WorldWideScience

Sample records for field quality measurements

  1. Quality assurance in field radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    In most cases, an ion chamber radiation measuring instrument is calibrated in a uniform gamma radiation field. This results in a uniform ionization field throughout the ion chamber. Measurement conditions encountered in the field often produce non-uniform ionization fields within the ion chamber, making determination of true dose rates to personnel difficult and prone to error. Extensive studies performed at Hanford have provided appropriate correction factors for use with one type of ion chamber instrument, the CP. Suitable corrections are available for the following distinct measurement circumstances: (1) contact measurements on large beta and gamma sources, (2) contact measurements on small beta and gamma sources, (3) contact measurements on small-diameter cylinders, (4) measurements in small gamma beams, and (5) measurements at a distance from large beta sources. Recommendations are made for the implementation of these correction factors, in the interest of improved quality assurance in field radiation measurements. 12 references, 10 figures

  2. Influence of mechanical vibrations on the field quality measurements of LHC interaction region quadrupole magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Di Marco, J; Schlabach, P; Sylvester, C D; Tompkins, J C; Krzywinski, J

    2000-01-01

    The high gradient quadrupole magnets being developed by the US-LHC Accelerator Project for the LHC Interaction Regions have stringent field quality requirements. The field quality of these magnets will be measured using a rotating coil system presently under development. Mechanical vibrations of the coil during field quality measurements are of concern because such vibrations can introduce systematic errors in measurement results. This paper presents calculations of the expected influence of vibrations on field quality measurements and a technique to measure vibrations present in data acquired with standard "tangential-style" probes. Measured vibrations are reported and compared to simulations. Limits on systematic errors in multipole measurements are discussed along with implications for probe and measurement system design. (3 refs).

  3. Comparison of laboratory and field remote sensing methods to measure forage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xulin; Wilmshurst, John F; Li, Zhaoqin

    2010-09-01

    Recent research in range ecology has emphasized the importance of forage quality as a key indicator of rangeland condition. However, we lack tools to evaluate forage quality at scales appropriate for management. Using canopy reflectance data to measure forage quality has been conducted at both laboratory and field levels separately, but little work has been conducted to evaluate these methods simultaneously. The objective of this study is to find a reliable way of assessing grassland quality through measuring forage chemistry with reflectance. We studied a mixed grass ecosystem in Grasslands National Park of Canada and surrounding pastures, located in southern Saskatchewan. Spectral reflectance was collected at both in-situ field level and in the laboratory. Vegetation samples were collected at each site, sorted into the green grass portion, and then sent to a chemical company for measuring forage quality variables, including protein, lignin, ash, moisture at 135 °C, Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Total Digestible, Digestible Energy, Net Energy for Lactation, Net Energy for Maintenance, and Net Energy for Gain. Reflectance data were processed with the first derivative transformation and continuum removal method. Correlation analysis was conducted on spectral and forage quality variables. A regression model was further built to investigate the possibility of using canopy spectral measurements to predict the grassland quality. Results indicated that field level prediction of protein of mixed grass species was possible (r² = 0.63). However, the relationship between canopy reflectance and the other forage quality variables was not strong.

  4. Comparison of Laboratory and Field Remote Sensing Methods to Measure Forage Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqin Li

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in range ecology has emphasized the importance of forage quality as a key indicator of rangeland condition. However, we lack tools to evaluate forage quality at scales appropriate for management. Using canopy reflectance data to measure forage quality has been conducted at both laboratory and field levels separately, but little work has been conducted to evaluate these methods simultaneously. The objective of this study is to find a reliable way of assessing grassland quality through measuring forage chemistry with reflectance. We studied a mixed grass ecosystem in Grasslands National Park of Canada and surrounding pastures, located in southern Saskatchewan. Spectral reflectance was collected at both in-situ field level and in the laboratory. Vegetation samples were collected at each site, sorted into the green grass portion, and then sent to a chemical company for measuring forage quality variables, including protein, lignin, ash, moisture at 135 ºC, Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF, Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF, Total Digestible, Digestible Energy, Net Energy for Lactation, Net Energy for Maintenance, and Net Energy for Gain. Reflectance data were processed with the first derivative transformation and continuum removal method. Correlation analysis was conducted on spectral and forage quality variables. A regression model was further built to investigate the possibility of using canopy spectral measurements to predict the grassland quality. Results indicated that field level prediction of protein of mixed grass species was possible (r2 = 0.63. However, the relationship between canopy reflectance and the other forage quality variables was not strong.

  5. Comparison of Laboratory and Field Remote Sensing Methods to Measure Forage Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xulin; Wilmshurst, John F.; Li, Zhaoqin

    2010-01-01

    Recent research in range ecology has emphasized the importance of forage quality as a key indicator of rangeland condition. However, we lack tools to evaluate forage quality at scales appropriate for management. Using canopy reflectance data to measure forage quality has been conducted at both laboratory and field levels separately, but little work has been conducted to evaluate these methods simultaneously. The objective of this study is to find a reliable way of assessing grassland quality ...

  6. Axis Measurements, Field Quality and Quench Performance of the First LHC Short Straight Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Sanfilippo, S; Calvi, M; Chohan, V; Durante, M; Hagen, P; Pugnat, P; Smirnov, N; Schnizer, P; Sammut, N; Siemko, A; Simon, F; Stafiniak, A; Todesco, Ezio; Tortschanoff, Theodor; Walckiers, L

    2005-01-01

    The series testing at 1.9 K of the 360 Short Straight Sections (SSS) for the Large Hadron Collider have started at CERN in September 2003. The SSS contain the lattice quadrupoles and correction magnets in a common cryostat. The lattice quadrupoles feature two collared coils with 56 mm bore assembled in a common yoke. The coils are wound in two-layers from 15.1 mm wide NbTi cable, insulated with polyimide tape. The paper reviews the main test results performed in superfluid helium. The magnetic field and magnetic center position of the quadrupoles and associated correctors were measured with two independent systems, namely an automated scanner and a single stretched wire technique. The quench training, the field quality and the magnetic alignment measurements are presented and discussed in terms of the specifications and expected performances of these magnets in the LHC. We discuss in detail the field quality in terms of multipole errors measured at injection and nominal field and decomposed into geometric an...

  7. Quality of Life Measurement and Its Use in the Field of Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Shelley; Fraser, Mary

    2002-01-01

    This article examines issues in the measurement of quality of life (QOL) within the field of learning disabilities. Discussion considers objective and subjective measures, value-based and value-free approaches, and traditional versus participatory approaches. The issue of using self-reports or proxies to gather and measure QOL data is addressed. A…

  8. MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS FOR FAST-CHANGING MAGNETIC FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Several recent applications for fast ramped magnets have been found that require rapid measurement of the field quality during the ramp. (In one instance, accelerator dipoles will be ramped at 1 T/sec, with measurements needed to the accuracy typically required for accelerators.) We have built and tested a new type of magnetic field measuring system to meet this need. The system consists of 16 stationary pickup windings mounted on a cylinder. The signals induced in the windings in a changing magnetic field are sampled and analyzed to obtain the field harmonics. To minimize costs, printed circuit boards were used for the pickup windings and a combination of amplifiers and ADPs used for the voltage readout system. New software was developed for the analysis. Magnetic field measurements of a model dipole developed for the SIS200 accelerator at GSI are presented. The measurements are needed to insure that eddy currents induced by the fast ramps do not impact the field quality needed for successful accelerator operation

  9. Field quality measurements of the LQXB inner triplet quadrupoles for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Velev, G V; Carcagno, R; Di Marco, J; Fehér, S; Glass, H; Kashikhin, V V; Kerby, J; Lamm, M J; Makulski, A; Nobrega, A; Nogiec, J; Orris, D; Peterson, T; Rabehl, Roger Jon; Schlabach, P; Strait, J; Sylvester, C D; Tartaglia, M; Tompkins, J C; Zlobin, A V

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the USLHC program, Fermilab is building half of the inner triplet quadrupole magnets for the LHC. Two identical quadrupoles (MQXB) with a dipole corrector between them in a single cryogenic unit (LQXB) comprise the Q2 optical element of the final focus triplets in the interaction regions. The 5.5 m long MQXB have a 70 mm aperture and operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K with a peak field gradient of 215 T/m. Manufacturing of the 18 magnets is in an advanced stage. A program of magnetic field quality measurements of the magnets is performed at room temperature during magnet fabrication as well as at superfluid helium temperature during the cold qualification of each magnet. Results of the measurements are summarized in this paper. (12 refs).

  10. Field Quality Measurements of LARP Nb$_{3}$Sn Magnet HQ02

    CERN Document Server

    DiMarco, J; Buehler, M; Chlachidze, G; Orris, D; Sylvester, C; Tartaglia, M; Velev, G; Yu, M; Zlobin, A; Ghosh, A; Schmalzle, J; Wanderer, P; Borgnolutti, F; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D; Felice, H; Godeke, A; Hafalia, R; Joseph, J; Lizarazo, J; Marchevsky, M; Prestemon, S O; Sabbi, G L; Salehi, A,; Wang, X; Ferracin, P; Todesco, E

    2014-01-01

    Large-aperture, high-field, Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupoles are being developed by the US LHC accelerator research program (LARP) for the High luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HiLumi-LHC). The first 1 m long, 120 mm aperture prototype, HQ01, was assembled with various sets of coils and tested at LBNL and CERN. Based on these results, several design modifications have been introduced to improve the performance for HQ02, the latest model. From the field quality perspective, the most relevant improvements are a cored cable for reduction of eddy current effects, and more uniform coil components and fabrication processes. This paper reports on the magnetic measurements of HQ02 during recent testing at the Vertical Magnet Test Facility at Fermilab. Results of baseline measurements performed with a new multi-layer circuit board probe are compared with the earlier magnet. An analysis of probe and measurement system performance is also presented.

  11. Measurement quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    The quality of a radiation protection program can be no better than the quality of the measurements made to support it. In many cases, that quality is unknown and is merely implied on the basis of a calibration of a measuring instrument. If that calibration is inappropriate or is performed improperly, the measurement result will be inaccurate and misleading. Assurance of measurement quality can be achieved if appropriate procedures are followed, including periodic quality control actions that demonstrate adequate performance. Several national measurement quality assurance (MQA) programs are operational or under development in specific areas. They employ secondary standards laboratories that provide a high-quality link between the National Bureau of Standards and measurements made at the field use level. The procedures followed by these secondary laboratories to achieve MQA will be described, as well as plans for similar future programs. A growing general national interest in quality assurance, combined with strong specific motivations for MQA in the area of ionizing radiation, will provide continued demand for appropriate national programs. Such programs must, however, employ procedures that are cost effective and must be developed with participation by all affected parties

  12. Challenges of measuring quality in emergency management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynette, Jennifer Elyse

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the challenges and importance of measuring quality within the field of emergency response. Using quality as a standard of measurement to evaluate response efforts of trained personnel in emergency situations is necessary to increase effectiveness in the response phase...... of an emergency event. The intended outcome of utilizing quality as a tool of measurement is to save additional lives, property, and resources. The adoption of a system to measure quality can be utilized by multiple professions under the broader field of emergency response services. Quality is discussed in terms...

  13. Field measurements of perceived air quality and concentration of volatile organic compounds in four offices of the university building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Kabrhel, M.

    2015-01-01

    Field measurements of perceived air quality were conducted in four refurbished offices at the Czech Technical University in Prague. The offices were refurbished as part of the research project Clear-up to serve as a field test facility. The present paper describes measurements conducted...... according to CEN Report CR 1752. The acceptability of the air quality was worst in unoccupied offices ventilated with minimum air change rate (0.4 h-1). Application of DCV decreased the CO2 concentration, but did not result in statistically significant improvement of perceived air quality....... to investigate the perceived air quality, sensory pollution load and concentration of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the offices. As the refurbishment comprised also installation of demand controlled ventilation (DCV), its influence on the perceived air quality was also tested. Measurements comprised...

  14. POGO satellite orbit corrections: an opportunity to improve the quality of the geomagnetic field measurements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockmann, Reto; Christiansen, Freddy; Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    We present an attempt to improve the quality of the geomagnetic field measurements from the Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO) satellite missions in the late 1960s. Inaccurate satellite positions are believed to be a major source of errors for using the magnetic observations for field...... modelling. To improve the data, we use aniterative approach consisting of two main parts: one is a main field modelling process to obtain the radial fieldgradient to perturb the orbits and the other is the state-of-the-art GPS orbit modelling software BERNESE to calculatenew physical orbits. We report....... With this approach, weeliminate the orbit discontinuities at midnight but only tiny quality improvements could be achieved forgeomagnetically quiet data. We believe that improvements to the data are probably still possible, but it would require the original tracking observations to be found....

  15. Air Quality in Megacities: Lessons Learned from Mexico City Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    More than half of the world's population now lives in urban areas because of the opportunities for better jobs, access to city services, cultural and educational activities, and a desire for more stimulating human interaction. At the same time, many of these urban centers are expanding rapidly, giving rise to the phenomenon of megacities. In recent decades air pollution has become not only one of the most important environmental problems of megacities, but also presents serious consequences to human health and ecosystems and economic costs to society. Although the progress to date in combating air pollution problems in developed and some developing world megacities has been impressive, many challenges remain including the need to improve air quality while simultaneously mitigating climate change. This talk will present the results and the lessons learned from field measurements conducted in Mexico City Metropolitan Area - one of the world's largest megacities - over the past decade. While each city has its own unique circumstances, the need for an integrated assessment approach in addressing complex environmental problems is the same. There is no single strategy in solving air pollution problems in megacities; a mix of policy measures based on sound scientific findings will be necessary to improve air quality, protect public health, and mitigate climate change.

  16. Pressure field in measurement section of wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnidka Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The University of Defence in Brno has a new low-speed wind tunnel. In order to confirm the quality of the wind inside of the measurement section, several measurements of the dynamic pressure have been performed with the Pitot-static tube. The pressure fields are then analysed and quality of the field is evaluated. Measurement of a pressure drop on the body of a standing helicopter was conducted.

  17. [Quality measurement using administrative data in mandatory quality assurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Günther; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Willms, Gerald; Broge, Björn

    2014-01-01

    For several years, the use of administrative data in mandatory quality measurement has been requested by several stakeholders in Germany. Main advantages of using administrative data include the reduction of documentary expenditures and the possibility to perform longitudinal quality analyses across different healthcare units. After a short introduction, a brief overview of the current use of administrative data for mandatory quality assurance as well as current developments is given, which will then be further exemplified by decubital ulcer prophylaxis. By using administrative data coding expenditures in this clinical area could be reduced by nine million data fields. At the same time the population analysed was expanded resulting in a more than tenfold increase in potentially quality-relevant events. Finally, perspectives, further developments, possibilities as well as limits of quality measurement with administrative data are discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Measuring health care process quality with software quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ozkan; Demirörs, Onur

    2012-01-01

    Existing quality models focus on some specific diseases, clinics or clinical areas. Although they contain structure, process, or output type measures, there is no model which measures quality of health care processes comprehensively. In addition, due to the not measured overall process quality, hospitals cannot compare quality of processes internally and externally. To bring a solution to above problems, a new model is developed from software quality measures. We have adopted the ISO/IEC 9126 software quality standard for health care processes. Then, JCIAS (Joint Commission International Accreditation Standards for Hospitals) measurable elements were added to model scope for unifying functional requirements. Assessment (diagnosing) process measurement results are provided in this paper. After the application, it was concluded that the model determines weak and strong aspects of the processes, gives a more detailed picture for the process quality, and provides quantifiable information to hospitals to compare their processes with multiple organizations.

  19. Magnetic field measurement and correction of VECC K500 superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, M.K.; Debnath, J.; Bhunia, U.; Pradhan, J.; Rashid, H.; Paul, S.; Dutta, A.; Naser, Z.A.; Singh, V.; Pal, G.; Nandi, C.; Dasgupta, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Pal, S.; Roy, A.; Bhattacharya, T.; Bhole, R.B.; Bhale, D.; Chatterjee, M.; Prasad, R.; Nabhiraj, P.Y.; Hazra, D.P.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    The VECC K500 superconducting cyclotron magnet is commissioned and magnetic field measurement and correction program was successfully completed in March 2006. Here we report the analysis of the measured field data and subsequent correction of the magnet to improve the field quality. (author)

  20. Quality of radiation field imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr, I.

    1988-01-01

    The questions were studied of the quality of imaging the gamma radiation field and of the limits of the quality in directional detector scanning. A resolution angle was introduced to quantify the imaging quality, and its relation was sought with the detection effective half-angle of the directional detector. The resolution angle was defined for the simplest configuration of the radiation field consisting of two monoenergetic gamma beams in one plane. It was shown that the resolution angle decreases, i.e., resolution in imaging the radiation field is better, with the effective half-angle of the directional detector. It was also found that resolution of both gamma beams deteriorated when the beams were surrounded with an isotropic background field. If the beams are surrounded with a background field showing general distribution, the angle size will be affected not only by the properties of the detector but also by the distribution of the ambient radiation field and the method of its scanning. The method described can be applied in designing a directional detector necessary for imaging the presumed radiation field in the required quality. (Z.M.). 4 figs., 3 refs

  1. Characteristics of X ray calibration fields for performance test of radiation measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shigeru; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sawahata, Tadahiro; Tohnami, Kohichi; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Murayama, Takashi

    1999-02-01

    Performance test and calibration of the radiation measuring instruments for low energy photons are made using the X ray calibration fields which are monochromatically characterized by filtration of continuous X ray spectrum. The X ray calibration field needs to be characterized by some quality conditions such as quality index and homogeneity coefficient. The present report describes quality conditions, spectrum and some characteristics of X ray irradiation fields in the Facility of Radiation Standard of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (FRS-JAERI). Fifty nine X ray qualities with the quality index of 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 were set for the tube voltages between 10 kV and 350 kV. Estimation of X ray spectrum measured with a Ge detector was made in terms of exposure, ambient dose equivalent and fluence for all the obtained qualities. Practical irradiation field was determined as the dose distribution uniformity is within ±3%. The obtained results improve the quality of X ray calibration fields and calibration accuracy. (author)

  2. Quality assurance of in-situ measurements of land surface albedo: A model-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jennifer; Gobron, Nadine; Widlowski, Jean-Luc; Mio, Corrado

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the development of a model-based framework for assessing the quality of in-situ measurements of albedo used to validate land surface albedo products. Using a 3D Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) radiative transfer model, a quality assurance framework is built based on simulated field measurements of albedo within complex 3D canopies and under various illumination scenarios. This method provides an unbiased approach in assessing the quality of field measurements, and is also able to trace the contributions of two main sources of uncertainty in field-measurements of albedo; those resulting from 1) the field measurement protocol, such as height or placement of field measurement within the canopy, and 2) intrinsic factors of the 3D canopy under specific illumination characteristics considered, such as the canopy structure and landscape heterogeneity, tree heights, ecosystem type and season.

  3. Field Measurements of Perceived Air Quality in the Test-Bed for Innovative Climate Conditioning Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Kabrhel, Michal

    the potential influence of aforementioned technologies on the perceived air quality. Additionally, the effect of Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) on the perceived air quality was tested. Measurements comprised of the assessments of perceived air quality and objective measurements of operative temperature...

  4. Software product quality measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Godliauskas, Eimantas

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses Ruby product quality measures, suggesting three new measures for Ruby product quality measurement tool Rubocop to measure Ruby product quality characteristics defined in ISO 2502n standard series. This paper consists of four main chapters. The first chapter gives a brief view of software product quality and software product quality measurement. The second chapter analyses object oriented quality measures. The third chapter gives a brief view of the most popular Ruby qualit...

  5. Spatial Variability of Physical Soil Quality Index of an Agricultural Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh M. Fazle Rabbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A field investigation was carried out to evaluate the spatial variability of physical indicators of soil quality of an agricultural field and to construct a physical soil quality index (SQIP map. Surface soil samples were collected using 10  m×10 m grid from an Inceptisol on Ganges Tidal Floodplain of Bangladesh. Five physical soil quality indicators, soil texture, bulk density, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity (KS, and aggregate stability (measured as mean weight diameter, MWD were determined. The spatial structures of sand, clay, and KS were moderate but the structure was strong for silt, bulk density, porosity, and MWD. Each of the physical soil quality indicators was transformed into 0 and 1 using threshold criteria which are required for crop production. The transformed indicators were the combined into SQIP. The kriged SQIP map showed that the agricultural field studied could be divided into two parts having “good physical quality” and “poor physical soil quality.”

  6. Venous Thromboembolism Quality Measures Fail to Accurately Measure Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Brandyn D; Streiff, Michael B; Pronovost, Peter J; Haut, Elliott R

    2018-03-20

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is 1 of the most common causes of preventable harm for patients in hospitals. Consequently, the Joint Commission, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the United Kingdom Care Quality Commission, the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission, and the American College of Surgeons have prioritized measuring and reporting VTE outcomes with the goal of reducing the incidence of and preventable harm from VTE. We developed a rubric for defect-free VTE prevention, graded each organizational VTE quality measure, and found that none of the current VTE-related quality measures adequately characterizes VTE prevention efforts or outcomes in hospitalized patients. Effective VTE prevention is multifactorial: clinicians must assess patients' risk for VTE and prescribe therapy appropriate for each patient's risk profile, patients must accept the prescribed therapy, and nurses must administer the therapy as prescribed. First, an ideal, defect-free VTE prevention process measure requires: (1) documentation of a standardized VTE risk assessment; (2) prescription of optimal, risk-appropriate VTE prophylaxis; and (3) administration of all risk-appropriate VTE prophylaxis as prescribed. Second, an ideal VTE outcome measure should define potentially preventable VTE as VTE that developed in patients who experienced any VTE prevention process failures. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Determination of the quality index (Q) for photon beams at arbitrary field sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Otto A

    2009-09-01

    A commonly used beam quality index (Q) for high-energy photon beams is the tissue phantom ratio (TPR20,10) for a square field of 10 x 10 cm2 and SDD of 100 cm. On some specialized radiotherapy treatment equipment such a reference collimator setting is not achievable. Likewise a flat beam profile, not explicitly required in dosimetry protocols, but certainly influences the measurement of Q, is not always produced. In this work, a method was developed in order to determine Q at any field size, especially for small and nonflattened beams. An analytical relationship was derived between TPR20,10 for arbitrary field sizes and Q [the TPR20,10 (10 x 10 cm2)] as quality index. The proposed model equation was fitted to the measured and published data in order to achieve three general fit parameters. The procedure was then tested with published data from TomoTherapy and CyperKnife treatment devices. For standard flattened photon fields, the uncertainty in Q measured at any field size using the parameters derived from this study is better than 1%. In flattening-filter free beams, the proposed procedure results in a reliable Q for any field size setting. A method is introduced and successfully tested in order to measure the beam quality under nonstandard conditions. It can be used, e.g., to get energy dependent correction factors as tabulated in dosimetry codes of practice even if standard conditions are not adjustable.

  8. Measuring Beam Quality of Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shephard, J.D.; Roberts, John; Jones, J.D.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors measure the quality of the delivered beam from hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCFs). The$M^2$parameter is determined, and the near- to far-field transition is examined. The influence on these properties due to the presence of a core surround mode is evaluated.......17 for the same output beam. This highlights the need for careful consideration when measuring and describing the beam quality delivered by these novel photonic fibers....

  9. General introduction for the “National field manual for the collection of water-quality data”

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-02-28

    BackgroundAs part of its mission, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects data to assess the quality of our Nation’s water resources. A high degree of reliability and standardization of these data are paramount to fulfilling this mission. Documentation of nationally accepted methods used by USGS personnel serves to maintain consistency and technical quality in data-collection activities. “The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data” (NFM) provides documented guidelines and protocols for USGS field personnel who collect water-quality data. The NFM provides detailed, comprehensive, and citable procedures for monitoring the quality of surface water and groundwater. Topics in the NFM include (1) methods and protocols for sampling water resources, (2) methods for processing samples for analysis of water quality, (3) methods for measuring field parameters, and (4) specialized procedures, such as sampling water for low levels of mercury and organic wastewater chemicals, measuring biological indicators, and sampling bottom sediment for chemistry. Personnel who collect water-quality data for national USGS programs and projects, including projects supported by USGS cooperative programs, are mandated to use protocols provided in the NFM per USGS Office of Water Quality Technical Memorandum 2002.13. Formal training, for example, as provided in the USGS class, “Field Water-Quality Methods for Groundwater and Surface Water,” and field apprenticeships supplement the guidance provided in the NFM and ensure that the data collected are high quality, accurate, and scientifically defensible.

  10. Spatial Variability Analysis of Within-Field Winter Wheat Nitrogen and Grain Quality Using Canopy Fluorescence Sensor Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Song

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain protein content (GPC is a key component when evaluating wheat nutrition. It is also important to determine wheat GPC before harvest for agricultural and food process enterprises in order to optimize the wheat grading process. Wheat GPC across a field is spatially variable due to the inherent variability of soil properties and position in the landscape. The objectives of this field study were: (i to assess the spatial and temporal variability of wheat nitrogen (N attributes related to the grain quality of winter wheat production through canopy fluorescence sensor measurements; and (ii to examine the influence of spatial variability of soil N and moisture across different growth stages on the wheat grain quality. A geostatistical approach was used to analyze data collected from 110 georeferenced locations. In particular, Ordinary Kriging Analysis (OKA was used to produce maps of wheat GPC, GPC yield, and wheat canopy fluorescence parameters, including simple florescence ratio and Nitrogen Balance Indices (NBI. Soil Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N content and soil Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR value in the study field were also interpolated through the OKA method. The fluorescence parameter maps, soil NO3-N and soil TDR maps obtained from the OKA output were compared with the wheat GPC and GPC yield maps in order to assess their relationships. The results of this study indicate that the NBI spatial variability map in the late stage of wheat growth can be used to distinguish areas that produce higher GPC.

  11. Walking the Talk: Continuous Improvement of a Quality Management Field Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Steven; Adams, Jeffery

    2012-01-01

    This article provides results from a three semester case study of the pedagogical efficacy of an innovative quality management field exercise. A series of direct and indirect measures were used to assess the extent to which the field exercise met a set of learning objectives. The results indicate that the assessment framework is useful in…

  12. Radiation measurements and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    Accurate measurements are essential to research leading to a successful radiation process and to the commissioning of the process and the facility. On the other hand, once the process is in production, the importance to quality control of measuring radiation quantities (i.e., absorbed dose, dose rate, dose distribution) rather than various other parameters of the process (i.e. conveyor speed, dwell time, radiation field characteristics, product dimensions) is not clearly established. When the safety of the product is determined by the magnitude of the administered dose, as in radiation sterilization, waste control, or food preservation, accuracy and precision of the measurement of the effective dose are vital. Since physical dose measurements are usually simpler, more reliable and reproducible than biological testing of the product, there is a trend toward using standardized dosimetry for quality control of some processes. In many industrial products, however, such as vulcanized rubber, textiles, plastics, coatings, films, wire and cable, the effective dose can be controlled satisfactorily by controlling process variables or by product testing itself. In the measurement of radiation dose profiles by dosimetry, it is necessary to have suitable dose meter calibrations, to account for sources of error and imprecision, and to use correct statistical procedures in specifying dwell times or conveyor speeds and source and product parameters to achieve minimum and maximum doses within specifications. (author)

  13. Vector electric field measurement via position-modulated Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Ryan P.; Smieska, Louisa M.; Tirmzi, Ali Moeed; Marohn, John A.

    2017-10-01

    High-quality spatially resolved measurements of electric fields are critical to understanding charge injection, charge transport, and charge trapping in semiconducting materials. Here, we report a variation of frequency-modulated Kelvin probe force microscopy that enables spatially resolved measurements of the electric field. We measure electric field components along multiple directions simultaneously by employing position modulation and lock-in detection in addition to numeric differentiation of the surface potential. We demonstrate the technique by recording linescans of the in-plane electric field vector in the vicinity of a patch of trapped charge in a 2,7-diphenyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (DPh-BTBT) organic field-effect transistor. This technique is simple to implement and should be especially useful for studying electric fields in spatially inhomogeneous samples like organic transistors and photovoltaic blends.

  14. The use of an electronic portal imaging device for exit dosimetry and quality control measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Michael C.; Williams, Peter C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine ways in which electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) could be used to (a) measure exit doses for external beam radiotherapy and (b) perform quality control checks on linear accelerators. Methods and Materials: When imaging, our fluoroscopic EPID adjusts the gain, offset, and frame acquisition time of the charge coupled device (CCD) camera automatically, to allow for the range of photon transmissions through the patient, and to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio. However, our EPID can be programmed to act as an integrating dosemeter. EPID dosemeter measurements were made for 20 MV photons, for different field sizes and thicknesses of unit density phantom material placed at varying exit surface to detector distances. These were compared with simultaneous Silicon diode exit dose measurements. Our exit dosimetry technique was verified using an anthropomorphic type phantom, and some initial measurements have been made for patients treated with irregularly shaped 20 MV x-ray fields. In this dosimetry mode, our EPID was also used to measure certain quality control parameters, x-ray field flatness, and the verification of segmented intensity modulated field prescriptions. Results: Configured for dosimetry, our EPID exhibited a highly linear response, capable of resolving individual monitor units. Exit doses could be measured to within about 3% of that measured using Silicon diodes. Field flatness was determined to within 1.5% of Farmer dosemeter measurements. Segmented intensity modulated fields can be easily verified. Conclusions: Our EPID has the versatility to assess a range of parameters pertinent to the delivery of high quality, high precision radiotherapy. When configured appropriately, it can measure exit doses in vivo, with reasonable accuracy, perform certain quick quality control checks, and analyze segmented intensity modulated treatment fields

  15. A lithospheric magnetic field model derived from the Swarm satellite magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulot, G.; Thebault, E.; Vigneron, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Swarm constellation of satellites was launched in November 2013 and has since then delivered high quality scalar and vector magnetic field measurements. A consortium of several research institutions was selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) to provide a number of scientific products which will be made available to the scientific community. Within this framework, specific tools were tailor-made to better extract the magnetic signal emanating from Earth's the lithospheric. These tools rely on the scalar gradient measured by the lower pair of Swarm satellites and rely on a regional modeling scheme that is more sensitive to small spatial scales and weak signals than the standard spherical harmonic modeling. In this presentation, we report on various activities related to data analysis and processing. We assess the efficiency of this dedicated chain for modeling the lithospheric magnetic field using more than one year of measurements, and finally discuss refinements that are continuously implemented in order to further improve the robustness and the spatial resolution of the lithospheric field model.

  16. Micro analysis of fringe field formed inside LDA measuring volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Nirala, A K

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we propose a technique for micro analysis of fringe field formed inside laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measuring volume. Detailed knowledge of the fringe field obtained by this technique allows beam quality, alignment and fringe uniformity to be evaluated with greater precision and may be helpful for selection of an appropriate optical element for LDA system operation. A complete characterization of fringes formed at the measurement volume using conventional, as well as holographic optical elements, is presented. Results indicate the qualitative, as well as quantitative, improvement of fringes formed at the measurement volume by holographic optical elements. Hence, use of holographic optical elements in LDA systems may be advantageous for improving accuracy in the measurement. (paper)

  17. Many quality measurements, but few quality measures assessing the quality of breast cancer care in women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Howard M; Mamaladze, Vasil; Lewin, Gabriela; Graham, Ian D; Brouwers, Melissa; Sampson, Margaret; Morrison, Andra; Zhang, Li; O'Blenis, Peter; Garritty, Chantelle

    2006-12-18

    Breast cancer in women is increasingly frequent, and care is complex, onerous and expensive, all of which lend urgency to improvements in care. Quality measurement is essential to monitor effectiveness and to guide improvements in healthcare. Ten databases, including Medline, were searched electronically to identify measures assessing the quality of breast cancer care in women (diagnosis, treatment, followup, documentation of care). Eligible studies measured adherence to standards of breast cancer care in women diagnosed with, or in treatment for, any histological type of adenocarcinoma of the breast. Reference lists of studies, review articles, web sites, and files of experts were searched manually. Evidence appraisal entailed dual independent assessments of data (e.g., indicators used in quality measurement). The extent of each quality indicator's scientific validation as a measure was assessed. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) was asked to contribute quality measures under development. Sixty relevant reports identified 58 studies with 143 indicators assessing adherence to quality breast cancer care. A paucity of validated indicators (n = 12), most of which assessed quality of life, only permitted a qualitative data synthesis. Most quality indicators evaluated processes of care. While some studies revealed patterns of under-use of care, all adherence data require confirmation using validated quality measures. ASCO's current development of a set of quality measures relating to breast cancer care may hold the key to conducting definitive studies.

  18. Many quality measurements, but few quality measures assessing the quality of breast cancer care in women: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer in women is increasingly frequent, and care is complex, onerous and expensive, all of which lend urgency to improvements in care. Quality measurement is essential to monitor effectiveness and to guide improvements in healthcare. Methods Ten databases, including Medline, were searched electronically to identify measures assessing the quality of breast cancer care in women (diagnosis, treatment, followup, documentation of care. Eligible studies measured adherence to standards of breast cancer care in women diagnosed with, or in treatment for, any histological type of adenocarcinoma of the breast. Reference lists of studies, review articles, web sites, and files of experts were searched manually. Evidence appraisal entailed dual independent assessments of data (e.g., indicators used in quality measurement. The extent of each quality indicator's scientific validation as a measure was assessed. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO was asked to contribute quality measures under development. Results Sixty relevant reports identified 58 studies with 143 indicators assessing adherence to quality breast cancer care. A paucity of validated indicators (n = 12, most of which assessed quality of life, only permitted a qualitative data synthesis. Most quality indicators evaluated processes of care. Conclusion While some studies revealed patterns of under-use of care, all adherence data require confirmation using validated quality measures. ASCO's current development of a set of quality measures relating to breast cancer care may hold the key to conducting definitive studies.

  19. Direct measurements of the tile drain and groundwater flow route contributions to surface water contamination: From field-scale concentration patterns in groundwater to catchment-scale surface water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.; Velde, Y. van der; Geer, F.C. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Broers, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced knowledge of water and solute pathways in catchments would improve the understanding of dynamics in water quality and would support the selection of appropriate water pollution mitigation options. For this study, we physically separated tile drain effluent and groundwater discharge from an agricultural field before it entered a 43.5-m ditch transect. Through continuous discharge measurements and weekly water quality sampling, we directly quantified the flow route contributions to surface water discharge and solute loading. Our multi-scale experimental approach allowed us to relate these measurements to field-scale NO 3 concentration patterns in shallow groundwater and to continuous NO 3 records at the catchment outlet. Our results show that the tile drains contributed 90-92% of the annual NO 3 and heavy metal loads. Considering their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring and modeling of tile drainage are important for adequate water quality management. - Direct measurements of flow route contributions to surface water contaminant loading reveal the crucial role of tile drainage for catchment-scale water and solute transport.

  20. Analysis of magnetic field measurement results for the AGS Booster magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleser, E.; Thern, R.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic field measurements have been made on nearly 200 conventional magnets that have been installed in the AGS Booster and its associated transfer lines. The measurements were intended to monitor the quality of the magnets being produced and to check the performance of each magnet before installation. The magnetic measurements effort led to certain improvements in the manufacturing process, which ten subsequently produced very good, very uniform magnets. The integrated dipole fields of the 36 booster dipoles are uniform to 1.5 parts in ten thousand. The magnetic measurements indicate that the quadrupoles were manufactured to an accuracy of 3 ten thousandths of an inch, which is better than we can physically measure. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  1. New performance in harmonic analysis device generation used for magnetic fields measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evesque, C.; Tkatchenko, M.

    1996-12-31

    In particle accelerator, correcting high multipole components of magnets are of high importance for quality magnet: to get a pure quadrupole to within 10{sup -4}, we have to know the field quality to 10{sup -5} through the 30. order. Our laboratory needed such a very sharp device to find small harmonic components of magnetic field. For harmonic analysis of magnetic field, we adopted the standard method, i.e. a rotating coil connected to a flux integrator. Nowadays, coils measuring azimuthal component of magnetic field are used. In order to obtain correct and accurate measurements, we were guided by two imperatives: first, optimisation of construction constraints and second, comparison of azimuthal and radial component measurements. With this background, this article describes both new technological solutions adopted and new performance obtained. We also discuss the most suitable geometric structure for the coils. We obtained a noiseless signal, a repeatability of 10{sup -5} and a sensitivity up to 10{sup -8} Weber for both types of coils. Our device is able to find and measure main component, normal and skew multipole components up to the 32. order, when simulating local defects. The magnetic axis is located within 5 {mu}m. The central gradient is also measured and magnetic length deduced. Complementary functions of two types of coils were noticed in detecting local defects of magnetic structure. (authors).

  2. New performance in harmonic analysis device generation used for magnetic fields measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evesque, C.; Tkatchenko, M.

    1996-01-01

    In particle accelerator, correcting high multipole components of magnets are of high importance for quality magnet: to get a pure quadrupole to within 10 -4 , we have to know the field quality to 10 -5 through the 30. order. Our laboratory needed such a very sharp device to find small harmonic components of magnetic field. For harmonic analysis of magnetic field, we adopted the standard method, i.e. a rotating coil connected to a flux integrator. Nowadays, coils measuring azimuthal component of magnetic field are used. In order to obtain correct and accurate measurements, we were guided by two imperatives: first, optimisation of construction constraints and second, comparison of azimuthal and radial component measurements. With this background, this article describes both new technological solutions adopted and new performance obtained. We also discuss the most suitable geometric structure for the coils. We obtained a noiseless signal, a repeatability of 10 -5 and a sensitivity up to 10 -8 Weber for both types of coils. Our device is able to find and measure main component, normal and skew multipole components up to the 32. order, when simulating local defects. The magnetic axis is located within 5 μm. The central gradient is also measured and magnetic length deduced. Complementary functions of two types of coils were noticed in detecting local defects of magnetic structure. (authors)

  3. Performance of biometric quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grother, Patrick; Tabassi, Elham

    2007-04-01

    We document methods for the quantitative evaluation of systems that produce a scalar summary of a biometric sample's quality. We are motivated by a need to test claims that quality measures are predictive of matching performance. We regard a quality measurement algorithm as a black box that converts an input sample to an output scalar. We evaluate it by quantifying the association between those values and observed matching results. We advance detection error trade-off and error versus reject characteristics as metrics for the comparative evaluation of sample quality measurement algorithms. We proceed this with a definition of sample quality, a description of the operational use of quality measures. We emphasize the performance goal by including a procedure for annotating the samples of a reference corpus with quality values derived from empirical recognition scores.

  4. Site Study Plan for meteorology/air quality, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Meteorological/Air Quality Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of continuous measurements of surface (10-meter) wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, dew point, pressure, and sensible heat flux (vertical). Air quality measurements will be limited to suspended particulate matter. After the first year of measurements, a 60-meter tower will be added to incorporate measurements needed for later modeling and dose calculations; these will include upper level winds, vertical temperature structure, and vertical wind speed. All of these measurements will be made at a site located within the 9-mi 2 site area but remote from the ESF. A second site, located near and downwind from the ESF, will monitor only particulate matter. The SSP describes the need for each study; its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data, schedule of field activities, organization of field personnel and sample management, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 38 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Quality measurement in diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leas, Brian F; Berman, Bettina; Kash, Kathryn M; Crawford, Albert G; Toner, Richard W; Goldfarb, Neil I; Nash, David B

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate diabetes quality measurement efforts, assess their strengths and areas for improvement, and identify gaps not adequately addressed by these measures. We conducted an environmental scan of diabetes quality measures, focusing on metrics included in the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse or promulgated by leading measurement organizations. Key informant interviews were also completed with thought leaders who develop, promote, and use quality measures. The environmental scan identified 146 distinct measures spanning 31 clinical processes or outcomes. This suggests a measurement system that is both redundant and inconsistent, with many different measures assessing the same clinical indicators. Interviewees believe that current diabetes measurement efforts are excessively broad and complex and expressed a need for better harmonization of these measures. Several gaps were also found, including a lack of measures focusing on population health, structural elements of health care, and prevention of diabetes.

  6. Magnetic field measurements of superconducting magnets for the colliding beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.; Kirk, H.; Prodell, A.; Willen, E.

    1983-01-01

    An important aspect of the development and production of superconducting magnets for the Colliding Beam Accelerator is the measurement of the magnetic field in the aperture of these magnets. The measurements have the three-fold purpose of determining the field quality as compared to the lattice requirements of the CBA, of obtaining the survey data necessary to position the magnets in the CBA tunnel, and lastly, of characterizing the magnetic fields for use in initial and future orbit studies of the CBA proton beams. Since for a superconducting storage accelerator it is necessary to carry out these detailed measurements on many (approx. 1000) magnets and at many current values (approx. 1000), we have chosen, in agreement with previous experience, to develop a system which Fourier analyses the voltages induced in a number of rotating windings and thereby obtains the multipole field components. The important point is that such a measuring system can be fast and precise. It has been used for horizontal measurements of the CBA ring dipoles

  7. Measuring Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben

    local differences in the quality of day care facilities in Denmark (Nordahl et al, 2012; Hansen et al, 2016) and also that we in fact have little knowledge of whether the desired politically determined targets are being met or not and what the quality is really like. In order to measure the quality......The Danish Day Care Facilities Act (2015), which provides the curriculum on which day care education is based, does not stipulate very clearly what children should learn and therefore how educational processes in preschools should be organised. This means that we must accept that there are large...... of preschool in Denmark a new research project using the ECERS 3 instrument has been launched. This could capture quality from a global quality standard’s perspective, building the basis for a further investigation of practice in Danish early childhood provisions and centers in a more narrow approach...

  8. Fieldwork measurement of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in Malaysian platinum-rated green office buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharim, Asniza Hamimi Abdul; Samad, Muna Hanim Abdul; Ismail, Mazran

    2017-10-01

    An Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) fieldwork assessment was conducted in the Platinum-rated GBI office building located in Putrajaya Malaysia. The aim of the study is to determine the current indoor performance of the selected green office building. The field measurement consists of several IEQ parameters counted under the GBI Malaysia namely the Thermal Comfort of temperature, relative humidity, air movement and heat transfer as well as solar radiation. This field measurement also comprises of the measurement for the background noise, visual lighting and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) focusing on the aspect of carbon dioxide concentration. All the selected indoor parameters were measured for the period of five working days and the results were compared to the Malaysian Standard. Findings of the field measurement show good indoor performance of the Platinum rated office building that complies with the GBI standard. It is hoped that the research findings will be beneficial for future design and construction of office building intended to be rated under the GBI Malaysia.

  9. MDS Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the quality measures displayed on Nursing Home Compare, excluding Measures of Rehospitalization, Emergency Room Visit, and Community Discharge. Each row...

  10. Air Quality and Meteorological Boundary Conditions during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, G.; Arriaga, J.; Vega, E.; Magaña, V.; Caetano, E.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Ramos, R.; Retama, A.; Zaragoza, J.; Martínez, A. P.; Márquez, C.; Cárdenas, B.; Lamb, B.; Velasco, E.; Allwine, E.; Pressley, S.; Westberg, H.; Reyes, R.

    2004-12-01

    A comprehensive field campaign to characterize photochemical smog in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) was conducted during April 2003. An important number of equipment was deployed all around the urban core and its surroundings to measure gas and particles composition from the various sources and receptor sites. In addition to air quality measurements, meteorology variables were also taken by regular weather meteorological stations, tethered balloons, radiosondes, sodars and lidars. One important issue with regard to the field campaign was the characterization of the boundary conditions in order to feed meteorological and air quality models. Four boundary sites were selected to measure continuously criteria pollutants, VOC and meteorological variables at surface level. Vertical meteorological profiles were measured at three other sites : radiosondes in Tacubaya site were launched every six hours daily; tethered balloons were launched at CENICA and FES-Cuautitlan sites according to the weather conditions, and one sodar was deployed at UNAM site in the south of the city. Additionally to these measurements, two fixed meteorological monitoring networks deployed along the city were available to complement these measurements. In general, we observed that transport of pollutants from the city to the boundary sites changes every day, according to the coupling between synoptic and local winds. This effect were less important at elevated sites such as Cerro de la Catedral and ININ, where synoptic wind were more dominant during the field campaign. Also, local sources nearby boundary sites hide the influence of pollution coming from the city some days, particularly at the La Reforma site.

  11. Measurement of Indoor Air Quality by Means of a Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    When a person is located in a contaminant field with significant gradients the contaminant distribution is modified locally due to the entrainment and transport of room air in the human convective boundary layer as well as due to the effect of the person acting as an obstacle to the flow field, etc....... The local modification of the concentration distribution may affect the personal exposure significantly and, thus, the indoor air quality actually experienced. In this paper measurements of indoor air quality by means of a Breathing Thermal Manikin (BTM) are presented....

  12. Three-Dimensional Flow Field Measurements in a Transonic Turbine Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, P. W.; Thurman, D. R.; Lopez, I.; Boyle, R. J.; VanFossen, G. J.; Jett, T. A.; Camperchioli, W. P.; La, H.

    1996-01-01

    Three-dimensional flow field measurements are presented for a large scale transonic turbine blade cascade. Flow field total pressures and pitch and yaw flow angles were measured at an inlet Reynolds number of 1.0 x 10(exp 6) and at an isentropic exit Mach number of 1.3 in a low turbulence environment. Flow field data was obtained on five pitchwise/spanwise measurement planes, two upstream and three downstream of the cascade, each covering three blade pitches. Three-hole boundary layer probes and five-hole pitch/yaw probes were used to obtain data at over 1200 locations in each of the measurement planes. Blade and endwall static pressures were also measured at an inlet Reynolds number of 0.5 x 10(exp 6) and at an isentropic exit Mach number of 1.0. Tests were conducted in a linear cascade at the NASA Lewis Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The test article was a turbine rotor with 136 deg of turning and an axial chord of 12.7 cm. The flow field in the cascade is highly three-dimensional as a result of thick boundary layers at the test section inlet and because of the high degree of flow turning. The large scale allowed for very detailed measurements of both flow field and surface phenomena. The intent of the work is to provide benchmark quality data for CFD code and model verification.

  13. The role of field auditing in environmental quality assurance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, D R

    2000-01-01

    Environmental data quality improvement continues to focus on analytical laboratoryperformance with little, if any, attention given to improving the performance of field consultants responsible for sample collection. Many environmental professionals often assume that the primary opportunity for data error lies within the activities conducted by the laboratory. Experience in the evaluation of environmental data and project-wide quality assurance programs indicates that an often-ignored factor affecting environmental data quality is the manner in which a sample is acquired and handled in the field. If a sample is not properly collected, preserved, stored, and transported in the field, even the best laboratory practices and analytical methods cannot deliver accurate and reliable data (i.e., bad data in equals bad data out). Poor quality environmental data may result in inappropriate decisions regarding site characterization and remedial action. Field auditing is becoming an often-employed technique for examining the performance of the environmental sampling field team and how their performance may affect data quality. The field audits typically focus on: (1) verifying that field consultants adhere to project control documents (e.g., Work Plans and Standard Operating Procedures [SOPs]) during field operations; (2) providing third-party independent assurance that field procedures, quality assurance/ quality control (QA/QC)protocol, and field documentation are sufficient to produce data of satisfactory quality; (3) providing a defense in the event that field procedures are called into question; and (4) identifying ways to reduce sampling costs. Field audits are typically most effective when performed on a surprise basis; that is, the sampling contractor may be aware that a field audit will be conducted during some phase of sampling activities but is not informed of the specific day(s) that the audit will be conducted. The audit also should be conducted early on in the

  14. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988-2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature.

  15. Quality improvement in neurology: AAN Parkinson disease quality measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, E.M.; Tonn, S.; Swain-Eng, R.; Factor, S.A.; Weiner, W.J.; Bever, C.T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Measuring the quality of health care is a fundamental step toward improving health care and is increasingly used in pay-for-performance initiatives and maintenance of certification requirements. Measure development to date has focused on primary care and common conditions such as diabetes; thus, the number of measures that apply to neurologic care is limited. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) identified the need for neurologists to develop measures of neurologic care and to establish a process to accomplish this. Objective: To adapt and test the feasibility of a process for independent development by the AAN of measures for neurologic conditions for national measurement programs. Methods: A process that has been used nationally for measure development was adapted for use by the AAN. Topics for measure development are chosen based upon national priorities, available evidence base from a systematic literature search, gaps in care, and the potential impact for quality improvement. A panel composed of subject matter and measure development methodology experts oversees the development of the measures. Recommendation statements and their corresponding level of evidence are reviewed and considered for development into draft candidate measures. The candidate measures are refined by the expert panel during a 30-day public comment period and by review by the American Medical Association for Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) II codes. All final AAN measures are approved by the AAN Board of Directors. Results: Parkinson disease (PD) was chosen for measure development. A review of the medical literature identified 258 relevant recommendation statements. A 28-member panel approved 10 quality measures for PD that included full specifications and CPT II codes. Conclusion: The AAN has adapted a measure development process that is suitable for national measurement programs and has demonstrated its capability to independently develop quality measures. GLOSSARY

  16. Work-Team Implementation and Trajectories of Manufacturing Quality: A Longitudinal Field Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Joy M. Field; Kingshuk K. Sinha

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the sustainability of manufacturing quality improvements following the implementation of work teams on production lines. We posit that the impact on manufacturing quality, measured as the defect rate trajectory, is monotonically nonincreasing over time and may, more specifically, assume the shape of an inverted S-curve. Employing a longitudinal research design, we investigate four work teams over a 28-month period in a field setting. Each team corresponds to one of the four...

  17. Evaluating Performance Measurement Systems in Nonprofit Agencies: The Program Accountability Quality Scale (PAQS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Dennis L.; Nelson, Joan; Carnahan, Sharon; Chepenik, Nancy G.; Tubiak, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Developed and field tested the Performance Accountability Quality Scale (PAQS) on 191 program performance measurement systems developed by nonprofit agencies in central Florida. Preliminary findings indicate that the PAQS provides a structure for obtaining expert opinions based on a theory-driven model about the quality of proposed measurement…

  18. Candidate Quality Measures for Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Quality measures are tools used by physicians, health care systems, and payers to evaluate performance, monitor the outcomes of interventions, and inform quality improvement efforts. A paucity of quality measures exist that address hand surgery care. We completed a RAND/UCLA (University of California Los Angeles) Delphi Appropriateness process with the goal of developing and evaluating candidate hand surgery quality measures to be used for national quality measure development efforts. A consortium of 9 academic upper limb surgeons completed a RAND/UCLA Delphi Appropriateness process to evaluate the importance, scientific acceptability, usability, and feasibility of 44 candidate quality measures. These addressed hand problems the panelists felt were most appropriate for quality measure development. Panelists rated the measures on an ordinal scale between 1 (definitely not valid) and 9 (definitely valid) in 2 rounds (preliminary round and final round) with an intervening face-to-face discussion. Ratings from 1 to 3 were considered not valid, 4 to 6 as equivocal or uncertain, and 7 to 9 as valid. If no more than 2 of the 9 ratings were outside the 3-point range that included the median (1-3, 4-6, or 7-9), the panelists were considered to be in agreement. If 3 or more of the panelists' ratings of a measure were within the 1 to 3 range and 3 or more ratings were in the 7 to 9 range, the panelists were considered to be in disagreement. There was agreement on 43% (19) of the measures as important, 27% (12) as scientifically sound, 48% (21) as usable, and 59% (26) as feasible to complete. Ten measures met all 4 of these criteria and were, therefore, considered valid measurements of quality. Quality measures that were developed address outcomes (patient-reported outcomes for assessment and improvement of function) and processes of care (utilization rates of imaging, antibiotics, occupational therapy, ultrasound, and operative treatment). The consortium developed 10

  19. Service Quality Measurements: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ramezani Ghotbabadi; Setareh Feiz; Rohaizat Baharun

    2015-01-01

    Service quality measurement is one of the significant measurement tools for firms to understand consumers’ needs and wants by analyzing the experience of consumers and customers’ satisfaction on the services provided. Although there is no general agreement on one particular model used as the measurement of service quality perceived, there are some effective models offered by researchers during decades of study in this area. In the recent years, researchers believe that service quality is mult...

  20. Measuring data quality for ongoing improvement a data quality assessment framework

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian-Coleman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The Data Quality Assessment Framework shows you how to measure and monitor data quality, ensuring quality over time. You'll start with general concepts of measurement and work your way through a detailed framework of more than three dozen measurement types related to five objective dimensions of quality: completeness, timeliness, consistency, validity, and integrity. Ongoing measurement, rather than one time activities will help your organization reach a new level of data quality. This plain-language approach to measuring data can be understood by both business and IT and provides pra

  1. Assessing the impact of dietary habits on health-related quality of life requires contextual measurement tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eRuano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase of non-communicable diseases at all ages has fostered the general concern for sustaining population health worldwide. Unhealthy lifestyles and dietary habits impacting physical and psycho-social health are well known risk factors for developing life threatening diseases. Identifying the determinants of quality of life is an important task from a Public Health perspective. Consumer-Reported Outcome measures of health-related quality of life are becoming increasingly necessary and relevant in the field of nutrition. However, quality of life questionnaires are seldom used in the nutrition field. We conducted a scientific literature search to find out the questionnaires used to determine the association between dietary habits and quality of life. A total of 13 studies were eligible for inclusion. Across these studies the Short Form–36, a generic (nondisease-specific health-related quality of life measurement instrument was the most widely used. However, generic measures may have limited content validity in the context of dietary habits interventions. We recommend additional contextual diet-specific health-related quality of life measures are also needed for evaluating the impact of diet habits on daily life functioning and well-being.

