WorldWideScience

Sample records for field plot experiments

  1. Plot-scale field experiment of surface hydrologic processes with EOS implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laymon, Charles A.; Macari, Emir J.; Costes, Nicholas C.

    1992-01-01

    Plot-scale hydrologic field studies were initiated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to a) investigate the spatial and temporal variability of surface and subsurface hydrologic processes, particularly as affected by vegetation, and b) develop experimental techniques and associated instrumentation methodology to study hydrologic processes at increasingly large spatial scales. About 150 instruments, most of which are remotely operated, have been installed at the field site to monitor ground atmospheric conditions, precipitation, interception, soil-water status, and energy flux. This paper describes the nature of the field experiment, instrumentation and sampling rationale, and presents preliminary findings.

  2. Experiences of radiostimulation in small-plot fields. Experiments in 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannonhalmi, K.

    1979-01-01

    In 1978 radiostimulation experiments were conducted on a total of 18 ha, using 41 varieties of 13 plant species. This paper deals with some aspects of the work in relation to maize, carrots, paprika for spice and cucumbers. According to the observations the importance of gamma irradiating isotopes with different energy spectra exceeded that of dose intensity in the case of maize. In some hybrids yield response was obtained with 137 Cs gamma treatment, in others with 60 Co gamma treatment. Carrot yield exhibited an unambiguous and considerable increase by the influence of irradiation. The changes in the growing season and crop yield of paprika for spice were dependent on the variety. The two cucumber varieties studied responded differently to irradiation. Early and increased yield was obtained for the Buda gherkins. The Nimbus variety exhibited no stimulation effect. The addition of gibberellic acid resulted in larger yield for the Nimbus variety while no response was obtained with the Buda gherkin variety. (author)

  3. Trellis plots as visual aids for analyzing split plot experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Menon, Anil

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of split plot experiments can be challenging due to a complicated error structure resulting from restrictions on complete randomization. Similarly, standard visualization methods do not provide the insight practitioners desire to understand the data, think of explanations, generate...... hypotheses, build models, or decide on next steps. This article demonstrates the effective use of trellis plots in the preliminary data analysis for split plot experiments to address this problem. Trellis displays help to visualize multivariate data by allowing for conditioning in a general way. They can...

  4. Estimation of optimum plot sizes in field experiments with annatto Estimativa de tamanho ótimo de parcelas em experimentos com urucum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Eloy Silveira Viana

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the optimum plots size for experiments with annatto. The uniformity assay consisted of 12 rows with 12 plants in each row. The variety Bico de Pato was used, planted in 5 x 4 m spacing and evaluated at 5 years of age. Three methods were used: maximum curvature, modified maximum curvature and the comparison of variances. The plot size estimate varied according to the methodology used and the characteristic analyzed. The adequate plot size was found to be 107.2 m² (5 plants using the modified maximum curvature method, which resulted in more precise estimates , taking into consideration that the ideal plot should facilitate the efficient evaluation of all characteristics analyzed in this experiment.Objetivou-se estimar o tamanho ótimo de parcelas para experimentos com urucum. O ensaio de uniformidade foi formado de 12 fileiras com 12 plantas em cada fileira. Utilizou-se a variedade Bico de Pato, em espaçamento 5 x 4 m, avaliada aos cinco anos. Empregaram-se os métodos da máxima curvatura, da máxima curvatura modificado e da comparação de variâncias. A estimativa do tamanho de parcela variou com o método utilizado e com a característica analisada. Pelo método da máxima curvatura modificado, que permitiu a obtenção de estimativas mais precisas, e considerando-se que a parcela ideal deve possibilitar a avaliação eficiente de todas as características analisadas neste experimento, encontrou-se o tamanho adequado de parcela, 107,2 m² (cinco plantas.

  5. Variability of Measured Runoff and Soil Loss from Field Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Asadzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Field plots are widely used in studies related to the measurements of soil loss and modeling of erosion processes. Research efforts are needed to investigate factors affecting the data quality of plots. Spatial scale or size of plots is one of these factors which directly affects measuring runoff and soil loss by means of field plots. The effect of plot size on measured runoff or soil loss from natural plots is known as plot scale effect. On the other hand, variability of runoff and sediment yield from replicated filed plots is a main source of uncertainty in measurement of erosion from plots which should be considered in plot data interpretation processes. Therefore, there is a demand for knowledge of soil erosion processes occurring in plots of different sizes and of factors that determine natural variability, as a basis for obtaining soil loss data of good quality. This study was carried out to investigate the combined effects of these two factors by measurement of runoff and soil loss from replicated plots with different sizes. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the variability of runoff and soil loss data seven plots, differing in width and length, were constructed in a uniform slope of 9% at three replicates at Koohin Research Station in Qazvin province. The plots were ploughed up to down slope in September 2011. Each plot was isolated using soil beds with a height of 30 cm, to direct generated surface runoff to the lower part of the plots. Runoff collecting systems composed of gutters, pipes and tankswere installed at the end of each plot. During the two-year study period of 2011-2012, plots were maintained in bare conditions and runoff and soil loss were measured for each single event. Precipitation amounts and characteristics were directly measured by an automatic recording tipping-bucket rain gauge located about 200 m from the experimental plots. The entire runoff volume including eroded sediment was measured on

  6. Split-plot Experiments with Unusual Numbers of Subplot Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat

    2007-01-01

    In many experimental situations, it may not be feasible or even possible to run experiments in a completely randomized fashion as usually recommended. Under these circumstances, split-plot experiments in which certain factors are changed less frequently than the others are often used. Most...

  7. FLP: a field line plotting code for bundle divertor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchti, C.

    1981-01-01

    A computer code was developed to aid in the design of bundle divertors. The code can handle discrete toroidal field coils and various divertor coil configurations. All coils must be composed of straight line segments. The code runs on the PDP-10 and displays plots of the configuration, field lines, and field ripple. It automatically chooses the coil currents to connect the separatrix produced by the divertor to the outer edge of the plasma and calculates the required coil cross sections. Several divertor designs are illustrated to show how the code works

  8. Experimental Study of Soil Organic Matter Loss From Cultivated Field Plots In The Venezuelan Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, B.; Huon, S.; Velasquez, F.; Vallès, V.; Girardin A, C.; Mariotti, A. B.

    The question of discriminating sources of organic matter in suspended particles of stream flows can be addressed by using total organic carbon (TOC) concentration and stable isotope (13C, 15N) measurements when constant fluxes of organic matter supply can be assumed. However, little is known on the dynamics of organic matter release during soil erosion and on the temporal stability of its isotopic signature. In this study, we have monitored soil organic carbon loss and water runoff using natural rainfall events on three experimental field plots with different vegetation cover (bare soil, maize and coffee fields), set up on natural slopes of a tropical mountainous watershed in NW Venezuela (09°13'32'' ­ 09°10'00''N, 70°13'49'' ­ 70°18'34''W). Runoff and soil loss are markedly superior for the bare field plot than for the coffee field plot: by a factor 15 ­ 36, respectively, for the five-month experiment, and by a factor 30 ­ 120, respectively, during a single rainfall event experiment. Since runoff and soil organic matter loss are closely linked during most of the flow (at the time scales of this study), TOC concentration in suspended matter is constant. Furthermore, stable isotope compositions reflect those of top-soil organic matter from which they originate.

  9. Preferential transport of isoproturon at a plot scale and a field scale tile-drained site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, Erwin; Flühler, Hannes

    2001-06-01

    Irrigation experiments using the tracers Brilliant Blue (BB) and Bromide (Br) were conducted on three plots of 1.4×1.4 m 2 (plot scale) and a field scale subsurface drained test site (900 m 2) to clarify mechanisms causing rapid transport of surface applied Isoproturon (IPU) during preferential flow events. One of the small plots (site 10) and the field scale test site are located on the same field. One day after irrigation of the plot scale sites the Br and IPU concentration in two vertical soil profiles as well as the macroporousity on separate profiles and hydraulic properties of single macropores were determined. During irrigation of the field scale test site discharge, soil moisture as well as the concentration of IPU and Br in the drainage outlet were measured. Preferential flow in deep penetrating earthworm burrows caused a fast breakthrough of IPU and Br into the tile drain (1.2 m depth) at the field scale site as well as leaching of IPU into the subsoil (>0.8 m) at site 10. The results suggest a hierarchy of preconditions for the occurrence of preferential flow events of which a sufficient number of deep penetrating macropores interconnected to the soil surface seems to be the most important one. Moreover there is evidence that facilitated transport of IPU attached to mobile soil particles occurred during the preferential flow events at the field scale site and site 10. The susceptibility for preferential flow as well as the susceptibility for facilitated transport appear to be intrinsic properties of the investigated soil.

  10. Designing fractional factorial split-plot experiments using integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capehart, Shay R.; Keha, Ahmet; Kulahci, Murat

    2011-01-01

    factorial (FF) design, with the restricted randomisation structure to account for the whole plots and subplots. We discuss the formulation of FFSP designs using integer programming (IP) to achieve various design criteria. We specifically look at the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions...

  11. Sampling Error in Relation to Cyst Nematode Population Density Estimation in Small Field Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Župunski, Vesna; Jevtić, Radivoje; Jokić, Vesna Spasić; Župunski, Ljubica; Lalošević, Mirjana; Ćirić, Mihajlo; Ćurčić, Živko

    2017-06-01

    Cyst nematodes are serious plant-parasitic pests which could cause severe yield losses and extensive damage. Since there is still very little information about error of population density estimation in small field plots, this study contributes to the broad issue of population density assessment. It was shown that there was no significant difference between cyst counts of five or seven bulk samples taken per each 1-m 2 plot, if average cyst count per examined plot exceeds 75 cysts per 100 g of soil. Goodness of fit of data to probability distribution tested with χ 2 test confirmed a negative binomial distribution of cyst counts for 21 out of 23 plots. The recommended measure of sampling precision of 17% expressed through coefficient of variation ( cv ) was achieved if the plots of 1 m 2 contaminated with more than 90 cysts per 100 g of soil were sampled with 10-core bulk samples taken in five repetitions. If plots were contaminated with less than 75 cysts per 100 g of soil, 10-core bulk samples taken in seven repetitions gave cv higher than 23%. This study indicates that more attention should be paid on estimation of sampling error in experimental field plots to ensure more reliable estimation of population density of cyst nematodes.

  12. Soil aggregate stability and rainfall-induced sediment transport on field plots as affected by amendment with organic matter inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pu; Arter, Christian; Liu, Xingyu; Keller, Martin; Schulin, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    Aggregate stability is an important factor in soil resistance against erosion, and, by influencing the extent of sediment transport associated with surface runoff, it is thus also one of the key factors which determine on- and off-site effects of water erosion. As it strongly depends on soil organic matter, many studies have explored how aggregate stability can be improved by organic matter inputs into the soil. However, the focus of these studies has been on the relationship between aggregate stability and soil organic matter dynamics. How the effects of organic matter inputs on aggregate stability translate into soil erodibility under rainfall impacts has received much less attention. In this study, we performed field plot experiments to examine how organic matter inputs affect aggregate breakdown and surface sediment transport under field conditions in artificial rainfall events. Three pairs of plots were prepared by adding a mixture of grass and wheat straw to one of plots in each pair but not to the other, while all plots were treated in the same way otherwise. The rainfall events were applied some weeks later so that the applied organic residues had sufficient time for decomposition and incorporation into the soil. Surface runoff rate and sediment concentration showed substantial differences between the treatments with and without organic matter inputs. The plots with organic inputs had coarser and more stable aggregates and a rougher surface than the control plots without organic inputs, resulting in a higher infiltration rate and lower transport capacity of the surface runoff. Consequently, sediments exported from the amended plots were less concentrated but more enriched in suspended particles (selective sediment transport. In contrast to the amended plots, there was an increase in the coarse particle fraction (> 250 µm) in the runoff from the plots with no organic matter inputs towards the end of the rainfall events due to emerging bed-load transport

  13. Effectiveness of commercial microbial products in enhancing oil degradation in Prince William Sound field plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venosa, A.D.; Haines, J.R.; Allen, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the spring of 1990, previously reported laboratory experiments were conducted on 10 commercial microbial products to test for enhanced biodegradation of weathered crude oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The laboratory tests measured the rate and extent of oil degradation in closed flasks. Weathered oil from the beaches in Alaska and seawater from Prince William Sound were used in the tests. Two of the 10 products were found to provide significantly greater alkane degradation than flasks supplemented with mineral nutrients alone. These two products were selected for further testing on a beach in Prince William Sound. A randomized complete block experiment was designed to compare the effectiveness of these two products in enhancing oil degradation compared to simple fertilizer alone. Four small plots consisting of a no nutrient control, a mineral nutrient plot, and two plots receiving mineral nutrients plus the two products, were laid out on a contaminated beach. These four plots comprised a 'block' of treatments, and this block was replicated four times on the same beach. Triplicate samples of beach sediment were collected at four equally spaced time intervals and analyzed for oil residue weight and alkane hydrocarbon profile changes with time. The objective was to determine if either of the two commercial microbiological products was able to enhance bioremediation of an oil-contaminated beach in Prince William Sound to an extent greater than that achievable by simple fertilizer application. Results indicated no significant differences among the four treatments in the 27-day period of the experiment

  14. Phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils by Mirabilis Jalapa L. in a greenhouse plot experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shengwei; Zhou, Qixing; Cai, Zhang; Zhang, Zhineng

    2009-09-15

    Phytoremediation of soils contaminated by organic chemicals is a challenging problem in environmental science and engineering. On the basis of identifying remediation plants from ornamentals, the remediation capability of Mirabilis Jalapa L. to treat petroleum contaminated soil from the Shengli Oil Field in Dongying City, Shandong Province, China was further investigated using a field plot experiment carried out in a greenhouse. The results showed that the average efficiency of removing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) by M. jalapa over the 127-day culture period was high, up to 41.61-63.20%, when the removal rate by natural attenuation was only 19.75-37.92%. The maximum reduction occurred in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction compared with other components of petroleum contaminants. According to the qualitative and quantitative parameters including plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, root length, root weight and visual stress symptoms, it was indicated that M. jalapa had a peculiar tolerance to petroleum contamination and could effectively promote the degradation of TPHs when the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil was equal to and lower than 10,000 mg/kg. The population of living microorganisms in the planted soil could be also adaptive to contaminated soil. On the whole, M. jalapa is a widely spread species that can be effectively applied to phytoremediation of contaminated soil.

  15. Recovery based on plot experiments is a poor predictor of landscape-level population impacts of agricultural pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Christopher John; Kjaer, Lene Jung; Hommen, Udo; Høye, Toke Thomas; Preuss, Thomas G; Sibly, Richard M; van Vliet, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Current European Union regulatory risk assessment allows application of pesticides provided that recovery of nontarget arthropods in-crop occurs within a year. Despite the long-established theory of source-sink dynamics, risk assessment ignores depletion of surrounding populations and typical field trials are restricted to plot-scale experiments. In the present study, the authors used agent-based modeling of 2 contrasting invertebrates, a spider and a beetle, to assess how the area of pesticide application and environmental half-life affect the assessment of recovery at the plot scale and impact the population at the landscape scale. Small-scale plot experiments were simulated for pesticides with different application rates and environmental half-lives. The same pesticides were then evaluated at the landscape scale (10 km × 10 km) assuming continuous year-on-year usage. The authors' results show that recovery time estimated from plot experiments is a poor indicator of long-term population impact at the landscape level and that the spatial scale of pesticide application strongly determines population-level impact. This raises serious doubts as to the utility of plot-recovery experiments in pesticide regulatory risk assessment for population-level protection. Predictions from the model are supported by empirical evidence from a series of studies carried out in the decade starting in 1988. The issues raised then can now be addressed using simulation. Prediction of impacts at landscape scales should be more widely used in assessing the risks posed by environmental stressors. © 2014 SETAC.

  16. Efficacy of Bordeaux mixture to control pecan scab in large-plot experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturia effusa causes scab, the most important disease on pecan in the southeastern USA. Organic fungicides have not been widely tested for efficacy against scab on susceptible cultivars. A large-plot experiment was used to test the efficacy of the traditionally-used fungicide against scab, Bordeau...

  17. Runoff and soil erosion plot-scale studies under natural rainfall: A meta-analysis of the Brazilian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research to measure soil erosion rates in the United States from natural rainfall runoff plots began in the early 1900’s. In Brazil, the first experimental study at the plot-scale was conducted in the 1940’s; however, the monitoring process and the creation of new experimental field plots have not c...

  18. Tritium behavior on a cultivated plot in the 1994 chronic HT release experiment at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, H.; Yokoyama, S.; Kinouchi, N.; Murata, M.; Amano, H.; Atarashi, M.; Ichimasa, Y.; Ichimasa, M.

    1995-01-01

    The behavior of HT and HTO in air and surface soil has been studied extensively in the chronic HT release experiment carried out at Chalk River during the summer of 1994. HTO concentrations in air moisture and soil water collected in a cultivated plot showed similar time-variations, increasing rapidly during the first and second days and becoming gradual after the first 3-4 days. The air HTO concentration decreased during and following rainfall but recovered within a day. The rainfall reduced the HTO concentrations in ridge soil water but little in furrows. Time histories of HTO concentrations in air moisture and soil water suggest that the system was near steady-state within a continuous HT release period of 12 days, in spite of the presence of rain during the period. The air HTO concentrations on clear days showed diurnal cycles that were higher during daytime than at night. The experimental field had a very complex soil regime with respect to HT deposits. The deposits to soil surface varied depending on soil conditions. 12 refs., 5 figs

  19. Scaling up high throughput field phenotyping of corn and soy research plots using ground rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshlov, Boyan; Nakarmi, Akash; Baldwin, Steven; Essner, Scott; French, Jasenka

    2017-05-01

    Crop improvement programs require large and meticulous selection processes that effectively and accurately collect and analyze data to generate quality plant products as efficiently as possible, develop superior cropping and/or crop improvement methods. Typically, data collection for such testing is performed by field teams using hand-held instruments or manually-controlled devices. Although steps are taken to reduce error, the data collected in such manner can be unreliable due to human error and fatigue, which reduces the ability to make accurate selection decisions. Monsanto engineering teams have developed a high-clearance mobile platform (Rover) as a step towards high throughput and high accuracy phenotyping at an industrial scale. The rovers are equipped with GPS navigation, multiple cameras and sensors and on-board computers to acquire data and compute plant vigor metrics per plot. The supporting IT systems enable automatic path planning, plot identification, image and point cloud data QA/QC and near real-time analysis where results are streamed to enterprise databases for additional statistical analysis and product advancement decisions. Since the rover program was launched in North America in 2013, the number of research plots we can analyze in a growing season has expanded dramatically. This work describes some of the successes and challenges in scaling up of the rover platform for automated phenotyping to enable science at scale.

  20. Product plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Hadley; Hofmann, Heike

    2011-12-01

    We propose a new framework for visualising tables of counts, proportions and probabilities. We call our framework product plots, alluding to the computation of area as a product of height and width, and the statistical concept of generating a joint distribution from the product of conditional and marginal distributions. The framework, with extensions, is sufficient to encompass over 20 visualisations previously described in fields of statistical graphics and infovis, including bar charts, mosaic plots, treemaps, equal area plots and fluctuation diagrams. © 2011 IEEE

  1. PSEPLOT: a controller for plotting data from the Mark I Boiling Water Reactor Pressure Suppression Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.S.

    1978-01-01

    PSEPLOT is a computer routine that was developed for the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Octopus computer system to generate several thousand plots of engineering data in a consistent format for referencing and comparison. The time-dependent engineering data were recorded during each of 25 tests of the Mark I Pressure Suppression Experiment (PSE). Although PSEPLOT is restricted to PSE, its concept is applicable to any similar data management task

  2. Accuracy assessment of the vegetation continuous field tree cover product using 3954 ground plots in the southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. White; J. D. Shaw; R. D. Ramsey

    2005-01-01

    An accuracy assessment of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation continuous field (VCF) tree cover product using two independent ground-based tree cover databases was conducted. Ground data included 1176 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots for Arizona and 2778 Southwest Regional GAP (SWReGAP) plots for Utah and western Colorado....

  3. Depression storage and infiltration effects on overland flow depth-velocity-friction at desert conditions: field plot results and model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Rossi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Water infiltration and overland flow are relevant in considering water partition among plant life forms, the sustainability of vegetation and the design of sustainable hydrological models and management. In arid and semi-arid regions, these processes present characteristic trends imposed by the prevailing physical conditions of the upper soil as evolved under water-limited climate. A set of plot-scale field experiments at the semi-arid Patagonian Monte (Argentina were performed in order to estimate the effect of depression storage areas and infiltration rates on depths, velocities and friction of overland flows. The micro-relief of undisturbed field plots was characterized at z-scale 1 mm through close-range stereo-photogrammetry and geo-statistical tools. The overland flow areas produced by controlled water inflows were video-recorded and the flow velocities were measured with image processing software. Antecedent and post-inflow moisture were measured, and texture, bulk density and physical properties of the upper soil were estimated based on soil core analyses. Field data were used to calibrate a physically-based, mass balanced, time explicit model of infiltration and overland flows. Modelling results reproduced the time series of observed flow areas, velocities and infiltration depths. Estimates of hydrodynamic parameters of overland flow (Reynolds-Froude numbers are informed. To our knowledge, the study here presented is novel in combining several aspects that previous studies do not address simultaneously: (1 overland flow and infiltration parameters were obtained in undisturbed field conditions; (2 field measurements of overland flow movement were coupled to a detailed analysis of soil microtopography at 1 mm depth scale; (3 the effect of depression storage areas in infiltration rates and depth-velocity friction of overland flows is addressed. Relevance of the results to other similar desert areas is justified by the accompanying

  4. Improving the performance of infrared reflective night curtains for warming field plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Larsen, Klaus S.; de Dato, Giovanbattista D.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared reflective (IR) curtains have been widely used to obtain passive nighttime warming in field ecosystem experiments in order to simulate and study climate warming effects on ecosystems. For any field installation with IR-reflective curtains in an ecosystem the achieved heating effect depen...

  5. Assessment of errors associated with plot size and lateral movement of nitrogen-15 when studying fertilizer recovery under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, C.A.; Blackmer, A.M.; Horton, R.; Timmons, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The high cost of 15 N-labeled fertilizers encourages the use of field plots having minimum size. If plot size is reduced too much, however, lateral movement of N near the plots by mass flow or diffusion within the soil or by translocation through plant roots can become a significant source of error in determinations of fertilizer N recovery. This study was initiated to assess the importance of lateral movement of labeled fertilizer when unconfined plots are used to determine recovery of fertilizer. Corn grain samples were collected at various positions inside and outside 15 N plots, and the 15 N contents of these samples were determined. The data were fit to mathematical models to estimate the extent to which lateral movement of fertilizer N caused errors in determined values of fertilizer recovery for the first, second, and third crops following fertilization. These models also were used to predict the plot size needed for similar 15 N-tracer studies in the future. The results of these studies indicate that 15 N plots having a size of 2 by 2 m are sufficiently large for determining recovery of fertilizer N for corn crops under most conditions. Where lateral movement of fertilizer N in soils is suspected to be a problem, we recommend collection of a few plant samples outside the 15 N plots as insurance against misleading conclusions concerning fertilizer N recovery

  6. Field services experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colflesh, J.A.; Kruse, P.W.; Merluzzi, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Combustion Engineering (C-E) is a large diversified manufacturer of products and services for the energy field. At this time, C-E has supplied the nuclear steam supply systems for eleven operating nuclear power plants with two additional units currently undergoing start-up testing. The focus of C-E's commitment in the nuclear power plant services area is the Nuclear Services organization within the Nuclear Power Systems Division. The Nuclear Services organization provides services on a timely cost efficient basis; and dedicates resources to developing new products and services which are truly responsive to the needs of operating power plants world wide. In the paper, C-E's capabilities and experience in the field of nuclear services are described. Highlighted are our capabilities in the areas of transition management services, operating services and engineering services

  7. Wake field acceleration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Where and how will wake field acceleration devices find use for other than, possibly, accelerators for high energy physics? I don't know that this can be responsibly answered at this time. What I can do is describe some recent results from an ongoing experimental program at Argonne which support the idea that wake field techniques and devices are potentially important for future accelerators. Perhaps this will spawn expanded interest and even new ideas for the use of this new technology. The Argonne program, and in particular the Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF), has been reported in several fairly recent papers and reports. But because this is a substantially new audience for the subject, I will include a brief review of the program and the facility before describing experiments. 10 refs., 7 figs

  8. Runoff and soil erosion of field plots in a subtropical mountainous region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, N. F.; Wang, L.; Shi, Z. H.

    2017-09-01

    Anthropogenic pressure coupled with strong precipitation events and a mountainous landscape have led to serious soil erosion and associated problems in the subtropical climate zone of China. This study analyzes 1576 rainfall-runoff-soil loss events at 36 experimental plots (a total of 148 plot-years of data) under a wide range of conditions in subtropical mountainous areas of China where slope farming is commonly practiced. The plots, which have standardized dimensions, represent five common types of land use and have four different slopes. Event-based analyses show that almost half of the total rainfall caused soil erosion in the study area. The dominant factor controlling the runoff coefficient is the slope gradient rather than the land use type. The maximum soil lossfor crop plots under steep tillage (35°) is 5004 t km-2 for a single event. Among the common local crops, the average soil loss values increase in the following order: buckwheat soil loss increase in the following order: red clover soil loss is caused by a small number of extreme events. The annual average soil loss of the 44 plots ranges from 19 to 4090 t km-2 year-1. The annual soil loss of plots of different land use types decrease in the following order: bare land (1533 t km-2 year-1) > cropland (1179 t km-2 year-1) > terraced cropland (1083 t km-2 year-1) > orchard land (1020 t km-2 year-1) > grassland (762 t km-2 year-1) > terraced orchard land (297 t km-2 year-1) > forest and grassland (281 t km-2 year-1).

  9. Impact of Animal Waste Application on Runoff Water Quality in Field Experimental Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of animal waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of animal waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium

  10. Impact of animal waste application on runoff water quality in field experimental plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Dagne D; Owens, William E; Tchoounwou, Paul B

    2005-08-01

    Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of animal waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli) and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate) characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of animal waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium. Bacteria numbers

  11. Micro-scale hydrological field experiments in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minea Gabriel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper (communication presents an overview of hydrologic field experiments at micro-scale in Romania. In order to experimentally investigate micro (plot-scale hydrological impact of soil erosion, the National Institute of Hydrology and Water Management founded Voineşti Experimental Basin (VES in 1964 and the Aldeni Experimental Basins (AEB in 1984. AEB and VES are located in the Curvature Subcarpathians. Experimental plots are organized in a double systems and have an area of 80 m2 (runoff plots at AEB and 300 m2 (water balance plots at VES. Land use of plot: first plot ”grass-land” is covered with perennial grass and second plot (control consists in ”bare soil”. Over the latter one, the soil is hoeing, which results in a greater development of infiltration than in the first plot. Experimental investigations at micro-scale are aimed towards determining the parameters of the water balance equation, during natural and artificial rainfalls, researching of flows and soil erosion processes on experimental plots, extrapolating relations involving runoff coefficients from a small scale to medium scale. Nowadays, the latest evolutions in data acquisition and transmission equipment are represented by sensors (such as: sensors to determinate the soil moisture content. Exploitation and dissemination of hydrologic data is accomplished by research themes/projects, year-books of basic data and papers.

  12. Field Plot Techniques for Black Sigatoka Evaluation in East African Highland Bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro, JU.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of plants per experimental unit and number of replications for the efficient and precise assessment of black sigatoka leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis in East African Highland bananas were determined. Two representative cultivars were used. Host response to black sigatoka infection was measured by recording the youngest leaf with necrotic spots. The number of plants per experimental unit was determined, using the methods of maximum curvature and comparison of variances, while the number of replications was estimated by Hatheway's method. The optimum experimental plot size was 3 plants (18 m2 for the beer banana cultivar 'Igitsiri', and 30 plants (180 m2 for the cooking banana cultivar 'Igisahira Gisanzwe', using the comparison of variances method. However, the optimum plot size was 15 plants (90 m2 for both cultivars using the method of maximum curvature. The latter statistical method was preferred because of the low precision of the estimates in the former method. Unreplicated trials with plots of 15 plants could be adequate to assess black sigatoka response in East African bananas if uniform disease pressure exists.

  13. Bridging scale gaps between regional maps of forest aboveground biomass and field sampling plots using TanDEM-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, G.

    2017-12-01

    Several large-scale maps of forest AGB have been released [1] [2] [3]. However, these existing global or regional datasets were only approximations based on combining land cover type and representative values instead of measurements of actual forest aboveground biomass or forest heights [4]. Rodríguez-Veiga et al[5] reported obvious discrepancies of existing forest biomass stock maps with in-situ observations in Mexico. One of the biggest challenges to the credibility of these maps comes from the scale gaps between the size of field sampling plots used to develop(or validate) estimation models and the pixel size of these maps and the availability of field sampling plots with sufficient size for the verification of these products [6]. It is time-consuming and labor-intensive to collect sufficient number of field sampling data over the plot size of the same as resolutions of regional maps. The smaller field sampling plots cannot fully represent the spatial heterogeneity of forest stands as shown in Figure 1. Forest AGB is directly determined by forest heights, diameter at breast height (DBH) of each tree, forest density and tree species. What measured in the field sampling are the geometrical characteristics of forest stands including the DBH, tree heights and forest densities. The LiDAR data is considered as the best dataset for the estimation of forest AGB. The main reason is that LiDAR can directly capture geometrical features of forest stands by its range detection capabilities.The remotely sensed dataset, which is capable of direct measurements of forest spatial structures, may serve as a ladder to bridge the scale gaps between the pixel size of regional maps of forest AGB and field sampling plots. Several researches report that TanDEM-X data can be used to characterize the forest spatial structures [7, 8]. In this study, the forest AGB map of northeast China were produced using ALOS/PALSAR data taking TanDEM-X data as a bridges. The TanDEM-X InSAR data used in

  14. Field reversal experiments (FRX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Armstrong, W.T.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1978-01-01

    The equilibrium, confinement, and stability properties of the reversed-field configuration (RFC) are being studied in two theta-pinch facilities. The RFC is an elongated toroidal plasma confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. The open field lines of the linear theta pinch support the closed-field RFC much like the vertical field centers the toroidal plasma in a tokamak. Depending on stability and confinement properties, the RFC might be used to greatly reduce the axial losses in linear fusion devices such as mirrors, theta pinches, and liners. The FRX systems produce RFC's with a major radius R = 2-6 cm, minor radius a approximately 2 cm, and a total length l approximately 35 cm. The observed temperatures are T/sub e/ approximately 100 eV and T/sub i/ = 150-350 eV with a peak density n approximately 2 x 10 15 cm -3 . After the plasma reaches equilibrium, the RFC remains stable for up to 30 μs followed by the rapid growth of the rotational m = 2 instability, which terminates the confinement. During the stable equilibrium, the particle and energy confinement times are more than 10 times longer than in an open-field system. The behavior of the m = 2 mode qualitatively agrees with the theoretically predicted instability for rotational velocities exceeding some critical value

  15. Field reversal experiments (FRX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Armstrong, W.T.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1979-01-01

    The equilibrium, confinement, and stability properties of the reversed-field configuration (RFC) are being studied in two theta-pinch facilities. The RFC is an elongated toroidal plasma confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. The open field lines of the linear theta pinch support the closed-field RFC much like the vertical field centres the toroidal plasma in a tokamak. Depending on stability and confinement properties, the RFC might be used to greatly reduce the axial losses in linear fusion devices such as mirrors, theta pinches, and liners. The FRX systems produce RFCs with a major radius R=2-6cm, a minor radius a approximately 2cm, and a total length l approximately 35cm. The observed temperatures are Tsub(e) approximately 100eV and Tsub(i)=150-350eV with a peak density n approximately 2x10 15 cm -3 . After the plasma has reached equilibrium, the RFC remains stable for up to 30μs, followed by the rapid growth of the rotational m=2 instability, which terminates the confinement. During the stable equilibrium, the particle and energy confinement times are more than 10 times longer than in an open-field system. The behaviour of the m=2 mode agrees qualitatively with the theoretically predicted instability for rotational velocities exceeding some critical value. (author)

  16. Reversed field pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberston, S.

    1991-05-01

    The Reversatron RFP is usually operated with toroidal field windings which are a continuous helix of 144 turns. These windings produce a poloidal current which is uniform around the torus. The distribution of current is fixed by the geometry so that the applied field has only an m = 0, n = 0 component. The windings cannot act to stabilize an m = 0 mode with |n| > 0 or any m = 1 mode because these modes will excite no current in the windings. It has recently been suggested that parallel connected field coils might act as a shell by forcing the flux within each winding to be the same. Coils connected in parallel must have the same voltage at their terminals and thus must enclose the same volt-seconds or flux. Data from ZT-40 show that the discharges are more quiescent when parallel or series-parallel connected windings are used

  17. Measurements of the effectiveness of conservation agriculture at the field scale using radioisotopic techniques and runoff plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabit, L.; Klik, A.; Toloza, A.; Benmansour, M.; Geisler, A.; Gerstmann, U. C.

    2009-04-01

    Growing evidence of the cost of soil erosion on agricultural land and off site impact of associated processes has emphasized the needs for quantitative assessment of erosion rates to develop and assess erosion control technology and to allocate conservation resources and development of conservation regulation, policies and programmes. Our main study goal was to assess the magnitude of deposition rates using Fallout Radionuclides ‘FRNs' (137-Cs and 210-Pb) and the mid-term (13 years) erosion rates using conventional runoff plot measurements in a small agricultural watershed under conventional and conservation tillage practices. The tillage treatments were conventional tillage system (CT), mechanical plough to 30 cm depth (the most common tillage system within the watershed); conservation tillage (CS) with cover crops during winter; and direct seeding (DS) no tillage with cover crops during winter. The experimental design - located in Mistelbach watershed 60 km north of Vienna/Austria - consists of one 3-metre-wide and 15-metre-long runoff plot (silt loam - slope of 14%) for each tillage system (CT, CS and DS) with the plots placed in the upper part of an agricultural field. 76 soil samples were collected to evaluate the initial fallout of 137-Cs and 210-Pb in a small forested area close to the experimental field, along a systematic multi-grid design,. In the sedimentation area of the watershed and down slope the agricultural field, 2 additional soil profiles were collected to 1 m depth. All soil samples were air dried, sieved to 2mm and analysed for their 137-Cs and 210-Pb contents using gamma detector. The main results and conclusion can be summarised as following: i) The initial 137-Cs fallout as measured in the 76 forested soil samples ranged from 1123 to 3354 Bq/m2 for an average of 1954 Bq/m2 with a coefficient of variation of 20.4 %. ii) Long-term erosion measurements (1994-2006) from runoff plots located in the upper part of the agricultural field just up

  18. Plot 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Gjessing, Susanne; Hermansen, Anne-Mette

    Plot 3 er første udgivelse af et alsidigt dansksystem til mellemtrinnet, hvor digitale medier er integreret i den daglige undervisning.......Plot 3 er første udgivelse af et alsidigt dansksystem til mellemtrinnet, hvor digitale medier er integreret i den daglige undervisning....

  19. Development of a regional LiDAR field plot strategy for Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvind Bhuta; Leah Rathbun

    2015-01-01

    The National Forest System (NFS) Pacific Northwest Region (R6) has been flying LiDAR on a per project basis. Additional field data was also collected in situ to many of these LiDAR projects to aid in the development of predictive models and estimate values which are unattainable through LiDAR data alone (e.g. species composition, tree volume, and downed woody material...

  20. HEDO-2, Magnetic Field Calculation and Plot of Air Core Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preis, H.; Martin, P.

