cooperate on managing a shared bit repository with bit preservation, in order to use their resources for preservation in a more cost-effective way. It uses the OAIS Reference Model to provide a framework......, and confidentiality. This study furthermore revealed that requirements for the level of bit safety must be supplemented by risk analysis, which needs to involve elements of the architecture, e.g. the number of copies and how independence between the copies is ensured. The paper describes the bit repository...... architecture, its strengths in being flexible in order to offer differentiated services with respect to, among other things, bit safety and cost. Furthermore, the challenges in formulating e.g. risk requirements are described....

  8. The study on safety facility criteria for radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Choi, M. H.; Han, S. H. and others [Dongbang Electron Industry Corporation, (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-12-15

    The radioactive waste repository are necessary to install the engineered safety systems to secure the safety for operation of the repository in the event of fire and earthquake. Since the development of safety facility criteria requires a thorough understanding about the characteristics of the engineered safety systems, we should investigate by means of literature survey and visit SKB. In particular, definition, composition of the systems, functional requirement of the systems, engineered safety systems of foreign countries, system design, operation and maintenance requirement should be investigated : fire protection system, ventilation system, drainage system, I and C system, electric system, radiation monitoring system. This proposed criteria consist of purpose, scope of application, ventilation system, fire protection system, drainage system, electric system and this proposed criteria can be applied as a basic reference for the final criteria.

  9. Lithophysal Rock Mass Mechanical Properties of the Repository Host Horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Rigby

    2004-11-10

    The purpose of this calculation is to develop estimates of key mechanical properties for the lithophysal rock masses of the Topopah Spring Tuff (Tpt) within the repository host horizon, including their uncertainties and spatial variability. The mechanical properties to be characterized include an elastic parameter, Young's modulus, and a strength parameter, uniaxial compressive strength. Since lithophysal porosity is used as a surrogate property to develop the distributions of the mechanical properties, an estimate of the distribution of lithophysal porosity is also developed. The resulting characterizations of rock parameters are important for supporting the subsurface design, developing the preclosure safety analysis, and assessing the postclosure performance of the repository (e.g., drift degradation and modeling of rockfall impacts on engineered barrier system components).

  10. The role of libraries in open access institutional repositories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Hernández Peréz

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are more and more institutional repositories in Spain, as in a large number of countries all over the world, which contains thousands of digital objects in open access, full-text, no-charge and available to free download, print or copy. Nearly every repository is managed and mantained by the library services of the institution they serve. This article explains the reasons for the crisis in the scholarly communication model, the alternative model based on open access to scholarly publication, and the crucial role that the libraries can play in the development of their own digital collections, a challenge and a chance that they can't miss.

  11. Performance assessment modeling of the proposed Genting Island repository facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imardjoko, Y.U. [Gadjah Mada Univ., Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Yatim, S. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Tangerang (Indonesia)

    1996-12-01

    Indonesia is about to enter the nuclear era with the construction of several nuclear power plants in the near future. Numerous issues, including disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, must be addressed to evaluate the impact of these plants on the environment. This paper reviews the Genting ocean island repository site development plan with respect to three main areas, the inventory of HLRW, the barrier systems (natural and engineered), and the physical condition of the site. The radionuclide inventory and waste form require analyses of the waste package that include selection of container materials, the type of engineered barrier and its predicted performance, and radionuclide release models. Parameters pertinent to the repository site includes information pertaining to the geology, hydrology, climatology, and water chemistry of the site. These data are important to aid in the prediction of the long-term performance of the site.