  2. Quality Assurance In Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riekstina, D.; Veveris, O.; Smilskalne, G.

    2007-01-01

    The credibility of obtained results is ensured by the quality assurance and control. The main requisitions involved in the quality assurance of the laboratory according to the requirements of LVS EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 are: 1) the use of calibrated equipment only; 2) the regular and long-time use of reference materials in the control of equipment; 3) the estimation of uncertainty sources and determination of uncertainties within the given interval of credibility; 4) the validation and verification. The very important requirement is regular participation in the interlaboratory intercomparison exercises that makes it possible to estimate and find possible error sources and carry out the corrective actions. The measurements of the radioactivity of Cs-137, Co-60, H-3, the natural radioactive nuclides as well as other radionuclides in different environmental (soil, precipitation, different types of water, needles, et al.) samples, and in various radioactive polluted objects are carried out in the Laboratory of Radiation physics. The quality assurance system was implemented in our laboratory in 2000. Since 1999 laboratory is regular participant in the interlaboratory intercomparison exercises, organized by the RISO National Laboratory (Denmark) and IAEA (Vienna). The paper shows the laboratory's system of quality assurance and its implementation. We have the internal quality audit program that takes into account the requirements of LVS EN ISO/IEC 17025: 2005, but the main attention is paid to the intercomparison of the results of analyses of laboratories, their evaluation and interpretation. Only credible and justified results can be the basis for further use in any field, thus making it possible to make legitimate decisions. (Authors)

  3. DockQ: A Quality Measure for Protein-Protein Docking Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sankar

    2016-01-01

    The state-of-the-art to assess the structural quality of docking models is currently based on three related yet independent quality measures: Fnat, LRMS, and iRMS as proposed and standardized by CAPRI. These quality measures quantify different aspects of the quality of a particular docking model and need to be viewed together to reveal the true quality, e.g. a model with relatively poor LRMS (>10Å) might still qualify as 'acceptable' with a descent Fnat (>0.50) and iRMS (iRMS to a single score in the range [0, 1] that can be used to assess the quality of protein docking models. By using DockQ on CAPRI models it is possible to almost completely reproduce the original CAPRI classification into Incorrect, Acceptable, Medium and High quality. An average PPV of 94% at 90% Recall demonstrating that there is no need to apply predefined ad-hoc cutoffs to classify docking models. Since DockQ recapitulates the CAPRI classification almost perfectly, it can be viewed as a higher resolution version of the CAPRI classification, making it possible to estimate model quality in a more quantitative way using Z-scores or sum of top ranked models, which has been so valuable for the CASP community. The possibility to directly correlate a quality measure to a scoring function has been crucial for the development of scoring functions for protein structure prediction, and DockQ should be useful in a similar development in the protein docking field. DockQ is available at http://github.com/bjornwallner/DockQ/ PMID:27560519

  4. Magnetic field measurements of the harmonic generation FEL superconducting undulator at BNL-NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, L.; Graves, W.S.; Lehrman, I.

    1994-01-01

    A three stage superconducting undulator (modulator, dispersive section, and radiator) is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Sections of the radiator, consisting of 25cm long steel yokes, each with 18mm period, 0.54 Tesla field, and 8.6mm gap are under test. The magnetic measurements and operational characteristics of the magnet are discussed. Measurement results and analysis are presented, with emphasis on the integrated field quality. The magnet winding and the effects of the various trims are discussed

  5. Quality assessment of graphene: Continuity, uniformity, and accuracy of mobility measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, David; Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Whelan, Patrick Rebsdorf

    2017-01-01

    . We present a simple framework for assessing the quality and homogeneity of large-area graphene devices. The field effect in both exfoliated graphene devices encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride and chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) devices was measured in dual current–voltage configurations and used...

  6. Measures and Indicators of Vgi Quality: AN Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, V.; Skopeliti, A.

    2015-08-01

    The evaluation of VGI quality has been a very interesting and popular issue amongst academics and researchers. Various metrics and indicators have been proposed for evaluating VGI quality elements. Various efforts have focused on the use of well-established methodologies for the evaluation of VGI quality elements against authoritative data. In this paper, a number of research papers have been reviewed and summarized in a detailed report on measures for each spatial data quality element. Emphasis is given on the methodology followed and the data used in order to assess and evaluate the quality of the VGI datasets. However, as the use of authoritative data is not always possible many researchers have turned their focus on the analysis of new quality indicators that can function as proxies for the understanding of VGI quality. In this paper, the difficulties in using authoritative datasets are briefly presented and new proposed quality indicators are discussed, as recorded through the literature review. We classify theses new indicators in four main categories that relate with: i) data, ii) demographics, iii) socio-economic situation and iv) contributors. This paper presents a dense, yet comprehensive overview of the research on this field and provides the basis for the ongoing academic effort to create a practical quality evaluation method through the use of appropriate quality indicators.

  7. MEASURES AND INDICATORS OF VGI QUALITY: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Antoniou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of VGI quality has been a very interesting and popular issue amongst academics and researchers. Various metrics and indicators have been proposed for evaluating VGI quality elements. Various efforts have focused on the use of well-established methodologies for the evaluation of VGI quality elements against authoritative data. In this paper, a number of research papers have been reviewed and summarized in a detailed report on measures for each spatial data quality element. Emphasis is given on the methodology followed and the data used in order to assess and evaluate the quality of the VGI datasets. However, as the use of authoritative data is not always possible many researchers have turned their focus on the analysis of new quality indicators that can function as proxies for the understanding of VGI quality. In this paper, the difficulties in using authoritative datasets are briefly presented and new proposed quality indicators are discussed, as recorded through the literature review. We classify theses new indicators in four main categories that relate with: i data, ii demographics, iii socio-economic situation and iv contributors. This paper presents a dense, yet comprehensive overview of the research on this field and provides the basis for the ongoing academic effort to create a practical quality evaluation method through the use of appropriate quality indicators.

  8. Apparatus and procedure to characterize the surface quality of conductors by measuring the rate of cathode emission as a function of surface electric field strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestayer, Mac; Christo, Steve; Taylor, Mark

    2014-10-21

    A device and method for characterizing quality of a conducting surface. The device including a gaseous ionizing chamber having centrally located inside the chamber a conducting sample to be tested to which a negative potential is applied, a plurality of anode or "sense" wires spaced regularly about the central test wire, a plurality of "field wires" at a negative potential are spaced regularly around the sense, and a plurality of "guard wires" at a positive potential are spaced regularly around the field wires in the chamber. The method utilizing the device to measure emission currents from the conductor.

  9. Field soil-water properties measured through radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This report shows a major effort to make soil physics applicable to the behaviour of the field soils and presents a rich and diverse set of data which are essential for the development of effective soil-water management practices that improve and conserve the quality and quantity of agricultural lands. This piece of research has shown that the neutron moisture meter together with some complementary instruments like tensiometers, can be used not only to measure soil water contents but also be extremely handy to measure soil hydraulic characteristics and soil water flow. It is, however, recognized that hydraulic conductivity is highly sensitive to small changes in soil water content and texture, being extremely variable spatially and temporally

  10. Measuring Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Quality of Care: Discharge Self-Care Functional Status Quality Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardasaney, Poonam K; Deutsch, Anne; Iriondo-Perez, Jeniffer; Ingber, Melvin J; McMullen, Tara

    2018-06-01

    To describe the calculation and psychometric properties of the discharge self-care functional status quality measure implemented in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' (CMS) Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility (IRF) Quality Reporting Program on October 1, 2016. Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) patients from 38 IRFs that participated in the CMS Post-Acute Care Payment Reform Demonstration were included in this cohort study. Data came from the Continuity Assessment Record and Evaluation Item Set, IRF-Patient Assessment Instrument, and Medicare claims. For each patient, we calculated an expected discharge self-care score, risk-adjusted for demographic and baseline clinical characteristics. The performance score of each IRF equaled the percentage of patient stays where the observed discharge self-care score met or exceeded the expected score. We assessed the measure's discriminatory ability across IRFs and reliability. IRFs. Medicare FFS patients aged ≥21 years (N=4769). Not applicable. Facility-level discharge self-care quality measure performance score. A total of 4769 patient stays were included; 57% of stays were in women, and 12.1% were in patients aged quality measure showed strong reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients of .91. The discharge self-care quality measure showed strong discriminatory ability and reliability, representing an important initial step in evaluation of IRF self-care outcomes. A wide range in performance scores suggested a gap in quality of care across IRFs. Future work should include testing the measure with nationwide data from all IRFs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. DockQ: A Quality Measure for Protein-Protein Docking Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Basu

    Full Text Available The state-of-the-art to assess the structural quality of docking models is currently based on three related yet independent quality measures: Fnat, LRMS, and iRMS as proposed and standardized by CAPRI. These quality measures quantify different aspects of the quality of a particular docking model and need to be viewed together to reveal the true quality, e.g. a model with relatively poor LRMS (>10Å might still qualify as 'acceptable' with a descent Fnat (>0.50 and iRMS (<3.0Å. This is also the reason why the so called CAPRI criteria for assessing the quality of docking models is defined by applying various ad-hoc cutoffs on these measures to classify a docking model into the four classes: Incorrect, Acceptable, Medium, or High quality. This classification has been useful in CAPRI, but since models are grouped in only four bins it is also rather limiting, making it difficult to rank models, correlate with scoring functions or use it as target function in machine learning algorithms. Here, we present DockQ, a continuous protein-protein docking model quality measure derived by combining Fnat, LRMS, and iRMS to a single score in the range [0, 1] that can be used to assess the quality of protein docking models. By using DockQ on CAPRI models it is possible to almost completely reproduce the original CAPRI classification into Incorrect, Acceptable, Medium and High quality. An average PPV of 94% at 90% Recall demonstrating that there is no need to apply predefined ad-hoc cutoffs to classify docking models. Since DockQ recapitulates the CAPRI classification almost perfectly, it can be viewed as a higher resolution version of the CAPRI classification, making it possible to estimate model quality in a more quantitative way using Z-scores or sum of top ranked models, which has been so valuable for the CASP community. The possibility to directly correlate a quality measure to a scoring function has been crucial for the development of scoring functions for

  12. Computer controlled quality of analytical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.P.; Huff, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    A PDP 11/35 computer system is used in evaluating analytical chemistry measurements quality control data at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. This computerized measurement quality control system has several features which are not available in manual systems, such as real-time measurement control, computer calculated bias corrections and standard deviation estimates, surveillance applications, evaluaton of measurement system variables, records storage, immediate analyst recertificaton, and the elimination of routine analysis of known bench standards. The effectiveness of the Barnwell computer system has been demonstrated in gathering and assimilating the measurements of over 1100 quality control samples obtained during a recent plant demonstration run. These data were used to determine equaitons for predicting measurement reliability estimates (bias and precision); to evaluate the measurement system; and to provide direction for modification of chemistry methods. The analytical chemistry measurement quality control activities represented 10% of the total analytical chemistry effort

  13. Classical field approach to quantum weak measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Justin; Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco

    2014-03-21

    By generalizing the quantum weak measurement protocol to the case of quantum fields, we show that weak measurements probe an effective classical background field that describes the average field configuration in the spacetime region between pre- and postselection boundary conditions. The classical field is itself a weak value of the corresponding quantum field operator and satisfies equations of motion that extremize an effective action. Weak measurements perturb this effective action, producing measurable changes to the classical field dynamics. As such, weakly measured effects always correspond to an effective classical field. This general result explains why these effects appear to be robust for pre- and postselected ensembles, and why they can also be measured using classical field techniques that are not weak for individual excitations of the field.

  14. Field measuring probe for SSC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganetis, G.; Herrera, J.; Hogue, R.; Skaritka, J.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.

    1987-01-01

    The field probe developed for measuring the field in SSC dipole magnets is an adaptation of the rotating tangential coil system in use at Brookhaven for several years. Also known as the MOLE, it is a self-contained room-temperature mechanism that is pulled through the aperture of the magnet with regular stops to measure the local field. Several minutes are required to measure the field at each point. The probe measures the multipole components of the field as well as the field angle relative to gravity. The sensitivity of the coil and electronics is such that the field up to the full 6.6 T excitation of the magnet as well as the field when warm with only 0.01 T excitation can be measured. Tethers are attached to both ends of the probe to carry electrical connections and to supply dry nitrogen to the air motors that rotate the tangential windings as well as the gravity sensor. A small computer is attached to the probe for control and for data collection, analysis and storage

  15. Fringing field measurement of dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hongyou; Jiang Weisheng; Mao Naifeng; Mao Xingwang

    1985-01-01

    The fringing field of a dipole magnet with a C-type circuit and homogeneous field in the gap has been measured including the distributions of fringing fields with and without magnetic shield. The measured data was analyzed by using the concept of virtual field boundary

  16. Investigations of some rock stress measuring techniques and the stress field in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Tor Harald

    1998-12-31

    Rock stresses are important to the safe construction and operation of all man-made structures in rock, whether In mining, civil or petroleum engineering. The crucial issue is their relative magnitude and orientation. This thesis develops equipment and methods for further rock stress assessment and reevaluates existing overcoring rock stress measurements, and relates this information to the present geological setting. Both laboratory work and field work are involved. In the field, rock stresses are measured by the overcoring and the hydraulic fracturing technique. An observation technique for assessing likely high stresses is developed. The field data refer to several hydropower projects and to some offshore hydrocarbon fields. The principal sections are: (1) Tectonic setting in the western Fennoscandia, (2) Triaxial rock stress measurements by overcoring using the NTH cell (a strain gauge cell developed at the Norwegian technical university in Trondheim and based on the CSIR cell of the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research), (3) Laboratory testing of the NTH cell, (4) Quality ranking of stresses measured by the NTH cell, (4) Recalculated rock stresses and implications to the regional stress field, (5) Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements. 113 refs., 98 figs., 62 tabs.

  17. Investigations of some rock stress measuring techniques and the stress field in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Tor Harald

    1997-12-31

    Rock stresses are important to the safe construction and operation of all man-made structures in rock, whether In mining, civil or petroleum engineering. The crucial issue is their relative magnitude and orientation. This thesis develops equipment and methods for further rock stress assessment and reevaluates existing overcoring rock stress measurements, and relates this information to the present geological setting. Both laboratory work and field work are involved. In the field, rock stresses are measured by the overcoring and the hydraulic fracturing technique. An observation technique for assessing likely high stresses is developed. The field data refer to several hydropower projects and to some offshore hydrocarbon fields. The principal sections are: (1) Tectonic setting in the western Fennoscandia, (2) Triaxial rock stress measurements by overcoring using the NTH cell (a strain gauge cell developed at the Norwegian technical university in Trondheim and based on the CSIR cell of the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research), (3) Laboratory testing of the NTH cell, (4) Quality ranking of stresses measured by the NTH cell, (4) Recalculated rock stresses and implications to the regional stress field, (5) Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements. 113 refs., 98 figs., 62 tabs.

  18. Achieving Improvement Through Nursing Home Quality Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Yael; Clauser, Steven B.

    2002-01-01

    CMS has initiated the Nursing Home Quality Initiative (NHQI) to improve the quality of nursing home care. Central to the NHQI is the public reporting of nursing home quality measures that serve as the basis for the Initiative's communication and quality improvement program. This article provides an overview of the NHQI, focusing on the role of nursing home quality measures in achieving improvements in nursing home care. We also describe the evolution of quality measurement in nursing homes, a...

  19. Quality assurance handbook for measurement laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvin, W.L.

    1984-10-01

    This handbook provides guidance in the application of quality assurance to measurement activities. It is intended to help those persons making measurements in applying quality assurance to their work activities by showing how laboratory practices and quality assurance requirements are integrated to provide control within those activities. The use of the guidance found in this handbook should help provide consistency in the interpretation of quality assurance requirements across all types of measurement laboratories. This handbook also can assist quality assurance personnel in understanding the relationships between laboratory practices and quality assurance requirements. The handbook is composed of three chapters and several appendices. Basic guidance is provided by the three chapters. In Chapter 1, the role of quality assurance in obtaining quality data and the importance of such data are discussed. Chapter 2 presents the elements of laboratory quality assurance in terms of practices that can be used in controlling work activities to assure the acquisition of quality data. Chapter 3 discusses the implementation of laboratory quality assurance. The appendices provide supplemental information to give the users a better understanding of the following: what is quality assurance; why quality assurance is required; where quality assurance requirements come from; how those requirements are interpreted for application to laboratory operations; how the elements of laboratory quality assurance relate to various laboratory activities; and how a quality assurance program can be developed

  20. Quality measures for nurse practitioner practice evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpell, Ruth; Kapu, April N

    2017-08-01

    Evaluating the impact of nurse practitioner (NP) practice has become a priority area of focus for demonstrating outcomes. A number of quality measures are available to enable practice-specific evaluation of NP roles and initiatives. This article reviews sources of quality measures that can be used to facilitate quantifying the outcomes of NP practice as part of an overall evaluation agenda. National resources and published literature on NP quality measures were reviewed. Various resources and toolkits exist to assist NPs in identifying outcomes of practice using quality measures. The need to demonstrate outcomes of NP practice remains an ongoing priority area regardless of the clinical practice setting. A variety of sources of quality measures exist that can be used to showcase the effect of NP care. The use of quality measures can be effectively integrated into evaluation of NP role and NP-directed initiatives to demonstrate impact, and enhance the conduct of an NP outcomes assessment. The use of organizational, NP-specific, and national-related quality measures can help to showcase how NP care improves the quality, safety, and costs of health care. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  1. Field methods and quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities and water-level measurements, U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Maimer, Neil V.; Wehnke, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Water-quality activities and water-level measurements by the personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project Office coincide with the USGS mission of appraising the quantity and quality of the Nation’s water resources. The activities are carried out in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office. Results of the water-quality and hydraulic head investigations are presented in various USGS publications or in refereed scientific journals and the data are stored in the National Water Information System (NWIS) database. The results of the studies are used by researchers, regulatory and managerial agencies, and interested civic groups. In the broadest sense, quality assurance refers to doing the job right the first time. It includes the functions of planning for products, review and acceptance of the products, and an audit designed to evaluate the system that produces the products. Quality control and quality assurance differ in that quality control ensures that things are done correctly given the “state-of-the-art” technology, and quality assurance ensures that quality control is maintained within specified limits.

  2. Indoor air-quality measurements in energy-efficient residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, J.V.; Hollowell, C.D.; Pepper, J.H.; Young, R.

    1980-05-01

    The potential impact on indoor air quality of energy-conserving measures that reduce ventilation is being assessed in a field-monitoring program conducted by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using a mobile laboratory, on-site monitoring of infiltration rate, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, total aldehydes, and particulates was conducted in three houses designed to be energy-efficient. Preliminary results show that energy-conserving design features that reduce air-exchange rates compromise indoor air quality; specifically, indoor levels of several pollutants were found to exceed levels detected outdoors. Although the indoor levels of most pollutants are within limits established by present outdoor air-quality standards, considerable work remains to be accomplished before health-risk effects can be accurately assessed and broad-scale regulatory guidelines revised to comply with energy-conservation goals.

  3. Correlation between magnetic field quality and mechanical components of the Large Hadron Collider main dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellesia, B.

    2006-12-01

    The 1234 superconducting dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider, working at a cryogenic temperature of 1.9 K, must guarantee a high quality magnetic field to steer the particles inside the beam pipe. Magnetic field measurements are a powerful way to detect assembly faults that could limit magnet performances. The aim of the thesis is the analysis of these measurements performed at room temperature during the production of the dipoles. In a large scale production the ideal situation is that all the magnets produced were identical. However all the components constituting a magnet are produced with certain tolerance and the assembly procedures are optimized during the production; due to these the reality drifts away from the ideal situation. We recollected geometrical data of the main components (superconducting cables, coil copper wedges and austenitic steel coil collars) and coupling them with adequate electro-magnetic models we reconstructed a multipolar field representation of the LHC dipoles defining their critical components and assembling procedures. This thesis is composed of 3 main parts: 1) influence of the geometry and of the assembling procedures of the dipoles on the quality of the magnetic field, 2) the use of measurement performed on the dipoles in the assembling step in order to solve production issues and to understand the behaviour of coils during the assembling step, and 3) a theoretical study of the uncertain harmonic components of the magnetic field in order to assess the dipole production

  4. Correlation between magnetic field quality and mechanical components of the Large Hadron Collider main dipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellesia, B

    2006-12-15

    The 1234 superconducting dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider, working at a cryogenic temperature of 1.9 K, must guarantee a high quality magnetic field to steer the particles inside the beam pipe. Magnetic field measurements are a powerful way to detect assembly faults that could limit magnet performances. The aim of the thesis is the analysis of these measurements performed at room temperature during the production of the dipoles. In a large scale production the ideal situation is that all the magnets produced were identical. However all the components constituting a magnet are produced with certain tolerance and the assembly procedures are optimized during the production; due to these the reality drifts away from the ideal situation. We recollected geometrical data of the main components (superconducting cables, coil copper wedges and austenitic steel coil collars) and coupling them with adequate electro-magnetic models we reconstructed a multipolar field representation of the LHC dipoles defining their critical components and assembling procedures. This thesis is composed of 3 main parts: 1) influence of the geometry and of the assembling procedures of the dipoles on the quality of the magnetic field, 2) the use of measurement performed on the dipoles in the assembling step in order to solve production issues and to understand the behaviour of coils during the assembling step, and 3) a theoretical study of the uncertain harmonic components of the magnetic field in order to assess the dipole production.

  5. Measurements of magnetic field sources in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Electrical Systems Division of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has initiated several research projects to investigate magnetic field levels, their characteristics, and their sources. This paper describes measurements of magnetic field sources in schools. Magnetic field measurements were made at four schools in the service areas of two utility companies. Magnetic field measurements included profiles of the magnetic field versus distance near power lines, around the perimeter of the school buildings, and at several locations within each school. Twenty-four hour measurements were also made to record the temporal variation of the magnetic field at several locations at each school. The instrumentation, measurement techniques, and magnetic field sources identified are discussed

  6. Forage Quality and Composition Measurements as Predictors of Ethanol Yield from Maize (Zea mays L.) Stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improvement of biofeedstock quality for cellulosic ethanol production will be facilitated by inexpensive and rapid methods of evaluation, such as those already employed in the field of ruminant nutrition. Our objective was to evaluate whether forage quality and compositional measurements could be u...

  7. Effects of Collar Permeability on the Field Quality of the Large Aperture Quadrupoles for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Catalan-Lasheras, N; Kirby, G; Mess, K H; Ostojic, R; Russenschuck, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    The LHC contains a number of large aperture quadrupoles (MQY) in the insertions. The acceptance of these magnets was based on warm magnetic measurements performed before delivery to CERN. During the series production of the MQY quadrupoles, the permeability of the collars drifted from the nominal value, and effects on the transfer function and multipole components became evident. To study the effects on the magnetic field, variable permeability of the stainless-steel collars as a function of local field and temperature was introduced into a numerical model. Comparing the results with measured data, we could isolate the contribution of permeability deviation on the magnetic field quality. The extrapolation of transfer function and field multipoles to operating temperature and current gives the necessary offsets, which are compared with measurements on a reduced set of magnets.

  8. Magnetic-Field-Response Measurement-Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2006-01-01

    A measurement-acquisition system uses magnetic fields to power sensors and to acquire measurements from sensors. The system alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement-acquisition systems, which include a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with wires, use limited to a single type of measurement, wire degradation due to wear or chemical decay, and the logistics needed to add new sensors. Eliminating wiring for acquiring measurements can alleviate potential hazards associated with wires, such as damaged wires becoming ignition sources due to arcing. The sensors are designed as electrically passive inductive-capacitive or passive inductive-capacitive-resistive circuits that produce magnetic-field-responses. One or more electrical parameters (inductance, capacitance, and resistance) of each sensor can be variable and corresponds to a measured physical state of interest. The magnetic-field- response attributes (frequency, amplitude, and bandwidth) of the inductor correspond to the states of physical properties for which each sensor measures. For each sensor, the measurement-acquisition system produces a series of increasing magnetic-field harmonics within a frequency range dedicated to that sensor. For each harmonic, an antenna electrically coupled to an oscillating current (the frequency of which is that of the harmonic) produces an oscillating magnetic field. Faraday induction via the harmonic magnetic fields produces an electromotive force and therefore a current in the sensor. Once electrically active, the sensor produces its own harmonic magnetic field as the inductor stores and releases magnetic energy. The antenna of the measurement- acquisition system is switched from a transmitting to a receiving mode to acquire the magnetic-field response of the sensor. The rectified amplitude of the received response is compared to previous responses to prior transmitted harmonics, to ascertain if the measurement system has detected a

  9. Quality Assurance of Chemical Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John K.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews aspects of quality control (methods to control errors) and quality assessment (verification that systems are operating within acceptable limits) including an analytical measurement system, quality control by inspection, control charts, systematic errors, and use of SRMs, materials for which properties are certified by the National Bureau…

  10. Measurement quality assurance for beta particle calibrations at NIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, C.G.; Pruitt, J.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Standardized beta-particle fields have been established in an international standard and have been adopted for use in several U.S. dosimeter and instrument testing standards. Calibration methods and measurement quality assurance procedures employed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for beta-particle calibrations in these reference fields are discussed. The calibration facility including the NIST-automated extrapolation ionization chamber is described, and some sample results of calibrations are shown. Methods for establishing and maintaining traceability to NIST of secondary laboratories are discussed. Currently, there are problems in finding a good method for routine testing of traceability to NIST. Some examples of past testing methods are given and solutions to this problem are proposed.

  11. Measurement quality assurance for beta particle calibrations at NIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, C.G.; Pruitt, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Standardized beta-particle fields have been established in an international standard and have been adopted for use in several U.S. dosimeter and instrument testing standards. Calibration methods and measurement quality assurance procedures employed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for beta-particle calibrations in these reference fields are discussed. The calibration facility including the NIST-automated extrapolation ionization chamber is described, and some sample results of calibrations are shown. Methods for establishing and maintaining traceability to NIST of secondary laboratories are discussed. Currently, there are problems in finding a good method for routine testing of traceability to NIST. Some examples of past testing methods are given and solutions to this problem are proposed

  12. Multiple coil pulsed magnetic resonance method for measuring cold SSC dipole magnet field quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.G.; Moore, J.M.; Wong, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    The operating principles and system architecture for a method to measure the magnetic field multipole expansion coefficients are described in the context of the needs of SSC dipole magnets. The operation of an 8-coil prototype system is discussed. Several of the most important technological issues that influence the design are identified and the basis of their resolution is explained. The new features of a 32-coil system presently under construction are described, along with estimates of its requirements for measurement time and data storage capacity

  13. Field calibration of PADC track etch detectors for local neutron dosimetry in man using different radiation qualities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haelg, Roger A., E-mail: rhaelg@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Radiotherapy, Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Hirslanden Medical Center, Rain 34, CH-5000 Aarau (Switzerland); Besserer, Juergen [Institute for Radiotherapy, Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Hirslanden Medical Center, Rain 34, CH-5000 Aarau (Switzerland); Boschung, Markus; Mayer, Sabine [Division for Radiation Safety and Security, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Clasie, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 30 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Kry, Stephen F. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Schneider, Uwe [Institute for Radiotherapy, Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Hirslanden Medical Center, Rain 34, CH-5000 Aarau (Switzerland); Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 204, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-12-01

    In order to quantify the dose from neutrons to a patient for contemporary radiation treatment techniques, measurements inside phantoms, representing the patient, are necessary. Published reports on neutron dose measurements cover measurements performed free in air or on the surface of phantoms and the doses are expressed in terms of personal dose equivalent or ambient dose equivalent. This study focuses on measurements of local neutron doses inside a radiotherapy phantom and presents a field calibration procedure for PADC track etch detectors. An initial absolute calibration factor in terms of H{sub p}(10) for personal dosimetry is converted into neutron dose equivalent and additional calibration factors are derived to account for the spectral changes in the neutron fluence for different radiation therapy beam qualities and depths in the phantom. The neutron spectra used for the calculation of the calibration factors are determined in different depths by Monte Carlo simulations for the investigated radiation qualities. These spectra are used together with the energy dependent response function of the PADC detectors to account for the spectral changes in the neutron fluence. The resulting total calibration factors are 0.76 for a photon beam (in- and out-of-field), 1.00 (in-field) and 0.84 (out-of-field) for an active proton beam and 1.05 (in-field) and 0.91 (out-of-field) for a passive proton beam, respectively. The uncertainty for neutron dose measurements using this field calibration method is less than 40%. The extended calibration procedure presented in this work showed that it is possible to use PADC track etch detectors for measurements of local neutron dose equivalent inside anthropomorphic phantoms by accounting for spectral changes in the neutron fluence.

  14. Modeling of a pitching and plunging airfoil using experimental flow field and load measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troshin, Victor; Seifert, Avraham

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of the current paper is to outline a low-order modeling procedure of a heaving airfoil in a still fluid using experimental measurements. Due to its relative simplicity, the proposed procedure is applicable for the analysis of flow fields within complex and unsteady geometries and it is suitable for analyzing the data obtained by experimentation. Currently, this procedure is used to model and predict the flow field evolution using a small number of low profile load sensors and flow field measurements. A time delay neural network is used to estimate the flow field. The neural network estimates the amplitudes of the most energetic modes using four sensory inputs. The modes are calculated using proper orthogonal decomposition of the flow field data obtained experimentally by time-resolved, phase-locked particle imaging velocimetry. To permit the use of proper orthogonal decomposition, the measured flow field is mapped onto a stationary domain using volume preserving transformation. The analysis performed by the model showed good estimation quality within the parameter range used in the training procedure. However, the performance deteriorates for cases out of this range. This situation indicates that, to improve the robustness of the model, both the decomposition and the training data sets must be diverse in terms of input parameter space. In addition, the results suggest that the property of volume preservation of the mapping does not affect the model quality as long as the model is not based on the Galerkin approximation. Thus, it may be relaxed for cases with more complex geometry and kinematics.

  15. Small fields measurements with radiochromic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Lopez, Antonio; Vera-Sanchez, Juan-Antonio; Lago-Martin, Jose-Domingo

    2015-01-01

    The small fields in radiotherapy are widely used due to the development of techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy and stereotactic radio surgery. The measurement of the dose distributions for small fields is a challenge. A perfect dosimeter should be independent of the radiation energy and the dose rate and should have a negligible volume effect. The radiochromic (RC) film characteristics fit well to these requirements. However, the response of RC films and their digitizing processes present a significant spatial inhomogeneity problem. The present work uses a method for two-dimensional (2D) measurement with RC films based on the reduction of the spatial inhomogeneity of both the film and the film digitizing process. By means of registering and averaging several measurements of the same field, the inhomogeneities are mostly canceled. Measurements of output factors (OFs), dose profiles (in-plane and cross-plane), and 2D dose distributions are presented. The field sizes investigated are 0.5 × 0.5 cm(2), 0.7 × 0.7 cm(2), 1 × 1 cm(2), 2 × 2 cm(2), 3 × 3 cm(2), 6 × 6 cm(2), and 10 × 10 cm(2) for 6 and 15 MV photon beams. The OFs measured with the RC film are compared with the measurements carried out with a PinPoint ionization chamber (IC) and a Semiflex IC, while the measured transversal dose profiles were compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The results obtained for the OFs measurements show a good agreement with the values obtained from RC films and the PinPoint and Semiflex chambers when the field size is greater or equal than 2 × 2 cm(2). These agreements give confidence on the accuracy of the method as well as on the results obtained for smaller fields. Also, good agreement was found between the measured profiles and the Monte Carlo calculated profiles for the field size of 1 × 1 cm(2). We expect, therefore, that the presented method can be used to perform accurate measurements of small fields.

  16. Use of the decision quality process for strategic planning in the Duri Field, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, L. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Strategic planning and rigorous decision analysis applications will be primary management tools for upstream companies in the 1990's. Merging the long term focus of a strategic planning process with the probabilistic output of decision analysis techniques can yield insightful views of the potential successes and failures of a business plan. Even with these insights, comparing and deciding among a group of alternatives will remain a difficult task. In addition to uncertainties, business partners do not always share common value measures. Marketers want more barrels to sell, field supervisors like low operating cost strategies, and stockholders like cashflow. This environment complicates the managers' ability to choose between available options. The Decision Quality Process, a combination of classical decision analysis techniques coupled with Quality Improvement (QI) principles, bridges this gap. The process allows managers to develop and decide between different long term strategic plans, explicitly accounting for uncertainties, unknowns, and differing value measures. Three teams consisting of engineers, geologists, front line managers, and the highest levels of management within Caltex Pacific Indonesia, Texaco, and Chevron, spent 18 months developing and evaluating a multitude of development scenarios for the Duri Field. More than 200,000 cases of economics were run to support the evaluation. The result was a significant increase in expected value for the field regardless of the value measure used

  17. Quality measurement and improvement in liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Amit K; Talwalkar, Jayant

    2018-06-01

    There is growing interest in the quality of health care delivery in liver transplantation. Multiple stakeholders, including patients, transplant providers and their hospitals, payers, and regulatory bodies have an interest in measuring and monitoring quality in the liver transplant process, and understanding differences in quality across centres. This article aims to provide an overview of quality measurement and regulatory issues in liver transplantation performed within the United States. We review how broader definitions of health care quality should be applied to liver transplant care models. We outline the status quo including the current regulatory agencies, public reporting mechanisms, and requirements around quality assurance and performance improvement (QAPI) activities. Additionally, we further discuss unintended consequences and opportunities for growth in quality measurement. Quality measurement and the integration of quality improvement strategies into liver transplant programmes hold significant promise, but multiple challenges to successful implementation must be addressed to optimise value. Copyright © 2018 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Certified quality management according to DIN ISO 9001 in a radiology department at a university hospital. Measurable changes in academic quality indicators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, Joern; Habermann, C.; Weber, C.; Adam, G.; Koops, A.; Utler, C.; Grzyska, U.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the changes in academic quality indicators after implementation of a quality management system according to DIN ISO 9001:2000. Materials and methods: after implementation and certification of a quality management system, the actual state based on quality indicators from the fields of student teaching, research, continuing education and the satisfaction of referring physician was determined. After implementation of an action plan for the individual areas, the temporal changes in the ratios were documented in the follow-up. Results: the evaluation of teaching performance obtained by questionnaire among the students of the radiology course showed a steady increase in satisfaction (mean value 2003: 2.7; 2007: 3.9). In the field of research an increase in scientific output was achieved based on the number of an internal publication score (2002: 99 points; 2006: 509). Repeated opinion surveys among our referring physicians found improvements in indicators for the appointment of investigations, consulting service and waiting times for the investigation, while the waiting times for internal transport service did not improve. Exemplary measurements of the success of the advanced training of the staff demonstrated the need for continuing education for quality improvement. Conclusion: the evaluation of quality indicators showed over time a measurable positive impact on processes of a radiological Univ. Hospital after implementation of a QM system according to DIN ISO 9001:2000. (orig.)

  19. [Certified quality management according to DIN ISO 9001 in a radiology department at a university hospital: measurable changes in academic quality indicators?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, J; Habermann, C; Utler, C; Grzyska, U; Weber, C; Adam, G; Koops, A

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the changes in academic quality indicators after implementation of a quality management system according to DIN ISO 9001:2000. After implementation and certification of a quality management system, the actual state based on quality indicators from the fields of student teaching, research, continuing education and the satisfaction of referring physician was determined. After implementation of an action plan for the individual areas, the temporal changes in the ratios were documented in the follow-up. The evaluation of teaching performance obtained by questionnaire among the students of the radiology course showed a steady increase in satisfaction (mean value 2003: 2.7; 2007: 3.9). In the field of research an increase in scientific output was achieved based on the number of an internal publication score (2002: 99 points; 2006: 509). Repeated opinion surveys among our referring physicians found improvements in indicators for the appointment of investigations, consulting service and waiting times for the investigation, while the waiting times for internal transport service did not improve. Exemplary measurements of the success of the advanced training of the staff demonstrated the need for continuing education for quality improvement. The evaluation of quality indicators showed over time a measurable positive impact on processes of a radiological University Hospital after implementation of a QM system according to DIN ISO 9001:2000. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  20. Understanding Quality Factor Degradation in Superconducting Niobium Cavities at Low Microwave Field Amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, A.; Schuster, D. I.

    2017-12-01

    In niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for particle acceleration, a decrease of the quality factor at lower fields—a so-called low field Q slope or LFQS—has been a long-standing unexplained effect. By extending the high Q measurement techniques to ultralow fields, we discover two previously unknown features of the effect: (i) saturation at rf fields lower than Eacc˜0.1 MV /m ; (ii) strong degradation enhancement by growing thicker niobium pentoxide. Our findings suggest that the LFQS may be caused by the two level systems in the natural niobium oxide on the inner cavity surface, thereby identifying a new source of residual resistance and providing guidance for potential nonaccelerator low-field applications of SRF cavities.

  1. Field measurement for large bending magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaro, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Cavallaro, M.; Foti, A.; Orrigo, S.E.A.; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Winfield, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    The results of magnetic field measurements of the large bending magnet of the MAGNEX spectrometer are presented. The experimental values are used to build an Enge function by the least-squares method. The resulting field is compared to the measured one, showing too large deviation for application to ray reconstruction techniques. Similarly, the experimental values are compared with results from a three-dimensional finite elements calculation. Again the deviations between measured and calculated field are too large for a direct application of the latter to ray reconstruction, while its reliability is sufficient for analysis purposes. In particular, it has been applied to study the effect of the inaccuracies in the probe location and orientation on the precision of field reconstruction, and to establish the requirements for the field interpolation. These inaccuracies are found to be rather important, especially for the transversal components of the field, with the consequence that their effect on the reconstructed field should be minimized by special interpolation algorithms

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL Measures: There are Still Many Unanswered Questions about Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayowa Ojo Owolabi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQOL measures are used to assess the multifaceted impact of disease, and determine the utility and associated disability. In addition, the impact of medical interventions must be assessed by psychometrically robust HRQOL measures based on a comprehensive and dynamic model. To develop such a model, the concepts of life, its quality, domains, essence, and purpose must be properly and clearly understood. The correct understanding of these entities is specifically important for patient-centered medicine and has universal implications for all fields of human endeavor. Therefore, in order to explore questions about life and quality of life adequately, every necessary field of knowledge should be employed. A multilinguistic and etymological appraisal reveals that life is related to medicine, freedom, being, soul, and spirit, all of which must therefore be considered in its conceptualization.

  3. ATLAS TileCal submodule B-field measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.A.; Fedorenko, S.B.; Kalinichenko, V.V.; Lomakin, Yu.F.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Nessi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The work was done to cross check of the previous measurement done at CERN and to simulate the magnetic structure in the vicinity of the symmetry plane of the TileCal. To perform magnetic measurements for submodule the magnet E2 was chosen. The magnetometer used in the magnetic test of the submodule consists of Hall current supply and Hall voltage measuring device. The indium antimonide Hall probe used in this measurement is a model PKhE 606. Experimental set-up provides a true measurement accuracy of order ± 1%. External magnetic field measurements were conducted at the outer surface of the submodule. Two levels of the external field were applied: 108 Gs and 400 Gs. The result of this measurement in general confirms the data, obtained at CERN, but the shielding capability of the submodule under consideration was ∼ 20% higher than there. The field at the tile location is < 150 Gs up to the external field level 500 Gs and the tile field grows much less than the external field level in this range. The data obtained in this measurement could be used as a benchmark when producing a computer model of the TileCal magnetic field distribution

  4. Measuring effectiveness of food quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: effectiveness, food quality management, instrument, quality performance, contextual factors, agri-food production, conceptual model, performance measurement indicators, identification, validation, assessment, quality assurance systems, QA systems, HACCP, Hygiene code, ISO, BRC, GMP, bakery

  5. International Accounting Convergence in the Field of Fair Value Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cozma Ighian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The investors’ desire for high-quality, internationally comparable financial information that is useful for decision-making in increasingly global capital markets imposed an international convergence, the ultimate goal of which is a single set of international accounting standards that companies worldwide would use for both domestic and cross-border financial reporting. The guidance, set out in IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement and the update to Topic 820 (formerly referred to as SFAS 157, completes a major project of the boards’ joint work to improve IFRSs and US GAAP and to bring about their convergence. This article describes the controversial history of fair value measurement and the main novelties in the field of fair value measurement, arising from the international convergence process.

  6. Dependence of Magnetic Field Quality on Collar Supplier and Dimensions in the Main LHC Dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, B; Santoni, C; Todesco, E

    2006-01-01

    In order to keep the electro-magnetic forces and to minimize conductor movements, the superconducting coils of the main Large Hadron Collider dipoles are held in place by means of austenitic steel collars. Two suppliers provide the collars necessary for the whole LHC production, which has now reached more than 800 collared coils. In this paper we first assess if the different collar suppliers origin a noticeable difference in the magnetic field quality measured at room temperature. We then analyze the measurements of the collar dimensions carried out at the manufacturers, comparing them to the geometrical tolerances. Finally we use a magneto-static model to evaluate the expected spread in the field components induced by the actual collar dimensions. These spreads are compared to the magnetic measurements at room temperature over the magnet production in order to identify if the collars, rather than other components or assembly process, can account for the measured magnetic field effects. It has been found tha...

  7. Service quality in banking: developing and testing measurement instrument with Latvian sample data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Titko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the importance of managing service quality in banking that can positively affect customer satisfaction. The goal of the given study is to develop an instrument for measuring service quality perceived by Latvian banks’ retail customers and to determine the most important contributors to customer satisfaction. To achieve this purpose, randomly selected customers of Latvian banks were surveyed, using the authors’ developed questionnaire. The proposed instrument was tested for reliability and validity, using techniques of confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis yielded five service quality dimensions (factors that allowed constructing customer satisfaction factor model EPICA: E – expenses, P – product, I – image, C – competence and emotional intellect, A – access. The subsequent correlation analysis revealed that the strongest relationship is between customer satisfaction and C factor. The results of the current research are crucially important for Latvian banks’ executives because the majority of previous studies in the related field offered measurement scales adequate for measuring service quality in other industries. Besides, the proposed questionnaire is exclusively developed for Latvia and considers Latvian banking sector specifics.

  8. Using Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Field Measurement of Liquid Viscosities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Bai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The field measurement of liquid viscosities, especially the high viscous liquids, is challenging and often requires expensive equipment, long processing time, and lots of reagent. We use quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs operating in solution which are also sensitive to the viscosity and density of the contacting solution. QCMs are typically investigated for sensor applications in which one surface of QCM completely immersed in Newtonian liquid, but the viscous damping in liquids would cause not only large frequency shifts but also large losses in the quality factor Q leading to instability and even cessation of oscillation. A novel mass-sensitivity-based method for field measurement of liquid viscosities using a QCM is demonstrated in this paper and a model describing the influence of the liquid properties on the oscillation frequency is established as well. Two groups of verified experiments were performed and the experimental results show that the presented method is effective and possesses potential applications.

  9. Health Care Quality: Measuring Obesity in Performance Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvenyach, Tracy; Pickering, Matthew K

    2017-08-01

    Obesity affects over one-third of Americans and leads to several chronic and costly comorbid conditions. The national movement toward value-based care calls for a refocusing of efforts to address the US obesity epidemic. To help set the stage, the current landscape of obesity-specific quality measures was evaluated. Seven quality measure databases and nine professional societies were searched. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Measures were then classified by domain and by implementation in national public programs. Eleven obesity-specific quality measures in adults were identified (nine process and two outcome). Three measures received National Quality Forum (NQF) endorsement. Two measures were actively used within Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) programs. Only one measure was both NQF-endorsed and used by CMS. Limitations exist with respect to obesity-specific quality metrics. Such gaps provide opportunities for obesity care specialists to engage and offer valuable insights and pragmatic approaches toward quality measurement. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  10. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor,Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement acquisition method that alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement systems. The shortcomings are a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with measurements, electrical arcing, wire degradations due to wear or chemical decay and the logistics needed to add new sensors. Wire degradation has resulted in aircraft fatalities and critical space launches being delayed. The key to this method is the use of sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses. The response attributes correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power is wirelessly provided to the sensing element by using Faraday induction. A radio frequency antenna produces a time-varying magnetic field used to power the sensor and receive the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation system for discerning changes in the sensor response frequency, resistance and amplitude has been developed and is presented herein. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The method eliminates the need for a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. The method does not require the sensors to be near the acquisition hardware. Methods of developing magnetic field response sensors and the influence of key parameters on measurement acquisition are discussed. Examples of magnetic field response sensors and the respective measurement characterizations are presented. Implementation of this method on an aerospace system is discussed.

  11. Measuring magnetic field vector by stimulated Raman transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenli; Wei, Rong; Lin, Jinda; Wang, Yuzhu; Dong, Richang; Zou, Fan; Chen, Tingting

    2016-01-01

    We present a method for measuring the magnetic field vector in an atomic fountain by probing the line strength of stimulated Raman transitions. The relative line strength for a Λ-type level system with an existing magnetic field is theoretically analyzed. The magnetic field vector measured by our proposed method is consistent well with that by the traditional bias magnetic field method with an axial resolution of 6.1 mrad and a radial resolution of 0.16 rad. Dependences of the Raman transitions on laser polarization schemes are also analyzed. Our method offers the potential advantages for magnetic field measurement without requiring additional bias fields, beyond the limitation of magnetic field intensity, and extending the spatial measurement range. The proposed method can be widely used for measuring magnetic field vector in other precision measurement fields.

  12. History and background of quality measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jonathan; Bafford, Andrea Chao

    2014-03-01

    Health care quality measurement has become increasingly emphasized, as providers and administrators respond to public and government demands for improved patient care. This article will review the evolution of surgical quality measurement and improvement from its infancy in the 1850s to the vast efforts being undertaken today.

  13. Measuring earnings quality: Evidence from New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nurul Houqe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We utilize two basic approaches to measure the quality of earnings which control two different dimensions of earnings management. The research design is structured primary on the basis of calculating two different measures of the quality of earnings on the industry level and on the company level. We calculate earnings quality for New Zealand public firms from the OSIRIS (http://www.osiris.com database for 2004-2007. This research concludes that various stakeholders should apply more than one measure for the quality of earning in order to have strong evidence about the level of quality before taking any corrective action or making any decision related to that company. If one company is having low quality of earning according to one technique and high quality of earnings according to another, the stakeholders cannot have a final conclusion about that company and they need more investigations and analysis to assess the quality of earnings

  14. Quality control of gamma radiation measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of quality control and assurance of gamma radiation measuring systems has been described in detail. The factors deciding of high quality of radiometric measurements as well as statistical testing and calibration of measuring systems have been presented and discussed

  15. More quality measures versus measuring what matters: a call for balance and parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gregg S; Nelson, Eugene C; Pryor, David B; James, Brent; Swensen, Stephen J; Kaplan, Gary S; Weissberg, Jed I; Bisognano, Maureen; Yates, Gary R; Hunt, Gordon C

    2012-11-01

    External groups requiring measures now include public and private payers, regulators, accreditors and others that certify performance levels for consumers, patients and payers. Although benefits have accrued from the growth in quality measurement, the recent explosion in the number of measures threatens to shift resources from improving quality to cover a plethora of quality-performance metrics that may have a limited impact on the things that patients and payers want and need (ie, better outcomes, better care, and lower per capita costs). Here we propose a policy that quality measurement should be: balanced to meet the need of end users to judge quality and cost performance and the need of providers to continuously improve the quality, outcomes and costs of their services; and parsimonious to measure quality, outcomes and costs with appropriate metrics that are selected based on end-user needs.

  16. Quality assurance for radioactive measurement in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The field of nuclear medicine continues to grow around the world, owing in part to a number of successful programmes carried out by the IAEA to enhance the use of nuclear medicine techniques in Member States. The implementation of quality assurance (QA) programmes to ensure the safe application of radiopharmaceuticals has, however, been variable in many Member States. One possible reason is the lack of a unified set of principles regarding the establishment of such programmes. This publication addresses the issue of QA programmes for radioactivity measurement in nuclear medicine. A group of experts consulted by the IAEA recommended in 2002 that unified principles concerning QA and quality control (QC) procedures for the measurement of radioactivity in nuclear medicine be developed because of its importance in controlling the safety and effectiveness of the use of radiopharmaceuticals. This publication is the result of advice provided to the IAEA by experts in the fields of radionuclide metrology, medical physics and radiopharmacy. This report can be considered to be a more detailed and updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-602, Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments, published in 1991. Advances in the field of nuclear instrumentation since that report was published, particularly in imaging, and the increased emphasis on QA and QC prompted the need for an update. Moreover, it was realized that the activity measurement and imaging aspects had each become so specialized as to be better treated in separate publications. The present report focuses on the factors affecting radioactivity measurement and the implementation of QA and QC programmes to ensure accurate and consistent results. The IAEA has developed a safety standard on The Management System for Facilities and Activities (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-3), which replaces the IAEA publications on QA issued as Safety Series No. 50-C/SG-Q (1996). In GS-R-3, the management system is described as a set of

  17. Measurements of magnetic field alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs

  18. Measuring the quality of e-banking portals: an empirical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Hans H.; Hammerschmidt, Maik; Falk, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – In the internet economy, the business model of web portals has spread rapidly over the last few years. Despite this, there have been very few scholarly investigations into the services and characteristics that transform a web site into a portal as well as into the dimensions that determine the customer's evaluation of the portal's service quality. Design/ methodology/ approach – Based on an empirical study in the field of e-banking, the authors validate a measurement ...

  19. Field quality evaluation of the superconducting magnets of the relativistic heavy ion collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Gupta, R.C.; Jain, A.; Peggs, S.G.; Trahern, C.G.; Trbojevic, D.; Wanderer, P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the authors first present the procedure established to evaluate the field quality, quench performance, and alignment of the superconducting magnets manufactured for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), and then discuss the strategies used to improve the field quality and to minimize undesirable effects by sorting the magnets. The field quality of the various RHIC magnets is briefly summarized

  20. Magnetic field measurements and mapping techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    These lectures will present an overview of the most common techniques used for the measurement of magnetic field in accelerator magnets. The formalism for a harmonic description of the magnetic field will be presented, including a discussion of harmonics allowed under various types of symmetries in the magnet. The harmonic coil technique for measurement of field harmonics will be covered in depth. Using examples from recent projects, magnetic measurements will be shown to be a powerful tool for monitoring magnet production. Measurements of magnetic axis using extensions of the harmonic coil technique, as well as other techniques, such as the colloidal cell and stretched wire, will be covered. Topics of interest in superconducting magnets, such as time decay and snapback, requiring relatively fast measurements of the harmonics, will also be described.

  1. Lightning magnetic field measuring system in Bogota

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar Alvarado, Oscar Fernardo

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the configuration and performance of a lightning radiated electromagnetic field measuring system in Bogotá Colombia. The system is composed by both magnetic and electric field measuring systems working as separated sensors. The aim of the thesis is the design and construction of a Magnetic Field Measuring System and the implementation of a whole lightning measuring system in Bogotá. The theoretical background, design process, construction and implementation of the system ...

  2. Analysis of indoor air quality data from East Tennessee field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudney, C.S.; Hawthorne, A.R.

    1985-08-01

    This report presents the results of follow-up experimental activities and data analyses of an indoor air quality study conducted in 40 East Tennessee homes during 1982-1983. Included are: (1) additional experimental data on radon levels in all homes, repeat measurements in house No. 7 with elevated formaldehyde levels, and energy audit information on the participants' homes; (2) further data analyses, especially of the large formaldehyde data base, to ascertain relationships of pollutant levels vs environmental factors and house characteristics; (3) indoor air quality data base considerations and development of the study data base for distribution on magnetic media for both mainframe and desktop computer use; and (4) identification of design and data collection considerations for future field studies. A bibliography of additional publications related to this effort is also presented

  3. Field measurement of a Fermilab-built full scale prototype quadrupole magnet for the LHC interaction regions

    CERN Document Server

    Bossert, R; Di Marco, J; Fehér, S; Glass, H; Kerby, J S; Lamm, M J; Nobrega, A; Nicol, T H; Ogitsu, T; Orris, D; Page, T; Rabehl, Roger Jon; Sabbi, G L; Schlabach, P; Strait, J B; Sylvester, C D; Tartaglia, M; Tompkins, J C; Velev, G V; Zlobin, A V

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting low-beta quadrupole magnets for the interaction regions of the Large Hadron Collider have been developed by the US- LHC Accelerator Project. These 70 mm bore 5.5 m long quadrupoles are intended to operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K with a nominal field gradient of 215 T/m. Following a series of 2 m long models, a full scale cryostated cold mass has been fabricated and cold tested at Fermilab. Magnetic field measurements of the prototype, including determination of the field axis using a single stretched wire, have been performed. These measurements and comparisons with results from the model magnets as well as field quality and alignment requirements are reported in this paper. (8 refs).

  4. Exploring the nearshore marine wind profile from field measurements and numerical hindcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Jesus, F.; Menendez, M.; Guanche, R.; Losada, I.

    2012-12-01

    Wind power is the predominant offshore renewable energy resource. In the last years, offshore wind farms have become a technically feasible source of electrical power. The economic feasibility of offshore wind farms depends on the quality of the offshore wind conditions compared to that of onshore sites. Installation and maintenance costs must be balanced with more hours and a higher quality of the available resources. European offshore wind development has revealed that the optimum offshore sites are those in which the distance from the coast is limited with high available resource. Due to the growth in the height of the turbines and the complexity of the coast, with interactions between inland wind/coastal orography and ocean winds, there is a need for field measurements and validation of numerical models to understand the marine wind profile near the coast. Moreover, recent studies have pointed out that the logarithmic law describing the vertical wind profile presents limitations. The aim of this work is to characterize the nearshore vertical wind profile in the medium atmosphere boundary layer. Instrumental observations analyzed in this work come from the Idermar project (www.Idermar.es). Three floating masts deployed at different locations on the Cantabrian coast provide wind measurements from a height of 20 to 90 meters. Wind speed and direction are measured as well as several meteorological variables at different heights of the profile. The shortest wind time series has over one year of data. A 20 year high-resolution atmospheric hindcast, using the WRF-ARW model and focusing on hourly offshore wind fields, is also analyzed. Two datasets have been evaluated: a European reanalysis with a ~15 Km spatial resolution, and a hybrid downscaling of wind fields with a spatial resolution of one nautical mile over the northern coast of Spain.. These numerical hindcasts have been validated based on field measurement data. Several parameterizations of the vertical wind

  5. Field Scale Studies on the Spatial Variability of Soil Quality Indicators in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arable lands are needed for sustainable agricultural systems to support an ever-growing human population. Soil quality needs to be defined to assure that new land brought into crop production is sustainable. To evaluate soil quality, a number of soil attributes will need to be measured, evaluated, and integrated into a soil-quality index using the multivariable indicator kriging (MVIK procedure. This study was conducted to determine the spatial variability and correlation of indicator parameters on a field scale with respect to soil quality and suitability for use with MVIK. The variability of the biological parameters decreased in the order of respiration > enzyme assays and qCO2 > microbial biomass C. The distribution frequency of all parameters except respiration were normal although the spatial distribution across the landscape was highly variable. The biological parameters showed little correlation with each other when all data points were considered; however, when grouped in smaller sections, the correlations were more consistent with observed patterns across the field. To accurately assess soil quality, and arable land use, consideration of spatial and temporal variability, soil conditions, and other controlling factors must be taken into account.

  6. Quality Management of Measurements incl. Documentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    -Nürnberg, Chair for Quality Management and Manufacturing-Oriented Metrology (Germany). 'Metro-E-Learn' project proposes to develop and implement a coherent learning and competence chain that leads from introductory and foundation e-courses in initial manufacturing engineering studies towards higher....... Machine tool testing 9. The role of manufacturing metrology for QM 10. Inspection planning 11. Quality management of measurements incl. Documentation 12. Advanced manufacturing measurement technology The present report (which represents the section 11 - Quality management of measurements incl....... Documentation – of the e-learning system) is part of the contribution of the Department for Manufacturing Engineering and Management (IPL) / Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM) at the Technical University of Denmark to the MINERVA EU project mentioned above....