    1979-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: HEDO-2 allows calculation of the magnetic field, magnetic volume forces, and the self and mutual inductance coefficients of arbitrary air-core coil systems. In addition, the program is suitable for the calculation and graphic representation of field and contour lines (lines B = const). 2 - Method of solution: Approximation of the spatially distributed currents by line currents, in which the number of closed line currents per coil can be freely chosen in accordance with the calculating accuracy required. All types of calculations possible with HEDO-2 are based on the field representation of line currents. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: (a) The coils must have rectangular winding cross sections. (b) The contour of each coil must be symmetric to at least one coordinate axis. (c) The function describing the contour and the derivative of the function must be continuous. (d) Maximum number of coils n=200; (e) Maximum number of test points p=2000; (f) Test points ought not to be located on a line conductor

  1. Field experiments in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    1986-01-01

    Field experiments in salt formations started as early as 1965 with Project Salt Vault in the Lyons Mine, Kansas, U.S.A., and with the purchase of the Asse salt mine by the German Federal Government. Underground tests concentrated on the heat dissipation around buried high-level radioactive wastes and the geomechanical consequences of their disposal. Near-field investigations cover the properties of water and gas release, radiolysis and corrosion. Further objectives of field experiments are the development and underground testing of a handling system for high-level wastes. The performance of an underground test disposal for such wastes is not only considered to be necessary for technical and scientific reasons but also for improving public acceptance of the concept of radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  2. Large-scale hydrogen combustion experiments: Volume 2, Data plots: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.T.; Torok, R.C.; Randall, D.S.; Sullivan, J.S.; Thompson, L.B.; Haugh, J.J.

    1988-10-01

    Forty large-scale experiments to investigate the combustion behavior of hydrogen during postulated degraded core accidents were conducted in a 16 m (52 ft) diameter sphere. The performance of safety related equipment and cable also was examined. Combustion was initiated by thermal igniters in both premixed hydrogen air-steam atmospheres and during the continuous injection of hydrogen and steam. The effects of steam, igniter location, water sprays, fans and injection rates were studied. Measurements were made of gas concentrations, combustion pressures, temperatures and heat fluxes. Burn fractions and flame speeds also were determined. Near-infrared seeing cameras permitted direct observation of the hydrogen burns. Combustion pressures and temperatures in premixed atmospheres with hydrogen concentrations up to 13 vol% (steam saturated) were less than the theoretical maximum values. Multiple deflagrations were not encountered during continuous hydrogen injection with pre-activated igniters. Moderate pressure rises resulted from diffusion flames. These flames generally were found above the source. Combustion results have been compared to smaller scale experiments. Several safety related equipment items exhibited degraded performance after a number of tests. Most cable samples passed their electrical checks at the end of the test series. These experiments confirm the effectiveness of the deliberate ignition approach to controlling hydrogen. They also provide data for validating computer codes used to predict hydrogen combustion during degraded core accidents, and for assessing the performance of safety related equipment in such environments

  3. Plot 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Hermansen, Anne-Mette; Ferdinand, Trine

    Danskfaglig vejledning informerer om de tanker, der ligger til grund for Plot 5, og beskriver danskfaget ud fra nyere forskning inden for fagets mange delområder. Kapitelvejledning introducerer bogens tekster, forklarer hensigten med kapitlernes opgaver, giver forslag til undervisningen og brugen...

  4. Plot 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Hermansen, Anne-Mette; Ferdinand, Trine

    Danskfaglig vejledning informerer om de tanker, der ligger til grund for Plot 4, og beskriver danskfaget ud fra nyere forskning inden for fagets mange delområder. Kapitelvejledning introducerer bogens tekster, forklarer hensigten med kapitlernes opgaver, giver forslag til undervisningen og brugen...

  5. Effects of field plot size on prediction accuracy of aboveground biomass in airborne laser scanning-assisted inventories in tropical rain forests of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauya, Ernest William; Hansen, Endre Hofstad; Gobakken, Terje; Bollandsås, Ole Martin; Malimbwi, Rogers Ernest; Næsset, Erik

    2015-12-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) has recently emerged as a promising tool to acquire auxiliary information for improving aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation in sample-based forest inventories. Under design-based and model-assisted inferential frameworks, the estimation relies on a model that relates the auxiliary ALS metrics to AGB estimated on ground plots. The size of the field plots has been identified as one source of model uncertainty because of the so-called boundary effects which increases with decreasing plot size. Recent research in tropical forests has aimed to quantify the boundary effects on model prediction accuracy, but evidence of the consequences for the final AGB estimates is lacking. In this study we analyzed the effect of field plot size on model prediction accuracy and its implication when used in a model-assisted inferential framework. The results showed that the prediction accuracy of the model improved as the plot size increased. The adjusted R 2 increased from 0.35 to 0.74 while the relative root mean square error decreased from 63.6 to 29.2%. Indicators of boundary effects were identified and confirmed to have significant effects on the model residuals. Variance estimates of model-assisted mean AGB relative to corresponding variance estimates of pure field-based AGB, decreased with increasing plot size in the range from 200 to 3000 m 2 . The variance ratio of field-based estimates relative to model-assisted variance ranged from 1.7 to 7.7. This study showed that the relative improvement in precision of AGB estimation when increasing field-plot size, was greater for an ALS-assisted inventory compared to that of a pure field-based inventory.

  6. Experiences and plot application of maintenance rule for nuclear power plant in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kwang Hee; Seo, Mi Ro; Kim, Myung Ki; Yoo, Sung Soo

    2007-01-01

    In order to enhance the effectiveness of maintenance, Korea lunched two pilot project to implement the Maintenance Rule(MR) program similar to that of USA. One for the pilot program is Ulchin units 3 and 4, Korean standardized nuclear power(KSNP) Plant, which was started in October 2003 and finished in September 2006. The other program is for Kori units 3 and 4, Westinghouse type plants, which was stared in April 2004 and completed in September 2006. MR processes consists of 'scope determination', 'safety significance determination', 'performance criteria development', 'performance monitoring' and 'disposition process between enforcement monitoring and routine monitoring'. At each process, we gave a expert panel to review output of each process and make a justification on the output. these expert panels meeting made much of technical discussions and decisions of major products on each process. In addition, Maintenance effectiveness and Target observation system(MENTOS) was developed to manage MR implementation, of which data is automatically imported from Enterprise Resource Program(ERP), and outputs are exported to ERP and the final results are shown in ERP screen. In this paper, major results and experiences gained from each application process at Ulchin 3,4 nuclear power plants were introduced

  7. Nuclide-migration field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdal, B.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Johnstone, J.K.; Erickson, K.L.; Friedman, A.M.; Fried, S.; Hines, J.J.

    1981-03-01

    When considering groundwater flow and radionuclide retention in the complex flow systems that can occur in geologic formations, one has a serious problem in determining if laboratory studies are being performed under conditions appropriate to natural systems. This document is the project plan for a program designed to begin to address these problems. The project is being carried out jointly by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and Argonne National Laboratory. The work has three principal objectives: (1) to develop the experimental, instrumental, and safety techniques necessary to conduct controlled, small-scale radionuclide migration field experiments, including those involving actinides; (2) to use these techniques to define radionuclide migration through rock by performing generic, at-depth experiments under closely monitored conditions; and (3) to determine whether available lithologic, geochemical, and hydrologic properties together with existing or developing transport models are sufficient and appropriate to describe real field conditions

  8. Nuclide-migration field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdal, B.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Johnstone, J.K.; Erickson, K.L.; Friedman, A.M.; Fried, S.; Hines, J.J.

    1981-03-01

    When considering groundwater flow and radionuclide retention in the complex flow systems that can occur in geologic formations, one has a serious problem in determining if laboratory studies are being performed under conditions appropriate to natural systems. This document is the project plan for a program designed to begin to address these problems. The project is being carried out jointly by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and Argonne National Laboratory. The work has three principal objectives: (1) to develop the experimental, instrumental, and safety techniques necessary to conduct controlled, small-scale radionuclide migration field experiments, including those involving actinides; (2) to use these techniques to define radionuclide migration through rock by performing generic, at-depth experiments under closely monitored conditions; and (3) to determine whether available lithologic, geochemical, and hydrologic properties together with existing or developing transport models are sufficient and appropriate to describe real field conditions.

  9. [Runoff Pollution Experiments of Paddy Fields Under Different Irrigation Patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing-wen; Su, Bao-lin; Huang, Ning-bo; Guan, Yu-tang; Zhao, Kun

    2016-03-15

    To study runoff and non-point source pollution of paddy fields and to provide a scientific basis for agricultural water management of paddy fields, paddy plots in the Jintan City and the Liyang City were chosen for experiments on non-point source pollution, and flood irrigation and intermittent irrigation patterns were adopted in this research. The surface water level and rainfall were observed during the growing season of paddies, and the runoff amount from paddy plots and loads of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were calculated by different methods. The results showed that only five rain events of totally 27 rainfalls and one artificially drainage formed non-point source pollution from flood irrigated paddy plot, which resulted in a TN export coefficient of 49.4 kg · hm⁻² and a TP export coefficient of 1.0 kg · hm⁻². No any runoff event occurred from the paddy plot with intermittent irrigation even in the case of maximum rainfall of 95.1 mm. Runoff from paddy fields was affected by water demands of paddies and irrigation or drainage management, which was directly correlated to surface water level, rainfall amount and the lowest ridge height of outlets. Compared with the flood irrigation, intermittent irrigation could significantly reduce non-point source pollution caused by rainfall or artificial drainage.

  10. Designing experiments for maximum information from cyclic oxidation tests and their statistical analysis using half Normal plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, S.Y.; Nicholls, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Cyclic oxidation testing at elevated temperatures requires careful experimental design and the adoption of standard procedures to ensure reliable data. This is a major aim of the 'COTEST' research programme. Further, as such tests are both time consuming and costly, in terms of human effort, to take measurements over a large number of cycles, it is important to gain maximum information from a minimum number of tests (trials). This search for standardisation of cyclic oxidation conditions leads to a series of tests to determine the relative effects of cyclic parameters on the oxidation process. Following a review of the available literature, databases and the experience of partners to the COTEST project, the most influential parameters, upper dwell temperature (oxidation temperature) and time (hot time), lower dwell time (cold time) and environment, were investigated in partners' laboratories. It was decided to test upper dwell temperature at 3 levels, at and equidistant from a reference temperature; to test upper dwell time at a reference, a higher and a lower time; to test lower dwell time at a reference and a higher time and wet and dry environments. Thus an experiment, consisting of nine trials, was designed according to statistical criteria. The results of the trial were analysed statistically, to test the main linear and quadratic effects of upper dwell temperature and hot time and the main effects of lower dwell time (cold time) and environment. The nine trials are a quarter fraction of the 36 possible combinations of parameter levels that could have been studied. The results have been analysed by half Normal plots as there are only 2 degrees of freedom for the experimental error variance, which is rather low for a standard analysis of variance. Half Normal plots give a visual indication of which factors are statistically significant. In this experiment each trial has 3 replications, and the data are analysed in terms of mean mass change, oxidation kinetics

  11. Magnetic field line reconnection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gekelman, W.; Stenzel, R.L.; Wild, N.

    1982-01-01

    A laboratory experiment concerned with the basic physics of magnetic field line reconnection is discussed. Stimulated by important processes in space plasmas and anomalous transport in fusion plasmas the work addresses the following topics: Dynamic magnetic fields in a high beta plasma, magnetic turbulence, plasma dynamics and energy transport. First, the formation of magnetic neutral sheets, tearing and island coalescence are shown. Nonstationary magnetic fluctuations are statistically evaluated displaying the correlation tensor in the #betta#-k domain for mode identification. Then, the plasma properties are analyzed with particular emphasis on transport processes. Although the classical fluid flow across the separatrix can be observed, the fluctuation processes strongly modify the plasma dynamics. Direct measurements of the fluid force density and ion acceleration indicate the presence of an anomalous scattering process characterized by an effective scattering tensor. Turbulence also enhances the plasma resistivity by one to two orders of magnitude. Measurements of the three-dimensional electron distribution function using a novel energy analyzer exhibit the formation of runaway electrons in the current sheet. Associated micro-instabilities are observed. Finally, a macroscopic disruptive instability of the current sheet is observed. Excess magnetic field energy is converted at a double layer into particle kinetic energy and randomized through beam-plasma instabilities. These laboratory results are compared with related observations in space and fusion plasmas. (Auth.)

  12. Downscaling near-surface soil moisture from field to plot scale: A comparative analysis under different environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasta, Paolo; Penna, Daniele; Brocca, Luca; Zuecco, Giulia; Romano, Nunzio

    2018-02-01

    Indirect measurements of field-scale (hectometer grid-size) spatial-average near-surface soil moisture are becoming increasingly available by exploiting new-generation ground-based and satellite sensors. Nonetheless, modeling applications for water resources management require knowledge of plot-scale (1-5 m grid-size) soil moisture by using measurements through spatially-distributed sensor network systems. Since efforts to fulfill such requirements are not always possible due to time and budget constraints, alternative approaches are desirable. In this study, we explore the feasibility of determining spatial-average soil moisture and soil moisture patterns given the knowledge of long-term records of climate forcing data and topographic attributes. A downscaling approach is proposed that couples two different models: the Eco-Hydrological Bucket and Equilibrium Moisture from Topography. This approach helps identify the relative importance of two compound topographic indexes in explaining the spatial variation of soil moisture patterns, indicating valley- and hillslope-dependence controlled by lateral flow and radiative processes, respectively. The integrated model also detects temporal instability if the dominant type of topographic dependence changes with spatial-average soil moisture. Model application was carried out at three sites in different parts of Italy, each characterized by different environmental conditions. Prior calibration was performed by using sparse and sporadic soil moisture values measured by portable time domain reflectometry devices. Cross-site comparisons offer different interpretations in the explained spatial variation of soil moisture patterns, with time-invariant valley-dependence (site in northern Italy) and hillslope-dependence (site in southern Italy). The sources of soil moisture spatial variation at the site in central Italy are time-variant within the year and the seasonal change of topographic dependence can be conveniently

  13. The Kolar Gold Field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekantan, B.V.

    1982-01-01

    Meson theory was propounded to explain the nuclear force which holds neutrons and protons inside the nucleus. Subsequently, quark theory was put forward to bring some order into an enormously large number of fundamental particles discovered in the hadron family. These two theories are briefly explained. The gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, the weak nuclear force and the strong nuclear force are the basic forces which determine the behaviour of fundamental particles when they are in close proximity. If the last three of the above-mentioned four forces are one or just different aspects of a single force, quarks and leptons can be mingled in the same theoretical framework indicating the non-conservation of baryon number and the spontaneous decay of the proton into leptons. In order to test the last possibility i.e. proton decay, an experiment has been set up in the Kolar Gold Field at a depth of 2300 metres in India. 1650 gas proportional counters are sandwiched between iron plates. The total amount of iron in the form of iron plates and walls of the counters is 140 tons. In this experiment, nuclei of iron are serving as the source of protons and neutrons and the depth eliminates the background events which mimic proton decay. The amount of iron used in the experiment i.e. 140 tons is more than enough to obtain evidence of 10 proton decay events in a year, assuming that the lifetime of proton is 10 30 years or below. (M.G.B.)

  14. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Fladis field experiments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Ott, S.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of the Fladis field experiments was to investigate dispersion of liquefied ammonia with equal attention to the near-source aerosol jet, the intermediate heavy gas dispersion phase, and the downstream transition to passive dispersion. The present report presents the sensor layout and gives an overview of the available experimental data. This is done for observations in a fixed frame of reference and relative to the instantaneous plume centre line. The moving frame statistics are expected to compare better with wind tunnel simulations and numerical models which do not include plume meandering. The plume mass flux is estimated from the observed plume profiles and compared to the release rate. Average surface concentrations are found with a special interpolation method, and this is used to study how the averaging period affects the plume footprint. The instantaneous plume is non-Gaussian, and this is demonstrated by Lidar measurements in the far field and thermocouple measurements in the near-source jet. Probability functions and a spatial correlation for the concentration are found. The heat budget of the plume shows signs of heat flux from the ground. The composition of the liquid aerosols was observed to change from almost pure ammonia to almost pure water. A new two-dimensional `shallow layer` type model SLAM is developed, and an existing `box` type model for heavy-gas dispersion on a uniform terrain is generalized. (au) 3 tabs., 19 ills., 29 refs.

  16. Microrelief-Controlled Overland Flow Generation: Laboratory and Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface microrelief affects overland flow generation and the related hydrologic processes. However, such influences vary depending on other factors such as rainfall characteristics, soil properties, and initial soil moisture conditions. Thus, in-depth research is needed to better understand and evaluate the combined effects of these factors on overland flow dynamics. The objective of this experimental study was to examine how surface microrelief, in conjunction with the factors of rainfall, soil, and initial moisture conditions, impacts overland flow generation and runoff processes in both laboratory and field settings. A series of overland flow experiments were conducted for rough and smooth surfaces that represented distinct microtopographic characteristics and the experimental data were analyzed and compared. Across different soil types and initial moisture conditions, both laboratory and field experiments demonstrated that a rough soil surface experienced a delayed initiation of runoff and featured a stepwise threshold flow pattern due to the microrelief-controlled puddle filling-spilling-merging dynamics. It was found from the field experiments that a smooth plot surface was more responsive to rainfall variations especially during an initial rainfall event. However, enhanced capability of overland flow generation and faster puddle connectivity of a rough field plot occurred during the subsequent rain events.

  17. Integrating field plots, lidar, and landsat time series to provide temporally consistent annual estimates of biomass from 1990 to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren B. Cohen; Hans-Erik Andersen; Sean P. Healey; Gretchen G. Moisen; Todd A. Schroeder; Christopher W. Woodall; Grant M. Domke; Zhiqiang Yang; Robert E. Kennedy; Stephen V. Stehman; Curtis Woodcock; Jim Vogelmann; Zhe Zhu; Chengquan. Huang

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a system that provides temporally consistent biomass estimates for national greenhouse gas inventory reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Our model-assisted estimation framework relies on remote sensing to scale from plot measurements to lidar strip samples, to Landsat time series-based maps. As a demonstration, new...

  18. Review of WAG Field Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jes Reimer; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Skauge, A.

    2001-01-01

    well spacing is in the order of 1000 m. For the fields reviewed, a common trend for the successful injections is an increased oil recovery in the range of 5 to 10% of the oil initially in place (OIIP). Very few field trials have been reported as unsuccessful, but operational problems are often noted...

  19. The National Airborne Field Experiment Data Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, J. P.; Balling, Jan E.; Bell, M.

    2007-01-01

    The National Airborne Field Experiment's (NAFE) were a series of intensive experiments recently conducted in different parts of Australia. These hydrologic-focused experiments have been designed to answer a range of questions which can only be resolved through carefully planned and executed field...

  20. Experiments for obtaining field influence mass particles.

    CERN Document Server

    Yahalomi, E

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing time dilation experiments the existence of a universal field interacting with moving mass particles is obtained. It is found that mass particle changes its properties depend on its velocity relative to this universal scalar field and not on its velocity relative to the laboratory. High energy proton momentum, energy and mass were calculated obtaining new results. Experiments in high energy accelerators are suggested as additional proofs for the existence of this universal field. This universal field may explain some results of other high energy experiments.

  1. Unravelling regolith material types using Mg/Al and K/Al plot to support field regolith identification in the savannah regions of NW Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhin, Emmanuel; Zango, Saeed M.

    2015-12-01

    The XRF analytical method was used to measure the weight % of the major oxides in regolith samples. The metal weight % of Mg, K and Al were calculated from their oxides and were normalised relative to immobile Al calculated from its oxide. The plot of Mg/Al and K/Al identified the regolith of the study area to consist of 137 transported clays, 4 ferruginous sediments or ferricrete, 2 lateritic duricrust and 4 saprolites. Surface regolith that had undergone secondary transformation and shows compositional overlaps were 4 transported clays with Fe-oxide impregnation may be referred to as nodular laterite and 5 ferruginous saprolites. The variable regolith materials features identified from the 154 samples enabled the characterisation and identification of the different sample materials because an overprint of bedrock geochemistry is reflected in the regolith. Plot of Mg/Al and K/Al highlighted the compositional variability of the regolith samples and refute the notion of the homogeneity of all the sampled materials in the area. The study thus recognized Mg/Al versus K/Al plots to be used in supporting field identification of regolith mapping units particularly in complex regolith terrains of savannah regions of Ghana and in similar areas where geochemical exploration surveys are being carried out under cover.

  2. Indirect Reciprocity; A Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of indirect reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) indirect reciprocity. We find no support for upstream indirect reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream indirect reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one's trustworthiness as a service user.

  3. Development of fine and coarse roots of Thuja occidentalis 'Brabant' in non-irrigated and drip irrigated field plots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Willigen, de P.; Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aboveground dry mass, total root dry mass and root length density of the fine roots of Thuja occidentalis `Brabant' were determined under non- and drip-irrigated field conditions. Two-dimensional diffusion parameters for dynamic root growth were estimated based on dry mass production of the fine

  4. Predicting Canopy Temperatures without and with Infrared Heating of Open-Field Plots and Energy Requirements for such Infrared Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to determine the likely effect of global warming on agricultural productivity while avoiding experimental artifacts, there is a need to conduct warming research under conditions as representative as possible of future open fields, i.e., temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) e...

  5. Field Experience Study in a Traditional Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perenich, Theresa A.

    1978-01-01

    A field experience in fashion marketing for Kansas State University students is described. The functions and responsibilities of the coordinator, the student, and the departmental supervisor are outlined, along with the evaluation processes used. (Author/LBH)

  6. Global field experiments for potato simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raymundo, Rubí; Asseng, Senthold; Prasad, Rishi

    2018-01-01

    A large field potato experimental dataset has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels, tempera......A large field potato experimental dataset has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels...

  7. Field Experiments in Behavioral and Public Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanot, Syon Pandya

    2015-01-01

    The three essays in this dissertation present field experiments exploring phenomena in behavioral and public economics in real-world settings. The first essay outlines a field experiment that uses mailers with peer rank information to motivate water conservation. The essay contributes some of the first pieces of evidence on how comparisons with specific peers might influence behavior. The main finding is that while competitive framing of peer information has positive impacts on efficient h...

  8. Using Case Studies to Enrich Field Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio-Ruane, Susan; Clark, Christopher M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of field experience in teacher education and how it can be augmented by phenomenological case studies. It summarizes a particular case study involving three teacher education classes, noting that reflective analysis of cases can prepare students to observe in the field. (SM)

  9. Retrieval of forest biomass for tropical deciduous mixed forest using ALOS PALSAR mosaic imagery and field plot data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningthoujam, Ramesh K.; Joshi, P. K.; Roy, P. S.

    2018-07-01

    Tropical forest is an important ecosystem rich in biodiversity and structural complexity with high woody biomass content. Longer wavelength radar data at L-band sensor provides improved forest biomass (AGB) information due to its higher penetration level and sensitivity to canopy structure. The study presents a regression based woody biomass estimation for tropical deciduous mixed forest dominated by Shorea robusta using ALOS PALSAR mosaic (HH, HV) and field data at the lower Himalayan belt of Northern India. For the purpose of understanding the scattering mechanisms at L-band from this forest type, Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering model (MIMICS-I) was parameterized with field data to simulate backscatter across polarization and incidence range. Regression analysis between field measured forest biomass and L-band backscatter data from PALSAR mosaic show retrieval of woody biomass up to 100 Mg ha-1 with error between 92 and 94 Mg ha-1 and coefficient of determination (r2) between 0.53 and 0.55 for HH and HH + HV polarized channel at 0.25 ha resolution. This positive relationship could be due to strong volume scattering from ground/trunk interaction at HH-polarized while in combination with direct canopy scattering for HV-polarization at ALOS specific incidence angles as predicted by MIMICS-I model. This study has found that L-band SAR data from currently ALOS-1/-2 and upcoming joint NASA-ISRO SAR (NISAR) are suitable for mapping forest biomass ≤100 Mg ha-1 at 25 m resolution in far incidence range in dense deciduous mixed forest of Northern India.

  10. Field experiments on airborne moisture transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldengarm, J.; Gids, W.F. de

    1990-01-01

    Within the framework of the Dutch participation in the IEA Annex XIV “Condensation” field experiments have been carried out to study airbome moisture transport in realistic circumstances. The experiments were done in an unoccupied 3-story dwelling in Leidschendam in the Netherlands. Some of the

  11. A Field Experiment in Motivating Employee Ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Gibbs (Michael); S. Neckermann (Susanne); C. Siemroth (Christoph)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We study the effects of a field experiment designed to motivate employee ideas, at a large technology company. Employees were encouraged to submit ideas on process and product improvements via an online system. In the experiment, the company randomized 19 account

  12. Multivariate patterns of biochemical responses of Pinus ponderosa trees at field plots in the San Bernardino Mountains, southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausz, M; Bytnerowicz, A; Arbaugh, M J; Wonisch, A; Grill, D

    2001-03-01

    Most environmental stress conditions promote the production of potentially toxic active oxygen species in plant cells. Plants respond with changes in their antioxidant and photoprotective systems. Antioxidants and pigments have been widely used to measure these responses. Because trees are exposed to multiple man-made and natural stresses, their responses are not reflected by changes in single stress markers, but by complex biochemical changes. To evaluate such response patterns, explorative multivariate statistics have been used. In the present study, 12 biochemical variables (chloroplast pigments, state of the xanthophyll cycle, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, glutathione and oxidized glutathione) were measured in previous-year needles of field-grown Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. The trees were sampled in two consecutive years in the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California, where a pollution gradient is overlaid by gradients in natural stresses (drought, altitude). To explore irradiance effects, needle samples were taken directly in the field (sun exposed) and from detached, dark-adapted branches. A principal component analysis on this data set (n = 80) resulted in four components (Components 1-4) that explained 67% of the variance in the original data. Component 1 was positively loaded by concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, total ascorbate and xanthophyll cycle pools, as well as by the proportion of de-epoxides in the xanthophyll cycle. It was negatively loaded by the proportion of dehydroascorbate in the ascorbate pool. Component 2 was negatively loaded by chlorophyll concentrations, and positively loaded by the ratios of lutein and beta-carotene to chlorophyll and by the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle. Component 3 was negatively loaded by GSH concentrations and positively loaded by the proportions of GSSG and tocopherol concentrations. Component 4 was positively loaded by neoxanthin and negatively loaded by beta

  13. Study on the weediness of winter wheat in a long-term fertilization field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczky, E; Kismányoky, A; Kismányoky, T

    2006-01-01

    The study was carried out in Keszthely, in the long-term fertilization field experiment in April of 2005. In the experiment we had opportunity to compare the weediness in NPK and NPK + FYM* treatments, and we could study the effect of increasing N dosis on the weeds and winter wheat. The weed survey was made on the 20th of April at the end of tillering. For the weed survey used the Balázs-Ujvárosi method. After that we collected all the weeds from the plots per 1 m2. We counted, measured the fresh and dry matter weight of aerial parts. Winter wheat sampels were taken also from all plots (1 running meter per plot). In the experiment 10 weed species were found, 9 annual: Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Consolida regalis, Galium aparine, Lamiunt amplexicaule, Matricaria inodora, Papaver rhoeas, Stellaria media, Veronica hederifolia, Veronica triphyllos, and 1 perennial: Cirsium arvense. Veronica hederifolia was the dominant species in both fertilized plots, Stellaria media has the second highest weed coverage. The manuring treatments, and the N-dosis has important and significantly effect to the weedeness and the biomass production of winter wheat. On the control plots was the relation of biomass weight of weeds the highest. This relation reduced to the effect of N treatments, wich had an favorable effect on the winter wheat.

  14. Recovery based on plot experiments is a poor predictor of landscape-level population impacts of agricultural pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John; Kjær, Lene; Hommen, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Current EU regulatory risk assessment allows application of pesticides provided that recovery of non-target arthropods in-crop occurs within a year. Despite long-established theory of source sink dynamics, risk assessment ignores depletion of surrounding populations and typical field trials are r...

  15. Managing Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil with hydrated lime - An outdoor study in lysimeters and field plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Karin A; Vinnerås, Björn; Albihn, Ann

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium or E. coli O157:H7 among domestic animals can have great financial consequences for an animal enterprise but also be a threat for public health as there is a risk for transmission of the infection through the environment. In order to minimize disease transmission, it is important to treat not only the affected animals but also the areas on which they have been kept. In the present study, the effect of hydrated lime as a treatment for Salmonella Typhimurium or E. coli O157:H7 contaminated soil was investigated. The study was performed outdoors, in a lysimeter system and in field plots. The soils were spiked with Salmonella Typhimurium and/or E. coli O157:H7 and hydrated lime was added at three different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2%). Sampling was performed over one month, and the levels of bacteria were analyzed by standard culture methods. In addition, the soil pH was monitored throughout the study. The results showed that application of 0.5-1 kg hydrated lime per m(2) reduced both Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 numbers to below the detection limit (2 log10 CFU g-1 soil) in 3-7 days. Lower application rates of hydrated lime did not reduce pathogen numbers in the lysimeter study, but in the field plots no E. coli O157:H7 was detected at the end of the four-week study period regardless of hydrated lime application. A recommended strategy for treating a Salmonella Typhimurium or E. coli O157:H7 contaminated soil could therefore be to monitor the pH over the time of treatment and to repeat hydrated lime application if a decrease in pH is observed.

  16. A Field Experiment in Motivating Employee Ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Neckermann; Michael Gibbs; Christoph Siemroth

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We study the effects of a field experiment designed to motivate employee ideas, at a large technology company. Employees were encouraged to submit ideas on process and product improvements via an online system. In the experiment, the company randomized 19 account teams into treatment and control groups. Employees in treatment teams received rewards if their ideas were approved. Nothing changed for employees in control teams. Our main finding is that rewards substa...

  17. Employee Recognition and Performance: A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Bradler (Christiane); A.J. Dur (Robert); S. Neckermann (Susanne); J.A. Non (Arjan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reports the results from a controlled field experiment designed to investigate the causal effect of public recognition on employee performance. We hired more than 300 employees to work on a three-hour data-entry task. In a random sample of work groups, workers unexpectedly

  18. Employee recognition and performance: A field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bradler, C.; Dur, R.; Neckermann, S.; Non, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results from a controlled field experiment designed to investigate the causal effect of public recognition on employee performance. We hired more than 300 employees to work on a three-hour data-entry task. In a random sample of work groups, workers unexpectedly received

  19. Global field experiments for potato simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymundo, Rubi; Asseng, Senthold; Prasad, Rishi; Kleinwechter, Ulrich; Condori, Bruno; Bowen, Walter; Wolf, Joost; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Dong, Qiaoxue; Zotarelli, Lincoln; Gastelo, Manuel; Alva, Ashok; Travasso, Maria; Arora, Vijay

    2018-01-01

    A large field potato experimental data set has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels,

  20. Random Assignment: Practical Considerations from Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Franklyn W.

    1990-01-01

    Seven qualitative issues associated with randomization that have the potential to weaken or destroy otherwise sound experimental designs are reviewed and illustrated via actual field experiments. Issue areas include ethics and legality, liability risks, manipulation of randomized outcomes, hidden bias, design intrusiveness, case flow, and…

  1. Soil treatment technologies: Comparison of field experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, H.I.; Jackson, D.W.; Kline, K.

    1992-01-01

    A number of on-site soil treatment technologies are available for closure of oil-field waste pits, leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites, and general hydrocarbon contamination. This paper will contrast Separation Systems Consultants, Inc.'s (SSCI's) field experiences with the following soil restoration techniques: (1) Land Treatment using indigenous microbes; (2) Land Farming using commercial microbes; (3) Low Temperature Thermal Treatment; (4) Solidification. The technologies will be contrasted in terms of regulatory constraints and requirements, key set-up and maintenance consideration, selection factors. Included in the regulatory contrast is the authors' perception of regulatory attitudes toward the techniques. Because this paper is based on actual field experience and projects, the practical aspects of making the technologies work is emphasized

  2. Utilizing Urban Environments for Effective Field Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; Knee, K.

    2014-12-01

    Research surveys suggest that students are demanding more applied field experiences from their undergraduate environmental science programs. For geoscience educators at liberal arts colleges without field camps, university vehicles, or even geology departments, getting students into the field is especially rewarding - and especially challenging. Here, we present strategies that we have used in courses ranging from introductory environmental science for non-majors, to upper level environmental methods and geology classes. Urban locations provide an opportunity for a different type of local "field-work" than would otherwise be available. In the upper-level undergraduate Environmental Methods class, we relied on a National Park area located a 10-minute walk from campus for most field exercises. Activities included soil analysis, measuring stream flow and water quality parameters, dendrochronology, and aquatic microbe metabolism. In the non-majors class, we make use of our urban location to contrast water quality in parks and highly channelized urban streams. Here we share detailed lesson plans and budgets for field activities that can be completed during a class period of 2.5 hours with a $75 course fee, show how these activities help students gain quantitative competency, and provide student feedback about the classes and activities.

  3. Instruction-based clinical eye-tracking study on the visual interpretation of divergence: How do students look at vector field plots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, P.; Viiri, J.; Mozaffari, S.; Dengel, A.; Kuhn, J.

    2018-06-01

    Relating mathematical concepts to graphical representations is a challenging task for students. In this paper, we introduce two visual strategies to qualitatively interpret the divergence of graphical vector field representations. One strategy is based on the graphical interpretation of partial derivatives, while the other is based on the flux concept. We test the effectiveness of both strategies in an instruction-based eye-tracking study with N =41 physics majors. We found that students' performance improved when both strategies were introduced (74% correct) instead of only one strategy (64% correct), and students performed best when they were free to choose between the two strategies (88% correct). This finding supports the idea of introducing multiple representations of a physical concept to foster student understanding. Relevant eye-tracking measures demonstrate that both strategies imply different visual processing of the vector field plots, therefore reflecting conceptual differences between the strategies. Advanced analysis methods further reveal significant differences in eye movements between the best and worst performing students. For instance, the best students performed predominantly horizontal and vertical saccades, indicating correct interpretation of partial derivatives. They also focused on smaller regions when they balanced positive and negative flux. This mixed-method research leads to new insights into student visual processing of vector field representations, highlights the advantages and limitations of eye-tracking methodologies in this context, and discusses implications for teaching and for future research. The introduction of saccadic direction analysis expands traditional methods, and shows the potential to discover new insights into student understanding and learning difficulties.

  4. Employee Recognition and Performance: A Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Bradler, Christiane; Dur, Robert; Neckermann, Susanne; Non, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    This discussion paper led to a publication in 'Management Science' . This paper reports the results from a controlled field experiment designed to investigate the causal effect of unannounced, public recognition on employee performance. We hired more than 300 employees to work on a three-hour data-entry task. In a random sample of work groups, workers unexpectedly received recognition after two hours of work. We find that recognition increases subsequent performance substantially, and particu...

  5. The FIELDS experiment for Solar Probe Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, S.; Spp/Fields Team

    2010-12-01

    Many of our basic ideas on the plasma physics of acceleration, energy flow, and dissipation, and structure of the solar wind have never been rigorously confronted by direct experimental measurements in the region where these processes are actually occurring. Although Alfven waves, shocks, and magnetic reconnection are often invoked as heating mechanisms, there have never been any direct measurements of Alfvenic waves nor the associated Poynting flux nor any measurements of ion or electron kinetic energy flux in the region from 10 R_s to 30 R_s where the final stages of wind acceleration are believed to occur. The radial profiles of both slow and fast solar wind acceleration are based on remote-sensing measurements and have been obtained for only a few selected events. Thus, the spatial radial and perpendicular scales of the acceleration process have been averaged by line-of-sight effects and the possibility of intense localized acceleration cannot be ruled out. The Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission calls for the high quality fields and particles measurements required to solve the coronal heating and wind acceleration problem. The SPP 'FIELDS' experiment measures the electric and magnetic fields fundamental to the plasma physics of the structured and turbulent solar wind, flux ropes, collisionless shocks, and magnetic reconnection. FIELDS will make the first-ever measurements of the DC/Low-Frequency electric field inside of 1 AU allowing for in situ, high cadence measurements of the Poynting vector, the Elsasser variables, and E/B diagnostics of the wave spectrum to fce in the solar wind. SPP/FIELDS measures the radio wave (type III and II) signatures of microflares, energized electrons, and CME propagation. SPP/ FIELDS measures the plasma electron density to ~2% accuracy and the core electron temperature to ~5-10% accuracy more than 90% of the time at perihelion. FIELDS will also measure the in situ density fluctuation spectrum and structures at a very high cadence (

  6. Description and field performance of the Walker Branch throughfall displacement experiment: 1993--1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.; Todd, D.E.; Huston, M.A. [Oak Ridge National lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Joslin, J.D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Norris, TN (United States); Croker, J.L.; Auge, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Inst. of Agriculture

    1998-04-01

    The authors are conducting a large-scale manipulative field experiment in an upland oak forest on the Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee to identify important ecosystem responses that might result from future precipitation changes. The manipulation of soil water content is being implemented by a gravity-driven transfer of throughfall from one 6400-m{sup 2} treatment plot to another. Throughfall is intercepted in {approx}1850 subcanopy troughs suspended above the forest floor of the dry plot and transferred by gravity flow across an ambient plot for subsequent distribution onto the wet treatment plot. Soil water content is being monitored at two depths with time domain reflectometers at 310 sampling locations across the site. The experimental system is able to produce statistically significant differences in soil water content in years having both dry and wet conditions. Maximum soil water content differentials between wet and dry plots in the 0- to 0.35-m horizon were 8 to 10% during summers with abundant precipitation and 3 to 5% during drought periods. Treatment impacts on soil water potential were restricted to the surface soil layer. Comparisons of pre- and post-installation soil and litter temperature measurements showed the ability of the experimental design to produce changes in soil water content and water potential without creating large artifacts in the forest understory environment.