  12. Multinational repositories: Ethical, legal and political/public aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutellier, C. [ARiUS - Association for Regional and International Underground Storage, Tafernstrasse 11, CH-5405 Baden, Dattwil (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Christine.Boutellier@arius-world.org; McCombie, C. [ARiUS - Association for Regional and International Underground Storage, Tafernstrasse 11, CH-5405 Baden, Dattwil (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Charles.McCombie@arius-world.org; Mele, I. [ARAO - Agency for Radwaste Management, Parmova 53, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: irena.mele@gov.si

    2006-07-01

    Concepts for shared multinational repositories face a great challenge in achieving acceptance, despite the fact that they promise advantages in safety, security, environmental protection and costs. When considering advantages of shared multinational repositories, it is instructive to examine which are the ethical, legal and political issues that mostly affect the feasibility of implementing such facilities. This paper addresses the key questions from two opposite sides. The early part takes a 'top-down' view, looking at the international debate on ethical issues, summarising a wide range of national political attitudes and identifying relevant international legislation and treaties. The latter looks 'bottom-up' at the problem, by discussing the situation of a small country, Slovenia. Slovenia has limited financial resources for implementing disposal - but it has a firm commitment to fulfilling its responsibilities for safely managing all Radioactive Wastes (RAW) arising in the country. Strategies considered to do so are laid out in this paper. (author)

  13. The convection cooling system of the Yakutsk permafrost seed repository

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir N.Panin; Georgii P.Kuzmin

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is critical to maintaining seed viability under long term storage conditions. It has been common practice to use refrigeration systems to maintain required storage temperatures. A seed repository constructed in permafrost in Ya kutsk, Russia is the first seed storage facility that relies solely on natural cold. This paper describes the design and per formance of the cooling system of the repository. An innovative aspect of the cooling system is that it utilizes the patterns of temperature wave propagation in permafrost. Predicted and measured ground temperatures for the first year of operation are presented and analyzed. Results indicate that convection air cooling systems can be used to control the temperature regime in underground facilities in permafrost.

  14. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  15. Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-29

    The Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System provides supervisory control, monitoring, and selected remote control of primary and secondary repository operations. Primary repository operations consist of both surface and subsurface activities relating to high-level waste receipt, preparation, and emplacement. Secondary repository operations consist of support operations for waste handling and treatment, utilities, subsurface construction, and other selected ancillary activities. Remote control of the subsurface emplacement operations, as well as, repository performance confirmation operations are the direct responsibility of the system. In addition, the system monitors parameters such as radiological data, air quality data, fire detection status, meteorological conditions, unauthorized access, and abnormal operating conditions, to ensure a safe workplace for personnel. Parameters are displayed in a real-time manner to human operators regarding surface and subsurface conditions. The system performs supervisory monitoring and control for both important to safety and non-safety systems. The system provides repository operational information, alarm capability, and human operator response messages during emergency response situations. The system also includes logic control to place equipment, systems, and utilities in a safe operational mode or complete shutdown during emergency response situations. The system initiates alarms and provides operational data to enable appropriate actions at the local level in support of emergency response, radiological protection response, evacuation, and underground rescue. The system provides data communications, data processing, managerial reports, data storage, and data analysis. This system's primary surface and subsurface operator consoles, for both supervisory and remote control activities, will be located in a Central Control Center (CCC) inside one of the surface facility buildings. The system

  16. MetaboLights: An Open-Access Database Repository for Metabolomics Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Namrata S; Haug, Kenneth; Conesa, Pablo; Jayseelan, Kalaivani; Moreno, Pablo; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Nainala, Venkata Chandrasekhar; Spicer, Rachel A; Williams, Mark; Li, Xuefei; Salek, Reza M; Griffin, Julian L; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2016-03-24

    MetaboLights is the first general purpose, open-access database repository for cross-platform and cross-species metabolomics research at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI). Based upon the open-source ISA framework, MetaboLights provides Metabolomics Standard Initiative (MSI) compliant metadata and raw experimental data associated with metabolomics experiments. Users can upload their study datasets into the MetaboLights Repository. These studies are then automatically assigned a stable and unique identifier (e.g., MTBLS1) that can be used for publication reference. The MetaboLights Reference Layer associates metabolites with metabolomics studies in the archive and is extensively annotated with data fields such as structural and chemical information, NMR and MS spectra, target species, metabolic pathways, and reactions. The database is manually curated with no specific release schedules. MetaboLights is also recommended by journals for metabolomics data deposition. This unit provides a guide to using MetaboLights, downloading experimental data, and depositing metabolomics datasets using user-friendly submission tools. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008; Entsorgungsprogramm und Standortgebiete fuer geologische Tiefenlager. Zusammenfassung. November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  18. The role of natural analogs in the repository licensing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, W.M. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The concept of a permanent geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste (NLW) is implicitly based on analogy to natural systems that have been stable for millions or billions of years. The time of radioactive and chemical toxicity of HLW exceeds the duration of human civilization, and it is impossible to demonstrate the accuracy of predictions of the behavior of engineered or social systems over such long periods.