  7. The development of magnetic field measurement system for drift-tube linac quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianxin; Kang, Wen; Yin, Baogui; Peng, Quanling; Li, Li; Liu, Huachang; Gong, Keyun; Li, Bo; Chen, Qiang; Li, Shuai; Liu, Yiqin

    2015-06-01

    In the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) linac, a conventional 324 MHz drift-tube linac (DTL) accelerating an H- ion beam from 3 MeV to 80 MeV has been designed and manufactured. The electromagnetic quadrupoles (EMQs) are widely used in a DTL accelerator. The main challenge of DTLQ's structure is to house a strong gradient EMQ in the much reduced space of the drift-tube (DT). To verify the DTLQ's design specifications and fabrication quality, a precision harmonic coil measurement system has been developed, which is based on the high precision movement platform, the harmonic coil with ceramic frame and the special method to make the harmonic coil and the quadrupoles coaxial. After more than one year's continuous running, the magnetic field measurement system still performs accurately and stably. The field measurement of more than one hundred DTLQ has been finished. The components and function of the measurement system, the key point of the technology and the repeatability of the measurement results are described in this paper.

  8. Quality Assurance and Quality Control in TLD Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, S.I.; Qronfla, M.M.; Abulfaraj, W.H.; Kinsara, A.A.; Taha, T.M.; Molla, N.I.; Elmohr, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    TLD technique characterized by high precision and reproducibility of dose measurement is presented by addressing pre-readout annealing, group sorting, dose evaluation, blind tests, internal dose quality audit and external quality control audits. Two hundred and forty TLD chips were annealed for 1 hour at 4000 degree C followed by 2 h at 1000 degree C. After exposure of 1 mGy from 90 Sr irradiator TLDs were subjected to pre-readout annealing at 1000 degree C, then readout, sorted into groups each with nearly equal sensitivity. Upon repeating the procedures, TLDs having response >3.5% from group mean were dropped to assuring group stability. Effect of pre-readout annealing has been studied. Series of repeated measurements were conducted to stabilize calibration procedures and DCF generation using SSDL level 137 Cs calibrator, dose master, ionization chambers. Performed internal dose quality audits, blind tests and validated by external QC tests with King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology

  9. The air quality in Norwegian cities. Development - reasons - measures - future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larssen, Steinar; Hagen, Leif Otto

    1998-12-01

    There is an increasing focus on the air quality in Norwegian cities and townships. The air quality depends on several factors and the connections are complex. The aim of this report is to present a short and simple survey of this complex field. The report consists of three parts: Part 1 is a survey of the development until today. Measurements of SO 2 and soot were started in the 1950's. Systematic determinations of NO x and NO 2 , CO and particles, ozone and benzene was started during the last three decades. The population exposure to air pollutants and their main sources are described as well as the air quality in Norwegian cities compared to other cities in Europe. In part 2 developments within transport, a sector necessary for understanding the development, are described. Part 3 is a survey of forecasting the air quality in Norway, pollution warnings and surveillance. The forecasts are based on assumed developments in important sectors such as transport, energy consumption for heating and industrial purposes and the effects of demands for fuel and vehicles. Effect analyses of further measures which may be useful for reaching the national goals for the air quality are carried out. A survey of the most important limiting values and criteria as well as technical terms is presented in the report and in the appendix. The report is commissioned by the Norwegian Petroleum Institute (Norsk Petroleumsinstitutt) and the Norwegian Road Federation (Opplysningsraadet for Veitrafikken)

  10. Interlaboratory comparison of measuring results of magnetic field near 400 kV overhead power line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of measured results of magnetic field near 400 kV overhead power lines obtained by three laboratories. This interlaboratory comparison was performed to ensure confidence in the quality of the test results. The measured results were analyzed with standard methods, using En number, based on which the evaluation of the laboratories was performed.

  11. Field quality analysis to monitor the industrial series production of the dipole magnets for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Pauletta, S; Todesco, Ezio

    2002-01-01

    In superconducting accelerator magnets, the field quality is mainly determined by conductor position inside the coil. For the LHC, the dipolar field homogeneity must be assured up to 10-5 of the main field component, imposing strict manufacturing tolerances. Magnetic measurements at room temperature provide a fast and economical way to find out assembly errors or the use of faulty components. In order to compute control bounds for the industrial series production, the magnetic measurements performed at room temperature on 27 pre-series collared coils have been statistically analyzed in this work. An automatic tool has been implemented to single out anomalous values of the magnetic field in the measurements. Such cases have been analyzed using a magnetostatic code to work out errors in the manufacturing process and the possible cures.

  12. Magnetic field measuring system for remapping the ORIC magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosko, S.W.; Hudson, E.D.; Lord, R.S.; Hensley, D.C.; Biggerstaff, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility will integrate a new 25 MV tandem electrostatic acccelerator into the existing cyclotron laboratory which includes the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). Computations of ion paths for beam injection from the new tandem into ORIC require field mapping in the regions traversed by the beam. Additional field data is also desired for the higher levels (approx.19 kG) now used for most heavy ion beams. The magnetic field measurement system uses 39 flip coil/current integrator sets with computer controlled data scanning. The coils are spaced radially at 1 inch intervals in an arm which can be rotated azimuthally in 2 degree increments. The entire flip coil assembly can be shifted to larger radii to measure fields beyond the pole boundary. Temperature stabilization of electronic circuitry permits a measurement resolution of +-1 gauss over a dynamic range of +-25,000 gauss. The system will process a scan of 8000 points in about one hour

  13. Quality assurance measures in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, L.

    1999-01-01

    The quality assurance of treatment measures is legally required but as yet not generally established in practice. For interventional radiology, the introduction of quality assurance for PTA of arteries of the lower limbs is planned for January 1999. It is reasonable to subject at least the most important and/or most frequently performed interventions to quality management. In the present article, the term quality in the management of diseases is defined and the system of total quality management discussed at the levels structure, process, and results. For its application, parameters of quality measurement in the form of standards, criteria, and characteristic values are necessary and must be laid down by a team of experts on the basis of subjective experience and/or results in the literature. Practical quality assurance takes place not only within a clinic but also externally by comparison with other centers. Data collection and evaluation requires high-performance software that will be continuously improved, expanded, and adapted to current needs during regular meetings between the various users. (orig.) [de

  14. Measurability of non-abelium gauge fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanenko, D.D.; Obukhov, Yu.N.

    New estimations of the accuracy of measurement of non-abeliar gauge field components are obtained on the base of qualitative analysis of the test body equations of motion. They generalize the Bohr and Rosenfeld results on the measurability of an electomagnetic field for the case of an arbitrary gauge group.

  15. Design and field measurement of the BEPC-II interaction region dual-aperture quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Z.S.; Wu, Y.Z.; Zhang, J.F.; Chen, W.; Li, Y.J.; Li, L.; Hou, R.; Yin, B.G.; Sun, X.J.; Ren, F.L.; Wang, F.A.; Chen, F.S.; Yu, C.H.; Chen, C.

    2007-01-01

    With the Beijing Electron Positron Collider upgrade project (BEPC-II), two dual-aperture septum-style quadrupole magnets are used in the interaction region for the final focusing of the electron and positron beams. The BEPC-II lattice design calls for the same high quality integral quadrupole field and large good field region in both apertures for each magnet. Two-dimensional contour optimization and pole-end chamfer iteration are used to minimize the systematic harmonic errors. Unexpected non-systematic errors induced by the unsymmetrical structure and the manufacturing errors are compensated with the pole-end shimming. Magnet measurements with rotating coils are performed to guide and confirm the magnet design. This paper discusses the design consideration, optimizing procedure and measurement results of these dual-aperture magnets

  16. Measuring patient-perceived hospital service quality: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yogesh P; Chary, Satyanarayana T

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - Although measuring healthcare service quality is not a new phenomenon, the instruments used to measure are timeworn. With the shift in focus to patient centric processes in hospitals and recognizing healthcare to be different compared to other services, service quality measurement needs to be tuned specifically to healthcare. The purpose of this paper is to design a conceptual framework for measuring patient perceived hospital service quality (HSQ), based on existing service quality literature. Design/methodology/approach - Using HSQ theories, expanding existing healthcare service models and literature, a conceptual framework is proposed to measure HSQ. The paper outlines patient perceived service quality dimensions. Findings - An instrument for measuring HSQ dimensions is developed and compared with other service quality measuring instruments. The latest dimensions are in line with previous studies, but a relationship dimension is added. Practical implications - The framework empowers managers to assess healthcare quality in corporate, public and teaching hospitals. Originality/value - The paper helps academics and practitioners to assess HSQ from a patient perspective.

  17. Quality Measures for the Care of Patients with Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Jack D.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Deriy, Ludmila; Germain, Anne; Lewin, Daniel S.; Ong, Jason C.; Morgenthaler, Timothy I.

    2015-01-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) commissioned five Workgroups to develop quality measures to optimize management and care for patients with common sleep disorders including insomnia. Following the AASM process for quality measure development, this document describes measurement methods for two desirable outcomes of therapy, improving sleep quality or satisfaction, and improving daytime function, and for four processes important to achieving these goals. To achieve the outcome of improving sleep quality or satisfaction, pre- and post-treatment assessment of sleep quality or satisfaction and providing an evidence-based treatment are recommended. To realize the outcome of improving daytime functioning, pre- and post-treatment assessment of daytime functioning, provision of an evidence-based treatment, and assessment of treatment-related side effects are recommended. All insomnia measures described in this report were developed by the Insomnia Quality Measures Workgroup and approved by the AASM Quality Measures Task Force and the AASM Board of Directors. The AASM recommends the use of these measures as part of quality improvement programs that will enhance the ability to improve care for patients with insomnia. Citation: Edinger JD, Buysse DJ, Deriy L, Germain A, Lewin DS, Ong JC, Morgenthaler TI. Quality measures for the care of patients with insomnia. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):311–334. PMID:25700881

  18. Innovative United Kingdom Approaches To Measuring Service Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkworth, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Reports on approaches to measuring the service quality of academic libraries in the United Kingdom. Discusses the role of government and the national background of quality measurement; measurement frameworks; better use of statistics; benchmarking; measuring user satisfaction; and possible future development. (Author/LRW)

  19. Presentation of a quality organisation pattern for the design, manufacturing and implementation of complex measuring chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervault, V.; Piguet, M.

    1995-01-01

    The EFMT (Experience Feedback, Measures-Tests) branch of EDF Research and Development Division designs and installs instrumentation systems for power generation sites. These systems include either testing (thermal and mechanical operation surveys) or process control instruments. The context in which instrumentation is developed and used has much varied during the past few years from both technical and organisational viewpoint. An instrumentation system consists of a set of measuring chains associated to communication supports and an acquisition software; the technical knowledge involved are highly diversified: measurement, field bus, computing, data processing... Customers now include quality requirements in their specifications and often make reference to standards of the EN 29000 series. The EFMT Branch has defined a quality approach applicable to instrumentation field which aims at ensuring the technical success (namely to attain the expected characteristics) and meeting customers' quality requirements. This approach based upon project management techniques defines the design implementation and operating process phases. It emphasizes a global approach to instrumentation while promoting the communication between the partners in a project. This paper presents the whole approach and underlines its critical phases: users' requirements, testing and acceptance procedures. (authors). 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Eddy currents in pulsed field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuepferling, M.; Groessinger, R.; Wimmer, A.; Taraba, M.; Scholz, W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: One problem of pulsed field magnetometry is an error in magnetization, which appears in measurements of conducting samples. This error is due to eddy currents induced by a time varying field. To allow predictions how eddy currents exert influence on the hysteresis loop, systematic experimental and theoretical studies of pulsed field measurements of metallic samples were performed. The theoretical studies include analytical calculations as well as numerical ones using a 2D finite element software. In the measurements three physical parameters have been varied: i) the conductivity of the sample by using two different materials, in this case technical Cu and Al ii) size and shape of the sample by using cylinders, spheres and cuboids iii) the pulse duration of the external field by changing the capacitor battery from 8mF ( =9.1ms) to 24mF ( =15.7ms). The time dependence of the external field corresponds with a pulsed damped harmonic oscillation with a maximum value of 5.2T. The samples were studied in the as cast state (after machining) as well as after heat treatment. Theoretical calculations showed not only good agreement with the absolute values of the measured eddy current m agnetization , they also gave an explanation of the shape of the eddy current hysteresis and the dependence of the eddy current 'magnetization' on parameters as pulse duration of the external field and conductivity of the sample. (author)

  1. Quantitative comparison of measurements of urgent care service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hong; Prybutok, Victor; Prybutok, Gayle

    2016-01-01

    Service quality and patient satisfaction are essential to health care organization success. Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry introduced SERVQUAL, a prominent service quality measure not yet applied to urgent care. We develop an instrument to measure perceived service quality and identify the determinants of patient satisfaction/ behavioral intentions. We examine the relationships among perceived service quality, patient satisfaction and behavioral intentions, and demonstrate that urgent care service quality is not equivalent using measures of perceptions only, differences of expectations minus perceptions, ratio of perceptions to expectations, and the log of the ratio. Perceptions provide the best measure of urgent care service quality.

  2. Adopting software quality measures for healthcare processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ozkan; Demirörs, Onur

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the adoptability of software quality measures for healthcare process measurement. Quality measures of ISO/IEC 9126 are redefined from a process perspective to build a generic healthcare process quality measurement model. Case study research method is used, and the model is applied to a public hospital's Entry to Care process. After the application, weak and strong aspects of the process can be easily observed. Access audibility, fault removal, completeness of documentation, and machine utilization are weak aspects and these aspects are the candidates for process improvement. On the other hand, functional completeness, fault ratio, input validity checking, response time, and throughput time are the strong aspects of the process.

  3. Measurement of gradient magnetic field temporal characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartusek, K.; Jflek, B.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a technique of measuring the time dependence and field distortions of magnetic fields due to eddy currents (EC) produced by time-dependent magnetic field gradients. The EC measuring technique makes use of a large volume sample and selective RF excitation pulses and free induction decay (FID) (or a spin or gradient echo) to measure the out-of-phase component of the FID, which is proportional to γδB, i.e. the amount the signal is off resonance. The measuring technique is sensitive, easy to implement and interpret, and used for determining pre-emphasis compensation parameters

  4. The influence of magnetic fields on protein crystal growth and quality; Zum Einfluss magnetischer Felder auf das Wachstum und die Qualitaet von Proteinkristallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meents, Alke

    2005-08-01

    Magnetic fields can affect protein crystal growth in several ways. In homogeneous magnetic fields molecules and crystallites line up themselves along the magnetic field direction due to their magnetic anisotropy. Inhomogeneous magnetic fields exert a force on diamagnetic and paramagnetic compounds towards regions of lower or higher field strength. This effect can be used to create a microgravity-like environment for diamagnetic proteins and an environment comparable to hypergravity for paramagnetic proteins. Crystallization in homogeneous magnetic fields and a microgravity-like environment are reported to have a positive effect on crystal quality. The aim of this work was to systematically investigate the effect of protein crystallization in magnetic fields on the crystal quality by comparing a large number of crystals grown under identical conditions with- and without magnetic fields. Crystal quality was determined by means of high resolution rocking-curve measurements. Furthermore in certain cases complete diffraction datasets were collected. Any possible influence of magnetic fields on the mosaicity and the quality of the diffraction data was evaluated statistically by applying Wilcoxon-Ranksum tests. To investigate the effect of protein crystallization in homogeneous magnetic fields the diamagnetic proteins Thaumatin, Trypsin, and Lysozyme and paramagnetic Myoglobin were crystallized in magnetic fields of 5 T, 8.8 T, and 15.8 T. The analysis of crystal mosaicity and quality of the diffraction data of the diamagnetic proteins did not reveal a significant influence on the crystal quality. In contrast the crystals of paramagnetic Myoglobin grew up to 14 times larger than the ones in the control experiment. In addition they had a significant lower mosaicity, and diffracted to a higher resolution than ever reported before. Special pole pieces for an existing magnet were designed and build to grow protein crystals in an inhomogeneous magnetic field The experimental

  5. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING INTERNAL FIELD AUDITS AND QUALITY CONTROL (SOP-2.25)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for conducting internal field audits and quality control procedures. Internal field audits will be conducted to ensure the collection of high quality data. Internal field audits will be conducted by Field Auditors (the Field QA Officer and the Field...

  6. Theoretical investigation of field-line quality in a driven spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Cohen, B.I.; Berk, H.L.

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical studies aimed at predicting and diagnosing field-line quality in a spheromak are described. These include nonlinear 3-D MHD simulations, stability studies, analyses of confinement in spheromaks dominated by either open (stochastic) field lines or approximate flux surfaces, and a theory of fast electrons as a probe of field-line length. (author)

  7. No-reference stereoscopic image quality measurement based on generalized local ternary patterns of binocular energy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Wujie; Yu, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual no-reference (NR) quality measurement of stereoscopic images has become a challenging issue in three-dimensional (3D) imaging fields. In this article, we propose an efficient binocular quality-aware features extraction scheme, namely generalized local ternary patterns (GLTP) of binocular energy response, for general-purpose NR stereoscopic image quality measurement (SIQM). More specifically, we first construct the binocular energy response of a distorted stereoscopic image with different stimuli of amplitude and phase shifts. Then, the binocular quality-aware features are generated from the GLTP of the binocular energy response. Finally, these features are mapped to the subjective quality score of the distorted stereoscopic image by using support vector regression. Experiments on two publicly available 3D databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed metric compared with the state-of-the-art full reference and NR metrics. (paper)

  8. Measuring up: Implementing a dental quality measure in the electronic health record context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Aarti; Ramoni, Rachel; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Neumann, Ana; Hebballi, Nutan B; White, Joel M; McClellan, Lyle; Walji, Muhammad F

    2016-01-01

    Quality improvement requires using quality measures that can be implemented in a valid manner. Using guidelines set forth by the Meaningful Use portion of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, the authors assessed the feasibility and performance of an automated electronic Meaningful Use dental clinical quality measure to determine the percentage of children who received fluoride varnish. The authors defined how to implement the automated measure queries in a dental electronic health record. Within records identified through automated query, the authors manually reviewed a subsample to assess the performance of the query. The automated query results revealed that 71.0% of patients had fluoride varnish compared with the manual chart review results that indicated 77.6% of patients had fluoride varnish. The automated quality measure performance results indicated 90.5% sensitivity, 90.8% specificity, 96.9% positive predictive value, and 75.2% negative predictive value. The authors' findings support the feasibility of using automated dental quality measure queries in the context of sufficient structured data. Information noted only in free text rather than in structured data would require using natural language processing approaches to effectively query electronic health records. To participate in self-directed quality improvement, dental clinicians must embrace the accountability era. Commitment to quality will require enhanced documentation to support near-term automated calculation of quality measures. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Method and apparatus for measuring weak magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    When measuring weak magnetic fields, a container containing a medium, such as a solution containing a stable radical, is placed in a polarising magnetic field, which is essentially at right angles to the field to be measured. The polarising field is interrupted rapidly, the interruption being...

  10. Scan-Less Line Field Optical Coherence Tomography, with Automatic Image Segmentation, as a Measurement Tool for Automotive Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lawman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of the thicknesses of layers is important for the quality assurance of industrial coating systems. Current measurement techniques only provide a limited amount of information. Here, we show that spectral domain Line Field (LF Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT is able to return to the user a cross sectional B-Scan image in a single shot with no mechanical moving parts. To reliably extract layer thicknesses from such images of automotive paint systems, we present an automatic graph search image segmentation algorithm. To show that the algorithm works independently of the OCT device, the measurements are repeated with a separate time domain Full Field (FF OCT system. This gives matching mean thickness values within the standard deviations of the measured thicknesses across each B-Scan image. The combination of an LF-OCT with graph search segmentation is potentially a powerful technique for the quality assurance of non-opaque industrial coating layers.

  11. Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrichs, M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Hendrichs, J.; Katsoyannos, B.

    2007-01-01

    Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author) [es

  12. Learning Receptive Fields and Quality Lookups for Blind Quality Assessment of Stereoscopic Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Lin, Weisi; Wang, Shanshan; Jiang, Gangyi; Yu, Mei; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-03-01

    Blind quality assessment of 3D images encounters more new challenges than its 2D counterparts. In this paper, we propose a blind quality assessment for stereoscopic images by learning the characteristics of receptive fields (RFs) from perspective of dictionary learning, and constructing quality lookups to replace human opinion scores without performance loss. The important feature of the proposed method is that we do not need a large set of samples of distorted stereoscopic images and the corresponding human opinion scores to learn a regression model. To be more specific, in the training phase, we learn local RFs (LRFs) and global RFs (GRFs) from the reference and distorted stereoscopic images, respectively, and construct their corresponding local quality lookups (LQLs) and global quality lookups (GQLs). In the testing phase, blind quality pooling can be easily achieved by searching optimal GRF and LRF indexes from the learnt LQLs and GQLs, and the quality score is obtained by combining the LRF and GRF indexes together. Experimental results on three publicly 3D image quality assessment databases demonstrate that in comparison with the existing methods, the devised algorithm achieves high consistent alignment with subjective assessment.

  13. Availability of high quality weather data measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Furbo, Simon

    In the period 2016-2017 the project “Availability of high quality weather data measurements” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. The aim of the project is to establish measured high quality weather data which will be easily available...... for the building energy branch and the solar energy branch in their efforts to achieve energy savings and for researchers and students carrying out projects where measured high quality weather data are needed....

  14. A quantitative method for measuring the quality of history matches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, T.S. [Kerr-McGee Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Knapp, R.M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    History matching can be an efficient tool for reservoir characterization. A {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} history matching job can generate reliable reservoir parameters. However, reservoir engineers are often frustrated when they try to select a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} match from a series of history matching runs. Without a quantitative measurement, it is always difficult to tell the difference between a {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} and a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} matches. For this reason, we need a quantitative method for testing the quality of matches. This paper presents a method for such a purpose. The method uses three statistical indices to (1) test shape conformity, (2) examine bias errors, and (3) measure magnitude of deviation. The shape conformity test insures that the shape of a simulated curve matches that of a historical curve. Examining bias errors assures that model reservoir parameters have been calibrated to that of a real reservoir. Measuring the magnitude of deviation assures that the difference between the model and the real reservoir parameters is minimized. The method was first tested on a hypothetical model and then applied to published field studies. The results showed that the method can efficiently measure the quality of matches. It also showed that the method can serve as a diagnostic tool for calibrating reservoir parameters during history matching.

  15. Standards, calibration and quality assurance of 222Rn measurements in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, R.; Hagberg, N.; Mjoenes, L.; Moere, H.; Nyblom, L.; Swedjemark, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Inhaled decay products of 222 Rn are the dominant components of the natural radiation exposure to the general population. Limits have been introduced in Sweden, and recommendations were made in 1980 for decreasing indoor 222 Rn concentration. The need for the coordinated calibration of measuring instruments as well as for quality assurance was obvious for both health and economic reasons. 222 Rn measurements in Sweden are based on standards traceable to the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) through the use of standard reference material 226 Ra. Standards for both 222 Rn and short-lived 222 Rn progeny are described together with the reference instrument adopted for these studies. The calibration of field instruments was performed in a ''radon room'', a climate chamber in which it is possible to vary and monitor the concentration of 222 Rn as well as other characteristics of the indoor air such as temperature, humidity, ventilation rate and aerosol concentration. The rules and regulations for field measurements imply a calibration of the instruments yearly, as well as accreditation and training for the companies that carry out the measurements. Examples are given of the official measurement protocols used for the different types of instruments. (orig.)

  16. Field quality of LHC superconducting dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    The author reports here the main results of field measurements performed so far on the LHC superconducting dipoles at superfluid helium temperature. The main field strength at injection, collision conditions and higher order multipoles are discussed. Superconducting magnets exhibit additional field imperfections due to diamagnetic properties of superconducting cables, apart from geometric error, saturation of iron yoke and eddy currents error. Dynamic effects on field harmonics, such as field decay at injection and subsequent snap back are also discussed. (author)

  17. Verification of Electromagnetic Field Measurements via Inter-laboratory Comparison Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mann

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An inter-laboratory comparison of field strength measurements was conducted in order to verify the comparability of high-frequency electromagnetic field measurements. For this purpose, 17 participating teams hosted by the working group "procedures of exposure determination" of the LAI (Länderausschuss für Immissionsschutz, state committee on immission control determined the field strength at given stations around a hospital situation. At those stations very different signals were generated, such as sine wave signals at 27MHz and 433MHz, signals from a diathermy device in Continuous-Wave (CW and Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM mode, from a GSM base station at 900MHz and 1800MHz, from a UMTS base station, from a babyphone device and from a DECT cordless phone. This contribution describes the evaluation of the measured values and the approach to the computation of a reference value. Considering various sources of electromagnetic fields in the areas of personal safety at work and of immission control, the most important results are presented and the conclusions drawn are discussed.

  18. Quality measurement affecting surgical practice: Utility versus utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Leonard R; von Holzen, Urs W; Minarich, Michael J; Hardy, Ashley N; Beachy, Wilbur A; Franger, M Susan; Schwarz, Roderich E

    2018-03-01

    The Triple Aim: improving healthcare quality, cost and patient experience has resulted in massive healthcare "quality" measurement. For many surgeons the origins, intent and strengths of this measurement barrage seems nebulous-though their shortcomings are noticeable. This article reviews the major organizations and programs (namely the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services) driving the somewhat burdensome healthcare quality climate. The success of this top-down approach is mixed, and far from convincing. We contend that the current programs disproportionately reflect the definitions of quality from (and the interests of) the national payer perspective; rather than a more balanced representation of all stakeholders interests-most importantly, patients' beneficence. The result is an environment more like performance management than one of valid quality assessment. Suggestions for a more meaningful construction of surgical quality measurement are offered, as well as a strategy to describe surgical quality from all of the stakeholders' perspectives. Our hope is to entice surgeons to engage in institution level quality improvement initiatives that promise utility and are less utopian than what is currently present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Feasibility of using a dose-area product ratio as beam quality specifier for photon beams with small field sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpinella, Maria; Caporali, Claudio; Guerra, Antonio Stefano; Silvi, Luca; De Coste, Vanessa; Petrucci, Assunta; Delaunay, Frank; Dufreneix, Stéphane; Gouriou, Jean; Ostrowsky, Aimé; Rapp, Benjamin; Bordy, Jean-Marc; Daures, Josiane; Le Roy, Maïwenn; Sommier, Line; Vermesse, Didier

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using the ratio of dose-area product at 20 cm and 10 cm water depths (DAPR 20,10 ) as a beam quality specifier for radiotherapy photon beams with field diameter below 2 cm. Dose-area product was determined as the integral of absorbed dose to water (D w ) over a surface larger than the beam size. 6 MV and 10 MV photon beams with field diameters from 0.75 cm to 2 cm were considered. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed to calculate energy-dependent dosimetric parameters and to study the DAPR 20,10 properties. Aspects relevant to DAPR 20,10 measurement were explored using large-area plane-parallel ionization chambers with different diameters. DAPR 20,10 was nearly independent of field size in line with the small differences among the corresponding mean beam energies. Both MC and experimental results showed a dependence of DAPR 20,10 on the measurement setup and the surface over which D w is integrated. For a given setup, DAPR 20,10 values obtained using ionization chambers with different air-cavity diameters agreed with one another within 0.4%, after the application of MC correction factors accounting for effects due to the chamber size. DAPR 20,10 differences among the small field sizes were within 1% and sensitivity to the beam energy resulted similar to that of established beam quality specifiers based on the point measurement of D w . For a specific measurement setup and integration area, DAPR 20,10 proved suitable to specify the beam quality of small photon beams for the selection of energy-dependent dosimetric parameters. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measures of Quality in Business Process Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Hronza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Business process modelling and analysing is undoubtedly one of the most important parts of Applied (Business Informatics. Quality of business process models (diagrams is crucial for any purpose in this area. The goal of a process analyst’s work is to create generally understandable, explicit and error free models. If a process is properly described, created models can be used as an input into deep analysis and optimization. It can be assumed that properly designed business process models (similarly as in the case of correctly written algorithms contain characteristics that can be mathematically described. Besides it will be possible to create a tool that will help process analysts to design proper models. As part of this review will be conducted systematic literature review in order to find and analyse business process model’s design and business process model’s quality measures. It was found that mentioned area had already been the subject of research investigation in the past. Thirty-three suitable scietific publications and twenty-two quality measures were found. Analysed scientific publications and existing quality measures do not reflect all important attributes of business process model’s clarity, simplicity and completeness. Therefore it would be appropriate to add new measures of quality.

  1. Measurement properties of asthma-specific quality-of-life measures: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbacher, Christian; Paudyal, Priya; Bülbül, Alpaslan; Smith, Helen

    2014-07-24

    Asthma is a frequent chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, and the assessment of health-related quality of life (HrQoL) is important in both research and routine care. Various asthma-specific measures of HrQoL exist but there is uncertainty which measures are best suited for use in research and routine care. Therefore, the aim of the proposed research is a comprehensive systematic assessment of the measurement properties of the existing measures that were developed to measure asthma-specific quality of life. This study is a systematic review of the measurement properties of asthma-specific measures of health-related quality of life. PubMed and Embase will be searched using a selection of relevant search terms. Eligible studies will be primary empirical studies evaluating, describing or comparing measurement properties of asthma-specific HRQL tools. Eligibility assessment and data abstraction will be performed independently by two reviewers. Evidence tables will be generated for study characteristics, instrument characteristics, measurement properties and interpretability. The quality of the measurement properties will be assessed using predefined criteria. Methodological quality of studies will be assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. A best evidence synthesis will be undertaken if more than one study have investigated a particular measurement property. The proposed systematic review will produce a comprehensive assessment of measurement properties of existing measures of asthma-specific health-related quality of life. We also aim to derive recommendations in order to help researchers and practitioners alike in the choice of instrument. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014010491.

  2. [Comparative quality measurements part 3: funnel plots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Lahmann, Nils

    2014-02-01

    Comparative quality measurements between organisations or institutions are common. Quality measures need to be standardised and risk adjusted. Random error must also be taken adequately into account. Rankings without consideration of the precision lead to flawed interpretations and enhances "gaming". Application of confidence intervals is one possibility to take chance variation into account. Funnel plots are modified control charts based on Statistical Process Control (SPC) theory. The quality measures are plotted against their sample size. Warning and control limits that are 2 or 3 standard deviations from the center line are added. With increasing group size the precision increases and so the control limits are forming a funnel. Data points within the control limits are considered to show common cause variation; data points outside special cause variation without the focus of spurious rankings. Funnel plots offer data based information about how to evaluate institutional performance within quality management contexts.

  3. Measuring effectiveness of food quality management

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, van der, M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: effectiveness, food quality management, instrument, quality performance, contextual factors, agri-food production, conceptual model, performance measurement indicators, identification, validation, assessment, quality assurance systems, QA systems, HACCP, Hygiene code, ISO, BRC, GMP, bakery sector.In the last decade several incidents have occurred in the agri-food sector, such as the affairs of dioxin and BSE, whereas also the incidence of food-borne diseases and the production of hi...

  4. Field quality in low-β superconducting quadrupoles and impact on the beam dynamics for the Large Hadron Collider upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bellesia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A possible scenario for the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider is based on large aperture quadrupoles to lower β^{*} in the interaction regions. Here we analyze the measurements relative to the field quality of the RHIC and LHC superconducting quadrupoles to find out the dependence of field errors on the size of the magnet aperture. Data are interpreted in the framework of a Monte Carlo analysis giving the reproducibility in the coil positioning reached in each production. We show that this precision is likely to be independent of the magnet aperture. Using this result, we can carry out an estimate of the impact of the field quality on the beam dynamics for the collision optics.

  5. Air quality measurements for site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.; Conklin, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Effective and timely site characterization is an important part of selecting a site for low-level waste disposal. Parameters measured can be compared with pertinent regulatory requirements, used for a reference base, helpful in evaluating environmental impacts, utilized in documenting changes in control programs, of value in modeling studies and other data uses, and beneficial in providing relevant sampling and methodology training. This paper will focus on specific air quality measurements which should be an inherent part of the site characterization program. The program is designed to measure, quantify, and identify contributions from site uses (operational procedures), atmospheric fallout, natural radioactivity, and vicinity and regional applications of radionuclides. The recommended air quality measurements program will be described in association with a reference site developd by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Particular attention will be devoted to the type and quality of information which is needed, the scope of sampling and measurements, the frequency of measurements, locations and numbers of sampling stations, the period of time needed for site characterization, and the proper uses of the information once it has been obtained. Adequate characterization of the site will be most important in final site selection and in the operation of the site as to periodically assessing environmental impacts and helping guide any remedial control efforts designed to meet regulatory requirements

  6. Programming the control of magnetic field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives a short review concerning the new NMR probe measurement control system. Then it presents the new program 'CYCLOCHAMP' attached to the magnetic field measurement which also allows to cycle the magnetic field inside the cyclotrons and to equilibrate it among the SSC sectors. (authors)

  7. The Virtual Fields Method Extracting Constitutive Mechanical Parameters from Full-field Deformation Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pierron, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    The Virtual Fields Method: Extracting Constitutive Mechanical Parameters from Full-field Deformation Measurements is the first book on the Virtual Fields Method (VFM), a technique to identify materials mechanical properties from full-field measurements. Firmly rooted with extensive theoretical description of the method, the book presents numerous examples of application to a wide range of materials (composites, metals, welds, biomaterials) and situations (static, vibration, high strain rate). The authors give a detailed training section with examples of progressive difficulty to lead the reader to program the VFM and include a set of commented Matlab programs as well as GUI Matlab-based software for more general situations. The Virtual Fields Method: Extracting Constitutive Mechanical Parameters from Full-field Deformation Measurements is an ideal book for researchers, engineers, and students interested in applying the VFM to new situations motivated by their research.  

  8. Quality improvement in neurology: dementia management quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenheimer, Germaine; Borson, Soo; Sanders, Amy E; Swain-Eng, Rebecca J; Kyomen, Helen H; Tierney, Samantha; Gitlin, Laura; Forciea, Mary Ann; Absher, John; Shega, Joseph; Johnson, Jerry

    2014-03-01

    Professional and advocacy organizations have long urged that dementia should be recognized and properly diagnosed. With the passage of the National Alzheimer's Project Act in 2011, an Advisory Council for Alzheimer's Research, Care, and Services was convened to advise the Department of Health and Human Services. In May 2012, the Council produced the first National Plan to address Alzheimer's disease, and prominent in its recommendations is a call for quality measures suitable for evaluating and tracking dementia care in clinical settings. Although other efforts have been made to set dementia care quality standards, such as those pioneered by RAND in its series Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE), practitioners, healthcare systems, and insurers have not widely embraced implementation. This executive summary (full manuscript available at www.neurology.org) reports on a new measurement set for dementia management developed by an interdisciplinary Dementia Measures Work Group (DWG) representing the major national organizations and advocacy organizations concerned with the care of individuals with dementia. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN), the American Geriatrics Society, the American Medical Directors Association, the American Psychiatric Association, and the American Medical Association-convened Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement led this effort. The ACOVE measures and the measurement set described here apply to individuals whose dementia has already been identified and properly diagnosed. Although similar in concept to ACOVE, the DWG measurement set differs in several important ways; it includes all stages of dementia in a single measure set, calls for the use of functional staging in planning care, prompts the use of validated instruments in patient and caregiver assessment and intervention, highlights the relevance of using palliative care concepts to guide care before the advanced stages of illness, and provides evidence-based support

  9. DUQuE quality management measures: associations between quality management at hospital and pathway levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cordula; Groene, Oliver; Thompson, Caroline A; Dersarkissian, Maral; Klazinga, Niek S; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Suñol, Rosa

    2014-04-01

    The assessment of integral quality management (QM) in a hospital requires measurement and monitoring from different perspectives and at various levels of care delivery. Within the DUQuE project (Deepening our Understanding of Quality improvement in Europe), seven measures for QM were developed. This study investigates the relationships between the various quality measures. It is a multi-level, cross-sectional, mixed-method study. As part of the DUQuE project, we invited a random sample of 74 hospitals in 7 countries. The quality managers of these hospitals were the main respondents. Furthermore, data of site visits of external surveyors assessing the participating hospitals were used. Three measures of QM at hospitals level focusing on integral systems (QMSI), compliance with the Plan-Do-Study-Act quality improvement cycle (QMCI) and implementation of clinical quality (CQII). Four measures of QM activities at care pathway level focusing on Specialized expertise and responsibility (SER), Evidence-based organization of pathways (EBOP), Patient safety strategies (PSS) and Clinical review (CR). Positive significant associations were found between the three hospitals level QM measures. Results of the relationships between levels were mixed and showed most associations between QMCI and department-level QM measures for all four types of departments. QMSI was associated with PSS in all types of departments. By using the seven measures of QM, it is possible to get a more comprehensive picture of the maturity of QM in hospitals, with regard to the different levels and across various types of hospital departments.

  10. Measurement of radiofrequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonowich, J.A.

    1992-05-01

    We are literally surrounded by radiofrequency (RFR) and microwave radiation, from both natural and man-made sources. The identification and control of man-made sources of RFR has become a high priority of radiation safety professionals in recent years. For the purposes of this paper, we will consider RFR to cover the frequencies from 3 kHz to 300 MHz, and microwaves from 300 MHz to 300 GHz, and will use the term RFR interchangeably to describe both. Electromagnetic radiation and field below 3 kHz is considered Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and will not be discussed in this paper. Unlike x- and gamma radiation, RFR is non-ionizing. The energy of any RFR photon is insufficient to produce ionizations in matter. The measurement and control of RFR hazards is therefore fundamentally different from ionizing radiation. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the reader with the fundamental issues involved in measuring and safely using RFR fields. 23 refs

  11. External quality measurements reveal internal processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Costa, J.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2003-01-01

    With the present developments in CA technology it becomes possible to fine tune the storage conditions to the specific needs of the product. This generates the need to know the exact quality conditions of the product before storage starts. By measuring the initial quality we can determine these

  12. Estimating and Adjusting Field Quality in Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The experience with estimating and adjusting field quality in RHIC and SSC magnets is discussed. An alternative approach which makes a better estimate for systematic and random values of harmonics is presented.

  13. Magnetic field measurements in xi Bootis A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesgaard, A.M.; Chesley, D.; Preston, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Four Zeeman spectrograms from Lick Observatory of xi Boo A and two of iota Peg at 2 A mm -1 have been measured to determine if a weak magnetic field is present in xi Boo A. The results indicate that the field is too weak to be measured by this technique on these spectrograms, although remeasurements of spectrograms from Mauna Kea at 3.4 A mm -1 still give a positive field of 170 gauss. (U.S.)

  14. Internal magnetic field measurements in a translating field-reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, W.T.; Chrien, R.E.; McKenna, K.F.; Rej, D.J.; Sherwood, E.G.; Siemon, R.E.; Tuszewski, M.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic field probes have been employed to study the internal field structure of Field-Reversed Configurations (FRCs) translating past the probes in the FRX-C/T device. Internal closed flux surfaces can be studied in this manner with minimal perturbation because of the rapid transit of the plasma (translational velocity v/sub z/ approx. 10 cm/μs). Data have been taken using a low-field (5 kG), 5-mtorr-D 2 gas-puff mode of operation in the FRC source coil which yields an initial plasma density of approx. 1 x 10 15 cm -3 and x/sub s/ approx. 0.04. FRCs translate from the approx. 25 cm radius source coil into a 20 cm radius metal translation vessel. Two translation conditions are studied: (1) translation into a 4 kG guide field (matched guide-field case), resulting in similar plasma parameters but with x/sub s/ approx. .45, and (2) translation into a 1 kG guide field (reduced guide-field case), resulting in expansion of the FRC to conditions of density approx. 3 x 10 14 , external field B 0 approx. 2 kG and x/sub s/ approx. 0.7. The expected reversed B/sub z/ structure is observed in both cases. However, the field measurements indicate a possible sideways offset of the FRC from the machine axis in the matched case. There is also evidence of island structure in the reduced guide-field case. Fluctuating levels of B/sub theta/ are ovserved with amplitudes less than or equal to B 0 /3 in both cases. Field measurements on the FRC symmetry axis in the reduced guide-field case indicate β on the separatrix of β/sub s/ approx. = 0.3 (indexed to the external field) has been achieved. This decrease of β/sub s/ with increased x/sub s/ is expected, and desirable for improved plasma confinement

  15. Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display.

  16. Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagyard, M.J.

    1985-05-01

    Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display

  17. Magnetic field measurements of LHC inner triplet quadrupoles fabricated at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velev, G.V.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; DiMarco, J.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kerby, J.; Lamm, M.; Orris, D.; Schlabach, P.; Strait, J.

    2006-01-01

    Fermilab, as part of the US-LHC Accelerator Project, is producing superconducting low-beta quadrupole magnets for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These 5.5 m long magnets are designed to operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K with a nominal gradient of 205 T/m in the 70 mm bore. Two quadrupoles separated by a dipole orbit corrector in a single cryogenic assembly comprise the Q2 optical elements of the final focus triplets in the LHC interaction regions. The field quality of the quadrupoles is measured at room temperature during construction of the cold masses as well as during cold testing of the cryogenic assembly. We summarize data from the series measurements of the magnets and discuss various topics of interest

  18. Magnetic field measurements of LHC inner triplet quadrupoles fabricated at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velev, G.V.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; DiMarco, J.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kerby, J.; Lamm, M.; Orris, D.; Schlabach, P.; Strait, J.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    Fermilab, as part of the US-LHC Accelerator Project, is producing superconducting low-beta quadrupole magnets for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These 5.5 m long magnets are designed to operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K with a nominal gradient of 205 T/m in the 70 mm bore. Two quadrupoles separated by a dipole orbit corrector in a single cryogenic assembly comprise the Q2 optical elements of the final focus triplets in the LHC interaction regions. The field quality of the quadrupoles is measured at room temperature during construction of the cold masses as well as during cold testing of the cryogenic assembly. We summarize data from the series measurements of the magnets and discuss various topics of interest.

  19. Field quality of the LHC inner triplet quadrupoles being fabricated at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueorgui V. Velev et al.

    2003-06-02

    Fermilab, as part of the US-LHC Accelerator Project, has designed and is producing superconducting low-beta quadrupole magnets for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These 70 mm bore, 5.5 m long magnets operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K with a maximum operating gradient of 214 T/m. Two quadrupoles, combined with a dipole orbit corrector, form a single LQXB cryogenic assembly, the Q2 optical element of the final focus triplets in the LHC interaction regions. Field quality was measured at room temperature during fabrication of the cold masses as well as at superfluid helium temperature in two thermal cycles for the first LQXB cryogenic assembly. Integral cold measurements were made with a 7.1 m long rotating coil and with a 0.8 m long rotating coil at 8 axial positions and in a range of currents. In addition to the magnetic measurements, this paper reports on the quench performance of the cold masses and on the measurements of their internal alignment.

  20. Implementing and using quality measures for children's health care: perspectives on the state of the practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaller, Dale

    2004-01-01

    major issues and challenges cited in common among funders and developers are 1) the lack of trained capacity in the field to conduct needed research and development, and 2) the difficulty in generating sustained interest and support among funders because of the complexity of quality-measurement issues, competing funding priorities in the face of limited funds available to allocate, and the lack of clear and compelling evidence that quality measurement and improvement actually result in better outcomes for children. The 3 most common successes cited across all 4 groups are 1) the growing consensus and collaboration among diverse stakeholder groups involved in measurement development and implementation; 2) the increasing collection and use of specific measures; and 3) early documentation of tangible results in terms of improved quality of care. Specific measurement tools cited as successes by funders and developers include the Medicaid Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set, Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey, the Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative, and Rand QA Tools. The most important obstacle reported across all groups is the lack of a strong and compelling "business case" that clearly demonstrates the benefits of quality measurement relative to the costs of implementation. Strongly related to this barrier is the cost of implementing and using measures without a sustainable source of financing as well as the absence of strong public awareness and political support for children's health care quality measurement. Another major barrier cited is the lack of coordination among funders, which prevents the field from developing a unified approach to addressing the numerous technical, political, and administrative issues also cited at length by the leaders interviewed. The 5 top needs for future funding identified across all 4 groups follow directly from the major obstacles that they reported: 1) develop the business case for children's health

  1. Measurement of velocity field in pipe with classic twisted tape using matching refractive index technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Min Seop; Park, So Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Many researchers conducted experiments and numerical simulations to measure or predict a Nusselt number or a friction factor in a pipe with a twisted tape while some other studies focused on the heat transfer performance enhancement using various twisted tape configurations. However, since the optical access to the inner space of a pipe with a twisted tape was limited, the detailed flow field data were not obtainable so far. Thus, researchers mainly relied on the numerical simulations to obtain the data of the flow field. In this study, a 3D printing technique was used to manufacture a transparent test section for optical access. And also, a noble refractive index matching technique was used to eliminate optical distortion. This two combined techniques enabled to measure the velocity profile with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The measured velocity field data can be used either to understand the fundamental flow characteristics around a twisted tape or to validate turbulence models in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In this study, the flow field in the test-section was measured for various flow conditions and it was finally compared with numerically calculated data. Velocity fields in a pipe with a classic twisted tape was measured using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. To obtain undistorted particle images, a noble optical technique, refractive index matching, was used and it was proved that high-quality image can be obtained from this experimental equipment. The velocity data from the PIV was compared with the CFD simulations.

  2. Measurement of velocity field in pipe with classic twisted tape using matching refractive index technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Min Seop; Park, So Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers conducted experiments and numerical simulations to measure or predict a Nusselt number or a friction factor in a pipe with a twisted tape while some other studies focused on the heat transfer performance enhancement using various twisted tape configurations. However, since the optical access to the inner space of a pipe with a twisted tape was limited, the detailed flow field data were not obtainable so far. Thus, researchers mainly relied on the numerical simulations to obtain the data of the flow field. In this study, a 3D printing technique was used to manufacture a transparent test section for optical access. And also, a noble refractive index matching technique was used to eliminate optical distortion. This two combined techniques enabled to measure the velocity profile with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The measured velocity field data can be used either to understand the fundamental flow characteristics around a twisted tape or to validate turbulence models in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In this study, the flow field in the test-section was measured for various flow conditions and it was finally compared with numerically calculated data. Velocity fields in a pipe with a classic twisted tape was measured using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. To obtain undistorted particle images, a noble optical technique, refractive index matching, was used and it was proved that high-quality image can be obtained from this experimental equipment. The velocity data from the PIV was compared with the CFD simulations

  3. Field measurement of dipole magnets for TARN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, T.; Noda, A.; Hattori, T.; Fujino, T.; Yoshizawa, M.

    1980-05-01

    Eight dipole magnets of window-frame type with zero field gradient have been fabricated for TARN. Various characteristics of the field were examined by a measuring system with a Hall and an NMR probes. The accuracy of the measurement was better than 1 x 10 -4 at the maximum field strength of --9 kG, and the uniformity of the field in the radial direction was better than +-2 x 10 -4 over the whole useful aperture. The deviations both of the field strengths and of the effective lengths among the eight magnets are smaller than +-2 x 10 -3 . The sextupole component of the field and the variation of the effective length over the beam orbits contribute to chromaticities of the ring as the amount of -1.59 and 0.93 in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. (author)

  4. Local eddy current measurements in pulsed fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J.H. [SEPI-Electronica, ESIME-IPN, UPALM Edif. ' Z' . Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)], E-mail: jhespina@gmail.com; Groessinger, R. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    This work presents new eddy current measurements in pulsed fields. A commercial point pick-up coil is used to detect the induction signal along the radius of Cu and Al samples with cylindrical shape and diameters between 5 and 35 mm. Local eddy current measurements were performed on the surface of conducting materials due to the small dimensions of the coil. A simple electrical circuit, used as a model, is proposed to describe the local eddy current effect in pulsed fields. The proposed model allows to calculate the phase shift angle between the signal proportional to eddy currents and the applied external field in a pulsed field magnetometer.

  5. Measurement of spectrometric magnet field of EXCHARM setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleev, A.N.; Balandin, V.P.; Bordyukov, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    The EXCHARM spectrometer is used for studying charm, strange and exotic hadrons. It is located at the neutron 5N channel of U-70 accelerator (Protvino). The EXCHARM dipole magnet has external size 4.486 x 3.196 x 3.058 m 3 with aperture 2.74 x 0.489 m 2 . The field measurement was made by three-component Hall magnetometer on-line computer in measurement region 2.40 x 0.32 x 3.78 m 3 . The apparatus and methods of the field measuring are described. The results of the measurements of the magnetic field are presented. The estimation of the measurement precision is given. (author)

  6. Accreditation of Medical Education Programs: Moving From Student Outcomes to Continuous Quality Improvement Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Danielle; Tekian, Ara

    2018-03-01

    Accreditation of undergraduate medical education programs aims to ensure the quality of medical education and promote quality improvement, with the ultimate goal of providing optimal patient care. Direct linkages between accreditation and education quality are, however, difficult to establish. The literature examining the impact of accreditation predominantly focuses on student outcomes, such as performances on national examinations. However, student outcomes present challenges with regard to data availability, comparability, and contamination.The true impact of accreditation may well rest in its ability to promote continuous quality improvement (CQI) within medical education programs. The conceptual model grounding this paper suggests accreditation leads medical schools to commit resources to and engage in self-assessment activities that represent best practices of CQI, leading to the development within schools of a culture of CQI. In line with this model, measures of the impact of accreditation on medical schools need to include CQI-related markers. The CQI orientation of organizations can be measured using validated instruments from the business and management fields. Repeated determinations of medical schools' CQI orientation at various points throughout their accreditation cycles could provide additional evidence of the impact of accreditation on medical education. Strong CQI orientation should lead to high-quality medical education and would serve as a proxy marker for the quality of graduates and possibly for the quality of care they provide.It is time to move away from a focus on student outcomes as measures of the impact of accreditation and embrace additional markers, such as indicators of organizational CQI orientation.

  7. Achieving software quality by GQM measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solingen, van D.M.; Veenendaal, van E.P.W.M.; Veenendaal, van E.P.W.M.; McMullan, J.

    1997-01-01

    Software development is a discipline with specific management difficulties. Collecting relevant data during development is a way to overcome these difficulties. Such data collection for sqftware development is termed "Software Measurement". Software measurement is a powerful aid to quality

  8. Water Quality Index for measuring drinking water quality in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Tahera; Jhohura, Fatema Tuz; Akter, Fahmida; Chowdhury, Tridib Roy; Mistry, Sabuj Kanti; Dey, Digbijoy; Barua, Milan Kanti; Islam, Md Akramul; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-09

    Public health is at risk due to chemical contaminants in drinking water which may have immediate health consequences. Drinking water sources are susceptible to pollutants depending on geological conditions and agricultural, industrial, and other man-made activities. Ensuring the safety of drinking water is, therefore, a growing problem. To assess drinking water quality, we measured multiple chemical parameters in drinking water samples from across Bangladesh with the aim of improving public health interventions. In this cross-sectional study conducted in 24 randomly selected upazilas, arsenic was measured in drinking water in the field using an arsenic testing kit and a sub-sample was validated in the laboratory. Water samples were collected to test water pH in the laboratory as well as a sub-sample of collected drinking water was tested for water pH using a portable pH meter. For laboratory testing of other chemical parameters, iron, manganese, and salinity, drinking water samples were collected from 12 out of 24 upazilas. Drinking water at sample sites was slightly alkaline (pH 7.4 ± 0.4) but within acceptable limits. Manganese concentrations varied from 0.1 to 5.5 mg/L with a median value of 0.2 mg/L. The median iron concentrations in water exceeded WHO standards (0.3 mg/L) at most of the sample sites and exceeded Bangladesh standards (1.0 mg/L) at a few sample sites. Salinity was relatively higher in coastal districts. After laboratory confirmation, arsenic concentrations were found higher in Shibchar (Madaripur) and Alfadanga (Faridpur) compared to other sample sites exceeding WHO standard (0.01 mg/L). Of the total sampling sites, 33 % had good-quality water for drinking based on the Water Quality Index (WQI). However, the majority of the households (67 %) used poor-quality drinking water. Higher values of iron, manganese, and arsenic reduced drinking water quality. Awareness raising on chemical contents in drinking water at household level is required to

  9. Saturne II: characteristics of the proton beam, field qualities and corrections, acceleration of the polarized protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laclare, J.-L.

    1978-01-01

    Indicated specifications of Saturne II are summed up: performance of the injection system, quality of the guidance field (magnetic measurements and multipolar corrections), transverse and longitudinal instabilities, characteristics of the beam stored in the machine and of the extracted beam. The problem of depolarization along the acceleration cycle is briefly discussed (1 or 2% between injection and 3 GeV) [fr

  10. Technical report on levels of electromagnetic fields created by Linky meters. Part 1: laboratory measurements; Part 2: laboratory additional measurements; Part 3: field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    The first part of this study reports measurements of electromagnetic radiations induced by remote-metering reading devices present in new power meters and using the Power-Line Communication (PLC or, in French, CPL) technology, such as the Linky meter. After a recall of legislation regarding exposure to electromagnetic waves, this first part present the two tested meters (Linky of first and third generation, G1 and G3), the performed tests, measurements devices and method. It more precisely reports investigations performed on these both meters, and a comparison with other home appliances. The second part reports additional measurements performed with both meters according to the same methodology, but with the use of a new electric field probe which allows more precise measurements. Maximum electric and magnetic fields have been measured. The third part reports field measurements performed with the same methodology but in dwellings equipped with Linky meters of first generation (G1). Exposure levels have been measured at the vicinity of meters and in other parts of the dwelling

  11. Dark field electron holography for strain measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beche, A., E-mail: armand.beche@fei.com [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/LEMMA, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Rouviere, J.L. [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/LEMMA, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Barnes, J.P.; Cooper, D. [CEA-LETI, Minatec Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2011-02-15

    Dark field electron holography is a new TEM-based technique for measuring strain with nanometer scale resolution. Here we present the procedure to align a transmission electron microscope and obtain dark field holograms as well as the theoretical background necessary to reconstruct strain maps from holograms. A series of experimental parameters such as biprism voltage, sample thickness, exposure time, tilt angle and choice of diffracted beam are then investigated on a silicon-germanium layer epitaxially embedded in a silicon matrix in order to obtain optimal dark field holograms over a large field of view with good spatial resolution and strain sensitivity. -- Research Highlights: {yields} Step by step explanation of the dark field electron holography technique. {yields} Presentation of the theoretical equations to obtain quantitative strain map. {yields} Description of experimental parameters influencing dark field holography results. {yields} Quantitative strain measurement on a SiGe layer embedded in a silicon matrix.

  12. In-field radon measurement in water: a novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talha, S.A.; Meijer, R.J. de; Lindsay, R.; Newman, R.T.; Maleka, P.P.; Hlatshwayo, I.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach of measuring radon in-water in the field by inserting a MEDUSA gamma-ray detector into a 210 L or 1000 L container. The experimental measurements include investigating the effect of ambient background gamma-rays on in-field radon measurement, calibrating the detector efficiency using several amounts of KCl salt dissolved in tap water, and measuring radon in borehole water. The results showed that there is fairly good agreement between the field and laboratory measurements of radon in water, based on measurements with Marinelli beakers on a HPGe detector. The MDA of the method is 0.5 Bq L -1 radon in-water. -- Research highlights: →Radon-in-water, large volume container, in-field measurements, MEDUSA gamma-ray detection system.