  7. Effects of application methods of metam sodium and plastic covers on horizontal and vertical distributions of methyl isothiocyanate in bedded field plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Li-Tse; Thomas, John E; Allen, L Hartwell; Vu, Joseph C; Dickson, Donald W

    2006-08-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of three application methods of metam sodium (broadcast, single irrigation drip tape delivery, and double irrigation drip tape delivery) and two plastic covers (polyethylene film and virtually impermeable film) on volatilization and on horizontal and vertical distributions of the biologically active product of metam sodium, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), in field plots in a Florida sandy soil. Volatilization of MITC from field beds lasted for about 20 hours after completion of metam sodium application regardless of application methods. Virtually impermeable film (VIF) was a better barrier to reduce volatilization loss than polyethylene film (PE). Since water was not applied during broadcast application, MITC was mainly retained in the shallow soil layer (0- to 20-cm depth) and downward movement of MITC was limited to about 30 cm. Large values of standard deviation indicated that initial spatial distribution of MITC in the root zone (10- and 20-cm depths) of the two broadcast applied beds covered with PE or VIF was variable. Twice more water was delivered through the single drip tape than through individual tapes of double drip tape treatments during drip application of metam sodium. More water from the single drip tape likely facilitated downward movement of MITC to at least 60-cm depth, but MITC did not penetrate to this depth in the double drip tape beds. On the other hand, horizontal distribution of MITC in the root zone (10- and 20-cm depths) in the double drip tape beds was more uniform than in the single drip tape beds. More MITC was retained in the subsurface of the VIF-covered beds regardless of application methods than in the PE-covered beds.

  8. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...

  9. Digital data collection in forest dynamics plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Inman-Narahari; Christian Giardina; Rebecca Ostertag; Susan Cordell; Lawren Sack

    2010-01-01

    Summary 1. Computers are widely used in all aspects of research but their application to in-field data collection for forest plots has rarely been evaluated. 2. We developed digital data collection methods using ESRI mapping software and ruggedized field computers to map and measure ~30 000 trees in two 4-ha forest dynamics plots in wet and dry...

  10. Plasma physics plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, D.H.

    1981-02-01

    We describe a package of plotting routines that do up to six two- or three-dimensional plots on a frame with minimal loss of resolution. The package now runs on a PDP-10 with PLOT-10 TCS primitives and on a Control Data Corporation-7600 and a Cray-1 with TV80LIB primitives on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center network. The package is portable to other graphics systems because only the primitive plot calls are used from the underlying system's graphics package

  11. Across the Arctic Teachers Experience Field Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Warburton, J.; Wiggins, H. V.; Marshall, S. A.; Darby, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    From studying snow geese on the North Slope of Alaska to sediment coring aboard the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy in the Arctic Ocean, K-12 teachers embark on scientific expeditions as part of a program that strives to make science in the Arctic a "virtual" reality. In the past two years, seventeen K-12 teachers have participated in Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (TREC), a program that pairs teachers with researchers to improve science education through arctic field experiences. TREC builds on the scientific and cultural opportunities of the Arctic, linking research and education through topics that naturally engage students and the wider public. TREC includes expeditions as diverse as studying plants at Toolik Field Station, a research facility located 150 miles above the Arctic Circle; climate change studies in Norway's Svalbard archipelago; studying rivers in Siberia; or a trans-arctic expedition aboard the USCGC Healy collecting an integrated geophysical data set. Funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, TREC offers educators experiences in scientific inquiry while encouraging the public and students to become active participants in the scientific inquiry by engaging them virtually in arctic research. TREC uses online outreach elements to convey the research experience to a broad audience. While in remote field locations, teachers and researchers interact with students and the public through online seminars and live calls from the field, online journals with accompanying photos, and online bulletin boards. Since the program's inception in 2004, numerous visitors have posted questions or interacted with teachers, researchers, and students through the TREC website (http://www.arcus.org/trec). TREC teachers are required to transfer their experience of research and current science into their classroom through the development of relevant activities and resources. Teachers and researchers are encouraged to participate

  12. SUPERIMPOSED MESH PLOTTING IN MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. HENDRICKS

    2001-02-01

    The capability to plot superimposed meshes has been added to MCNP{trademark}. MCNP4C featured a superimposed mesh weight window generator which enabled users to set up geometries without having to subdivide geometric cells for variance reduction. The variance reduction was performed with weight windows on a rectangular or cylindrical mesh superimposed over the physical geometry. Experience with the new capability was favorable but also indicated that a number of enhancements would be very beneficial, particularly a means of visualizing the mesh and its values. The mathematics for plotting the mesh and its values is described here along with a description of other upgrades.

  13. Nonlinear Dot Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Nils; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Conventional dot plots use a constant dot size and are typically applied to show the frequency distribution of small data sets. Unfortunately, they are not designed for a high dynamic range of frequencies. We address this problem by introducing nonlinear dot plots. Adopting the idea of nonlinear scaling from logarithmic bar charts, our plots allow for dots of varying size so that columns with a large number of samples are reduced in height. For the construction of these diagrams, we introduce an efficient two-way sweep algorithm that leads to a dense and symmetrical layout. We compensate aliasing artifacts at high dot densities by a specifically designed low-pass filtering method. Examples of nonlinear dot plots are compared to conventional dot plots as well as linear and logarithmic histograms. Finally, we include feedback from an expert review.

  14. Distributed plot-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Groth; Bossen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    different socio-technical systems (paper-based and electronic patient records). Drawing on the theory of distributed cognition and narrative theory, primarily inspired by the work done within health care by Cheryl Mattingly, we propose that the creation of overview may be conceptualised as ‘distributed plot......-making’. Distributed cognition focuses on the role of artefacts, humans and their interaction in information processing, while narrative theory focuses on how humans create narratives through the plot construction. Hence, the concept of distributed plot-making highlights the distribution of information processing...

  15. Magnetic field experiment on the SUNSAT satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, P. B.; Langenhoven, B.; Risbo, T.

    2002-03-01

    On Tuesday 23 February 1999, at 10:29 UTC, SUNSAT was launched into an 857×655 km, 96.47° polar orbit on a Boeing-Delta II rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, USA. Both SUNSAT and Ørsted were NASA-sponsored secondary payloads accompanying the USA Air Force Argos satellite. In the process it became South Africa's (and Africa's) first satellite in space. Although sponsored by several private industrial organisations, it is essentially a student project with more than 96 graduate students in the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering at the University of Stellenbosch providing the majority of SUNSAT's engineering development and operation since 1992. This paper reports on the magnetic field experiment on board the Sunsat satellite, consisting of two fluxgate magnetometers, called Orimag and Scimag, both built and calibrated by the Hermanus Magnetic Observatory. Orimag is mainly used for orientation control purposes on SUNSAT, while Scimag, mounted on a boom of 2.2 m is designed to perform geomagnetic field observations, employing standard navigation fluxgate technology.

  16. Cultural adaptation in translational research: field experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert M; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Samuels, Deanne; Ergon-Pérez, Emma; Jacobs, Robin

    2005-06-01

    The increase in the incidence of HIV/AIDS among minorities in the United States and in certain developing nations has prompted new intervention priorities, stressing the adaptation of efficacious interventions for diverse and marginalized groups. The experiences of Florida International University's AIDS Prevention Program in translating HIV primary and secondary prevention interventions among these multicultural populations provide insight into the process of cultural adaptations and address the new scientific emphasis on ecological validity. An iterative process involving forward and backward translation, a cultural linguistic committee, focus group discussions, documentation of project procedures, and consultations with other researchers in the field was used to modify interventions. This article presents strategies used to ensure fidelity in implementing the efficacious core components of evidence-based interventions for reducing HIV transmission and drug use behaviors and the challenges posed by making cultural adaptation for participants with low literacy. This experience demonstrates the importance of integrating culturally relevant material in the translation process with intense focus on language and nuance. The process must ensure that the level of intervention is appropriate for the educational level of participants. Furthermore, the rights of participants must be protected during consenting procedures by instituting policies that recognize the socioeconomic, educational, and systemic pressures to participate in research.

  17. BliP PLOT : PLOT DISTRIBUSI DATA BERDIMENSI - SATU

    OpenAIRE

    Anisa Anisa; Indwiati Indwiati

    2014-01-01

    Blip Plot, adalah salah satu plot yang sibuat untuk menampilkan data berdimensi-satu. Pada dasarnya plot ini terdiri dari kotak, garis, dan titik. Sebagaimana plot distribusi berdimensi-satu yang lain, BliP Plot menampilkan nilai-nilai data individu dalam titik-titik atau garis-garis, dan informasi berkelompok dalam garis atau kotak. Kelebihannya, Blip Plot menampilkan banyak keistimewaan baru seperti plot variable-widht dan beberapa pilihan pola titik. Keuntungan utama dari Blip ...

  18. 1. Introduction. 2. Laboratory experiments. 3. Field experiments. 4. Integrated field-laboratory experiments. 5. Panel recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Some recommendations for the design of laboratory and field studies in marine radioecology are formulated. The difficulties concerning the comparability of various experimental methods used to measure the fluxes of radionuclides through marine organisms and ecosystems, and also the use of laboratory results to make predictions for the natural environment are discussed. Three working groups were established during the panel meeting, to consider laboratory experiments, field studies, and the design and execution of integrated laboratory and field studies respectively. A number of supporting papers dealing with marine radioecological experiments were presented

  19. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  20. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  1. NPLOT - NASTRAN PLOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcentire, K.

    1994-01-01

    NPLOT is an interactive computer graphics program for plotting undeformed and deformed NASTRAN finite element models (FEMs). Although there are many commercial codes already available for plotting FEMs, these have limited use due to their cost, speed, and lack of features to view BAR elements. NPLOT was specifically developed to overcome these limitations. On a vector type graphics device the two best ways to show depth are by hidden line plotting or haloed line plotting. A hidden line algorithm generates views of models with all hidden lines removed, and a haloed line algorithm displays views with aft lines broken in order to show depth while keeping the entire model visible. A haloed line algorithm is especially useful for plotting models composed of many line elements and few surface elements. The most important feature of NPLOT is its ability to create both hidden line and haloed line views accurately and much more quickly than with any other existing hidden or haloed line algorithms. NPLOT is also capable of plotting a normal wire frame view to display all lines of a model. NPLOT is able to aid in viewing all elements, but it has special features not generally available for plotting BAR elements. These features include plotting of TRUE LENGTH and NORMALIZED offset vectors and orientation vectors. Standard display operations such as rotation and perspective are possible, but different view planes such as X-Y, Y-Z, and X-Z may also be selected. Another display option is the Z-axis cut which allows a portion of the fore part of the model to be cut away to reveal details of the inside of the model. A zoom function is available to terminals with a locator (graphics cursor, joystick, etc.). The user interface of NPLOT is designed to make the program quick and easy to use. A combination of menus and commands with help menus for detailed information about each command allows experienced users greater speed and efficiency. Once a plot is on the screen the interface

  2. Thickening the Plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brian

    1979-01-01

    Examines the content of daytime serial dramas to determine how the narrative structure promotes a sense of involvement in viewers. Competing plot lines, the lack of a concrete sense of resolution, the pattern of episodes, and the audience's awareness of information kept secret from characters all contribute to audience involvement. (JMF)

  3. Plot Description (PD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Plot Description (PD) form is used to describe general characteristics of the FIREMON macroplot to provide ecological context for data analyses. The PD data characterize the topographical setting, geographic reference point, general plant composition and cover, ground cover, fuels, and soils information. This method provides the general ecological data that can be...

  4. The Shorth Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Gantner, M.; Sawitzki, G.

    2008-01-01

    The shorth plot is a tool to investigate probability mass concentration. It is a graphical representation of the length of the shorth, the shortest interval covering a certain fraction of the distribution, localized by forcing the intervals considered to contain a given point x. It is easy to

  5. Air Data - Tile Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tool plots daily AQI values for a specific location and time period. Each square or “tile” represents one day of the year and is color-coded based on the AQI level for that day. The legend tallies the number of days in each AQI category.

  6. Multiple plots in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter I will investigate how to combine multiple plots into a single. The scenario is a dataset of a series of measurements, on three samples in three situations. There are many ways we can display this, e.g. 3d graphs or faceting. 3d graphs are not good for displaying static data so we...

  7. True versus perturbed forest inventory plot locations for modeling: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Kurt H. Riitters; Ronald E. McRoberts; William D. Smith

    2006-01-01

    USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plot information is widely used for timber inventories, forest health assessments, and environmental risk analyses. With few exceptions, true plot locations are not revealed; the plot coordinates are manipulated to obscure the location of field plots and thereby preserve plot integrity. The influence of perturbed plot...

  8. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John

    2016-01-01

    at the same time will be more efficient. However, there have been only a few attempts in the literature to provide an adequate and easy-to-use approach for this problem. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for constructing two-level split-plot and multistage experiments. The methodology is based...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  9. Plot til lyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    Den velfungerende krimi faciliterer denne dobbelte plotlæsning ved at muliggøre en særlig form for legende og udforskende interaktion mellem læser og plot: Ved at lægge spor ud og holde tolkningsmuligheder og løsningsmuligheder åbne får vi mulighed for at påtage os og udføre opklaringsarbejdet side......, der inviterer os med ind i selve handlingens rum og forløb og giver os forskellige handlingsmuligheder i forhold til disse. I bogen omtales denne særlige form for plot for forlystelsesplot med henvisning til forlystelsesparken og den særlige form for interaktiv fortælleform, som vi finder der: en...

  10. Experiments of Accuracy Air Ion Field Measurement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartušek, Karel; Fiala, P.; Jirků, T.; Kadlecová, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 8 (2007), s. 1330-1333 ISSN 1931-7360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : air ion field * gerdien condenser * picoampermeter Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  11. Cockle Field Caging Experiment Data (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — To determine whether differences in cockle density or qualitative burial depth observed during the 2014 field survey were affected by green macroalgal (GMA) mats, we...

  12. Nuclear Zpif-type plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yugang

    2000-01-01

    Isospin dependent classical molecular dynamics model is used to investigate the nuclear disassembly of 129 Xe. Zpif-type plot in the field of linguistics is tested for the rank-classified cluster arrangement from this nuclear disassembly. It is found that the average cluster charge (or mass) of rank n in the charge (or mass) list is exactly inverse to its rank, i.e. there exists Zpif's law at the point of the liquid gas phase transition. This novel criterion can be used to diagnose the nuclear liquid gas phase transition experimentally and theoretically

  13. Field Trips as Valuable Learning Experiences in Geography Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowka, Amy Richmond

    2012-01-01

    Field trips have been acknowledged as valuable learning experiences in geography. This article uses Kolb's (1984) experiential learning model to discuss how students learn and how field trips can help enhance learning. Using Kolb's experiential learning theory as a guide in the design of field trips helps ensure that field trips contribute to…

  14. Multitracing Experiment With Solved and Particulate Tracers In An Unsaturated Field Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M.; Kasteel, R.; Vereecken, H.

    Solute movement and colloid migration follow preferential flow paths in structured soils at the field scale. The use of microsphreres is a possible option to mimic colloid transport through the vadose zone into the groundwater. We present results of multi- tracing experiments conducted in an Orthic Luvisol using bromide (Br-), the reactive dye tracer Brilliant Blue (BB) and microspheres. The fluorescent microspheres (1 and 10 µm in diameter) were functionalized with a negative surface charge. Eight field plots (about 2 m2) were irrigated with 10 mm and 40 mm during 6 h. Four field plots were sampled directly after the irrgation, the others were exposed for 90 days to natural wheather conditions. Photographs of horizontal cross-sections and disturbed soil sam- ples were taken every 5 to 10 cm down to a depth of 160 cm. Image analysis was used to derive concentration distributions of BB using a calibration relationship between concentration and color spectra. The microspheres were quantified after desorption of the soil samples by fluorescent microscopy and image analysis. We used moment analysis to characterize transport phenomena. We found that transport through the soil matrix was affected by sorption, but all of the applied compounds were transported through preferential flow paths (earthworm burrows) down to a depth of 160 cm irre- spective of their chemical properties. Furthermore, this study shows that microspheres can be used to mimic colloid facilitated transport under unsaturated conditions in a field soil.

  15. The Half-Half Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Gantner, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Half-Half (HH) plot is a new graphical method to investigate qualitatively the shape of a regression curve. The empirical HH-plot counts observations in the lower and upper quarter of a strip that moves horizontally over the scatter plot. The plot displays jumps clearly and reveals further

  16. Plotting system for the MINCS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tadashi

    1990-08-01

    The plotting system for the MINCS code is described. The transient two-phase flow analysis code MINCS has been developed to provide a computational tool for analysing various two-phase flow phenomena in one-dimensional ducts. Two plotting systems, namely the SPLPLOT system and the SDPLOT system, can be used as the plotting functions. The SPLPLOT system is used for plotting time transients of variables, while the SDPLOT system is for spatial distributions. The SPLPLOT system is based on the SPLPACK system, which is used as a general tool for plotting results of transient analysis codes or experiments. The SDPLOT is based on the GPLP program, which is also regarded as one of the general plotting programs. In the SPLPLOT and the SDPLOT systems, the standardized data format called the SPL format is used in reading data to be plotted. The output data format of MINCS is translated into the SPL format by using the conversion system called the MINTOSPL system. In this report, how to use the plotting functions is described. (author)

  17. Effects on field- and bottom-layer species in an experiment with repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term changes in forest ground vegetation because of repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization were examined in an old field experiment, located in a 85-year-old Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. Fertilizers were added at 5-(PK, NPK) or 10-(PK) year intervals, beginning 26 years prior to the study. The treatments were tested in two replicates on plots sized 40 x 40 m. The total doses added were N 720 kg/ha, P 222-380 kg/ha and K 318-620 kg/ha. N was given as ammonium nitrate, P as superphosphate and K as potassium chloride. The vegetation on control plots was of the Vaccinium vitis-idaea type. The field layer was dominated by V.vitis-idaea and V.myrtillus, and the bottom layer by Pleurozium schreberi. The effect of fertilization was quantified by examining the areal cover of individual species. This was done in 25 0.25 m 2 frames systematically placed in a grid over each treatment plot. The only pronounced effect in the field layer was on V.myrtillus. The cover was strongly reduced by fertilization with PK. The reduction was 70% for the 5-year interval and 34% for the 10-year interval. The cover more than doubled after NPK-fertilization. Among the cryptogams, a reduction in cover was indicated for Cladina arbuscula and C.rangiferina because of fertilization with NPK. NPK reduced the number of species that were found, totally depending on negative effects on several lichen species. For species absent in the examined frame areas but present somewhere else on the treatment plots, it was seen that Deschampsia flexuosa increased after NPK-fertilization, while Peltigera apthosa and Steroecaulon tomentosum decreased. Hylocomium splendens occurred on both control plots, but only on one fertilized plot. 30 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  18. Minimizing magnetic fields for precision experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altarev, I.; Fierlinger, P.; Lins, T.; Marino, M. G.; Nießen, B.; Petzoldt, G.; Reisner, M.; Stuiber, S., E-mail: stefan.stuiber@ph.tum.de; Sturm, M.; Taggart Singh, J.; Taubenheim, B. [Physikdepartment, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rohrer, H. K. [Rohrer GmbH, D-80667 München (Germany); Schläpfer, U. [IMEDCO AG, CH-4614 Hägendorf (Switzerland)

    2015-06-21

    An increasing number of measurements in fundamental and applied physics rely on magnetically shielded environments with sub nano-Tesla residual magnetic fields. State of the art magnetically shielded rooms (MSRs) consist of up to seven layers of high permeability materials in combination with highly conductive shields. Proper magnetic equilibration is crucial to obtain such low magnetic fields with small gradients in any MSR. Here, we report on a scheme to magnetically equilibrate MSRs with a 10 times reduced duration of the magnetic equilibration sequence and a significantly lower magnetic field with improved homogeneity. For the search of the neutron's electric dipole moment, our finding corresponds to a 40% improvement of the statistical reach of the measurement. However, this versatile procedure can improve the performance of any MSR for any application.

  19. Minimizing magnetic fields for precision experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarev, I.; Fierlinger, P.; Lins, T.; Marino, M. G.; Nießen, B.; Petzoldt, G.; Reisner, M.; Stuiber, S.; Sturm, M.; Taggart Singh, J.; Taubenheim, B.; Rohrer, H. K.; Schläpfer, U.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of measurements in fundamental and applied physics rely on magnetically shielded environments with sub nano-Tesla residual magnetic fields. State of the art magnetically shielded rooms (MSRs) consist of up to seven layers of high permeability materials in combination with highly conductive shields. Proper magnetic equilibration is crucial to obtain such low magnetic fields with small gradients in any MSR. Here, we report on a scheme to magnetically equilibrate MSRs with a 10 times reduced duration of the magnetic equilibration sequence and a significantly lower magnetic field with improved homogeneity. For the search of the neutron's electric dipole moment, our finding corresponds to a 40% improvement of the statistical reach of the measurement. However, this versatile procedure can improve the performance of any MSR for any application

  20. Gaseous mercury fluxes from forest soils in response to forest harvesting intensity: A field manipulation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, M.; Mitchell, C.P.J.; Eckley, C.S.; Eggert, S.L.; Kolka, R.K.; Sebestyen, S.D.; Swain, E.B.

    2014-01-01

    Forest harvesting leads to changes in soil moisture, temperature and incident solar radiation, all strong environmental drivers of soil–air mercury (Hg) fluxes. Whether different forest harvesting practices significantly alter Hg fluxes from forest soils is unknown. We conducted a field-scale experiment in a northern Minnesota deciduous forest wherein gaseous Hg emissions from the forest floor were monitored after two forest harvesting prescriptions, a traditional clear-cut and a clearcut followed by biomass harvest, and compared to an un-harvested reference plot. Gaseous Hg emissions were measured in quadruplicate at four different times between March and November 2012 using Teflon dynamic flux chambers. We also applied enriched Hg isotope tracers and separately monitored their emission in triplicate at the same times as ambient measurements. Clearcut followed by biomass harvesting increased ambient Hg emissions the most. While significant intra-site spatial variability was observed, Hg emissions from the biomass harvested plot (180 ± 170 ng m −2 d −1 ) were significantly greater than both the traditional clearcut plot (− 40 ± 60 ng m −2 d −1 ) and the un-harvested reference plot (− 180 ± 115 ng m −2 d −1 ) during July. This difference was likely a result of enhanced Hg 2+ photoreduction due to canopy removal and less shading from downed woody debris in the biomass harvested plot. Gaseous Hg emissions from more recently deposited Hg, as presumably representative of isotope tracer measurements, were not significantly influenced by harvesting. Most of the Hg tracer applied to the forest floor became sequestered within the ground vegetation and debris, leaf litter, and soil. We observed a dramatic lessening of tracer Hg emissions to near detection levels within 6 months. As post-clearcutting residues are increasingly used as a fuel or fiber resource, our observations suggest that gaseous Hg emissions from forest soils will increase, although it

  1. Entrepreneurship, teams and sustainability: A series of field experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosendahl Huber, L.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation reports the results from three field experiments that were conducted within the setting of one of the leading, internationally renowned entrepreneurship education programs for primary schools called BizWorld. The first field experiment evaluates the program’s effectiveness in terms

  2. Analysis of ARAC participation in the Idaho field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, L.C.; Hill, K.L.

    1986-02-01

    The 1981 Idaho Field Experiment to coordinate data sets and evaluate model and computer facilities is summarized herein. Participation of the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the field experiment is discussed. The computed ARAC results are compared with the observational data sets and analyzed. 12 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Airborne ground penetrating radar: practical field experiments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 1. All the radargrams were processed by applying basic GPR processing steps, which included a time zero correction, a dewow filter and the application of an automatic gain control (AGC) function. No migration was applied so as to preserve.... Suitable automatic detection algorithm could potentially be employed if target responses with specific characteristics are being sought. The results from this experiment are likely to be frequency independent. If so, a low frequency GPR system – say...

  4. Representation of the thickness distribution of channels and stratigraphic events at one of the Iranian fields in the Hormuz Strait using a composite plot and RGB display technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadatinejad, M R; Javaherian, A; Hassani, H

    2011-01-01

    The Hormuz Strait is an important area which is located between the Persian Gulf, with half the oil reserves of the world, and the Oman Sea south of Iran. Many geophysical studies have been done to analyse the structure of subsurface layers in this strait and explore many new gas reservoirs as these findings help to simulate images from reservoir stratigraphy and understand the paleo-depositional environments. Spectral decomposition, which is a quick and important method in seismic interpretation, provides a strong tool to study these types of subsurface layers. In this paper, a red–green–blue (RGB) multi-colour display technique has been performed as an effective interpretation tool. This technique stacks three different frequencies with three different colours for composite display. So, these frequency components show the distribution of channel thickness as we map the variation of thickness with a colour scale that is equal to the quantitative thickness according to its relationship with frequency. In addition, seismic attributes such as coherency, peak and instantaneous frequency, which are sensitive to the edges of stratigraphic events (such as channels), are shown with a composite plot too; although the RGB technique is better than other techniques, for thickness variation a combined application is the best method of study

  5. Tandem mirror and field-reversed mirror experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coensgen, F.H.; Simonen, T.C.; Turner, W.C.

    1979-08-21

    This paper is largely devoted to tandem mirror and field-reversed mirror experiments at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), and briefly summarizes results of experiments in which field-reversal has been achieved. In the tandem experiment, high-energy, high-density plasmas (nearly identical to 2XIIB plasmas) are located at each end of a solenoid where plasma ions are electrostatically confined by the high positive poentials arising in the end plug plasma. End plug ions are magnetically confined, and electrons are electrostatically confined by the overall positive potential of the system. The field-reversed mirror reactor consists of several small field-reversed mirror plasmas linked together for economic reasons. In the LLL Beta II experiment, generation of a field-reversed plasma ring will be investigated using a high-energy plasma gun with a transverse radial magnetic field. This plasma will be further heated and sustained by injection of intense, high-energy neutral beams.

  6. Preliminary experiments with a cusp-field ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; O'Hagan, J.B.

    1980-12-01

    Preliminary experiments with a cusp field ion source have been completed. Measurements were made of the total ion current and mass and energy distributions as a function of source operating conditions and cusp field geometry. These experiments have indicated that a cusp field source may be used in the Sandia Neutron Generator for Cancer Therapy and may permit the incorporation of a simplified unpumped accelerator design. Suggestions for future work are briefly outlined

  7. In pursuit of a science of agriculture: the role of statistics in field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-09-01

    Since the beginning of the twentieth century statistics has reshaped the experimental cultures of agricultural research taking part in the subtle dialectic between the epistemic and the material that is proper to experimental systems. This transformation has become especially relevant in field trials and the paper will examine the British agricultural institution, Rothamsted Experimental Station, where statistical methods nowadays popular in the planning and analysis of field experiments were developed in the 1920s. At Rothamsted statistics promoted randomisation over systematic arrangements, factorisation over one-question trials, and emphasised the importance of the experimental error in assessing field trials. These changes in methodology transformed also the material culture of agricultural science, and a new body, the Field Plots Committee, was created to manage the field research of the agricultural institution. Although successful, the vision of field experimentation proposed by the Rothamsted statisticians was not unproblematic. Experimental scientists closely linked to the farming community questioned it in favour of a field research that could be more easily understood by farmers. The clash between the two agendas reveals how the role attributed to statistics in field experimentation defined different pursuits of agricultural research, alternately conceived of as a scientists' science or as a farmers' science.

  8. Using plot experiments to test the validity of mass balance models employed to estimate soil redistribution rates from 137Cs and 210Pbex measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Paolo; Walling, Des E.

    2012-01-01

    Information on rates of soil loss from agricultural land is a key requirement for assessing both on-site soil degradation and potential off-site sediment problems. Many models and prediction procedures have been developed to estimate rates of soil loss and soil redistribution as a function of the local topography, hydrometeorology, soil type and land management, but empirical data remain essential for validating and calibrating such models and prediction procedures. Direct measurements using erosion plots are, however, costly and the results obtained relate to a small enclosed area, which may not be representative of the wider landscape. In recent years, the use of fallout radionuclides and more particularly caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and excess lead-210 ( 210 Pb ex ) has been shown to provide a very effective means of documenting rates of soil loss and soil and sediment redistribution in the landscape. Several of the assumptions associated with the theoretical conversion models used with such measurements remain essentially unvalidated. This contribution describes the results of a measurement programme involving five experimental plots located in southern Italy, aimed at validating several of the basic assumptions commonly associated with the use of mass balance models for estimating rates of soil redistribution on cultivated land from 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex measurements. Overall, the results confirm the general validity of these assumptions and the importance of taking account of the fate of fresh fallout. However, further work is required to validate the conversion models employed in using fallout radionuclide measurements to document soil redistribution in the landscape and this could usefully direct attention to different environments and to the validation of the final estimates of soil redistribution rate as well as the assumptions of the models employed. - Highlights: ► Soil erosion is an important threat to the long-term sustainability of agriculture.

  9. Classroom and Field Experiments for Florida's Environmental Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jim

    This booklet is intended to help teachers in Florida manage the growing interest in environmental education. Fourteen experiments are grouped into the environmental areas of the water cycle, groundwater, water pollution, waste and water treatment, air pollution, and field experiments. Experiments include demonstrations of the water cycle, the…

  10. Using plot experiments to test the validity of mass balance models employed to estimate soil redistribution rates from 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Paolo; Walling, Des E

    2012-10-01

    Information on rates of soil loss from agricultural land is a key requirement for assessing both on-site soil degradation and potential off-site sediment problems. Many models and prediction procedures have been developed to estimate rates of soil loss and soil redistribution as a function of the local topography, hydrometeorology, soil type and land management, but empirical data remain essential for validating and calibrating such models and prediction procedures. Direct measurements using erosion plots are, however, costly and the results obtained relate to a small enclosed area, which may not be representative of the wider landscape. In recent years, the use of fallout radionuclides and more particularly caesium-137 ((137)Cs) and excess lead-210 ((210)Pb(ex)) has been shown to provide a very effective means of documenting rates of soil loss and soil and sediment redistribution in the landscape. Several of the assumptions associated with the theoretical conversion models used with such measurements remain essentially unvalidated. This contribution describes the results of a measurement programme involving five experimental plots located in southern Italy, aimed at validating several of the basic assumptions commonly associated with the use of mass balance models for estimating rates of soil redistribution on cultivated land from (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) measurements. Overall, the results confirm the general validity of these assumptions and the importance of taking account of the fate of fresh fallout. However, further work is required to validate the conversion models employed in using fallout radionuclide measurements to document soil redistribution in the landscape and this could usefully direct attention to different environments and to the validation of the final estimates of soil redistribution rate as well as the assumptions of the models employed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigor, Ignatius [Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington; Johnson, Jim [Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington; Motz, Emily [National Ice Center; Bisic, Aaron [National Ice Center

    2017-06-30

    Our ability to understand and predict weather and climate requires an accurate observing network. One of the pillars of this network is the observation of the fundamental meteorological parameters: temperature, air pressure, and wind. We plan to assess our ability to measure these parameters for the polar regions during the Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX, Figure 1) to support the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP), Arctic Observing Network (AON), International Program for Antarctic Buoys (IPAB), and Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS). Accurate temperature measurements are also necessary to validate and improve satellite measurements of surface temperature across the Arctic. Support for research associated with the campaign is provided by the National Science Foundation, and by other US agencies contributing to the US Interagency Arctic Buoy Program. In addition to the support provided by the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site at Barrow and the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. IABP is supported by the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Ice Center (NIC), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Office of Naval Research (ONR).

  12. The half-half plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Gantner, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Half-Half (HH) plot is a new graphical method to investigate qualitatively the shape of a regression curve. The empirical HH-plot counts observations in the lower and upper quarter of a strip that moves horizontally over the scatterplot. The plot displays jumps clearly and reveals further

  13. Instruction-Based Clinical Eye-Tracking Study on the Visual Interpretation of Divergence: How Do Students Look at Vector Field Plots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, P.; Viiri, J.; Mozaffari, S.; Dengel, A.; Kuhn, J.

    2018-01-01

    Relating mathematical concepts to graphical representations is a challenging task for students. In this paper, we introduce two visual strategies to qualitatively interpret the divergence of graphical vector field representations. One strategy is based on the graphical interpretation of partial derivatives, while the other is based on the flux…

  14. Magnetic field saturation in the Riga dynamo experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailitis, A; Lielausis, O; Platacis, E; Dement'ev, S; Cifersons, A; Gerbeth, G; Gundrum, T; Stefani, F; Christen, M; Will, G

    2001-04-02

    After the dynamo experiment in November 1999 [A. Gailitis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4365 (2000)] had shown magnetic field self-excitation in a spiraling liquid metal flow, in a second series of experiments emphasis was placed on the magnetic field saturation regime as the next principal step in the dynamo process. The dependence of the strength of the magnetic field on the rotation rate is studied. Various features of the saturated magnetic field are outlined and possible saturation mechanisms are discussed.

  15. In situ 13CO2 pulse‐labeling in a temperate heathland – development of a mobile multi‐plot field setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinsch, Sabine; Ambus, Per

    2013-01-01

    Pulse‐labeling with 13CO2 and the subsequent analysis of 13C‐carbon via isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) have been shown to be an excellent method to investigate the terrestrial carbon cycle. Improving 13CO2 manipulation experiments will facilitate our understanding of carbon cycling...

  16. Proton and deuterium NMR experiments in zero field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.M.

    1986-02-01

    High field solid-state NMR lineshapes suffer from inhomogeneous broadening since resonance frequencies are a function of molecular orientation. Time domain zero field NMR is a two-dimensional field-cycling technique which removes this broadening by probing the evolution of the spin system under zero applied field. The simplest version, the sudden transition experiment, induces zero field evolution by the sudden removal of the applied magnetic field. Theory and experimental results of this experiment and several variations using pulsed dc magnetic fuelds to initiate zero field evolution are presented. In particular, the pulsed indirect detection method allows detection of the zero field spectrum of one nuclear spin species via another (usually protons) by utilizing the level crossings which occur upon adiabatic demagnetization to zero field. Experimental examples of proton/deuteron systems are presented which demonstrate the method results in enhanced sensitivity relative to that obtained in sudden transition experiments performed directly on deuterium. High resolution 2 H NQR spectra of a series of benzoic acid derivatives are obtained using the sudden transition and indirect detection methods. Librational oscillations in the water molecules of barium chlorate monohydrate are studied using proton and deuterium ZF experiments. 177 refs., 88 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Generalized plotting facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, R.D.; Gray, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    A command which causes the translation of any supported graphics file format to a format acceptable to any supported device was implemented on two linked DECsystem-10s. The processing of the command is divided into parsing and translating phases. In the parsing phase, information is extracted from the command and augmented by default data. The results of this phase are saved on disk, and the appropriate translating routine is invoked. Twenty-eight translating programs were implemented in this system. They support four different graphics file formats, including the DISSPLA and Calcomp formats, and seven different types of plotters, including Tektronix, Calcomp, and Versatec devices. Some of the plotters are devices linked to the DECsystem-10s, and some are driven by IBM System/360 computers linked via a communications network to the DECsystem-10s. The user of this facility can use any of the supported packages to create a file of graphics data, preview the file on an on-line scope, and, when satisfied, cause the same data to be plotted on a hard-copy device. All of the actions utilize a single simple command format. 2 figures.