  19. National Geoscience Data Repository System: Phase 2 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The American Geological Institute (AGI) has completed Phase 2 of a project to establish a National Geoscience Data Repository System (NGDRS). The project`s primary objectives are to preserve geoscience data in jeopardy of being destroyed and to make that data available to those who have a need to use it in future investigations. These data are available for donation to the public as a result of the downsizing that has occurred in the major petroleum and mining companies in the US for the past decade. In recent years, these companies have consolidated domestic operations, sold many of their domestic properties and relinquished many of their leases. The scientific data associated with those properties are no longer considered to be useful assets and are consequently in danger of being lost forever. The national repository project will make many of these data available to the geoscience community for the first time. Phase 2 encompasses the establishment of standards for indexing and cataloging of geoscience data and determination of the costs of transferring data from the private sector to public-sector data repositories. Pilot projects evaluated the feasibility of the project for transfer of different data types and creation of a Web-based metadata supercatalog and browser. Also as part of the project, a national directory of geoscience data repositories was compiled to assess what data are currently available in existing facilities. The next step, Phase 3, will focus on the initiation of transfer of geoscience data from the private sector to the public domain and development of the web-based Geotrek metadata supercatalog.

  20. Copper corrosion under expected conditions in a deep geologic repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, F.; Ahonen, L.; Taxen, C.; Vuorinen, U.; Werme, L

    2002-01-01

    Copper has been the corrosion barrier of choice for the canister in the Swedish and Finnish, nuclear waste disposal programmes for over 20 years. During that time many studies have been carried out on the corrosion behaviour of copper under conditions likely to exist in an underground nuclear disposal repository located in the Fenno-Scandian bedrock. This review is a summary of what has been learnt about the long-term behaviour of the corrosion barrier during this period and what the implications of this knowledge are for the predicted service life of the canisters. The review is based on the existing knowledge from various nuclear waste management programs around the world and from the open literature. Various areas are considered: the expected evolution of the geochemical conditions in the groundwater and of the repository environment, the thermodynamics of copper corrosion, corrosion before and during saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer by groundwater, general and localized corrosion following saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer, stress corrosion cracking, radiation effects, the implications of corrosion on the service life of the canister, and areas for further study. Much has been learnt about the long-term corrosion behaviour of copper canisters over the past 20 years. The majority of the information reviewed here is drawn from the Swedish/Finnish and Canadian programmes. Despite differences in scientific approach, and canister and repository design, the results of these two programmes both suggest that copper provides an excellent corrosion barrier in an underground repository. The conclusion drawn from this review is that the original prediction made in 1978 of canister lifetimes exceeding 100,000 years remains valid. (orig.)

  1. Copper corrosion under expected conditions in a deep geologic repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, F. [Integrity Corrosion Consulting Ltd, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Ahonen, L. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Taxen, C. [Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Vuorinen, U. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Werme, L. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    Copper has been the corrosion barrier of choice for the canister in the Swedish and Finnish, nuclear waste disposal programmes for over 20 years. During that time many studies have been carried out on the corrosion behaviour of copper under conditions likely to exist in an underground nuclear disposal repository located in he Fenno-Scandian bedrock. This review is a summary of what has been learnt about the long- term behaviour of the corrosion barrier during this period and what the implications of this knowledge are for the predicted service life of the canisters. The review is based on the existing knowledge from various nuclear waste management programs around the world and from the open literature.Various areas are considered: the expected evolution of the geochemical conditions in the groundwater and of the repository environment, the thermodynamics of copper corrosion, corrosion before and during saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer by groundwater, general and localized corrosion following saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer, stress corrosion cracking, radiation effects, the implications of corrosion on the service life of the canister, and areas for further study. Much has been learnt about the long-term corrosion behaviour of copper canisters over the past 20 years. The majority of the information reviewed here is drawn from the Swedish/Finnish and Canadian programmes. Despite differences in scientific approach, and canister and repository design, the results of these two programmes both suggest that copper provides an excellent corrosion barrier in an underground repository. The conclusion drawn from this review is that the original prediction made in 1978 of canister lifetimes exceeding 100,000 years remains valid.