  13. Measuring Quality of Care Under Medicare and Medicaid

    OpenAIRE

    Jencks, Stephen F.

    1995-01-01

    The Health Care Financing Administration's (HCFA) approach to measuring quality of care uses an accepted definition of quality, explicit domains of measurement, and a formal validation procedure that includes face validity, construct validity, reliability, clinical validation, and tests for usefulness. The indicators of quality for Medicare and Medicaid patients span the range of service types, medical conditions, and payment systems and rest on a variety of data systems. Some have already be...

  14. Precise measurements and shimming of magnetic field gradients in the low field regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allmendinger, Fabian; Schmidt, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Grasdijk, Olivier; Jungmann, Klaus; Willmann, Lorenz [University of Groningen (Netherlands); Heil, Werner; Karpuk, Sergei; Repetto, Maricel; Sobolev, Yuri; Zimmer, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Krause, Hans-Joachim; Offenhaeuser, Andreas [Peter Gruenberg Institut, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Collaboration: MIXed-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    For many experiments at the precision frontier of fundamental physics, the accurate measurement and knowledge of magnetic field gradients in particular in the low field regime (<μT) is a necessity: On the one hand, in the search for an Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of free neutrons or atoms, field gradients contribute to geometric-phase-induced false EDM signals for particles in traps. On the other hand, clock comparison experiments like the {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe spin clock experiment suffer from gradients, since the coherent T{sub 2}*-time of free spin precession, and thus the measurement sensitivity, scales ∝ ∇ vector B{sup -2}. Here we report on a new and very effective method, to shim and to measure tiny magnetic field gradients in the range of pT/cm by using effective T{sub 2}*-measurement sequences in varying the currents of trim coils of known geometry.

  15. Design and implementation of an external quality assessment program for HIV viral load measurements using dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prach, Lisa M; Puren, Adrian; Lippman, Sheri A; Carmona, Sergio; Stephenson, Sophie; Cutler, Ewalde; Barnhart, Scott; Liegler, Teri

    2015-03-01

    An external quality assurance program was developed for HIV-1 RNA viral load measurements taken from dried blood spots using a reference panel and field-collected specimens. The program demonstrated that accurate and reproducible quantitation can be obtained from field-collected specimens. Residual proviral DNA may confound interpretation in virologically suppressed subjects. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Quality measures and assurance for AI (Artificial Intelligence) software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, John

    1988-01-01

    This report is concerned with the application of software quality and evaluation measures to AI software and, more broadly, with the question of quality assurance for AI software. Considered are not only the metrics that attempt to measure some aspect of software quality, but also the methodologies and techniques (such as systematic testing) that attempt to improve some dimension of quality, without necessarily quantifying the extent of the improvement. The report is divided into three parts Part 1 reviews existing software quality measures, i.e., those that have been developed for, and applied to, conventional software. Part 2 considers the characteristics of AI software, the applicability and potential utility of measures and techniques identified in the first part, and reviews those few methods developed specifically for AI software. Part 3 presents an assessment and recommendations for the further exploration of this important area.

  17. Calibration and uncertainty in electromagnetic fields measuring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglesio, L.; Crotti, G.; Borsero, M.; Vizio, G.

    1999-01-01

    Calibration and reliability in electromagnetic field measuring methods are assured by calibration of measuring instruments. In this work are illustrated systems for generation of electromagnetic fields at low and high frequency, calibration standard and accuracy [it

  18. The measurement of solar magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenflo, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    Solar activity is basically caused by the interaction between magnetic fields, solar rotation and convective motions. Detailed mapping of the Sun's rapidly varying magnetic field helps in the understanding of the mechanisms of solar activity. Observations in recent years have revealed unexpected and intriguing properties of solar magnetic fields, the explanation of which has become a challenge to plasma physicists. This review deals primarily with how the Sun's magnetic field is measured, but it also includes a brief review of the present observational picture of the magnetic field, which is needed to understand the problems of how to properly interpret the observations. 215 references. (author)

  19. Measuring quality of life in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, I; Friis, Svein; Haahr, U

    2005-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) measures are increasingly recognized as necessary parts of outcome assessments in psychosis. The present paper is a comprehensive study of patients with first-episode psychosis where QoL is measured by the commonly used Lehman Quality of Life Interview (L-QoLI). The aim...

  20. Competency-Based Education: A Framework for Measuring Quality Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jackie; Dias, Laura Portolese; Schedler, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The growth of competency-based education in an online environment requires the development and measurement of quality competency-based courses. While quality measures for online courses have been developed and standardized, they do not directly align with emerging best practices and principles in the design of quality competency-based online…

  1. [A focused sound field measurement system by LabVIEW].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhan; Bai, Jingfeng; Yu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, according to the requirement of the focused sound field measurement, a focused sound field measurement system was established based on the LabVIEW virtual instrument platform. The system can automatically search the focus position of the sound field, and adjust the scanning path according to the size of the focal region. Three-dimensional sound field scanning time reduced from 888 hours in uniform step to 9.25 hours in variable step. The efficiency of the focused sound field measurement was improved. There is a certain deviation between measurement results and theoretical calculation results. Focal plane--6 dB width difference rate was 3.691%, the beam axis--6 dB length differences rate was 12.937%.

  2. Quality assurance and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaden, W.

    1986-01-01

    General preconditions and methods for QA work in the nuclear field are analysed. The application of general QA principles to actual situations is illustrated by examples in the fields of engineering and of the manufacturing of mechanical and electrical components. All QA measures must be fitted to the complexity and relevance of the work steps, which are under consideration. The key to good product quality is the control of working processes. The term 'controlled process' is discussed in detail and examples of feed back systems are given. The main QA measures for the operation of nuclear power plants include the establishment of a Quality Assurance Program, training and qualification of personnel, procurement control, inspection and tests, reviews and audits. These activities are discussed. (orig.)

  3. James Bay air quality study : report on the results of field monitoring in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-08

    An air quality study in James Bay was conducted, in order to establish general levels of pollutants in outdoor air in the James Bay area of Victoria, British Columbia. The primary sources of air pollution in the area include light duty and heavy duty vehicle traffic, helicopters, floatplanes, and marine vessels such as cruise ships, passenger ferries, commercial fishing and whale watching boats, and recreation motorboats. Air quality monitoring represented the first phase of the project. The second phase involved a detailed pollutant dispersion model including all emission sources. This report described the use of sampling equipment and the measurement of nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, fine particulate matter and contributing sources, and volatile organic compounds, specifically benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene/xylene and naphthalene. Supporting data, including traffic counts, wind speed and direction, precipitation, and cruise ship schedules were collected to assist in the interpretation of the field monitoring results. For each of these pollutants, the report provided responses to several questions, such as defining each pollutant; describing the sources of each pollutant in the James Bay neighbourhood; presenting the results of the field monitoring; discussing the limitations of the monitoring equipment and sampling design; interpreting the results; comparing monitored levels to those measured at other times or locations; and comparing monitored levels to air quality standards or guidelines. Conclusions about each pollutant were presented. It was concluded that phase 2 pollutant dispersion modelling should include estimates of 1-hour, 24-hour, and seasonal average pollutant levels at varying elevations above ground level, with a focus on residential apartment buildings in the study area. 5 tabs., 52 figs., 7 appendices.

  4. Water Quality: A Field-Based Quality Testing Program for Middle Schools and High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    This manual contains background information, lesson ideas, procedures, data collection and reporting forms, suggestions for interpreting results, and extension activities to complement a water quality field testing program. Information on testing water temperature, water pH, dissolved oxygen content, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrates, total…

  5. Water Quality & Pollutant Source Monitoring: Field and Laboratory Procedures. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on techniques and instrumentation used to develop data in field monitoring programs and related laboratory operations concerned with water quality and pollution monitoring. Topics include: collection and handling of samples; bacteriological, biological, and chemical field and laboratory methods; field…

  6. Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gay B.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)

  7. Measuring linac photon beam energy through EPID image analysis of physically wedged fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawoud, S. M., E-mail: samir.dawoud@leedsth.nhs.uk; Weston, S. J.; Bond, I.; Ward, G. C.; Rixham, P. A.; Mason, J.; Huckle, A. [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, St. James Institute of Oncology, St. James University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Sykes, J. R. [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia and Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, St. James Institute of Oncology, St. James University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) have proven to be useful tools for measuring several parameters of interest in linac quality assurance (QA). However, a method for measuring linac photon beam energy using EPIDs has not previously been reported. In this report, such a method is devised and tested, based on fitting a second order polynomial to the profiles of physically wedged beams, where the metric of interest is the second order coefficientα. The relationship between α and the beam quality index [percentage depth dose at 10 cm depth (PDD{sub 10})] is examined to produce a suitable calibration curve between these two parameters. Methods: Measurements were taken in a water-tank for beams with a range of energies representative of the local QA tolerances about the nominal value 6 MV. In each case, the beam quality was found in terms of PDD{sub 10} for 100 × 100 mm{sup 2} square fields. EPID images of 200 × 200 mm{sup 2} wedged fields were then taken for each beam and the wedge profile was fitted in MATLAB 2010b (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA). α was then plotted against PDD{sub 10} and fitted with a linear relation to produce the calibration curve. The uncertainty in α was evaluated by taking five repeat EPID images of the wedged field for a beam of 6 MV nominal energy. The consistency of measuring α was found by taking repeat measurements on a single linac over a three month period. The method was also tested at 10 MV by repeating the water-tank crosscalibration for a range of energies centered approximately about a 10 MV nominal value. Finally, the calibration curve from the test linac and that from a separate clinical machine were compared to test consistency of the method across machines in a matched fleet. Results: The relationship betweenα and PDD{sub 10} was found to be strongly linear (R{sup 2} = 0.979) while the uncertainty in α was found to be negligible compared to that associated with measuring PDD{sub 10} in the water-tank (

  8. Empowering smartphone users with sensor node for air quality measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oletic, Dinko; Bilas, Vedran

    2013-01-01

    We present an architecture of a sensor node developed for use with smartphones for participatory sensing of air quality in urban environments. Our solution features inexpensive metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors (MOX) for measurement of CO, O 3 , NO 2 and VOC, along with sensors for ambient temperature and humidity. We focus on our design of sensor interface consisting of power-regulated heater temperature control, and the design of resistance sensing circuit. Accuracy of the sensor interface is characterized. Power consumption of the sensor node is analysed. Preliminary data obtained from the CO gas sensors in laboratory conditions and during the outdoor field-test is shown.

  9. Empowering smartphone users with sensor node for air quality measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oletic, Dinko; Bilas, Vedran

    2013-06-01

    We present an architecture of a sensor node developed for use with smartphones for participatory sensing of air quality in urban environments. Our solution features inexpensive metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors (MOX) for measurement of CO, O3, NO2 and VOC, along with sensors for ambient temperature and humidity. We focus on our design of sensor interface consisting of power-regulated heater temperature control, and the design of resistance sensing circuit. Accuracy of the sensor interface is characterized. Power consumption of the sensor node is analysed. Preliminary data obtained from the CO gas sensors in laboratory conditions and during the outdoor field-test is shown.

  10. Direct measurement of electron beam quality conversion factors using water calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, James; Sarfehnia, Arman; Marchant, Kristin; McEwen, Malcolm; Ross, Carl; Seuntjens, Jan

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the authors describe an electron sealed water calorimeter (ESWcal) designed to directly measure absorbed dose to water in clinical electron beams and its use to derive electron beam quality conversion factors for two ionization chamber types. A functioning calorimeter prototype was constructed in-house and used to obtain reproducible measurements in clinical accelerator-based 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV electron beams. Corrections for the radiation field perturbation due to the presence of the glass calorimeter vessel were calculated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The conductive heat transfer due to dose gradients and nonwater materials was also accounted for using a commercial finite element method software package. The relative combined standard uncertainty on the ESWcal dose was estimated to be 0.50% for the 9-20 MeV beams and 1.00% for the 6 MeV beam, demonstrating that the development of a water calorimeter-based standard for electron beams over such a wide range of clinically relevant energies is feasible. The largest contributor to the uncertainty was the positioning (Type A, 0.10%-0.40%) and its influence on the perturbation correction (Type B, 0.10%-0.60%). As a preliminary validation, measurements performed with the ESWcal in a 6 MV photon beam were directly compared to results derived from the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) photon beam standard water calorimeter. These two independent devices were shown to agree well within the 0.43% combined relative uncertainty of the ESWcal for this beam type and quality. Absorbed dose electron beam quality conversion factors were measured using the ESWcal for the Exradin A12 and PTW Roos ionization chambers. The photon-electron conversion factor, kecal, for the A12 was also experimentally determined. Nonstatistically significant differences of up to 0.7% were found when compared to the calculation-based factors listed in the AAPM's TG-51 protocol. General agreement between the relative

  11. DUQuE quality management measures: associations between quality management at hospital and pathway levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, C.; Groene, O.; Thompson, C.A.; DerSarkissian, M.; Klazinga, N.S.; Arah, O.A.; Sunol, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The assessment of integral quality management (QM) in a hospital requires measurement and monitoring from different perspectives and at various levels of care delivery. Within the DUQuE project (Deepening our Understanding of Quality improvement in Europe), seven measures for QM were

  12. DUQuE quality management measures: associations between quality management at hospital and pathway levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, C.; Groene, O.; Thompson, C.A.; DerSarkissian, M.; Klazinga, N.S.; Arah, O.A.; Suñol, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The assessment of integral quality management (QM) in a hospital requires measurement and monitoring from different perspectives and at various levels of care delivery. Within the DUQuE project (Deepening our Understanding of Quality improvement in Europe), seven measures for QM were

  13. A Magnetic Resonance Measurement Technique for Rapidly Switched Gradient Magnetic Fields in a Magnetic Resonance Tomograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bartušek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for measuring of the gradient magnetic field in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR tomography, which is one of the modern medical diagnostic methods. A very important prerequisite for high quality imaging is a gradient magnetic field in the instrument with exactly defined properties. Nuclear magnetic resonance enables us to measure the pulse gradient magnetic field characteristics with high accuracy. These interesting precise methods were designed, realised, and tested at the Institute of Scientific Instruments (ISI of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The first of them was the Instantaneous Frequency (IF method, which was developed into the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo (IFSE and the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo Series (IFSES methods. The above named methods are described in this paper and their a comparison is also presented.

  14. Electric Field Measurement of the Living Human Body for Biomedical Applications: Phase Measurement of the Electric Field Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Hieda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors are developing a technique for conducting measurements inside the human body by applying a weak electric field at a radio frequency (RF. Low RF power is fed to a small antenna, and a similar antenna located 15–50 cm away measures the electric field intensity. Although the resolution of the method is low, it is simple, safe, cost-effective, and able to be used for biomedical applications. One of the technical issues suggested by the authors' previous studies was that the signal pattern acquired from measurement of a human body was essentially different from that acquired from a phantom. To trace the causes of this difference, the accuracy of the phase measurements was improved. This paper describes the new experimental system that can measure the signal phase and amplitude and reports the results of experiments measuring a human body and a phantom. The results were analyzed and then discussed in terms of their contribution to the phase measurement.

  15. DUQuE quality management measures: associations between quality management at hospital and pathway levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Cordula; Groene, Oliver; Thompson, Caroline A.; Dersarkissian, Maral; Klazinga, Niek S.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Suñol, Rosa; Kringos, D. S.; Lombarts, K.; Plochg, T.; Lopez, M. A.; Secanell, M.; Sunol, R.; Vallejo, P.; Bartels, P.; Kristensen, S.; Michel, P.; Saillour-Glenisson, F.; Vlcek, F.; Car, M.; Jones, S.; Klaus, E.; Garel, P.; Hanslik, K.; Saluvan, M.; Bruneau, C.; Depaigne-Loth, A.; Shaw, C.; Hammer, A.; Ommen, O.; Pfaff, H.; Groene, O.; Botje, D.; Wagner, C.; Kutaj-Wasikowska, H.; Kutryba, B.; Escoval, A.; Franca, M.; Almeman, F.; Kus, H.; Ozturk, K.; Mannion, R.; Chow, A.; Dersarkissian, M.; Thompson, C.; Wang, A.; Thompson, A.

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of integral quality management (QM) in a hospital requires measurement and monitoring from different perspectives and at various levels of care delivery. Within the DUQuE project (Deepening our Understanding of Quality improvement in Europe), seven measures for QM were developed. This

  16. Standard guide for making quality nondestructive assay measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide is a compendium of Quality Measurement Practices for performing measurements of radioactive material using nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments. The primary purpose of the guide is to assist users in arriving at quality NDA results, that is, results that satisfy the end user’s needs. This is accomplished by providing an acceptable and uniform basis for the collection, analysis, comparison, and application of data. The recommendations are not compulsory or prerequisites to achieving quality NDA measurements, but are considered contributory in most areas. 1.2 This guide applies to the use of NDA instrumentation for the measurement of nuclear materials by the observation of spontaneous or stimulated nuclear radiations, including photons, neutrons, or the flow of heat. Recommended calibration, operating, and assurance methods represent guiding principles based on current NDA technology. The diversity of industry-wide nuclear materials measurement applications and instrumentation precludes disc...

  17. Conceptualizing and Measuring the Quality of Democracy: The Citizens’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Fuchs

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several measurements of the quality of democracy have been developed (e.g. Democracy Barometer, Varieties of Democracy Project. These objective measurements focus on institutional and procedural characteristics of democracy. This article starts from the premise that in order to fully understand the quality of democracy such objective measurements have to be complemented by subjective measurements based on the perspective of citizens. The aim of the article is to conceptualize and measure the subjective quality of democracy. First, a conceptualization of the subjective quality of democracy is developed consisting of citizens’ support for three normative models of democracy (electoral, liberal, and direct democracy. Second, based on the World Values Survey 2005–2007, an instrument measuring these different dimensions of the subjective quality of democracy is suggested. Third, distributions for different models of democracy are presented for some European and non-European liberal democracies. They reveal significant differences regarding the subjective quality of democracies. Fourth, the subjective quality of democracy of these countries is compared with the objective quality of democracy based on three indices (electoral democracy, liberal democracy and direct popular vote developed by the Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem Project. Finally, further research questions are discussed.

  18. Field measuring probe for SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganetis, G.; Herrera, J.; Hogue, R.; Skaritka, J.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.

    1987-03-01

    The field probe developed for measuring the field in SSC dipole magnets is an adaptation of the rotating tangential coil system in use at Brookhaven for several years. Also known as the MOLE, it is a self-contained room-temperature mechanism that is pulled through the aperture of the magnet with regular stops to measure the local field. Several minutes are required to measure the field at each point. The probe measures the multipole components of the field as well as the field angle relative to gravity. The sensitivity of the coil and electronics is such that the field up to the full 6.6 T excitation of the magnet as well as the field when warm with only 0.01 T excitation can be measured. Tethers are attached to both ends of the probe to carry electrical connections and to supply dry nitrogen to the air motors that rotate the tangential windings as well as the gravity sensor. A small computer is attached to the probe for control and for data collection, analysis and storage. Digital voltmeters are used to digitize the voltages from the rotating coil and several custom circuits control motor speeds in the probe. The overall diameter of the probe is approximately 2 cm and its length is 2.4 m; the field sensitive windings are 0.6 m in length

  19. Measuring Service Quality in a Tertiary Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutar, Geoffrey; McNeil, Margaret

    1996-01-01

    Measures service quality from the viewpoint of customers (students at an Australian university), using the SERVQUAL model. Obtains evaluations of academic and administrative aspects of the educational service. Makes significant negative evaluations of administrative service quality (resulting from communication problems). Satisfaction with the…

  20. Subwavelength position measurements with running-wave driving fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evers, Joerg [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Qamar, Sajid [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-08-15

    Subwavelength position measurement of quantum particles is discussed. Our setup is based on a closed-loop driving-field configuration, which enforces a sensitivity of the particle dynamics to the phases of the applied fields. Thus, running wave fields are sufficient, avoiding limitations associated with standing-wave-based localization schemes. Reversing the directions of the driving laser fields switches between different magnification levels for the position determination. This allows us to optimize the localization, and at the same time eliminates the need for additional classical measurements common to all previous localization schemes based on spatial periodicity.

  1. Measurement of Quality to Improve Care in Sleep Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Morgenthaler, Timothy I.; Aronsky, Amy J.; Carden, Kelly A.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Thomas, Sherene M.; Watson, Nathaniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) commissioned a Task Force to develop quality measures as part of its strategic plan to promote high quality patient-centered care. Among many potential dimensions of quality, the AASM requested Workgroups to develop outcome and process measures to aid in evaluating the quality of care of five common sleep disorders: restless legs syndrome, insomnia, narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea in adults, and obstructive sleep apne...

  2. Magnetic Measurements of the Background Field in the Undulator Hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The steel present in the construction of the undulator hall facility has the potential for changing the ambient fields present in the undulator hall. This note describes a measurement done to make a comparison between the fields in the hall and in the Magnetic Measurement Facility. In order for the undulators to have the proper tuning, the background magnetic field in the Undulator Hall should agree with the background field in the Magnetic Measurements Facility within .5 gauss. In order to verify that this was the case measurements were taken along the length of the undulator hall, and the point measurements were compared to the mean field which was measured on the MMF test bench.

  3. Recommendations for Guidelines for Environment-Specific Magnetic-Field Measurements, Rapid Program Engineering Project #2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.; IIT Research Institute; Magnetic Measurements; Survey Research Center, University of California; T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The purpose of this project was to document widely applicable methods for characterizing the magnetic fields in a given environment, recognizing the many sources co-existing within that space. The guidelines are designed to allow the reader to follow an efficient process to (1) plan the goals and requirements of a magnetic-field study, (2) develop a study structure and protocol, and (3) document and carry out the plan. These guidelines take the reader first through the process of developing a basic study strategy, then through planning and performing the data collection. Last, the critical factors of data management, analysis reporting, and quality assurance are discussed. The guidelines are structured to allow the researcher to develop a protocol that responds to specific site and project needs. The Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) is based on exposure to magnetic fields and the potential health effects. Therefore, the most important focus for these magnetic-field measurement guidelines is relevance to exposure. The assumed objective of an environment-specific measurement is to characterize the environment (given a set of occupants and magnetic-field sources) so that information about the exposure of the occupants may be inferred. Ideally, the researcher seeks to obtain complete or "perfect" information about these magnetic fields, so that personal exposure might also be modeled perfectly. However, complete data collection is not feasible. In fact, it has been made more difficult as the research field has moved to expand the list of field parameters measured, increasing the cost and complexity of performing a measurement and analyzing the data. The guidelines address this issue by guiding the user to design a measurement protocol that will gather the most exposure-relevant information based on the locations of people in relation to the sources. We suggest that the "microenvironment" become the base unit of area in a study, with

  4. Measuring Quality in Online Education: A Meta-Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfijani, Azam

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a meta-synthesis review of quality of online education (QOE) measurement approaches. In order to survey the existing body of knowledge, a qualitative method was employed to investigate what quality of online education is comprised of and how the concept has been measured through the literature. To achieve this, a total of 112…

  5. A new device for production measurements of field integral and field direction of SC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preissner, H.; Bouchard, R.; Luethke, P.; Makulski, A.; Meinke, R.; Nesteruk, K.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of all superconducting magnets for HERA is tested in the DESY magnet test facility and their magnetic field is measured. For dipole magnets the magnitude and the direction of the field is measured point by point along the axis with a mole-type probe which is transported through the beam pipe. The positioning of the probe is done via a toothed belt with an accuracy of 1 mm. The probe houses two Hall probes perpendicular to each other, a gravitational tilt sensor and an NMR probe. The field in the plateau is measured by NMR, the fringe field is measured by the Hall probes and the field direction relative to gravity is obtained from the ratio of the two Hall voltages and the tilt sensor. The field integral is determined with an accuracy of 10 -4 and the average field direction is measured with an accuracy of 0.2 mrad. 4 refs., 4 figs

  6. Dose measurements in pulsed radiation fields with commercially available measuring components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Sabrina; Hupe, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Dose measurements in pulsed radiation fields with dosemeters using the counting technique are known to be inappropriate. Therefore, there is a demand for a portable device able to measure the dose in pulsed radiation fields. As a detector, ionisation chambers seem to be a good alternative. In particular, using a secondary standard ionisation chamber in combination with a reliable charge-measuring system would be a good solution. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) uses secondary standard ionisation chambers in combination with PTB-made measuring electronics for dose measurements at its reference fields. However, for general use, this equipment is too complex. For measurements on-site, a mobile special electronic system [Hupe, O. and Ankerhold, U. Determination of ambient and personal dose equivalent for personnel and cargo security screening. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 121(4), 429-437 (2006)] has been used successfully. Still, for general use, there is a need for a much simpler but a just as good solution. A measuring instrument with very good energy dependence for H*(10) is the secondary standard ionisation chamber HS01. An easy-to-use and commercially available electrometer for measuring the generated charges is the UNIDOS by PTW Freiburg. Depending on the expected dose values, the ionisation chamber used can be selected. In addition, measurements have been performed by using commercially available area dosemeters, e.g. the Mini SmartION 2120S by Thermo Scientific, using an ionisation chamber and the Szintomat 6134 A/H by Automess, using a scintillation detector. (authors)

  7. Field measurements of radium in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.; May, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    Two whole body counting systems have been developed and employed for field measurements. The radium contents of nine previously unmeasured cases have been determined during three field trips. Future trips are being scheduled to make body radioactivity measurements on a specific subpopulation of CHR radium cases

  8. Electric Field Effects in RUS Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Timothy W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ten Cate, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allured, Bradley [UNIV NEVADA, RENO; Carpenter, Michael A [CAMBRIDGE UNIV. UK

    2009-09-21

    Much of the power of the Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) technique is the ability to make mechanical resonance measurements while the environment of the sample is changed. Temperature and magnetic field are important examples. Due to the common use of piezoelectric transducers near the sample, applied electric fields introduce complications, but many materials have technologically interesting responses to applied static and RF electric fields. Non-contact optical, buffered, or shielded transducers permit the application of charge and externally applied electric fields while making RUS measurements. For conducting samples, in vacuum, charging produces a small negative pressure in the volume of the material - a state rarely explored. At very high charges we influence the electron density near the surface so the propagation of surface waves and their resonances may give us a handle on the relationship of electron density to bond strength and elasticity. Our preliminary results indicate a charge sign dependent effect, but we are studying a number of possible other effects induced by charging. In dielectric materials, external electric fields influence the strain response, particularly in ferroelectrics. Experiments to study this connection at phase transformations are planned. The fact that many geological samples contain single crystal quartz suggests a possible use of the piezoelectric response to drive vibrations using applied RF fields. In polycrystals, averaging of strains in randomly oriented crystals implies using the 'statistical residual' strain as the drive. The ability to excite vibrations in quartzite polycrystals and arenites is explored. We present results of experimental and theoretical approaches to electric field effects using RUS methods.

  9. Parameterization and measurements of helical magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.; Okamura, M.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic fields with helical symmetry can be parameterized using multipole coefficients (a n , b n ). We present a parameterization that gives the familiar multipole coefficients (a n , b n ) for straight magnets when the helical wavelength tends to infinity. To measure helical fields all methods used for straight magnets can be employed. We show how to convert the results of those measurements to obtain the desired helical multipole coefficients (a n , b n )

  10. Initial field measurements on the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormrod, J.H.; Chan, K.C.; Hill, J.H.

    1980-12-01

    The midplane magnetic field of the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron has been mapped in detail over the full operating range of 2.5 to 5 tesla. The field measuring apparatus is described and results given include measurements of the field stability, reproducibility and harmonic content. (author)

  11. Auditory evoked field measurement using magneto-impedance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K., E-mail: o-kabou@echo.nuee.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Tajima, S.; Song, D.; Uchiyama, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Hamada, N.; Cai, C. [Aichi Steel Corporation, Tokai (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    The magnetic field of the human brain is extremely weak, and it is mostly measured and monitored in the magnetoencephalography method using superconducting quantum interference devices. In this study, in order to measure the weak magnetic field of the brain, we constructed a Magneto-Impedance sensor (MI sensor) system that can cancel out the background noise without any magnetic shield. Based on our previous studies of brain wave measurements, we used two MI sensors in this system for monitoring both cerebral hemispheres. In this study, we recorded and compared the auditory evoked field signals of the subject, including the N100 (or N1) and the P300 (or P3) brain waves. The results suggest that the MI sensor can be applied to brain activity measurement.

  12. Quality improvement education to improve performance on ulcerative colitis quality measures and care processes aligned with National Quality Strategy priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Laurence; Moreo, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Studies on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have reported suboptimal approaches to patient care. In the United States, the findings have motivated leading gastroenterology organizations to call for initiatives that support clinicians in aligning their practices with quality measures for IBD and priorities of the National Quality Strategy (NQS). We designed and implemented a quality improvement (QI) education program on ulcerative colitis in which patient charts were audited for 30 gastroenterologists before (n = 300 charts) and after (n = 290 charts) they participated in QI-focused educational activities. Charts were audited for nine measures, selected for their alignment with four NQS priorities: making care safer, ensuring patient engagement, promoting communication, and promoting effective treatment practices. Four of the measures, including guideline-directed vaccinations and assessments of disease type and activity, were part of the CMS Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS). The other five measures involved counseling patients on various topics in ulcerative colitis management, documentation of side effects, assessment of adherence status, and simplification of dosing. The gastroenterologists also completed baseline and post-education surveys designed to assess qualitative outcomes. One of the educational interventions was a private audit feedback session conducted for each gastroenterologist. The sessions were designed to support participants in identifying measures reflecting suboptimal care quality and developing action plans for improvement. In continuous improvement cycles, follow-up interventions included QI tools and educational monographs. Across the nine chart variables, post-education improvements ranged from 0% to 48%, with a mean improvement of 15.9%. Survey findings revealed improvements in self-reported understanding of quality measures and intentions to apply them to practice, and lower rates of perceived significant barriers to high-quality

  13. Performance of field measuring probes for SSC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.; Ganetis, G.; Herrera, J.; Hogue, R.; Jain, A.; Louie, W.; Marone, A.; Wanderer, P.

    1993-01-01

    Several years of experience have been acquired on the operation of probes (''moles'') constructed for the measurement of the multipole components of the magnetic fields of SSC magnets. The field is measured by rotating coils contained in a 2.4-m long tube that is pulled through the aperture of the magnet by an external device-the transporter. In addition to the measuring coils, the tube contains motors for rotating the coil and a system for sensing local vertical using gravity sensors to provide an absolute reference for the field measurements. We describe the steps that must be taken in order to ensure accurate, repeatable measurements; the design changes that have been motivated by difficulties encountered (noise, vibration, variations in temperature); and other performance issues. The mechanical interface between the probe and the hewn tube of the magnet is also described

  14. [Points of view: the role of quality measurement from the Federal Joint Committee's perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klakow-Franck, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) is a central decision-making body that issues binding directives to ensure the quality of both inpatient and outpatient health care services within the German Statutory Health Insurance system. Quality measurement on the basis of quality indicators has proceeded furthest in the field of external quality assurance (QA) of inpatient services. Originally designed for quality development in a "protected environment" through learning from better practices, it has been faced with new expectations since competitive elements have been introduced into the health care system. The economisation of medicine is de facto the driving force of the development of QA measures. In terms of health policy, the 2013 coalition agreement includes "a renaissance of the concept of quality competition". In particular, this is meant to strengthen the decision-making options of insured persons by creating more transparency into the quality of not only inpatient but also outpatient care and, if necessary, to support the possibility of selective agreements with individual health insurance funds. The campaign planned to improve the quality of hospitals also provides for a quality-oriented advancement of hospital planning and funding; and the Federal Joint Committee, supported by the new Institute for Quality Assurance and Transparency in the Healthcare System in accordance with Section 137a of Book V of the Social Code (SGB V) in the GKV-FQWG version will be assigned new tasks within this context, too. On the whole, the measures already agreed upon in the Act to Improve the Financial Structure and Quality of the Statutory Health Insurance System (GKV-FQWG) and—as far as can now be anticipated—the proceedings of the working group set up between the German government and the German federal states indicate that there is a high need to improve the methods and tools of external quality assurance available, starting with questions about the validity of the quality

  15. Impact of Quality Improvement Educational Interventions on Documented Adherence to Quality Measures for Adults with Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Laurence; Sapir, Tamar; Moreo, Kathleen; Carter, Jeffrey D; Patel, Barry; Higgins, Peter D R

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, leading organizations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have developed quality measures for the care of adults with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. We used chart audits to assess the impact of quality improvement educational activities on documented adherence to Physician Quality Reporting System measures for IBD. Twenty community-based gastroenterologists were recruited to participate in baseline chart audits (n = 200), a series of 4 accredited educational activities with feedback, and follow-up chart audits (n = 200). Trained abstractors reviewed randomly selected charts of adults with moderate or severe Crohn's disease. The charts were retrospectively abstracted for physicians' documented performance of the 2013 Physician Quality Reporting System IBD quality measures. We compared the physicians' baseline and posteducation rates of documented adherence with 10 of these measures. In a secondary analysis, we compared preeducation with posteducation difference scores of low-performing physicians, those whose baseline documentation rates were in the lowest quartile, and the rest of the cohort. At baseline, documentation of mean provider-level adherence to the 10 quality measures ranged from 3% to 98% (grand mean = 35.8%). In the overall analysis, baseline and posteducation rates of documented adherence did not differ significantly for any of the measures. However, for 4 measures, preeducation to posteducation difference scores were significantly greater among low performers than physicians in the highest 3 quartiles. The results of this preliminary pragmatic study indicate that quality improvement education affords the potential to improve adherence to Physician Quality Reporting System quality measures for IBD among low-performing gastroenterologists.

  16. Selected water-quality data from the Cedar River and Cedar Rapids well fields, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 2006-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    The Cedar River alluvial aquifer is the primary source of municipal water in the Cedar Rapids, Iowa area. Municipal wells are completed in the alluvial aquifer approximately 40 to 80 feet below land surface. The City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have been conducting a cooperative study of the groundwater-flow system and water quality of the aquifer since 1992. Cooperative reports between the City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have documented hydrologic and water-quality data, geochemistry, and groundwater models. Water-quality samples were collected for studies involving well field monitoring, trends, source-water protection, groundwater geochemistry, surface-water-groundwater interaction, and pesticides in groundwater and surface water. Water-quality analyses were conducted for major ions (boron, bromide, calcium, chloride, fluoride, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, silica, sodium, and sulfate), nutrients (ammonia as nitrogen, nitrite as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus), dissolved organic carbon, and selected pesticides including two degradates of the herbicide atrazine. Physical characteristics (alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance and water temperature) were measured in the field and recorded for each water sample collected. This report presents the results of routine water-quality data-collection activities from January 2006 through December 2010. Methods of data collection, quality-assurance, and water-quality analyses are presented. Data include the results of water-quality analyses from quarterly sampling from monitoring wells, municipal wells, and the Cedar River.

  17. Longitudinal and transverse electric field measurements in resonant cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Dechun; Chen Linfeng; Zheng Xiaoyue

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents a measuring technique for the electric field distribution of high order modes in resonant cavities. A perturbing bead-like cage made with metallic wires are developed for S-band field measurements, which can be used to detect a small electric field component in the presence of other strong electric or magnetic field components (That means high sensitivity and high directivity). In order to avoid orientation error for the cage with very high directivity, two parallel threads were used for supporting the perturbing cage. A simple mechanical set-up is described. The cage can be driven into the cavity on-axis or off-axis in any azimuth for the longitudinal and transverse electric field measurements

  18. Adaptive measurements of urban runoff quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Brandon P.; Kerkez, Branko

    2016-11-01

    An approach to adaptively measure runoff water quality dynamics is introduced, focusing specifically on characterizing the timing and magnitude of urban pollutographs. Rather than relying on a static schedule or flow-weighted sampling, which can miss important water quality dynamics if parameterized inadequately, novel Internet-enabled sensor nodes are used to autonomously adapt their measurement frequency to real-time weather forecasts and hydrologic conditions. This dynamic approach has the potential to significantly improve the use of constrained experimental resources, such as automated grab samplers, which continue to provide a strong alternative to sampling water quality dynamics when in situ sensors are not available. Compared to conventional flow-weighted or time-weighted sampling schemes, which rely on preset thresholds, a major benefit of the approach is the ability to dynamically adapt to features of an underlying hydrologic signal. A 28 km2 urban watershed was studied to characterize concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus. Water quality samples were autonomously triggered in response to features in the underlying hydrograph and real-time weather forecasts. The study watershed did not exhibit a strong first flush and intraevent concentration variability was driven by flow acceleration, wherein the largest loadings of TSS and total phosphorus corresponded with the steepest rising limbs of the storm hydrograph. The scalability of the proposed method is discussed in the context of larger sensor network deployments, as well the potential to improving control of urban water quality.

  19. Measuring the Quality of Ecotourism Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor’Aini Yusof

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism forms the pillar of the country’s tourism industry. Ecotourists make up more than 10% of international tourists in Malaysia. When service quality is thought of as an important factor to the success of tourism service providers, the importance of estimating service quality provided to tourists becomes apparent. Estimating service quality provides tourism service providers with the necessary information needed to manage their marketing operations appropriately. Therefore, this estimation should be performed with the right measurement scales. Despite the high volume of research on service quality (SERVQUAL models in recent years, limited effort has been directed toward improving the tool for measuring service quality, particularly to apply to the ecotourism sector in developing countries. This article aims to improve a SERVQUAL model that is suitable for ecotourism areas in developing countries using five dimensions of the original model and one additional sustainability dimension. Based on a survey of 127 tourists in Tasik Kenyir, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted to discover the underlying dimension of ecotourism services and test for reliability and validity. Using EFA resulted in seven factors totaling 27 items. These factors are labeled as follows: tangible sustainability, sustainable practices, tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. The results reveal that when SERVQUAL is applied within the ecotourism context, new dimensions of tangible sustainability and sustainable practices may emerge. The result implies the need to refine the SERVQUAL model when used in different contexts.

  20. Variability of Measured Runoff and Soil Loss from Field Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Asadzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Field plots are widely used in studies related to the measurements of soil loss and modeling of erosion processes. Research efforts are needed to investigate factors affecting the data quality of plots. Spatial scale or size of plots is one of these factors which directly affects measuring runoff and soil loss by means of field plots. The effect of plot size on measured runoff or soil loss from natural plots is known as plot scale effect. On the other hand, variability of runoff and sediment yield from replicated filed plots is a main source of uncertainty in measurement of erosion from plots which should be considered in plot data interpretation processes. Therefore, there is a demand for knowledge of soil erosion processes occurring in plots of different sizes and of factors that determine natural variability, as a basis for obtaining soil loss data of good quality. This study was carried out to investigate the combined effects of these two factors by measurement of runoff and soil loss from replicated plots with different sizes. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the variability of runoff and soil loss data seven plots, differing in width and length, were constructed in a uniform slope of 9% at three replicates at Koohin Research Station in Qazvin province. The plots were ploughed up to down slope in September 2011. Each plot was isolated using soil beds with a height of 30 cm, to direct generated surface runoff to the lower part of the plots. Runoff collecting systems composed of gutters, pipes and tankswere installed at the end of each plot. During the two-year study period of 2011-2012, plots were maintained in bare conditions and runoff and soil loss were measured for each single event. Precipitation amounts and characteristics were directly measured by an automatic recording tipping-bucket rain gauge located about 200 m from the experimental plots. The entire runoff volume including eroded sediment was measured on

  1. Quality assurance in biomarker measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitio, A; Apostoli, P

    1995-05-01

    Quality assurance (QA) concerns the validity of all the analytical processes (from collection of the samples to interpretation of the results). It is not an abstract concept but must be adapted to the different situations such as the different exposure levels, the different analytical methods, and the context of use (risk assessment procedures, research, routine determinations). The main requirements in QA programmes regard the control of all the known sources of preanalytical and analytical variations, while the instruments with which adequate QA can be implemented are the certified materials and the quality control programmes (quality manual, internal and external quality controls). Another important concept in QA is that measurements must be placed a different metrological levels: at the highest there are the methods (definitive, reference) to be used for assessing accuracy of routine methods. QA programmes should enable a grading of biomarkers (from experimental only to full evaluated) and of the laboratories in order to identify the significance of the test and to assess the level at which a laboratory could operate.

  2. Ambient temperature field measuring system for LHC superconducting dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billan, J.; De Panfilis, S.; Giloteaux, D.; Pagano, O.

    1996-01-01

    It is foreseen to perform acceptance tests including field measurements of the collared coils assembly of the LHC superconducting dipoles to estimate, at an early production stage, the possible significant deviations from the expected multipole component value of these magnets. A sensitive measuring probe and efficient data acquisition are the consequence of a low magnetizing current necessary to limit the coils heating. This demands a high signals sensitivity and an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio to retrieve the higher multipole component. Moreover, the correlation with the multipoles content of the magnets at cryogenic temperature and nominal excitation current need to be identified before the manufacturing process may continue. The field probe of the mole-type is equipped with three radial rotating search coils, an angular encoder and gravity sensor. It has been designed to slide inside the bore of the dipole coils and to measure the local field at fixed positions. The field analysis resulting in terms of multipole components, field direction and field integrals, measured on four 10 m long, twin-aperture LHC dipole prototypes, will be described together with the performance of the measuring method

  3. Azimuthal coil size and field quality in the main CERN Large Hadron Collider dipoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ferracin

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Field quality in superconducting magnets strongly depends on the geometry of the coil. Fiberglass spacers (shims placed between the coil and the collars have been used to optimize magnetic and mechanical performances of superconducting magnets in large accelerators. A change in the shim thickness affects both the geometry of the coil and its state of compression (prestress under operational conditions. In this paper we develop a coupled magnetomechanical model of the main Large Hadron Collider dipole. This model allows us to evaluate the prestress dependence on the shim thickness and the map of deformations of the coil and the collars. Results of the model are compared to experimental measurements carried out in a dedicated experiment, where a magnet model has been reassembled 5 times with different shims. A good agreement is found between simulations and experimental data both on the mechanical behavior and on the field quality. We show that this approach allows us to improve this agreement with respect to models previously used in the literature. We finally evaluate the range of tunability that will be provided by shims during the production of the Large Hadron Collider main dipoles.

  4. Two devices for atmospheric electric field measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombet, Andre; Hubert, Pierre.

    1977-02-01

    Two instruments installed at St Privat d'Allier for electric field measurement in connection with the rocket triggered lighting experiment program are described. The first one is a radioactive probe electrometer used as a warning device. The second is a field mill used for tape recording of electric field variation during the triggering events. Typical examples of such records are given [fr

  5. Evaluation of Human Prehension Using Grasp Quality Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz León

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main features of the human hand is its grasping ability. Robot grasping has been studied for years and different quality measures have been proposed to evaluate the stability and manipulability of grasps. Although the human hand is obviously more complex than robot hands, the methods used in robotics might be adopted to study the human grasp. The purpose of this work is to propose a set of measures that allow the evaluation of different aspects of the human grasp. The most common robotic grasp quality measures have been adapted to the evaluation of the human hand and a new quality measure – the fatigue index – is proposed in order to incorporate the biomechanical aspect into the evaluation. The minimum set of indices that allows the evaluation of the different aspects of the grasp is obtained from the analysis of a human prehension experiment.

  6. Rural southeast Texas air quality measurements during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Gunnar W; Khan, Siraj; Park, Changhyoun; Boedeker, Ian

    2011-10-01

    The authors conducted air quality measurements of the criteria pollutants carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and ozone together with meteorological measurements at a park site southeast of College Station, TX, during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study II (TexAQS). Ozone, a primary focus of the measurements, was above 80 ppb during 3 days and above 75 ppb during additional 8 days in summer 2006, suggestive of possible violations of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. In concordance with other air quality measurements during the TexAQS II, elevated ozone mixing ratios coincided with northerly flows during days after cold front passages. Ozone background during these days was as high as 80 ppb, whereas southerly air flows generally provided for an ozone background lower than 40 ppb. Back trajectory analysis shows that local ozone mixing ratios can also be strongly affected by the Houston urban pollution plume, leading to late afternoon ozone increases of as high as 50 ppb above background under favorable transport conditions. The trajectory analysis also shows that ozone background increases steadily the longer a southern air mass resides over Texas after entering from the Gulf of Mexico. In light of these and other TexAQS findings, it appears that ozone air quality is affected throughout east Texas by both long-range and regional ozone transport, and that improvements therefore will require at least a regionally oriented instead of the current locally oriented ozone precursor reduction policies.

  7. Design, analysis, and interpretation of field quality-control data for water-sampling projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David K.; Schertz, Terry L.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    The process of obtaining and analyzing water samples from the environment includes a number of steps that can affect the reported result. The equipment used to collect and filter samples, the bottles used for specific subsamples, any added preservatives, sample storage in the field, and shipment to the laboratory have the potential to affect how accurately samples represent the environment from which they were collected. During the early 1990s, the U.S. Geological Survey implemented policies to include the routine collection of quality-control samples in order to evaluate these effects and to ensure that water-quality data were adequately representing environmental conditions. Since that time, the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Water Quality has provided training in how to design effective field quality-control sampling programs and how to evaluate the resultant quality-control data. This report documents that training material and provides a reference for methods used to analyze quality-control data.

  8. Performance of field measuring probes for SSC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.; Ganetis, G.; Herrera, J.; Hogue, R.; Jain, A.; Louie, W.; Marone, A.; Wanderer, P.

    1994-01-01

    Several years of experience have been acquired on the operation of probes (open-quotes molesclose quotes) constructed for the measurement of the multipole components of the magnetic fields of SSC magnets. The field is measured by rotating coils contained in a 2.4-m long tube that is pulled through the aperture of the magnet by an external device - the transporter. In addition to the measuring coils, the tube contains motors for rotating the coil and a system for sensing local vertical using gravity sensors to provide an absolute reference for the field measurements. The authors describe the steps that must be taken in order to ensure accurate, repeatable measurements; the design changes that have been motivated by difficulties encountered (noise, vibration, variations in temperature); and other performance issues. The mechanical interface between the probe and the beam tube of the magnet is also described

  9. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  10. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig [Cancer Prevention and Control Division, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1603 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  11. Understanding Quality Measures in Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Peter M.; Schneider, John S.; Piccirillo, Jay F.; Lieu, Judith E. C.

    2017-01-01

    As health care reimbursements based on pay-for-performance models become more common, there is an unprecedented demand for ways to measure health care quality and demonstrate value. Performance measures, a type of quality measure, are unique tools in a health care delivery system that allow objective monitoring of adherence to specific goals and tracking of outcomes. We sought to provide information on the development of quality measures in otolaryngology–head and neck surgery, as well as the goals of performance measurement at a national level and for our specialty. The historical development, various types, and approach to creating effective performance measures are discussed. The primary methods of developing performance measures (using clinical practice guidelines, clinical registries, and alternative methods) are also discussed. Performance measures are an important tool that can aid otolaryngologists in achieving effective, efficient, equitable, timely, safe, and patient-centered care as outlined by the Institute of Medicine. PMID:26606715

  12. Uranium isotope ratio measurements in field settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.W.; Barshick, C.M.; Young, J.P.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a technique for uranium isotope ratio measurements of powder samples in field settings. Such a method will be invaluable for environmental studies, radioactive waste operations, and decommissioning and decontamination operations. Immediate field data can help guide an ongoing sampling campaign. The measurement encompasses glow discharge sputtering from pressed sample hollow cathodes, high resolution laser spectroscopy using conveniently tunable diode lasers, and optogalvanic detection. At 10% 235 U enrichment and above, the measurement precision for 235 U/( 235 U+ 238 U) isotope ratios was ±3%; it declined to ±15% for 0.3% (i.e., depleted) samples. A prototype instrument was constructed and is described

  13. Measuring the quality of health care: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, M S; Nolan, K

    1997-05-01

    September 12-13, 1996, in Washington, DC, the Institute of Medicine, as part of its Special Initiative on Health Care Quality, held an invitational conference to illustrate exemplary quality measurement and to discuss the results. Patient reports, innovative uses of outcome measures for quality improvement, risk adjustment, assessment in integrated health plans and health care settings, clinical guidelines, and projects on disseminating information on quality measurement techniques and tools were among the topics represented. Brent James described studies undertaken to reduce adverse drug events (ADEs). When implementing any measurement system where error is a possible factor, it is important to emphasize identifying problems for the purpose of learning, not judgment. Lucian Leape agreed that staff involved must feel that the purpose of the study is to examine system problems, not individuals' mistakes. David Classen described a nonproprietary computerized disease-management program designed to reduce ADEs in infectious diseases. "A QUALITY VISION": Robert Brook said that the relationship between cost or resources devoted to care and quality is not well understood and is certainly not simple. He also said that although investments in measurement strategies are needed to make them better, that doesn't mean we shouldn't attempt to use the measurements we have now. Mark Chassin said that the presentations at the conference provided evidence that should allow us to conclude beyond a reasonable doubt that quality can be measured-with a degree of scientific precision equal to that of most of the measures used to take care of patients every day.

  14. Out-of-field dose measurements in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaderka, Robert

    2011-07-13

    This thesis describes the results from measurements of the out-of-field dose in radiotherapy. The dose outside the treatment volume has been determined in a water phantom and an anthropomorphic phantom. Measurements were performed with linac photons, passively delivered protons, scanned protons, passively delivered carbon ions as well as scanned carbon ions. It was found that the use of charged particles for radiotherapy reduces the out-of-field dose by up to three orders of magnitude compared to conventional radiotherapy with photons.

  15. New Limits on Extragalactic Magnetic Fields from Rotation Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshirkov, M. S.; Tinyakov, P. G.; Urban, F. R.

    2016-05-01

    We take advantage of the wealth of rotation measures data contained in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalog to derive new, statistically robust, upper limits on the strength of extragalactic magnetic fields. We simulate the extragalactic magnetic field contribution to the rotation measures for a given field strength and correlation length, by assuming that the electron density follows the distribution of Lyman-α clouds. Based on the observation that rotation measures from distant radio sources do not exhibit any trend with redshift, while the extragalactic contribution instead grows with distance, we constrain fields with Jeans' length coherence length to be below 1.7 nG at the 2 σ level, and fields coherent across the entire observable Universe below 0.65 nG. These limits do not depend on the particular origin of these cosmological fields.

  16. A Power-Frequency Electric Field Sensor for Portable Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dongping; Ma, Qichao; Xie, Yutong; Zheng, Qi; Zhang, Zhanlong

    2018-03-31

    In this paper, a new type of electric field sensor is proposed for the health and safety protection of inspection staff in high-voltage environments. Compared with the traditional power frequency electric field measurement instruments, the portable instrument has some special performance requirements and, thus, a new kind of double spherical shell sensor is presented. First, the mathematical relationships between the induced voltage of the sensor, the output voltage of the measurement circuit, and the original electric field in free space are deduced theoretically. These equations show the principle of the proposed sensor to measure the electric field and the effect factors of the measurement. Next, the characteristics of the sensor are analyzed through simulation. The simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. The influencing rules of the size and material of the sensor on the measurement results are summarized. Then, the proposed sensor and the matching measurement system are used in a physical experiment. After calibration, the error of the measurement system is discussed. Lastly, the directional characteristic of the proposed sensor is experimentally tested.

  17. Electric field measurements in the auroral E region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, H.P.; Smiddy, M.; Sagalyn, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Dipole electric field, positive ion and electron densities and temperatures, vehicle potential, and plasma sheath measurements have been made in the auroral E region by means of rockets flown from Fort Churchill, Canada. These results are described and compared over the altitude region 100 to 165 km. On a rocket flight launched on 10 December 1969 during very quiet conditions, adjacent to a stable, low intensity auroral arc, the plasma density and temperatures are found to be high and the electric fields large and steady. Electric field components of the order of -17 mv m -1 to +6 mv m -1 were measured along the Earth's magnetic field. The plasma results indicate that these fields may be contributing to enhanced electron temperatures. On a flight of 9 March 1970 during a large magnetic storm with widespread auroral activity, lower plasma densities and temperatures and much smaller and more erratic electric fields were observed with no significant component parallel to the magnetic field. (auth)

  18. A Linear Algebra Measure of Cluster Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of models for information retrieval focuses on an application of linear algebra to text clustering, namely, a metric for measuring cluster quality based on the theory that cluster quality is proportional to the number of terms that are disjoint across the clusters. Explains term-document matrices and clustering algorithms. (Author/LRW)

  19. Measuring quality in services for children with an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koornneef, Erik

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the application of one particular quality measurement tool, the SERVQUAL instrument, as a potential mechanism to measure quality in services for children with disabilities Staff and family of children with an intellectual disability in two organisations providing specialist therapy and day completed an adapted SERVQUAL questionnaire. A total of 81 SERVQUAL questionnaires were distributed and 59 questionnaires were returned (response rate of 73 per cent). The SERVQUAL instrument can be considered as a useful diagnostic tool to identify particular strengths and areas for improvement in services for people with disabilities as the instrument lends itself for the monitoring of the effectiveness of quality improvement initiatives over time. The findings also showed relatively high customer expectations and the organisations involved in this research are currently not meeting all of these high expectations as significant quality gaps were found in the areas of reliability and responsiveness. The sample size was relatively small and the measurement of quality using the SERVQUAL instrument remains a challenge, due to the conceptual and empirical difficulties. The SERVQUAL instrument is probably most be attractive to service managers and funding organisations because of its ability to identify gaps in the quality of the service. The tool had been used to measure quality in services for people with disabilities and the research has shown that this tool might be an important additional quality measurement tool for services.

  20. In vivo rapid field map measurement and shimming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, Shoichi; Kassai, Yoshimori; Kondo, Masafumi; Kuhara, Shigehide; Satoh, Kozo; Seo, Yasutsugu.