  18. Attention discrimination: theory and field experiments with monitoring information acquisition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoš, Vojtěch; Bauer, Michal; Chytilová, Julie; Matějka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 6 (2016), s. 1437-1475 ISSN 0002-8282 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : inattention * discrimination * field experiment Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.026, year: 2016

  19. Visual field changes after cataract extraction: the AGIS experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koucheki, Behrooz; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros; Patel, Gitane; Gaasterland, Douglas; Caprioli, Joseph

    2004-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that cataract extraction in glaucomatous eyes improves overall sensitivity of visual function without affecting the size or depth of glaucomatous scotomas. Experimental study with no control group. One hundred fifty-eight eyes (of 140 patients) from the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study with at least two reliable visual fields within a year both before and after cataract surgery were included. Average mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD), and corrected pattern standard deviation (CPSD) were compared before and after cataract extraction. To evaluate changes in scotoma size, the number of abnormal points (P < .05) on the pattern deviation plot was compared before and after surgery. We described an index ("scotoma depth index") to investigate changes of scotoma depth after surgery. Mean values for MD, PSD, and CPSD were -13.2, 6.4, and 5.9 dB before and -11.9, 6.8, and 6.2 dB after cataract surgery (P < or = .001 for all comparisons). Mean (+/- SD) number of abnormal points on pattern deviation plot was 26.7 +/- 9.4 and 27.5 +/- 9.0 before and after cataract surgery, respectively (P = .02). Scotoma depth index did not change after cataract extraction (-19.3 vs -19.2 dB, P = .90). Cataract extraction caused generalized improvement of the visual field, which was most marked in eyes with less advanced glaucomatous damage. Although the enlargement of scotomas was statistically significant, it was not clinically meaningful. No improvement of sensitivity was observed in the deepest part of the scotomas.

  20. 6th International Symposium on Recurrence Plots

    CERN Document Server

    Jr, Jr; Ioana, Cornel; Marwan, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The chapters in this book originate from the research work and contributions presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Recurrence Plots held in Grenoble, France in June 2015. Scientists from numerous disciplines gathered to exchange knowledge on recent applications and developments in recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis. This meeting was remarkable because of the obvious expansion of recurrence strategies (theory) and applications (practice) into ever-broadening fields of science. It discusses real-world systems from various fields, including mathematics, strange attractors, applied physics, physiology, medicine, environmental and earth sciences, as well as psychology and linguistics. Even readers not actively researching any of these particular systems will benefit from discovering how other scientists are finding practical non-linear solutions to specific problems. The book is of interest to an interdisciplinary audience of recurrence plot users and researchers interested in time...

  1. Field experiment on 222Rn flux from reclaimed uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    Design and construction techniques are described for a 1.6 ha experimental uranium mill tailings reclamation plot. A passive, activated charcoal device was developed and tested for measurements of radon flux. Experiments on radon flux versus overburden depth showed that tailings covered with 1.5 m of revegetated or 0.3 m of bare overburden had exhalation rates comparable to background. Vegetated subplots exhibited a significantly higher (often an order of magnitude) flux than the bare subplots. Results on the variation of flux over time did not reveal any definitive patterns, possibly due to the high variability among replicates. A positive correlation was demonstrated between precipitation and radon flux. This is discussed in detail and possibly explained by the increase in water content of the micropores within the tailings, which increases the emanation coefficient without adversely effecting the diffusion coefficient of the overburden. 30 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  2. Finding Your Way out of the Forest without a Trail of Bread Crumbs: Development and Evaluation of Two Novel Displays of Forest Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Anne H. E.; Voracek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that forest plots are a gold standard in the visualization of meta-analytic results. However, research on the general interpretation of forest plots and the role of researchers' meta-analysis experience and field of study is still unavailable. Additionally, the traditional display of effect sizes, confidence intervals, and…

  3. Incentives versus sorting in tournaments: evidence from a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; Sonnemans, J.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2011-01-01

    Existing field evidence on rank-order tournaments typically does not allow disentangling incentive and sorting effects. We conduct a field experiment illustrating the confounding effect. Students in an introductory microeconomics course selected themselves into tournaments with low, medium, or high

  4. Superparamagnetic beads in rotating magnetic fields: microfluidic experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Toonder, J.M.J.; Bokdam, M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the Mason number, ratio of viscous and magnetic force, on suspended superparamagnetic micro sized beads was investigated experimentally. Microfluidic experiments were performed in a set-up that generates a rotating homogeneous magnetic field. In the presence of a magnetic field, the

  5. Plot and field scale soil moisture dynamics and subsurface wetness control on runoff generation in a headwater in the Ore Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zehe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an application of an innovative sampling strategy to assess soil moisture dynamics in a headwater of the Weißeritz in the German eastern Ore Mountains. A grassland site and a forested site were instrumented with two Spatial TDR clusters (STDR that consist of 39 and 32 coated TDR probes of 60 cm length. Distributed time series of vertically averaged soil moisture data from both sites/ensembles were analyzed by statistical and geostatistical methods. Spatial variability and the spatial mean at the forested site were larger than at the grassland site. Furthermore, clustering of TDR probes in combination with long-term monitoring allowed identification of average spatial covariance structures at the small field scale for different wetness states. The correlation length of soil water content as well as the sill to nugget ratio at the grassland site increased with increasing average wetness and but, in contrast, were constant at the forested site. As soil properties at both the forested and grassland sites are extremely variable, this suggests that the correlation structure at the forested site is dominated by the pattern of throughfall and interception. We also found a very strong correlation between antecedent soil moisture at the forested site and runoff coefficients of rainfall-runoff events observed at gauge Rehefeld. Antecedent soil moisture at the forest site explains 92% of the variability in the runoff coefficients. By combining these results with a recession analysis we derived a first conceptual model of the dominant runoff mechanisms operating in this catchment. Finally, we employed a physically based hydrological model to shed light on the controls of soil- and plant morphological parameters on soil average soil moisture at the forested site and the grassland site, respectively. A homogeneous soil setup allowed, after fine tuning of plant morphological parameters, most of the time unbiased predictions of the observed

  6. Operational experience gained from the Central Brae subsea field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapp, S.J.; Gomersall, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    The size of the field discoveries made in the North Sea in recent years has declined dramatically. With the low oil price many small fields are not viable stand alone developments. The North Sea has a large, well developed infrastructure of production facilities and pipelines. With many platforms now operating below optimum production rate, subsea tieback of these small fields utilizing the available processing capacity is the most economically attractive means of development. This paper presents a history of such a field development. The Central Brae field is located within the Brae complex of fields, 155 miles north east of Aberdeen, and has been developed by means of a subsea facility tied back to the Brae Alpha platform. A great deal of experience has been gained through the field development, not only in subsea operations but also in completion and template design and operating philosophy

  7. Plotting to Persuade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri; Schärfe, Henrik; Dinesen, Jens Vilhelm

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a few of the initial reflections related to ongoing research on the notion of Persuasive Learning. In addition the paper briefly comments upon some of the benefits and challenges related to the cross field between persuasive technologies and learning objects, and between...

  8. South American Field Experience: An Initiative in International Education. The Implementation Journal for the South American Field Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William J.

    A description is provided of Williamsport Area Community College's (WACC's) South American Field Experience program, a travel/study program for faculty and staff designed to provide a variety of learning experiences through a three week trip to Peru, Chile, Argentina, and Brazil. Chapter I presents an overview of the development of the project,…

  9. Construction of an experimental plot seeder of wheat planting and compare it by imported one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Eskandari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Researchers frequently include multiple cultivars and fertility levels in field experiments. Therefore, the experiments sowing operation must represent a considerable saving in time and labor, compared to hand sowing. Greater flexibility in experimental design and setup could be achieved by equipment that enables quick changes in the cultivar and fertilizer rates from one plot to the next. A satisfactory seed drill must distribute a given quantity of seed evenly over a predetermined length of coulter row, the coulters must be spaced at exact intervals and depth of sowing must be uniform. In a self-propelled type of plot seeder, no coulter should run in a wheel track as the compaction of the soil can cause observable differences in vigor between plants in such a row and those in un-compacted rows. The machine should sow in succession from a try in which a series of seed pocket separated clearly and must be put into distributer funnel by an assistant operator. The length of gap being varied according to the nature and purpose of the plot. The objectives of this experiment were 1- to design and construct a local self-propelled plot seeder and 2- To compare it with the imported (Wintersteiger plot seeder in cereal breeding programs. Materials and Methods A small-plot seeder was designed and constructed to meet this objective. The unit consists of the following basic components: a toolbar for pulling a set of six blade coulter, an air compressor for lifting and putting down the openers and metering transmission drive wheel, an operators chair and work rack, one belt seed distribution. A cone-celled and rotor seed distributor is used for seed distribution to the openers. The cone system is connected to the gearbox and allows for great flexibility in changing cultivars, crop species, and plot length. This is driven by the separate drive wheel. The cone-celled distributor sows all the seed of the sample in making one complete turn. The

  10. Plotting Confucian and Disability Rights Paradigms on the Advocacy-Activism Continuum: Experiences of Chinese Parents of Children with Dyslexia in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong; McBrayer, Philip Allen

    2014-01-01

    This study represents an initial effort to understand the advocacy journey of Chinese parents of children with dyslexia in Hong Kong. Qualitative methods involving individual and group interviews were used to solicit detailed recount and perceptions of the experiences of 25 parents. Findings revealed a largely sequenced three-stage journey of…

  11. Influencing attitudes toward science through field experiences in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Deborah Mcintyre

    The purpose of this study was to determine how student attitudes toward science are influenced by field experiences in undergraduate biology courses. The study was conducted using two institutions of higher education including a 2-year lower-level and a 2-year upper-level institution. Data were collected through interviews with student participants, focus group discussions, students' journal entries, and field notes recorded by the researcher during the field activities. Photographs and video recordings were also used as documentation sources. Data were collected over a period of 34 weeks. Themes that emerged from the qualitative data included students' beliefs that field experiences (a) positively influence student motivation to learn, (b) increase student ability to learn the concepts being taught, and (c) provide opportunities for building relationships and for personal growth. The findings of the study reinforce the importance of offering field-study programs at the undergraduate level to allow undergraduate students the opportunity to experience science activities in a field setting. The research study was framed by the behavioral and developmental theories of attitude and experience including the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and the Theory of Experiential Learning (Kolb, 1984).

  12. Grimsel Test Site: modelling radionuclide migration field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heer, W.; Hadermann, J.

    1994-09-01

    In the migration field experiments at Nagra's Grimsel Test Site, the processes of nuclide transport through a well defined fractured shear-zone in crystalline rock are being investigated. For these experiments, model calculations have been performed to obtain indications on validity and limitation of the model applied and the data deduced under field conditions. The model consists of a hydrological part, where the dipole flow fields of the experiments are determined, and a nuclide transport part, where the flow field driven nuclide propagation through the shear-zone is calculated. In addition to the description of the model, analytical expressions are given to guide the interpretation of experimental results. From the analysis of experimental breakthrough curves for conservative uranine, weakly sorbing sodium and more stronger sorbing strontium tracers, the following main results can be derived: i) The model is able to represent the breakthrough curves of the migration field experiments to a high degree of accuracy, ii) The process of matrix diffusion is manifest through the tails of the breakthrough curves decreasing with time as t -3/2 and through the special shape of the tail ends, both confirmed by the experiments, iii) For nuclide sorbing rapidly, not too strongly, linearly, and exhibiting a reversible cation exchange process on fault gouge, the laboratory sorption coefficient can reasonably well be extrapolated to field conditions. Adequate care in selecting and preparing the rock samples is, of course, a necessary requirement. Using the parameters determined in the previous analysis, predictions are made for experiments in a smaller an faster flow field. For conservative uranine and weakly sorbing sodium, the agreement of predicted and measured breakthrough curves is good, for the more stronger sorbing strontium reasonable, confirming that the model describes the main nuclide transport processes adequately. (author) figs., tabs., 29 refs

  13. Observed chlorine concentrations during Jack Rabbit I and Lyme Bay field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Steven; Chang, Joseph; Huq, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    As part of planning for a series of field experiments where large quantities (up to 20 tons) of pressurized liquefied chlorine will be released, observations from previous chlorine field experiments are analyzed to estimate the ranges of chlorine concentrations expected at various downwind distances. In five field experiment days during the summer 2010 Jack Rabbit I (JR I) field trials, up to two tons of chlorine were released and concentrations were observed at distances, x, from 25 to 500 m. In the 1927 Lyme Bay (LB) experiments, there were four days of trials, where 3-10 tons of chlorine were released in about 15 min from the back of a ship. Concentrations were sampled at LB from four ships sailing across the cloud path at downwind distances in the range from about 350 to 3000 m. Thus, the distances from which JR I concentrations were available slightly overlapped the LB distances. One-minute arc-maximum chlorine concentrations, C (g/m3), were analyzed from four JR I trials and two LB trials. Normalized concentrations (Cu/Q) were plotted versus x (m), where u (m/s) is measured wind speed at heights of 2-10 m and Q (g/s) is continuous mass release rate. It is found that the JR I and LB Cu/Q observations smoothly merge with each other and fall along a line with approximate slope of -2 at distances beyond about 200 m (i.e., Cu/Q is proportional to x-2). At x < 200 m, where dense gas effects are more important, the slope is less (about -1.5). Most of the data points are within a factor of two of the "best-fit" line.

  14. Generalized Probability-Probability Plots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mushkudiani, N.A.; Einmahl, J.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    We introduce generalized Probability-Probability (P-P) plots in order to study the one-sample goodness-of-fit problem and the two-sample problem, for real valued data.These plots, that are constructed by indexing with the class of closed intervals, globally preserve the properties of classical P-P

  15. Isodose plotting for pen plotters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, I.I.

    1985-01-01

    A general algorithm for treatment plan isodose line plotting is described which is particularly useful for pen plotters. Unlike other methods of plotting isodose lines, this algorithm is designed specifically to reduce pen motion, thereby reducing plotting time and wear on the transport mechanism. Points with the desired dose value are extracted from the dose matrix and stored, sorted into continuous contours, and then plotted. This algorithm has been implemented on DEC PDP-11/60 and VAX-11/780 computers for use with two models of Houston Instrument pen plotters, two models of Tektronix vector graphics terminals, a DEC VT125 raster graphics terminal, and a DEC VS11 color raster graphics terminal. Its execution time is similar to simpler direct-plotting methods

  16. Experiments on plasma turbulence induced by strong, steady electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamberger, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The author discusses the effect of applying a strong electric field to collisionless plasma. In particular are compared what some ideas and prejudices lead one to expect to happen, what computer simulation experiments tell one ought to happen, and what actually does happen in two laboratory experiments which have been designed to allow the relevant instability and turbulent processes to occur unobstructed and which have been studied in sufficient detail. (Auth.)

  17. Severe Weather Field Experience: An Undergraduate Field Course on Career Enhancement and Severe Convective Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Christopher M.; Barrett, Bradford S.; Godfrey, Elaine S.

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate students acquire a deeper understanding of scientific principles through first-hand experience. To enhance the learning environment for atmospheric science majors, the University of North Carolina at Asheville has developed the severe weather field experience. Participants travel to Tornado Alley in the Great Plains to forecast and…

  18. Attention discrimination: theory and field experiments with monitoring information acquisition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoš, Vojtěch; Bauer, M.; Chytilová, J.; Matějka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 6 (2016), s. 1437-1475 ISSN 0002-8282 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-30724S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : inattention * discrimination * field experiment Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.026, year: 2016

  19. Exploring International Multicultural Field Experiences in Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Hilary; Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; An, Heejung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore an online field experience between technology facilitator candidates in the USA and K-12 teachers in Namibia, to improve candidates' understanding of diversity and equity issues in the successful incorporation of information and communication technologies (ICT) in teaching and learning.…

  20. British Isles Field Experience: An Initiative in International Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William J.

    The British Isles Field Experience (BIFE) program was initiated at Williamsport Area Community College (WACC) to provide a group of WACC faculty and staff members with individual and group activities of a personal, professional, and cultural nature in order to promote an international perspective that can be infused into student, collegiate, and…

  1. Overview of quasi single helicity experiments in reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.; Marrelli, L.; Spizzo, G.

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of an experimental and theoretical project dedicated to the study of Quasi Single Helicity Reversed Field Pinch plasmas. The project has involved several RFP devices and numerical codes. It appears that QSH spectra are a feature common to all the experiments. (author)

  2. Psychology as Field Experience: Impact on Attitudes Toward Social Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellman, Lynn A.; And Others

    An innovation in the teaching of undergraduate psychology courses is the implementation of a field experience that gives students the opportunity to apply newly learned skills and knowledge in a community setting. Changes in undergraduates' attitudes toward various delinquency interventions were examined as a result of participation in a…

  3. Dynamic Incentive Effects of Relative Performance Pay: A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert); J.A. Non (Arjan); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe conduct a field experiment among 189 stores of a retail chain to study dynamic incentive effects of relative performance pay. Employees in the randomly selected treatment stores could win a bonus by outperforming three comparable stores from the control group over the course of four

  4. Infusing Outdoor Field Experiences into the Secondary Biology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ginny

    1984-01-01

    To offer students biological field experiences, teachers should use their own basic skills, be enthusiastic motivators, participate in community programs/courses/workshops to acquire additional skills/knowledge for outdoor biological education, plan outdoor excursions with safety considerations in mind, and use available resources for classroom…

  5. Rational Ignorance in Education: A Field Experiment in Student Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Thomas S.; Jacob, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism appears to be a common problem among college students, yet there is little evidence on the effectiveness of interventions designed to minimize plagiarism. This study presents the results of a field experiment that evaluated the effects of a web-based educational tutorial in reducing plagiarism. We found that assignment to the treatment…

  6. Bacterial Transport in Heterogeneous Porous Media: Laboratory and Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, M. E.

    2001-12-01

    A fully instrumented research site for examining field-scale bacterial transport has been established on the eastern shore of Virginia. Studies employing intact sediment cores from the South Oyster site have been performed to examine the effects of physical and chemical heterogeneity, to derive transport parameters, and to aid in the selection of bacterial strains for use in field experiments. A variety of innovative methods for tracking bacteria were developed and evaluated under both laboratory and field conditions, providing the tools to detect target cell concentrations in groundwater down to effects of physical and chemical heterogeneity on field-scale bacterial transport. The results of this research not only contribute to the development of more effective bioremediation strategies, but also have implications for a better understanding of bacterial movement in the subsurface as it relates to public health microbiology and general microbial ecology.

  7. The electromagnetic bio-field: clinical experiments and interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnei, G; Hodorogea, D; Georgescu, I; Gavriliu, Ş; Drăghici, I; Dan, D; Vlad, C; Drăghici, L

    2012-06-12

    One of the most important factors is the technical and scientifically rapid development that is continually modifying the world we live in and polluting it with electromagnetic radiations. A functional and structural influence of magnetic and electromagnetic field on living organisms is presented in the literature by many performed experiments. The notion of bio-field represents the electromagnetic field generated by the bio-structures, not only in their normal physiological activities but also in their pathological states. There is a tight interdependency between the bio-field and the bio-structure, which respects the primary notion of an electromagnetic field given by the Maxwell-Faraday laws, in which, the electromagnetic phenomena are simplified to the field variations. These variations can be expressed in a coherent differential equation system that bounds the field vectors to different space points at different time moments. The living organisms cannot contain electrostatic and magneto-static fields due to the intense activity of the bio-structures. The biochemical reactions that have high rhythms and speeds always impose the electrodynamics character of the biologic field that also corresponds to the stability of the protein molecule that can be explained only through a dynamic way. The existent energy is not considered an exciting agent, and it does not lead to any effects. The parameters of these elementary bio-fields cannot yet be fully known due to technical reasons. The biological structures are very complex ones and undergo continuous dynamical activity. That is why the calculus model should be related to the constant dynamics, nowadays being very difficult to express.

  8. A ``Cyber Wind Facility'' for HPC Wind Turbine Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, James; Paterson, Eric; Schmitz, Sven; Campbell, Robert; Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Lavely, Adam; Jayaraman, Balaji; Nandi, Tarak; Jha, Pankaj; Dunbar, Alex; Motta-Mena, Javier; Craven, Brent; Haupt, Sue

    2013-03-01

    The Penn State ``Cyber Wind Facility'' (CWF) is a high-fidelity multi-scale high performance computing (HPC) environment in which ``cyber field experiments'' are designed and ``cyber data'' collected from wind turbines operating within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) environment. Conceptually the ``facility'' is akin to a high-tech wind tunnel with controlled physical environment, but unlike a wind tunnel it replicates commercial-scale wind turbines operating in the field and forced by true atmospheric turbulence with controlled stability state. The CWF is created from state-of-the-art high-accuracy technology geometry and grid design and numerical methods, and with high-resolution simulation strategies that blend unsteady RANS near the surface with high fidelity large-eddy simulation (LES) in separated boundary layer, blade and rotor wake regions, embedded within high-resolution LES of the ABL. CWF experiments complement physical field facility experiments that can capture wider ranges of meteorological events, but with minimal control over the environment and with very small numbers of sensors at low spatial resolution. I shall report on the first CWF experiments aimed at dynamical interactions between ABL turbulence and space-time wind turbine loadings. Supported by DOE and NSF.

  9. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Slope Stability of Geosynthetic Clay Liner Test Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen full-scale field test plots containing five types of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) were constructed on 2H:IV and 3H:IV slopes for the purpose of assessing slope stability. The test plots were designed to simulate typical final cover systems for landfill. Slides occurr...

  11. Field-scale colloid migration experiments in a granite fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilks, P.; Frost, L.H.; Bachinski, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    An understanding of particle migration in fractured rock, required to assess the potential for colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides, can best be evaluated when the results of laboratory experiments are demonstrated in the field. Field-scale migration experiments with silica colloids were carried out at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL), located in southern Manitoba, to develop the methodology for large-scale migration experiments and to determine whether colloid transport is possible over distances up to 17 m. In addition, these experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of flow rate and flow path geometry, and to determine whether colloid tracers could be used to provide additional information on subsurface transport to that provided by conservative tracers alone. The colloid migration studies were carried out as part of AECL's Transport Properties in Highly Fractured Rock Experiment, the objective of which was to develop and demonstrate methods for evaluating the solute transport characteristics of zones of highly fractured rock. The experiments were carried out within fracture zone 2 as two-well recirculating, two-well non-recirculating, and convergent flow tests, using injection rates of 5 and 101 min -1 . Silica colloids with a 20 nm size were used because they are potentially mobile due to their stability, small size and negative surface charge. The shapes of elution profiles for colloids and conservative tracers were similar, demonstrating that colloids can migrate over distances of 17 m. The local region of drawdown towards the URL shaft affected colloid migration and, to a lesser extent, conservative tracer migration within the flow field established by the two-well tracer tests. These results indicate that stable colloids, with sizes as small as 20 nm, have different migration properties from dissolved conservative tracers. (author)

  12. Biocide leaching during field experiments on treated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoknecht, Ute; Mathies, Helena; Wegner, Robby

    2016-01-01

    Biocidal products can be sources of active substances in surface waters caused by weathering of treated articles. Marketing and use of biocidal products can be limited according to the European Biocidal Products Regulation if unacceptable risks to the environment are expected. Leaching of active substances from treated articles was observed in field experiments to obtain information on leaching processes and investigate the suitability of a proposed test method. Leaching under weathering conditions proceeds discontinuously and tends to decrease with duration of exposure. It does not only mainly depend on the availability of water but is also controlled by transport processes within the materials and stability of the observed substances. Runoff amount proved to be a suitable basis to compare results from different experiments. Concentrations of substances are higher in runoff collected from vertical surfaces compared to horizontal ones, whereas the leached amounts per surface area are higher from horizontal surfaces. Gaps in mass balances indicate that additional processes such as degradation and evaporation may be relevant to the fate of active substances in treated articles. Leached amounts of substances were considerably higher when the materials were exposed to intermittent water contact under laboratory conditions as compared to weathering of vertically exposed surfaces. Experiences from the field experiments were used to define parameters of a procedure that is now provided to fulfil the requirements of the Biocidal Products Regulation. The experiments confirmed that the amount of water which is in contact with exposed surfaces is the crucial parameter determining leaching of substances.

  13. From Perceptual Apparatus to Immersive Field of Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    Peter Sloterdijk ascribes to architecture the “the design of immersions” and hence the “production of embedding situations” or atmosphere (2011 (2006): 108-109), which as devised by Gernot Böhme becomes a fundamental concept of a new aesthetics (1993). Atmosphere implies affective immersion...... the immersive experiences relocate the vision within a “carnal density” (1992: 150), regaining all sensory modalities. Diverse perceptual apparatuses also defined a larger disciplinary expansion in the field of architecture and design. Conceived as sensorial activators, intensifiers of phenomena......, constitute a framework for a re-invention of perceptual worlds, providing a basis for tracing the conceptual contours of atmospheric perception, as well as for discerning the means of the production of space understood as an immersive field of experience. References: Böhme, G. (1993). "Atmosphere...

  14. Tuning the Mass of Chameleon Fields in Casimir Force Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Ph; Davis, A C; Shaw, D J; Iannuzzi, D

    2010-01-01

    We have calculated the chameleon pressure between two parallel plates in the presence of an intervening medium that affects the mass of the chameleon field. As intuitively expected, the gas in the gap weakens the chameleon interaction mechanism with a screening effect that increases with the plate separation and with the density of the intervening medium. This phenomenon might open up new directions in the search of chameleon particles with future long range Casimir force experiments.

  15. Targets with thin ferromagnetic layers for transient field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallant, J.L.; Dmytrenko, P.

    1982-01-01

    Multilayer targets containing a central layer sufficiently thin so that all recoil nuclei can traverse it and subsequently stop in a suitable cubic environment have been prepared. Such targets are required in experiments making use of a magnetic field acting on an ion moving through a ferromagnetic material. The preparation and annealing of the ferromagnetic foils (iron and gadolinium) and the fabrication of the multilayer targets are described. (orig.)

  16. Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    V?lez, Mar?a Alejandra; Trujillo, Carlos Andres; Moros, Lina; Forero, Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism posi...

  17. OVERCONFIDENCE, OMENS AND EMOTIONS: RESULTS FROM A FIELD EXPERIMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Maria De Paola; Francesca Gioia; Vincenzo Scoppa

    2013-01-01

    We analyze how overconfidence is affected by superstitious beliefs and emotions induced by positive and negative stimuli in a field experiment involving about 700 Italian students who were randomly assigned to numbered seats in their written examination sessions. According to widespread superstitions, some numbers are considered lucky, while others are considered unlucky. At the end of the examination, we asked students the grade they expected to get. We find that students tend to be systemat...

  18. Selection of Plot Remeasurement in an Annual Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark H. Hansen; Hans T. Schreuder; Dave Heinzen

    2000-01-01

    A plot selection approach is proposed based on experience from the Annual Forest Inventory System (AFIS) in the Aspen-Birch Unit of northestern Minnesota. The emphasisis on a mixture of strategies. Although the Agricultural Act of 1998 requires that a fixed 20 percent of plots be measured each year in each state, sooner or later we will need to vary the scheme to...

  19. DELIVERABLE 2.1.1 POROSITY/PERMEABILITY CROSS-PLOTS: CHEROKEE AND BUG FIELDS, SAN JUAN COUNTY, UTAH, AND LITTLE UTE AND SLEEPING UTE FIELDS, MONTEZUMA COUNTY, COLORADO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laura L.

    2003-01-01

    Over 400 million barrels (64 million m 3 ) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m 3 ) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field. However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m 3 ) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado

  20. An Integral, Multidisciplinary and Global Geophysical Field Experience for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, O.; Carrillo, D. J.; Pérez-Campos, X.

    2007-05-01

    The udergraduate program of Geophysical Engineering at the School of Engineering, of the Univesidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), went through an update process that concluded in 2006. As part of the program, the student takes three geophysical prospecting courses (gravity and magnetics, electric, electromagnetics, and seismic methods). The older program required a three-week field experience for each course in order to gradute. The new program considers only one extended field experience. This work stresses the importance of international academic exchange, where undergraduate students could participate, such as the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE), and interaction with research programs, such as the MesoAmerican Subduction Experiment (MASE). Also, we propose a scheeme for this activity based on those examples; both of them have in common real geophysical problems, from which students could benefit. Our proposal covers academic and logistic aspects to be taken into account, enhancing the relevance of interaction between other academic institutions, industry, and UNAM, in order to obtain a broader view of geophysics.

  1. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-18

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  2. Effect of fertilization on soil phosphorus in a long-term field experiment in southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. JAAKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was established in 1978 on a loam soil (pH in CaCl 2 7.1 to monitor gradual changes in the soil P status as response to different P fertilization regimes. For 18 years, cereals or grass were cultivated without P fertilization (P 0 or with annual P application of 35 kg ha -1 (P 1 or 70- 79 kg P ha -1 and 71-83 kg K ha -1 (P 2 K. The effects of the treatments on the crop yield varied yearly. The Chang and Jackson fractionation analysis revealed that fertilizer P not taken up by the plant crops was mostly in the NH 4 F extract and to a lesser extent in the NaOH extract. The NH 4 F-extractable P proved also to be the main P source for plants. However, the changes in the reserves of inorganic and organic P did not agree very well with the calculated P balance in soil (applied P minus plant P uptake. This disproportion was partly explained by the soil movement from plots to the neighbouring ones during the experiment. Phosphorus extractable in acid ammonium acetate or water decreased gradually when no P was applied and increased with increasing P accumulation. The changes in the inorganic P reserves due to different P fertilization history were reflected a little more sensitively in the water extraction test than in the acid acetate test.;

  3. Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....

  4. Crown condition assessment at the CONECOFOR Permanent Monitoring Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo NIBBI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed crown condition assessment is currently being carried out at the CONECOFOR (CONtrollo ECOsistemi FORestali, Control of Forest Ecosystems plots. The assessment began in 1996, and during the first two years (1996 and 1997 an assessment form based on previous regional experience was used; in 1998 the new official EU form was adopted. The resulting loss of comparability means that only a few indices can be used in the temporal series 1996-1999. Much effort was devoted to Quality Assurance (QA procedures. The QA program is structured as follows: (i specific field manuals have been adopted and are continuously updated; (ii a national training and intercalibration course (NT&IC is undertaken yearly before beginning the assessment campaign;( iii field checks are carried out yearly on a large number of plots. The results of the QA program have shown that for several indices the quality objectives were not reached, but the quality of the data is improving with time. To express the change in crown conditions in each area, a complex index (CCI = Crown Condition Index was adopted. This index is the result of the sum of the relativized values of all the common indices used during the four years. The following parameters were used: transparency, ramification type, leaf colour alteration extension, leaf damage extension, alteration of leaf distension extension. The range within which the CCI fluctuates was evaluated taking into account all the observations carried out at a given plot throughout the years. The number of cases over a given threshold (outliers was calculated for each year. The threshold for outliers was calculated as the median value plus 2 times the range of the interquartile value. All individual cases exceeding this value are considered outliers. The results are presented for all the areas in which the data set is complete for the four years. The yearly fluctuations are discussed and related to possible causes.

  5. Field experiment on multicomponent ion exchange in a sandy aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerg, P.L.; Christensen, T.H.

    1990-01-01

    A field experiment is performed in a sandy aquifer in order to study ion exchange processes and multicomponent solute transport modeling. An injection of groundwater spiked with sodium and potassium chloride was performed over a continuous period of 37 days. The plume is monitored by sampling 350 filters in a spatial grid. The sampling aims at establishing compound (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride) breakthrough curves at various filters 15 to 100 m from the point of injection and areal distribution maps at various cross sections from 0 to 200 m from the point of injection. A three-dimensional multicomponent solute transport model will be used to model the field experiments. The chemical model includes cation exchange, precipitation, dissolution, complexation, ionic strength and the carbonate system. Preliminary results from plume monitoring show that the plume migration is relatively well controlled considering the scale and conditions of the experiment. The transverse dispersion is small causing less dilution than expected. The ion exchange processes have an important influence on the plume composition. Retardation of the injected ions is substantial, especially for potassium. Calcium exhibits a substantial peak following chloride due to release from the ion exchange sites on the sediment. (Author) (8 refs., 5 figs., tab.)

  6. Plotting and Analyzing Data Trends in Ternary Diagrams Made Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Cédric M.

    2004-04-01

    Ternary plots are used in many fields of science to characterize a system based on three components. Triangular plotting is thus useful to a broad audience in the Earth sciences and beyond. Unfortunately, it is typically the most expensive commercial software packages that offer the option to plot data in ternary diagrams, and they lack features that are paramount to the geosciences, such as the ability to plot data directly into a standardized diagram and the possibility to analyze temporal and stratigraphic trends within this diagram. To address these issues, δPlot was developed with a strong emphasis on ease of use, community orientation, and availability free of charges. This ``freeware'' supports a fully graphical user interface where data can be imported as text files, or by copying and pasting. A plot is automatically generated, and any standard diagram can be selected for plotting in the background using a simple pull-down menu. Standard diagrams are stored in an external database of PDF files that currently holds some 30 diagrams that deal with different fields of the Earth sciences. Using any drawing software supporting PDF, one can easily produce new standard diagrams to be used with δPlot by simply adding them to the library folder. An independent column of values, commonly stratigraphic depths or ages, can be used to sort the data sets.

  7. Hypothetical Outcome Plots Outperform Error Bars and Violin Plots for Inferences about Reliability of Variable Ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Resnick, Paul; Adar, Eytan

    2015-01-01

    Many visual depictions of probability distributions, such as error bars, are difficult for users to accurately interpret. We present and study an alternative representation, Hypothetical Outcome Plots (HOPs), that animates a finite set of individual draws. In contrast to the statistical background required to interpret many static representations of distributions, HOPs require relatively little background knowledge to interpret. Instead, HOPs enables viewers to infer properties of the distribution using mental processes like counting and integration. We conducted an experiment comparing HOPs to error bars and violin plots. With HOPs, people made much more accurate judgments about plots of two and three quantities. Accuracy was similar with all three representations for most questions about distributions of a single quantity.

  8. Hypothetical Outcome Plots Outperform Error Bars and Violin Plots for Inferences about Reliability of Variable Ordering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hullman

    Full Text Available Many visual depictions of probability distributions, such as error bars, are difficult for users to accurately interpret. We present and study an alternative representation, Hypothetical Outcome Plots (HOPs, that animates a finite set of individual draws. In contrast to the statistical background required to interpret many static representations of distributions, HOPs require relatively little background knowledge to interpret. Instead, HOPs enables viewers to infer properties of the distribution using mental processes like counting and integration. We conducted an experiment comparing HOPs to error bars and violin plots. With HOPs, people made much more accurate judgments about plots of two and three quantities. Accuracy was similar with all three representations for most questions about distributions of a single quantity.

  9. Magnetic Field Design for the LANL nEDM Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadisman, Ryan

    2017-09-01

    A recent UCN source upgrade at LANSCE makes possible an order of magnitude advancement in the measurement of the neutron electric dipole moment by use of the familiar Ramsey method of separated oscillatory fields. A highly uniform B0 magnetic field is required to achieve sufficiently long spin-relaxation times and to suppress the false EDM caused by the geometric phase effect. We identified a multi-gap solenoid as an ideal candidate to simultaneously achieve the uniformity requirements, via optimization of the gap lengths between and current within different sections, and provide plentiful access to the fiducial region. Results from initial tests of the coil when installed in the magnetic shield house enclosing the experiment will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Award Number DE-SC-0014622.

  10. Brine Migration in Heated Salt: Lessons Learned from Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Matteo, E. N.; Mills, M.

    2017-12-01

    We summarize several interesting brine migration related phenomena hinted at in field experiments from field testing related to salt radioactive waste repositories in Germany and the US. Past heater tests in salt have shown 1) thermal-hydrological-mechanical coupling is quite strong during both heating and cooling; 2) chemical composition of brine evolves during heating, and comprises a mix of several water sources; and 3) acid gas (HCl) generation has been observed during past heater tests and may have multiple mechanisms for formation. We present a heated brine migration test design, formulated with these complexities in mind. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  11. Incineration in the nuclear field. The SGN experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.

    1993-01-01

    The operation of power reactors, like that of fuel fabrication and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, generated substantial quantities of waste. A large share of this waste is low- and medium-level waste, which is also combustible. Similarly, a number of institutes, laboratories, and hospitals, in the course of their activities, generated waste which a portion is radioactive and combustible. The chief advantage of incineration is to minimize the volume of burnable waste treated, and to produce a residue termed 'ash'. SGN has built up 25 years of experience in this field. The incinerators have been designed and the incineration processes are specially studied by SGN

  12. French developments and experience in the field of inservice inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saglio, Robert; Destribats, M.-T.; Pigeon, Michel; Roule, Maurice; Touffait, A.-M.