  2. PRIDE: Quality control in a proteomics data repository

    OpenAIRE

    Csordas, A.; Ovelleiro, D.; Wang, R.; Foster, J. M.; Rios, D.; Vizcaino, J. A.; Hermjakob, H.

    2012-01-01

    The PRoteomics IDEntifications (PRIDE) database is a large public proteomics data repository, containing over 270 million mass spectra (by November 2011). PRIDE is an archival database, providing the proteomics data supporting specific scientific publications in a computationally accessible manner. While PRIDE faces rapid increases in data deposition size as well as number of depositions, the major challenge is to ensure a high quality of data depositions in the context of highly diverse prot...

  3. Food entries in a large allergy data repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasek, Joseph M; Goss, Foster R; Lai, Kenneth H; Lau, Jason J; Seger, Diane L; Blumenthal, Kimberly G; Wickner, Paige G; Slight, Sarah P; Chang, Frank Y; Topaz, Maxim; Bates, David W; Zhou, Li

    2016-04-01

    Accurate food adverse sensitivity documentation in electronic health records (EHRs) is crucial to patient safety. This study examined, encoded, and grouped foods that caused any adverse sensitivity in a large allergy repository using natural language processing and standard terminologies. Using the Medical Text Extraction, Reasoning, and Mapping System (MTERMS), we processed both structured and free-text entries stored in an enterprise-wide allergy repository (Partners' Enterprise-wide Allergy Repository), normalized diverse food allergen terms into concepts, and encoded these concepts using the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT) and Unique Ingredient Identifiers (UNII) terminologies. Concept coverage also was assessed for these two terminologies. We further categorized allergen concepts into groups and calculated the frequencies of these concepts by group. Finally, we conducted an external validation of MTERMS's performance when identifying food allergen terms, using a randomized sample from a different institution. We identified 158 552 food allergen records (2140 unique terms) in the Partners repository, corresponding to 672 food allergen concepts. High-frequency groups included shellfish (19.3%), fruits or vegetables (18.4%), dairy (9.0%), peanuts (8.5%), tree nuts (8.5%), eggs (6.0%), grains (5.1%), and additives (4.7%). Ambiguous, generic concepts such as "nuts" and "seafood" accounted for 8.8% of the records. SNOMED-CT covered more concepts than UNII in terms of exact (81.7% vs 68.0%) and partial (14.3% vs 9.7%) matches. Adverse sensitivities to food are diverse, and existing standard terminologies have gaps in their coverage of the breadth of allergy concepts. New strategies are needed to represent and standardize food adverse sensitivity concepts, to improve documentation in EHRs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For

  4. Ghera: A Repository of Android App Vulnerability Benchmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Joydeep; Ranganath, Venkatesh-Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Security of mobile apps affects the security of their users. This has fueled the development of techniques to automatically detect vulnerabilities in mobile apps and help developers secure their apps; specifically, in the context of Android platform due to openness and ubiquitousness of the platform. Despite a slew of research efforts in this space, there is no comprehensive repository of up-to-date and lean benchmarks that contain most of the known Android app vulnerabilities and, consequent...