    1992-01-01

    MR imaging and MR spectroscopy need a homogeneous static magnetic field. The static field characteristics are determined by the magnet's homogeneity, the set-up conditions, and the magnetic suspectibility of the subject itself. The field inhomogeneity is usually minimized only once when the apparatus is installed. However, field distortions arising from the magnetic susceptibility differ with each subject and region. To overcome this problem, in vivo shimming can be carried out to improve the homogeneity. The procedures are too lengthy when applying the conventional shimming techniques in vivo. We have developed a new field map measurement technique using a double gradient-recalled echo phase mapping. The values of the currents for the 13-channel shim coils are derived by least squares fitting to the field map and automatically applied to the shim coils. The proposed technique can rapidly and accurately measure the field map in vivo and correct the field inhomogeneity. The results show that this technique improves the homogeneity, especially in regions having a simple field distribution. However, local sharp field distortions which can not be practically corrected by shimming occur near the eyes, ears, heart, etc. due to abrupt susceptibility changes. (author)

  1. Teaching environmental physics with a field measurement campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, Johan; Dynefors, Bertil; Kuehlmann-Berenzon, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    With 15 years of experience of teaching environmental physics, we still need to develop our curriculum. In this paper we present our findings from teaching environmental physics in close association with mathematical statistics in an applied field measurement campaign. Here not only environmental physics is taught, but also the concept of experimental planning, design, implementation, and evaluation of a field measurement campaign. The field measurement gives the students the opportunity to follow the whole process starting from experimental planning, including formulating the questions to answer, through design of the experiment, sample collection, analysis, and evaluation, together with the writing of a final report. All possible aspects of the problem that the students are working on can be carefully investigated, but the emphasis has been on understanding the whole process of carrying out a field campaign. This holistic view gives the students more interest in and better motivation for exploring the subject. This course gave the students insight into the field of interdisciplinary environmental research, promoted their creativity, and also gave the teachers a feeling of satisfaction

  2. Direct measurement of electron beam quality conversion factors using water calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, James, E-mail: james.renaud@mail.mcgill.ca; Seuntjens, Jan [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montréal, Québec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Sarfehnia, Arman [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montréal, Québec H3G 1A4, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2 (Canada); Marchant, Kristin [Allan Blair Cancer Centre, Saskatchewan Cancer Agency, Regina, Saskatchewan S4T 7T1, Canada and Department of Oncology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A1 (Canada); McEwen, Malcolm; Ross, Carl [Ionizing Radiation Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors describe an electron sealed water calorimeter (ESWcal) designed to directly measure absorbed dose to water in clinical electron beams and its use to derive electron beam quality conversion factors for two ionization chamber types. Methods: A functioning calorimeter prototype was constructed in-house and used to obtain reproducible measurements in clinical accelerator-based 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV electron beams. Corrections for the radiation field perturbation due to the presence of the glass calorimeter vessel were calculated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The conductive heat transfer due to dose gradients and nonwater materials was also accounted for using a commercial finite element method software package. Results: The relative combined standard uncertainty on the ESWcal dose was estimated to be 0.50% for the 9–20 MeV beams and 1.00% for the 6 MeV beam, demonstrating that the development of a water calorimeter-based standard for electron beams over such a wide range of clinically relevant energies is feasible. The largest contributor to the uncertainty was the positioning (Type A, 0.10%–0.40%) and its influence on the perturbation correction (Type B, 0.10%–0.60%). As a preliminary validation, measurements performed with the ESWcal in a 6 MV photon beam were directly compared to results derived from the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) photon beam standard water calorimeter. These two independent devices were shown to agree well within the 0.43% combined relative uncertainty of the ESWcal for this beam type and quality. Absorbed dose electron beam quality conversion factors were measured using the ESWcal for the Exradin A12 and PTW Roos ionization chambers. The photon-electron conversion factor, k{sub ecal}, for the A12 was also experimentally determined. Nonstatistically significant differences of up to 0.7% were found when compared to the calculation-based factors listed in the AAPM’s TG-51 protocol

  3. Trapped field measurements on MgB{sub 2} bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koblischka, Michael; Karwoth, Thomas; Zeng, XianLin; Hartmann, Uwe [Institute of Experimental Physics, Saarland University, P. O. Box 151150, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Berger, Kevin; Douine, Bruno [University of Lorraine, GREEN, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2016-07-01

    Trapped field measurements were performed on bulk, polycrystalline MgB{sub 2} samples stemming from different sources with the emphasis to develop applications like superconducting permanent magnets ('supermagnets') and electric motors. We describe the setup for the trapped field measurements and the experimental procedure (field cooling, zero-field cooling, field sweep rates). The trapped field measurements were conducted using a cryocooling system to cool the bulk samples to the desired temperatures, and a low-loss cryostat equipped with a room-temperature bore and a maximum field of ±5 T was employed to provide the external magnetic field. The superconducting coil of this cryostat is operated using a bidirectional power supply. Various sweep rates of the external magnetic field ranging between 1 mT/s and 40 mT/s were used to generate the applied field. The measurements were performed with one sample and two samples stacked together. A maximum trapped field of 7 T was recorded. We discuss the results obtained and the problems arising due to flux jumping, which is often seen for the MgB{sub 2} samples cooled to temperatures below 10 K.

  4. In situ measurement of laser beam quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Somayeh Sadat; Ghavami Sabouri, Saeed; Khorsandi, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    An innovative optical method is introduced for the beam quality measurement of any arbitrary transverse mode based on the reconstruction of the mode from a few-frame image of the beam cross-section. This is performed by the decomposition of a mode to its basic Hermite-Gaussian modal coefficients. The performance of the proposed method is examined through M 2-factor measurement of the beam of a Nd:YAG laser which was forced to oscillate in a certain mode using a crossed rectangular intracavity aperture. Obtained results have shown that this method can be alternatively replaced for the hologram- and ISO-based techniques recently exploiting for beam quality measurement regardless of the mode type and the position of utilized CCD camera along the beam direction.

  5. FITTING HELICAL SNAKE AND ROTATOR FIELD STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RANJBAR, V.; LUCCIO, A.U.; MACKAY, W.W.; TSOUPAS, N.

    2001-01-01

    We examined recent multi-pole measurements for the helical snakes and rotators in RHIC to generate a full field map. Since multi-pole measurements yield real field values for B, field components we developed a unique technique to evaluate the full fields using a traditional finite element analysis software [1]. From these measurements we employed SNIG [2] to generate orbit and Spin plots. From orbit values we generated a transfer matrix for the first snake

  6. The Aeroflex: A Bicycle for Mobile Air Quality Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Van Poppel, Martine; Bleux, Nico; Theunis, Jan; Reggente, Matteo; Standaert, Arnout

    2013-01-01

    Fixed air quality stations have limitations when used to assess people's real life exposure to air pollutants. Their spatial coverage is too limited to capture the spatial variability in, e.g., an urban or industrial environment. Complementary mobile air quality measurements can be used as an additional tool to fill this void. In this publication we present the Aeroflex, a bicycle for mobile air quality monitoring. The Aeroflex is equipped with compact air quality measurement devices to monitor ultrafine particle number counts, particulate mass and black carbon concentrations at a high resolution (up to 1 second). Each measurement is automatically linked to its geographical location and time of acquisition using GPS and Internet time. Furthermore, the Aeroflex is equipped with automated data transmission, data pre-processing and data visualization. The Aeroflex is designed with adaptability, reliability and user friendliness in mind. Over the past years, the Aeroflex has been successfully used for high resolution air quality mapping, exposure assessment and hot spot identification. PMID:23262484

  7. Influence of bird feces to water quality in paddy fields during winter season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somura, H.; Takeda, I.; Masunaga, T.; Mori, Y.; Ide, J.

    2009-12-01

    Thousands of migratory birds such as tundra swan came to the paddy fields for overwintering in recent years in the study area. They stayed in paddy fields during night time for sleeping and used around the fields as a feeding ground during day time. During the birds stay, it was observed that water pooled in the paddy fields gradually turned green and gave off a bad smell. In this study, we tried to estimate the influence of the bird’s feces to water quality in the paddy fields. The study area is in the southeastern portion of Matsue City in Shimane Prefecture, Japan. In several paddy fields, puddling procedure was executed after harvesting rice and then water was stored in the paddy fields during winter season. This is because of being easier of farming activities such as weeding next season and of avoiding using pesticide for weeding with rising of environmental awareness. Water in the paddy fields was collected once or twice a month from the target fields and analyzed nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon in 2007. In the study in 2006, as water was sampled once a week and the changes in the water quality had been grasped, we paid attention to behavior of the birds in a day in the field investigation in 2007. The number of the birds was counted once an hour from visible 7 am to 6 pm once a month. In addition to this, fresh feces were sampled from the fields and analyzed the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon in the feces. As results, average water qualities of TN, TP, and TOC from November 2007 to March 2008 showed very high concentrations compared with a river water concentration used as irrigation water. More than 70% of TN in the water was ammonia nitrogen. Moreover, comparing with a standard fertilizer amount of nitrogen and phosphorus for paddy fields during irrigation period, it was estimated that the amount of nitrogen excreted by the bird’s feces during the winter season was equivalent to the standard fertilizer amount and the

  8. Quality measures in applications of image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriete, A; Naim, M; Schafer, L

    2001-01-01

    We describe a new method for the estimation of image quality in image restoration applications. We demonstrate this technique on a simulated data set of fluorescent beads, in comparison with restoration by three different deconvolution methods. Both the number of iterations and a regularisation factor are varied to enforce changes in the resulting image quality. First, the data sets are directly compared by an accuracy measure. These values serve to validate the image quality descriptor, which is developed on the basis of optical information theory. This most general measure takes into account the spectral energies and the noise, weighted in a logarithmic fashion. It is demonstrated that this method is particularly helpful as a user-oriented method to control the output of iterative image restorations and to eliminate the guesswork in choosing a suitable number of iterations.

  9. Quality assuring measures for pressure vessels - system approaches, certification, accreditation, surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, M.

    1992-01-01

    Quality assurance measures for pressure vessels in accordance with German codes and standards and with the participation of manufacturers, plant operators and third party inspection agencies represent a high standard in terms of engineering, safety and availability. Technical competence and the autonomous action of German industry in the field of quality assurance set internationally recognized safety standards. The continuous exchange of experience through the active involvement of manufacturers, plant operators and third party inspection agencies in work establishing codes and standards and in th updating of the state of the art give the German system a control loop and feedback function (Technical Committees on Pressure Vessels). Within the framework of European harmonization it is a German concern that technical competence and expertise are not lost in a formally legal, bureaucratic certification procedure. In the course of the European harmonization process, the dual German QA concept should maintain its position by utilizing the specialist knowledge and competence of experts, and permit appropriate adaptation. (orig.)

  10. TH-CD-BRA-05: First Water Calorimetric Dw Measurement and Direct Measurement of Magnetic Field Correction Factors, KQ,B, in a 1.5 T B-Field of An MRI Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prez, L de; Pooter, J de; Jansen, B [VSL, Delft (Netherlands); Wolthaus, J; Asselen, B van; Woodings, S; Soest, T; Kok, J; Raaymakers, B [University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Reference dosimetry in MR-guided radiotherapy is performed in the presence of a B-field. As a consequence the response of ionization chambers changes considerably and depends on parameters not considered in traditional reference dosimetry. Therefore future Codes of Practices need ionization chamber correction factors to correct for both the change in beam quality and the presence of a B-field. The objective was to study the feasibility of water calorimetric absorbed-dose measurements in a 1.5 T B-field of an MRLinac and the direct measurement of kQ,B calibration of ionization chambers. Methods: Calorimetric absorbed dose to water Dw was measured with a new water calorimeter in the bore of an MRLinac (TPR20,10 of 0.702). Two waterproof ionization chambers (PTW 30013, IBA FC-65G) were calibrated inside the calorimeter phantom (ND,w,Q,B). Both measurements were normalized to a monitor ionization chamber. Ionization chamber measurements were corrected for conventional influence parameter. Based on the chambers’ Co-60 calibrations (ND,w,Q0), measured directly against the calorimeter. In this study the correction factors kQ,B was determined as the ratio of the calibration coefficients in the MRLinac and in Co-60. Additionally, kB was determined based on kQ values obtained with the IAEA TRS-398 Code of Practice. Results: The kQ,B factors of the ionization chambers mentioned above were respectively 0.9488(8) and 0.9445(8) with resulting kB factors of 0.961(13) and 0.952(13) with standard uncertainties on the least significant digit(s) between brackets. Conclusion: Calorimetric Dw measurements and calibration of waterproof ionization chambers were successfully carried out in the 1.5 T B-field of an MRLinac with a standard uncertainty of 0.7%. Preliminary kQ,B and kB factors were determined with standard uncertainties of respectively 0.8% and 1.3%. The kQ,B agrees with an alternative method within 0.4%. The feasibility of water calorimetry in the presence of B-fields

  11. Measuring quality of care: considering conceptual approaches to quality indicator development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelfox, Henry T; Straus, Sharon E

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we describe one approach for developing and evaluating quality indicators. We focus on describing different conceptual approaches to quality indicator development, review one approach for developing quality indicators, outline how to evaluate quality indicators once developed, and discuss quality indicator maintenance. The key steps for developing quality indicators include specifying a clear goal for the indicators; using methodologies to incorporate evidence, expertise, and patient perspectives; and considering contextual factors and logistics of implementation. The Strategic Framework Board and the National Quality Measure Clearinghouse have developed criteria for evaluating quality indicators that complement traditional psychometric evaluations. Optimal strategies for quality indicator maintenance and dissemination have not been determined, but experiences with clinical guideline maintenance may be informative. For quality indicators to effectively guide quality improvement efforts, they must be developed, evaluated, maintained, and implemented using rigorous evidence-informed practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement of the magnetic field errors on TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piras, F.; Moret, J.-M.; Rossel, J.X.

    2010-01-01

    A set of 24 saddle loops is used on the Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV) to measure the radial magnetic flux at different toroidal and vertical positions. The new system is calibrated together with the standard magnetic diagnostics on TCV. Based on the results of this calibration, the effective current in the poloidal field coils and their position is computed. These corrections are then used to compute the distribution of the error field inside the vacuum vessel for a typical TCV discharge. Since the saddle loops measure the magnetic flux at different toroidal positions, the non-axisymmetric error field is also estimated and correlated to a shift or a tilt of the poloidal field coils.

  13. Measurement of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Xiu-Xiu; Bian, Lei; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2015-12-01

    Determination of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air is important to understand chemical communication between plants and insects and will aid the development of semiochemicals from plants for pest control. In this study, a thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to measure ultra-trace levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. The desorption parameters of TD, including sorbent tube material, tube desorption temperature, desorption time, and cold trap temperature, were selected and optimized. In GC-MS analysis, the selected ion monitoring mode was used for enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. This method was sufficiently sensitive to detect part-per-trillion levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. Laboratory and field evaluation revealed that the method presented high precision and accuracy. Field studies indicated that the background odor of tea plantations contained some common volatile plant compounds, such as (Z)-3-hexenol, methyl salicylate, and (E)-ocimene, at concentrations ranging from 1 to 3400 ng m(-3). In addition, the background odor in summer was more abundant in quality and quantity than in autumn. Relative to previous methods, the TD-GC-MS method is more sensitive, permitting accurate qualitative and quantitative measurements of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air.

  14. Subjective Quality Measurement of Speech Its Evaluation, Estimation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    It is becoming crucial to accurately estimate and monitor speech quality in various ambient environments to guarantee high quality speech communication. This practical hands-on book shows speech intelligibility measurement methods so that the readers can start measuring or estimating speech intelligibility of their own system. The book also introduces subjective and objective speech quality measures, and describes in detail speech intelligibility measurement methods. It introduces a diagnostic rhyme test which uses rhyming word-pairs, and includes: An investigation into the effect of word familiarity on speech intelligibility. Speech intelligibility measurement of localized speech in virtual 3-D acoustic space using the rhyme test. Estimation of speech intelligibility using objective measures, including the ITU standard PESQ measures, and automatic speech recognizers.

  15. Electric Field Quantitative Measurement System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method and system are provided for making a quantitative measurement of an electric field. A plurality of antennas separated from one another by known distances are arrayed in a region that extends in at least one dimension. A voltage difference between at least one selected pair of antennas is measured. Each voltage difference is divided by the known distance associated with the selected pair of antennas corresponding thereto to generate a resulting quantity. The plurality of resulting quantities defined over the region quantitatively describe an electric field therein.

  16. Transport services quality measurment using SERVQUAL model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Mlađan V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality in the world is considered to be the most important phenomenon of our age, with a permanent and irreversible growing trend of its emphasis. Many companies have come to the conclusion that high quality of services can provide them with a potential competitive advantage, leading to superior sales results and profit making. The aim of this paper is to test the applicability of service SERVQUAL dimensions and measure the quality of services in the public transport of passengers. Based on the data obtained by researching the views of public transport users in Kragujevac using the SERVQUAL methodology and statistical analysis based on defined service quality dimensions, this research will show the level of quality of urban transport services in Kragujevac and based on this, make recommendations for improving the quality of service.

  17. Measurability of quantum fields and the energy-time uncertainty relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensky, Mikhail B

    2011-01-01

    Quantum restrictions on the measurability of an electromagnetic field strength and their relevance to the energy-time uncertainty relation are considered. The minimum errors in measuring electromagnetic field strengths, as they were estimated by the author (1988) in the framework of the phenomenological method of restricted path integral (RPI), are compared with the analogous estimates found by Landau and Peierls (1931) and by Bohr and Rosenfeld (1933) with the help of certain measurement setups. RPI-based restrictions, including those of Landau and Peierls as a special case, hold for any measuring schemes meeting the strict definition of measurement. Their fundamental nature is confirmed by the fact that their associated field detectability condition has the form of the energy-time uncertainty relation. The weaker restrictions suggested by Bohr and Rosenfeld rely on an extended definition of measurement. The energy-time uncertainty relation, which is the condition for the electromagnetic field to be detectable, is applied to the analysis of how the near-field scanning microscope works. (methodological notes)

  18. Magnetic field measurements of JT-60SA CS model coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro, E-mail: obana.tetsuhiro@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Mito, Toshiyuki; Imagawa, Shinsaku [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki; Natsume, Kyohei; Yoshida, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Magnetic fields of the JT-60SA CS model coil were measured. • While the coil current was held constant at 20 kA, magnetic fields varied slightly with several different long time constants. • We investigated coils consisting of CIC conductors and having long time constants. - Abstract: In a cold test of the JT-60SA CS model coil, which has a quad-pancake configuration consisting of a Nb{sub 3}Sn cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductor, magnetic fields were measured using Hall sensors. For a holding coil current of 20 kA, measured magnetic fields varied slightly with long time constants in the range 17–571 s, which was much longer than the time constant derived from a measurement using a short straight sample. To validate the measurements, the magnetic fields of the model coil were calculated using a computational model representing the positions of Nb{sub 3}Sn strands inside the CIC conductor. The calculated results were in good agreement with the measurements. Consequently, the validity of the magnetic field measurements was confirmed. Next, we investigated other coils consisting of CIC conductors and having long time constants. The only commonality among the coils was the use of CIC conductors. At present, there is no obvious way to prevent generation of such magnetic-field variations with long time constants.

  19. Field investigation to assess nutrient emission from paddy field to surface water in river catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Kanami; Aichi, Masaatsu; Zessner, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    TD water can be sampled for infiltrating water measurement. We installed monitoring wells to measure ground water level and water quality. Inflow, outflow, flooding water, infiltrating water, and ground water were measured and sampled. Regarding to parameters, temperature, pH, EC, DO and COD, main ions were measured to understand characteristic of water quality and transformation processes. Inorganic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus were also measured, as behavior and balance of nitrogen and phosphorus are focused on. We observed following points by taking data of water quality; seasonal trend, changes occurred according to agricultural events like irrigation and fertilization. Nitrogen in ground water tends to high in June due to fertilizer. It is thought because farmers fertilize the filed before transplanting at the beginning of flooding season. Regarding to dissolved inorganic nitrogen, higher concentrations were observed in inflow water than in flooding water and outflow water. Though it needs discussion in loads as well as flow measurement, this suggests that nutrients are absorbed in paddy field and less nutrients are emitted after irrigation water passing through paddy field. Based on this research we are planning continuous investigation to assess environmental impact from paddy field.

  20. The Swarm Initial Field Model for the 2014 geomagnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Hulot, Gauthier; Lesur, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    agreement (up to at least degree 60) with recent field models derived from CHAMP data, providing an initial validation of the quality of the Swarm magnetic measurements. Use of gradient data improves the determination of both the static field and its secular variation, with the mean misfit for East...

  1. Measurement quality assurance for radioassay laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCurdy, D.E. [Yankee Atomic Environmental Laboratory, Boston, MA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Until recently, the quality of U.S. radioassay laboratory services has been evaluated by a limited number of governmental measurement assurance programs (MAPs). The major programs have been limited to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In 1988, an industry MAP was established for the nuclear power utility industry through the U.S. Council for Energy Awareness/National Institute of Standards and Technology (USCEA/NIST). This program functions as both a MAP for utility laboratories and/or their commercial contractor laboratories, and as a traceability program for the U.S. radioactive source manufacturers and the utility laboratories. Each of these generic MAPs has been initiated and is maintained to serve the specific needs of the sponsoring agency or organization. As a result, there is diversification in their approach, scope, requirements, and degree of traceability to NIST. In 1987, a writing committee was formed under the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N42.2 committee to develop a standard to serve as the basis document for the creation of a national measurement quality assurance (MQA) program for radioassay laboratories in the U.S. The standard is entitled, {open_quotes}Measurement Quality Assurance For Radioassay Laboratories.{open_quotes} The document was developed to serve as a guide for MQA programs maintained for the specialized sectors of the radioassay community, such as bioassay, routine environmental monitoring, environmental restoration and waste management, radiopharmaceuticals, and nuclear facilities. It was the intent of the writing committee to develop a guidance document that could be utilized to establish a laboratory`s specific data quality objectives (DQOs) that govern the operational requirements of the radioassay process, including mandated protocols and recommendations.

  2. Measurement quality assurance for radioassay laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, the quality of U.S. radioassay laboratory services has been evaluated by a limited number of governmental measurement assurance programs (MAPs). The major programs have been limited to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In 1988, an industry MAP was established for the nuclear power utility industry through the U.S. Council for Energy Awareness/National Institute of Standards and Technology (USCEA/NIST). This program functions as both a MAP for utility laboratories and/or their commercial contractor laboratories, and as a traceability program for the U.S. radioactive source manufacturers and the utility laboratories. Each of these generic MAPs has been initiated and is maintained to serve the specific needs of the sponsoring agency or organization. As a result, there is diversification in their approach, scope, requirements, and degree of traceability to NIST. In 1987, a writing committee was formed under the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N42.2 committee to develop a standard to serve as the basis document for the creation of a national measurement quality assurance (MQA) program for radioassay laboratories in the U.S. The standard is entitled, open-quotes Measurement Quality Assurance For Radioassay Laboratories.open-quotes The document was developed to serve as a guide for MQA programs maintained for the specialized sectors of the radioassay community, such as bioassay, routine environmental monitoring, environmental restoration and waste management, radiopharmaceuticals, and nuclear facilities. It was the intent of the writing committee to develop a guidance document that could be utilized to establish a laboratory's specific data quality objectives (DQOs) that govern the operational requirements of the radioassay process, including mandated protocols and recommendations

  3. Quality testing as a reserve for rationalization measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babic, H.G.

    1979-01-01

    The increase in large-scale planning activities and their realization in all fields of quality testing as opposed to the requirements for a reduction of costs emphasizes the necessity of rationaling measures. Especially during the planning phases there are a number of possibilities for solving this problem: the determination of reference dates for production devices based on the preparation of dates with regard to machines and testing, the assignment of the testing frequency in dependence of the quotient from deviations in production and characteristics tolerances, the application of methods of operation planning following different priority rules. Apart from already existing systems for normal and computeraided planning of testing material application by the help of which the most optimal testing material is selected for certain testing jobs systematic representations and programs for the planning of the testing procedure and the testing precision will enrich the joint complex of the organization of testing procedures. (orig./RW) [de

  4. Statistical method for quality control in presence of measurement errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer-Peccoud, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    In a quality inspection of a set of items where the measurements of values of a quality characteristic of the item are contaminated by random errors, one can take wrong decisions which are damageable to the quality. So of is important to control the risks in such a way that a final quality level is insured. We consider that an item is defective or not if the value G of its quality characteristic is larger or smaller than a given level g. We assume that, due to the lack of precision of the measurement instrument, the measurement M of this characteristic is expressed by ∫ (G) + ξ where f is an increasing function such that the value ∫ (g 0 ) is known and ξ is a random error with mean zero and given variance. First we study the problem of the determination of a critical measure m such that a specified quality target is reached after the classification of a lot of items where each item is accepted or rejected depending on whether its measurement is smaller or greater than m. Then we analyse the problem of testing the global quality of a lot from the measurements for a example of items taken from the lot. For these two kinds of problems and for different quality targets, we propose solutions emphasizing on the case where the function ∫ is linear and the error ξ and the variable G are Gaussian. Simulation results allow to appreciate the efficiency of the different considered control procedures and their robustness with respect to deviations from the assumptions used in the theoretical derivations. (author)

  5. Overview of the Spinal Cord Injury--Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Kisala, Pamela A; Victorson, David; Tate, Denise G; Heinemann, Allen W; Charlifue, Susan; Kirshblum, Steve C; Fyffe, Denise; Gershon, Richard; Spungen, Ann M; Bombardier, Charles H; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor A; Amtmann, Dagmar; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Choi, Seung W; Jette, Alan M; Forchheimer, Martin; Cella, David

    2015-05-01

    The Spinal Cord Injury--Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system was developed to address the shortage of relevant and psychometrically sound patient reported outcome (PRO) measures available for clinical care and research in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Using a computer adaptive testing (CAT) approach, the SCI-QOL builds on the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (Neuro-QOL) initiative. This initial manuscript introduces the background and development of the SCI-QOL measurement system. Greater detail is presented in the additional manuscripts of this special issue. Classical and contemporary test development methodologies were employed. Qualitative input was obtained from individuals with SCI and clinicians through interviews, focus groups, and cognitive debriefing. Item pools were field tested in a multi-site sample (n=877) and calibrated using item response theory methods. Initial reliability and validity testing was performed in a new sample of individuals with traumatic SCI (n=245). Five Model SCI System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center across the United States. Adults with traumatic SCI. n/a n/a The SCI-QOL consists of 19 item banks, including the SCI-Functional Index banks, and 3 fixed-length scales measuring physical, emotional, and social aspects of health-related QOL (HRQOL). The SCI-QOL measurement system consists of psychometrically sound measures for individuals with SCI. The manuscripts in this special issue provide evidence of the reliability and initial validity of this measurement system. The SCI-QOL also links to other measures designed for a general medical population.

  6. Re-Engineering a Small Oncology Practice for Quality Using the ASCO Quality Oncology Practice Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Carolyn B.

    2013-01-01

    The field of quality improvement is expanding rapidly, and small oncology practices need to adapt and rise to future challenges. Additional quality measures from ASCO and other organizations will likely focus on palliative care, the Top Five, and electronic measures.

  7. Velocity Field Measurements of Human Coughing Using Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, T.; Marr, D. R.; Higuchi, H.; Glauser, M. N.

    2003-11-01

    Quantitative fluid mechanics analysis of human coughing has been carried out using new Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TRPIV). The study involves measurement of velocity vector time-histories and velocity profiles. It is focused on the average normal human coughing. Some work in the past on cough mechanics has involved measurement of flow rates, tidal volumes and sub-glottis pressure. However, data of unsteady velocity vector field of the exiting highly time-dependent jets is not available. In this study, human cough waveform data are first acquired in vivo using conventional respiratory instrumentation for various volunteers of different gender/age groups. The representative waveform is then reproduced with a coughing/breathing simulator (with or without a manikin) for TRPIV measurements and analysis. The results of this study would be useful not only for designing of indoor air quality and heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, but also for devising means of protection against infectious diseases.

  8. Principles of planar near-field antenna measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Gregson, Stuart; Parini, Clive

    2007-01-01

    This single volume provides a comprehensive introduction and explanation of both the theory and practice of 'Planar Near-Field Antenna Measurement' from its basic postulates and assumptions, to the intricacies of its deployment in complex and demanding measurement scenarios.

  9. The Passy-2015 field experiment: wintertime atmospheric dynamics and air quality in a narrow alpine valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, Alexandre; Staquet, Chantal

    2016-04-01

    Wintertime anticyclonic conditions lead to the formation of persistent stable boundary layers which may induce severe air pollution episodes in urban or industrialized area, particularly in mountain regions. The Arve river valley in the Northern Alps is very sensitive to this phenomenon, in particular close to the city of Passy (Haute-Savoie), 20 km down valley past Chamonix. This place is indeed one of the worst place in France regarding air quality, the concentration of fine particles and Benzo(a)pyrene (a carcinogenic organic compound) regularly exceeding the EU legal admissible level during winter. Besides air quality measurements, such as the ones presently carried in the area by the local air quality agency Air Rhône-Alpes or in the DECOMBIO project led by LGGE, it is crucial to improve our knowledge of the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and processes at the valley scale under these persistent stable conditions in order to improve our understanding on how it drives pollutant dispersion. These issues motivated the Passy-2015 field experiment which took place during the winter 2014-2015. A relatively large set-up of instruments was deployed on a main measurement site in the valley center and on four other satellite sites. It includes several remote sensing instruments, a surface flux station, a 10 m instrumented tower, a large aperture scintillometer, a fog monitoring station among others. Most of the instruments were present from early January to the end of February. During two intensive observation periods, 6-14 February and 17-20 February, the instrumental set-up was completed on the main site with high frequency radio-soundings (up to one per 1h30), a tethered balloon, a remote controlled drone quadcopter and a sodar. The field campaign, the instruments, the meteorological situations observed and preliminary results will be presented. This field experiment is part of the Passy project funded by ADEME through the French national programme LEFE/INSU and

  10. A method for the measurement of fission rates in fast neutron fields using solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.; Vogel, W.

    1984-04-01

    Solid state track detectors (SSTDs) are increasingly used for the registration of radiation in different fields of nuclear physics. Because of their small sizes and masses and the absence of any electronics during exposure SSTDs do not cause distortions in the system to be investigated and are useful for measurements at such places being difficult of access. The elaboration of a method is described for fission rate measurements in fast neutron fields applying SSTDs and different fissionable isotopes which were electrodeposited on stainless steel backings. Experiences of the electrodeposition and results of quality checks are presented. The evaluation of the etched tracks is performed with spark counter technique. The dependence of the counting result on essential influence parameters is discussed. (author)

  11. Quality Assessment in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Jeffrey M.; Das, Prajnan

    2012-01-01

    The movement to improve healthcare quality has led to a need for carefully designed quality indicators that accurately reflect the quality of care. Many different measures have been proposed and continue to be developed by governmental agencies and accrediting bodies. However, given the inherent differences in the delivery of care among medical specialties, the same indicators will not be valid across all of them. Specifically, oncology is a field in which it can be difficult to develop quality indicators, because the effectiveness of an oncologic intervention is often not immediately apparent, and the multidisciplinary nature of the field necessarily involves many different specialties. Existing and emerging comparative effectiveness data are helping to guide evidence-based practice, and the increasing availability of these data provides the opportunity to identify key structure and process measures that predict for quality outcomes. The increasing emphasis on quality and efficiency will continue to compel the medical profession to identify appropriate quality measures to facilitate quality improvement efforts and to guide accreditation, credentialing, and reimbursement. Given the wide-reaching implications of quality metrics, it is essential that they be developed and implemented with scientific rigor. The aims of the present report were to review the current state of quality assessment in oncology, identify existing indicators with the best evidence to support their implementation, and propose a framework for identifying and refining measures most indicative of true quality in oncologic care.

  12. Quality Assessment in Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Jeffrey M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Das, Prajnan, E-mail: prajdas@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The movement to improve healthcare quality has led to a need for carefully designed quality indicators that accurately reflect the quality of care. Many different measures have been proposed and continue to be developed by governmental agencies and accrediting bodies. However, given the inherent differences in the delivery of care among medical specialties, the same indicators will not be valid across all of them. Specifically, oncology is a field in which it can be difficult to develop quality indicators, because the effectiveness of an oncologic intervention is often not immediately apparent, and the multidisciplinary nature of the field necessarily involves many different specialties. Existing and emerging comparative effectiveness data are helping to guide evidence-based practice, and the increasing availability of these data provides the opportunity to identify key structure and process measures that predict for quality outcomes. The increasing emphasis on quality and efficiency will continue to compel the medical profession to identify appropriate quality measures to facilitate quality improvement efforts and to guide accreditation, credentialing, and reimbursement. Given the wide-reaching implications of quality metrics, it is essential that they be developed and implemented with scientific rigor. The aims of the present report were to review the current state of quality assessment in oncology, identify existing indicators with the best evidence to support their implementation, and propose a framework for identifying and refining measures most indicative of true quality in oncologic care.

  13. Standards for measurements and testing of wind turbine power quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Gerdes, G; Klosse, R; Santjer, F [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Robertson, N; Davy, W [NEL, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Koulouvari, M; Morfiadakis, E [CRES, Pikermi (Greece); Larsson, Aa [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The present paper describes the work done in power quality sub-task of the project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Developments` funded by the EU SMT program. The objective of the power quality sub-task has been to make analyses and new recommendation(s) for the standardisation of measurement and verification of wind turbine power quality. The work has been organised in three major activities. The first activity has been to propose measurement procedures and to verify existing and new measurement procedures. This activity has also involved a comparison of the measurements and data processing of the participating partners. The second activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with constant rotor speed. The third activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with variable rotor speed. (au)

  14. A fourier transform quality measure for iris images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makinana, S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available to ensure that good quality images are selected for feature extraction, in order to improve iris recognition system. In addition, this research proposes a measure of iris image quality using a Fourier Transform. The experimental results demonstrate...

  15. Business Process Modelling for Measuring Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidari, F.; Loucopoulos, P.; Brazier, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Business process modelling languages facilitate presentation, communication and analysis of business processes with different stakeholders. This paper proposes an approach that drives specification and measurement of quality requirements and in doing so relies on business process models as

  16. Patients’ perceived value of pharmacy quality measures: a mixed-methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Mort, Jane R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe patients’ perceived value and use of quality measures in evaluating and choosing community pharmacies. Design Focus group methodology was combined with a survey tool. During the focus groups, participants assessed the value of the Pharmacy Quality Alliance's quality measures in evaluating and choosing a pharmacy. Also, participants completed questionnaires rating their perceived value of quality measures in evaluating a pharmacy (1 being low value and 5 being high) or choosing a pharmacy (yes/no). Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the focus groups and surveys, respectively. Setting Semistructured focus groups were conducted in a private meeting space of an urban and a rural area of a Mid-western State in the USA. Participants Thirty-four adults who filled prescription medications in community pharmacies for a chronic illness were recruited in community pharmacies, senior centres and public libraries. Results While comments indicated that all measures were important, medication safety measures (eg, drug-drug interactions) were valued more highly than others. Rating of quality measure utility in evaluating a pharmacy ranged from a mean of 4.88 (‘drug-drug interactions’) to a mean of 4.0 (‘absence of controller therapy for patients with asthma’). Patients were hesitant to use quality information in choosing a pharmacy (depending on the participant's location) but might consider if moving to a new area or having had a negative pharmacy experience. Use of select quality measures to choose a pharmacy ranged from 97.1% of participants using ‘drug-drug interactions’ (medication safety measure) to 55.9% using ‘absence of controller therapy for patients with asthma’. Conclusions The study participants valued quality measures in evaluating and selecting a community pharmacy, with medication safety measures valued highest. The participants reported that the quality measures would not typically cause a

  17. Magnetic field measurements of the superEBIS superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herschcovitch, A.; Kponou, A.; Clipperton, R.; Hensel, W.; Usack, F.

    1994-01-01

    SuperEBIS was designed to have a solenoidal magnetic field of a 5 Tesla strength with a 120 cm long bore. The field was specified to be straight within 1 part in 10000 within the bore, and uniform to within 1 part in 1000 within the central 90 cm. Magnetic field measurements were performed with a computerized magnetic field measuring setup that was borrowed from W. Sampson's group. A preliminary test was made of a scheme to determine if the magnetic and mechanical axes of the solenoid coincided, and, if not, by how much

  18. The exploration of service quality and its measurement for private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strategic importance of service excellence for service industries places the focus on service quality leadership, service quality management systems, service quality dimensions and the measurement of service quality. Many businesses such as private higher education institutions (PHEIs) regard service quality ...

  19. Optical Measurements of Strong Radio-Frequency Fields Using Rydberg Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephanie Anne

    There has recently been an initiative toward establishing atomic measurement standards for field quantities, including radio-frequency, millimeter-wave, and micro-wave electric fields. Current measurement standards are obtained using dipole antennas, which are fundamentally limited in frequency bandwidth (set by the physical size of the antenna) and accuracy (due to the metal perturbing the field during the measurement). Establishing an atomic standard rectifies these problems. My thesis work contributes to an ongoing effort towards establishing the viability of using Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to perform atom-based measurements of radio-frequency (RF) fields over a wide range of frequencies and field strengths, focusing on strong-field measurements. Rydberg atoms are atoms with an electron excited to a high principal quantum number, resulting in a high sensitivity to an applied field. A model based on Floquet theory is implemented to accurately describe the observed atomic energy level shifts from which information about the field is extracted. Additionally, the effects due to the different electric field domains within the measurement volume are accurately modeled. Absolute atomic measurements of fields up to 296 V/m within a +/-0.35% relative uncertainty are demonstrated. This is the strongest field measured at the time of data publication. Moreover, the uncertainty is over an order of magnitude better than that of current standards. A vacuum chamber setup that I implemented during my graduate studies is presented and its unique components are detailed. In this chamber, cold-atom samples are generated and Rydberg atoms are optically excited within the ground-state sample. The Rydberg ion detection and imaging procedure are discussed, particularly the high magnification that the system provides. By analyzing the position of the ions, the spatial correlation g(2) (r) of Rydberg-atom distributions can be extracted. Aside from ion

  20. A microcomputer controlled, self-contained field measurement and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddock, C.; Smith, G.; Mckee, J.S.C.

    1989-10-01

    Current accelerator projects will involve the construction and field measurement of up to ten thousand magnets. A statistical analysis has shown that in order to optimize the performance of an accelerator it will be necessary to measure the parameters of field strength, field uniformity and harmonic content of every magnet. If the measurements are performed at the construction site, the magnets which do not meet the required specifications can be repaired immediately. This paper describes a self-contained field measurement and analysis system, based on an IBM microcomputer, which performs all the remote control, data acquisition and data analysis functions automatically. The system is of low cost such that each manufacturer could provide field parameters on each magnet as it is completed thus avoiding a logistical problem at the accelerator site

  1. Measurement of ultra-low ion energy of decelerated ion beam using a deflecting electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thopan, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2015-12-15

    In investigation on ultra-low-energy ion bombardment effect on DNA, an ion beam deceleration lens was developed for high-quality ultra-low-energy ion beam. Measurement of the ion energy after deceleration was necessary to confirm the ion beam really decelerated as theoretically predicted. In contrast to conventional methods, this work used a simple deflecting electrostatic field after the deceleration lens to bend the ion beam. The beam bending distance depended on the ion energy and was described and simulated. A system for the measurement of the ion beam energy was constructed. It consisted of a pair of parallel electrode plates to generate the deflecting electrical field, a copper rod measurement piece to detect ion beam current, a vernier caliper to mark the beam position, a stepping motor to translate the measurement rod, and a webcam-camera to read the beam bending distance. The entire system was installed after the ion-beam deceleration lens inside the large chamber of the bioengineering vertical ion beam line. Moving the measurement rod across the decelerated ion beam enabled to obtain beam profiles, from which the beam bending distance could be known and the ion beam energy could be calculated. The measurement results were in good agreement with theoretical and simulated results.

  2. Magnetic field measurements using the transient internal probe (TIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.P.; Bohnet, M.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mattick, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the internal magnetic field profile in hot plasmas is fundamental to understanding the structure and behavior of the current profile. The transient internal probe (TIP) is a novel diagnostic designed to measure internal magnetic fields in hot plasmas. The diagnostic involves shooting a magneto-optic probe through the plasma at high velocities (greater than 2 km/s) using a two stage light gas gun. Local fields are obtained by illuminating the probe with an argon ion laser and measuring the amount of Faraday rotation in the reflected beam. Initial development of the diagnostic is complete. Results of magnetic field measurements conducted at 2 km/s will be presented. Helium muzzle gas introduction to the plasma chamber has been limited to less than 0.4 Torr-ell. Magnetic field resolution of 40 Gauss and spatial resolution of 5 mm have been achieved. System frequency response is 10 MHz

  3. Measurement of the electrostatic field in aurora by antarctic rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeya, Yoshio; Minami, Shigeyuki

    1974-01-01

    The direct measurement of the electrostatic field produced by the flow of charged particles and geomagnetic field in aurora has been carried out by means of rockets or satellites. The construction of an electric field meter and its characteristics are described, which measures the vectors of electric field with antarctic rockets. New scheme is presented: three components of an electric field are directly obtained through the probes set in three directions. (Mori, K.)

  4. A new framework for interactive quality assessment with application to light field coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Irene; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, light field has experienced a surge of popularity, mainly due to the recent advances in acquisition and rendering technologies that have made it more accessible to the public. Thanks to image-based rendering techniques, light field contents can be rendered in real time on common 2D screens, allowing virtual navigation through the captured scenes in an interactive fashion. However, this richer representation of the scene poses the problem of reliable quality assessments for light field contents. In particular, while subjective methodologies that enable interaction have already been proposed, no work has been done on assessing how users interact with light field contents. In this paper, we propose a new framework to subjectively assess the quality of light field contents in an interactive manner and simultaneously track users behaviour. The framework is successfully used to perform subjective assessment of two coding solutions. Moreover, statistical analysis performed on the results shows interesting correlation between subjective scores and average interaction time.

  5. Does Input Quality Drive Measured Differences in Firm Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Jeremy T.; Smeets, Valerie Anne Rolande

    is roughly of the same order of magnitude as some competitive effects found in the literature, but input quality measures do not explain most productivity dispersion, despite economically large production function coefficients. We find that the wage bill explains as much dispersion as human capital measures.......Firms in the same industry can differ in measured productivity by multiples of 3. Griliches (1957) suggests one explanation: the quality of inputs differs across firms. We add labor market history variables such as experience and firm and industry tenure, as well as general human capital measures...

  6. Comparison of quality of life measures in a depressed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Stephen R; Rush, A John; Bryan, Charlene; Shelton, Richard; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Marcus, Sheila; Husain, Mustafa M; Hollon, Steven D; Fava, Maurizio

    2007-03-01

    Measures of quality of life have been increasingly used in clinical trials. When designing a study, researchers must decide which quality of life measure to use. Some literature provides guidance through general recommendations, though lacks quantitative comparisons. In this report, 2 general quality of life measures, the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), are compared in a depressed population. STAR*D data were used to analyze the associations among the SF-12 and the Q-LES-Q. Each measure covers 6 domains, overlapping on 5 (health, self-esteem/well-being, community/productivity, social/love relationships, leisure/creativity), with the SF-12 addressing family and the Q-LES-Q addressing living situations. Strong item-by-item associations exist only between the Q-LES-Q and the SF-12 physical health items. The 2 measures overlap on the domains covered while the lack of correlation between the 2 measures may be attributed to the perspective of each question as the Q-LES-Q measures satisfaction while the SF-12 measures the patient's perception of function.

  7. Use of Remote Technology in the Surface Water Environmental Monitoring Program at SRS Reducing Measurements in the Field - 13336

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.; Terry, B.; Meyer, A.; Hall, J.; Allen, P.; Hughey, D.; Hartley, T.

    2013-01-01

    There are a wide range of sensor and remote technology applications available for use in environmental monitoring programs. Each application has its own set of limitations and can be challenging when attempting to utilize it under diverse environmental field conditions. The Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Program has implemented several remote sensing and surface water flow technologies that have increased the quality of the data while reducing the number of field measurements. Implementation of this technology reduced the field time for personnel that commute across the Savannah River Site (SRS) over a span of 310 square miles. The wireless surface water flow technology allows for immediate notification of changing field conditions or equipment failure thus reducing data-loss or erroneous field data and improving data-quality. This wireless flow technology uses the stage-to-flow methodology coupled with implementation of a robust highly accurate Acoustic Doppler Profiler system for measuring discharge under various field conditions. Savings for implementation of the wireless flow application and Flowlink R technology equates to approximately 1175 hours annually for the radiological liquid effluent and surveillance programs. The SonTek River Suveyor and Flowtracker technologies are utilized for calibration of the wireless flow monitoring devices in the site streams and validation of effluent flows at the SRS. Implementation of similar wireless devices is also planned in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm-water Monitoring Program. SRS personnel have been developing a unique flow actuator device. This device activates an ISCO TM automated sampler under flowing conditions at storm-water outfall locations across the site. This technology is unique in that it was designed to be used under field conditions with rapid changes in flow and sedimentation where traditional actuators have been unsuccessful in tripping the automated

  8. Advances in the measurement of weak magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Damin; Huang Minzhe.

    1992-01-01

    The state-of-art and general features of instruments for measuring weak magnetic fields (such as the non-directional magnetometer, induced coil magnetometer, proton magnetometer, optical pumping magnetometer, flux-gate magnetometer and superconducting quantum magnetometer) are briefly described. Emphasis is laid on the development of a novel technique used in the flux-gate magnetometer and the liquid nitrogen SQUID. Typical applications of the measuring techniques for weak magnetic fields are given

  9. An electromagnetic field measurement protocol for monitoring power lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubritto, C.; Iavazzo, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; Palmieri, A.; Sabbarese, C.; Terrasi, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the actions aiming to prevent risks related to the exposure to Low Frequencies Non Ionising electromagnetic Radiations (ELF-NIR), always arises the need to perform measurements in order to assess the field level existing in the considered sites. As a matter of fact very often it turns out difficult to predict, on the base of calculations, with sufficient approximation the field levels, due to extended variability of environmental conditions (e.g. coexistence of several sources, ground and building conformation, etc..). The measurement procedures must follow a methodology that could allow to minimise the interferences with the measurement set-up and the systematic and accidental errors. Risks for the operator and damages to the instrument should also be taken into account. One of the goal set for this research program was then the definition of the measurement protocol for electromagnetic field generated by low frequency non ionising radiation sources. In particular sources like power lines will be considered in order to validate the protocol by means of in-field measurements

  10. Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Melissa L.; Reutter, David C.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Mueller, David K.

    2018-04-10

    The data-quality objectives for samples collected at surface-water sites in the National Water-Quality Network include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of environmental conditions. Quality-control samples provide insight into how well the samples collected at surface-water sites represent the true environmental conditions. Quality-control samples used in this program include field blanks, replicates, and field matrix spikes. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey’s national database.

  11. Measurements of sub photon cavity fields by atom interferometry; Mesures de champs au niveau du photon par interferometrie atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussenzveig, P

    1994-07-15

    Two neighbouring levels of a Rydberg atom coupled to a high quality-factor microwave cavity are an excellent tool for the study of matter-wave interactions at the most basic level. The system is so simple (a two-level atom coupled to a single mode of the field) that most phenomena can be described analytically. In this work we study dispersive effects of the non-resonant atom-cavity interaction. We have measured the linear dependence of the atomic energy level-shifts on the average photon number in the cavity. Light shifts induced by an average microwave field intensity weaker than a single photon have been observed. It has also been possible to measure the residual shift of one of the two levels of the atomic transition in the absence of an injected field: a Lamb shift due to a single mode of the field. A sensitive measurement of these energy shifts is performed by an interferometric method: the Ramsey separated oscillatory fields technique. Future experiments, in a situation of very weak field relaxation, are proposed. The quantum behavior of the field will then be dominant and it shall be possible to perform a Quantum Non-Demolition measurement of the photon number: since the interaction is non-resonant, the atoms can neither absorb nor emit photons in the cavity. The performed experiments demonstrate the sensitivity of the apparatus and set the stage for future non-demolition measurements and for the study of 'mesoscopic' Schroedinger cat states of the field, on the boundary between classical and quantum worlds. (author)

  12. FIELD TEST OF THE FLAME QUALITY INDICATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, Andrew M; Butcher, Thomas; Troost, Henry

    2003-02-04

    The flame quality indicator concept was developed at BNL specifically to monitor the brightness of the flame in a small oil burner and to provide a ''call for service'' notification when the brightness has changed from its setpoint, either high or low. In prior development work BNL has explored the response of this system to operational upsets such as excess air changes, fouled atomizer nozzles, poor fuel quality, etc. Insight Technologies, Inc. and Honeywell, Inc. have licensed this technology from the U.S. Department of Energy and have been cooperating to develop product offerings which meet industry needs with an optimal combination of function and price. Honeywell has recently completed the development of the Flame Quality Monitor (FQM or Honeywell QS7100F). This is a small module which connects via a serial cable to the burners primary operating control. Primary advantages of this approach are simplicity, cost, and ease of installation. Call-for-service conditions are output in the form of front panel indicator lights and contact closure which can trigger a range of external communication options. Under this project a field test was conducted of the FQM in cooperation with service organizations in Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut. At total of 83 field sites were included. At each site the FQM was installed in parallel with another embodiment of this concept--the Insight AFQI. The AFQI incorporates a modem and provides the ability to provide detailed information on the trends in the flame quality over the course of the two year test period. The test site population was comprised of 79.5% boilers, 13.7% warm air furnaces, and 6.8% water heaters. Nearly all were of residential size--with firing rates ranging from 0.6 gallons of oil per hour to 1.25. During the course of the test program the monitoring equipment successfully identified problems including: plugged fuel lines, fouled nozzles, collapsed combustion

  13. The transient electric field measurement system for EAST device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y., E-mail: wayong@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Ji, Z.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Zhu, C.M. [The Experiment & Verification Center of State Grid Electric Power Research Institute (The Automation Equipment EMC Lab. of State Grid Co.), Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Z.C.; Ma, T.F.; Xu, Z.H. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2016-11-15

    The electromagnetic environment around the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) device is very complex during plasma discharge experiment. In order to fully monitor the changes of electric field around the EAST device during plasma discharge, a transient electric field measurement system based on PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation (PXI) platform has been designed. A digitizer is used for high-speed data acquisition of raw signals from electric field sensors, and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) module is used for realizing an on-the-fly fast Fourier transform (FFT) and inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) algorithm including a beforehand identified antenna factor (AF) to achieve finally a calibrated and filtered electric field measurement, then these signals can be displayed and easily analyzed. The raw signals from electric field sensors are transferred through optical fiber by optical isolation to reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI). The high speed data streaming technology is used for data storage. A prototype of this system has been realized to measure the transient electric field strength, with the real-time processing and continuous acquisition ability of one channel of 14-bit resolution and up to 50 MHz sampling rate, and 6 KHz FFT frequency resolution.

  14. On the measurement of stationary electric fields in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, H.

    2002-01-01

    Applications and measurement methods for field measurements are reviewed. Recent developments using optical technology are examined. The various methods are compared. It is concluded that the best general purpose instrument is the isolated cylindrical field mill, but MEMS technology could furnish better instruments in the future.

  15. A poloidal field measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobes, F.C.

    1989-07-01

    The poloidal field of a tokamak can be determined by observing the light emitted by He + ions injected into the plasma by a perpendicular He 0 beam. These ions will orbit in small circles located where the neutral atom became ionized, and they will remain there for a few microseconds. During this time, some of these ions will also emit light at various spectral lines. The observed spectrum of any of these lines will have a peculiar and very wide shape, and it will be offset (Doppler shifted) with respect to the natural line location. The location and width of the spectral pattern provide independent information about the components of the poloidal field which are parallel and perpendicular to the beam velocity, and this information is local to the point where the light is emitted. For a horizontal beam, these components are b x and b y , respectively. The difference in Doppler shift between two measurement points above one another (at the top and bottom of the beam) is directly proportional to δb x , which in turn is proportional to the transform on that flux surface. Thus, this technique provides a means to measure directly local values of q(r). Simulation studies indicate that accurate measurements can be made in milliseconds. 6 refs., 8 figs

  16. Electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge in atmospheric air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeni Simeni, Marien; Frederickson, Kraig; Lempert, Walter R; Adamovich, Igor V; Goldberg, Benjamin M; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of temporally and spatially resolved electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge in atmospheric air, sustained between a razor edge high-voltage electrode and a plane grounded electrode covered by a thin dielectric plate. The electric field is measured by picosecond four-wave mixing in a collinear phase-matching geometry, with time resolution of approximately 2 ns, using an absolute calibration provided by measurements of a known electrostatic electric field. The results demonstrate electric field offset on the discharge center plane before the discharge pulse due to surface charge accumulation on the dielectric from the weaker, opposite polarity pre-pulse. During the discharge pulse, the electric field follows the applied voltage until ‘forward’ breakdown occurs, after which the field in the plasma is significantly reduced due to charge separation. When the applied voltage is reduced, the field in the plasma reverses direction and increases again, until the weak ‘reverse’ breakdown occurs, producing a secondary transient reduction in the electric field. After the pulse, the field is gradually reduced on a microsecond time scale, likely due to residual surface charge neutralization by transport of opposite polarity charges from the plasma. Spatially resolved electric field measurements show that the discharge develops as a surface ionization wave. Significant surface charge accumulation on the dielectric surface is detected near the end of the discharge pulse. Spatially resolved measurements of electric field vector components demonstrate that the vertical electric field in the surface ionization wave peaks ahead of the horizontal electric field. Behind the wave, the vertical field remains low, near the detection limit, while the horizontal field is gradually reduced to near the detection limit at the discharge center plane. These results are consistent with time-resolved measurements of electric field

  17. Full-field measurements and identification in solid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Grediac, Michel

    2008-01-01

    This timely book presents cutting-edge developments by experts in the field on the rapidly developing and scientifically challenging area of full-field measurement techniques used in solid mechanics - including photoelasticity, grid methods, deflectometry, holography, speckle interferometry and digital image correlation. The evaluation of strains and the use of the measurements in subsequent parameter identification techniques to determine material properties are also presented. Since parametric identification techniques require a close coupling of theoretical models and experimental measurements, the book focuses on specific modeling approaches that include finite element model updating, the equilibrium gap method, constitutive equation gap method, virtual field method and reciprocity gap method. In the latter part of the book, the authors discuss two particular applications of selected methods that are of special interest to many investigators: the analysis of localized phenomenon and connections between mi...

  18. Critical field measurements in a superconducting networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannetier, B.; Chaussy, J.; Rammal, R.

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the critical field of a periodic two-dimensional network of superconducting indium. At low fields, the critical line Hsub(c)(T) reflects the network topology and exhibits well-defined cusps due to flux quantization corresponding to both integer and rational number of flux quanta phi 0 = h/2e per unit loop of the network [fr

  19. Quality controls for wind measurement of a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler under strong wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Zheng, Chaorong; Wu, Yue

    2017-09-01

    Wind profilers have been widely adopted to observe the wind field information in the atmosphere for different purposes. But accuracy of its observation has limitations due to various noises or disturbances and hence need to be further improved. In this paper, the data measured under strong wind conditions, using a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler (BLP), are quality controlled via a composite quality control (QC) procedure proposed by the authors. Then, through the comparison with the data measured by radiosonde flights (balloon observations), the critical thresholds in the composite QC procedure, including consensus average threshold T 1 and vertical shear threshold T 3 , are systematically discussed. And the performance of the BLP operated under precipitation is also evaluated. It is found that to ensure the high accuracy and high data collectable rate, the optimal range of subsets is determined to be 4 m/s. Although the number of data rejected by the combined algorithm of vertical shear examination and small median test is quite limited, it is proved that the algorithm is quite useful to recognize the outlier with a large discrepancy. And the optimal wind shear threshold T 3 can be recommended as 5 ms -1 /100m. During patchy precipitation, the quality of data measured by the four oblique beams (using the DBS measuring technique) can still be ensured. After the BLP data are quality controlled by the composite QC procedure, the output can show good agreement with the balloon observation.