    1979-01-01

    The French PWR nuclear plant program was at the origin of a large amount of R and D work in the field of inservice inspection. The actions which were undertaken may be split up into different levels: - the regulatory level, the R and D level, the design level, the flaw evaluation level. The first results of pre and inservice inspections are presented. The experience gained by French Atomic Energy Commission with new techniques like focussed ultrasonics transducers and multi frequencies Eddy current apparatus are discussed

  13. EFEDA - European field experiment in a desertification-threatened area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, H.-J.; Andre, J.-C.; Arrue, J. L.; Barth, H. K.; Bessemoulin, P.; Brasa, A.; De Bruin, H. A. R.; Cruces, J.; Dugdale, G.; Engman, E. T.

    1993-01-01

    During June 1991 more than 30 scientific teams worked in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain, studying the energy and water transfer processes between soil, vegetation, and the atmosphere in semiarid conditions within the coordinated European research project EFEDA (European Field Experiment in Desertification-threatened Areas). Measurements were made from the microscale (e.g., measurements on single plants) up to a scale compatible with the grid size of global models. For this purpose three sites were selected 70 km apart and heavily instrumented at a scale in the order of 30 sq km. Aircraft missions, satellite data, and movable equipment were deployed to provide a bridge to the larger scale. This paper gives a description of the experimental design along with some of the preliminary results of this successful experiment.

  14. User experiences with editorial control in online newspaper comment fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvlie, Anders Sundnes; Ihlebæk, Karoline Andrea; Larsson, Anders Olof

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates user experiences with editorial control in online newspaper comment fields following the public backlash against online comments after the 2011 terror attacks in Norway. We analyze data from a survey of online news consumers focusing on experiences and attitudes towards...... editorial control set against a spectrum between “interventionist” and “noninterventionist” positions. Results indicate that interventionist respondents rate the quality of online comments as poor, whereas noninterventionist respondents have most often experienced being the target of editorial control...... measures and feel that editorial control has intensified after the terror attacks. We conclude that newspapers should pay attention to the different needs of participants when devising strategies for editorial control. Media professionals should also consider changes to increase the transparency...

  15. A field experiment on power line stabilization by SMES system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, F.; Takeo, M.; Sato, S.; Katahira, O.; Fukui, F.; Takamatsu, M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper field experiments on stabilization of a hydro power plant by a SMES system are reported, where a generator having a rating of 60 kW at 3.3kV is connected to a 6.6kV power distribution line. The SMES system is composed of two 30kVA GTO convertors and a superconducting magnet system with an energy of 30kJ at 100A. Experiments of stabilization for the generator fluctuation caused by a sudden insertion of inductors in the line are successfully performed for some control modes. The value of the SMES system to compensate for a short period voltage dip is also confirmed

  16. On Storks and Babies: Correlation, Causality and Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambrecht Anja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The explosion of available data has created much excitement among marketing practitioners about their ability to better understand the impact of marketing investments. Big data allows for detecting patterns and often it seems plausible to interpret them as causal. While it is quite obvious that storks do not bring babies, marketing relationships are usually less clear. Apparent “causalities” often fail to hold up under examination. If marketers want to be sure not to walk into a causality trap, they need to conduct field experiments to detect true causal relationships. In the present digital environment, experiments are easier than ever to execute. However, they need to be prepared and interpreted with great care in order to deliver meaningful and genuinely causal results that help improve marketing decisions.

  17. Alkali Rydberg states in electromagnetic fields: computational physics meets experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, A.

    2001-11-01

    We study highly excited hydrogen and alkali atoms ('Rydberg states') under the influence of a strong microwave field. As the external frequency is comparable to the highly excited electron's classical Kepler frequency, the external field induces a strong coupling of many different quantum mechanical energy levels and finally leads to the ionization of the outer electron. While periodically driven atomic hydrogen can be seen as a paradigm of quantum chaotic motion in an open (decaying) quantum system, the presence of the non-hydrogenic atomic core - which unavoidably has to be treated quantum mechanically - entails some complications. Indeed, laboratory experiments show clear differences in the ionization dynamics of microwave driven hydrogen and non-hydrogenic Rydberg states. In the first part of this thesis, a machinery is developed that allows for numerical experiments on alkali and hydrogen atoms under precisely identical laboratory conditions. Due to the high density of states in the parameter regime typically explored in laboratory experiments, such simulations are only possible with the most advanced parallel computing facilities, in combination with an efficient parallel implementation of the numerical approach. The second part of the thesis is devoted to the results of the numerical experiment. We identify and describe significant differences and surprising similarities in the ionization dynamics of atomic hydrogen as compared to alkali atoms, and give account of the relevant frequency scales that distinguish hydrogenic from non-hydrogenic ionization behavior. Our results necessitate a reinterpretation of the experimental results so far available, and solve the puzzle of a distinct ionization behavior of periodically driven hydrogen and non-hydrogenic Rydberg atoms - an unresolved question for about one decade. Finally, microwave-driven Rydberg states will be considered as prototypes of open, complex quantum systems that exhibit a complicated temporal decay

  18. Radio frequency wave experiments on the MST reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, C.B.; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Nornberg, M.D.; Prager, S.C.; Thomas, M.A.; Harvey, R.W.; Ram, A.K.

    1999-04-01

    Experiments, simulations, and theory all indicate that the magnetic fluctuations responsible for the poor confinement in the reversed field pinch (RFP) can be controlled by altering the radial profile of the current density. The magnetic fluctuations in the RFP are due to resistive MHD instabilities caused by current profile peaking; thus confinement in the RFP is ultimately the result of a misalignment between inductively driven current profiles and the stable current profiles characteristic of the Taylor state. If a technique such as rf current drive can be developed to non-inductively sustain a Taylor state (a current profile linearly stable to all tearing modes), the confinement of the RFP and its potential as a reactor concept are likely to increase. Whether there is a self-consistent path from poor confinement to greatly improved confinement through current profile modification is an issue for future experiments to address if and only if near term experiments can demonstrate: (1) coupling to and the propagation of rf waves in RFP plasmas, (2) efficient current drive, and (3) control of the power deposition which will make it possible to control the current profile. In this paper, modeling results and experimental plans are presented for two rf experiments which have the potential of satisfying these three goals: high-n parallel lower hybrid (LH) waves and electron Bernstein waves (EBWs)

  19. Calibration of a turbidity meter for making estimates of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    Management of water resources such as a reservoir requires using analytical models which describe such parameters as the suspended sediment field. To select or develop an appropriate model requires making many measurements to describe the distribution of this parameter in the water column. One potential method for making those measurements expeditiously is to measure light transmission or turbidity and relate that parameter to total suspended solids concentrations. An instrument which may be used for this purpose was calibrated by generating curves of transmission measurements plotted against measured values of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients. Results of these experiments indicate that field measurements made with this instrument using curves generated in this study should correlate with total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in the water column within 20 percent.

  20. Identifying Discrimination at Work: The Use of Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pager, Devah; Western, Bruce

    2012-06-01

    Antidiscrimination law offers protection to workers who have been treated unfairly on the basis of their race, gender, religion, or national origin. In order for these protections to be invoked, however, potential plaintiffs must be aware of and able to document discriminatory treatment. Given the subtlety of contemporary forms of discrimination, it is often difficult to identify discrimination when it has taken place. The methodology of field experiments offers one approach to measuring and detecting hiring discrimination, providing direct observation of discrimination in real-world settings. In this article, we discuss the findings of two recent field experiments measuring racial discrimination in low wage labor markets. This research provides several relevant findings for researchers and those interested in civil rights enforcement: (1) it produces estimates of the rate of discrimination at the point of hire; (2) it yields evidence about the interactions associated with discrimination (many of which reveal the subtlety with which contemporary discrimination is practiced); and (3) it provides a vehicle for both research on and enforcement of antidiscrimination law.

  1. Crystal field parameters in UCl4: Experiment versus theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolnierek, Z.; Gajek, Z.; Khan Malek, C.

    1984-01-01

    Crystal field effect on U 4+ ion with the 3 H 4 ground term in tetragonal ligand field of UCl 4 has been studied in detail. Crystal field parameters determined experimentally from optical spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility are in good agreement with CEP sets derived from the modified point charge model and the ab initio method. Theoretical calculations lead to overestimating the A 4 4 4 > and lowering the A 2 0 2 > values in comparison to those found in the experiments. The discrepancies are, however, within an accuracy of calculations. A large reduction of expectation values of the magnetic moment operator for the eigenvectors of lowest CF levels (17.8%), determined from magnetic susceptibility, cannot be attributed to the overlap and covalency effects only. The detailed calculations have shown that the latter effects provide about 4.6% reduction of respective matrix elements, and the applied J-J mixing procedure increases this factor up to 6.5%. Since similar, as in UCl 4 , reduction factor (proportional15%) has already been observed in a number of different uranium compounds, it seems to be likely that this feature is involved in the intrinsic properties of the U 4+ ion. We endeavor to explain this effect in terms of configuration interaction mechanisms. (orig.)

  2. Crystal field parameters in UCI 4: Experiment versus theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnierek, Z.; Gajek, Z.; Malek, Ch. Khan

    1984-08-01

    Crystal field effect on U 4+ ion with the 3H 4 ground term in tetragonal ligand field of UCl 4 has been studied in detail. Crystal field parameters determined experimentally from optical spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility are in good agreement with CFP sets derived from the modified point charge model and the ab initio method. Theoretical calculations lead to overestimating the A44 and lowering the A02 values in comparison to those found in the experiments. The discrepancies are, however, within an accuracy of calculations. A large reduction of expectation values of the magnetic moment operator for the eigenvectors of lowest CF levels (17.8%), determined from magnetic susceptibility, cannot be attributed to the overlap and covalency effects only. The detailed calculations have shown that the latter effects provide about 4.6% reduction of respective matrix elements, and the applied J-J mixing procedure increases this factor up to 6.5%. Since similar, as in UCl 4, reduction factor(≈15%) has already been observed in a number of different uranium compounds, it seems likely that this feature is involved in the intrinsic properties of the U 4+ ion. We endeavor to explain this effect in terms of configuration interaction mechanisms.

  3. Field experiment with liquid manure and enhanced biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Gerald

    2017-04-01

    Field experiments with low amounts of various liquid manure enhanced biochars. In 2016 a new machine was developed to inject liquid biochar based fertilizer directly into the crop root zone. A large-scale field experiment with corn and oil seed pumpkin was set-up on 42 hectares on 15 different fields in the south East of Austria. Three treatments were compared: (1) surface spreading of liquid manure as control (common practice), (2) 20 cm deep root zone injection with same amount of liquid manure, and (3) 20 cm deep root zone injection with same amount of liquid manure mixed with 1 to 2 tons of various nutrient enhanced biochars. The biochar were quenched with the liquid phase from a separated digestate from a biogas plant (feedstock: cow manure). From May to October nitrate and ammonium content was analyzed monthly from 0-30cm and 30-60cm soil horizons. At the end of the growing season the yield was determined. The root zone injection of the liquid manure reduced the nitrate content during the first two months at 13-16% compared to the control. When the liquid manure was blended with biochar, Nitrate soil content was lowest (reduction 40-47%). On average the root zone injection of manure-biochar increased the yield by 7% compared to the surface applied control and 3% compared to the root zone injected manure without biochar. The results shows, that biochar is able to reduce the Nitrate load in soils and increase the yield of corn at the same time. The nutrient efficiency of organic liquid fertilizers can be increased.

  4. Multi-Disciplinary Research Experiences Integrated with Industry –Field Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lunsford

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this environmentally inquiry-based lab was to allow the students to engage into real-world concepts that integrate industry setting (Ohio Aggregate Industrial Mineral Association with the academia setting. Our students are engaged into a field trip where mining occurs to start the problem based learning of how the heavy metals leak in the mining process. These heavy metals such as lead and indium in the groundwater are a serious concern for the environment (Environmental Protection Agency from the mining process. The field experiences at the mining process assist in building our students interest in developing sensors to detect heavy metals of concern such as lead and indium simultaneously by a unique electrochemistry technique called Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (SWASV. The field experience assists building the students interest in real –world application and what qualities do they want the electrochemical sensor to possess to be successful for real world usage. During the field trip the students are engaged into learning novel instrumentation such as an SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope to study the working electrode sensor developed to understand the sensor surface morphology properties better as well. The integration of industry setting with academia has been a positive experience for our students that has allowed their understanding of real-world science research needs to succeed in an industrial setting of research.

  5. The Use of Plackett-Burman Designs to Construct Split Plot Designs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulahci, M.; Bisgaard, S.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract When some factors are hard to change and others are relatively easier, split-plot experiments are often an economic alternative to fully randomized designs. Split-plot experiments, with their structure of subplot arrays imbedded within whole-plot arrays, have a tendency to become large,

  6. Field Experiments on SAR Detection of Film Slicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, S.; da Silva, J. C. B.; Kapustin, I.; Sergievskaya, I.

    2013-03-01

    Field experiments on radar detection of film slicks using satellite synthetic aperture radar TerraSAR-X and X-band scatterometer on board a research vessel are described. The experiments were carried out with surfactant films with known physical parameters, the surface tension and the film elasticity, at low to moderate wind conditions and at different radar incidence angles. It is shown that the depression of radar backscatter (contrast) in films slicks for X-band SAR weakly depends on wind velocity/direction, film elasticity and incidence angles within the range of 200-400. Scatterometer contrasts obtained at incidence angles of about 600 are larger than SAR contrasts. Theoretical analysis of radar contrasts for low-to-moderate incidence angles has been carried out based on a hydrodynamic model of wind wave damping due to films and on a composite radar imaging model. The hydrodynamic model takes into account wave damping due to viscoelastic films, wind wave generation and a phenomenological term describing nonlinear limitation of the wind wave spectrum. The radar model takes into account Bragg scattering and specular scattering mechanisms, the latter is usually negligible compared to the Bragg mechanism at moderate incidence angles (larger than 30-35 degrees), but gives noticeable contribution to radar backscattering at smaller incidence angles particularly for slick areas when cm-scale ripples are strongly depressed by films. Calculated radar contrasts in slicks are compared with experiments and it is concluded that development of the model is needed to predict quantitatively observations.

  7. Data management for interdisciplinary field experiments: OTTER project support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelici, Gary; Popovici, Lidia; Skiles, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of investigators of an interdisciplinary science project to properly manage the data that are collected during the experiment is critical to the effective conduct of science. When the project becomes large, possibly including several scenes of large-format remotely sensed imagery shared by many investigators requiring several services, the data management effort can involve extensive staff and computerized data inventories. The OTTER (Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research) project was supported by the PLDS (Pilot Land Data System) with several data management services, such as data inventory, certification, and publication. After a brief description of these services, experiences in providing them are compared with earlier data management efforts and some conclusions regarding data management in support of interdisciplinary science are discussed. In addition to providing these services, a major goal of this data management capability was to adopt characteristics of a pro-active attitude, such as flexibility and responsiveness, believed to be crucial for the effective conduct of active, interdisciplinary science. These are also itemized and compared with previous data management support activities. Identifying and improving these services and characteristics can lead to the design and implementation of optimal data management support capabilities, which can result in higher quality science and data products from future interdisciplinary field experiments.

  8. Toroidal magnetic field system for a 2-MA reversed-field pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melton, J.G.; Linton, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    The engineering design of the toroidal magnetic field (TF) system for a 2-MA Reversed-Field Pinch experiment (ZT-H) is described. ZT-H is designed with major radius 2.15 meters, minor radius 0.40 meters, and a peak toroidal magnetic field of 0.85 Tesla. The requirement for highly uniform fields, with spatial ripple <0.2% leads to a design with 72 equally spaced circular TF coils, located at minor radius 0.6 meters, carrying a maximum current of 9.0 MA. The coils are driven by a 12-MJ capacitor bank which is allowed to ring in order to aid the reversal of magnetic field. A stress analysis is presented, based upon calculated hoop tension, centering force, and overturning moment, treating these as a combination of static loads and considering that the periodic nature of the loading causes little amplification. The load transfer of forces and moments is considered as a stress distribution resisted by the coils, support structures, wedges, and the structural shell

  9. Fate of diuron and linuron in a field lysimeter experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzella, L; Capri, E; Di Corcia, A; Barra Caracciolo, A; Giuliano, G

    2006-01-01

    The environmental fate of herbicides can be studied at different levels: in the lab with disturbed or undisturbed soil columns or in the field with suction cup lysimeters or soil enclosure lysimeters. A field lysimeter experiment with 10 soil enclosures was performed to evaluate the mass balance in different environmental compartments of the phenylurea herbicides diuron [3-(3,4-diclorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl-urea] and linuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea]. After application on the agricultural soil, the herbicides were searched for in soil, pore water, and air samples. Soil and water samples were collected at different depths of the soil profile and analyzed to determine residual concentrations of both the parent compounds and of their main transformation products, to verify their persistence and their leaching capacity. Air volatilization was calculated using the theoretical profile shape method. The herbicides were detected only in the surface layer (0-10 cm) of soil. In this layer, diuron was reduced to 50% of its initial concentration at the end of the experiment, while linuron was still 70% present after 245 d. The main metabolites detected were DCPMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methylurea] and DCA (3,4-dichloroaniline). In soil pore water, diuron and linuron were detected at depths of 20 and 40 cm, although in very low concentrations. Therefore the leaching of these herbicides was quite low in this experiment. Moreover, volatilization losses were inconsequential. The calculated total mass balance showed a high persistence of linuron and diuron in the soil, a low mobility in soil pore water (less than 0.5% in leachate water), and a negligible volatilization effect. The application of the Pesticide Leaching Model (PELMO) showed similar low mobility of the chemicals in soil and water, but overestimated their volatilization and their degradation to the metabolite DCPMU. In conclusion, the use of soil enclosure lysimeters proved to be a good

  10. MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Lund, Ole

    1999-01-01

    MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints. Sub-title Abstract Summary : MatrixPlot is a program for making high-quality matrix plots, such as mutual information plots of sequence alignments and distance matrices of sequences with known three-dimensional coordinates. The user can add information...

  11. Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, María Alejandra; Trujillo, Carlos Andres; Moros, Lina; Forero, Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism positively. In Study 2, carried out three years after Study 1, we repeated the initial design with additional measures of victimization. Our goal was to relate subjective insecurity with actual victimization. The findings of Study 2 support the initial results, and are robust and consistent for cooperative behavior and trust when including victimization as a mediator. Different indicators of victimization are positively correlated with subjective insecurity and an aggregate index of victimization has a negative effect on cooperation but exerts a positive influence on trust. PMID:27472437

  12. Field experience with KWU SG chemical cleaning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odar, S.

    1989-01-01

    The ingress of corrosion products into PWR steam generators (SG's) their deposition and the subsequent concentration of salt impurities can induce a variety of mechanisms for corrosion attack on SG tubing. Already, some plants have had to replace their steam generators due to severe corrosion damage and others are seriously considering the same costly action in the near future. One of the most effective ways to counteract corrosion mechanisms and thus to reduce the likelihood of SG replacement becoming necessary is to clean the SG's and to keep them clean. For many years, the industry has been involved in developing different types of cleaning techniques. Among these, chemical cleaning has been shown to be especially effective. In this article, the KWU chemical cleaning process, for which there is considerable application experience, is described. The results of field applications will be presented together with material compatibility data and information on cleaning effectiveness. (author)

  13. Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Vélez

    Full Text Available Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism positively. In Study 2, carried out three years after Study 1, we repeated the initial design with additional measures of victimization. Our goal was to relate subjective insecurity with actual victimization. The findings of Study 2 support the initial results, and are robust and consistent for cooperative behavior and trust when including victimization as a mediator. Different indicators of victimization are positively correlated with subjective insecurity and an aggregate index of victimization has a negative effect on cooperation but exerts a positive influence on trust.

  14. Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, María Alejandra; Trujillo, Carlos Andres; Moros, Lina; Forero, Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism positively. In Study 2, carried out three years after Study 1, we repeated the initial design with additional measures of victimization. Our goal was to relate subjective insecurity with actual victimization. The findings of Study 2 support the initial results, and are robust and consistent for cooperative behavior and trust when including victimization as a mediator. Different indicators of victimization are positively correlated with subjective insecurity and an aggregate index of victimization has a negative effect on cooperation but exerts a positive influence on trust.

  15. Anomalous cross-field velocities in a CIV laboratory experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axnaes, I.

    1988-10-01

    The axial and radial ion velocities and the electron radial velocity are determined in coaxial plasma gun operated under critical velocity conditions. The particle celocities are determined from probe measurement together with He I 3889 AA absolute intensity measurements and the consideration of the total momentum balance of the current sheet. The ions are found move axially and the electrons radially much faster than predicted by the E/B drift in the macroscopic fields. These results agree with what can be expected from the instability processes, which has earlier been proposed to operate in these experiments. It is therefore a direct experimental demonstration that instability processes have to be invoked not only for the electron heating, but also to explain the macroscopic velocities and currents. (author)

  16. Experiments on a Toroidal Screw Pinch with Various Field Programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicker, H.; Wilhelm, R.; Krause, H. [Max-Planck-Institut Fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Garching, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1971-10-15

    In the toroidal screw pinch ISAR-IV (large diameter 60 cm, aspect ratio 5, maximum storage, energy 140 kj) attempts were made to get an improved stability of the plasma by different kinds of field programming. The best results were obtained with positive trapped B{sub z}-fields and simultaneous switching of main B{sub z}-field and I{sub z}-current. In this case the dense plasma column (n{sub e} Almost-Equal-To 2-3 x 10{sup 16} , kT Almost-Equal-To 50-100 eV, {beta} Almost-Equal-To 15-20%) is surrounded by a force-free plasma ({beta} = 1%) with weak shear and it behaves stably for, at least, 25 {mu}s. The resulting containment time nr of near 10{sup 12} s cm{sup -3} remains a factor of 2-3 below the upper limit given by the classical diffusion. The following loss of the equilibrium position near the coil axis ({Delta} Almost-Equal-To 1-2 cm) is connected to a strong damping of the axial plasma current which starts near the end of the containment. It may be assumed that the increase of the effective plasma resistance mainly results from a contact of the force-free regions with the tube wall. Attempts were made to improve the containment by suitable programming of a plasma z-current. The results are presented. Experiments with one quartz limiter inside the torus improved the equilibrium but introduced instabilities at the new surface of the dilute plasma. To obtain more information about the outer region, the dilute plasma was produced without a dense core and separated from the tube walls by weak adiabatic compression. Under these Tokamak-like conditions the q-value was varied. In the region of q Almost-Equal-To 1 there appeared instabilities which seem to haver higher m-modes and rather short wavelengths. In a different kind of field programming the field distribution of the ''diffuse pinch'' was realized within an accuracy of 5-10% (kT Almost-Equal-To 100 eV, {beta} Almost-Equal-To 30%). In contrast to the predictions of MHD-theory, stability was observed only for

  17. Contributions of meaningful experiences gatherings to artistic education field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Bustamante Cardona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows a theoretical approach to and a description of some contributions of a work of transformation of educational and sociocultural reality carried out by a group of people and institutions, among which are San Buenaventura University, Antioquia Museum, Ediarte Inc. and Antioquia University. Such intervention aims at contributing to the improvement of Artistic Education quality in Antioquia and the nation. In order to understand the significance of these Gatherings, a short historical framework is explained in which global and regional processes of academic activities having an impact on the structure of the Artistic Education field are pointed out. Likewise, some perspectives in the definition of artistic education are tackled and then a definition of Pierre Bourdieu´s concept of fieldis presented. Therefore, Meaningful Experiences Gatherings in Artistic Education (MEGAE are presented and the three first gatherings are described. Finally, it is shown the panorama of the contributions of the gatherings both in the theoretical formulation and relational structure of the field.

  18. Design experiences for medical irradiation field at the musashi reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Otohiko

    1994-01-01

    The design of the medical irradiation field at the Musashi reactor was carried out from 1974 to 1975, about 20 years ago. Various numerical analyses have been carried out recently, and it is astonishing to find out that the performance close to the optimum as a 100 kW reactor has been obtained. The reason for this is that the design was carried out by dividing into the stationary part and the moving part, and as for the moving part, the structure was determined by repeating trial and error and experiments. In this paper, the comparison of the analysis carried out later with the experimental data and the change of the absorbed dose at the time of medical irradiation accompanying the change of neutron energy spectra are reported. As the characteristics of the medical irradiation field at the Musashi reactor, the neutron energy spectra and the absorbed dose and mean medical irradiation time are shown. As the problems in boron neutron capture therapy, the neutron fluence required for the therapy, the way of thinking on background dose, and the problem of determining the irradiation time are discussed. The features of epithermal neutron beam are explained. (K.I.)

  19. ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, L Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) field campaign contributes to CalWater 2015, a multi-agency field campaign that aims to improve understanding of atmospheric rivers and aerosol sources and transport that influence cloud and precipitation processes. The ultimate goal is to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of droughts and floods in California. With the DOE G-1 aircraft and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) well equipped for making aerosol and cloud measurements, ACAPEX focuses specifically on understanding how aerosols from local pollution and long-range transport affect the amount and phase of precipitation associated with atmospheric rivers. ACAPEX took place between January 12, 2015 and March 8, 2015 as part of CalWater 2015, which included four aircraft (DOE G-1, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA] G-IV and P-3, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] ER-2), the NOAA research ship Ron Brown, carrying onboard the AMF2, National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored aerosol and precipitation measurements at Bodega Bay, and the California Department of Water Resources extreme precipitation network.

  20. The Effect of Plot Size on Some Pratylenchus Penetrans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pratylenchus penetrans counts obtained from a rose field, sampled sequentially by decreasing the plot sizes were computed to obtain the respective sample means, variance and k-value of the negative binomial distribution. Plots 21 m x 80 m, 3.6 m x 3.6 m and 0.6 m x 0.6 m were sampled for the nematode. It is reported ...

  1. ABCASH plotting program users guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Automated Bar Coding of Air Samples at Hanford (ABCASH) system provides an integrated data collection, sample tracking, and data reporting system for radioactive particulate air filter samples. The ABCASH plotting program provides a graphical trend report for ABCASH of the performance of air sample results. This document provides an operational guide for using the program. Based on sample location identifier and date range, a trend chart of the available data is generated. The trend chart shows radiological activity versus time. General indications of directional trend of the concentrations in air over time may be discerned. Comparison limit set point values are also shown as derived from the ABCASH data base

  2. An Oceanographic Decision Support System for Scientific Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, T.; Das, J.; McCann, M. P.; Rajan, K.

    2011-12-01

    Thom Maughan, Jnaneshwar Das, Mike McCann, Danelle Cline, Mike Godin, Fred Bahr, Kevin Gomes, Tom O'Reilly, Frederic Py, Monique Messie, John Ryan, Francisco Chavez, Jim Bellingham, Maria Fox, Kanna Rajan Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute Moss Lading, California, United States Many of the coastal ocean processes we wish to observe in order to characterize marine ecosystems have large spatial extant (tens of square km) and are dynamic moving kilometers in a day with biological processes spanning anywhere from minutes to days. Some like harmful algal blooms generate toxins which can significantly impact human health and coastal economies. In order to obtain a viable understanding of the biogeochemical processes which define their dynamics and ecology, it is necessary to persistently observe, track and sample within and near the dynamic fields using augmented methods of observation such as autonomous platforms like AUVs, gliders and surface craft. Field experiments to plan, execute and manage such multitude of assets are challenging. To alleviate this problem the autonomous systems group with its collaborators at MBARI and USC designed, built and fielded a prototype Oceanographic Decision Support System (ODSS) that provides situational awareness and a single portal to visualize and plan deployments for the large scale October 2010 CANON field program as well as a series of 2 week field programs in 2011. The field programs were conducted in Monterey Bay, a known 'red tide' incubator, and varied from as many as twenty autonomous platforms, four ships and 2 manned airplanes to coordinated AUV operations, drifters and a single ship. The ODSS web-based portal was used to assimilate information from a collection of sources at sea, including AUVs, moorings, radar data as well as remote sensing products generated by partner organizations to provide a synthesis of views useful to predict the movement of a chlorophyll patch in the confines of the northern Monterey Bay

  3. Sacrifice as a plot device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashikhmanova Natalya Alexandrovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the plot device “sacrifice” as a meaningful component of the narrative. It sets a minimum of substantive meaning of this formation (the idea of getting something over the loss of something. The main types of sacrifice: sacrifice and self-sacrifice. Sacrifice means bringing something to sacrifice for the sake of an idea or someone else and implies a greater degree of external attributes. Self-sacrifice brings a loss of the intrinsic value of the character. Sacrifice as the action takes place consciously and, as a rule, does not require compensation in return. Victims sacrifice not only material things but spiritual as well. Their actions are certainly driven by the idea, which is of value. In the case of self-sacrifice victim is itself a victim. Present for sacrifice plays a certain role in the development of some of the stories of fabulous narratives. Search of the present can be a starting point in the development of fantastic narrative plot. As a sacrifice the present can be considered in three forms: in the form of material expression, in the form of immaterial substance, as well as a way to transfer the character into magical power through knowledge empowerment of its formulaic spells.

  4. The large-s field-reversed configuration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.L.; Carey, L.N.; Crawford, E.A.; Harding, D.G.; DeHart, T.E.; McDonald, K.F.; McNeil, J.L.; Milroy, R.D.; Slough, J.T.; Maqueda, R.; Wurden, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Large-s Experiment (LSX) was built to study the formation and equilibrium properties of field-reversed configurations (FRCs) as the scale size increases. The dynamic, field-reversed theta-pinch method of FRC creation produces axial and azimuthal deformations and makes formation difficult, especially in large devices with large s (number of internal gyroradii) where it is difficult to achieve initial plasma uniformity. However, with the proper technique, these formation distortions can be minimized and are then observed to decay with time. This suggests that the basic stability and robustness of FRCs formed, and in some cases translated, in smaller devices may also characterize larger FRCs. Elaborate formation controls were included on LSX to provide the initial uniformity and symmetry necessary to minimize formation disturbances, and stable FRCs could be formed up to the design goal of s = 8. For x ≤ 4, the formation distortions decayed away completely, resulting in symmetric equilibrium FRCs with record confinement times up to 0.5 ms, agreeing with previous empirical scaling laws (τ∝sR). Above s = 4, reasonably long-lived (up to 0.3 ms) configurations could still be formed, but the initial formation distortions were so large that they never completely decayed away, and the equilibrium confinement was degraded from the empirical expectations. The LSX was only operational for 1 yr, and it is not known whether s = 4 represents a fundamental limit for good confinement in simple (no ion beam stabilization) FRCs or whether it simply reflects a limit of present formation technology. Ideally, s could be increased through flux buildup from neutral beams. Since the addition of kinetic or beam ions will probably be desirable for heating, sustainment, and further stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic modes at reactor-level s values, neutral beam injection is the next logical step in FRC development. 24 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Field-reversed experiments (FRX) on compact toroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, W.T.; Linford, R.K.; Lipson, J.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1981-11-01

    Equilibrium, stability, and confinement properties of compact toroids produced in field-reversed theta-pinch experiments (FRX) are reported. Two experimental facilities, FRX-A and FRX-B, have been used to study highly elongated compact toroid plasmas confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. Spatial scans and fill pressure scaling of the equilibrium plasma parameters are presented. Plasma conditions range from T/sub e/approx.150 eV, T/sub i/approx.800 eV, n/sub m/approx.1 x 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/ to T/sub e/approx.100 eV, T/sub i/approx.150 eV, n/sub m/approx.4 x 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/. Typical confined plasma dimensions are: major radius Rapprox.4 cm, minor radius aapprox.2 cm, and total length 35--50 cm. The plasma configuration remains in a stable equilibrium for up to 50 ..mu..sec followed by the destructive n = 2 rotational instability. The stable period prior to the onset of the rotational mode is up to one hundred times greater than characteristic Alfven transit times of the plasma. This stable period increases and the mode growth rate decreases with increased a/rho/sub i/ (where rho/sub i/ is the ion gyroradius). Agreement of experimental and theoretical mode frequencies for the instability is observed. Preferential particle loss has been proposed as a likely cause of rotation. The particle inventory at the onset of the instability is consistent with this hypothesis. The particle loss rate is also consistent with the predicted anomalous transport near the separatrix. Contributions to rotational instability from diffusion, end-shorting, equipartition, and compression are also discussed.

  6. Field-reversed experiments (FRX) on compact toroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, W.T.; Linford, R.K.; Lipson, J.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    Equilibrium, stability, and confinement properties of compact toroids produced in field-reversed theta-pinch experiments (FRX) are reported. Two experimental facilities, FRX-A and FRX-B, have been used to study highly elongated compact toroid plasmas confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. Spatial scans and fill pressure scaling of the equilibrium plasma parameters are presented. Plasma conditions range from T/sub e/approx.150 eV, T/sub i/approx.800 eV, n/sub m/approx.1 x 10 15 cm -3 to T/sub e/approx.100 eV, T/sub i/approx.150 eV, n/sub m/approx.4 x 10 15 cm -3 . Typical confined plasma dimensions are: major radius Rapprox.4 cm, minor radius aapprox.2 cm, and total length 35--50 cm. The plasma configuration remains in a stable equilibrium for up to 50 μsec followed by the destructive n = 2 rotational instability. The stable period prior to the onset of the rotational mode is up to one hundred times greater than characteristic Alfven transit times of the plasma. This stable period increases and the mode growth rate decreases with increased a/rho/sub i/ (where rho/sub i/ is the ion gyroradius). Agreement of experimental and theoretical mode frequencies for the instability is observed. Preferential particle loss has been proposed as a likely cause of rotation. The particle inventory at the onset of the instability is consistent with this hypothesis. The particle loss rate is also consistent with the predicted anomalous transport near the separatrix. Contributions to rotational instability from diffusion, end-shorting, equipartition, and compression are also discussed

  7. Grain yield and crop N offtake in response to residual fertilizer N in long-term field experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Mattsson, L.

    2010-01-01

    in four long-term (>35 yr) field experiments, we measured the response of barley (grain yield and N offtake at crop maturity) to six rates (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg N/ha) of mineral fertilizer N (Nnew) applied in subplots replacing the customary long-term plot treatments of fertilizer inputs (Nprev......). Rates of Nprev above 50-100 kg N/ha had no consistent effect on the soil N content, but this was up to 20% greater than that in unfertilized treatments. Long-term unfertilized plots should not be used as control to test the residual value of N in modern agriculture with large production potentials....... Although the effect of mineral Nprev on grain yield and N offtake could be substituted by Nnew within a range of previous inputs, the value of Nprev was not eliminated irrespective of Nnew rate. Provided a sufficient supply of plant nutrients other than N, the use-efficiency of Nnew did not change...

  8. Status of SRNL radiological field lysimeter experiment-Year 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Roberts, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bagwell, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-10-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radiological Field Lysimeter Experiment is a one-of-a-kind field facility designed to study radionuclide geochemical processes at a larger spatial scale (from grams to tens of kilograms sediment) and temporal scale (from months to 10 years) than is readily afforded through laboratory studies. The lysimeter facility is intended to capture the natural heterogeneity of moisture and temperature regimes in the vadose zone, the unsaturated subsurface region between the surface soil and the underlying aquifer. The 48 lysimeter columns, which contain various radionuclides (and stable iodine), were opened to rainfall infiltration on July 5, 2012. The objective of this report is to provide a status of the lysimeter facility operations and to compile data collected during FY13, including leachate volume, rainfall, and soil moisture and temperature in situ probe data. Radiological leachate data are not presented in this document but will be the subject of a separate document.1 Leachate samples were collected quarterly and shipped to Clemson University for radiological analyses. Rainfall, leachate volume, moisture and temperature probe data were collected continuously. During operations of the facility this year, there were four safety or technical concerns that required additional maintenance: 1) radioactivity was detected in one of the overflow bottles (captured water collected from the secondary containment that does not come in contact with the radiological source material); 2) rainwater accumulated within the sample-bottle storage sheds; 3) overflow containers collected more liquid than anticipated; and 4) significant spider infestation occurred in the sample-bottle storage sheds. To address the first three concerns, each of the lysimeter columns was re-plumbed to improve and to minimize the number of joint unions. To address the fourth concern regarding spiders, new sample-bottle water sheds were purchased and a pest control

  9. Field Experiment on Soaking Characteristics of Collapsible Loess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In collapsible loess area, migration of soil moisture often causes the temporal discontinuity and spatial nonuniformity of collapsibility, which leads to great damage for infrastructures. Therefore, the research on water infiltration is the key to solving the problem of collapsibility. The aim of this paper is to investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of infiltration characteristics of collapsible loess. A field soaking experiment was conducted on collapsible loess in western China, in which a soaking pool with diameter of 15 m was built. Time-Domain-Reflectometry (TDR system and soil sampling were employed to measure the water content within the depth of 12 m. Then the saturation isograms were drawn for visualization of the process of infiltration. Also, a pilot tunnel was excavated to investigate how the free face can affect the infiltration behaviors. The experimental results revealed the characteristics of infiltration in both horizontal and vertical directions. Moreover, the response of free face on infiltration behaviors was also found. These findings of research could provide the data for the infiltration laws of unsaturated loess and thereby provide the basis for integrated treatment of collapsible loess.