  5. REPOSITORY LAYOUT SUPPORTING DESIGN FEATURE #13- WASTE PACKAGE SELF SHIELDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Owen

    1999-04-09

    The objective of this analysis is to develop a repository layout, for Feature No. 13, that will accommodate self-shielding waste packages (WP) with an areal mass loading of 25 metric tons of uranium per acre (MTU/acre). The scope of this analysis includes determination of the number of emplacement drifts, amount of emplacement drift excavation required, and a preliminary layout for illustrative purposes.

  6. E-sharing: development and use of learning objects repository

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Maria José Angélico; Pereira, Rui Humberto; Pérez Cota, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    — In the new learning environments, built width digital technologies, the need to promote quality of education resources, commonly known as Learning Objects, which can support formal and informal distance learning, emerge as one of the biggest challenge that educational institutions will have to face. Due to the fact that is expensive, the reuse and sharing became very important issue. This article presents a Learning Object Repository which aims to store, to disse...

  7. A Mock-Up Tool for Software Component Reuse Repository

    OpenAIRE

    P.Niranjan; C.V.Guru Rao

    2010-01-01

    Software Reuse effectiveness can be improved by reducing cost and investment.Software reuse costs can be reduced when reusable components are easy to locate, adaptand integrate into new efficient applications. Reuse is the key paradigm for increasingsoftware quality in the software development. This paper focuses on the implementationof software tool with a new integrated classification scheme to make classification buildof software components and effective software reuse repositories to faci...

  8. Search and Result Presentation in Scientific Workflow Repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Susan B.; Huang, Xiaocheng; Stoyanovich, Julia; Yuan, Xiaojie

    2013-01-01

    We study the problem of searching a repository of complex hierarchical workflows whose component modules, both composite and atomic, have been annotated with keywords. Since keyword search does not use the graph structure of a workflow, we develop a model of workflows using context-free bag grammars. We then give efficient polynomial-time algorithms that, given a workflow and a keyword query, determine whether some execution of the workflow matches the query. Based on these algorithms we deve...

  9. Thermal Conductivity of the Potential Repository Horizon Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Ramsey

    2002-08-29

    The purpose of this report is to assess the spatial variability and uncertainty of thermal conductivity in the host horizon for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. More specifically, the lithostratigraphic units studied are located within the Topopah Spring Tuff (Tpt) and consist of the upper lithophysal zone (Tptpul), the middle nonlithophysal zone (Tptpmn), the lower lithophysal zone (Tptpll), and the lower nonlithophysal zone (Tptpln). The Tptpul is the layer directly above the repository host layers, which consist of the Tptpmn, Tptpll, and the Tptpln. Current design plans indicate that the largest portion of the repository will be excavated in the Tptpll (Board et al. 2002 [157756]). The main distinguishing characteristic among the lithophysal and nonlithophysal units is the percentage of large scale (cm-m) voids within the rock. The Tptpul and Tptpll, as their names suggest, have a higher percentage of lithophysae than the Tptpmn and the Tptpln. Understanding the influence of the lithophysae is of great importance to understanding bulk thermal conductivity and perhaps repository system performance as well. To assess the spatial variability and uncertainty of thermal conductivity, a model is proposed that is functionally dependent on the volume fraction of lithophysae and the thermal conductivity of the matrix portion of the rock. In this model, void space characterized as lithophysae is assumed to be air-saturated under all conditions, while void space characterized as matrix may be either water- or air-saturated. Lithophysae are assumed to be air-saturated under all conditions since the units being studied are all located above the water table in the region of interest, and the relatively strong capillary forces of the matrix will, under most conditions, preferentially retain any moisture present in the rock.

  10. Integrating Software Repository Mining: A Decision Support Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Dourado Dias Junior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining software repositories (MSR research had significantly contributed to software engineering.However, MSR results integration across repositories is a recent concern that is getting more attentionfrom researchers each day. Some noticeable research in this sense is related to the approximation betweenMSR and semantic web, specially linked data approaches which makes it possible to integrate repositoriesand mined results. Manifested that way, we believe that current research is not fully addressing thepractical integration of MSR results, specially, in software engineering due to not considering that theseresults needs to be integrated to the tools as assistance to activity performers, as a kind of decision makingsupport. Based on this statement this research describes an approach, named Sambasore, which isconcerned with MSR results inter-repository integration and also to decision making support processes,based on tool assistance modelling. To show its feasibility we describe the main concepts, some relatedworks and also a proof of concept experiment applied to a software process modelling tool named SpiderPM.