  20. Integration of the effects of air quality measures in the SOLVE mix of measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesselmans, T.; Heijnis, F.

    2008-01-01

    SOLVE is the Dutch abbreviation for fast solutions for air and traffic and is a website by means of which provinces and municipalities in the Netherlands can gain insight into the best measures for traffic to improve the quality of the ambient air. Since halfway June 2008, the effects on air quality of approximately 35 traffic measures were included in the SOLVE mix of measures. The effects of traffic measures on emissions of particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide have been calculated. The effects are expressed in a decrease of the contribution of traffic indicated in a scale from A (very large decrease) to E (no decrease). The outcome depends on the location where the measure is implemented. [mk] [nl

  1. Measuring the Earth's Magnetic Field in a Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartacci, A.; Straulino, S.

    2008-01-01

    Two methods for measuring the Earth's magnetic field are described. In the former, according to Gauss, the Earth's magnetic field is compared with that of a permanent magnet; in the latter, a well-known method, the comparison is made with the magnetic field generated by a current. As all the used instruments are available off the shelf, both…

  2. Verification of absorbed dose rates in reference beta radiation fields: measurements with an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaldo, S. R.; Benavente C, J. A.; Da Silva, T. A.

    2015-10-01

    Beta Secondary Standard 2 (Bss 2) provides beta radiation fields with certified values of absorbed dose to tissue and the derived operational radiation protection quantities. As part of the quality assurance, metrology laboratories are required to verify the reliability of the Bss-2 system by performing additional verification measurements. In the CDTN Calibration Laboratory, the absorbed dose rates and their angular variation in the 90 Sr/ 90 Y and 85 Kr beta radiation fields were studied. Measurements were done with a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber and with Gafchromic radiochromic films on a PMMA slab phantom. In comparison to the certificate values provided by the Bss-2, absorbed dose rates measured with the extrapolation chamber differed from -1.4 to 2.9% for the 90 Sr/ 90 Y and -0.3% for the 85 Kr fields; their angular variation showed differences lower than 2% for incidence angles up to 40-degrees and it reached 11% for higher angles, when compared to ISO values. Measurements with the radiochromic film showed an asymmetry of the radiation field that is caused by a misalignment. Differences between the angular variations of absorbed dose rates determined by both dosimetry systems suggested that some correction factors for the extrapolation chamber that were not considered should be determined. (Author)

  3. Electric field measurements in a xenon discharge using Spark spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaars, E.; Bowden, M.D.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of electric field distributions in a low-pressure xenon discharge are presented. The measurement technique is based on Stark spectroscopy, using a 2 + 1 excitation scheme with fluorescence dip detection. Electric fields can be measured by detecting Stark shifts of high-lying Rydberg

  4. Technological measures to improve automotive product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gladkov, V.; Kruglov, S.

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the basic technological measures aimed at improving product quality in automotive industry. While paying due attention to solving organizational and technological problems, including the development of certification systems for production processes, it is also necessary to improve the technical standards of specific technologies, equipment and materials as they largely determine product quality. Special emphasis is given to the importance of improving the production of auto...

  5. Evaluation study of an ion selective field effect transistor electrode for measuring quality parameters of fuel ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano B.; Sobral, Sidney P.; Ribeiro, Carla M.; Goncalves, Mary A., E-mail: fbgonzaga@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia(INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Metrologia Quimica

    2013-01-15

    An ion selective field effect transistor (ISFET) electrode was evaluated for measuring pH and acid number (AN) of fuel ethanol and compared to two glass electrodes with different reference filling solutions: KCl aqueous solution (glass-KCl electrode)and LiCl ethanolic solution (glass-LiCl electrode). pH was determined at different measurement times and AN was determined using automatic potentiometric titration. For pH, the glass-KCl electrode showed the best precision and stability, with an average repeatability about four times better when compared to the ISFET electrode for the measurement time of 30 s (as indicated in the ASTM D6423 standard). For AN, the glass-KCl and glass-LiCl electrodes showed similar repeatabilities, which were about three times better than that of the ISFET electrode. In addition, the results from a recovery study demonstrated better accuracy of the glass-LiCl electrode, with a recovery value of 100.1% (author)

  6. Distributor– Retailer Interface in Pharmaceutical Supply Chain: Service Quality Measurement Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Babapour, Jafar; peiravian, farzad

    2016-01-01

    In the current competitive market, service quality management is the key to the survival and success of businesses. SERVQUAL is a popular service quality measurement scale (SQMS) that has served as a basis for subsequent research on service quality; it has been used for testing different aspects of service quality in a market. The purpose of our study is, therefore, to develop a service quality measurement scale (SQMS) for the distributor–retailer interface of Pharm supply chains (PSC) in Iran. A survey was performed to collect data from pharmacies located in Tehran. A valid and reliable questionnaire delivered to pharmacies, and 400 pharmacies were intended to participate in our survey. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to develop an SQMS in this study. Sufficient sampling was undertaken to do CFA. Consistent with other service quality studies, this Res developed an SQMS with five dimensions and 20 items for PSC, and contributes to mangers to regularly measure service quality. This is an initial study to develop a framework for measuring service quality in Iranian PCS. The framework can be used effectively to achieve competitive advantage at the distributor–retailer interface. PMID:28243297

  7. Distributor- Retailer Interface in Pharmaceutical Supply Chain: Service Quality Measurement Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Babapour, Jafar; Peiravian, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    In the current competitive market, service quality management is the key to the survival and success of businesses. SERVQUAL is a popular service quality measurement scale (SQMS) that has served as a basis for subsequent research on service quality; it has been used for testing different aspects of service quality in a market. The purpose of our study is, therefore, to develop a service quality measurement scale (SQMS) for the distributor-retailer interface of Pharm supply chains (PSC) in Iran. A survey was performed to collect data from pharmacies located in Tehran. A valid and reliable questionnaire delivered to pharmacies, and 400 pharmacies were intended to participate in our survey. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to develop an SQMS in this study. Sufficient sampling was undertaken to do CFA. Consistent with other service quality studies, this Res developed an SQMS with five dimensions and 20 items for PSC, and contributes to mangers to regularly measure service quality. This is an initial study to develop a framework for measuring service quality in Iranian PCS. The framework can be used effectively to achieve competitive advantage at the distributor-retailer interface.

  8. Measuring ICT usage quality for information society building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Danylchenko, Lesya

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 the World Summit on Information Society made a call for measuring the state of Information Society (IS) building between countries. The purpose of the measuring was to assess and compare IS practices around the globe as well as share best practices. A number of measurement tools have sinc...... levels of ICT usage for the purpose of better policy-making, while establishing an information society, is accentuated....... these indicators on the actual levels of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) usage off the country’s stakeholders. This paper analyses the most currently used indices for measuring the state of Information Society building from the perspective of their constituent indicators. Based on the analysis......, an alternative framework for IS measurement, addressing the important aspects of ICT usage quality, is developed based on data from EU member states. By applying the framework on measuring of ICT usage quality at Romania, Cyprus and Estonia, the usefulness is tested positive, and the need to evaluate the actual...

  9. Measuring the effect of managerial ability on earning quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Bahri Sales

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the effect of managerial ability on earning quality on selected firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2007-2013. The proposed study uses data envelopment analysis to measure the relative efficiency of selected firms where Sales is considered as output and Cost of goods (COGS, Selling, General and Administrative Expenses (SG&A, Net Property Plant and Equipment (PPE, Net operating Leases (OpsLease, Research & Development (R&D, Purchased Good will (Goodwill and Other intangible assets (OtherIntan are considered as inputs. Earning quality in this survey consists of three parts of quality of accruals, earnings and earnings forecast persistence. The results of our survey have indicated that managerial ability influences positively on earning quality.

  10. Impact of the optical depth of field on cytogenetic image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Yuhua; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2012-09-01

    In digital pathology, clinical specimen slides are converted into digital images by microscopic image scanners. Since random vibration and mechanical drifting are unavoidable on even high-precision moving stages, the optical depth of field (DOF) of microscopic systems may affect image quality, in particular when using an objective lens with high magnification power. The DOF of a microscopic system was theoretically analyzed and experimentally validated using standard resolution targets under 60× dry and 100× oil objective lenses, respectively. Then cytogenetic samples were imaged at in-focused and off-focused states to analyze the impact of DOF on the acquired image qualities. For the investigated system equipped with the 60× dry and 100× oil objective lenses, the theoretical estimation of the DOF are 0.855 μm and 0.703 μm, and the measured DOF are 3.0 μm and 1.8 μm, respectively. The observation reveals that the chromosomal bands of metaphase cells are distinguishable when images are acquired up to approximately 1.5 μm or 1 μm out of focus using the 60× dry and 100× oil objective lenses, respectively. The results of this investigation provide important designing trade-off parameters to optimize the digital microscopic image scanning systems in the future.

  11. Summary and evaluation of pesticides in field blanks collected for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 1992-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey D.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Schertz, Terry L.

    1999-01-01

    Field blanks are quality-control samples used to assess contamination in environmental water samples. Contamination is the unintentional introduction of a chemical (pesticides in this instance) into an environmental water sample from sources such as inadequately cleaned equipment, dirty hands, dust, rain, or fumes. Contamination causes a positive bias in analytical measurements that may need to be considered in the analysis and interpretation of the environmental data. Estimates of pesticide contamination in environmental water samples collected for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program are used to qualify, where needed, interpretations of the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the surface and ground waters of the United States.

  12. 77 FR 42738 - Request for Information on Quality Measurement Enabled by Health IT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Information on Quality Measurement Enabled by Health IT AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality... diversified stakeholders (health information technology (IT) system developers, including vendors; payers... strategies and challenges regarding quality measurement enabled by health IT. Quality measurement--the...

  13. Are the Exiting Quality of Life Measures Appropriate for Muslim Patients with Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Widyaningsih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article aims to review the appropriateness of five general quality of life (QoL measures for the Muslim patients with cancer.Method: The literatures related to QoL in patients with cancer, published between 1981 and 2011 were critically reviewed. Several database databases including CINAHL, MEDLINE as well as PUBMED, ProQuest, Elsevier, Google scholar and reference list were included. There were 25 articles best fit the inclusion criteria. Books and journal articles addressing Islamic principles were also reviewed.Result: QoL is a complex, multidimensional, and subjective phenomenon. It has been defined differently but overlapping by many scholars in the field. The patient’s QoL is important since it is one of the indicators of quality cancer care. The EORTC QLQ C30, FLIC, McGill QoL are the examples of widely used QoL measures which are appropriate to be applied in Muslim cancer population, while the FACT-G and CARES SF need to be revised in some of their items. Issues related to Islamic principles are discussed to support needs of further revision of these QoL measures.Conclusion: Most of the QoL measures’ items are not conflicting with the Islamic principles, except some items. Psychometric properties of the revised measures appropriate for Muslim cancer population should be further examined so that applying these measures can provide valid findings. Furthermore future cross cultural study may be possible.

  14. Quality assurance in the field of nuclear power, international and Romanian practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogociu, Ioan

    1997-01-01

    Electricity should be generated in nuclear power plants under nuclear safety regulations with a high reliability level. In order to achieve this requirement it is necessary to work under quality assurance (QA) mode. The term of 'quality assurance' was used for the first time in USA in 1967. Since then, the situation has continuously developed. The most comprehensive standards in the fields are the USA ones. The IAEA agency in Vienna developed the first standards in 1978. The developed countries have their own legislation in the field. The IAEA standards, are based on the USA, German, Japanese, British, Canadian and French legislation. Romania drafted the Law No. 6/1982, repealed by the Law No. 11 in 1996. There is no satisfactory Romanian standard at present to regulate the activities of quality assurance in the nuclear power field. The works at Unit 1 of Cernavoda nuclear power plant were performed under the Canadian QA standards. The Canadian nuclear power company Ontario Hydro has been lately confronted with difficulties that may lead to decommission of 7 out of 19 units now in operation. To avoid the Canadian system deficiencies Romania needs standards based on the experience gained in this field by all developed countries, such as: USA, Japan, Germany, France, etc and IAEA regulations. The present paper is a pleading in favour of the Romanian legislation drafting at the level of the international demands. (author)

  15. Measurement of 50 Hz magnetic fields in some Norwegian households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsen, J.; Johnsson, A.

    1987-01-01

    An examination of 50 Hz magnetic fields has been made in ten different Norwegian dwellings. The aim was to measure the general background level of the 50 Hz magnetic fields. The investigation followed a protocol also used in Swedish measurements, and direct comparisons are therefore possible. A portable, commercial coil instrument was used. In september 1986 and January 1987 the magnetic fields in living rooms, sleeping rooms, and kitchens were measured according to the standardized procedure. Current consumption and temperature at the time of the measurements were also recorded. A clear correlation was noted between the magnetic field values and the current consumption. The mean values of the magnetic fields in the living rooms, sleeping rooms and kitchens, were 12 nT, 11 nT and 160 nT, respectively. The living and sleeping room values can be regarded as very low, and they are much lower than corresponding Swedish values. The kitchen values in the two countries seem, however, to be of the same order of magnitude. The report discusses the need for additional measurements in Norwegian houses

  16. Composite measures of watershed health from a water quality perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallya, Ganeshchandra; Hantush, Mohamed; Govindaraju, Rao S

    2018-05-15

    Water quality data at gaging stations are typically compared with established federal, state, or local water quality standards to determine if violations (concentrations of specific constituents falling outside acceptable limits) have occurred. Based on the frequency and severity of water quality violations, risk metrics such as reliability, resilience, and vulnerability (R-R-V) are computed for assessing water quality-based watershed health. In this study, a modified methodology for computing R-R-V measures is presented, and a new composite watershed health index is proposed. Risk-based assessments for different water quality parameters are carried out using identified national sampling stations within the Upper Mississippi River Basin, the Maumee River Basin, and the Ohio River Basin. The distributional properties of risk measures with respect to water quality parameters are reported. Scaling behaviors of risk measures using stream order, specifically for the watershed health (WH) index, suggest that WH values increased with stream order for suspended sediment concentration, nitrogen, and orthophosphate in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Spatial distribution of risk measures enable identification of locations exhibiting poor watershed health with respect to the chosen numerical standard, and the role of land use characteristics within the watershed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Broad frequency band full field measurements for advanced applications: Point-wise comparisons between optical technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    The progress of optical systems gives nowadays at disposal on lightweight structures complex dynamic measurements and modal tests, each with its own advantages, drawbacks and preferred usage domains. It is thus more easy than before to obtain highly spatially defined vibration patterns for many applications in vibration engineering, testing and general product development. The potential of three completely different technologies is here benchmarked on a common test rig and advanced applications. SLDV, dynamic ESPI and hi-speed DIC are here first deployed in a complex and unique test on the estimation of FRFs with high spatial accuracy from a thin vibrating plate. The latter exhibits a broad band dynamics and high modal density in the common frequency domain where the techniques can find an operative intersection. A peculiar point-wise comparison is here addressed by means of discrete geometry transforms to put all the three technologies on trial at each physical point of the surface. Full field measurement technologies cannot estimate only displacement fields on a refined grid, but can exploit the spatial consistency of the results through neighbouring locations by means of numerical differentiation operators in the spatial domain to obtain rotational degrees of freedom and superficial dynamic strain distributions, with enhanced quality, compared to other technologies in literature. Approaching the task with the aid of superior quality receptance maps from the three different full field gears, this work calculates and compares rotational and dynamic strain FRFs. Dynamic stress FRFs can be modelled directly from the latter, by means of a constitutive model, avoiding the costly and time-consuming steps of building and tuning a numerical dynamic model of a flexible component or a structure in real life conditions. Once dynamic stress FRFs are obtained, spectral fatigue approaches can try to predict the life of a component in many excitation conditions. Different

  18. Measuring quality progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Larry D.

    The study by the American Productivity & Quality Center (APQC) was commissioned by Loral Space Information Systems, Inc. and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to evaluate internal assessment systems. APQC benchmarked approaches to the internal assessment of quality management systems in three phases. The first phase included work conducted for the International Benchmarking Clearinghouse (IBC) and consisted of an in-depth analysis of the 1991 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award criteria. The second phase was also performed for the IBC and compared the 1991 award criteria among the following quality awards: Deming Prize, Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, The President's Award for Quality and Productivity Improvement, The NASA Excellence Award (The George M. Lowe Trophy) for Quality and Productivity Improvement and the Shigeo Shingo Award for Excellence in Manufacturing. The third phase compared the internal implementation approaches of 23 companies selected from American industry for their recognized, formal assessment systems.

  19. Measuring quality progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Larry D.

    1992-01-01

    The study by the American Productivity & Quality Center (APQC) was commissioned by Loral Space Information Systems, Inc. and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to evaluate internal assessment systems. APQC benchmarked approaches to the internal assessment of quality management systems in three phases. The first phase included work conducted for the International Benchmarking Clearinghouse (IBC) and consisted of an in-depth analysis of the 1991 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award criteria. The second phase was also performed for the IBC and compared the 1991 award criteria among the following quality awards: Deming Prize, Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, The President's Award for Quality and Productivity Improvement, The NASA Excellence Award (The George M. Lowe Trophy) for Quality and Productivity Improvement and the Shigeo Shingo Award for Excellence in Manufacturing. The third phase compared the internal implementation approaches of 23 companies selected from American industry for their recognized, formal assessment systems.

  20. Correction of stream quality trends for the effects of laboratory measurement bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Richard B.; Smith, Richard A.; Schwarz, Gregory E.

    1993-01-01

    We present a statistical model relating measurements of water quality to associated errors in laboratory methods. Estimation of the model allows us to correct trends in water quality for long-term and short-term variations in laboratory measurement errors. An illustration of the bias correction method for a large national set of stream water quality and quality assurance data shows that reductions in the bias of estimates of water quality trend slopes are achieved at the expense of increases in the variance of these estimates. Slight improvements occur in the precision of estimates of trend in bias by using correlative information on bias and water quality to estimate random variations in measurement bias. The results of this investigation stress the need for reliable, long-term quality assurance data and efficient statistical methods to assess the effects of measurement errors on the detection of water quality trends.

  1. Using Medicaid and CHIP claims data to support pediatric quality measurement: lessons from 3 centers of excellence in measure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidengil, Courtney; Mangione-Smith, Rita; Bailey, L Charles; Cawthon, Mary Lawrence; McGlynn, Elizabeth A; Nakamura, Mari M; Schiff, Jeffrey; Schuster, Mark A; Schneider, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    We sought to explore the claims data-related issues relevant to quality measure development for Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), illustrating the challenges encountered and solutions developed around 3 distinct performance measure topics: care coordination for children with complex needs, quality of care for high-prevalence conditions, and hospital readmissions. Each of 3 centers of excellence presents an example that illustrates the challenges of using claims data for quality measurement. Our Centers of Excellence in pediatric quality measurement used innovative methods to develop algorithms that use Medicaid claims data to identify children with complex needs; overcome some shortcomings of existing data for measuring quality of care for common conditions such as otitis media; and identify readmissions after hospitalizations for lower respiratory infections. Our experience constructing quality measure specifications using claims data suggests that it will be challenging to measure key quality of care constructs for Medicaid-insured children at a national level in a timely and consistent way. Without better data to underpin pediatric quality measurement, Medicaid and CHIP will have difficulty using some existing measures for accountability, value-based purchasing, and quality improvement both across states and within states. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Measures to improve the quality of hotel services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca MADAR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to exemplify how, starting from the evaluation of customer satisfaction on service quality, the hotel units’ management, can apply different measures and strategies to improve it. To achieve the target, a marketing research survey is conducted based on a sample of 120 customers of Hotel „Kronwell” at the end of 2013. After analysing customer’ responses a series of measures have been taken to improve the quality of services offered by this hotel, then at the end of 2015 a new research was achieved, based on the same questionnaire. The results of this research highlight the increasing of customer satisfaction as a result of improving the quality of hotel services, supported by growth in net profit, turnover and decrease of employees’ number.

  3. Measuring quality of life in cleft lip and palate patients: currently available patient-reported outcomes measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Donna A; Wu, Rebecca L; Akinbiyi, Takintope; Silver, Lester; Taub, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    Patient-reported outcomes in cleft lip and palate treatment are critical for patient care. Traditional surgical outcomes focused on objective measures, such as photographs, anatomic measurements, morbidity, and mortality. Although these remain important, they leave many questions unanswered. Surveys that include aesthetics, speech, functionality, self-image, and quality of life provide more thorough outcomes assessment. It is vital that reliable, valid, and comprehensive questionnaires are available to craniofacial surgeons. The authors performed a literature review to identify questionnaires validated in cleft lip and palate patients. Qualifying instruments were assessed for adherence to guidelines for development and validation by the scientific advisory committee and for content. The authors identified 44 measures used in cleft lip and palate studies. After 15 ad hoc questionnaires, eight generic instruments, 11 psychiatric instruments, and one non-English language questionnaire were excluded, nine measures remained. Of these, four were never validated in the cleft population. Analysis revealed one craniofacial-specific measure (Youth Quality of Life-Facial Differences), two voice-related measures (Patient Voice-Related Quality of Life and Cleft Audit Protocol for Speech-Augmented), and two oral health-related measures (Child Oral Health Impact Profile and Child Oral Health Quality of Life). The Youth Quality of Life-Facial Differences, Child Oral Health Impact Profile, and Child Oral Health Quality of Life questionnaires were sufficiently validated. None was created specifically for clefts, resulting in content limitations. There is a lack of comprehensive, valid, and reliable questionnaires for cleft lip and palate surgery. For thorough assessment of satisfaction, further research to develop and validate cleft lip and palate surgery-specific instruments is needed.

  4. PHASE GRADIENT METHOD OF MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ptitsyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of electric and hybrid vehicles demands real time magnetic field control, for instance, for fire and electromagnetic safety. The article deals with a method of magnetic field measurements onboard electric cars taking into account peculiar features of these fields. The method is based on differential methods of measurements, and minimizes the quantity of magnetic sensors.

  5. The application of moving average control charts for evaluating magnetic field quality on an individual magnet basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, D.A.; Gunst, R.F.; Schucany, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    SSC Collider Dipole Magnet field quality specifications define limits of variation for the population mean (Systematic) and standard deviation (RMS deviation) of allowed and unallowed multipole coefficients generated by the full collection of dipole magnets throughout the Collider operating cycle. A fundamental Quality Control issue is how to determine the acceptability of individual magnets during production, in other words taken one at a time and compared to the population parameters. Provided that the normal distribution assumptions hold, the random variation of multipoles for individual magnets may be evaluated by comparing the measured results to ± 3 x RMS tolerance, centered on the design nominal. To evaluate the local and cumulative systematic variation of the magnets against the distribution tolerance, individual magnet results need to be combined with others that come before it. This paper demonstrates a Statistical Quality Control method (the Unweighted Moving Average control chart) to evaluate individual magnet performance and process stability against population tolerances. The DESY/HERA Dipole cold skew quadrupole measurements for magnets in production order are used to evaluate non-stationarity of the mean over time for the cumulative set of magnets, as well as for a moving sample

  6. Early experience in the use of quantitative image quality measurements for the quality assurance of full field digital mammography x-ray systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, N W

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative image quality results in the form of the modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are presented for nine full field digital mammography (FFDM) systems. These parameters are routinely measured as part of the quality assurance (QA) programme for the seven FFDM units covered by our centre. Just one additional image is required compared to the standard FFDM protocol; this is the image of an edge, from which the MTF is calculated. A variance image is formed from one of the flood images used to measure the detector response and this provides useful information on the condition of the detector with respect to artefacts. Finally, the NNPS is calculated from the flood image acquired at a target detector air kerma (DAK) of 100 μGy. DQE is then estimated from these data; however, no correction is currently made for effects of detector cover transmission on DQE. The coefficient of variation (cov) of the 50% point of the MTF for five successive MTF results was 1%, while the cov for the 50% MTF point for an a-Se system over a period of 17 months was approximately 3%. For four a-Se based systems, the cov for the NNPS at 1 mm -1 for a target DAK of 100 μGy was approximately 4%; the same result was found for four CsI based FFDM units. With regard to the stability of NNPS over time, the cov for four NNPS results acquired over a period of 12 months was also approximately 4%. The effect of acquisition geometry on NNPS was also assessed for a CsI based system. NNPS data acquired with the antiscatter grid in place showed increased noise at low spatial frequency; this effect was more severe as DAK increased. DQE results for the three detector types (a-Se, CsI and CR) are presented as a function of DAK. Some reduction in DQE was found for both the a-Se and CsI based systems at a target DAK of 12.5 μGy when compared to DQE data acquired at 100 μGy. For the CsI based systems, DQE at 1 mm -1 fell from 0

  7. Magnetic field measurements near stand-alone transformer stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Shaiela; Hareuveny, Ronen; Yitzhak, Nir-Mordechay; Ruppin, Raphael

    2013-12-01

    Extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field (MF) measurements around and above three stand-alone 22/0.4-kV transformer stations have been performed. The low-voltage (LV) cables between the transformer and the LV switchgear were found to be the major source of strong ELF MFs of limited spatial extent. The strong fields measured above the transformer stations support the assessment method, to be used in future epidemiological studies, of classifying apartments located right above the transformer stations as highly exposed to MFs. The results of the MF measurements above the ground around the transformer stations provide a basis for the assessment of the option of implementing precautionary procedures.

  8. Dark-field electron holography for the measurement of geometric phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hytch, M.J.; Houdellier, F.; Huee, F.; Snoeck, E.

    2011-01-01

    The genesis, theoretical basis and practical application of the new electron holographic dark-field technique for mapping strain in nanostructures are presented. The development places geometric phase within a unified theoretical framework for phase measurements by electron holography. The total phase of the transmitted and diffracted beams is described as a sum of four contributions: crystalline, electrostatic, magnetic and geometric. Each contribution is outlined briefly and leads to the proposal to measure geometric phase by dark-field electron holography (DFEH). The experimental conditions, phase reconstruction and analysis are detailed for off-axis electron holography using examples from the field of semiconductors. A method for correcting for thickness variations will be proposed and demonstrated using the phase from the corresponding bright-field electron hologram. -- Highlights: → Unified description of phase measurements in electron holography. → Detailed description of dark-field electron holography for geometric phase measurements. → Correction procedure for systematic errors due to thickness variations.

  9. Measurement properties of adult quality-of-life measurement instruments for eczema: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinl, D; Prinsen, C A C; Deckert, S; Chalmers, J R; Drucker, A M; Ofenloch, R; Humphreys, R; Sach, T; Chamlin, S L; Schmitt, J; Apfelbacher, C

    2016-03-01

    The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative has identified quality of life (QoL) as a core outcome domain to be evaluated in every eczema trial. It is unclear which of the existing QoL instruments is most appropriate for this domain. Thus, the aim of this review was to systematically assess the measurement properties of existing measurement instruments developed and/or validated for the measurement of QoL in adult eczema. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and Embase identifying studies on measurement properties of adult eczema QoL instruments. For all eligible studies, we assessed the adequacy of the measurement properties and the methodological quality with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. A best evidence synthesis summarizing findings from different studies was the basis to assign four degrees of recommendation (A-D). A total of 15 articles reporting on 17 instruments were included. No instrument fulfilled the criteria for category A. Six instruments were placed in category B, meaning that they have the potential to be recommended depending on the results of further validation studies. Three instruments had poor adequacy in at least one required adequacy criterion and were therefore put in category C. The remaining eight instruments were minimally validated and were thus placed in category D. Currently, no QoL instrument can be recommended for use in adult eczema. The Quality of Life Index for Atopic Dermatitis (QoLIAD) and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) are recommended for further validation research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Quality assurance in radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Mod Ali

    2002-01-01

    The achievement of traceability to recognize measurement standards for ionizing radiation posses special requirements. Methods of transferring reference standard to the working situation are devised through calibration and appropriate traceability, which optimize the accuracy attainable with the method of dose determination in routine use. Appropriate procedures are developed by the SSDL-MINT to establish accurate dose measurement in wide range of radiation fields such as in medicine, agriculture and industrial application. The status of work including effort towards ISO 9000 certification of SSDL dosimetry services will be summarized. (Author)

  11. Quality assessment of graphene: Continuity, uniformity,and accuracy of mobility measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David M.A.Mackenzie; Timothy J.Booth; Lene Gammelgaard; Johanna Zultak; Bjarke S.Jessen; Peter Bφggild; Dirch H.Petersen; Jonas D.Buron; Patrick R.Whelan; José M.Caridad; Martin Bjergfelt; Birong Luo; Abhay Shivayogimath; Anne L.Smitshuysen; Joachim D.Thomsen

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing availability of large-area graphene,the ability to rapidly and accurately assess the quality of the electrical properties has become critically important.For practical applications,spatial variability in carrier density and carrier mobility must be controlled and minimized.We present a simple framework for assessing the quality and homogeneity of large-area graphene devices.The field effect in both exfoliated graphene devices encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride and chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) devices was measured in dual current-voltage configurations and used to derive a single,gate-dependent effective shape factor,β,for each device.β is a sensitive indicator of spatial homogeneity that can be obtained from samples of arbitrary shape.All 50 devices investigated in this study show a variation (up to tenfold) inβ as a function of the gate bias.Finite element simulations suggest that spatial doping inhomogeneity,rather than mobility inhomogeneity,is the primary cause of the gate dependence ofβ,and that measurable variations ofβ can be caused by doping variations as small as 1010 cm-2.Our results suggest that local variations in the position of the Dirac point alter the current flow and thus the effective sample shape as a function of the gate bias.We also found that such variations lead to systematic errors in carrier mobility calculations,which can be revealed by inspecting the correspondingβ factor.

  12. Linking Quality and Spending to Measure Value for People with Serious Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Phillip E.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Healthcare payment is rapidly evolving to reward value by measuring and paying for quality and spending performance. Rewarding value for the care of seriously ill patients presents unique challenges. Objective: To evaluate the state of current efforts to measure and reward value for the care of seriously ill patients. Design: We performed a PubMed search of articles related to (1) measures of spending for people with serious illness and (2) linking spending and quality measures and rewarding performance for the care of people with serious illness. We limited our search to U.S.-based studies published in English between January 1, 1960, and March 31, 2017. We supplemented this search by identifying public programs and other known initiatives that linked quality and spending for the seriously ill and extracted key program elements. Results: Our search related to linking spending and quality measures and rewarding performance for the care of people with serious illness yielded 277 articles. We identified three current public programs that currently link measures of quality and spending—or are likely to within the next few years—the Oncology Care Model; the Comprehensive End-Stage Renal Disease Model; and Home Health Value-Based Purchasing. Models that link quality and spending consist of four core components: (1) measuring quality, (2) measuring spending, (3) the payment adjustment model, and (4) the linking/incentive model. We found that current efforts to reward value for seriously ill patients are targeted for specific patient populations, do not broadly encourage the use of palliative care, and have not closely aligned quality and spending measures related to palliative care. Conclusions: We develop recommendations for policymakers and stakeholders about how measures of spending and quality can be balanced in value-based payment programs. PMID:29091529

  13. Transmission Quality Measurements in DAB+ Broadcast System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilski Przemysław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital media, delivering broadcast content to customers at an acceptable level of quality is one of the most challenging tasks. The most important factor is the efficient use of available resources, including bandwidth. An appropriate way of managing the digital multiplex is essential for both the economic and technical issues. In this paper we describe transmission quality measurements in the DAB+ broadcast system. We provide a methodology for analysing parameters and factors related with the efficiency and reliability of a digital radio link. We describe a laboratory stand that can be used for transmission quality assessment on a regional and national level.

  14. Comparison of field-measured radon diffusion coefficients with laboratory-measured coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepel, E.A.; Silker, W.B.; Thomas, V.W.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1983-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare radon diffusion coefficients determined for 0.1-m depths of soils by a steady-state method in the laboratory and diffusion coefficients evaluated from radon fluxes through several-fold greater depths of the same soils covering uranium-mill tailings. The coefficients referred to diffusion in the total pore volume of the soils and are equivalent to values for the quantity, D/P, in the Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Uranium Milling prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two soils were tested: a well-graded sand and an inorganic clay of low plasticity. For the flux evaluations, radon was collected by adsorption on charcoal following passive diffusion from the soil surface and also from air recirculating through an aluminum tent over the soil surface. An analysis of variance in the flux evaluations showed no significant difference between these two collection methods. Radon diffusion coefficients evaluated from field data were statistically indistinguishable, at the 95% confidence level, from those measured in the laboratory; however, the low precision of the field data prevented a sensitive validation of the laboratory measurements. From the field data, the coefficients were calculated to be 0.03 +- 0.03 cm 2 /s for the sand cover and 0.0036 +- 0.0004 cm 2 /s for the clay cover. The low precision in the coefficients evaluated from field data was attributed to high variation in radon flux with time and surface location at the field site

  15. Measurement of full-field deformation induced by a dc electrical field in organic insulator films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudou L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital image correlation method (DIC using the correlation coefficient curve-fitting for full-field surface deformation measurements of organic insulator films is investigated in this work. First the validation of the technique was undertaken. The computer-generated speckle images and the measurement of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE of aluminium are used to evaluate the measurement accuracy of the technique. In a second part the technique is applied to measure the mechanical deformation induced by electrical field application to organic insulators. For that Poly(ethylene naphthalene 2,6-dicarboxylate (PEN thin films were subjected to DC voltage stress and DIC provides the full-field induced deformations of the test films. The obtained results show that the DIC is a practical and robust tool for better comprehension of mechanical behaviour of the organic insulator films under electrical stress.

  16. Measurement accuracy in shielded magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottauscio, Oriano; Chiampi, Mario; Crotti, Gabriella; Zucca, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    The measurement error due to both the probe size averaging effect and the coil arrangement is investigated when magnetic field measurements are performed in close proximity to different planar shields. The analysis is carried on through a hybrid FEM/BEM model which employs the 'thin shield' technique. Ferromagnetic, pure conductive and multilayer screens are taken into consideration and an estimation of the errors for concentric and non-concentric coil probes is given. The numerical results are validated by experiments

  17. Faraday Rotation Measure Study of Cluster Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, M. M.; Clarke, T. E.

    2001-12-01

    Magnetic fields are thought to play an important role in galaxy cluster evolution. To this end in this study, we looked at polarized radio sources viewed at small impact parameters to the cores of non-cooling flow clusters. By looking at non-cooling flow clusters we hoped to establish what magnetic fields of clusters look like in the absence of the compressed central magnetic fields of the cooling-flow cores. Clarke, Kronberg and Boehringer (2001) examined Faraday rotation measures of radio probes at relatively large impact parameters to the cores of galaxy clusters. The current study is an extension of the Clarke et al. analysis to probe the magnetic fields in the cores of galaxy clusters. We looked at the Faraday rotation of electromagnetic waves from background or imbedded radio galaxies, which were observed with the VLA in A&B arrays. Our results are consistent with previous findings and exhibit a trend towards higher rotation measures and in turn higher magnetic fields at small impact parameters to cluster cores. This research was made possible through funding from the National Science Foundation.

  18. High speed pulsed magnetic fields measurements, using the Faraday effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillet, A.

    1964-12-01

    For these measures, the information used is the light polarization plane rotation induced by the magnetic field in a glass probe. This rotation is detected using a polarizer-analyzer couple. The detector is a photomultiplier used with high-current and pulsed light. In a distributed magnet (gap: 6 x 3 x 3 cm) magnetic fields to measure are 300 gauss, lasting 0.1 μs, with rise times ≤ 35 ns, repetition rate: 1/s. An oscilloscope is used to view the magnetic field from the P.M. plate signal. The value of the field is computed from a previous static calibration. Magnetic fields from 50 to 2000 gauss (with the probe now used) can be measured to about 20 gauss ± 5 per cent, with a frequency range of 30 MHz. (author) [fr

  19. Accurate method of the magnetic field measurement of quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, M.; Sakai, I.; Someya, H.; Sasaki, H.

    1983-01-01

    We present an accurate method of the magnetic field measurement of the quadrupole magnet. The method of obtaining the information of the field gradient and the effective focussing length is given. A new scheme to obtain the information of the skew field components is also proposed. The relative accuracy of the measurement was 1 x 10 -4 or less. (author)

  20. Two studies on the effects of small exhaust fans on indoor air quality: Field study of exhaust fans for mitigating indoor air quality problems; Indoor air quality, exhaust fan mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    Overall, the findings show that exhaust fans basically provide small amounts of ventilation compensation. By monitoring the common indoor air pollutants (radon, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor), it was found that the quality of the indoor air was not adversely affected by the use of exhaust fans. Nor did their use provide any measurable or significant benefits since no improvement in air quality was ascertained. While exhaust fans of this small size did not increase radon, which is the contaminant of most concern, the researchers caution that operation of a larger fan or installation in a very tight home could result in higher levels because depressurization is greater. The daily energy consumption for use of these appliances during the heating season was calculated to be 1.5 kilowatt hours or approximately 3% of the energy consumption in the study homes. The information collected in this collaborative field study indicates that the use of these particular ventilation systems has no significant effect on indoor air quality

  1. Magnetic Field Measurements in Beam Guiding Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Henrichsen, K N

    1998-01-01

    Electromagnets used as beam guiding elements in particle accelerators and colliders require very tight tole-rances on their magnetic fields and on their alignment along the particle path. This article describes the methods and equipment used for magnetic measurements in beam transport magnets. Descriptions are given of magnetic resonance techniques, various induction coil methods, Hall generator measurements, the fluxgate magnetometer as well as the recently developed method of beam based alignment. References of historical nature as well as citations of recent work are given. The present commercial availability of the different sensors and asso-ciated equipment is indicated. Finally we shall try to analyze possible future needs for developments in those fields.

  2. Analysis of Surface Electric Field Measurements from an Array of Electric Field Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, G.; Thayer, J. P.; Deierling, W.

    2016-12-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has operated an distributed array of over 30 electric field mills over the past 18 years, providing a unique data set of surface electric field measurements over a very long timespan. In addition to the electric field instruments there are many meteorological towers around KSC that monitor the local meteorological conditions. Utilizing these datasets we have investigated and found unique spatial and temporal signatures in the electric field data that are attributed to local meteorological effects and the global electric circuit. The local and global scale influences on the atmospheric electric field will be discussed including the generation of space charge from the ocean surf, local cloud cover, and a local enhancement in the electric field that is seen at sunrise.

  3. Fiber-optic evanescent-field sensor for attitude measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Chen, Shimeng; Liu, Zigeng; Guang, Jianye; Peng, Wei

    2017-11-01

    We proposed a new approach to attitude measurement by an evanescent field-based optical fiber sensing device and demonstrated a liquid pendulum. The device consisted of three fiber-optic evanescent-filed sensors which were fabricated by tapered single mode fibers and immersed in liquid. Three fiber Bragg gratings were used to measure the changes in evanescent field. And their reflection peaks were monitored in real time as measurement signals. Because every set of reflection responses corresponded to a unique attitude, the attitude of the device could be measured by the three fiber-optic evanescent-filed sensors. After theoretical analysis, computerized simulation and experimental verification, regular responses were obtained using this device for attitude measurement. The measurement ranges of dihedral angle and direction angle were 0°-50° and 0°-360°. The device is based on cost-effective power-referenced scheme. It can be used in electromagnetic or nuclear radiation environment.

  4. High-Accuracy Spherical Near-Field Measurements for Satellite Antenna Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav

    2017-01-01

    The spherical near-field antenna measurement technique is unique in combining several distinct advantages and it generally constitutes the most accurate technique for experimental characterization of radiation from antennas. From the outset in 1970, spherical near-field antenna measurements have...... matured into a well-established technique that is widely used for testing antennas for many wireless applications. In particular, for high-accuracy applications, such as remote sensing satellite missions in ESA's Earth Observation Programme with uncertainty requirements at the level of 0.05dB - 0.10d......B, the spherical near-field antenna measurement technique is generally superior. This paper addresses the means to achieving high measurement accuracy; these include the measurement technique per se, its implementation in terms of proper measurement procedures, the use of uncertainty estimates, as well as facility...

  5. A relativistic theory for continuous measurement of quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diosi, L.

    1990-04-01

    A formal theory for the continuous measurement of relativistic quantum fields is proposed. The corresponding scattering equations were derived. The proposed formalism reduces to known equations in the Markovian case. Two recent models for spontaneous quantum state reduction have been recovered in the framework of this theory. A possible example of the relativistic continuous measurement has been outlined in standard Quantum Electrodynamics. The continuous measurement theory possesses an alternative formulation in terms of interacting quantum and stochastic fields. (author) 23 refs

  6. Study of quality and field limitation of superconducting 1.3 GHz 9-Cell RF-cavities at DESY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlander, Felix

    2013-01-15

    The European XFEL and the International Linear Collider are based on superconducting rf cavities made of niobium. Their advantages are low ohmic losses which allow high duty cycles and the possibility to use a large beam aperture which is substantial to prevent wake fields at high current accelerators. To reach the theoretical limits of superconducting cavities, it is required to understand the present performance limitations. These are field emission, thermal breakdown (quench) and the ohmic losses dependent on the accelerating field, which are expressed in the quality factor. As the limiting mechanisms themselves are understood in general, the origin of the quench is often unclear. To determine the quench locations, a localisation tool for thermal breakdown using the second sound in superfluid helium has been installed at the cavity test facility at DESY and the results for a sample of about 30 cavities have been examined. The features of the distribution of the quench locations have been analysed and it has been found that the quench locations are in the area of the highest surface magnetic field and not necessarily at the equator of the cells. The data sample has been extended in an attempt to characterise the average behaviour of the quality factor related to the accelerating field. An analysis of the surface resistance of individual cavities shows that a recently developed model for the surface resistance of niobium is not able to describe the measurement in all detail, but the application of an additional mechanism showed promising results.

  7. Study of quality and field limitation of superconducting 1.3 GHz 9-Cell RF-cavities at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlander, Felix

    2013-01-01

    The European XFEL and the International Linear Collider are based on superconducting rf cavities made of niobium. Their advantages are low ohmic losses which allow high duty cycles and the possibility to use a large beam aperture which is substantial to prevent wake fields at high current accelerators. To reach the theoretical limits of superconducting cavities, it is required to understand the present performance limitations. These are field emission, thermal breakdown (quench) and the ohmic losses dependent on the accelerating field, which are expressed in the quality factor. As the limiting mechanisms themselves are understood in general, the origin of the quench is often unclear. To determine the quench locations, a localisation tool for thermal breakdown using the second sound in superfluid helium has been installed at the cavity test facility at DESY and the results for a sample of about 30 cavities have been examined. The features of the distribution of the quench locations have been analysed and it has been found that the quench locations are in the area of the highest surface magnetic field and not necessarily at the equator of the cells. The data sample has been extended in an attempt to characterise the average behaviour of the quality factor related to the accelerating field. An analysis of the surface resistance of individual cavities shows that a recently developed model for the surface resistance of niobium is not able to describe the measurement in all detail, but the application of an additional mechanism showed promising results.

  8. 30 CFR 75.320 - Air quality detectors and measurement devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality detectors and measurement devices... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.320 Air quality detectors and measurement devices. (a) Tests for methane shall be made by a qualified person with...

  9. Field measurement and interpretation of beta doses and dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Swinth, K.L.; Hooker, C.D.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    A large number of portable survey instruments employing G.M., ionization chamber, and scintillation detectors used for gamma measurements are also used for monitoring in beta fields by using removable shields to separate the beta and gamma components of the radiation field. The difference does not correspond to an absorbed dose rate for the beta field due to a variety of factors. Among these factors are the dependence on beta energy, source-detector geometries, mixed fields and variable ambient conditions. Attempting to use such measurements directly can lead to errors as high as a factor of 100. Appropriate calibrations and correction factors can be used to reduce the errors in beta measurements to a tolerable level

  10. The measurement of the modal strain fields using digital shearography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes J.M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a Michelson shearography interferometer configuration associated with stroboscopic double illumination technique for the measurement of modal rotation fields and their strain fields on a clamped circular aluminium plate. The speckle pattern is frozen by the synchronization between the LASER illumination and the modal vibration of the object. The quantitative evaluation is performed for each digital shearogram using a time modulation technique. The setup of double illumination LASER with out-of-plane opposite sensitivity allows the two phase maps measurement of the modal spatial gradient. The modal rotation and strain fields are extracted by the combination of this two digital phase maps. Image processing techniques are applied on the phase maps to obtain full-field measurements using a dedicated post-processing algorithm. Finally, is presented a comparison between the experimental measurement and the numerical solution.

  11. Sensor Interaction as a Source of the Electromagnetic Field Measurement Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartansky R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with analytical calculation and numerical simulation of interactive influence of electromagnetic sensors. Sensors are components of field probe, whereby their interactive influence causes the measuring error. Electromagnetic field probe contains three mutually perpendicular spaced sensors in order to measure the vector of electrical field. Error of sensors is enumerated with dependence on interactive position of sensors. Based on that, proposed were recommendations for electromagnetic field probe construction to minimize the sensor interaction and measuring error.

  12. QualityML: a dictionary for quality metadata encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninyerola, Miquel; Sevillano, Eva; Serral, Ivette; Pons, Xavier; Zabala, Alaitz; Bastin, Lucy; Masó, Joan

    2014-05-01

    The scenario of rapidly growing geodata catalogues requires tools focused on facilitate users the choice of products. Having quality fields populated in metadata allow the users to rank and then select the best fit-for-purpose products. In this direction, we have developed the QualityML (http://qualityml.geoviqua.org), a dictionary that contains hierarchically structured concepts to precisely define and relate quality levels: from quality classes to quality measurements. Generically, a quality element is the path that goes from the higher level (quality class) to the lowest levels (statistics or quality metrics). This path is used to encode quality of datasets in the corresponding metadata schemas. The benefits of having encoded quality, in the case of data producers, are related with improvements in their product discovery and better transmission of their characteristics. In the case of data users, particularly decision-makers, they would find quality and uncertainty measures to take the best decisions as well as perform dataset intercomparison. Also it allows other components (such as visualization, discovery, or comparison tools) to be quality-aware and interoperable. On one hand, the QualityML is a profile of the ISO geospatial metadata standards providing a set of rules for precisely documenting quality indicator parameters that is structured in 6 levels. On the other hand, QualityML includes semantics and vocabularies for the quality concepts. Whenever possible, if uses statistic expressions from the UncertML dictionary (http://www.uncertml.org) encoding. However it also extends UncertML to provide list of alternative metrics that are commonly used to quantify quality. A specific example, based on a temperature dataset, is shown below. The annual mean temperature map has been validated with independent in-situ measurements to obtain a global error of 0.5 ° C. Level 0: Quality class (e.g., Thematic accuracy) Level 1: Quality indicator (e.g., Quantitative

  13. The Relationship between Quality Measurement and Efficiency Improvement in Health Care Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert Roland; Dr. Jane Marry Gill

    2017-01-01

    Quality measurement in health care organisation is most often considered as measures for cost-saving and error reduction in the clinical procedures. The concept of quality measurement in health care organisations is the analysis of effectiveness and accuracy in procedures for patients’ diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to find the relationship between quality measurement and efficiency improvements in the healthcare sector of Mauritius. This was executed by using mixed methodological ...

  14. Measuring and improving quality in university hospitals in Canada: The Collaborative for Excellence in Healthcare Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Chantal; Vanderloo, Saskia; Forster, Alan John

    2016-09-01

    Measuring and monitoring overall health system performance is complex and challenging but is crucial to improving quality of care. Today's health care organizations are increasingly being held accountable to develop and implement actions aimed at improving the quality of care, reducing costs, and achieving better patient-centered care. This paper describes the development of the Collaborative for Excellence in Healthcare Quality (CEHQ), a 5-year initiative to achieve higher quality of patient care in university hospitals across Canada. This bottom-up initiative took place between 2010 and 2015, and was successful in engaging health care leaders in the development of a common framework and set of performance measures for reporting and benchmarking, as well as working on initiatives to improve performance. Despite its successes, future efforts are needed to provide clear national leadership on standards for measuring performance. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Using quality measures for quality improvement: the perspective of hospital staff.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgar Aghaei Hashjin

    Full Text Available RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: This study examines the perspectives of a range of key hospital staff on the use, importance, scientific background, availability of data, feasibility of data collection, cost benefit aspects and availability of professional personnel for measurement of quality indicators among Iranian hospitals. The study aims to facilitate the use of quality indicators to improve quality of care in hospitals. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted over the period 2009 to 2010. Staff at Iranian hospitals completed a self-administered questionnaire eliciting their views on organizational, clinical process, and outcome (clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient centeredness indicators. POPULATION STUDIED: 93 hospital frontline staff including hospital/nursing managers, medical doctors, nurses, and quality improvement/medical records officers in 48 general and specialized hospitals in Iran. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On average, only 69% of respondents reported using quality indicators in practice at their affiliated hospitals. Respondents varied significantly in their reported use of organizational, clinical process and outcome quality indicators. Overall, clinical process and effectiveness indicators were reported to be least used. The reported use of indicators corresponded with their perceived level of importance. Quality indicators were reported to be used among clinical staff significantly more than among managerial staff. In total, 74% of the respondents reported to use obligatory indicators, while this was 68% for voluntary indicators (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: There is a general awareness of the importance and usability of quality indicators among hospital staff in Iran, but their use is currently mostly directed towards external accountability purposes. To increase the formative use of quality indicators, creation of a common culture and feeling of shared ownership, alongside an increased uptake of clinical process and

  16. Mixed field dose equivalent measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; McDonald, J.C.; Endres, G.W.R.; Quam, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, separate instruments have been used to monitor dose equivalent from neutrons and gamma rays. It has been demonstrated that it is now possible to measure simultaneously neutron and gamma dose with a single instrument, the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). With appropriate algorithms dose equivalent can also be determined from the TEPC. A simple ''pocket rem meter'' for measuring neutron dose equivalent has already been developed. Improved algorithms for determining dose equivalent for mixed fields are presented. (author)

  17. Measurement of laser spot quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milster, T. D.; Treptau, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Several ways of measuring spot quality are compared. We examine in detail various figures of merit such as full width at half maximum (FWHM), full width at 1/(e exp 2) maximum, Strehl ratio, and encircled energy. Our application is optical data storage, but results can be applied to other areas like space communications and high energy lasers. We found that the optimum figure of merit in many cases is Strehl ratio.

  18. What Is Nursing Home Quality and How Is It Measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Nicholas G.; Ferguson, Jamie C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this commentary, we examine nursing home quality and indicators that have been used to measure nursing home quality. Design and Methods: A brief review of the history of nursing home quality is presented that provides some context and insight into currently used quality indicators. Donabedian's structure, process, and outcome (SPO)…

  19. The significance of vector magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of four flaring solar active regions, obtained during 1980-1986 with the NASA Marshall vector magnetograph (Hagyard et al., 1982 and 1985), are presented graphically and characterized in detail, with reference to nearly simultaneous Big Bear Solar Observatory and USAF ASW H-alpha images. It is shown that the flares occurred where local photospheric magnetic fields differed most from the potential field, with initial brightening on either side of a magnetic-neutral line near the point of maximum angular shear (rather than that of maximum magnetic-field strength, typically 1 kG or greater). Particular emphasis is placed on the fact that these significant nonpotential features were detected only by measuring all three components of the vector magnetic field.

  20. Precipitation-runoff relations and water-quality characteristics at edge-of-field stations, Discovery Farms and Pioneer Farm, Wisconsin, 2003-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Peppler, Marie C.; Owens, David W.; Frame, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    A cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison Discovery Farms program (Discovery Farms), and the UW-Platteville Pioneer Farm program (Pioneer Farm) was developed to identify typical ranges and magnitudes, temporal distributions, and principal factors affecting concentrations and yields of sediment, nutrients, and other selected constituents in runoff from agricultural fields. Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected year-round at 23 edge-of-field monitoring stations on 5 privately owned Discovery Farms and on Pioneer Farm during water years 2003-8. The studied farms represented landscapes, soils, and farming systems typical of livestock farms throughout southern Wisconsin. Each farm employed a variety of soil, nutrient, and water-conservation practices to help minimize sediment and nutrient losses from fields and to improve crop productivity. This report summarizes the precipitation-runoff relations and water-quality characteristics measured in edge-of-field runoff for 26 "farm years" (aggregate years of averaged station data from all 6 farms for varying monitoring periods). A relatively wide range of constituents typically found in agricultural runoff were measured: suspended sediment, phosphorus (total, particulate, dissolved reactive, and total dissolved), and nitrogen (total, nitrate plus nitrite, organic, ammonium, total Kjeldahl and total Kjeldahl-dissolved), chloride, total solids, total suspended solids, total volatile suspended solids, and total dissolved solids. Mean annual precipitation was 32.8 inches for the study period, about 3 percent less than the 30-year mean. Overall mean annual runoff was 2.55 inches per year (about 8 percent of precipitation) and the distribution was nearly equal between periods of frozen ground (54 percent) and unfrozen ground (46 percent). Mean monthly runoff was highest during two periods: February to March and May to June. Ninety percent of annual runoff occurred

  1. Air encapsulation. I. Measurement in a field soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.; Hillel, D.

    1986-01-01

    Encapsulated air is an important component of shallow water table fluctuations. Their objective was to measure the quantity and persistence of encapsulated air in a field setting. Using sprinkling rates of either 3.5 x 10 -6 or 3.8 x 10 -5 m s -1 , they brought the water table in a field soil from a depth of 1.5 m to the surface on several occasions. Moisture contents during and after sprinkling were monitored with a neutron probe. Twice following sprinkling, the water table was maintained at the surface for more than 20 d, during which time they continued to monitor moisture contents. With the water table at the surface, differences between the porosity and the measured moisture content were attributed to encapsulated air. Encapsulated air contents ranged from 1.1 to 6.3% of the bulk soil volume, depending on the rate of sprinkling, soil depth, and initial soil moisture content. During ponding, encapsulated air persisted at the 0.3-m depth for up to 28 d. The results indicate that encapsulated air is measurable in a field situation and that its quantity and persistence should be considered in analyzing the results of similar field experiments. 16 references

  2. Verification of absorbed dose rates in reference beta radiation fields: measurements with an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynaldo, S. R. [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology, Posgraduate Course in Science and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Benavente C, J. A.; Da Silva, T. A., E-mail: sirr@cdtn.br [Development Centre of Nuclear Technology / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Beta Secondary Standard 2 (Bss 2) provides beta radiation fields with certified values of absorbed dose to tissue and the derived operational radiation protection quantities. As part of the quality assurance, metrology laboratories are required to verify the reliability of the Bss-2 system by performing additional verification measurements. In the CDTN Calibration Laboratory, the absorbed dose rates and their angular variation in the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 85}Kr beta radiation fields were studied. Measurements were done with a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber and with Gafchromic radiochromic films on a PMMA slab phantom. In comparison to the certificate values provided by the Bss-2, absorbed dose rates measured with the extrapolation chamber differed from -1.4 to 2.9% for the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and -0.3% for the {sup 85}Kr fields; their angular variation showed differences lower than 2% for incidence angles up to 40-degrees and it reached 11% for higher angles, when compared to ISO values. Measurements with the radiochromic film showed an asymmetry of the radiation field that is caused by a misalignment. Differences between the angular variations of absorbed dose rates determined by both dosimetry systems suggested that some correction factors for the extrapolation chamber that were not considered should be determined. (Author)

  3. Quality-of-life measures for use within care homes: a systematic review of their measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspden, Trefor; Bradshaw, Siobhan A; Playford, E Diane; Riazi, Afsane

    2014-09-01

    the aims of this review were (i) to identify quality-of-life (QoL) measures which have had their measurement properties validated in people residing in care homes or nursing homes, and to critically compare and summarise these instruments and (ii) to make recommendations for measurement instruments. bibliographic databases PsycINFO, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL and Embase were searched for articles evaluating measurement properties of QoL instruments in people residing in care homes. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using the consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments checklist. Measurement properties of instruments were appraised using a systematic checklist. the search strategy resulted in 3252 unique citations, of which 15 articles were included in this review. These articles assessed 13 instruments, 8 of which were dementia or Alzheimer specific instruments. The QUALIDEM, a dementia-specific observational instrument, had the widest array of information available on its measurement properties, which were mostly satisfactory. Most measurement instruments lacked information on hypotheses testing and content validity. Information on responsiveness and measurement error was not available for any instrument. for people with dementia living in care homes, the QUALIDEM is recommended for measuring QoL. For residents without dementia, we recommend Kane et al.'s Psychosocial Quality of Life Domains questionnaire. Studies of higher methodological quality, assessing a wider range of measurement properties are needed to allow a more fully informed choice of QoL instrument. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Geotechnical Parameters from Seismic Measurements: Two Field Examples from Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Mohamed H.