  10. Natural selection on immune defense: A field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeloh, Laura; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca; Seppälä, Otto

    2017-02-01

    Predicting the evolution of phenotypic traits requires an understanding of natural selection on them. Despite its indispensability in the fight against parasites, selection on host immune defense has remained understudied. Theory predicts immune traits to be under stabilizing selection due to associated trade-offs with other fitness-related traits. Empirical studies, however, report mainly positive directional selection. This discrepancy could be caused by low phenotypic variation in the examined individuals and/or variation in host resource level that confounds trade-offs in empirical studies. In a field experiment where we maintained Lymnaea stagnalis snails individually in cages in a lake, we investigated phenotypic selection on two immune defense traits, phenoloxidase (PO)-like activity and antibacterial activity, in hemolymph. We used a diverse laboratory population and manipulated snail resource level by limiting their food supply. For six weeks, we followed immune activity, growth, and two fitness components, survival and fecundity of snails. We found that PO-like activity and growth were under stabilizing selection, while antibacterial activity was under positive directional selection. Selection on immune traits was mainly driven by variation in survival. The form of selection on immune defense apparently depends on the particular trait, possibly due to its importance for countering the present parasite community. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Chaos in reversed-field-pinch plasma simulation and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, C.; Newman, D.E.; Sprott, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that chaos and simple determinism are governing the dynamics of reversed-field-pinch (RFP) plasmas using data from both numerical simulations and experiment. A large repertoire of nonlinear-analysis techniques is used to identify low-dimensional chaos. These tools include phase portraits and Poincare sections, correlation dimension, the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents, and short-term predictability. In addition, nonlinear-noise-reduction techniques are applied to the experimental data in an attempt to extract any underlying deterministic dynamics. Two model systems are used to simulate the plasma dynamics. These are the DEBS computer code, which models global RFP dynamics, and the dissipative trapped-electron-mode model, which models drift-wave turbulence. Data from both simulations show strong indications of low-dimensional chaos and simple determinism. Experimental data were obtained from the Madison Symmetric Torus RFP and consist of a wide array of both global and local diagnostic signals. None of the signals shows any indication of low-dimensional chaos or other simple determinism. Moreover, most of the analysis tools indicate that the experimental system is very high dimensional with properties similar to noise. Nonlinear noise reduction is unsuccessful at extracting an underlying deterministic system

  12. Bio-mechanical removing of contaminated soils: a field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Maubert, H.; Schulte, E.

    1992-01-01

    If, in spite of safety precautions, a major nuclear accident would occur, countermeasures should be taken to attenuate the impact of radioactive deposits. The European RESSAC program (REhabilitation of Soils and Surfaces after an ACcident) aims at studying actions for normal life return in contaminated zones. One of them, called the Decontaminating Vegetal Network (D.V.N.) associates the biological action of turfing plants, producing a dense root-network capable to trap the top contaminated soil particles, and the mechanical efficiency of a turf harvester which can remove only 1 cm of soil. This performance, not associated with other techniques of soil removal such as scrapers or bulldozers, leads to minimize the waste production. The D.V.N is a vegetal cover spread over the contaminated soil, using the hydro-seeding technique. The growing plants are forming a pleasant lawn which may have a positive impact on the public opinion compared to techniques using bitumen mixtures to cover the soil. Field experiments involving labelling solutions of stable molybdenum salts simulating the contamination of the soil have shown that this technique can be applied as well on homogeneous cultivated soil surfaces as on roughly ploughed soils. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Mismo field experiment in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Masumoto, Y.; Kuroda, Y.; Katsumata, M.; Mizuno, K.; Takayabu, Y.N.; Yoshizaki, M.; Shareef, A.; Fujiyoshi, Y.; McPhaden, M.J.; Murty, V.S.N.; Shirooka, R; Yasunaga, K.; Yamada, H.; Sato, N.; Ushiyama, T.; Moteki, Q.; Seiki, A.; Fujita, M.; Ando, K.; Hase, H.; Ueki, I; Horii, T.; Yokoyama, C.; Miyakawa, T.

    MISMO FIELD EXPERIMENT IN THE EQUATORIAL INDIAN OCEAN * b y Ku n i o yo n e y a m a , yu K i o ma s u m o t o , yo s h i f u m i Ku r o d a , ma s a K i Ka t s u m a t a , Ke i s u K e mi z u n o , yu K a r i n. ta K a y a b u , ma s a n o r i... yo s h i z a K i , al i sh a r e e f, ya s u s h i fu j i y o s h i , mi c h a e l j. mcPh a d e n , V. s. n. mu r t y , ry u i c h i sh i r o o K a , Ka z u a K i ya s u n a g a , hi r o y u K i ya m a d a , na o K i sa t o , to m o K i us...

  14. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubin, Daniel [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Bromwich, David H [Ohio State University; Vogelmann, Andrew M [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Verlinde, Johannes [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Russell, Lynn M [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography

    2017-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) is the most technologically advanced atmospheric and climate science campaign yet fielded in Antarctica. AWARE was motivated be recent concern about the impact of cryospheric mass loss on global sea level rise. Specifically, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is now the second largest contributor to rising sea level, after the Greenland Ice Sheet. As steadily warming ocean water erodes the grounding lines of WAIS components where they meet the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas, the retreating grounding lines moving inland and downslope on the underlying terrain imply mechanical instability of the entire WAIS. There is evidence that this point of instability may have already been reached, perhaps signifying more rapid loss of WAIS ice mass. At the same time, the mechanical support provided by adjacent ice shelves, and also the fundamental stability of exposed ice cliffs at the ice sheet grounding lines, will be adversely impacted by a warming atmosphere that causes more frequent episodes of surface melting. The surface meltwater damages the ice shelves and ice cliffs through hydrofracturing. With the increasing concern regarding these rapid cryospheric changes, AWARE was motivated by the need to (a) diagnose the surface energy balance in West Antarctica as related to both summer season climatology and potential surface melting, and (b) improve global climate model (GCM) performance over Antarctica, such that future cryospheric projections can be more reliable.

  15. Games for groundwater governance: field experiments in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Meinzen-Dick

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a common-pool resource that is subject to depletion in many places around the world as a result of increased use of irrigation and water-demanding cash crops. Where state capacity to control groundwater use is limited, collective action is important to increase recharge and restrict highly water-consumptive crops. We present results of field experiments in hard rock areas of Andhra Pradesh, India, to examine factors affecting groundwater use. Two nongovernmental organizations (NGOs ran the games in communities where they were working to improve watershed and water management. Results indicate that, when the links between crop choice and groundwater depletion is made explicit, farmers can act cooperatively to address this problem. Longer NGO involvement in the villages was associated with more cooperative outcomes in the games. Individuals with more education and higher perceived community social capital played more cooperatively, but neither gender nor method of payment had a significantly effect on individual behavior. When participants could repeat the game with communication, similar crop choice patterns were observed. The games provided an entry point for discussion on the understanding of communities of the interconnectedness of groundwater use and crop choice.

  16. Idaho field experiment 1981. Volume 2: measurement data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Start, G E; Sagendorf, J F; Ackermann, G R; Cate, J H; Hukari, N F; Dickson, C R

    1984-04-01

    The 1981 Idaho Field Experiment was conducted in southeastern Idaho over the upper Snake River Plain. Nine test-day case studies were conducted between July 15 and 30, 1981. Releases of SF/sub 6/ gaseous tracer were made for 8-hour periods from 46m above ground. Tracer was sampled hourly, for 12 sequential hours, at about 100 locations within an area 24km square. Also, a single total integrated sample of about 30 hours duration was collected at approximately 100 sites within an area 48 by 72km square (using 6km spacings). Extensive tower profiles of meteorology at the release point were collected. RAWINSONDES, RABALS and PIBALS were collected at 3 to 5 sites. Horizontal, low-altitude winds were monitored using the INEL MESONET. SF/sub 6/ tracer plume releases were marked with co-located oil fog releases and bi-hourly sequential launches of tetroon pairs. Aerial LIDAR observations of the oil fog plume and airborne samples of SF/sub 6/ were collected. High altitude aerial photographs of daytime plumes were collected. Volume II lists the data in tabular form or cites the special supplemental reports by other participating contractors. While the primary user file and the data archive are maintained on 9 track/1600 cpi magnetic tapes, listings of the individual values are provided for the user who either cannot utilize the tapes or wishes to preview the data. The accuracies and quality of these data are described.

  17. Perspectives on global nursing leadership: international experiences from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, E B; Anderson, D J; Garzon, N; Hafsteinsdóttir, T B; Lai, C K Y; Roshan, R

    2014-12-01

    Nursing leaders from six countries engaged in a year-long discussion on global leadership development. The purpose of these dialogues was to strengthen individual and collective capacity as nursing leaders in a global society. Field experiences in practice and education were shared. Perspectives on global leadership can strengthen nurses' contributions to practice, workplace and policy issues worldwide. Transformational leadership empowers nurses' increasing confidence. Mentoring is needed to stimulate leadership development but this is lacking in many settings where nurses practice, teach and influence policy. Organizations with global mission provide opportunity for nurses' professional growth in leadership through international dialogues. Dialogues among participants were held monthly by conference calls or videoconferences. Example stories from each participant illustrated nursing leadership in action. From these exemplars, concepts were chosen to create a framework. Emerging perspectives and leadership themes represented all contexts of practice, education, research and policy. The cultural context of each country was reflected in the examples. Themes emerged that crossed global regions and countries. Themes were creativity, change, collaboration, community, context and courage. Relationships initially formed in professional organizations can be extended to intentionally facilitate global nursing leadership development. Exemplars from the dialogues demonstrated nursing leadership in health policy development within each cultural context. Recommendations are given for infrastructure development in organizations to enhance future collaborations. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  18. Test plan for FY-94 digface characterization field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josten, N.E.; Roybal, L.G.

    1994-08-01

    The digface characterization concept has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since fiscal year (FY) 1992 through the support of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program. A digface characterization system conducts continuous subsurface characterization simultaneously with retrieval of hazardous and radioactive waste from buried waste sites. The system deploys multiple sensors at the retrieval operation digface and collects data that provide a basis for detecting, locating, and classifying buried materials and hazardous conditions before they are disturbed by the retrieval equipment. This test plan describes ongoing efforts to test the digface characterization concept at the INEL's Cold Test Pit using a simplified prototype deployment apparatus and off-the-shelf sensors. FY-94 field experiments will explore problems in object detection and classification. Detection and classification of objects are fundamental to three of the four primary functions of digface characterization during overburden removal. This test plan establishes procedures for collecting and validating the digface characterization data sets. Analysis of these data will focus on testing and further developing analysis methods for object detection and classification during overburden removal

  19. Field experience in use of radiation instruments in Cirus reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, N.; Sharma, R.C.; Agarwal, S.K.; Sawant, D.K.; Yadav, R.K.B.; Prasad, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Cirus, located at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, is a 40 MW (Th) research reactor fuelled by natural uranium, moderated by heavy water and cooled by de-mineralized light water. Graphite is used as reflector in this reactor. The reactor, commissioned in the year 1960, was in operation with availability factor of about 70% till early nineties. There after signs of ageing started surfacing up. After ageing studies, refurbishment plan was finalized and executed during the period from 1997-2002. after successful refurbishment, the reactor is in operation at full power. A wide range of radiation instruments have been used at Cirus for online monitoring of the radiological status of various process systems and environmental releases. Also, variety of survey meters, counting systems and monitors have been used by the health physics unit of the reactor for radiation hazard control. Many of these instruments, which were originally of Canadian design, have undergone changes due to obsolescence or as part of upgradation. This paper describes the experience with the radiation instruments of Cirus, bringing out their effectiveness in meeting the design intent, difficulties faced in their field use, and modifications carried out based on the performance feed back. Also, this paper highlights the areas where further efforts are needed to develop nuclear instrumentation to further strengthen monitoring and surveillance. (author)

  20. Romanian Radiation Protection Training Experience in Medical Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steliana Popescu, F.; Milu, C.; Naghi, E.; Calugareanu, L.; Stroe, F. M.

    2003-01-01

    Studies conducted by the Institute of Public Health Bucharest during the last years emphasised the need of appropriate radioprotection training in the medical field. With the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, the Pilot Centre on Clinical Radio pathology in the Institute of Public Health-Bucharest, provided, from 2000 a 7 modular courses (40 hours each), covering the basic topics of ionizing radiation, biological and physical dosimetry, effects of exposure to ionising radiation, radioprotection concepts, planning and medical response in case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. The courses are opened for all health specialists, especially for occupational health physicians, focusing on health surveillance of radiation workers and medical management of overexposed workers. Each module is followed up by an examination and credits. The multidisciplinary team of instructors was trained within several train-the-trainers courses, organised by IAEA. The paper discusses the evaluation of these 3 years experience in training and its feedback impact, the aim of the program being to develop a knowledge in the spirit of the new patterns of radiological protection, both for safety and communication with the public. (Author)

  1. Effective media models for unsaturated fractured rock: A field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholl, M.J.; Glass, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick unsaturated rock mass at Yucca Mountain is currently under consideration as a potential repository site for disposal of high level radioactive waste. In accordance with standard industry and scientific practices, abstract numerical models will be used to evaluate the potential for radionuclide release through the groundwater system. At this time, currently available conceptual models used to develop effective media properties are based primarily on simplistic considerations. The work presented here is part of an integrated effort to develop effective media models at the intermediate block scale (approximately 8-125m) through a combination of physical observations, numerical simulations and theoretical considerations. A multi-purpose field experiment designed and conducted as part of this integrated effort is described. Specific goals of this experimental investigation were to: (1) obtain fracture network data from Topopah Spring Tuff for use in block scale simulations; (2) identity positions of the network conducting flow under three different boundary conditions; (3) visualize preferential flow paths and small-scale flow structures; (4) collect samples for subsequent hydraulic testing and use in block-scale simulations; and (5) demonstrate the ability of Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) to delineate fluid distribution within fractured rock

  2. EPIC Calibration/Validation Experiment Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Steven E [National Severe Storm Laboratory/NOAA; Chilson, Phillip [University of Oklahoma; Argrow, Brian [University of Colorado

    2017-03-15

    A field exercise involving several different kinds of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and supporting instrumentation systems provided by DOE/ARM and NOAA/NSSL was conducted at the ARM SGP site in Lamont, Oklahoma on 29-30 October 2016. This campaign was part of a larger National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) UAS Program Office program awarded to the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL). named Environmental Profiling and Initiation of Convection (EPIC). The EPIC Field Campaign (Test and Calibration/Validation) proposed to ARM was a test or “dry-run” for a follow-up campaign to be requested for spring/summer 2017. The EPIC project addresses NOAA’s objective to “evaluate options for UAS profiling of the lower atmosphere with applications for severe weather.” The project goal is to demonstrate that fixed-wing and rotary-wing small UAS have the combined potential to provide a unique observing system capable of providing detailed profiles of temperature, moisture, and winds within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) to help determine the potential for severe weather development. Specific project objectives are: 1) to develop small UAS capable of acquiring needed wind and thermodynamic profiles and transects of the ABL using one fixed-wing UAS operating in tandem with two different fixed rotary-wing UAS pairs; 2) adapt and test miniaturized, high-precision, and fast-response atmospheric sensors with high accuracy in strong winds characteristic of the pre-convective ABL in Oklahoma; 3) conduct targeted short-duration experiments at the ARM Southern Great Plains site in northern Oklahoma concurrently with a second site to be chosen in “real-time” from the Oklahoma Mesonet in coordination with the (National Weather Service (NWS)-Norman Forecast Office; and 4) gain valuable experience in pursuit of NOAA’s goals for determining the value of airborne, mobile observing systems for monitoring rapidly evolving high-impact severe weather

  3. Action Between Plot and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the representation of simple, bodily action has the function of endowing the narrative sequence with a visualizing power. It makes the narrated scenes or situations ready for visualization by the reader or listener. By virtue of this visualizing power or disposition...... an important visualizing function, these narrated actions have a communicative function and, as such, they can be said to belong to the domain of discourse-narratology. In the first part of the article, I argue that a certain type of plot-narratology, due to its retrospective epistemology and abstract...... definition of action, is unable to conceive of this visualizing function. In the second part, I argue that discourse-narratology fares no better since the visualizing function is independent of voice and focalization. In the final part, I sketch a possible account of the visualizing function of simple...

  4. Evaluating Plot Designs for the Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. van Deusen; Bruce Bayle

    1991-01-01

    Theory and procedures are reviewed for determining the best type of plot for a given forest inventory. A general methodology is given that clarifies the relationship between different plot designs and the associated methods to produce the inventory estimates.

  5. Calculations of transient fields in the Felix experiments at Argonne using null field integrated techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, H.C.; Davey, K.R.; Turner, L.

    1985-08-01

    The transient eddy current problem is characteristically computationally intensive. The motivation for this research was to realize an efficient, accurate, solution technique involving small matrices via an eigenvalue approach. Such a technique is indeed realized and tested using the null field integral technique. Using smart (i.e., efficient, global) basis functions to represent unknowns in terms of a minimum number of unknowns, homogeneous eigenvectors and eigenvalues are first determined. The general excitatory response is then represented in terms of these eigenvalues/eigenvectors. Excellent results are obtained for the Argonne Felix cylinder experiments using a 4 x 4 matrix. Extension to the 3-D problem (short cylinder) is set up in terms of an 8 x 8 matrix

  6. High magnetic field generation for laser-plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, B. B.; Froula, D. H.; Davis, P. F.; Ross, J. S.; Fulkerson, S.; Bower, J.; Satariano, J.; Price, D.; Krushelnick, K.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2006-01-01

    An electromagnetic solenoid was developed to study the effect of magnetic fields on electron thermal transport in laser plasmas. The solenoid, which is driven by a pulsed power system supplying 30 kJ, achieves magnetic fields of 13 T. The field strength was measured on the solenoid axis with a magnetic probe and optical Zeeman splitting. The measurements agree well with analytical estimates. A method for optimizing the solenoid design to achieve magnetic fields exceeding 20 T is presented

  7. Chernobyl Experience in the Field of Retrospective Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, V.; Bakhanova, E.

    2011-01-01

    Chernobyl accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986 at NPP located less than 150 km north of Kiev, is the largest nuclear accident ever. Unprecedented scale of the accident was determined not only by the amount of released activity, but also by a number of population and workers involved and, therefore, exposed to enhanced doses of ionizing radiation. Population of the 30-km exclusion zone numbering about 116,000 persons of all ages and both genders was evacuated within days and weeks after the accident, emergency workers called ''liquidators of the accident'' (males age 20-50) were involved into clean-up and recovery for 5 years and their number is estimated as 600,000, about 300,000 are Ukrainian citizens. Due to unexpected and excessively large scale accident, none of residents had personal dosimeters, personal dosimetry of liquidators was not total, dosimetry techniques and practices were far from the optimum. As a result, an acute need for retrospective dose assessment was dictated by radiation protection and research considerations. This need was responded by implementation of wide scale dose reconstruction efforts, which covered main exposed cohorts and encompassed broad variety of newly developed methods: analytical (time-and-motion), modeling, biological and physical (EPR spectroscopy of teeth, TL of quartz). The presentation summarizes vast experience accumulated by RCRM in the field of retrospective dosimetry of large cohorts of exposed population and professionals. These dose reconstruction projects were implemented, in particular, in the framework of epidemiological studies, designed to follow-up medical consequences of Chernobyl accident and study health effects of ionizing radiation, in particular, Ukrainian-American studies of cataracts and leukemia among liquidators. Over 25 years passed after Chernobyl accident a broad variety of retrospective dosimetry problems was addressed by the team of Research Center for Radiation Medicine AMS Ukraine. In

  8. Multiple hypothesis clustering in radar plot extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.; Dorp, Ph. van; Ligthart, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    False plots and plots with inaccurate range and Doppler estimates may severely degrade the performance of tracking algorithms in radar systems. This paper describes how a multiple hypothesis clustering technique can be applied to mitigate the problems involved in plot extraction. The measures of

  9. Evaluating the soil physical quality under long-term field experiments in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Mirko; Stellacci, Anna Maria; Iovino, Massimo; Rinaldi, Michele; Ventrella, Domenico

    2017-04-01

    Long-term field experiments performed in experimental farms are important research tools to assess the soil physical quality (SPQ) given that relatively stable conditions can be expected in these soils. However, different SPQ indicators may sometimes provide redundant or conflicting results, making difficult an SPQ evaluation (Castellini et al., 2014). As a consequence, it is necessary to apply appropriate statistical procedures to obtain a minimum set of key indicators. The study was carried out at the Experimental Farm of CREA-SCA (Foggia) in two long-term field experiments performed on durum wheat. The first long-term experiment is aiming at evaluating the effects of two residue management systems (burning, B or soil incorporation of crop residues, I) while the second at comparing the effect of tillage (conventional tillage, CT) and sod-seeding (direct drilling, DD). In order to take into account both optimal and non-optimal soil conditions, five SPQ indicators were monitored at 5-6 sampling dates during the crop season (i.e., between November and June): soil bulk density (BD), macroporosity (PMAC), air capacity (AC), plant available water capacity (PAWC) and relative field capacity (RFC). Two additional data sets, collected on DD plot in different cropping seasons and in Sicilian soils differing for texture, depth and land use (N=140), were also used with the aim to check the correlation among indicators. Impact of soil management was assessed by comparing SPQ evaluated under different management systems with optimal reference values reported in literature. Two techniques of multivariate analysis (principal component analysis, PCA and stepwise discriminant analysis, SDA) were applied to select the most suitable indicator to facilitate the judgment on SPQ. Regardless of the considered management system, sampling date or auxiliary data set, correlation matrices always showed significant negative relationships between RFC and AC. Decreasing RFC at increasing AC is

  10. Field experiment on spray drift: deposition and airborne drift during application to a winter wheat crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, André; Linnemann, Volker; van de Zande, Jan C; Vereecken, Harry

    2008-11-01

    A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done according to good agricultural practice. Deposition was measured by horizontal collectors in various arrangements in and outside the treated area. Airborne spray drift was measured both with a passive and an active air collecting system. Spray deposits on top of the treated canopy ranged between 68 and 71% of the applied dose and showed only small differences for various arrangements of the collectors. Furthermore, only small variations were measured within the various groups of collectors used for these arrangements. Generally, the highest spray deposition outside the treated area was measured close to the sprayed plot and was accompanied by a high variability of values, while a rapid decline of deposits was detected in more remote areas. Estimations of spray deposits with the IMAG Drift Calculator were in accordance with experimental findings only for areas located at a distance of 0.5-4.5 m from the last nozzle, while there was an overestimation of a factor of 4 at a distance of 2.0-3.0 m, thus revealing a high level of uncertainty of the estimation of deposition for short distances. Airborne spray drift measured by passive and active air collecting systems was approximately at the same level, when taking into consideration the collector efficiency of the woven nylon wire used as sampling material for the passive collecting system. The maximum value of total airborne spray drift for both spray applications (0.79% of the applied dose) was determined by the active collecting system. However, the comparatively high variability of measurements at various heights above the soil by active and passive collecting systems revealed need for further studies to elucidate the spatial

  11. Overview of the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment 2008 (BEAREX08): A field experiment evaluating methods for quantifying ET at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evett, Steven R.; Kustas, William P.; Gowda, Prasanna H.; Anderson, Martha C.; Prueger, John H.; Howell, Terry A.

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, scientists from seven federal and state institutions worked together to investigate temporal and spatial variations of evapotranspiration (ET) and surface energy balance in a semi-arid irrigated and dryland agricultural region of the Southern High Plains in the Texas Panhandle. This Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment 2008 (BEAREX08) involved determination of micrometeorological fluxes (surface energy balance) in four weighing lysimeter fields (each 4.7 ha) containing irrigated and dryland cotton and in nearby bare soil, wheat stubble and rangeland fields using nine eddy covariance stations, three large aperture scintillometers, and three Bowen ratio systems. In coordination with satellite overpasses, flux and remote sensing aircraft flew transects over the surrounding fields and region encompassing an area contributing fluxes from 10 to 30 km upwind of the USDA-ARS lysimeter site. Tethered balloon soundings were conducted over the irrigated fields to investigate the effect of advection on local boundary layer development. Local ET was measured using four large weighing lysimeters, while field scale estimates were made by soil water balance with a network of neutron probe profile water sites and from the stationary flux systems. Aircraft and satellite imagery were obtained at different spatial and temporal resolutions. Plot-scale experiments dealt with row orientation and crop height effects on spatial and temporal patterns of soil surface temperature, soil water content, soil heat flux, evaporation from soil in the interrow, plant transpiration and canopy and soil radiation fluxes. The BEAREX08 field experiment was unique in its assessment of ET fluxes over a broad range in spatial scales; comparing direct and indirect methods at local scales with remote sensing based methods and models using aircraft and satellite imagery at local to regional scales, and comparing mass balance-based ET ground truth with eddy covariance

  12. Chromatographic properties PLOT multicapillary columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, O A; Patrushev, Y V; Sidelnikov, V N

    2017-03-10

    Multicapillary columns (MCCs) for gas chromatography make it possible to perform high-speed analysis of the mixtures of gaseous and volatile substances at a relatively large amount of the loaded sample. The study was performed using PLOT MCCs for gas-solid chromatography (GSC) with different stationary phases (SP) based on alumina, silica and poly-(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) polymer as well as porous polymers divinylbenzene-styrene (DVB-St), divinylbenzene-vinylimidazole (DVB-VIm) and divinylbenzene-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (DVB-EGD). These MCCs have the efficiency of 4000-10000 theoretical plates per meter (TP/m) and at a column length of 25-30cm can separate within 10-20s multicomponent mixtures of substances belonging to different classes of chemical compounds. The sample amount not overloading the column is 0.03-1μg and depends on the features of a porous layer. Examples of separations on some of the studied columns are considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. New systems for photogrametric plotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Munoz, J.J.; Sarti Balsalobre, F.

    1995-01-01

    Ground photogrammetry is a highly useful technique for up-dating as-built documentation of nuclear power plants as it has the following advantages: - It reduces radiation exposure - It provides information concerning all the structures, equipment, components, pipe lines, etc, in the zone - it avoids errors made in the interpretation of drawings In the past, the application of non-topographic photogrammetry was limited by the need to use costly restitution equipment, until computer technology made it possible to operate complete photogrametric systems using a PC, digitizer, the appropriate software and a simple 35 mm camera. It is not necessary to use a tripod, or known the location of the camera or that the photographs are stereoscopic pairs. The plotting process is basically reduced to placing the photographs on the digitizing board, making the necessary adjustments and obtaining the coordinates of each point indicated. This paper explains the new photogrametric tools currently on the market, the theory behind them, and their advantages and disadvantages. It also describes some of the applications of advanced photogrammetry applied to design modifications in the nuclear sector, performed using the Empresarios Agrupados Metadat System. (Author)

  14. iCanPlot: visual exploration of high-throughput omics data using interactive Canvas plotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit U Sinha

    Full Text Available Increasing use of high throughput genomic scale assays requires effective visualization and analysis techniques to facilitate data interpretation. Moreover, existing tools often require programming skills, which discourages bench scientists from examining their own data. We have created iCanPlot, a compelling platform for visual data exploration based on the latest technologies. Using the recently adopted HTML5 Canvas element, we have developed a highly interactive tool to visualize tabular data and identify interesting patterns in an intuitive fashion without the need of any specialized computing skills. A module for geneset overlap analysis has been implemented on the Google App Engine platform: when the user selects a region of interest in the plot, the genes in the region are analyzed on the fly. The visualization and analysis are amalgamated for a seamless experience. Further, users can easily upload their data for analysis--which also makes it simple to share the analysis with collaborators. We illustrate the power of iCanPlot by showing an example of how it can be used to interpret histone modifications in the context of gene expression.

  15. Field Experiments Aimed To The Analysis of Flood Generation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriero, D.; Iacobellis, V.; Oliveto, G.; Romano, N.; Telesca, V.; Fiorentino, M.

    The study of the soil moisture dynamics and of the climate-soil-vegetation interac- tion is essential for the comprehension of possible climatic change phenomena, as well as for the analysis of occurrence of extreme hydrological events. In this trend the theoretically-based distribution of floods recently derived by Fiorentino and Ia- cobellis, [ŞNew insights about the climatic and geologic control on the probability distribution of floodsT, Water Resources Research, 2001, 37: 721-730] demonstrated, by an application in some Southern Italy basins, that processes at the hillslope scale strongly influence the basin response by means of the different mechanisms of runoff generation produced by various distributions of partial area contributing. This area is considered as a stochastic variable whose pdf position parameter showed strong de- pendence on the climate as it can seen in the studied basins behavior: in dry zones, where there is the prevalence of the infiltration excess (Horton) mechanism, the basin water loss parameter decreases as basin area increases and the flood peak source area depends on the permeability of soils; in humid zones, with the prevalence of satu- ration excess (Dunne) process, the loss parameter seems independent from the basin area and very sensitive to simple climatic index while only small portion of the area invested by the storm contributes to floods. The purpose of this work is to investigate the consistency of those interpretations by means of field experiments at the hillslope scale to establish a parameterization accounting for soil physical and hydraulic prop- erties, vegetation characteristics and land-use. The research site is the catchment of River Fiumarella di Corleto, which is located in Basilicata Region, Italy, and has a drainage area of approximately 32 km2. The environment has a rather dynamic geo- morphology and very interesting features from the soil-landscape modeling viewpoint [Santini A., A. Coppola, N. Romano, and

  16. Using Field Experiments to Evaluate the Impact of Financial Planning and Counseling Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Field experiments, which are a powerful research technique, are common in some fields, but they have not been widely used in studying the effect of financial and counseling planning interventions. Financial services can benefit from the expanded use of field experiments to explore potential causal mechanisms for the effects of financial planning…

  17. Rotating magnetic field current drive-theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    Rotating magnetic fields have been used to drive plasma current and establish a range of compact torus configurations, named rotamaks. The current drive mechanism involves a ponderomotive force acting on the electron fluid. Recent extensions of the theory indicate that this method is most suitable for driving currents in directions perpendicular to the steady magnetic fields

  18. Communication, Community, and Disconnection: Pre-Service Teachers in Virtual School Field Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Christian; Eckdahl, Kelli; Morone, Mike; Cook, Vicki; Giblin, Thomas; Coon, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of 11 graduate-level pre-service teachers completing Virtual School Field Experiences (VSFEs) with cooperating teachers in fully online, asynchronous high school courses in New York State. The VSFEs included a 7-week online teacher training course, and a 7-week online field experience. Pre-service teachers…

  19. Improving Genomic Prediction in Cassava Field Experiments by Accounting for Interplot Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Ani A; Rabbi, Ismail; Kulakow, Peter; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2018-03-02

    Plants competing for available resources is an unavoidable phenomenon in a field. We conducted studies in cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) in order to understand the pattern of this competition. Taking into account the competitive ability of genotypes while selecting parents for breeding advancement or commercialization can be very useful. We assumed that competition could occur at two levels: (i) the genotypic level, which we call interclonal, and (ii) the plot level irrespective of the type of genotype, which we call interplot competition or competition error. Modification in incidence matrices was applied in order to relate neighboring genotype/plot to the performance of a target genotype/plot with respect to its competitive ability. This was added into a genomic selection (GS) model to simultaneously predict the direct and competitive ability of a genotype. Predictability of the models was tested through a 10-fold cross-validation method repeated five times. The best model was chosen as the one with the lowest prediction root mean squared error (pRMSE) compared to that of the base model having no competitive component. Results from our real data studies indicated that value reached up to 25% with a GS-competition error model. We also found that the competitive influence of a cassava clone is not just limited to the adjacent neighbors but spreads beyond them. Through simulations, we found that a 26% increase of accuracy in estimating trait genotypic effect can be achieved even in the presence of high competitive variance. Copyright © 2018 Elias et al.

  20. NMR magnetic field controller for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheler, G.; Anacker, M.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance controller for magnetic fields, which can also be used for pulsed NMR investigations, is described. A longtime stability of 10 -7 is achieved. The control signal is generated by a modified time sharing circuit with resonance at the first side band of the 2 H signal. An exact calibration of the magnetic field is achieved by the variation of the H 1 - or of the time-sharing frequency. (author)

  1. Field reversal experiments (FRX). [Equilibrium, confinement, and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.K.; Armstrong, W.T.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1978-01-01

    The equilibrium, confinement, and stability properties of the reversed-field configuration (RFC) are being studied in two theta-pinch facilities. The RFC is an elongated toroidal plasma confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. The open field lines of the linear theta pinch support the closed-field RFC much like the vertical field centers the toroidal plasma in a tokamak. Depending on stability and confinement properties, the RFC might be used to greatly reduce the axial losses in linear fusion devices such as mirrors, theta pinches, and liners. The FRX systems produce RFC's with a major radius R = 2-6 cm, minor radius a approximately 2 cm, and a total length l approximately 35 cm. The observed temperatures are T/sub e/ approximately 100 eV and T/sub i/ = 150-350 eV with a peak density n approximately 2 x 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/. After the plasma reaches equilibrium, the RFC remains stable for up to 30 ..mu..s followed by the rapid growth of the rotational m = 2 instability, which terminates the confinement. During the stable equilibrium, the particle and energy confinement times are more than 10 times longer than in an open-field system. The behavior of the m = 2 mode qualitatively agrees with the theoretically predicted instability for rotational velocities exceeding some critical value.

  2. Calculations of self-generated magnetic fields in parylene disc experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlbacka, G.H.; Mead, W.C.; Max, C.E.; Thomson, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments have been planned at Livermore to measure self-generated magnetic fields using the Faraday Rotation of frequency quadrupled 1.1 μm laser light. The LASNEX code was used during the planning of these experiments and has provided valuable information in establishing the conditions under which the thermoelectric fields expected can be measured. Suspected thermoelectric fields have been inferred from experiments that have been carried out at NRL

  3. Fifth International Symposium on Recurrence Plot

    CERN Document Server

    Riley, Michael; Giuliani, Alessandro; Webber, Charles; Jr, Jr; Translational Recurrences : From Mathematical Theory to Real-World Applications

    2014-01-01

    This book features 13 papers presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Recurrence Plots, held August 2013 in Chicago, IL. It examines recent applications and developments in recurrence plots and recurrence quantifi cation analysis (RQA) with special emphasis on biological and cognitive systems and the analysis of coupled systems using cross-recurrence methods. Readers will discover new applications and insights into a range of systems provided by recurrence plot analysis and new theoretical and mathematical developments in recurrence plots. Recurrence plot based analysis is a powerful tool that operates on real-world complex systems that are nonlinear, non-stationary, noisy, of any statistical distribution, free of any particular model type, and not particularly long. Quantitative analyses promote the detection of system state changes, synchronized dynamical regimes, or classifi cation of system states. Th e book will be of interest to an interdisciplinary audience of recurrence plot users and researc...