  11. A proposed application programming interface for a physical volume repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Merritt; Williams, Joel; Wrenn, Richard

    1996-01-01

    The IEEE Storage System Standards Working Group (SSSWG) has developed the Reference Model for Open Storage Systems Interconnection, Mass Storage System Reference Model Version 5. This document, provides the framework for a series of standards for application and user interfaces to open storage systems. More recently, the SSSWG has been developing Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) for the individual components defined by the model. The API for the Physical Volume Repository is the most fully developed, but work is being done on APIs for the Physical Volume Library and for the Mover also. The SSSWG meets every other month, and meetings are open to all interested parties. The Physical Volume Repository (PVR) is responsible for managing the storage of removable media cartridges and for mounting and dismounting these cartridges onto drives. This document describes a model which defines a Physical Volume Repository, and gives a brief summary of the Application Programming Interface (API) which the IEEE Storage Systems Standards Working Group (SSSWG) is proposing as the standard interface for the PVR.

  12. Aquatic ecosystem characterisation strategy at a repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, Ville; Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, 00420 Helsinki (Finland); Kirkkala, Teija [Pyhaejaervi Institute, Sepaentie 7, 27500 Kauttua (Finland); Koivunen, Sari [Water and Environment Research of South-West Finland, Telekatu 16, 20360 Turku (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. According to regulatory requirements, the safety assessment for the repository should have an assessment timeframe of several millennia. Due to the post-glacial land uplift, the relatively shallow sea areas around Olkiluoto Island will change gradually to lakes, rivers and terrestrial areas. As there are no limnic systems at present Olkiluoto site, the reference area was delineated and reference lakes and rivers were selected as an analogue. For the modelling of the transport and accumulation of possible radionuclide releases in the surface environment, aquatic ecosystems were identified and divided into biotopes. Despite the number of available templates, the division of aquatic environment for the biosphere assessment of the Olkiluoto spent fuel repository was necessary to made separately. In this contribution, the processes behind the identification of aquatic ecosystems (e.g. legislation, physical and chemical properties) together with the biotope selection methodology (e.g. light and bottom conditions) and the challenges related to the amount of variable input parameters for each biotope in the modelling are presented. (authors)

  13. Institutional repository `eKMAIR': establishing and populating a research repository for the National University "Kyiv Mohyla Academy"

    CERN Document Server

    Yaroshenko, Tetiana

    2012-01-01

    University libraries have an increasingly important role to play in supporting open access publishing and dissemination of research outputs.1 In particular, many libraries are playing a leading role in establishing and managing institutional repositories. Institutional repositories are, most often, Open Access Initiative (OAI)-compliant databases of a university or other research institution's intellectual output, most typically research papers, although many other forms of digital media can also be stored and disseminated. Their main function is to provide improved access to the full text of research articles and improve retrieval of relevant research. The National University "Kyiv Mohyla Academy" is a small-sized institution with approximately 3,000 students and 500 academic staff. Although it is a teaching-intensive university, developing research and knowledge-transfer capacity is a strategic priority and four research institutes have been established, with further research activity going on in the academ...

  14. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Evolution report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Paul; Johnson, Lawrence; Snellman, Margit; Pastina, Barbara; Gribi, Peter