    2016-03-18

    © 2016 EEGS. Geotechnical parameters were used to determine subsurface rock quality for construction purposes. We summarize the mathematical relationships used to calculate the geotechnical parameters from P- and S-wave velocities and density values. These relationships are applied to two field examples; the first is a regional seismic study in Egypt and the second is a 2-D seismic profile recorded in Saudi Arabia. Results from both field examples are used to determine the subsurface rock quality and locate zones that should be avoided during construction. We suggest combining all geotechnical parameters into one map using a normalized-weighted relation, which helps to locate the zones with high versus low rock quality for engineering purposes.

  5. From existing in situ, high-resolution measurement technologies to lab-on-a-chip - the future of water quality monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, A. J.; Palmer-Felgate, E. J.; Halliday, S. J.; Skeffington, R. A.; Loewenthal, M.; Jarvie, H. P.; Bowes, M. J.; Greenway, G. M.; Haswell, S. J.; Bell, I. M.; Joly, E.; Fallatah, A.; Neal, C.; Williams, R. J.; Gozzard, E.; Newman, J. R.

    2012-05-01

    This paper introduces new insights into the hydrochemical functioning of lowland river-systems using field-based spectrophotometric and electrode technologies. The streamwater concentrations of nitrogen species and phosphorus fractions were measured at hourly intervals on a continuous basis at two contrasting sites on tributaries of the River Thames, one draining a rural catchment, the River Enborne, and one draining a more urban system, The Cut. The measurements complement those from an existing network of multi-parameter water quality sondes maintained across the Thames catchment and weekly monitoring based on grab samples. The results of the sub-daily monitoring show that streamwater phosphorus concentrations display highly complex, seemingly chaotic, dynamics under storm conditions dependent on the antecedent catchment wetness, and that diurnal phosphorus and nitrogen cycles occur under low flow conditions. The diurnal patterns highlight the dominance of sewage inputs in controlling the streamwater phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations at low flows, even at a distance of 7 km from the nearest sewage works in the rural, River Enborne, and that the time of sample collection is important when judging water quality against ecological thresholds or standards. An exhaustion of the supply of phosphorus from diffuse and septic tank sources during storm events was evident and load estimation was not improved by sub-daily monitoring beyond that achieved by daily sampling because of the eventual reduction in the phosphorus mass entering the stream during events. The dominance of respiration over photosynthesis in The Cut indicated a prevalence of heterotrophic algae, and the seasonal patterns in respiration and photosynthesis corresponded with those of temperature and light in this nutrient over-enriched stream. These results highlight the utility of sub-daily water quality measurements but the deployment of modified wet-chemistry technologies into the field was limited

  6. The level of non-citation of articles within a journal as a measure of quality: a comparison to the impact factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weale Andy R

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current methods of measuring the quality of journals assume that citations of articles within journals are normally distributed. Furthermore using journal impact factors to measure the quality of individual articles is flawed if citations are not uniformly spread between articles. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of citations to articles and use the level of non-citation of articles within a journal as a measure of quality. This ranking method is compared with the impact factor, as calculated by ISI®. Methods Total citations gained by October 2003, for every original article and review published in current immunology (13125 articles; 105 journals and surgical (17083 articles; 120 journals fields during 2001 were collected using ISI® Web of Science. Results The distribution of citation of articles within an individual journal is mainly non-parametric throughout the literature. One sixth (16.7%; IQR 13.6–19.2 of articles in a journal accrue half the total number of citations to that journal. There was a broader distribution of citation to articles in higher impact journals and in the field of immunology compared to surgery. 23.7% (IQR 14.6–42.4 of articles had not yet been cited. Levels of non-citation varied between journals and subject fields. There was a significant negative correlation between the proportion of articles never cited and a journal's impact factor for both immunology (rho = -0.854 and surgery journals (rho = -0.924. Conclusion Ranking journals by impact factor and non-citation produces similar results. Using a non-citation rate is advantageous as it creates a clear distinction between how citation analysis is used to determine the quality of a journal (low level of non-citation and an individual article (citation counting. Non-citation levels should therefore be made available for all journals.

  7. Comparative field permeability measurement of permeable pavements using ASTM C1701 and NCAT permeameter methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Kayhanian, Masoud; Harvey, John T

    2013-03-30

    Fully permeable pavement is gradually gaining support as an alternative best management practice (BMP) for stormwater runoff management. As the use of these pavements increases, a definitive test method is needed to measure hydraulic performance and to evaluate clogging, both for performance studies and for assessment of permeability for construction quality assurance and maintenance needs assessment. Two of the most commonly used permeability measurement tests for porous asphalt and pervious concrete are the National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) permeameter and ASTM C1701, respectively. This study was undertaken to compare measured values for both methods in the field on a variety of permeable pavements used in current practice. The field measurements were performed using six experimental section designs with different permeable pavement surface types including pervious concrete, porous asphalt and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Multiple measurements were performed at five locations on each pavement test section. The results showed that: (i) silicone gel is a superior sealing material to prevent water leakage compared with conventional plumbing putty; (ii) both methods (NCAT and ASTM) can effectively be used to measure the permeability of all pavement types and the surface material type will not impact the measurement precision; (iii) the permeability values measured with the ASTM method were 50-90% (75% on average) lower than those measured with the NCAT method; (iv) the larger permeameter cylinder diameter used in the ASTM method improved the reliability and reduced the variability of the measured permeability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality assurance in nuclear medicine radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, Maria; Razdolescu Anamaria Cristina

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents some recent results of the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (RML) from IFIN-HH, in the assurance of quality in radioactivity measurements for nuclear medicine. Three aspects are treated: (i) Participation of the RML in the frame of the IAEA Coordinated Research Program (CRP), E 2.10.05; (ii) Improvement of the secondary standard, based on a CENTRONIC IG12/20A ionization chamber; (iii) Implementation of the quality management, according to the SR EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005. (authors)

  9. Measuring of electric fields with laser-induced fluorescence-dip Stark spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaars, E.; Bowden, M.D.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2007-01-01

    The electric field is an important quantity in low-pressure gas discharges, driving many fundamental processes. Unfortunately, it is difficult to measure electric field distributions in plasmas directly. The goal of this research was to develop a diagnostic technique to measure electric fields in

  10. Measuring average angular velocity with a smartphone magnetic field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pili, Unofre; Violanda, Renante

    2018-02-01

    The angular velocity of a spinning object is, by standard, measured using a device called a tachometer. However, by directly using it in a classroom setting, the activity is likely to appear as less instructive and less engaging. Indeed, some alternative classroom-suitable methods for measuring angular velocity have been presented. In this paper, we present a further alternative that is smartphone-based, making use of the real-time magnetic field (simply called B-field in what follows) data gathering capability of the B-field sensor of the smartphone device as the timer for measuring average rotational period and average angular velocity. The in-built B-field sensor in smartphones has already found a number of uses in undergraduate experimental physics. For instance, in elementary electrodynamics, it has been used to explore the well-known Bio-Savart law and in a measurement of the permeability of air.

  11. Effect of e-learning on quality of cervical-length measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, M A; van der Ven, A J; Bloemendaal, P M; Pajkrt, E; de Groot, C J M; Mol, B W J; Haak, M C

    2015-09-01

    To assess the effect of implementation of a newly developed e-learning module on the quality of cervical-length measurements. With the introduction of cervical-length (CL) measurement in a research setting, a CL measurement e-learning module (CLEM) was developed with the purpose to enhance the knowledge and skills of experienced ultrasonographers. CLEM was designed specifically for ultrasonographers who perform ultrasound in a general obstetrical practice but who do not regularly perform CL measurements. CLEM consists of five theoretical questions and three caliper-placement tests to learn the CL measurement technique. The quality of the CL measurements of CLEM participants was compared with images of non-participants using a CL measurement image score (CIS), defined as the sum of six items which assess the quality of the image. Each CLEM participant submitted five CL images and the images of non-CLEM participants were selected randomly from an ultrasound database. The CIS of the CLEM participants (n = 61) were significantly higher than those of non-CLEM participants (n = 23) (164.9 vs 155.6, respectively; P = 0.03). Visualization of the internal os and positioning of the calipers on the internal and external ora were found to have significantly higher CIS among the CLEM participants than among the non-CLEM participants (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Introducing CLEM may improve the quality of CL measurements obtained by trained and untrained sonographers. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Overview of the Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Tate, Denise G.; Heinemann, Allen W.; Charlifue, Susan; Kirshblum, Steve C.; Fyffe, Denise; Gershon, Richard; Spungen, Ann M.; Bombardier, Charles H.; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor A.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Z. Kalpakjian, Claire; W. Choi, Seung; Jette, Alan M.; Forchheimer, Martin; Cella, David

    2015-01-01

    Context/Objective The Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system was developed to address the shortage of relevant and psychometrically sound patient reported outcome (PRO) measures available for clinical care and research in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Using a computer adaptive testing (CAT) approach, the SCI-QOL builds on the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (Neuro-QOL) initiative. This initial manuscript introduces the background and development of the SCI-QOL measurement system. Greater detail is presented in the additional manuscripts of this special issue. Design Classical and contemporary test development methodologies were employed. Qualitative input was obtained from individuals with SCI and clinicians through interviews, focus groups, and cognitive debriefing. Item pools were field tested in a multi-site sample (n = 877) and calibrated using item response theory methods. Initial reliability and validity testing was performed in a new sample of individuals with traumatic SCI (n = 245). Setting Five Model SCI System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center across the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Interventions n/a Outcome Measures n/a Results The SCI-QOL consists of 19 item banks, including the SCI-Functional Index banks, and 3 fixed-length scales measuring physical, emotional, and social aspects of health-related QOL (HRQOL). Conclusion The SCI-QOL measurement system consists of psychometrically sound measures for individuals with SCI. The manuscripts in this special issue provide evidence of the reliability and initial validity of this measurement system. The SCI-QOL also links to other measures designed for a general medical population. PMID:26010962

  13. Measurement of electric fields in the H-1NF heliac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, B.W.; Howard, J.

    1999-01-01

    There are a number of laser induced fluorescence techniques which can be used to measure internal plasma electric fields. It is planned to use a technique based on Stark mixing of energy levels in a supersonic beam containing metastable helium atoms to measure radial electric fields in H-1NF. Enhanced values of radial electric field are associated with improved confinement modes in H-1NF and other magnetically confined plasmas

  14. Field measurements for low-aperture magnetic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlichenko, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The method of the field measurements with help of bismuth wire in low aperture magnetic elements is revised. The quadrupole with permanent magnets was tested. It has aperture diameter about 4 mm and length 40 mm. Gradient about 38 kOe/cm was measured. The accuracy of the magnetic axis position definition is better than 1 μm. This method is a good kandidate for linear colider low aperture magnetic elements measurements. 7 refs.; 6 figs

  15. Field Measurements of Black Carbon Yields from Gas Flaring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Bradley M; Johnson, Matthew R

    2017-02-07

    Black carbon (BC) emissions from gas flaring in the oil and gas industry are postulated to have critical impacts on climate and public health, but actual emission rates remain poorly characterized. This paper presents in situ field measurements of BC emission rates and flare gas volume-specific BC yields for a diverse range of flares. Measurements were performed during a series of field campaigns in Mexico and Ecuador using the sky-LOSA optical measurement technique, in concert with comprehensive Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analyses. Parallel on-site measurements of flare gas flow rate and composition were successfully performed at a subset of locations enabling direct measurements of fuel-specific BC yields from flares under field conditions. Quantified BC emission rates from individual flares spanned more than 4 orders of magnitude (up to 53.7 g/s). In addition, emissions during one notable ∼24-h flaring event (during which the plume transmissivity dropped to zero) would have been even larger than this maximum rate, which was measured as this event was ending. This highlights the likely importance of superemitters to global emission inventories. Flare gas volume-specific BC yields were shown to be strongly correlated with flare gas heating value. A newly derived correlation fitting current field data and previous lab data suggests that, in the context of recent studies investigating transport of flare-generated BC in the Arctic and globally, impacts of flaring in the energy industry may in fact be underestimated.

  16. Measurement system as a subsystem of the quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Floreková

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Each measurement system and a control principle must be based on certain facts about the system behaviour (what, operation (how and structure (why. Each system is distributed into subsystems that provide an input for the next subsystem. For each system, start is important the begin, that means system characteristics, collecting of data, its hierarchy and the processes distribution.A measurement system (based on the chapter 8 of the standard ISO 9001:2000 Quality management system, requirements defines the measurement, analysis and improvement for each organization in order to present the products conformity, the quality management system conformity guarantee and for the continuously permanent improvement of effectivity, efficiency and economy of quality management system.

  17. Electric field measurements at subcritical, oblique bow shock crossings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wygant, J.R.; Bensadoun, M.; Mozer, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Electric field measurements at oblique, subcritical bow shock crossings are presented from the ISEE 1 University of California, Berkeley, double-probe electric field experiment. The measurements averaged over the 3-s spin period of the spacecraft provide the first observations of the large-scale (100 km) laminar oscillations in the longitudinal component of the electric field associated with the whistler precursor which is characteristic of these dispersive shocks. The amplitude of the oscillations increases from ∼0.5 mV/m to a maximum of 6 mV/m across the magnetic ramp of the shock (directed along the shock normal). The calculated electric potential drops across the shocks varied from 340 to 550 volts, which is 40-60% of the observed loss of kinetic energy associated with the bulk flow of the ions. These measurements suggest that at these shocks the additional deceleration of incident ions is due to the Lorentz force. The contributions to the normal component of the large-scale electric field at the shock due to the parallel and perpendicular components (relative to the magnetic field) of the electric field are evaluated. It is shown that the perpendicular component of the electric field dominates, accounting for most of the cross-shock potential, but that there is a nonnegligible parallel component. This large-scale parallel component has a magnitude of 1-2 mV/m which sometimes results in a potential well for electrons with a depth of ∼150 eV. It is experimentally demonstrated that the dominance of the perpendicular over the parallel component of the electric field resulted in a correlation between the longitudinal component of the large-scale electric field and the fluctuations in the magnetic field component perpendicular to the coplanarity plane

  18. Measurement of magnetic field gradients using Raman spectroscopy in a fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Arvind; Zimmermann, Matthias; Efremov, Maxim A.; Davis, Jon P.; Narducci, Frank A.

    2017-02-01

    In many experiments involving cold atoms, it is crucial to know the strength of the magnetic field and/or the magnetic field gradient at the precise location of a measurement. While auxiliary sensors can provide some of this information, the sensors are usually not perfectly co-located with the atoms and so can only provide an approximation to the magnetic field strength. In this article, we describe a technique to measure the magnetic field, based on Raman spectroscopy, using the same atomic fountain source that will be used in future magnetically sensitive measurements.

  19. Automatic alignment device for focal spot measurements in the center of the field for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Marcelo A.C.; Watanabe, Alex O.; Oliveira Junior, Paulo D.; Schiabel, Homero

    2010-01-01

    Some quality control procedures used for mammography, such as focal spot evaluation, requires previous alignment of the measurement equipment with the X-ray central beam. However, alignment procedures are, in general, the most difficult task and the one that needs more time to be performed. Moreover, the operator sometimes is exposed to radiation during this procedure. This work presents an automatic alignment system for mammographic equipment that allows locating the central ray of the radiation beam and, immediately, aligns with it by dislocating itself automatically along the field. The system consists on a bidirectional moving device, connected to a CCD sensor for digital radiographic image acquisition. A computational analysis of a radiographic image, acquired at any position on the field, is performed in order to determine its positioning under the X-ray beam. Finally, a mechanical system for two moving directions, electronically controlled by a microcontroller under USB communication, makes the system to align automatically with the radiation beam central ray. The alignment process is fully automatic, fast and accurate, with no operator exposure to radiation, which allows a considerable time saving for quality control procedures achievement for mammography. (author)

  20. The quality of systematic reviews of health-related outcome measurement instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwee, C B; Prinsen, C A C; Ricci Garotti, M G; Suman, A; de Vet, H C W; Mokkink, L B

    2016-04-01

    Systematic reviews of outcome measurement instruments are important tools for the selection of instruments for research and clinical practice. Our aim was to assess the quality of systematic reviews of health-related outcome measurement instruments and to determine whether the quality has improved since our previous study in 2007. A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE between July 1, 2013, and June 19, 2014. The quality of the reviews was rated using a study-specific checklist. A total of 102 reviews were included. In many reviews the search strategy was considered not comprehensive; in only 59 % of the reviews a search was performed in EMBASE and in about half of the reviews there was doubt about the comprehensiveness of the search terms used for type of measurement instruments and measurement properties. In 41 % of the reviews, compared to 30 % in our previous study, the methodological quality of the included studies was assessed. In 58 %, compared to 55 %, the quality of the included instruments was assessed. In 42 %, compared to 7 %, a data synthesis was performed in which the results from multiple studies on the same instrument were somehow combined. Despite a clear improvement in the quality of systematic reviews of outcome measurement instruments in comparison with our previous study in 2007, there is still room for improvement with regard to the search strategy, and especially the quality assessment of the included studies and the included instruments, and the data synthesis.

  1. Pulsed electric field sensor based on original waveform measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liang; Wu Wei; Cheng Yinhui; Zhou Hui; Li Baozhong; Li Jinxi; Zhu Meng

    2010-01-01

    The paper introduces the differential and original waveform measurement principles for pulsed E-field, and develops an pulsed E-field sensor based on original waveform measurement along with its theoretical correction model. The sensor consists of antenna, integrator, amplifier and driver, optic-electric/electric-optic conversion module and transmission module. The time-domain calibration in TEM cell indicates that, its risetime response is shorter than 1.0 ns, and the output pulse width at 90% of the maximum amplitude is wider than 10.0 μs. The output amplitude of the sensor is linear to the electric field intensity in a dynamic range of 20 dB. The measurement capability can be extended to 10 V/m or 50 kV/m by changing the system's antenna and other relative modules. (authors)

  2. Measuring propagation speed of Coulomb fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangro, R. de; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Piccolo, M.; Pizzella, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    The problem of gravity propagation has been subject of discussion for quite a long time: Newton, Laplace and, in relatively more modern times, Eddington pointed out that, if gravity propagated with finite velocity, planet motion around the sun would become unstable due to a torque originating from time lag of the gravitational interactions. Such an odd behavior can be found also in electromagnetism, when one computes the propagation of the electric fields generated by a set of uniformly moving charges. As a matter of fact the Lienard-Weichert retarded potential leads to the same formula as the one obtained assuming that the electric field propagate with infinite velocity. The Feynman explanation for this apparent paradox was based on the fact that uniform motions last indefinitely. To verify such an explanation, we performed an experiment to measure the time/space evolution of the electric field generated by an uniformly moving electron beam. The results we obtain, on a finite lifetime kinematical state, are compatible with an electric field rigidly carried by the beam itself. (orig.)

  3. Performance Evaluation of "Low-cost" Sensors for Measuring Gaseous and Particle Air Pollutants: Results from Two Years of Field and Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, B. J.; Polidori, A.; Tisopulos, L.; Papapostolou, V.; Zhang, H.; Pathmanabhan, J.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years great progress has been made in development of low-cost miniature air quality sensing technologies. Such low-cost sensors offer a prospect of providing a real-time spatially dense information on pollutants, however, the quality of the data produced by these sensors is so far untested. In an effort to inform the general public about the actual performance of commercially available low-cost air quality sensors, in June 2014 the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) has established the Air Quality Sensor Performance Evaluation Center (AQ-SPEC). This program performs a thorough characterization of low-cost sensors under ambient (in the field) and controlled (in the laboratory) conditions. During the field testing, air quality sensors are operated side-by-side with Federal Reference Methods and Federal Equivalent Methods (FRM and FEM, respectively), which are routinely used to measure the ambient concentration of gaseous or particle pollutants for regulatory purposes. Field testing is conducted at two of SCAQMD's existing air monitoring stations, one in Rubidoux and one near the I-710 freeway. Sensors that demonstrate an acceptable performance in the field are brought back to the lab where a "characterization chamber" is used to challenge these devices with known concentrations of different particle and gaseous pollutants under different temperature and relative humidity levels. Testing results for each sensor are then summarized in a technical report and, along with other relevant information, posted online on a dedicated website (www.aqmd.gov/aq-spec) to educate the public about the capabilities of commercially available sensors and their potential applications. During this presentation, the results from two years of field and laboratory testing will be presented. The major strengths and weaknesses of some of the most commonly available particle and gaseous sensors will be discussed.

  4. Sampling Criterion for EMC Near Field Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Ebert, Hans

    2012-01-01

    An alternative, quasi-empirical sampling criterion for EMC near field measurements intended for close coupling investigations is proposed. The criterion is based on maximum error caused by sub-optimal sampling of near fields in the vicinity of an elementary dipole, which is suggested as a worst......-case representative of a signal trace on a typical printed circuit board. It has been found that the sampling density derived in this way is in fact very similar to that given by the antenna near field sampling theorem, if an error less than 1 dB is required. The principal advantage of the proposed formulation is its...

  5. Air-borne shape measurement of parabolic trough collector fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Christoph; Röger, Marc; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    The optical and thermal efficiency of parabolic trough collector solar fields is dependent on the performance and assembly accuracy of its components such as the concentrator and absorber. For the purpose of optical inspection/approval, yield analysis, localization of low performing areas, and optimization of the solar field, it is essential to create a complete view of the optical properties of the field. Existing optical measurement tools are based on ground based cameras, facing restriction concerning speed, volume and automation. QFly is an airborne qualification system which provides holistic and accurate information on geometrical, optical, and thermal properties of the entire solar field. It consists of an unmanned aerial vehicle, cameras and related software for flight path planning, data acquisition and evaluation. This article presents recent advances of the QFly measurement system and proposes a methodology on holistic qualification of the complete solar field with minimum impact on plant operation.

  6. Measurement of Anisotropic Particle Interactions with Nonuniform ac Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Bradley; Torres-Díaz, Isaac; Hua, Xiaoqing; Bevan, Michael A

    2018-02-20

    Optical microscopy measurements are reported for single anisotropic polymer particles interacting with nonuniform ac electric fields. The present study is limited to conditions where gravity confines particles with their long axis parallel to the substrate such that particles can be treated using quasi-2D analysis. Field parameters are investigated that result in particles residing at either electric field maxima or minima and with long axes oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the electric field direction. By nonintrusively observing thermally sampled positions and orientations at different field frequencies and amplitudes, a Boltzmann inversion of the time-averaged probability of states yields kT-scale energy landscapes (including dipole-field, particle-substrate, and gravitational potentials). The measured energy landscapes show agreement with theoretical potentials using particle conductivity as the sole adjustable material property. Understanding anisotropic particle-field energy landscapes vs field parameters enables quantitative control of local forces and torques on single anisotropic particles to manipulate their position and orientation within nonuniform fields.

  7. Phase retrieval in near-field measurements by array synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian; Larsen, Flemming Holm

    1991-01-01

    The phase retrieval problem in near-field antenna measurements is formulated as an array synthesis problem. As a test case, a particular synthesis algorithm has been used to retrieve the phase of a linear array......The phase retrieval problem in near-field antenna measurements is formulated as an array synthesis problem. As a test case, a particular synthesis algorithm has been used to retrieve the phase of a linear array...

  8. Measuring the quality of patient-centered care: why patient-reported measures are critical to reliable assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzelepis F

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Flora Tzelepis, Robert W Sanson-Fisher, Alison C Zucca, Elizabeth A FradgleyPriority Research Centre for Health Behaviour, University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Newcastle, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: The Institute of Medicine (IOM identified patient-centeredness as crucial to quality health care. The IOM endorsed six patient-centeredness dimensions that stipulated that care must be: respectful to patients’ values, preferences, and expressed needs; coordinated and integrated; provide information, communication, and education; ensure physical comfort; provide emotional support; and involve family and friends. Patient-reported measures examine the patient’s perspective and are essential to the accurate assessment of patient-centered care. This article’s objectives are to: 1 use the six IOM-endorsed patient-centeredness dimensions as a framework to outline why patient-reported measures are crucial to the reliable measurement of patient-centered care; and 2 to identify existing patient-reported measures that assess each patient-centered care dimension.Methods: For each IOM-endorsed patient-centeredness dimension, the published literature was searched to highlight the essential role of patients in assessing patient-centered care and informing quality improvement efforts. Existing literature was also searched to identify examples of patient-reported measures that assess each patient-centeredness dimension.Conclusion: Patient-reported measures are arguably the best way to measure patient-centeredness. For instance, patients are best positioned to determine whether care aligns with patient values, preferences, and needs and the Measure of Patient Preferences is an example of a patient-reported measure that does so. Furthermore, only the patient knows whether they received the level of information desired, and if information was understood and can be recalled. Patient-reported measures that examine information provision include

  9. Measurement of the perceived quality of a product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maire J.-L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For some companies, visual inspection has become an essential step when seeking to improve the quality of their products. The aim of this control is to be sure of the perceived quality of the product, which often goes well beyond the quality expected by the customer. For this type of control, the controller should be able to detect any anomaly on a product, characterize this anomaly, and then evaluate it in order to decide if the product should be accepted or rejected. This paper describes how this characterization can be carried out and, more specifically, how to measure the impact of the local environment of an anomaly on the perceived quality of the product.

  10. Measuring device for water quality at reactor bottom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Hidehiro; Takagi, Jun-ichi

    1995-10-27

    The present invention concerns measurement for water quality at the bottom of a reactor of a BWR type plant, in which reactor water is sampled and analyzed in a state approximate to conditions in a pressure vessel. Based on the result, hydrogen injection amount is controlled during hydrogen injection operation. Namely, a monitor for water quality is disposed to a sampling line in communication with the bottom of a pressure vessel. A water quality monitor is disposed to a drain sampling line in communication with the bottom of the pressure vessel. A corrosion potentiometer is disposed to the pressure sampling line or the drain sampling line. A dissolved oxygen measuring device is disposed to the pressure vessel sampling line or the drain sampling line. With such a constitution, the reactor water can be sampled and analyzed in a state approximate to the conditions in the pressure vessel. In addition, signals from the water quality monitor are inputted to a hydrogen injection amount control device. As a result, the amount of hydrogen injected to primary coolants can be controlled in a state approximate to the conditions in the pressure vessel. (I.S.).

  11. Measuring device for water quality at reactor bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Hidehiro; Takagi, Jun-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns measurement for water quality at the bottom of a reactor of a BWR type plant, in which reactor water is sampled and analyzed in a state approximate to conditions in a pressure vessel. Based on the result, hydrogen injection amount is controlled during hydrogen injection operation. Namely, a monitor for water quality is disposed to a sampling line in communication with the bottom of a pressure vessel. A water quality monitor is disposed to a drain sampling line in communication with the bottom of the pressure vessel. A corrosion potentiometer is disposed to the pressure sampling line or the drain sampling line. A dissolved oxygen measuring device is disposed to the pressure vessel sampling line or the drain sampling line. With such a constitution, the reactor water can be sampled and analyzed in a state approximate to the conditions in the pressure vessel. In addition, signals from the water quality monitor are inputted to a hydrogen injection amount control device. As a result, the amount of hydrogen injected to primary coolants can be controlled in a state approximate to the conditions in the pressure vessel. (I.S.)

  12. SU-E-T-506: Intercomparison Study On Small Field Output Factor Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamonti, C; Casati, M; Compagnucci, A; Arilli, C; Greto, D; Marrazzo, L [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Careggi, Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Pallotta, S; Zani, M [Universita’ degli Studi di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Marinelli, M; Verona, G [Universita’ di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy); Menichelli, D [IBA Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, DE (United States); Scotti, L [Tecnologie Avanzate TA srl, Torino (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose In radiotherapy, uncertainties due to small field measurements (SFM) introduce systematic errors to the treatment process and the development of new dosimeters for quality assurance programs is a challenge. In this work we analyze the behavior of seven detectors measuring output factors of 6MV photon beam. Methods The dosimeters employed are: a single cristal diamond detector (SCCD) developed at the University of Rome Tor Vergata, a silicon diode developed within the project MAESTRO, a IBA Razor silicon diode, A1SL and A26 Exradin ion chambers, an EBT3 Gafchromic film and the Exradin W1 Scintillator.Diamond sensitive volume is a cylinder 2.2mm in diameter and 1μm thick. MAESTRO diode is 2×2mm2 active area. Razor sensitive volume is a cylinder 0.6 mm in diameter and 0.02 mm thick. A16 and A1Sl have a collecting volume of 0,015cc and 0,053cc. The W1 is an optical fiber with an active volume of 0.002cc. All measurements were performed in a water phantom, with detector positioned at the isocenter (SSD=90cm, d=10cm), MAESTRO diode being sandwiched in solid water to obtain an equivalent experimental setup. Results These measurements are challenging due to the absence of charged particle equilibrium conditions, detector size and positioning problems. They are in good agreement among each other, especially GAF, Razor, W1 and SCDD. Maximum deviations reported are related to the field 0.8×0.8cm2 for MAESTRO and chambers data with respect to EBT3: around 15% (A1SLvsEBT3), 16% (MAESTROvsEBT3). Razor and W1 show a deviation around 3% with respect to SCDD. Conclusion In this work measurements made with a variety of detectors are compared. These study show the possibility to choose different detectors for SFM and that smaller ion chambers are still not competitive with solid state detectors. Silicon, diamond and optical fiber dosimeters show a similar behavior with minor discrepancies for the smallest field.

  13. Measuring physical neighborhood quality related to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Kimberly A; Wells, Nancy M; Evans, Gary W

    2015-04-29

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work.

  14. Technical assessment of air quality measuring analyzers; Evaluation technique des analyseurs de mesure de la qualite de l`air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatry, V. [Laboratoire de mesures a l`air ambiant, Dept. Mesures et Analyses, INERIS, (France)

    1996-12-31

    Air quality measuring analyzers are assessed in order to verify their measuring performance and to examine their aptitude to field measurements. For ensuring such assessment, the INERIS institute (France) disposes of three climatic enclosures, gas mixture emission systems and data acquisition systems. The assessment methodology is presented together with the various possible results: response time, linearity and limits determination, calibration studies, thresholds, drifts, hysteresis, physical detrimental effects, etc. Applications such as analyzers for one or more pollutants in ambient air and at the emission source (portable multi-gas analyzers) are presented, together with their results

  15. Electric field measurements in a near atmospheric pressure nanosecond pulse discharge with picosecond electric field induced second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M.; Chng, Tat Loon; Dogariu, Arthur; Miles, Richard B.

    2018-02-01

    We present an optical electric field measurement method for use in high pressure plasma discharges. The method is based upon the field induced second harmonic generation technique and can be used for localized electric field measurements with sub-nanosecond resolution in any gaseous species. When an external electric field is present, a dipole is induced in the typically centrosymmetric medium, allowing for second harmonic generation with signal intensities which scale by the square of the electric field. Calibrations have been carried out in 100 Torr room air, and a minimum sensitivity of 450 V/cm is demonstrated. Measurements were performed with nanosecond or faster temporal resolution in a 100 Torr room air environment both with and without a plasma present. It was shown that with no plasma present, the field follows the applied voltage to gap ratio, as measured using the back current shunt method. When the electric field is strong enough to exceed the breakdown threshold, the measured field was shown to exceed the anticipated voltage to gap ratio which is taken as an indication of the ionization wave front as it sweeps through the plasma volume.

  16. Measurement of magnetic fields in the Area Metropolitana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masis Mesen, Juan Pablo

    2007-01-01

    The operation and proper handling of equipment for measuring EMR-300 electromagnetic waves are studied and apply that knowledge to determine which areas of the metropolitan area are mostly affected by exposure to the emission of radiation. This team is able to measure magnetic field strength, electric field strength and power density, also can measure the most important parameters in a simple manner. International standards provide maximum values for these parameters that limit human exposure to such radiation. These standards are based on epidemiological several and laboratory that have been carried out in order to determine in which circumstances a biological entity is exposed to a level of radiation that can cause harm to their health. It focuses on measuring the level of radiation in certain areas of interest, which were chosen because are areas with high population density and also in proximity to antennas that emit electromagnetic waves. Before carrying out the data collection was performed a detailed study of which are the recommendations to measure and avoid as far as possible sources of error, once that those recommendations are implemented the making data was started. Data obtained show that these areas do not present any health risk and that levels of magnetic field strength and power density are well below the limits set by both the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. On the other hand, based on the obtained results and the study already done before by the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, it was concluded that the power density conditions for plane wave is the parameter most effective to quantize the associated risk with different levels of radiation of radio frequency electromagnetic fields. (author) [es

  17. The Use of Tracer Gas Measurements in Detection and Solution of Indoor Air Quality Problems in a Danish Town Hall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    A Danish town hall with substantial complaints of poor indoor air quality is examined. This paper describes ·the use of traGer gas measurements which form an important part in the detection and solution of the problems. Investigations are carried out both in the field and in the laboratory using...

  18. Is There a Correlation Between Infection Control Performance and Other Hospital Quality Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Lyndsay M; Morgan, Daniel J; Pineles, Lisa; Li, Shanshan; Sulis, Carol; Bowling, Jason; Drees, Marci; Jacob, Jesse T; Anderson, Deverick J; Warren, David K; Harris, Anthony D

    2017-06-01

    Quality measures are increasingly reported by hospitals to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), yet there may be tradeoffs in performance between infection control (IC) and other quality measures. Hospitals that performed best on IC measures did not perform well on most CMS non-IC quality measures. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:736-739.

  19. Quality Indicators in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Jeffrey M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Das, Prajnan, E-mail: prajdas@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Oncologic specialty societies and multidisciplinary collaborative groups have dedicated considerable effort to developing evidence-based quality indicators (QIs) to facilitate quality improvement, accreditation, benchmarking, reimbursement, maintenance of certification, and regulatory reporting. In particular, the field of radiation oncology has a long history of organized quality assessment efforts and continues to work toward developing consensus quality standards in the face of continually evolving technologies and standards of care. This report provides a comprehensive review of the current state of quality assessment in radiation oncology. Specifically, this report highlights implications of the healthcare quality movement for radiation oncology and reviews existing efforts to define and measure quality in the field, with focus on dimensions of quality specific to radiation oncology within the “big picture” of oncologic quality assessment efforts.

  20. Quality Indicators in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Jeffrey M.; Das, Prajnan

    2013-01-01

    Oncologic specialty societies and multidisciplinary collaborative groups have dedicated considerable effort to developing evidence-based quality indicators (QIs) to facilitate quality improvement, accreditation, benchmarking, reimbursement, maintenance of certification, and regulatory reporting. In particular, the field of radiation oncology has a long history of organized quality assessment efforts and continues to work toward developing consensus quality standards in the face of continually evolving technologies and standards of care. This report provides a comprehensive review of the current state of quality assessment in radiation oncology. Specifically, this report highlights implications of the healthcare quality movement for radiation oncology and reviews existing efforts to define and measure quality in the field, with focus on dimensions of quality specific to radiation oncology within the “big picture” of oncologic quality assessment efforts

  1. Measuring service quality in a hospital colposcopy clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Mik; Wisniewski, Hazel

    2005-01-01

    The issues surrounding the measurement and provision of service quality in a health care setting are becoming increasingly important to nursing. This research study aims to apply the SERVQUAL measurement instrument in a Scottish colposcopy clinic. The study involved adapting the SERVQUAL instrument to the colposcopy setting and asking a sample of patients to complete the questionnaire. Patient expectations of service were obtained on first attendance at the clinic. Patient perceptions of service received were obtained on completion of treatment. Perceptions and expectations are then compared to identify where the largest service gaps exist. Although patient satisfaction with the overall service provided was generally high, the instrument provided evidence of where specific service improvements were needed. The largest service quality gap was for the reliability of service. The research also revealed the need for improved premises. Although the study has a limited sample size, it does appear that the SERVQUAL instrument has a useful diagnostic role to play in assessing and monitoring service quality in nursing, enabling nursing staff to identify where improvements are needed from the patients' perspective. The study has raised a number of issues which would form the basis for useful further research. Service quality from the patients' perspective should be routinely monitored and assessed. The findings should be useful to nursing staff seeking to assess, and improve, service quality.

  2. Quality Measures for Dialysis: Time for a Balanced Scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliger, Alan S

    2016-02-05

    Recent federal legislation establishes a merit-based incentive payment system for physicians, with a scorecard for each professional. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services evaluate quality of care with clinical performance measures and have used these metrics for public reporting and payment to dialysis facilities. Similar metrics may be used for the future merit-based incentive payment system. In nephrology, most clinical performance measures measure processes and intermediate outcomes of care. These metrics were developed from population studies of best practice and do not identify opportunities for individualizing care on the basis of patient characteristics and individual goals of treatment. The In-Center Hemodialysis (ICH) Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) survey examines patients' perception of care and has entered the arena to evaluate quality of care. A balanced scorecard of quality performance should include three elements: population-based best clinical practice, patient perceptions, and individually crafted patient goals of care. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  3. Nanomechanical control of optical field and quality factor in photonic crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrufo, Michele; Midolo, Leonardo; Zobenica, Žarko; Petruzzella, Maurangelo; van Otten, Frank W. M.; Fiore, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Actively controlling the properties of localized optical modes is crucial for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. While several methods to tune the optical frequency have been demonstrated, the possibility of controlling the shape of the modes has scarcely been investigated. Yet an active manipulation of the mode pattern would allow direct control of the mode volume and the quality factor and therefore of the radiative processes. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a nano-optoelectromechanical device in which a mechanical displacement affects the spatial pattern of the electromagnetic field. The device is based on a double-membrane photonic crystal waveguide which, upon bending, creates a spatial modulation of the effective refractive index, resulting in an effective potential well or antiwell for the optical modes. The change in the field pattern drastically affects the optical losses: large modulations of the quality factors and dissipative coupling rates larger than 1 GHz/nm are predicted by calculations and confirmed by experiments. This concept opens new avenues in solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics in which the field, instead of the frequency, is coupled to the mechanical motion.

  4. Quality Market: Design and Field Study of Prediction Market for Software Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Janaki

    2010-01-01

    Given the increasing competition in the software industry and the critical consequences of software errors, it has become important for companies to achieve high levels of software quality. While cost reduction and timeliness of projects continue to be important measures, software companies are placing increasing attention on identifying the user…

  5. Study of Attitude staff in the Field of Total Quality Management by using Fuzzy Logic, Case Study in Teaching Hospitals in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M ArabBanadaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Total Quality Management, Quality is not only an admirable phenomenon but also is a customer inalienable right and will be created through the involvement and participation of all employees, managers and customers of an organization. This study was designed to evaluate staff attitudes in teaching hospitals of Yazd in the field of Total Quality Management by using fuzzy logic. Methods: This was a descriptive, analytical, cross – sectional study. Research population, were all staff in teaching hospitals of Yazd that among them 235 people were randomly Stratified, selected and studied. Data for this study were collected through a questionnaire. Since the theory of fuzzy is more suitable approach for measuring linguistic variables, so this paper determines the attitude of staff in the field of Quality Management by the use of fuzzy logic. Results: Results showed that the dimensions of the “Identification and training of staff," "empowerment and teamwork of Employees" and "support and leadership of the top management organization" respectively ranked first, second and third importance In terms of staff. Conclusion: Criteria of identification and training of staff and teamwork and support and leadership of the top management organization are Important in motivating Total Quality Management. So in total quality management improve programs, these aspects should be prioritized according to the degree of importance and effort to improve the quality of service.

  6. Measuring customer service quality in international marketing channels: a multimethod approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, M.G.M.; Ruyter, de J.C.; Lemmink, J.G.A.M.; Koelemeijer, K.

    1995-01-01

    The measurement of perceived service quality using the SERVQUAL approach has been criticized by a number of authors recently. This criticism concerns the conceptual basis of this methodology as well as its empirical operationalization. Presents a complementary approach to measuring service quality

  7. Evaluation of uncertainty in the measurement of environmental electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulevic, B.; Osmokrovic, P.

    2010-01-01

    With regard to Non-ionising radiation protection, the relationship between human exposure to electromagnetic fields and health is controversial. Electromagnetic fields have become omnipresent in the daily environment. This paper assesses the problem of how to compare a measurement result with a limit fixed by the standard for human exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (0 Hz-300 GHz). The purpose of the paper is an appropriate representation of the basic information about evaluation of measurement uncertainty. (authors)

  8. Comprehensive laboratory and field testing of cavity ring-down spectroscopy analyzers measuring H2O, CO2, CH4 and CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yver Kwok, C.; Laurent, O.; Guemri, A.; Philippon, C.; Wastine, B.; Rella, C. W.; Vuillemin, C.; Truong, F.; Delmotte, M.; Kazan, V.; Darding, M.; Lebègue, B.; Kaiser, C.; Xueref-Rémy, I.; Ramonet, M.

    2015-09-01

    To develop an accurate measurement network of greenhouse gases, instruments in the field need to be stable and precise and thus require infrequent calibrations and a low consumption of consumables. For about 10 years, cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzers have been available that meet these stringent requirements for precision and stability. Here, we present the results of tests of CRDS instruments in the laboratory (47 instruments) and in the field (15 instruments). The precision and stability of the measurements are studied. We demonstrate that, thanks to rigorous testing, newer models generally perform better than older models, especially in terms of reproducibility between instruments. In the field, we see the importance of individual diagnostics during the installation phase, and we show the value of calibration and target gases that assess the quality of the data. Finally, we formulate recommendations for use of these analyzers in the field.

  9. Comprehensive laboratory and field testing of cavity ring-down spectroscopy analyzers measuring H2O, CO2, CH4 and CO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yver Kwok

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To develop an accurate measurement network of greenhouse gases, instruments in the field need to be stable and precise and thus require infrequent calibrations and a low consumption of consumables. For about 10 years, cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS analyzers have been available that meet these stringent requirements for precision and stability. Here, we present the results of tests of CRDS instruments in the laboratory (47 instruments and in the field (15 instruments. The precision and stability of the measurements are studied. We demonstrate that, thanks to rigorous testing, newer models generally perform better than older models, especially in terms of reproducibility between instruments. In the field, we see the importance of individual diagnostics during the installation phase, and we show the value of calibration and target gases that assess the quality of the data. Finally, we formulate recommendations for use of these analyzers in the field.

  10. Field measurement program to determine far field plume dilution parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, R.C.; Carter, H.H.; Miyasaki, M.T.

    1974-01-01

    A description of the techniques used to obtain measurements of temperature, salinity, tidal velocity and tracer concentration required to determine the far field dilution in a shallow estuary is presented. The study was done to characterize the physical hydrography of the Bush River, a tributary estuary of the Chesapeake Bay, which is a possible recipient of the thermal discharge from a proposed power plant consisting of two 850 MWe nuclear generating units. Measurements of temperature and salinity along the axis of the estuary during periods of high and low fresh water inflow were obtained for use in the development of a one-dimensional-segmented transient state model of the estuary. Computer concentrations from the model compared favorably with measured dye concentrations for the same periods of high and low freshwater inflow

  11. Does the EQ-5D measure quality of life in schizophrenia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling Hastrup, Lene; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthoej, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Most health economic evaluations in mental care include outcome measures aimed at specific aspects of health, like symptom improvement, functional improvement and quality of life instead of generic preference based outcome measures. The health economic guidelines (NICE) recommend to include...... a generic preference based outcome measure, like EQ-5D, in health economic evaluations in order to allow for comparisons of health related quality of life of patient groups across different diseases, providing information particular useful to support health policy decisions and cost-effectiveness analysis...... in mental health, but only few studies have addressed the correlation between the EQ-5D and a condition-specific quality of life measure in mental health....

  12. Field size dependence of wedge factor: miniphantom vs full phantom measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen Li, X.; Szanto, J.; Soubra, M.; Gerig, L. H.

    1995-01-01

    It is empirically known that the transmission factor for wedge in a high-energy photon beam is dependent upon field size and depth of measurement. The field-size dependence of wedge factors may be attributed to changes in (i) head scatter, (ii) phantom scatter, and (iii) backscatter from the wedge into the linac monitor chamber. In this work we present the results of studies designed to examine each of these factors in isolation. The wedge factors for wedges with nominal wedge angles of 15 deg. , 30 deg. , 45 deg. and 60 deg. were measured with a 3-g/cm 2 -diameter narrow cylindrical phantom (miniphantom), a brass cap with 1.5-g/cm 2 side-wall thickness and a full water phantom for 6-, 10- and 18-MV photon beams. The measurements were performed with and without flattening filter in place. The wedge factors measured with the miniphantom and the brass cap exclude the phantom scatter contribution. It has been found that the field-size behaviour of wedge factor measured with full water phantom is similar to that measured with the miniphantom and cap. This indicates that the head scatter radiation is the major contributor to the field size dependence of wedge factors. Wedge factors measured with water phantom are up to 5.0% smaller than those measured with miniphantom. This difference increases with wedge angle. When Measured with the flattening filter removed, the field size dependence of the wedge factor is reduced. This justify that the flattening filter is one of the major contributors to head scatters. The measurement results made with the brass cap agree well with those made by using the miniphantom. By measuring the monitor chamber output, it is found that the backscatters from the wedge into the linac ion chamber have little effect on the field size dependence of the wedge factor

  13. The quality infrastructure measuring, analyzing, and improving library services

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Sarah Anne

    2013-01-01

    Summarizing specific tools for measuring service quality alongside tips for using these tools most effectively, this book helps libraries of all kinds take a programmatic approach to measuring, analyzing, and improving library services.

  14. Development of a field measurement methodology for studying the thermal indoor environment in hybrid GEOTABS buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Khovalyg, Dolaana; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2018-01-01

    buildings. The three demonstration buildings were an office building in Luxembourg, an elderly care home in Belgium, and an elementary school in Czech Republic. All of these buildings are equipped with hybrid GEOTABS systems; however, they vary in size and function, which requires a unique measurement...... methodology for studying them. These buildings already have advanced Building Management Systems (BMS); however, a more detailed measurement plan was needed for the purposes of the project to document the current performance of these systems regarding thermal indoor environment and energy performance......, and to be able to document the improvements after the implementation of the MPC. This study provides the details of the developed field measurement methodology for each of these buildings to study the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in details. The developed measurement methodology can be applied to other...

  15. Electric field measurement in the ionosphere using the time-of-flight technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masato; Hayakawa, Hajime; Tsuruda, Koichiro

    1989-01-01

    The first successful electric field measurement in the ionosphere using the time-of-flight technique with a lithium ion beam was carried out on a S-520 sounding rocket launched from Kagoshima Space Center, Japan on January 15, 1987. The purpose of this experiment was to prove the validity of the time-of-flight technique when it is applied to the measurement of the dc electric field in the ionosphere. A time-coded ion beam was ejected from the rocket in the direction perpendicular to the Earth's magnetic field. The beam returned to the rocket twice per rocket spin when the initial beam direction was nearly perpendicular to the electric field. The electric field and the magnetic field were derived from the travel time of these return lithium ions. The accuracy of the electric field determination was ± 0.3 mV/m. The direction of the electric field was obtained from the direction of the returning ion beam after about one ion gyration. The main constituent of the measured electric field was a V x B field due to the rocket motion across the geomagnetic field. The ambient field was less than 1 mV/m. The magnetic field was measured with an accuracy of ± 2.7 nT in this experiment

  16. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution is applied to a frozen wind field used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements are also evaluated with a large eddy simulation of a stable boundary layer provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Simulation results show the combined effects of LIDAR errors and wind evolution for realistic turbine-mounted LIDAR measurement scenarios.

  17. Measuring the Multifaceted Nature of Infant and Toddler Care Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Peter L.; Kriener-Althen, Kerry; Marcella, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The quality of group care infants and toddlers experience relates to their concurrent and later development. Recent quality improvement initiatives point to the need for ecologically valid measures that assess the multifaceted nature of child care quality. In this article, we present the psychometric properties of an infant and…

  18. MEASURING GROCERY STORES SERVICE QUALITY IN INDONESIA: A RETAIL SERVICE QUALITY SCALE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonnard Leonnard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of modern grocery stores in Indonesia is a challenge for each grocery store to maintain and increase their number of consumers. The success of maintaining and improving service quality will affect long-term profitability and business sustainability. Therefore, in this study, we examined consumer perceptions of service quality in one of modern grocery stores in Indonesia. Data were collected from 387 consumers of grocery stores in Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Bekasi, Cibubur, and Subang. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM through Maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation was employed to analyze the data. The finding indicated that the five indicators of the retail service quality scale consisting of physical aspects, reliability, personal interactions, problem solving and policies provided  valid multi-item instruments in measuring consumer perceptions of service quality in grocery stores.

  19. Accountability Quality Shuffler Measurements on Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Pits have generally been treated as accountable units that are intact if merely present and they are excluded from the more demanding nondestructive assay requirements. As pits begin to flow into disposition streams, there may be more incentive to measure the masses of their fissile components for accountability purposes. This Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) Lifecycle Project has explored some ways in which such measurements may be done successfully. The active neutron instrument called a shuffler has been used to measure a variety of actual pits, and a calculational technique has been developed to accurately predict such count rates. Passive multiplicity counting has previously been applied to pits for determining their plutonium contents. This combination of measurement and calculational techniques provide powerful and accurate tools for determining the fissile contents of pits with the quality needed for accountability purposes

  20. Clustering of reads with alignment-free measures and quality values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Matteo; Leoni, Andrea; Schimd, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The data volume generated by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies is growing at a pace that is now challenging the storage and data processing capacities of modern computer systems. In this context an important aspect is the reduction of data complexity by collapsing redundant reads in a single cluster to improve the run time, memory requirements, and quality of post-processing steps like assembly and error correction. Several alignment-free measures, based on k-mers counts, have been used to cluster reads. Quality scores produced by NGS platforms are fundamental for various analysis of NGS data like reads mapping and error detection. Moreover future-generation sequencing platforms will produce long reads but with a large number of erroneous bases (up to 15 %). In this scenario it will be fundamental to exploit quality value information within the alignment-free framework. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that incorporates quality value information and k-mers counts, in the context of alignment-free measures, for the comparison of reads data. Based on this principles, in this paper we present a family of alignment-free measures called D (q) -type. A set of experiments on simulated and real reads data confirms that the new measures are superior to other classical alignment-free statistics, especially when erroneous reads are considered. Also results on de novo assembly and metagenomic reads classification show that the introduction of quality values improves over standard alignment-free measures. These statistics are implemented in a software called QCluster (http://www.dei.unipd.it/~ciompin/main/qcluster.html).

  1. Measuring relatives’ perspectives on the quality of palliative care: the Consumer Quality Index Palliative Care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, S.J.J.; Francke, A.L.; Sixma, H.J.; Veer, A.J.E. de; Deliens, L.

    2013-01-01

    Context: A Consumer Quality Index (CQ-index) is a questionnaire assessing the actual care experiences and how important the recipient finds certain care aspects, as well as the priorities for improving quality. A CQ-index Palliative Care (CQ-index PC) for bereaved relatives was developed to measure

  2. 'Procurement quality engineering': A measurement driven system to assure quality at each step in the procurement process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderman, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Procurement Quality Function' is an element of the Body of Knowledge of Quality Engineering, as defined by the American Society for Quality Control (ASQC). This paper describes the Procurement Quality function which has been installed as an integral part of the Quality Engineering group of the Technical and Management Support Services (T ampersand MSS) contractor to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Each of the elements of the T ampersand MSS Procurement Quality Engineering (PQE) system is discussed along with the measurements obtained. With the installation and development of the PQE system we have attained more meaningful evaluation of supplier capability, reduction of procurement document review reject ratios from 31% to less than 2% per quarter, more effective measurement and control of supplier performance, and the ability to enter into a meaningful teaming effort with T ampersand MSS suppliers

  3. General temperature field measurement by digital holography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít; Vít, Tomáš; Václavík, Jan; Kopecký, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2013), A319-A325 ISSN 1559-128X Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : digital holography * temperature field measurement * tomography Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.649, year: 2013

  4. Is Low-field NMR a Complementary Tool to GC-MS in Quality Control of Essential Oils? A Case Study: Patchouli Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andre; Wu, Yu; Tian, Runtao; van Beek, Teris A

    2018-04-24

    High-field NMR is an expensive and important quality control technique. In recent years, cheaper and simpler low-field NMR has become available as a new quality control technique. In this study, 60 MHz 1 H-NMR was compared with GC-MS and refractometry for the detection of adulteration of essential oils, taking patchouli essential oil as a test case. Patchouli essential oil is frequently adulterated, even today. In total, 75 genuine patchouli essential oils, 10 commercial patchouli essential oils, 10 other essential oils, 17 adulterants, and 1 patchouli essential oil, spiked at 20% with those adulterants, were measured. Visual inspection of the NMR spectra allowed for easy detection of 14 adulterants, while gurjun and copaiba balsams proved difficult and one adulterant could not be detected. NMR spectra of 10 random essential oils differed not only strongly from patchouli essential oil but also from one another, suggesting that fingerprinting by low-field NMR is not limited to patchouli essential oil. Automated chemometric evaluation of NMR spectra was possible by similarity analysis (Mahalanobis distance) based on the integration from 0.1 - 8.1 ppm in 0.01 ppm increments. Good quality patchouli essential oils were recognised as well as 15 of 17 deliberate adulterations. Visual qualitative inspection by GC-MS allowed for the detection of all volatile adulterants. Nonvolatile adulterants, and all but one volatile adulterant, could be detected by semiquantitation. Different chemometric approaches showed satisfactory results. Similarity analyses were difficult with nonvolatile adulterants. Refractive index measurements could detect only 8 of 17 adulterants. Due to advantages such as simplicity, rapidity, reproducibility, and ability to detect nonvolatile adulterants, 60 MHz 1 H-NMR is complimentary to GC-MS for quality control of essential oils. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Magnetic Field Measurements In Magnetized Plasmas Using Zeeman Broadening Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Showera; Wallace, Matthew; Presura, Radu; Neill, Paul

    2017-10-01

    The Zeeman effect has been used to measure the magnetic field in high energy density plasmas. This method is limited when plasma conditions are such that the line broadening due to the high plasma density and temperature surpasses the Zeeman splitting. We have measured magnetic fields in magnetized laser plasmas under conditions where the Zeeman splitting was not spectrally resolved. The magnetic field strength was determined from the difference in widths of two doublet components, using an idea proposed by Tessarin et al. (2011). Time-gated spectra with one-dimensional space-resolution were obtained at the Nevada Terawatt Facility for laser plasmas created by 20 J, 1 ns Leopard laser pulses, and expanding in the azimuthal magnetic field produced by the 0.6 MA Zebra pulsed power generator. We explore the response of the Al III 4s 2S1/2 - 4p 2P1 / 2 , 3 / 2 doublet components to the external magnetic field spatially along the plasma. Radial magnetic field and electron density profiles were measured within the plasma plume. This work was supported by the DOE/OFES Grant DE-SC0008829 and DOE/NNSA contract DE-FC52-06NA27616.