  4. IPLOT, interactive MELCOR data plotting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: IPLOT is an interactive MELCOR data plotting system. It provides several kinds of GUI interfaces for a flexible data plotting. IPLOT capabilities include creation, saving and loading of user specified MELCOR variables trend graphs. IPLOT can use one or several plot files for a graph generation while the graphs can be either in one window or in several windows. Besides IPLOT provides several graph convenient functions such as zooming, re-sizing, printing for a detail analysis of severe accidents. 2 - Methods: Trend values seeking in a plot file is performed by a binary search method for fast performance. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: MELCOR plot files are required for plotting

  5. On the design and implementation of environmental conservation mechanisms : Evidence from field experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitesa, Rahel

    2018-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation consists of three chapters on the design and implementation of environmental conservation mechanisms using economic experiments. The first chapter examines how variations in information and context affect the outcomes of valuation using field experiment. The chapter shows

  6. Recurrence plots of exchange rates of currencies

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Used to investigate the presence of distinctive recurrent behaviours in natural processes, the recurrence plots can be applied to the analysis of economic data, and, in particular, to the characterization of exchange rates of currencies too. In this paper, we will show that these plots are able to characterize the periods of oscillation and random walk of currencies and enhance their reply to news and events, by means of texture transitions. The examples of recurrence plots given here are obt...

  7. System for histogram entry, retrieval, and plotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, M.; Gallup, J.M.; Shlaer, S.; Spencer, N.

    1977-10-01

    This manual describes the systems for producing histograms and dot plots that were designed for use in connection with the Q general-purpose data-acquisition system. These systems allow for the creation of histograms; the entry, retrieval, and plotting of data in the form of histograms; and the dynamic display of scatter plots as data are acquired. Although the systems are designed for use with Q, they can also be used as a part of other applications. 3 figures

  8. Simulation experiment on magnetic field reconnection processes in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwamoto, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Two experimental studies on magnetic field line reconnection processes relevant to tokamak physics are going on in Japan. In Yokohama National University, reconnection of poloidal magnetic field lines is studied by the author when reversing the toroidal current of a small toroidal plasma in a short period (typically less than 4 μsec). Interaction of two current carrying plasma (linear) columns is being studied by Kawashima and his coleagues in Institute of Space and Aeronautical Sciences. Mutual attraction and merging of the plasma columns and resulting plasma heating are reported. (author)

  9. Nitrous oxide emissions from European agriculture - an analysis of variability and drivers of emissions from field experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, R M; Agustin, J; Alberti, G

    2013-01-01

    Nitrous oxide emissions from a network of agricultural experiments in Europe were used to explore the relative importance of site and management controls of emissions. At each site, a selection of management interventions were compared within replicated experimental designs in plot-based experime......Nitrous oxide emissions from a network of agricultural experiments in Europe were used to explore the relative importance of site and management controls of emissions. At each site, a selection of management interventions were compared within replicated experimental designs in plot...

  10. Representing uncertainty on model analysis plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor I. Smith

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model. Unfortunately, Bao’s original presentation of the model plot did not include a way to represent uncertainty in these measurements. I present details of a method to add error bars to model plots by expanding the work of Sommer and Lindell. I also provide a template for generating model plots with error bars.

  11. The Field Trip Book: Study Travel Experiences in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ronald V.

    2010-01-01

    Looking for social studies adventures to help students find connections to democratic citizenship? Look no further! This book provides just the answer teachers need for engaging students in field trips as researching learners with emphasis on interdisciplinary social studies plus skills in collecting and reporting data gathered from field…

  12. Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX '91, field phase report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesenberg, J.; Ancellet, G.; Bergwerff, H.; Cossart, G. v.; Fiedler, J.; Jonge, C. de; Mellqvist, J.; Mitev, V.; Sonnemann, G.; Swart, D.; Wallinder, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment TROLIX '91 has been initiated as part of the TESLAS subproject of the cooperative programme EUROTRAC. It has been performed in June 1991 at the Rijksinstitut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene (RIVM) in Bilthoven, The Netherlands. The experiment was based on the simultaneous operation of different types of differential absorption lidars (DIAL), a special version of a Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy Instrument (DOAS), helicopter borne in situ instruments, and many other supporting measurements. After a short introduction to the general methodology the instruments are described, the experimental operations are explained, and a selection of data are presented. Some examples are given for the results of the intercomparison, as far as they have been available at the present stage of evaluation. The main purpose of this report, however, is to provide an overview over the material collected during the experiment, on order to facilitate further detailed studies in cooperation between the different groups which have participated. (orig.)

  13. Constructing General Orthogonal Fractional Factorial Split-Plot Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartono, B.; Goos, P.; Schoen, E.

    2015-01-01

    While the orthogonal design of split-plot fractional factorial experiments has received much attention already, there are still major voids in the literature. First, designs with one or more factors acting at more than two levels have not yet been considered. Second, published work on nonregular

  14. A Conductive Gel for the Plotting of Equipotential Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde-Torres, J.; González-Cardel, M.; Vega-Murguía, E. J.; Castillo-González, I.; Rodríguez-Nava, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a conductive gel that can be used to measure the electrical potential differences on its surface, and has enough consistency to plot equipotential lines. It has a gelation time of less than 10 min, and is suitable for implementing learning experiences in a physics teaching laboratory in a 90 min session. To…

  15. Effect of vegetal cover on runoff and soil erosion under light intensity events. Rainfall simulation over USLE plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, María José; Bienes, Ramón; Jiménez, Luis; Pérez-Rodríguez, Raquel

    2007-05-25

    The erosive power of frequent light rainfalls is studied in this paper. Field experiments of simulated rainfall (Intensity, 21 mm h(-1) and kinetic energy, 13.5 J m(-2) mm(-1)) were conducted over 8 bounded USLE plots (80 m(2) each) with a slope of 10%. In 4 plots the soil was almost bare (<4% vegetation cover); the other 4 plots had almost full cover with natural vegetation in one year. Runoff and sediment yield was recorded. The results revealed the efficiency of vegetation cover reducing runoff and sediments. Runoff and sediments were negligible in covered plots. Therefore, in bare plots, although sediment yield was generally low, averaging 74+/-43 kg ha(-1), the mean of runoff achieved a coefficient of 35%, this magnitude has to be taken into consideration in this region verging on aridity. Rains around 13.5 J m(-2) mm(-1) of kinetic energy are quite frequent in the study area (34% of recorded rains en 12 years). If we would consider the usual lower limits from the literature, we would be ignoring an important percent of natural rainfall episodes.

  16. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar amended plots

    OpenAIRE

    S. L. Weyers; K. A. Spokas

    2014-01-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with ...

  17. The Mistra experiment for field containment code validation first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron-Charles, M.; Blumenfeld, L.

    2001-01-01

    The MISTRA facility is a large scale experiment, designed for the purpose of thermal-hydraulics multi-D codes validation. A short description of the facility, the set up of the instrumentation and the test program are presented. Then, the first experimental results, studying helium injection in the containment and their calculations are detailed. (author)

  18. International Field Experiences Promote Professional Development for Sustainability Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, R. Bruce; Kimmel, Courtney; Robertson, David P.; Mortimer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe, explain and evaluate a graduate education program that provides international project experiences and builds competencies related to collaborative problem-solving, cultural capacity to work globally and sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative analysis of survey data from 28 students…

  19. Luck or cheating? A field experiment on honesty with children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.; Piovesan, M.

    2011-01-01

    We run an experiment to study the relationship between honesty, age and self-control. We focus on children aged between 5 and 15 as the literature suggests that self-control develops within such age range. We ask each child to toss a fair coin in private and to record the outcome (white or black) on

  20. Luck or cheating? A field experiment on honesty with children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.; Piovesan, M.

    2008-01-01

    We ran an experiment with children to study the development of honesty with age. We asked each child to toss a fair coin in private and to record the outcome (white or black) in a paper sheet. We rewarded only those who reported white. We found a fraction of reported whites signifi cantly larger

  1. D.3.3 PLOT Persuasive Learning Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri

    2012-01-01

    In this third and final deliverable of WP3: Persuasive Learning Designs, the theoretical cross field between persuasion and learning and the practical analysis of the technological learning tools and products which are currently related to the PLOT project, namely the GLOMaker and the 3ET tool......, are linked together as persuasive learning designs are defined and exemplified through the four e-PLOT cases. Based on the literary study of D.3.1 as well as the subsequent discussions and reflections regarding the theoretical foundation and practical application of persuasive learning technologies......-PLOT work cases. In conclusion, the report presents a number of suggestions regarding the improvement of the two learning tools, which from a theoretical perspective will enhance the persuasive potential, and which can be taken into consideration in WP4 and 5....

  2. Thermal and Field Enhanced Photoemission Comparison of Theory to Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn-Jensen, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Photocathodes are a critical component of high-gain FEL’s and the analysis of their emission is complex. Relating their performance under laboratory conditions to conditions of an rf photoinjector is difficult. Useful models must account for cathode surface conditions and material properties, as well as drive laser parameters. We have developed a time-dependent model accounting for the effects of laser heating and thermal propagation on photoemission. It accounts for surface conditions (coating, field enhancement, reflectivity), laser parameters (duration, intensity, wavelength), and material characteristics (reflectivity, laser penetration depth, scattering rates) to predict current distribution and quantum efficiency. The applicatIon will focus on photoemission from metals and, in particular, dispenser photocathodes: the later introduces complications such as coverage non-uniformity and field enhancement. The performance of experimentally characterized photocathodes will be extrapolated to 0.1 - 1 nC bunch...

  3. Field error reduction experiment on the REPUTE-1 RFP device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, H.; Shinohara, S.; Yamagishi, K.

    1989-01-01

    The vacuum chamber of the RFP device REPUTE-1 is a welded structure using 18 sets of 1 mm thick Inconel bellows (inner minor radius 22 cm) and 2.4 mm thick port segments arranged in toroidal geometry as shown in Fig. 1. The vacuum chamber is surrounded by 5 mm thick stainless steel shells. The time constant of the shell is 1 ms for vertical field penetration. The pulse length in REPUTE-1 is so far 3.2 ms (about 3 times longer than shell skin time). The port bypass plates have been attached as shown in Fig. 2 to reduce field errors so that the pulse length becomes longer and the loop voltage becomes lower. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs

  4. Laboratory and field experience with rim ditch dewatering of MFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoz, A.; Mikula, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Western Research Centre; Lahaie, R. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described a rim ditch method of dewatering mature fine tailings (MFT). Polymer additions were used to strengthen the MFT and to decrease the capillary suction time (CST). Laboratory and field-scale studies were conducted to demonstrate the dewatering method. The flocculants were added in a Komax inline mixer. Polymers were then injected into the tailings. The mixing processes were optimized in a series of laboratory studies and then demonstrated in the field tests. The tests showed that CST and high dewatering rates were consistently maintained using the method. MFT feeds were also consistent. Release water quality was improved using the method. The large-scale test site is now being monitored for compliance with Directive 74. tabs., figs.

  5. 4D experience on Girassol Field block 17, Angola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefeuvre, F.; Brechet, E.; Bertini, F.; Jourdan, J.M.; Cassou, G. [TOTAL S.A., Luanda (Angola); Dubucq, D. [TOTAL Angola, Luanda (Angola)

    2004-07-01

    The Girassol field is located in Angolan deep water of Block 17 and consists of large vertically stacked turbidities complexes. The reservoir extends over approximately 200 km{sup 2} and water depth ranges between 1300 and 1400 meters. In that context High Resolution 3D seismic became the most valuable tool to describe and monitor the reservoir. The field development plan took into account, through re-injection of the gas into the reservoir, Total environmental policy imposing the recycling of production gas. Monitoring of this injection was the main reason to shoot the first High Resolution 4D extremely early in the life of field. Despite the complexity of interpretation due to complex fluid situation and pressure effect, the results went way beyond expectations as the 4D images are of very high quality. Data has also been used to update and refine the reservoir flow model as well as to help deciding on the location of latest development wells. Other repeat surveys are scheduled, the next one before the end of 2004. The ultimate goal which we hope to reach in the very near future will be to use seismic-derived saturation and pressure changes to constrain the reservoir model during the history matching process. (author)

  6. Modelling the Grimsel migration field experiments at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heer, W.

    1997-01-01

    For several years tracer migration experiments have been performed at Nagra's Grimsel Test Site as a joint undertaking of Nagra, PNC and PSI. The aims of modelling the migration experiments are (1) to better understand the nuclide transport through crystalline rock; (2) to gain information on validity of methods and correlating parameters; (3) to improve models for safety assessments. The PSI modelling results, presented here, show a consistent picture for the investigated tracers (the non-sorbing uranine, the weakly sorbing sodium, the moderately sorbing strontium and the more strongly sorbing cesium). They represent an important step in building up confidence in safety assessments for radioactive waste repositories. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  7. Using Field Experiments to Change the Template of How We Teach Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, John A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explains why field experiments can improve what we teach and how we teach economics. Economists no longer operate as passive observers of economic phenomena. Instead, they participate actively in the research process by collecting data from field experiments to investigate the economics of everyday life. This change can…

  8. 160 Gb/s all-optical packet switching field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorren, H.J.S.; Herrera, J.; Raz, O.

    2007-01-01

    We discus an all-optical packet switching experiment over 110 km of field installed optical fiber. The switching node is controlled by solely photonic control circuits.......We discus an all-optical packet switching experiment over 110 km of field installed optical fiber. The switching node is controlled by solely photonic control circuits....

  9. Community-Based Field Experiences in Teacher Education: Possibilities for a Pedagogical Third Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    The present article discusses the importance of community-based field experiences as a feature of teacher education programs. Through a qualitative case study, prospective teachers' work with homeless youth in an after-school initiative is presented. Framing community-based field experiences in teacher education through "third space" theory, the…

  10. An experience in the field of training in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluchere, J.

    1983-01-01

    The author, a former head of an EdF training center, gives his thoughts on the training of EdF nuclear power plant radiation workers whose number was increased fourfold in 6 years and whose initial qualifications varied considerably. The orientation already taken and the directions that experience has suggested to be promising are indicated. Attention is also drawn on psychological problems that should be taken into consideration in order to work efficiently [fr

  11. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  12. Emotional characters for automatic plot creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theune, Mariet; Rensen, S.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Göbel, S.; Spierling, U.; Hoffmann, A.; Iurgel, I.; Schneider, O.; Dechau, J.; Feix, A.

    The Virtual Storyteller is a multi-agent framework for automatic story generation. In this paper we describe how plots emerge from the actions of semi-autonomous character agents, focusing on the influence of the characters’ emotions on plot development.

  13. Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Integrated rate plots are frequently used in reaction kinetics to determine orders of reactions. It is often emphasised, when using this methodology in practice, that it is necessary to monitor the reaction to a substantial fraction of completion for these plots to yield unambiguous orders. The present article gives a theoretical and statistical…

  14. Poloidal field system design for the ZT-H reversed field pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberg, K.F.; Gribble, R.F.; Linton, T.W.; Reass, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    This report discusses each of the following areas: (1) equilibrium specification, (2) the equilibrium winding, (3) the magnetizing winding, (4) numerical poloidal field system analysis, (5) coil cross section, turns, minimum field error, (6) coil stresses and cooling, (7) the upper structure, (8) the loads, (9) boundary conditions and method of analysis, and (10) design description

  15. Viking satellite program - preliminary results from the APL Magnetic Field Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potemra, T.A.; Zanetti, L.J.; Erlandson, R.E.; Gustafsson, G.; Acuna, M.H.; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD)

    1986-01-01

    Sweden's Viking satellite, launched in February 1986, has been conducting plasma process observations in the earth magnetosphere and auroral regions; the U.S.-supplied APL Magnetic Field Experiment aboard Viking is used to determine field-aligned Birkeland current characteristics in previously unsampled regions of near-earth space. The Magnetic Field Experiment has an equivalent spatial resolution of 12 m in the auroral ionosphere when making measurements near apogee. The purposes of Viking's other instruments and their relationship to the Magnetic Field Experiment are discussed

  16. Measuring microbial fitness in a field reciprocal transplant experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, Primrose J; Stelkens, Rike; Kowallik, Vienna; Greig, Duncan

    2017-05-01

    Microbial fitness is easy to measure in the laboratory, but difficult to measure in the field. Laboratory fitness assays make use of controlled conditions and genetically modified organisms, neither of which are available in the field. Among other applications, fitness assays can help researchers detect adaptation to different habitats or locations. We designed a competitive fitness assay to detect adaptation of Saccharomyces paradoxus isolates to the habitat they were isolated from (oak or larch leaf litter). The assay accurately measures relative fitness by tracking genotype frequency changes in the field using digital droplet PCR (DDPCR). We expected locally adapted S. paradoxus strains to increase in frequency over time when growing on the leaf litter type from which they were isolated. The DDPCR assay successfully detected fitness differences among S. paradoxus strains, but did not find a tendency for strains to be adapted to the habitat they were isolated from. Instead, we found that the natural alleles of the hexose transport gene we used to distinguish S. paradoxus strains had significant effects on fitness. The origin of a strain also affected its fitness: strains isolated from oak litter were generally fitter than strains from larch litter. Our results suggest that dispersal limitation and genetic drift shape S. paradoxus populations in the forest more than local selection does, although further research is needed to confirm this. Tracking genotype frequency changes using DDPCR is a practical and accurate microbial fitness assay for natural environments. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Electron temperature diagnostics in the RFX reversed field pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartiromo, R.; Carraro, L.; Marrelli, L.; Murari, A.; Pasqualotto, R.; Puiatti, M.E.; Scarin, P.; Valisa, M.; Franz, P.; Martin, P.; Zabeo, L.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated approach to the problem of electron temperature diagnostics of the plasma in a reversed field pinch. Three different methods, sampling different portions of the electron distribution function, are adopted, namely Thomson scattering, soft X-ray spectroscopy by pulse-height analysis and filtered soft X-ray intensity ratio. A careful analysis of the different sources of systematic errors is performed and a novel statistical approach is adopted to mutually validate the three independent measurements. A satisfactory agreement is obtained over a large range of experimental conditions, indicating that in the plasma core the energy distribution function is well represented by a maxwellian. (author)

  18. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, M. J., E-mail: mros@lle.rochester.edu; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Fox, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Igumenshchev, I.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Town, R. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in β ∼ 10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell simulations predict a stronger flux compression and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.

  19. Fusion Performance of High Magnetic Field Expe-riments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airoldi, A.; Cenacchi, G.; Coppi, B.

    1997-11-01

    High magnetic field machines have the characteristic of operating well within the usual limitations known as density and beta limits. This feature is highlighted in the Ignitor concept thanks to its reference field of up to 13 T on the magnetic axis and its high current densities. The two reference scenarios with plasma currents of 12 MA and 11 MA respectively, are discussed. The ramp time is 4 sec for both scenarios, whereas the following programmed time dependence of the current is different. The results of an extensive series of numerical simulations using an appropriate version of the 1+1/2D JETTO transport code show that in any case optimal fusion performances are reacheable without needing enhancement over the values of the energy replacement time predicted by the most pessimistic scalings (for the so-called L-mode regime). The density is the crucial parameter involved on the path to ignition that can be achieved provided the density rise is carefully programmed. The density profiles can be controlled by the proper use of the pellet injector that is included in the machine design.

  20. Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarff, J.S.; Almagri, A.F.; Anderson, J.K.; Borchardt, M.; Carmody, D.; Caspary, K.; Chapman, B.E.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Duff, J.; Eilerman, S.; Falkowski, A.; Forest, C.B.; Goetz, J.A.; Holly, D.J.; Kim, J.-H.; King, J.; Ko, J.; Koliner, J.; Kumar, S.; Lee, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    An overview of recent results from the MST programme on physics important for the advancement of the reversed field pinch (RFP) as well as for improved understanding of toroidal magnetic confinement more generally is reported. Evidence for the classical confinement of ions in the RFP is provided by analysis of impurity ions and energetic ions created by 1 MW neutral beam injection (NBI). The first appearance of energetic-particle-driven modes by NBI in a RFP plasma is described. MST plasmas robustly access the quasi-single-helicity state that has commonalities to the stellarator and ‘snake’ formation in tokamaks. In MST the dominant mode grows to 8% of the axisymmetric field strength, while the remaining modes are reduced. Predictive capability for tearing mode behaviour has been improved through nonlinear, 3D, resistive magnetohydrodynamic computation using the measured resistivity profile and Lundquist number, which reproduces the sawtooth cycle dynamics. Experimental evidence and computational analysis indicates two-fluid effects, e.g., Hall physics and gyro-viscosity, are needed to understand the coupling of parallel momentum transport and current profile relaxation. Large Reynolds and Maxwell stresses, plus separately measured kinetic stress, indicate an intricate momentum balance and a possible origin for MST's intrinsic plasma rotation. Gyrokinetic analysis indicates that micro-tearing modes can be unstable at high beta, with a critical gradient for the electron temperature that is larger than for tokamak plasmas by roughly the aspect ratio. (paper)

  1. Pesticide uptake in potatoes: model and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraske, Ronnie; Vivas, Carmen S Mosquera; Velásquez, Alexander Erazo; Santos, Glenda García; Moreno, Mónica B Berdugo; Gomez, Jaime Diaz; Binder, Claudia R; Hellweg, Stefanie; Dallos, Jairo A Guerrero

    2011-01-15

    A dynamic model for uptake of pesticides in potatoes is presented and evaluated with measurements performed within a field trial in the region of Boyacá, Colombia. The model takes into account the time between pesticide applications and harvest, the time between harvest and consumption, the amount of spray deposition on soil surface, mobility and degradation of pesticide in soil, diffusive uptake and persistence due to crop growth and metabolism in plant material, and loss due to food processing. Food processing steps included were cleaning, washing, storing, and cooking. Pesticide concentrations were measured periodically in soil and potato samples from the beginning of tuber formation until harvest. The model was able to predict the magnitude and temporal profile of the experimentally derived pesticide concentrations well, with all measurements falling within the 90% confidence interval. The fraction of chlorpyrifos applied on the field during plant cultivation that eventually is ingested by the consumer is on average 10(-4)-10(-7), depending on the time between pesticide application and ingestion and the processing step considered.

  2. Localized damage in soft rock: experiments with field measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis concerns, firstly, an experimental study on the process of fracture in uniaxial compression of rock samples containing narrow, rectilinear notches inclined with respect to the axis of loading. Secondly, we study the evolution of shear strain localisation towards fracturing and failure in specimens of the same materials with a particular geometry, involving two rounded notches. This geometry, inspired by the work of Meuwissen et al. (1998) for tension tests on metals, promotes the localisation of shear strain in simple compression before fracture. Two different materials were studied: a natural rock of volcanic origin (Neapolitan Tuff) and an artificial 'roc' (CPIR09). In the studies presented, three full-field measurement techniques have been employed in combination: (i) the Digital Image Correlation (DIC), for measurement of kinematic fields at a sample's surface; (ii)acoustic Emission measurements (AE) and AE source location, to follow the evolution of damage in samples during loading; (iii) X-ray tomography (pre-and post-mortem studies), to characterise preexisting defects and discontinuities in the specimens and to better understand the fracturing in 3D. (author)

  3. Field experience with a mobile tomographic nondestructive assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Betts, S.E.; Taggart, D.P.; Estep, R.J.; Nicholas, N.J.; Lucas, M.C.; Harlan, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A mobile tomographic gamma-ray scanner (TGS) developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory was recently demonstrated at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and is currently in use at Los Alamos waste storage areas. The scanner was developed to assay radionuclides in low-level, transuranic, and mixed waste in containers ranging in size from 2 ft 3 boxes to 83-gallon overpacks. The tomographic imaging capability provides a complete correction for source distribution and matrix attenuation effects, enabling accurate assays of Pu-239 and other gamma-ray emitting isotopes. In addition, the system can reliably detect self-absorbing material such as plutonium metal shot, and can correct for bias caused by self-absorption. The system can be quickly configured to execute far-field scans, segmented gamma-ray scans, and a host of intermediate scanning protocols, enabling higher throughput (up to 20 drums per 8-hour shift). In this paper, we will report on the results of field trials of the mobile system at Rocky Flats and Los Alamos. Assay accuracy is confirmed for cases in which TGS assays can be compared with assays (e.g. with calorimetry) of individual packages within the drums. The mobile tomographic technology is expected to considerably reduce characterization costs at DOE production and environmental technology sites

  4. The 1987 Federal field exercise: The DOE experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S.

    1989-06-01

    The second full-scale field exercise of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) was held at the Zion Nuclear Power Station, Zion, Illinois, in June 1987. The exercise incorporated the annual compliance exercise for the Zion plant and involved the operating utility, Commonwealth Edison Company, the states of Illinois and Wisconsin, local governments, volunteer groups, and representatives from 12 federal agencies. The 3-day exercise was played from many locations in the Zion area; Springfield, Illinois; Madison, Wisconsin; and Washington, DC. Approximately 1000 people participated in the exercise, which used a scenario in which an accident at the plant resulted in the release of radioactive material outside the plant boundary. The US Department of Energy (DOE) had major responsibilities during the planning, playing, and critiquing of the exercise; these functions are outlined in the report. This document describes the DOE participation in the planning and response during the exercise. During a radiological emergency, the FRERP gives DOE the responsibility for coordinating the federal radiological monitoring and assessment activities in support of the states and the cognizant federal agency. At Zion, a self-sufficient Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center was established by DOE at a nearby fairground in which over 200 people from DOE, the two states, and other federal agencies participated. Before the field exercise, a tabletop exercise and a dry run were held for training purposes. 5 refs., 6 figs

  5. Fisher.py: Fisher Matrix Manipulation and Confidence Contour Plotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dan

    2010-10-01

    Fisher.py allows you to combine constraints from multiple experiments (e.g., weak lensing + supernovae) and add priors (e.g., a flat universe) simply and easily. Calculate parameter uncertainties and plot confidence ellipses. Fisher matrix expectations for several experiments are included as calculated by myself (time delays) and the Dark Energy Task Force (WL/SN/BAO/CL/CMB), or provide your own.

  6. Multibeam smart antenna field trial experiments in mobile radio environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Several types of high gain multibeam antennas were tested and compared to traditional sector and omni antennas in various mobile radio environments. A vehicle equipped with a mobile transmitter drove in several mobile radio environments while the received signal strength (RSS) was recorded on multiple antenna channels attached to multibeam, sector and omni directional antennas. The RSS data recorded included the fast (rayleigh) fading and was averaged into local means based on the mobile's position/speed. Description of the experiment and analysis of the gain improvement, average RSS, diversity gain are presented.

  7. High throughput field plant phenotyping facility at University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the first year experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y.; Bai, G.; Irmak, S.; Awada, T.; Stoerger, V.; Graef, G.; Scoby, D.; Schnable, J.

    2017-12-01

    University of Nebraska - Lincoln's high throughput field plant phenotyping facility is a cable robot based system built on a 1-ac field. The sensor platform is tethered with eight cables via four poles at the corners of the field for its precise control and positioning. The sensor modules on the platform include a 4-band RGB-NIR camera, a thermal infrared camera, a 3D LiDAR, VNIR spectrometers, and environmental sensors. These sensors are used to collect multifaceted physiological, structural and chemical properties of plants from the field plots. A subsurface drip irrigation system is established in this field which allows a controlled amount of water and fertilizers to be delivered to individual plots. An extensive soil moisture sensor network is also established to monitor soil water status, and serve as a feedback loop for irrigation scheduling. In the first year of operation, the field is planted maize and soybean. Weekly ground truth data were collected from the plots to validate image and sensor data from the phenotyping system. This presentation will provide an overview of this state-of-the-art field plant phenotyping facility, and present preliminary data from the first year operation of the system.

  8. Modulation of glacier ablation by tephra coverage from Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland: an automated field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Rebecca; Möller, Marco; Kukla, Peter A.; Schneider, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    We report results from a field experiment investigating the influence of volcanic tephra coverage on glacier ablation. These influences are known to be significantly different from those of moraine debris on glaciers due to the contrasting grain size distribution and thermal conductivity. Thus far, the influences of tephra deposits on glacier ablation have rarely been studied. For the experiment, artificial plots of two different tephra types from Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes were installed on a snow-covered glacier surface of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland. Snow-surface lowering and atmospheric conditions were monitored in summer 2015 and compared to a tephra-free reference site. For each of the two volcanic tephra types, three plots of variable thickness ( ˜ 1.5, ˜ 8.5 and ˜ 80 mm) were monitored. After limiting the records to a period of reliable measurements, a 50-day data set of hourly records was obtained, which can be downloaded from the Pangaea data repository (pangaea.de" target="_blank">https://www.pangaea.de; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.876656). The experiment shows a substantial increase in snow-surface lowering rates under the ˜ 1.5 and ˜ 8.5 mm tephra plots when compared to uncovered conditions. Under the thick tephra cover some insulating effects could be observed. These results are in contrast to other studies which depicted insulating effects for much thinner tephra coverage on bare-ice glacier surfaces. Differences between the influences of the two different petrological types of tephra exist but are negligible compared to the effect of tephra coverage overall.

  9. Influence of the mode of deformation on recrystallisation behaviour of titanium through experiments, mean field theory and phase field model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athreya, C. N.; Mukilventhan, A.; Suwas, Satyam; Vedantam, Srikanth; Subramanya Sarma, V.

    2018-04-01

    The influence of the mode of deformation on recrystallisation behaviour of Ti was studied by experiments and modelling. Ti samples were deformed through torsion and rolling to the same equivalent strain of 0.5. The deformed samples were annealed at different temperatures for different time durations and the recrystallisation kinetics were compared. Recrystallisation is found to be faster in the rolled samples compared to the torsion deformed samples. This is attributed to the differences in stored energy and number of nuclei per unit area in the two modes of deformation. Considering decay in stored energy during recrystallisation, the grain boundary mobility was estimated through a mean field model. The activation energy for recrystallisation obtained from experiments matched with the activation energy for grain boundary migration obtained from mobility calculation. A multi-phase field model (with mobility estimated from the mean field model as a constitutive input) was used to simulate the kinetics, microstructure and texture evolution. The recrystallisation kinetics and grain size distributions obtained from experiments matched reasonably well with the phase field simulations. The recrystallisation texture predicted through phase field simulations compares well with experiments though few additional texture components are present in simulations. This is attributed to the anisotropy in grain boundary mobility, which is not accounted for in the present study.

  10. Experiment of Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Sik Kim

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently the mobile wireless network has been drastically enhanced and one of the most efficient ways to realize the ubiquitous network will be to develop the converged network by integrating the mobile wireless network with other IP fixed network like NGN (Next Generation Network. So in this paper the term of the wireless ubiquitous network is used to describe this approach. In this paper, first, the wireless ubiquitous network architecture is described based on IMS which has been standardized by 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Program. Next, the field data collection system to match the satellite data using location information is proposed based on the concept of the wireless ubiquitous network architecture. The purpose of the proposed system is to provide more accurate analyzing method with the researchers in the remote sensing area.

  11. Experience with a distributed computing system for magnetic field analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, M.J.

    1978-08-01

    The development of a general purpose computer system, THESEUS, is described the initial use for which has been magnetic field analysis. The system involves several computers connected by data links. Some are small computers with interactive graphics facilities and limited analysis capabilities, and others are large computers for batch execution of analysis programs with heavy processor demands. The system is highly modular for easy extension and highly portable for transfer to different computers. It can easily be adapted for a completely different application. It provides a highly efficient and flexible interface between magnet designers and specialised analysis programs. Both the advantages and problems experienced are highlighted, together with a mention of possible future developments. (U.K.)

  12. Field experiments on responses of a freshwater, benthic macroinvertebrate community to vertebrate predators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorp, J.H.; Bergey, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The seasonal importance of vertebrate predators in potentially regulating the abundance and diversity of the benthic macroinvertebrates in the littoral zone of a soft-bottom reservoir that receives thermal effluent from a nuclear production reactor was examined. Thirty-six predator (fish and turtle) exclusion cages (4 m 2 ) were placed in shallow water at six locations along a thermal gradient in Par Pond, a 1100-ha cooling reservoir on the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina, USA. An additional 36 control plots (4 m 2 ) were also set up. Cages were in place during three, 3-mo test periods beginning in September 1977. Estimates of benthic density, taxon richness, and distribution within functional groups (defined by feeding mechanism) were calculated for each test period. Effects of temperature on predator-prey relationships were also determined. Experimental results of this study suggest that vertebrate predation was not the fundamental parameter organizing the benthic macroinvertebrate community in the littoral zone of this reservoir. Neither taxon richness nor density of total macroinvertebrates was conclusively related to predator treatment. Relationships between predator treatment and community response (changes in density and taxon richness) were generally unaffected by either plot locality, temperature fluctuations from thermal effluent, or seasonal changes. When data from caged and control plots were pooled, however, both location and water temperature individually had direct impacts on the benthic community. From these results and other field studies it is hypothesized that individual species of keystone benthic predators do not occur in the littoral zone of freshwater lentic environments with soft bottoms

  13. A first look at measurement error on FIA plots using blind plots in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanna Melson; David Azuma; Jeremy S. Fried

    2002-01-01

    Measurement error in the Forest Inventory and Analysis work of the Pacific Northwest Station was estimated with a recently implemented blind plot measurement protocol. A small subset of plots was revisited by a crew having limited knowledge of the first crew's measurements. This preliminary analysis of the first 18 months' blind plot data indicates that...

  14. The lure of local SETI: Fifty years of field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailleris, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    With the commemoration in October 2007 of the Sputnik launch, space exploration celebrated its 50th anniversary. Despite impressive technological and scientific achievements the fascination for space has weakened during the last decades. One contributing factor has been the gradual disappearance of mankind's hope of discovering extraterrestrial life within its close neighbourhood. In striking contrast and since the middle of the 20th century, a non-negligible proportion of the population have already concluded that intelligent beings from other worlds do exist and visit Earth through space vehicles popularly called Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). In light of the continuous public interest for the UFO enigma symbolized by the recent widely diffused media announcements on the release of French and English governmental files; and considering the approach of broadening the strategies of the "Active SETI" approach and the existence of a rich multi-disciplinary UFO documentation of potential interest for SETI; this paper describes some past scientific attempts to demonstrate the physical reality of the phenomena and potentially the presence on Earth of probes of extraterrestrial origin. Details of the different instrumented field studies deployed by scientists and organizations during the period 1950-1990 in the USA, Canada and Europe are provided. In conclusion it will be argued that while continuing the current radio/optical SETI searches, there is the necessity to maintain sustaining attention to the topic of anomalous aerospace phenomena and to develop new rigorous research approaches.

  15. Design of a new large s field reversed configuration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.L.; Slough, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    The present TRX facility utilizes programmed formation techniques to form s = 2 plasmas in a 20 cm diameter by 1 m long plasma tube. LSX will have an 80 cm diameter by 4 m long plasma tube and will employ the same programmed formation techniques as TRX. This should result in s = 8 plasmas and FRC flux and energy lifetimes in the msec range if the presently measured scaling persists. LSX will be initially restricted to an external field of 7.5 kG, and typical plasma conditions will be 300 eV electron and ion temperatures and electron or ion densities of about 2x10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/. The low voltage formation techniques developed in TRX-2 (Eθ /sub values of about 100 volts/cm) will also be employed on LSX, so that relatively low voltage power supplies can be utilized. A modified form of second half cycle circuitry is planned to replace the function of a large reverse bias capacitor bank. The increase in total power supply efficiency allows the primary magnet energy storage to be less that 1 MJ

  16. Escompte Field Experiment : Some Preliminary Results About The Iop 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, B.; Durand, P.; Ancellet, G.; Calpini, B.; Frejafon, E.; Jambert, C.; Serça, D.; Sol, B.; Wortham, H.; Zephoris, M.

    One of the main goals of the ESCOMPTE programme is to create an appropriate -3D data base including emissions, transport and air composition measurements during urban pollution episodes. ESCOMPTE will as well as provide a highly documented framework for dynamical and chemical studies. For this purpose a field campaign was carried out in Marseille -Berre area in the south-eastern of France from June 4 to July 13, 2001. Five pollution events (IOP) were documented. The second one called IOP2 is particularly interesting in term of photochemical pollution. The chemical evolution of the urban and industrial plumes and the orographic influence are analysed from surface, remote sensing and airborne measurements. This IOP 2 of six days duration ( June 21 to June 26) will be presented . It began with a moderate S/SW wind (an end of Mistral situation) , clear skies and hot temperature (>30rC). Marseille and Berre plumes extended towards the East and over the sea. The highest surface ozone concentration were found around Toulon area. This first period (23-26/06) so called IOP 2a was followed by IOP 2b, three days of very hot temperature (>34rC) and high surface concentration in ozone - 100 ppbv over the whole domain , 125 ppbv all around Aix on the 24 up to 150 ppbv in the durance valley on the 25.