    2008-01-15

    important differences between KBS-3H and KBS-3V occur. The description of evolution in this phase addresses in turn the (i), thermal evolution, (ii), groundwater flow and evolution of groundwater composition, (iii), mechanical evolution, (iv), saturation and buffer swelling, (v) evolution of chemical and microbiological conditions and (vi), evolution of the canister surface and interior. A key issue is the local variability of the near-field rock around the KBS-3H repository drifts, which, together with the effects of gas from the corrosion of the supercontainer shells and other steel repository components, results in widely differing saturation times for different drift sections. Nevertheless, even in the tightest drift sections, the buffer is expected to retain its initial water content, and will eventually fully saturate, at which time it is expected to perform its full range of safety functions. In the more distant future, the evolution of conditions at repository depth may be significantly affected by major climate change, and, in particular, by the formation of ice sheets at the ground surface. Key issues, which are common to KBS-3H and KBS.3V, are (i), the possibility that meltwater penetrating to repository depth may lead to some erosion of the buffer, and (ii), the impact of post-glacial earthquakes on canister integrity. The impact of anthropogenic emissions on the magnitude and timing of future major climate changes is a key uncertainty that is also common to the two alternatives. The description of repository evolution provides the basis for the identification of evolution scenarios, an assessment of canister longevity and the analysis of radionuclide release and transport in the event of canister failure. Scenarios involving canister failure and radionuclide release are, however, also identified based on the discussion in this report and in the KBS-3H Process Report. These are initiated, in the first place, by: . the presence of an initial, penetrating defect

  15. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 5: Costs to Construct and Operate the Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This volume presents a management summary of the cost estimate to complete the design, and to license, construct, operate, monitor, close, and decommission a Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. This volume summarizes the scope, estimating methodologies, and assumptions used in development of the Monitored Geologic Repository-VA cost estimate. It identifies the key features necessary to understand the summary costs presented herein. This cost summary derives from a larger body of documented cost analysis. Volume 5 is organized to reflect this structured approach to cost estimation and contains the following sections: Section 1, Cost Elements. This section briefly defines the components of each major repository cost element. Section 2, Project Phases. This section presents the definition, as used in the estimate, of five project phases (Licensing, Pre-emplacement Construction, Emplacement Operations, Monitoring, and Closure and Decommissioning) and the schedule dates for each phase. It also contains major milestone dates and a bar chart schedule. Section 3, Major Assumptions. This section identifies key high-level assumptions for the cost estimate basis. Additional detailed assumptions are included in the appendices. Section 4, Integrated Cost Summary. This section presents a high-level roll-up of the VA costs resulting from the estimating work. The tables and figures contained in this section were compiled from the more detailed cost estimates in the appendices. Section 5, References. This section identifies the references that support this cost volume. Appendices. For each major repository cost element, Appendices B-F [B, C, D, E, F] presents additional information on the scope of cost elements, identifies methodologies used to develop the cost estimates, lists underlying cost assumptions, and tabulates summary results. Appendix A contains a glossary to assist the reader in understanding the terminology in Volume 5. Appendix G presents costs

  16. The Geologic Basis for Volcanic Hazard Assessment for the Proposed High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Perry

    2002-10-15

    Studies of volcanic risk to the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain have been ongoing for 25 years. These studies are required because three episodes of small-volume, alkalic basaltic volcanism have occurred within 50 km of Yucca Mountain during the Quaternary. Probabilistic hazard estimates for the proposed repository depend on the recurrence rate and spatial distribution of past episodes of volcanism in the region. Several independent research groups have published estimates of the annual probability of a future volcanic disruption of the proposed repository, most of which fall in the range of 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -9} per year; similar conclusions were reached. through an extensive expert elicitation sponsored by the Department of Energy in 1995-1996. The estimated probability values are dominated by a regional recurrence rate of 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -6} volcanic events per year (equating to recurrence intervals of several hundred thousand years). The recurrence rate, as well as the spatial density of volcanoes, is low compared to most other basaltic volcanic fields in the western United States, factors that may be related to both the tectonic history of the region and a lithospheric mantle source that is relatively cold and not prone to melting. The link between volcanism and tectonism in the Yucca Mountain region is not well understood beyond a general association between volcanism and regional extension, although areas of locally high extension within the region may control the location of some volcanoes. Recently, new geologic data or hypotheses have emerged that could potentially increase past estimates of the recurrence rate, and thus the probability of repository disruption. These are (1) hypothesized episodes of anomalously high strain rate, (2) hypothesized presence of a regional mantle hotspot, and (3) new aeromagnetic data suggesting as many as twelve previously unrecognized volcanoes buried in alluvial-filled basins near

  17. Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

    1979-12-01

    A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed.