  6. In situ measurement of ceramic vacuum chamber conductive coating quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doose, C.; Harkay, K.; Kim, S.; Milton, S.

    1997-01-01

    A method for measuring the relative surface resistivity and quality of conductive coatings on ceramic vacuum chambers was developed. This method is unique in that it allows one to test the coating even after the ceramic chamber is installed in the accelerator and under vacuum; furthermore, the measurement provides a localized surface reading of the coating conductance. The method uses a magnetic probe is calibrated using the measured DC end-to-end resistance of the tube under test and by comparison to a high quality test surface. The measurement method has also been verified by comparison to high frequency impedance measurements. A detailed description, results, and sensitivity of the technique are given here

  7. Magnetic field measurements and data acquisition of a model magnet for the B-factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenming; Endo, Kuninori

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe magnetic field measurements and the field data-acquisition system used to measure the model magnet for the B-factory booster. The results of the measurements indicate that the method adopted here is good for acquiring field data. This type of measurement is highly accurate and involves almost no temperature coefficient. The instrument is used not only for ac, but also dc field measurements. It is especially good for field measurements in the case of simultaneous ac and dc field excitation. (author)

  8. Health-related quality-of-life outcome measures in paediatric palliative care: A systematic review of psychometric properties and feasibility of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, Lucy H; Wiseman, Theresa; Lucas, Grace; Sangha, Amrit; Murtagh, Fliss EM

    2016-01-01

    Background: The number of children worldwide requiring palliative care services is increasing due to advances in medical care and technology. The use of outcome measures is important to improve the quality and effectiveness of care. Aim: To systematically identify health-related quality-of-life outcome measures that could be used in paediatric palliative care and examine their feasibility of use and psychometric properties. Design: A systematic literature review and analysis of psychometric properties. Data sources: PsychInfo, Medline and EMBASE were searched from 1 January 1990 to 10 December 2014. Hand searches of the reference list of included studies and relevant reviews were also performed. Results: From 3460 articles, 125 papers were selected for full-text assessment. A total of 41 articles met the eligibility criteria and examined the psychometric properties of 22 health-related quality-of-life measures. Evidence was limited as at least half of the information on psychometric properties per instrument was missing. Measurement error was not analysed in any of the included articles and responsiveness was only analysed in one study. The methodological quality of included studies varied greatly. Conclusion: There is currently no ‘ideal’ outcome assessment measure for use in paediatric palliative care. The domains of generic health-related quality-of-life measures are not relevant to all children receiving palliative care and some domains within disease-specific measures are only relevant for that specific population. Potential solutions include adapting an existing measure or developing more individualized patient-centred outcome and experience measures. Either way, it is important to continue work on outcome measurement in this field. PMID:27247087

  9. Measurement properties of adult quality-of-life measurement instruments for eczema: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbacher, Christian J; Heinl, Daniel; Prinsen, Cecilia A C; Deckert, Stefanie; Chalmers, Joanne; Ofenloch, Robert; Humphreys, Rosemary; Sach, Tracey; Chamlin, Sarah; Schmitt, Jochen

    2015-04-16

    Eczema is a common chronic or chronically relapsing skin disease that has a substantial impact on quality of life (QoL). By means of a consensus-based process, the Harmonising Outcome Measures in Eczema (HOME) initiative has identified QoL as one of the four core outcome domains to be assessed in all eczema trials (Allergy 67(9):1111-7, 2012). Various measurement instruments exist to measure QoL in adults with eczema, but there is a great variability in both content and quality (for example, reliability and validity) of the instruments used, and it is not always clear if the best instrument is being used. Therefore, the aim of the proposed research is a comprehensive systematic assessment of the measurement properties of the existing measurement instruments that were developed and/or validated for the measurement of patient-reported QoL in adults with eczema. This study is a systematic review of the measurement properties of patient-reported measures of QoL developed and/or validated for adults with eczema. Medline via PubMed and EMBASE will be searched using a selection of relevant search terms. Eligible studies will be primary empirical studies evaluating, describing, or comparing measurement properties of QoL instruments for adult patients with eczema. Eligibility assessment and data abstraction will be performed independently by two reviewers. Evidence tables will be generated for study characteristics, instrument characteristics, measurement properties, and interpretability. The quality of the measurement properties will be assessed using predefined criteria. Methodological quality of studies will be assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. A best evidence synthesis will be undertaken if more than one study has investigated a particular measurement property. The proposed systematic review will produce a comprehensive assessment of measurement properties of existing QoL instruments in

  10. Purcell filter of unusual shape in fair superferric sextupole magnet for improving the field quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, P.R.; Dutta Gupta, A.; Nandi, C.; Saha, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Pal, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the Energy Buncher Section of the Super-FRS of the FAIR project, magnets of very high quality and wide aperture are needed. Wide aperture of these magnets generates large end-effects which can be reduced by end shaping and using Purcell filters which are voids in the pole for modifying the field. In the present work we have investigated various shapes of Purcell filters in magnets, especially in superferric sextupole magnets. Conventional Purcell filters are through and through rectangular voids in the pole region, a little away from the pole face. We have seen that the length of the Purcell filter is an important parameter which can be optimized. Thus one can use partially penetrating filters. We have further shown that Purcell filters of unusual geometry which start right from the pole face can be effectively used in reducing the weight of the iron, while keeping the field quality intact or improve the field quality, keeping the weight constant. (author)

  11. MEASUREMENT OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE IN MEAT PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Voloshina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods aimed to ensure the quality of foods require to implement and certify quality management systems in processing plants. In this case, to measure the effectiveness of existing QMS is often a very difficult task for the leadership due to the fragmentation of the measured metrics, or even lack thereof. This points to the relevance of the conducted research.The criteria for effectiveness assessment of the production process of meat processing plants with the use of scaling methods and Shewhart control charts are presented in the article. The authors developed and presented the formulae for the calculation of single indicators used for the further comprehensive assessment. The algorithm of statistical evaluation of the process controllability, which allows in an accessible form to estimate the statistical control of production processes and to organize statistical quality control in the development of quality management systems, is presented The proposed procedure is based on a process approach, the essence of which is the application of the Deming cycle: “Plan — Do — Check — Act”, which makes it easy to integrate it into any existing quality management system.

  12. Estimation of magnetic field in a region from measurements of the field at discrete points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexopoulos, Theodore; Dris, Manolis; Lucas, Demetrios.

    1984-12-01

    A method is given to estimate the magnetic field in a region from measurements of the field in its surface and its interior. The method might be useful in high energy physics and other experiments that use large area magnets. (author)

  13. Results from power quality measurements in Germany - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, G.J.; Santjer, F. [German Wind Energy Inst, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Grid interferences caused by wind turbines (WT) are getting a severe problem in Germany with the fast increasing number of installed turbines. The wind energy capacity was doubled annually in the past three years. The actual situation and the plannings for the next years will lead to a situation, where high wind energy penetration will exercise a big influence on the power and voltage quality of local utility networks. Measurements performed in Germany according to a national guideline show a big variety in power quality performance of WT`s, which does affect the requirements for grid connection and thus the economical situation of wind energy projects to a large extent. The results from more than 25 power quality measurements will be discussed in this paper. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. SU-F-T-486: A Simple Approach to Performing Light Versus Radiation Field Coincidence Quality Assurance Using An Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herchko, S; Ding, G [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an accurate, straightforward, and user-independent method for performing light versus radiation field coincidence quality assurance utilizing EPID images, a simple phantom made of readily-accessible materials, and a free software program. Methods: A simple phantom consisting of a blocking tray, graph paper, and high-density wire was constructed. The phantom was used to accurately set the size of a desired light field and imaged on the electronic portal imaging device (EPID). A macro written for use in ImageJ, a free image processing software, was then use to determine the radiation field size utilizing the high density wires on the phantom for a pixel to distance calibration. The macro also performs an analysis on the measured radiation field utilizing the tolerances recommended in the AAPM Task Group #142. To verify the accuracy of this method, radiochromic film was used to qualitatively demonstrate agreement between the film and EPID results, and an additional ImageJ macro was used to quantitatively compare the radiation field sizes measured both with the EPID and film images. Results: The results of this technique were benchmarked against film measurements, which have been the gold standard for testing light versus radiation field coincidence. The agreement between this method and film measurements were within 0.5 mm. Conclusion: Due to the operator dependency associated with tracing light fields and measuring radiation fields by hand when using film, this method allows for a more accurate comparison between the light and radiation fields with minimal operator dependency. Removing the need for radiographic or radiochromic film also eliminates a reoccurring cost and increases procedural efficiency.

  15. SU-F-T-486: A Simple Approach to Performing Light Versus Radiation Field Coincidence Quality Assurance Using An Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herchko, S; Ding, G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an accurate, straightforward, and user-independent method for performing light versus radiation field coincidence quality assurance utilizing EPID images, a simple phantom made of readily-accessible materials, and a free software program. Methods: A simple phantom consisting of a blocking tray, graph paper, and high-density wire was constructed. The phantom was used to accurately set the size of a desired light field and imaged on the electronic portal imaging device (EPID). A macro written for use in ImageJ, a free image processing software, was then use to determine the radiation field size utilizing the high density wires on the phantom for a pixel to distance calibration. The macro also performs an analysis on the measured radiation field utilizing the tolerances recommended in the AAPM Task Group #142. To verify the accuracy of this method, radiochromic film was used to qualitatively demonstrate agreement between the film and EPID results, and an additional ImageJ macro was used to quantitatively compare the radiation field sizes measured both with the EPID and film images. Results: The results of this technique were benchmarked against film measurements, which have been the gold standard for testing light versus radiation field coincidence. The agreement between this method and film measurements were within 0.5 mm. Conclusion: Due to the operator dependency associated with tracing light fields and measuring radiation fields by hand when using film, this method allows for a more accurate comparison between the light and radiation fields with minimal operator dependency. Removing the need for radiographic or radiochromic film also eliminates a reoccurring cost and increases procedural efficiency.

  16. Measuring Coronal Magnetic Fields with Remote Sensing Observations of Shock Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemporad, Alessandro; Susino, Roberto; Frassati, Federica; Fineschi, Silvano, E-mail: bemporad@oato.inaf.it [INAF, Turin Astrophysical Observatory, Pino Torinese (Italy)

    2016-05-27

    Our limited knowledge of the magnetic fields structuring in the solar corona represents today the main hurdle in our understanding of its structure and dynamic. Over the last decades significant efforts have been dedicated to measure these fields, by approaching the problem on many different sides and in particular: (i) by improving our theoretical understanding of the modification (via Zeeman and Hanle effects) induced by these fields on the polarization of coronal emission lines, (ii) by developing new instrumentation to measure directly with spectro-polarimeters these modifications, (iii) by improving the reliability of the extrapolated coronal fields starting from photospheric measurements, (iv) by developing new techniques to analyse existing remote sensing data and infer properties of these fields, or by combining all these different approaches (e.g., Chifu et al.,).

  17. Surface renewal: an advanced micrometeorological method for measuring and processing field-scale energy flux density data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrone, Andrew J; Shapland, Thomas M; Calderon, Arturo; Fitzmaurice, Li; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Snyder, Richard L

    2013-12-12

    Advanced micrometeorological methods have become increasingly important in soil, crop, and environmental sciences. For many scientists without formal training in atmospheric science, these techniques are relatively inaccessible. Surface renewal and other flux measurement methods require an understanding of boundary layer meteorology and extensive training in instrumentation and multiple data management programs. To improve accessibility of these techniques, we describe the underlying theory of surface renewal measurements, demonstrate how to set up a field station for surface renewal with eddy covariance calibration, and utilize our open-source turnkey data logger program to perform flux data acquisition and processing. The new turnkey program returns to the user a simple data table with the corrected fluxes and quality control parameters, and eliminates the need for researchers to shuttle between multiple processing programs to obtain the final flux data. An example of data generated from these measurements demonstrates how crop water use is measured with this technique. The output information is useful to growers for making irrigation decisions in a variety of agricultural ecosystems. These stations are currently deployed in numerous field experiments by researchers in our group and the California Department of Water Resources in the following crops: rice, wine and raisin grape vineyards, alfalfa, almond, walnut, peach, lemon, avocado, and corn.

  18. High frequency electric field levels: An example of determination of measurement uncertainty for broadband measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulević Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining high frequency electromagnetic field levels in urban areas represents a very complex task, having in mind the exponential growth of the number of sources embodied in public cellular telephony systems in the past twenty years. The main goal of this paper is a representation of a practical solution in the evaluation of measurement uncertainty for in-situ measurements in the case of spatial averaging. An example of the estimation of the uncertainty for electric field strength broadband measurements in the frequency range from 3 MHz to 18 GHz is presented.

  19. Clinical Performance Measures and Quality Improvement System Considerations for Dental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Joseph W; Zeller, Gregory G

    2017-03-01

    Quality improvement and quality assurance programs are an integral part of providing excellence in health care delivery. The Dental Quality Alliance and the Commission on Dental Accreditation recognize this and have created standards and recommendations to advise health care providers and health care delivery systems, including dental schools, on measuring the quality of the care delivered to patients. Overall health care expenditures have increased, and the Affordable Care Act has made health care, including dentistry, available to more people in the United States. These increases in cost and in the number of patients accessing care contribute to a heightened interest in measurable quality improvement outcomes that reflect efficiency, effectiveness, and overall value. Practitioners and administrators, both in academia and in the "real world," need an understanding of various quality improvement methodologies available in order to select approaches that support effective monitoring of the quality of care delivered. This article compares and contrasts various quality improvement approaches, programs, and systems currently in use in order to assist dental providers and administrators in choosing quality improvement methodologies pertinent to their practice or institution.

  20. Selected Tools and Methods from Quality Management Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina BRODECKÁ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Following paper describes selected tools and methods from Quality management field and their practical applications on defined examples. Solved examples were elaborated in the form of electronic support. This in detail elaborated electronic support provides students opportunity to thoroughly practice specific issues, help them to prepare for exams and consequently will lead to education improvement. Especially students of combined study form will appreciate this support. The paper specifies project objectives, subjects that will be covered by mentioned support, target groups, structure and the way of elaboration of electronic exercise book in view. The emphasis is not only on manual solution of selected examples that may help students to understand the principles and relationships, but also on solving and results interpreting of selected examples using software support. Statistic software Statgraphics Plus v 5.0 is used while working support, because it is free to use for all students of the faculty. Exemplary example from the subject Basic Statistical Methods of Quality Management is also part of this paper.

  1. submitter Influence of 3D Effects on Field Quality in the Straight Part of Accelerator Magnets for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Emelie; Todesco, Ezio; Enomoto, Shun; Farinon, Stefania; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Sugano, Michinaka; Savary, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    A dedicated D1 beam separation dipole is currently being developed at KEK for the Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). Four 150 mm aperture, 5.6 T magnetic field and 6.7 m long Nb-Ti magnets will replace resistive D1 dipoles. The development includes fabrication and testing of 2.2 m model magnets. The dipole has a single layer coil and thin spacers between coil and iron, giving a non-negligible impact of saturation on field quality at nominal field. The magnetic design of the straight section coil cross section is based on 2D optimization and a separate optimization concerns the coil ends. However, magnetic measurements of the short model showed a large difference (tens of units) between the sextupole harmonic in the straight part and the 2D calculation. This difference is correctly modelled only by a 3D analysis: 3D calculations show that the magnetic field quality in the straight part is influenced by the coil ends, even for the 6.7 m long magnets. The effect is even more remarkable in the sho...

  2. submitter Influence of 3D Effects on Field Quality in the Straight Part of Accelerator Magnets for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Emelie; Todesco, Ezio; Enomoto, Shun; Farinon, Stefania; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Sugano, Michinaka; Savary, Frederic

    2018-01-01

    A dedicated D1 beam separation dipole is currently being developed at KEK for the Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). Four 150 mm aperture, 5.6 T magnetic field and 6.7 m long Nb-Ti magnets will replace resistive D1 dipoles. The development includes fabrication and testing of 2.2 m model magnets. The dipole has a single layer coil and thin spacers between coil and iron, giving a non-negligible impact of saturation on field quality at nominal field. The magnetic design of the straight section coil cross section is based on 2D optimization and a separate optimization concerns the coil ends. However, magnetic measurements of the short model showed a large difference (tens of units) between the sextupole harmonic in the straight part and the 2D calculation. This difference is correctly modelled only by a 3D analysis: 3D calculations show that the magnetic field quality in the straight part is influenced by the coil ends, even for the 6.7 m long magnets. The effect is even more remarkable in the sho...

  3. National Quality Forum Colon Cancer Quality Metric Performance: How Are Hospitals Measuring Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Meredith C; Chang, George J; Petersen, Laura A; Sada, Yvonne H; Tran Cao, Hop S; Chai, Christy; Berger, David H; Massarweh, Nader N

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of care at high-performing hospitals on the National Quality Forum (NQF) colon cancer metrics. The NQF endorses evaluating ≥12 lymph nodes (LNs), adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) for stage III patients, and AC within 4 months of diagnosis as colon cancer quality indicators. Data on hospital-level metric performance and the association with survival are unclear. Retrospective cohort study of 218,186 patients with resected stage I to III colon cancer in the National Cancer Data Base (2004-2012). High-performing hospitals (>75% achievement) were identified by the proportion of patients achieving each measure. The association between hospital performance and survival was evaluated using Cox shared frailty modeling. Only hospital LN performance improved (15.8% in 2004 vs 80.7% in 2012; trend test, P fashion [0 metrics, reference; 1, hazard ratio (HR) 0.96 (0.89-1.03); 2, HR 0.92 (0.87-0.98); 3, HR 0.85 (0.80-0.90); 2 vs 1, HR 0.96 (0.91-1.01); 3 vs 1, HR 0.89 (0.84-0.93); 3 vs 2, HR 0.95 (0.89-0.95)]. Performance on metrics in combination was associated with lower risk of death [LN + AC, HR 0.86 (0.78-0.95); AC + timely AC, HR 0.92 (0.87-0.98); LN + AC + timely AC, HR 0.85 (0.80-0.90)], whereas individual measures were not [LN, HR 0.95 (0.88-1.04); AC, HR 0.95 (0.87-1.05)]. Less than half of hospitals perform well on these NQF colon cancer metrics concurrently, and high performance on individual measures is not associated with improved survival. Quality improvement efforts should shift focus from individual measures to defining composite measures encompassing the overall multimodal care pathway and capturing successful transitions from one care modality to another.

  4. Facing a Problem of Electrical Energy Quality in Ship Networks-measurements, Estimation, Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomasz Tarasiuk; Janusz Mindykowski; Xiaoyan Xu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, electrical energy quality and its indices in ship electric networks are introduced, especially the meaning of electrical energy quality terms in voltage and active and reactive power distribution indices. Then methods of measurement of marine electrical energy indices are introduced in details and a microprocessor measurement-diagnosis system with the function of measurement and control is designed. Afterwards, estimation and control of electrical power quality of marine electrical power networks are introduced. And finally, according to the existing method of measurement and control of electrical power quality in ship power networks, the improvement of relative method is proposed.

  5. Field Scale Spatial Modelling of Surface Soil Quality Attributes in Controlled Traffic Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenette, Kris; Hernandez-Ramirez, Guillermo

    2017-04-01

    The employment of controlled traffic farming (CTF) can yield improvements to soil quality attributes through the confinement of equipment traffic to tramlines with the field. There is a need to quantify and explain the spatial heterogeneity of soil quality attributes affected by CTF to further improve our understanding and modelling ability of field scale soil dynamics. Soil properties such as available nitrogen (AN), pH, soil total nitrogen (STN), soil organic carbon (SOC), bulk density, macroporosity, soil quality S-Index, plant available water capacity (PAWC) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (Km) were analysed and compared among trafficked and un-trafficked areas. We contrasted standard geostatistical methods such as ordinary kriging (OK) and covariate kriging (COK) as well as the hybrid method of regression kriging (ROK) to predict the spatial distribution of soil properties across two annual cropland sites actively employing CTF in Alberta, Canada. Field scale variability was quantified more accurately through the inclusion of covariates; however, the use of ROK was shown to improve model accuracy despite the regression model composition limiting the robustness of the ROK method. The exclusion of traffic from the un-trafficked areas displayed significant improvements to bulk density, macroporosity and Km while subsequently enhancing AN, STN and SOC. The ability of the regression models and the ROK method to account for spatial trends led to the highest goodness-of-fit and lowest error achieved for the soil physical properties, as the rigid traffic regime of CTF altered their spatial distribution at the field scale. Conversely, the COK method produced the most optimal predictions for the soil nutrient properties and Km. The use of terrain covariates derived from light ranging and detection (LiDAR), such as of elevation and topographic position index (TPI), yielded the best models in the COK method at the field scale.

  6. Limitations on the use of the pulsed-wire field-measuring technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.W.

    1987-09-01

    As wigglers become longer and the wavelength of the light they produce becomes shorter, the requirements for magnetic field uniformity and precision of wiggler construction become more severe. Techniques used to measure magnetic fields and to estimate the performance of wigglers are now being pushed to their limits in precision and are generally awkward and time consuming in practice. A new field-error measurement technique has been developed that has the usual advantages of a null technique, demonstrates high sensitivity to field errors, and is rapid and simple to employ. With this technique, it appears practical to use computer control to both measure and correct field errors. In a particularly attractive application, these measuring and correcting steps could be carried out on a daily basis for an operational wiggler, which is mounted under vacuum in its optical cavity. In this way, changes in the fields caused by aging or by thermal or radiation-induced deterioration effects could be rapidly identified and corrections could be instituted without significant interruption to normal operations. The principles and limitations of ths technique will be described and examples given of various implementations that have been examined experimentally. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Relations of image quality in on-line portal images and individual patient parameters for pelvic field radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvel, F. van den; Neve, W. de; Coghe, M.; Verellen, D.; Storme, G.

    1992-01-01

    The aims of the present study involving 566 pelvic fields on 13 patients were: 1. To study the machine- and patient-related factors influencing image quality. 2. To study the factors related to machine, patient and patient set-up, influencing the errors of field set-up. 3. To develop a method for predicting the camera settings. The OPI device consisted of a fluorescent screen scanned by a video camera. An image quality score on a scale 0-5 was given for 546/566 fields. In a univariate analysis, open field subtraction adversely affected the score. The image score of anterior fields was significantly better than that of posterior fields. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression showed that, in addition to anterior or posterior field and subtraction, gender was also a significant predictor of image score. Errors requiring field adjustments were detected on 289/530 (54.5%) evaluable fields or 229/278 (82.4%) evaluable patient set-ups. Multivariate logistic regression showed that the probability of performing an adjustment was significantly related to gender, image quality and AP-PA diameter. The magnitude of adjustments made in the lateral direction correlated significantly with patient bulk. The camera kV level with gain held constant showed an exponential dependency on dose rate at the image detector plate and can thus be predicted by treatment planning. (orig.)

  8. Evaluating the Psychometric Quality of Social Skills Measures: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Speyer, Renée; Chen, Yu-Wei; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Brown, Ted; Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Doma, Kenji; Leicht, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in social functioning are associated with an array of adverse outcomes. Social skills measures are commonly used by health professionals to assess and plan the treatment of social skills difficulties. There is a need to comprehensively evaluate the quality of psychometric properties reported across these measures to guide assessment and treatment planning. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours measures for both children and adults. A systematic search was performed using four electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed; the Health and Psychosocial Instruments database; and grey literature using PsycExtra and Google Scholar. The psychometric properties of the social skills measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Thirty-Six studies and nine manuals were included to assess the psychometric properties of thirteen social skills measures that met the inclusion criteria. Most measures obtained excellent overall methodological quality scores for internal consistency and reliability. However, eight measures did not report measurement error, nine measures did not report cross-cultural validity and eleven measures did not report criterion validity. The overall quality of the psychometric properties of most measures was satisfactory. The SSBS-2, HCSBS and PKBS-2 were the three measures with the most robust evidence of sound psychometric quality in at least seven of the eight psychometric properties that were appraised. A universal working definition of social functioning as an overarching construct is recommended. There is a need for ongoing research in the area of the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours instruments.

  9. Evaluating the Psychometric Quality of Social Skills Measures: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Doma, Kenji; Leicht, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Impairments in social functioning are associated with an array of adverse outcomes. Social skills measures are commonly used by health professionals to assess and plan the treatment of social skills difficulties. There is a need to comprehensively evaluate the quality of psychometric properties reported across these measures to guide assessment and treatment planning. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours measures for both children and adults. Methods A systematic search was performed using four electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed; the Health and Psychosocial Instruments database; and grey literature using PsycExtra and Google Scholar. The psychometric properties of the social skills measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Results Thirty-Six studies and nine manuals were included to assess the psychometric properties of thirteen social skills measures that met the inclusion criteria. Most measures obtained excellent overall methodological quality scores for internal consistency and reliability. However, eight measures did not report measurement error, nine measures did not report cross-cultural validity and eleven measures did not report criterion validity. Conclusions The overall quality of the psychometric properties of most measures was satisfactory. The SSBS-2, HCSBS and PKBS-2 were the three measures with the most robust evidence of sound psychometric quality in at least seven of the eight psychometric properties that were appraised. A universal working definition of social functioning as an overarching construct is recommended. There is a need for ongoing research in the area of the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours instruments. PMID:26151362

  10. Evaluating the Psychometric Quality of Social Skills Measures: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinie Cordier

    Full Text Available Impairments in social functioning are associated with an array of adverse outcomes. Social skills measures are commonly used by health professionals to assess and plan the treatment of social skills difficulties. There is a need to comprehensively evaluate the quality of psychometric properties reported across these measures to guide assessment and treatment planning.To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours measures for both children and adults.A systematic search was performed using four electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed; the Health and Psychosocial Instruments database; and grey literature using PsycExtra and Google Scholar. The psychometric properties of the social skills measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria.Thirty-Six studies and nine manuals were included to assess the psychometric properties of thirteen social skills measures that met the inclusion criteria. Most measures obtained excellent overall methodological quality scores for internal consistency and reliability. However, eight measures did not report measurement error, nine measures did not report cross-cultural validity and eleven measures did not report criterion validity.The overall quality of the psychometric properties of most measures was satisfactory. The SSBS-2, HCSBS and PKBS-2 were the three measures with the most robust evidence of sound psychometric quality in at least seven of the eight psychometric properties that were appraised. A universal working definition of social functioning as an overarching construct is recommended. There is a need for ongoing research in the area of the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours instruments.

  11. Near-field acoustic holography with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren

    of the particle velocity has notable potential in NAH, and furthermore, combined measurement of sound pressure and particle velocity opens a new range of possibilities that are examined in this study. On this basis, sound field separation methods have been studied, and a new measurement principle based on double...... layer measurements of the particle velocity has been proposed. Also, the relation between near-field and far-field radiation from sound sources has been examined using the concept of the supersonic intensity. The calculation of this quantity has been extended to other holographic methods, and studied...

  12. Video quality measure for mobile IPTV service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonjun; Kim, Changick

    2008-08-01

    Mobile IPTV is a multimedia service based on wireless networks with interactivity and mobility. Under mobile IPTV scenarios, people can watch various contents whenever they want and even deliver their request to service providers through the network. However, the frequent change of the wireless channel bandwidth may hinder the quality of service. In this paper, we propose an objective video quality measure (VQM) for mobile IPTV services, which is focused on the jitter measurement. Jitter is the result of frame repetition during the delay and one of the most severe impairments in the video transmission via mobile channels. We first employ YUV color space to compute the duration and occurrences of jitter and the motion activity. Then the VQM is modeled by the combination of these three factors and the result of subjective assessment. Since the proposed VQM is based on no-reference (NR) model, it can be applied for real-time applications. Experimental results show that the proposed VQM highly correlates to subjective evaluation.

  13. Photon small-field measurements with a CMOS active pixel sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, F Jiménez; Rosenberg, I; Hedin, E; Royle, G

    2015-06-07

    In this work the dosimetric performance of CMOS active pixel sensors for the measurement of small photon beams is presented. The detector used consisted of an array of 520  × 520 pixels on a 25 µm pitch. Dosimetric parameters measured with this sensor were compared with data collected with an ionization chamber, a film detector and GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. The sensor performance for beam profiles measurements was evaluated for field sizes of 0.5  × 0.5 cm(2). The high spatial resolution achieved with this sensor allowed the accurate measurement of profiles, beam penumbrae and field size under lateral electronic disequilibrium. Field size and penumbrae agreed within 5.4% and 2.2% respectively with film measurements. Agreements with ionization chambers better than 1.0% were obtained when measuring tissue-phantom ratios. Output factor measurements were in good agreement with ionization chamber and Monte Carlo simulation. The data obtained from this imaging sensor can be easily analyzed to extract dosimetric information. The results presented in this work are promising for the development and implementation of CMOS active pixel sensors for dosimetry applications.

  14. Use of refractometry and colorimetry as field methods to rapidly assess antimalarial drug quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael D; Nettey, Henry; Villalva Rojas, Ofelia; Pamanivong, Chansapha; Khounsaknalath, Lamphet; Grande Ortiz, Miguel; Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Vongsack, Latsamy; Manolin, Ot

    2007-01-04

    The proliferation of counterfeit and poor-quality drugs is a major public health problem; especially in developing countries lacking adequate resources to effectively monitor their prevalence. Simple and affordable field methods provide a practical means of rapidly monitoring drug quality in circumstances where more advanced techniques are not available. Therefore, we have evaluated refractometry, colorimetry and a technique combining both processes as simple and accurate field assays to rapidly test the quality of the commonly available antimalarial drugs; artesunate, chloroquine, quinine, and sulfadoxine. Method bias, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy relative to high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of drugs collected in the Lao PDR were assessed for each technique. The HPLC method for each drug was evaluated in terms of assay variability and accuracy. The accuracy of the combined method ranged from 0.96 to 1.00 for artesunate tablets, chloroquine injectables, quinine capsules, and sulfadoxine tablets while the accuracy was 0.78 for enterically coated chloroquine tablets. These techniques provide a generally accurate, yet simple and affordable means to assess drug quality in resource-poor settings.

  15. Does adding clinical data to administrative data improve agreement among hospital quality measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchate, Amresh D; Stolzmann, Kelly L; Rosen, Amy K; Fink, Aaron S; Shwartz, Michael; Ash, Arlene S; Abdulkerim, Hassen; Pugh, Mary Jo V; Shokeen, Priti; Borzecki, Ann

    2017-09-01

    Hospital performance measures based on patient mortality and readmission have indicated modest rates of agreement. We examined if combining clinical data on laboratory tests and vital signs with administrative data leads to improved agreement with each other, and with other measures of hospital performance in the nation's largest integrated health care system. We used patient-level administrative and clinical data, and hospital-level data on quality indicators, for 2007-2010 from the Veterans Health Administration (VA). For patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF) and pneumonia we examined changes in hospital performance on 30-d mortality and 30-d readmission rates as a result of adding clinical data to administrative data. We evaluated whether this enhancement yielded improved measures of hospital quality, based on concordance with other hospital quality indicators. For 30-d mortality, data enhancement improved model performance, and significantly changed hospital performance profiles; for 30-d readmission, the impact was modest. Concordance between enhanced measures of both outcomes, and with other hospital quality measures - including Joint Commission process measures, VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) mortality and morbidity, and case volume - remained poor. Adding laboratory tests and vital signs to measure hospital performance on mortality and readmission did not improve the poor rates of agreement across hospital quality indicators in the VA. Efforts to improve risk adjustment models should continue; however, evidence of validation should precede their use as reliable measures of quality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Measurement of quality in Saudi Arabian service industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannadi, O.A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Saggaf, H. [SCECO-East (Saudi Arabia)

    2000-10-12

    Quality problems in the service organisation are the result of the mismatch between prior expectation and perceived quality of the service. Each organisation will attempt to determine the requirements of its customers and translate these requirements into product and delivery process specifications. This paper examines a particular electric company (SCECO-East), a typical service provider in Saudi Arabia, in which service quality is a distinguishing feature of primary importance. It describes a detailed survey and analysis in the light of the model put forward by Parasuraman et al. It utilises SERVQUAL for measuring customers' perceptions of service quality. The study revealed that SCECO-East scored high in tangibles dimension but low in features of responsiveness and reliability. In addition, while the performance of SCECO-East was acceptable to all customer categories, service quality was perceived differently by various types of customers, with reinforcement and commercial customers awarding SCECO-East even lower ratings than other customers did. (Author)

  17. Divergence-Measure Fields, Sets of Finite Perimeter, and Conservation Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gui-Qiang; Torres, Monica

    2005-02-01

    Divergence-measure fields in L∞ over sets of finite perimeter are analyzed. A notion of normal traces over boundaries of sets of finite perimeter is introduced, and the Gauss-Green formula over sets of finite perimeter is established for divergence-measure fields in L∞. The normal trace introduced here over a class of surfaces of finite perimeter is shown to be the weak-star limit of the normal traces introduced in Chen & Frid [6] over the Lipschitz deformation surfaces, which implies their consistency. As a corollary, an extension theorem of divergence-measure fields in L∞ over sets of finite perimeter is also established. Then we apply the theory to the initial-boundary value problem of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws over sets of finite perimeter.

  18. Measures of quality of process models created in BPMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Hronza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Description, documentation, evaluation and redesign of key processes during their execution should be an essential part of the strategic management of any organization. All organizations live in a dynamically changing environment. Therefore they must adapt its internal processes to market changes. These processes must be described. Suitable way of description could be BPMN notation. Right after description of processes via BPMN, processes should be controlled to ensure expected of their quality. System (which could be automated based on mathematical expression of qualitative characteristics of process models (i.e. measures of quality of process models can support mentioned process controls. Research team trying to design and get into practical use such a tool. The aim of this publication is description of mentioned system – based on measures of the quality of process models - and answer associated scientific questions.

  19. Magnetic field measurement system of the VINCY Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrosavljevic, A.; Cirkovic, S.; Zdravkovic, A.; Urosevic, Z.; Lucic, M.; Gemaljevic, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the magnetic field measurement system of the VINCY Cyclotron, main part of the TESLA accelerator installation whose construction has been going on in the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences. Measurement system consists of mechanical structure and control unit for the automatic positioning of the measurement probe in the median plane, between the poles of the magnet, and corresponding measuring instrumentation, based on two digital tesla meters. Concept of the measurement system is defined by the TESLA team, while realisation of the measurement system is performed in co-operation with the LOLA Institute. (author)

  20. Science outside the laboratory measurement in field science and economics

    CERN Document Server

    Boumans, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The conduct of most of social science occurs outside the laboratory. Such studies in field science explore phenomena that cannot for practical, technical, or ethical reasons be explored under controlled conditions. These phenomena cannot be fully isolated from their environment or investigated by manipulation or intervention. Yet measurement, including rigorous or clinical measurement, does provide analysts with a sound basis for discerning what occurs under field conditions, and why. In Science Outside the Laboratory, Marcel Boumans explores the state of measurement theory, its reliability, and the role expert judgment plays in field investigations from the perspective of the philosophy of science. Its discussion of the problems of passive observation, the calculus of observation, the two-model problem, and model-based consensus uses illustrations drawn primarily from economics. Rich in research and discussion, the volume clarifies the extent to which measurement provides valid information about objects an...

  1. Field comparison of CO, SO{sub 2}, NO, H{sub 2}S and O{sub 3} ambient air measurements and field audit 2006; Ulkoilman CO-, SO{sub 2}{sup -}, NO{sup -}, H{sub 2}2S - ja O{sub 3}-mittausten kansallinen vertailumittaus ja kenttaeauditointi 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walden, J.; Bergius, J.; Pohjola, V.; Laurila, S.; Kuronen, P.; Wemberg, A.

    2008-07-01

    The second field comparison campaign of gaseous compound measurements by the air quality networks in Finland was carried out during 2006. The gaseous components used in the comparison studies were carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen monoxide (Norway), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and ozone (O{sub 3}). Two reference concentrations, one representing a low concentration and the other a higher concentration than normal ambient air concentrations were used for carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide. For ozone three reference concentrations were used. The extent and functioning of the quality system of each measurement network was examined by a field audit. All Finnish air quality monitoring networks, a total of 30, participated in the comparison measurements. In total, 144 measurements were conducted at 44 different measurement stations. The results and conclusions of the comparison measurements and field audit are presented in this report. According to the analysis of the results all the 18 results were acceptable for ozone. In case of carbon monoxide 13 out of 14 results were acceptable and for nitrogen monoxide 49 out of 50 were acceptable. For sulphur dioxide there were 29 acceptable results, and 5 results were outside of the acceptable limit. For hydrogen sulfide there were 19 acceptable results, and 9 results were outside of the acceptable limit. Altogether (also hydrogen sulfide), 89 % of the results were acceptable. For carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen monoxide and ozone, 94 % of the results were acceptable. This is a significant improvement in comparison with the previous results of the first comparison measurements in 2003. The results of the field audit were generally good. The measurement networks had prepared instructions concerning the location of the measurement stations, the measurement methods, training of personnel and the documentation of the operations. All networks have functional

  2. The determination of beam quality correction factors: Monte Carlo simulations and measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castaño, D M; Hartmann, G H; Sánchez-Doblado, F; Gómez, F; Kapsch, R-P; Pena, J; Capote, R

    2009-08-07

    Modern dosimetry protocols are based on the use of ionization chambers provided with a calibration factor in terms of absorbed dose to water. The basic formula to determine the absorbed dose at a user's beam contains the well-known beam quality correction factor that is required whenever the quality of radiation used at calibration differs from that of the user's radiation. The dosimetry protocols describe the whole ionization chamber calibration procedure and include tabulated beam quality correction factors which refer to 60Co gamma radiation used as calibration quality. They have been calculated for a series of ionization chambers and radiation qualities based on formulae, which are also described in the protocols. In the case of high-energy photon beams, the relative standard uncertainty of the beam quality correction factor is estimated to amount to 1%. In the present work, two alternative methods to determine beam quality correction factors are prescribed-Monte Carlo simulation using the EGSnrc system and an experimental method based on a comparison with a reference chamber. Both Monte Carlo calculations and ratio measurements were carried out for nine chambers at several radiation beams. Four chamber types are not included in the current dosimetry protocols. Beam quality corrections for the reference chamber at two beam qualities were also measured using a calorimeter at a PTB Primary Standards Dosimetry Laboratory. Good agreement between the Monte Carlo calculated (1% uncertainty) and measured (0.5% uncertainty) beam quality correction factors was obtained. Based on these results we propose that beam quality correction factors can be generated both by measurements and by the Monte Carlo simulations with an uncertainty at least comparable to that given in current dosimetry protocols.

  3. Comparing farmer and measured assessments of soil quality in Tanzania: Do they align?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison C. Kelly

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a wide gap between actual and potential yields for many crops in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Experts identify poor soil quality as a primary constraint to increased agricultural productivity. Therefore, increasing agricultural productivity by improving soil quality is seen as a viable strategy to enhance food security. Yet adoption rates of programs focused on improving soil quality have generally been lower than expected [1], [2]. Results: We explore a seldom considered factor that may limit farmers’ demand for improved soil quality, namely, whether the farmers’ self-assessment of their soil quality match the assessments of soil scientists. In this paper, using data from the Tanzania National Panel Survey (TZNPS, part of the Living Standards Measurement Study – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA, we compare farmers’ own assessments of soil quality with scientific measurements of soil quality from the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD. The study found a considerable “mismatch” and most notably, that 11.5 percent of survey households that reported having “good” soil quality are measured by scientific standards to have severely limited nutrient availability. Conclusion: Mismatches between scientific measurements and farmer assessments of soil quality may highlight a potential barrier for programs seeking to encourage farmers to adopt soil quality improvement activities.

  4. Technical Note: Response measurement for select radiation detectors in magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, M., E-mail: michaelreynolds@ualberta.net [Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Fallone, B. G. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Departments of Oncology and Physics, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Rathee, S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division,University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Dose response to applied magnetic fields for ion chambers and solid state detectors has been investigated previously for the anticipated use in linear accelerator–magnetic resonance devices. In this investigation, the authors present the measured response of selected radiation detectors when the magnetic field is applied in the same direction as the radiation beam, i.e., a longitudinal magnetic field, to verify previous simulation only data. Methods: The dose response of a PR06C ion chamber, PTW60003 diamond detector, and IBA PFD diode detector is measured in a longitudinal magnetic field. The detectors are irradiated with buildup caps and their long axes either parallel or perpendicular to the incident photon beam. In each case, the magnetic field dose response is reported as the ratio of detector signals with to that without an applied longitudinal magnetic field. The magnetic field dose response for each unique orientation as a function of magnetic field strength was then compared to the previous simulation only studies. Results: The measured dose response of each detector in longitudinal magnetic fields shows no discernable response up to near 0.21 T. This result was expected and matches the previously published simulation only results, showing no appreciable dose response with magnetic field. Conclusions: Low field longitudinal magnetic fields have been shown to have little or no effect on the dose response of the detectors investigated and further lend credibility to previous simulation only studies.

  5. Planetary science. Low-altitude magnetic field measurements by MESSENGER reveal Mercury's ancient crustal field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine L; Phillips, Roger J; Purucker, Michael E; Anderson, Brian J; Byrne, Paul K; Denevi, Brett W; Feinberg, Joshua M; Hauck, Steven A; Head, James W; Korth, Haje; James, Peter B; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A; Philpott, Lydia C; Siegler, Matthew A; Tsyganenko, Nikolai A; Solomon, Sean C

    2015-05-22

    Magnetized rocks can record the history of the magnetic field of a planet, a key constraint for understanding its evolution. From orbital vector magnetic field measurements of Mercury taken by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft at altitudes below 150 kilometers, we have detected remanent magnetization in Mercury's crust. We infer a lower bound on the average age of magnetization of 3.7 to 3.9 billion years. Our findings indicate that a global magnetic field driven by dynamo processes in the fluid outer core operated early in Mercury's history. Ancient field strengths that range from those similar to Mercury's present dipole field to Earth-like values are consistent with the magnetic field observations and with the low iron content of Mercury's crust inferred from MESSENGER elemental composition data. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Financial incentives and measurement improved physicians' quality of care in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, John; Shimkhada, Riti; Quimbo, Stella; Florentino, Jhiedon; Bacate, Marife; McCulloch, Charles E; Solon, Orville

    2011-04-01

    The merits of using financial incentives to improve clinical quality have much appeal, yet few studies have rigorously assessed the potential benefits. The uncertainty surrounding assessments of quality can lead to poor policy decisions, possibly resulting in increased cost with little or no quality improvement, or missed opportunities to improve care. We conducted an experiment involving physicians in thirty Philippine hospitals that overcomes many of the limitations of previous studies. We measured clinical performance and then examined whether modest bonuses equal to about 5 percent of a physician's salary, as well as system-level incentives that increased compensation to hospitals and across groups of physicians, led to improvements in the quality of care. We found that both the bonus and system-level incentives improved scores in a quality measurement system used in our study by ten percentage points. Our findings suggest that when careful measurement is combined with the types of incentives we studied, there may be a larger impact on quality than previously recognized.

  7. Quality control for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornkessel, C; Blettner, M; Breckenkamp, J

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of an epidemiological study, dosemeters were used for the assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. To check the correct dosemeter's performance in terms of consistency of recorded field values over the entire study period, a quality control strategy...... was developed. In this paper, the concept of quality control and its results is described. From the 20 dosemeters used, 19 were very stable and reproducible, with deviations of a maximum of +/-1 dB compared with their initial state. One device was found to be faulty and its measurement data had to be excluded...... from the analysis. As a result of continuous quality control procedures, the confidence in the measurements obtained during the field work was strengthened significantly....

  8. 2014 Child and Adult Health Care Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Performance rates on frequently reported health care quality measures in the CMS Medicaid/CHIP Child and Adult Core Sets, for FFY 2014 reporting. Dataset contains...

  9. 2016 Child and Adult Health Care Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Performance rates on frequently reported health care quality measures in the CMS Medicaid/CHIP Child and Adult Core Sets, for FFY 2016 reporting. Source: Mathematica...

  10. 2015 Child and Adult Health Care Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Performance rates on frequently reported health care quality measures in the CMS Medicaid/CHIP Child and Adult Core Sets, for FFY 2015 reporting. Source: Mathematica...

  11. [Impact of quality-indicator-based measures to improve the treatment of acute poisoning in pediatric emergency patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Sánchez, Lidia; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, Victoria; Azkunaga Santibáñez, Beatriz; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Ferrer Bosch, Nuria; García González, Elsa; Luaces I Cubells, Carles

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the impact of quality-indicator-based measures for improving quality of care for acute poisoning in pediatric emergency departments. Recent assessments of quality indicators were compared with benchmark targets and with results from previous studies. The first study evaluated 6 basic indicators in the pediatric emergency departments of members of to the working group on poisoning of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Emergency Medicine (GTI-SEUP). The second study evaluated 20 indicators in a single emergency department of GTI-SEUP members. Based on the results of those studies, the departments implemented the following corrective measures: creation of a team for gastric lavage follow-up, preparation of a new GTI-SEUP manual on poisoning, implementation of a protocol for poisoning incidents, and creation of specific poisoning-related fields for computerized patient records. The benchmark targets were reached on 4 quality indicators in the first study. Improvements were seen in the availability of protocols, as indicators exceeded the target in all the pediatric emergency departments (vs 29.2% of the departments in an earlier study, P < .001). No other significant improvements were observed. In the second study the benchmarks were reached on 13 indicators. Improvements were seen in compliance with incident reporting to the police (recently, 44.4% vs 19.2% previously, P = .036), case registration in the minimum basic data set (51.0% vs 1.9%, P < .001), and a trend toward increased administration of activated carbon within 2 hours (93.1% vs 83.5%, P = .099). No other significant improvements were seen. The corrective measures led to improvements in some quality indicators. There is still room for improvement in these emergency departamens' care of pediatric poisoning.

  12. Hybrid MEFPI/FBG sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao-qing; Zhao, Yong; Lv, Ri-qing; Xia, Feng

    2017-12-01

    A hybrid fiber-optic sensor consisting of a micro extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (MEFPI) and an etched fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is proposed, which can measure strain and magnetic field simultaneously. The etched FBG is sealed in a capillary with ferrofluids to detect the surrounding magnetic field. FBG with small diameter will be more sensitive to magnetic field is confirmed by simulation results. The MEFPI sensor that is prepared through welding a short section of hollow-core fiber (HCF) with single-mode fiber (SMF) is effective for strain detection. The experiment shows that strain and magnetic field can be successfully simultaneously detected based on hybrid MEFPI/FBG sensor. The sensitivities of the strain and magnetic field intensity are measured to be up to 1.41 pm/με and 5.11 pm/mT respectively. There is a negligible effect on each other, hence simultaneously measuring strain and magnetic field is feasible. It is anticipated that such easy preparation, compact and low-cost fiber-optic sensors for simultaneous measurement of strain and magnetic field could find important applications in practice.

  13. Calorimetric method of ac loss measurement in a rotating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoshal, P. K. [Oxford Instruments NanoScience, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX13 5QX (United Kingdom); Coombs, T. A.; Campbell, A. M. [Department of Engineering, Electrical Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    A method is described for calorimetric ac-loss measurements of high-T{sub c} superconductors (HTS) at 80 K. It is based on a technique used at 4.2 K for conventional superconducting wires that allows an easy loss measurement in parallel or perpendicular external field orientation. This paper focuses on ac loss measurement setup and calibration in a rotating magnetic field. This experimental setup is to demonstrate measuring loss using a temperature rise method under the influence of a rotating magnetic field. The slight temperature increase of the sample in an ac-field is used as a measure of losses. The aim is to simulate the loss in rotating machines using HTS. This is a unique technique to measure total ac loss in HTS at power frequencies. The sample is mounted on to a cold finger extended from a liquid nitrogen heat exchanger (HEX). The thermal insulation between the HEX and sample is provided by a material of low thermal conductivity, and low eddy current heating sample holder in vacuum vessel. A temperature sensor and noninductive heater have been incorporated in the sample holder allowing a rapid sample change. The main part of the data is obtained in the calorimetric measurement is used for calibration. The focus is on the accuracy and calibrations required to predict the actual ac losses in HTS. This setup has the advantage of being able to measure the total ac loss under the influence of a continuous moving field as experienced by any rotating machines.

  14. Defining Multiple Chronic Conditions for Quality Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drye, Elizabeth E; Altaf, Faseeha K; Lipska, Kasia J; Spatz, Erica S; Montague, Julia A; Bao, Haikun; Parzynski, Craig S; Ross, Joseph S; Bernheim, Susannah M; Krumholz, Harlan M; Lin, Zhenqiu

    2018-02-01

    Patients with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs) are a critical but undefined group for quality measurement. We present a generally applicable systematic approach to defining an MCC cohort of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries that we developed for a national quality measure, risk-standardized rates of unplanned admissions for Accountable Care Organizations. To define the MCC cohort we: (1) identified potential chronic conditions; (2) set criteria for cohort conditions based on MCC framework and measure concept; (3) applied the criteria informed by empirical analysis, experts, and the public; (4) described "broader" and "narrower" cohorts; and (5) selected final cohort with stakeholder input. Subjects were patients with chronic conditions. Participants included 21.8 million Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries in 2012 aged 65 years and above with ≥1 of 27 Medicare Chronic Condition Warehouse condition(s). In total, 10 chronic conditions were identified based on our criteria; 8 of these 10 were associated with notably increased admission risk when co-occurring. A broader cohort (2+ of the 8 conditions) included 4.9 million beneficiaries (23% of total cohort) with an admission rate of 70 per 100 person-years. It captured 53% of total admissions. The narrower cohort (3+ conditions) had 2.2 million beneficiaries (10%) with 100 admissions per 100 person-years and captured 32% of admissions. Most stakeholders viewed the broader cohort as best aligned with the measure concept. By systematically narrowing chronic conditions to those most relevant to the outcome and incorporating stakeholder input, we defined an MCC admission measure cohort supported by stakeholders. This approach can be used as a model for other MCC outcome measures.

  15. Dose Measurement and Calculation of Asymmetric X-Ray Fields from Therapeutic Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Attar, A. L.; Abdel-Wanees, M. E.; Hashem, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Linear accelerators with x-ray collimators that move independently are becoming increasingly common for treatment with asymmetric fields. In this paper we present a simplified approach to the calculation of dose for asymmetric fields. A method is described for calculating the beam profiles, depth doses and output factors for asymmetric fields of radiation produced by linear accelerators (siemens mevatron M2) with independent jaws. Values are calculated from data measured for symmetric fields. Symmetric field data are modified using opened off-axis factors (OAFs) and primary off-centre ratios (POCRs) which are obtained from in air measurements of the largest possible opened field. Beam hardening occurring within the flattening filter is taken into account using of attenuation coefficients for opened field and used to generate the opened POCR at different depths. A full investigation to compare measured and calculated profiles demonstrates favorable agreement.

  16. Spherical near-field antenna measurements — The most accurate antenna measurement technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav

    2016-01-01

    The spherical near-field antenna measurement technique combines several advantages and generally constitutes the most accurate technique for experimental characterization of radiation from antennas. This paper/presentation discusses these advantages, briefly reviews the early history and present...

  17. Measuring the quality of clinical audit projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, A D

    2000-11-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and pilot a scale measuring the quality of audit projects through audit project reports. Statements about clinical audit projects were selected from existing instruments assessing the quality of clinical audit projects to form a Likert scale. Audit facilitators based in Scottish health boards and trusts piloted the scale. The participants were known to have over 2 years of experience of supporting clinical audit. The response at first test was 11 of 14 and at the second test 27 of 46. Audit facilitators tested the draft scale by expressing their strength of agreement or disagreement with each statement for three reports. Validity and reliability were assessed by test - re-test, item - total, and total - global indicator correlation. Of the 20 statements, 15 had satisfactory correlation with scale totals. Scale totals had good correlation with global indicators. Test re-test correlation was modest. The wide range of responses means further research is needed to measure the consistency of audit facilitators' interpretations, perhaps comparing a trained group with an untrained group. There may be a need for a separate scale for reaudits. Educational impact is distinct from project impact generally. It may be more meaningful to treat the selection of projects and aims, methodology and impact separately as subscales and take a project profiling approach rather than attempting to produce a global quality index.

  18. Field factors for asymmetric collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.R.; Butler, A.P.H.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years manufacturers have been supplying linear accelerators with either a single pair or a dual pair of collimators. The use of a model to relate off-axis field factors to on-axis field factors obviates the need for repeat measurements whenever the asymmetric collimators are employed. We have investigated the variation of collimator scatter Sc, with distance of the central ray x from the central axis for a variety of non square field sizes. Collimator scatter was measured by in-air measurements with a build-up cap. The Primaty-Off-Centre-Ratio (POCR) was measured in-air by scanning orthogonally across the beam with an ionization chamber. The result of the investigation is the useful prediction of off-axis field factors for a range of rectangular asymmetric fields using the simple product of the on-axis field factor and the POCR in air. The effect of asymmetry on the quality of the beam and hence the percent depth dose will be discussed. (author)

  19. Uniocular and binocular fields of rotation measures: Octopus versus Goldmann.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona J; Hanif, Sahira

    2011-06-01

    To compare the range of ocular rotations measured by Octopus versus Goldmann perimetry. Forty subjects (20 controls and 20 patients with impaired ocular movements) were prospectively recruited, age range 21-83 years. Range of uniocular rotations was measured in six vecto