  18. The Global Registry of Biodiversity Repositories: A Call for Community Curation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott E.; Trizna, Michael G.; Graham, Eileen; Crane, Adele E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Global Registry of Biodiversity Repositories is an online metadata resource for biodiversity collections, the institutions that contain them, and associated staff members. The registry provides contact and address information, characteristics of the institutions and collections using controlled vocabularies and free-text descripitons, links to related websites, unique identifiers for each institution and collection record, text fields for loan and use policies, and a variety of other descriptors. Each institution record includes an institutionCode that must be unique, and each collection record must have a collectionCode that is unique within that institution. The registry is populated with records imported from the largest similar registries and more can be harmonized and added. Doing so will require community input and curation and would produce a truly comprehensive and unifying information resource. PMID:27660523

  19. Rolling Deck to Repository I: Designing a Database Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Miller, S. P.; Chandler, C. L.; Ferrini, V. L.; O'Hara, S. H.

    2008-12-01

    The NSF-supported academic research fleet collectively produces a large and diverse volume of scientific data, which are increasingly being shared across disciplines and contributed to regional and global syntheses. As both Internet connectivity and storage technology improve, it becomes practical for ships to routinely deliver data and documentation for a standard suite of underway instruments to a central shoreside repository. Routine delivery will facilitate data discovery and integration, quality assessment, cruise planning, compliance with funding agency and clearance requirements, and long-term data preservation. We are working collaboratively with ship operators and data managers to develop a prototype "data discovery system" for NSF-supported research vessels. Our goal is to establish infrastructure for a central shoreside repository, and to develop and test procedures for the routine delivery of standard data products and documentation to the repository. Related efforts are underway to identify tools and criteria for quality control of standard data products, and to develop standard interfaces and procedures for maintaining an underway event log. Development of a shoreside repository infrastructure will include: 1. Deployment and testing of a central catalog that holds cruise summaries and vessel profiles. A cruise summary will capture the essential details of a research expedition (operating institution, ports/dates, personnel, data inventory, etc.), as well as related documentation such as event logs and technical reports. A vessel profile will capture the essential details of a ship's installed instruments (manufacturer, model, serial number, reference location, etc.), with version control as the profile changes through time. The catalog's relational database schema will be based on the UNOLS Data Best Practices Committee's recommendations, and published as a formal XML specification. 2. Deployment and testing of a central repository that holds

  20. Central Satellite Data Repository Supporting Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, W.; Brust, J.

    2015-12-01

    Near real-time satellite data is critical to many research and development activities of atmosphere, land, and ocean processes. Acquiring and managing huge volumes of satellite data without (or with less) latency in an organization is always a challenge in the big data age. An organization level data repository is a practical solution to meeting this challenge. The STAR (Center for Satellite Applications and Research of NOAA) Central Data Repository (SCDR) is a scalable, stable, and reliable repository to acquire, manipulate, and disseminate various types of satellite data in an effective and efficient manner. SCDR collects more than 200 data products, which are commonly used by multiple groups in STAR, from NOAA, GOES, Metop, Suomi NPP, Sentinel, Himawari, and other satellites. The processes of acquisition, recording, retrieval, organization, and dissemination are performed in parallel. Multiple data access interfaces, like FTP, FTPS, HTTP, HTTPS, and RESTful, are supported in the SCDR to obtain satellite data from their providers through high speed internet. The original satellite data in various raster formats can be parsed in the respective adapter to retrieve data information. The data information is ingested to the corresponding partitioned tables in the central database. All files are distributed equally on the Network File System (NFS) disks to balance the disk load. SCDR provides consistent interfaces (including Perl utility, portal, and RESTful Web service) to locate files of interest easily and quickly and access them directly by over 200 compute servers via NFS. SCDR greatly improves collection and integration of near real-time satellite data, addresses satellite data requirements of scientists and researchers, and facilitates their primary research and development activities.