  17. Proposal for the ZT-40 reversed-field Z-pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.; Machalek, M.D.

    1977-08-01

    A next-generation, toroidal, reversed-field Z-pinch experiment to be constructed at LASL is proposed. On the basis of encouraging ZT-I and ZT-S experimental results, a larger device with a 40-cm bore and a 114-cm major radius is proposed, to extend the confinement time by about an order of magnitude. The new experiment will explore the physics of programming reversed-field pinches in a size range unexplored by previous reversed-field pinch experiments. Model reversed-field pinch reactor calculations show that, if stability is assumed, small fusion reactors are possible if the pinch current density is high. A basic aim will be to delineate the plasma and current density ranges in which stable reversed-field pinches can be produced. Improved vacuum techniques will be used to overcome the radiation losses that probably kept electron temperatures low in the earlier, smaller experiments

  18. Experiments and Modeling to Support Field Test Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Peter Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bourret, Suzanne Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zyvoloski, George Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Disposition of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) remains a continuing technical and sociopolitical challenge. We define HGNW as the combination of both heat generating defense high level waste (DHLW) and civilian spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Numerous concepts for HGNW management have been proposed and examined internationally, including an extensive focus on geologic disposal (c.f. Brunnengräber et al., 2013). One type of proposed geologic material is salt, so chosen because of its viscoplastic deformation that causes self-repair of damage or deformation induced in the salt by waste emplacement activities (Hansen and Leigh, 2011). Salt as a repository material has been tested at several sites around the world, notably the Morsleben facility in Germany (c.f. Fahland and Heusermann, 2013; Wollrath et al., 2014; Fahland et al., 2015) and at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. Evaluating the technical feasibility of a HGNW repository in salt is an ongoing process involving experiments and numerical modeling of many processes at many facilities.

  19. Translation experiment of a plasma with field reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanjyo, Masayasu; Okada, Shigefumi; Ito, Yoshifumi; Kako, Masashi; Ohi, Shoichi

    1984-01-01

    Experiments to translate the FRC plasma from is formation area (pinch coil) into two kinds of metal vessels (magnetic flux conservers) with larger and smaller bore than that of the pinch coil have been carried out in OCT with an aim of improving the particle confinement time tau sub(N) by increasing xsub(s) (ratio of the plasma radius to that of the conducting wall). Demonstrated were successful translations of the plasma into both vessels. The xsub(s) of the translated plasma increased to 0.6 in the larger bore vessel and to 0.7 in the smaller one from 0.4 of the source plasma in the pinch coil. With the increase in xsub(s), tau sub(N) and also decay time of the trapped magnetic flux are extended from 15 - 20 μs of the source plasma to 50 - 80 μs. The tau sub(N) is found to have stronger dependence on xsub(s) than on rsub(s). During the translation phase, almost half of the total particle and the plasma energy are lost. The plasma volume is, therefore, about half of that expected from the analysis on the ideal translation process. It is also found that the translation process is nearly isothermal as is expected from the analysis. (author)

  20. High gain requirements and high field Tokamak experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    Operation at sufficiently high gain (ratio of fusion power to external heating power) is a fundamental requirement for tokamak power reactors. For typical reactor concepts, the gain is greater than 25. Self-heating from alpha particles in deuterium-tritium plasmas can greatly reduce ητ/temperature requirements for high gain. A range of high gain operating conditions is possible with different values of alpha-particle efficiency (fraction of alpha-particle power that actually heats the plasma) and with different ratios of self heating to external heating. At one extreme, there is ignited operation, where all of the required plasma heating is provided by alpha particles and the alpha-particle efficiency is 100%. At the other extreme, there is the case of no heating contribution from alpha particles. ητ/temperature requirements for high gain are determined as a function of alpha-particle heating efficiency. Possibilities for high gain experiments in deuterium-tritium, deuterium, and hydrogen plasmas are discussed

  1. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar amended plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S. L.; Spokas, K. A.

    2014-02-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms prior to the start of this study. Litterbags containing wheat straw material were buried below the soil surface in a continuous-corn cropped field in plots that had received one of seven different biochar amendments or a non-charred wood pellet amendment 2.5 yr prior to start of this study. Litterbags were collected over the course of 14 weeks. Microbial biomass was assessed in treatment plots the previous fall. Though first-order decomposition rate constants were positively correlated to microbial biomass, neither parameter was statistically affected by biochar or wood-pellet treatments. The findings indicated only a residual of potentially positive and negative initial impacts of biochars on residue decomposition, which fit in line with established feedstock and pyrolysis influences. Though no significant impacts were observed with field-weathered biochars, effective soil management may yet have to account for repeat applications of biochar.

  2. The Escompte Programme: An Overview of The Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, P.; Cros, B.; Peuch, V. H.; Kottmeier, C.; Saïd, F.; Perros, P.; Robin, D.

    The ESCOMPTE programme (http://medias.obs-mip.fr/escompte) is embedded in a long-term strategy whose aim is the improvement of air quality. In order to be able to take preventive measures to reduce the size and the effects of pollution events, we need to dispose of efficient tools of prediction of these events. Such tools, yet to be developed or improved, are, on the one hand, the inventory of the various pollu- tion sources (fixed and mobile), and, on the other hand, mathematical models able to accurately simulate the dynamical (diffusion and transport) and chemical (reactions) processes under which the various solid, liquid and gaseous species will evolve. The main objective of the ESCOMPTE programme is to gather a data set of some pollution events, involving the emissions of primary pollutants, as well as atmospheric dynam- ics and chemistry. This data set, acquired at the surface and in the lower troposphere, in a region located South-East of France, between June 4th and July 16th, 2001, will serve as a reference for qualifying the CTMs of atmospheric pollution, from local- to regional-scale. A 120km*120km area, around the "Marseille-Berre" site, in the South-eastern of France, has been selected to host the ESCOMPTE field campaign. This region presents a high occurrence of photochemical pollution, because it is one of the most sunny re- gions of France, with anticyclonic conditions prevailing during summer ; it involves the urbanized area of Marseille city (more than one million people), and the "Fos- Berre" industrial area (oil refineries, power plants, E), both being considerable sources of various pollutants ; it presents terrain characteristics (land-sea-breeze circulations ; numerous hills and mountain chains up to more than thousand meters high) acting as dynamical forcings on the transport of pollutants. Although the core domain of ESCOMPTE is a 100km*100km box, a hierarchy of chemistry and/or transport models is involved in the programme, and is able do

  3. Tools and setups for experiments with AC and rotating magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponikvar, D

    2010-01-01

    A rotating magnetic field is the basis for the transformation of electrical energy to mechanical energy. School experiments on the rotating magnetic field are rare since they require the use of specially prepared mechanical setups and/or relatively large, three-phase power supplies to achieve strong magnetic fields. This paper proposes several experiments and describes setups and tools which are easy to obtain and work with. Free software is offered to generate the required signals by a personal computer. The experiments can be implemented in introductory physics courses on electromagnetism for undergraduates or specialized courses at high schools.

  4. Experimental Garden Plots for Botany Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodnicheva, V. V.; Vasil'eva, E. I.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the botany lessons used at two schools points out the need for fifth and sixth grade students to be taught the principles of plant life through observations made at an experimental garden plot at the school. (ND)

  5. On transient electric fields observed in chemical release experiments by rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.; Brenning, N.; Holmgren, G.; Haerendel, G.

    1986-06-01

    As a follow-up to the successful chemical release experiment Trigger in 1977, the TOR (Trigger Optimized Repetition) rocket was launched from Esrange on Oct. 24, 1984. Like in the Trigger experiment a large amplitude electric field pulse of 200 mV/m was detected shortly after the explosion. The central part of the pulse was found to be clearly correlated with an intense layer of swept up ambient particles behind a propagating shock-front. The field was directed towards the centre of the expanding ionized cloud, which is indicative of a polarisation electric field source. Expressions for this radial polarisation field and the much weaker azimuthal induced electric field are derived from a simple cylindrical model for the field and the expanding neutral cloud. Time profiles of the radial electric field are shown to be in good agreement with observations. (authors)

  6. PRP: a FORTRAN IV interactive plotting program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, A. S.; Linde, J.

    A computer program, PRP, has been designed to plot any arithmetic combination selected from a set of major and trace element data on a y- x graph. y and x are defined and entered as a program string (y, x) which is interpreted sequentially. Operators ( +, -, ∗, /, ( unary) , square root, log 10, In c, antilog 10, exponential, integer, absolute value, (,),,) and integer or real numbers may be included. Axis lengths and scales are determined by the user. Five different plotting symbols are available.

  7. Development of TRatioPlot in ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Gessinger-Befurt, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The ROOT data analysis and visualization framework is a software package which is widely used in physics, especially in high energy physics. A common visualization which has so far been lacking a direct implementation is the ratio plot, as well as a few similar types of plots. The scope and goal of the summer student project at CERN was to implement a class in ROOT itself, that can take care of the most common types of calculations, and produces high quality visuals.

  8. Supine Craniospinal Irradiation Using Intrafractional Junction Shifts and Field-in-Field Dose Shaping: Early Experience at Methodist Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, Michael C.; Chiu, J. Kam; Teh, Bin S.; Bloch, Charles; Schroeder, Thomas M.; Paulino, Arnold C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To describe our preliminary experience with supine craniospinal irradiation. The advantages of the supine position for craniospinal irradiation include patient comfort, easier access to maintain an airway for anesthesia, and reduced variability of the head tilt in the face mask. Methods and Materials: The cranial fields were treated with near lateral fields and a table angle to match their divergence to the superior edge of the spinal field. The collimator was rotated to match the divergence from the superior spinal field. The spinal fields were treated using a source to surface distance (SSD) technique with the couch top at 100 cm. When a second spinal field was required, the table and collimator were rotated 90 o to allow for the use of the multileaf collimator and so the gantry could be rotated to match the divergence of the superior spinal field. The multileaf collimator was used for daily dynamic featherings and field-in-field dose control. Results: With a median follow-up of 20.2 months, five documented failures and no cases of radiation myelitis occurred in 23 consecutive patients. No failures occurred in the junctions of the spine-spine or brain-spine fields. Two failures occurred in the primary site alone, two in the spinal axis alone, and one primary site failure plus distant metastasis. The median time to recurrence was 17 months. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that supine approach for delivering craniospinal irradiation is not associated with increased relapses at the field junctions. To date, no cases of radiation myelitis have developed

  9. Forest Plots in Excel: Moving beyond a Clump of Trees to a Forest of Visual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzon, James H.; Alford, Aaron A.

    2013-01-01

    Forest plots provide an effective means of presenting a wealth of information in a single graphic. Whether used to illustrate multiple results in a single study or the cumulative knowledge of an entire field, forest plots have become an accepted and generally understood way of presenting many estimates simultaneously. This article explores…

  10. Cross-plotting of rock properties for fluid discrimination using well ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    properties and their attributes (combination of rock properties) cross-plots have been attempted using well data from an offshore field of the Niger Delta as a case study. Numerous cross-plotting techniques of rock- properties/attributes derived from ...

  11. Success-Breeds-Success in Collective Political Behavior: Evidence from a Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Rijt, Arnout; Akin, Idil; Willer, Robb; Feinberg, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have proposed that the emergence of political movements is highly pathdependent, such that early mobilization successes may lead to disproportionately greater eventual success. This article replicates a unique field experiment testing for positive feedback in internet petition signing (van

  12. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar-amended plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S. L.; Spokas, K. A.

    2014-06-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different plant-based feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms in the fall of 2008. Litterbags containing wheat straw material were buried in July of 2011 below the soil surface in a continuous-corn cropped field in plots that had received one of seven different biochar amendments or a uncharred wood-pellet amendment 2.5 yr prior to start of this study. Litterbags were collected over the course of 14 weeks. Microbial biomass was assessed in treatment plots the previous fall. Though first-order decomposition rate constants were positively correlated to microbial biomass, neither parameter was statistically affected by biochar or wood-pellet treatments. The findings indicated only a residual of potentially positive and negative initial impacts of biochars on residue decomposition, which fit in line with established feedstock and pyrolysis influences. Overall, these findings indicate that no significant alteration in the microbial dynamics of the soil decomposer communities occurred as a consequence of the application of plant-based biochars evaluated here.

  13. Sample cell for in-field X-ray diffraction experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Höglin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A sample cell making it possible to perform synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction experiments in a magnetic field of 0.35 T has been constructed. The device is an add-on to an existing sample cell and contains a strong permanent magnet of NdFeB-type. Experiments have shown that the setup is working satisfactory making it possible to perform in-field measurements.

  14. A Comparison of Soil microbial community structure, protozoa and nematodes in field plots of conventional and genetically modified maize expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, B. S.; Caul, S.; Thompson, J.

    2005-01-01

    Field trials were established at three European sites (Denmark, Eastern France, South-West France) of genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) expressing the CryIAb Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Bt), the near-isogenic non-Bt cultivar, another conventional maize cultivar and grass. Soil from Denmark......) and phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), and protozoa and nematodes in all samples. Individual differences within a site resulted from: greater nematode numbers under grass than maize on three occasions; different nematode populations under the conventional maize cultivars once; and two occasions when...... there was a reduced protozoan population under Bt maize compared to non-Bt maize. Microbial community structure within the sites only varied with grass compared to maize, with one occurrence of CLPP varying between maize cultivars (Bt versus a conventional cultivar). An overall comparison of Bt versus non-Bt maize...

  15. Amplitude analysis of the D+ -> K-S(0)pi + (0)(pi) Dalitz plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Braun, S.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Moeini, H.

    2014-01-01

    We perform an analysis of the D+ -> K-S(0)pi + (0)(pi) Dalitz plot using a data set of 2.92 fb(-1) of e(+) e(-) collisions at the (3770) mass accumulated by the BESIII experiment, in which 166694 candidate events are selected with a background of 15.1%. The Dalitz plot is found to be well

  16. Using contour plots in elecgroproduction to examine regions in {epsilon}, Q{sup 2}, W space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funsten, H. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    In determining incident CEBAF beam energies for CLAS electroproduction experiments that separate the longitudinal and transverse cross section components, contour plots of {epsilon} defined over a 2 dimensional Q{sup 2}, W space can be useful. This note describes an approximate method of constructing such plots.

  17. Modelos de regressão com platô na estimativa do tamanho de parcelas em experimento de conservação in vitro de maracujazeiro Using of regression plateau models in estimation of plot sizes for experiments with passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia Bastos Peixoto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A determinação do tamanho de parcela é uma prática pertinente ao planejamento experimental e sua caracterização otimizada, em conjunto com o controle do material experimental, permite a obtenção de resultados com maior precisão e qualidade. Neste trabalho, determinou-se o tamanho de parcelas para experimentos de conservação in vitro de maracujazeiro, em dez ensaios de uniformidade com a espécie Passiflora Giberti N. E. Brown, utilizando-se o modelo de regressão linear segmentado com platô e o modelo de regressão quadrática segmentado com platô, que utilizam a técnica de resposta com platô a modelos que possuam mínimo. Os ensaios de uniformidade foram oriundos de experimento conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 20 unidades básicas (ub, e os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial com três concentrações de sacarose, três concentrações de sorbitol e uma testemunha. A coleta dos dados foi realizada aos 60 dias após a incubação, medindo-se o comprimento das brotações. Os tamanhos de parcelas variaram com o método utilizado, encontrando-se parcelas formadas por seis explantes pelo modelo da regressão linear segmentado com platô e de dez explantes pelo modelo de regressão quadrática segmentado com platô.The determination of the plot size is a practical question to the experimental design, and its characterization in an optimized way allows obtaining larger precision and quality results. This research aimed to determine the plot size in experiments in vitro that seek the passion fruit plant conservation in ten uniformity assays with the species Passiflora Giberti N. E. Brown. The tests of uniformity came from an experiment conducted in a completely randomized design with treatments in a factorial design with three concentrations of sucrose, three concentrations of sorbitol and a control. Each treatment was considered as a uniformity assay, with 20 basic units. The evaluations of the experiments

  18. Overview of BELGATOM's industrial experience in the field of radwaste bituminization, cementation and radwaste package storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glibert, R.; Debieve, P.; Averbeke, J. van; Centner, B.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive waste processing experience in Belgium is introduced. BELGATOM partners in Belgium have accumulated experience for over 25 years in the field of rad waste treatment and conditioning by bituminization and cementation and in the storage of the resulting rad waste packages

  19. A large scale field experiment in the Amazon basin (LAMBADA/BATERISTA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, A.J.; Kabat, P.; Gash, J.H.C.; Noilhan, J.; Jochum, A.M.; Nobre, C.

    1995-01-01

    A description is given of a large-scale field experiment planned in the Amazon basin, aimed at assessing the large-scale balances of energy, water and carbon dioxide. The embedding of this experiment in global change programmes is described, viz. the Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle

  20. Developing Standards-Based Geography Curricular Materials from Overseas Field Experiences for K-12 Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Alex; Palacios, Fabian Araya

    2012-01-01

    Overseas experiences provide educators with exceptional opportunities to incorporate field study, firsthand experiences, and tangible artifacts into the classroom. Despite this potential, teachers must consider curricular standards that direct how such international endeavors can be integrated. Furthermore, geography curriculum development is more…

  1. Sound Design in Virtual Reality Concert Experiences using a Wave Field Synthesis Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rasmus Bloustrød; Milesen, Victor; Smed, Dina Madsen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose an experiment that evaluates the influence of audience noise on the feeling of presence and the perceived quality in a virtual reality concert experience delivered using Wave Field Synthesis. A 360 degree video of a live rock concert from a local band was recorded. Single...

  2. Entering the Field: Beginning Teachers' Positioning Experiences of the Staffroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Erin; Rossi, Tony; lisahunter; Tinning, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about beginning teachers' political positioning experiences of the staffroom. This paper employs Bourdieu's conceptual tools of field, habitus and capital to explore beginning health and physical education teachers' positioning experiences and learning in staffrooms, the place in which teachers spend the majority of their…

  3. SEGY to ASCII: Conversion and Plotting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Mark R.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents a computer program to convert standard 4 byte, IBM floating point SEGY files to ASCII xyz format. The program then optionally plots the seismic data using the GMT plotting package. The material for this publication is contained in a standard tar file (of99-126.tar) that is uncompressed and 726 K in size. It can be downloaded by any Unix machine. Move the tar file to the directory you wish to use it in, then type 'tar xvf of99-126.tar' The archive files (and diskette) contain a NOTE file, a README file, a version-history file, source code, a makefile for easy compilation, and an ASCII version of the documentation. The archive files (and diskette) also contain example test files, including a typical SEGY file along with the resulting ASCII xyz and postscript files. Requirements for compiling the source code into an executable are a C++ compiler. The program has been successfully compiled using Gnu's g++ version 2.8.1, and use of other compilers may require modifications to the existing source code. The g++ compiler is a free, high quality C++ compiler and may be downloaded from the ftp site: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu Requirements for plotting the seismic data is the existence of the GMT plotting package. The GMT plotting package may be downloaded from the web site: http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/gmt/

  4. Controlling stray electric fields on an atom chip for experiments on Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtyan, D.; Machluf, S.; Soudijn, M. L.; Naber, J. B.; van Druten, N. J.; van Linden van den Heuvell, H. B.; Spreeuw, R. J. C.

    2018-02-01

    Experiments handling Rydberg atoms near surfaces must necessarily deal with the high sensitivity of Rydberg atoms to (stray) electric fields that typically emanate from adsorbates on the surface. We demonstrate a method to modify and reduce the stray electric field by changing the adsorbate distribution. We use one of the Rydberg excitation lasers to locally affect the adsorbed dipole distribution. By adjusting the averaged exposure time we change the strength (with the minimal value less than 0.2 V /cm at 78 μ m from the chip) and even the sign of the perpendicular field component. This technique is a useful tool for experiments handling Rydberg atoms near surfaces, including atom chips.

  5. Aquifer test interpretation using derivative analysis and diagnostic plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Espriú, Antonio; Real-Rangel, Roberto; Cortés-Salazar, Iván; Castro-Herrera, Israel; Luna-Izazaga, Gabriela; Sánchez-León, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    Pumping tests remain a method of choice to deduce fundamental aquifer properties and to assess well condition. In the oil and gas (O&G) industry, well testing has been the core technique in examining reservoir behavior over the last 50 years. The pressure derivative by Bourdet, it is perhaps, the most significant single development in the history of well test analysis. Recently, the so-called diagnostics plots (e.g. drawdown and drawdown derivative in a log-log plot) have been successfully tested in aquifers. However, this procedure is still underutilized by groundwater professionals. This research illustrates the applicability range, advantages and drawbacks (e.g. smoothing procedures) of diagnostic plots using field examples from a wide spectrum of tests (short/long tests, constant/variable flow rates, drawdown/buildup stages, pumping well/observation well) in dissimilar geological conditions. We analyze new and pre-existent aquifer tests in Mexico, USA, Canada, Germany, France and Saudi Arabia. In constant flow rate tests, our results show that derivative analysis is an easy, robust and powerful tool to assess near-borehole damage effects, formation heterogeneity, boundaries, flow regimes, infinite-acting radial stages, i.e., valid Theisian framework, and fracture-driven flow. In step tests, the effectiveness relies on high-frequency drawdown measurements. Moreover, we adapt O&G analytical solutions to cater for the conditions in groundwater systems. In this context, further parameters can be computed analytically from the plots, such as skin factor, head losses, wellbore storage, distance to the boundary, channel-aquifer and/or fracture zone width, among others. Therefore, diagnostic plots should be considered a mandatory tool for pumping tests analysis among hydrogeologists. This project has been supported by DGAPA (UNAM) under the research project PAPIIT IN-112815.

  6. Physical barriers formed from gelling liquids: 1. numerical design of laboratory and field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Pruess, K.; Persoff, P.

    1994-01-01

    The emplacement of liquids under controlled viscosity conditions is investigated by means of numerical simulations. Design calculations are performed for a laboratory experiment on a decimeter scale, and a field experiment on a meter scale. The purpose of the laboratory experiment is to study the behavior of multiple gout plumes when injected in a porous medium. The calculations for the field trial aim at designing a grout injection test from a vertical well in order to create a grout plume of a significant extent in the subsurface

  7. Virtual navigation performance: the relationship to field of view and prior video gaming experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Anthony E; Collaer, Marcia L

    2011-04-01

    Two experiments examined whether learning a virtual environment was influenced by field of view and how it related to prior video gaming experience. In the first experiment, participants (42 men, 39 women; M age = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.8) performed worse on a spatial orientation task displayed with a narrow field of view in comparison to medium and wide field-of-view displays. Counter to initial hypotheses, wide field-of-view displays did not improve performance over medium displays, and this was replicated in a second experiment (30 men, 30 women; M age = 20.4 yr., SD = 1.9) presenting a more complex learning environment. Self-reported video gaming experience correlated with several spatial tasks: virtual environment pointing and tests of Judgment of Line Angle and Position, mental rotation, and Useful Field of View (with correlations between .31 and .45). When prior video gaming experience was included as a covariate, sex differences in spatial tasks disappeared.

  8. Rocket to Creativity: A Field Experience in Problem-Based and Project-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon F. Dole

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine the impact of a field experience in problem-based (PBL and project-based learning (PjBL on pre-service and in-service teachers’ conceptions of experiential learning. In our study, participants had been enrolled in a hybrid class that included an online component in which they learned about PBL and PjBL and an experiential component in which they facilitated PBL and PjBL with children in grades 1-9 during a one-week field experience on a university campus. The goal of the field experience is for teachers to change their practice from didactic to inquiry and to promote critical and creative thinking in their students. We used a case study method that involved data derived from six different sources: online structured interviews, follow-up telephone interviews, discussion board posts, reflections, course feedback, and observations. The main theme that emerged from the data analysis was the critical role the field experience played in applying theory to practice. Sub-themes included understanding the process of implementing PBL and PjBL, mastering the logistics of PBL and PjBL, becoming facilitators, and collaborating with partners. Results showed that the field experience gave the teachers the “courage” to experiment with a student-centered methodology.

  9. [Comparative quality measurements part 3: funnel plots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Lahmann, Nils

    2014-02-01

    Comparative quality measurements between organisations or institutions are common. Quality measures need to be standardised and risk adjusted. Random error must also be taken adequately into account. Rankings without consideration of the precision lead to flawed interpretations and enhances "gaming". Application of confidence intervals is one possibility to take chance variation into account. Funnel plots are modified control charts based on Statistical Process Control (SPC) theory. The quality measures are plotted against their sample size. Warning and control limits that are 2 or 3 standard deviations from the center line are added. With increasing group size the precision increases and so the control limits are forming a funnel. Data points within the control limits are considered to show common cause variation; data points outside special cause variation without the focus of spurious rankings. Funnel plots offer data based information about how to evaluate institutional performance within quality management contexts.

  10. Application of mapped plots for single-owner forest surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis Roesch

    2009-01-01

    Mapped plots are used for the nation forest inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service. Mapped plots are also useful foro single ownership inventoires. Mapped plots can handle boundary overlap and can aprovide less variable estimates for specified forest conditions. Mapping is a good fit for fixed plot inventories where the fixed area plot is used for both mapping...

  11. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  12. Intelligence Constraints on Terrorist Network Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Gordon

    Since 9/11, the western intelligence and law enforcement services have managed to interdict the great majority of planned attacks against their home countries. Network analysis shows that there are important intelligence constraints on the number and complexity of terrorist plots. If two many terrorists are involved in plots at a given time, a tipping point is reached whereby it becomes progressively easier for the dots to be joined and for the conspirators to be arrested, and for the aggregate evidence to secure convictions. Implications of this analysis are presented for the campaign to win hearts and minds.

  13. Generalised recurrence plot analysis for spatial data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Juergen; Saparin, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Recurrence plot based methods are highly efficient and widely accepted tools for the investigation of time series or one-dimensional data. We present an extension of the recurrence plots and their quantifications in order to study recurrent structures in higher-dimensional spatial data. The capability of this extension is illustrated on prototypical 2D models. Next, the tested and proved approach is applied to assess the bone structure from CT images of human proximal tibia. We find that the spatial structures in trabecular bone become more recurrent during the bone loss in osteoporosis

  14. The Current Situation of Field Experience in a Five-Year Science Teacher Education Program in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faikhamta, Chatree; Jantarakantee, Ekgapoom; Roadrangka, Vantipa

    2011-01-01

    This research explored the current situation in managing the field experience of a five-year science teacher education program in one university in Thailand. A number of methods were used to assess field experience situation: (1) a questionnaire on the perceptions of pre-service science teachers of field experience management; (2) participant…

  15. Responses of enchytraeids to increased temperature, drought and atmospheric CO2: Results of an eight-year field experiment in dry heathland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Schmelz, Rüdiger M.; Carrera, Noela

    2015-01-01

    In a long-term field trial we investigated the responses of enchytraeids to simulated future climatic conditions predicted for Denmark. At a semi-natural Danish heathland site we exposed 9.1 m2 plots to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (510 ppm), extended summer drought and passive night...... in spring 2013, perhaps indicating that warming stimulates fragmentation (reproduction) rates at this time of the year. Increased drought in MayeJune 2012 did not have lasting effects on abundance or biomass 3 months after the termination of drought treatment. However, comparison with earlier assessments...... of enchytraeids in the CLIMAITE experiment shows that the severity of drought and the time elapsed since the last drought is the best predictor of the biovolume (or biomass) of enchytraeids. Moreover, species richness was significantly impacted by the average soil water content experienced by enchytraeids during...

  16. Fine-grained sediment deposition on mussel beds in the Oosterschelde (The Netherlands), determined from echosoundings, radio-isotopes and biodeposition field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinke, W.B.M. ten; Augustinus, P.G.E.F.

    1995-01-01

    Sedimentation rates of 5-20 cm year -1 were calculated from 137 Cs + 134 Cs activity profiles and echosoundings in a mussel cultivation area in the western part of the Oosterschelde. Sedimentation rates based on 210 Pb activity profiles are far too low, mainly due to the deposition of 'aged' sediment, i.e. sediment eroded elsewhere inside the basin and not fully enriched with 210 Pb at the moment of deposition. Also, specific adsorption to the finest sediment components, mixing, winnowing, and mobilization of the caesium have affected the lead and caesium profiles. Field experiments on mussel plots showed that mussels deposit 5-10 cm of fine-grained sediment during the summer. This biodeposition about equals the settling from flocculation in the water column. Micro-fabric microscope studies revealed that pellets do not dominate the sediments, indicating that some of the pellets are broken down or resuspended. (author)

  17. Rain concentration and sheltering effect of solar panels on cultivated plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamri, Yassin; Cheviron, Bruno; Mange, Annabelle; Dejean, Cyril; Liron, François; Belaud, Gilles

    2018-02-01

    Agrivoltaism is the association of agricultural and photovoltaic energy production on the same land area, coping with the increasing pressure on land use and water resources while delivering clean and renewable energy. However, the solar panels located above the cultivated plots also have a seemingly yes unexplored effect on rain redistribution, sheltering large parts of the plot but redirecting concentrated fluxes on a few locations. The spatial heterogeneity in water amounts observed on the ground is high in the general case; its dynamical patterns are directly attributable to the mobile panels through their geometrical characteristics (dimensions, height, coverage percentage) and the strategies selected to rotate them around their support tube. A coefficient of variation is used to measure this spatial heterogeneity and to compare it with the coefficient of uniformity that classically describes the efficiency of irrigation systems. A rain redistribution model (AVrain) was derived from literature elements and theoretical grounds and then validated from experiments in both field and controlled conditions. AVrain simulates the effective rain amounts on the plot from a few forcing data (rainfall, wind velocity and direction) and thus allows real-time strategies that consist in operating the panels so as to limit the rain interception mainly responsible for the spatial heterogeneities. Such avoidance strategies resulted in a sharp decrease in the coefficient of variation, e.g. 0.22 vs. 2.13 for panels held flat during one of the monitored rain events, which is a fairly good uniformity score for irrigation specialists. Finally, the water amounts predicted by AVrain were used as inputs to Hydrus-2D for a brief exploratory study on the impact of the presence of solar panels on rain redistribution at shallow depths within soils: similar, more diffuse patterns were simulated and were coherent with field measurements.

  18. A large scale field experiment in the Amazon Basin (Lambada/Bateristca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolman, A.J.; Kabat, P.; Gash, J.H.C.; Noilhan, J.; Jochum, A.M.; Nobre, C. [Winand Staring Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    1994-12-31

    A description is given of a large scale field experiment planned in the Amazon Basin, aiming to assess the large scale balances of energy, water and CO{sub 2}. The background for this experiment, the embedding in global change programmes of IGBP/BAHC and WCRP/GEWEX is described. A proposal by four European groups aimed at designing the experiment with the help of mesoscale models is described and a possible European input to this experiment is suggested. 24 refs., 1 app.

  19. Experimental strategies in carrying out VCU for tobacco crop I: plot design and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, F H R B; Ramalho, M A P; Pulcinelli, C E; Bruzi, A T

    2013-09-19

    We aimed to establish standards for tobacco Valor de Cultivo e Uso (VCU) in Brazil. We obtained information regarding the size and design of plots of two varietal groups of tobacco (Virginia and Burley). Ten inbred lines of each varietal group were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The plot contained 42 plants with six rows of seven columns each. For each experiment plant, considering the position of the respective plant in the plot (row and column) as a reference, cured leaf weight (g/plant), total sugar content (%), and total alkaloid content (%) were determined. The maximum curvature of the variations in coefficients was estimated. Trials with the number of plants per plot ranging from 2 to 41 were simulated. The use of a border was not justified because the interactions between inbred lines x position in the plots were never significant, showing that the behavior of the inbred lines coincided with the different positions. The plant performance varied according to the column position in the plot. To lessen the effect of this factor, the use of plots with more than one row is recommended. Experimental precision, evaluated by the CV%, increased with an increase in plot size; nevertheless, the maximum curvature of the variation coefficient method showed no expressive increase in precision if the number of plants was greater than seven. The result in identification of the best inbred line, in terms of the size of each plot, coincided with the maximum curvature method.

  20. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.

    1991-05-01

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for CY 1990 are presented. The surveillance program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site. That study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment. The results of the analyses are used to determine the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, establish if buries radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and generally characterize the radiological environment of the area. Tritiated water continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continues to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site or those living in the vicinity. 20 refs., 7 figs., 15 tabs

  1. Representing Uncertainty on Model Analysis Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    2016-01-01

    Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model.…

  2. Activities: Plotting and Predicting from Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulte, Albert P.; Swift, Jim

    1984-01-01

    This teacher's guide provides objectives, procedures, and list of materials needed for activities which center around the use of a scatter plot to examine relationships shown by bivariate data. The activities are suitable for grades 7 to 12. Four student worksheets are included. (JN)

  3. Recurrence plot analysis of DNA sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zuobing [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: wuzb@lnm.imech.ac.cn

    2004-11-15

    Recurrence plot technique of DNA sequences is established on metric representation and employed to analyze correlation structure of nucleotide strings. It is found that, in the transference of nucleotide strings, a human DNA fragment has a major correlation distance, but a yeast chromosome's correlation distance has a constant increasing.

  4. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.

    1993-05-01

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for CY 1992 are presented. The surveillance program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the 1976--1978 radiological characterization of the site. That study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment. The results of the analyses are used to (1) determine the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) generally characterize the radiological environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Tritiated water continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. For many years it was the only radionuclide found to have migrated in measurable quantities. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The available data does not allow a firm conclusion as to whether the presence of this nuclide represents recent migration or movement that may have occurred before Plot M was capped. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity

  5. Conceptual design for an air core 2 meg-amp reversed field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    The Los Alamos CTR Division is involved in the conceptual design of a next phase Reversed Field Pinch experiment. The paper will discuss, in general, some of the physics questions that the experiment will address. Also in more detail it will discuss the engineering parameters and the possible hardware design solutions. The experiment is designed to produce a plasma current of about 2 MA which can be sustained for about 200 ms. The electrical energy for the system is provided by a large motor generator set. An inductive energy store is used to drive the magnetizing and poloidal field windings. A capacitor bank provides the energy for the toroidal field windings. The current in both circuits is maintained by using SCR controlled transformer rectifiers

  6. Conceptual design for an AIR CORE 2 MEG-AMP Reversed field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    The Los Alamos CTR Division is involved in the conceptual design of a next phase Reversed Field Pinch experiment. The paper will discuss, in general, some of the physics questions that the experiment will address. Also in more detail it will discuss the engineering parameters and the possible hardware design solutions. The experiment is designed to produce a plasma current of about 2 MA which can be sustained for about 200 ms. The electrical energy for the system is provided by a large motor generator set. An inductive energy store is used to drive the magnetizing and poloidal field windings. A capacitor bank provides the energy for the toroidal field windings. The current in both circuits is maintained by using SCR controlled transformer rectifiers

  7. Megagauss field generation for high-energy-density plasma science experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovang, Dean Curtis; Struve, Kenneth William; Porter, John Larry Jr.

    2008-01-01

    There is a need to generate magnetic fields both above and below 1 megagauss (100 T) with compact generators for laser-plasma experiments in the Beamlet and Petawatt test chambers for focused research on fundamental properties of high energy density magnetic plasmas. Some of the important topics that could be addressed with such a capability are magnetic field diffusion, particle confinement, plasma instabilities, spectroscopic diagnostic development, material properties, flux compression, and alternate confinement schemes, all of which could directly support experiments on Z. This report summarizes a two-month study to develop preliminary designs of magnetic field generators for three design regimes. These are, (1) a design for a relatively low-field (10 to 50 T), compact generator for modest volumes (1 to 10 cm3), (2) a high-field (50 to 200 T) design for smaller volumes (10 to 100 mm3), and (3) an extreme field (greater than 600 T) design that uses flux compression. These designs rely on existing Sandia pulsed-power expertise and equipment, and address issues of magnetic field scaling with capacitor bank design and field inductance, vacuum interface, and trade-offs between inductance and coil designs

  8. Field-reversal experiments in the mirror fusion test facility (MFTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.; Condit, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed consideration of several aspects of a field-reversal experiment was begun in the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF): Model calculations have provided some plausible parameters for a field-reversed deuterium plasma in the MFTF, and a buildup calculation indicates that the MFTF neutral-beam system is marginally sufficient to achieve field reversal by neutral injection alone. However, the many uncertainties indicate the need for further research and development on alternate buildup methods. A discussion of experimental objectives is presented and important diagnostics are listed. The range of parameter space accessible with the MFTF magnet design is explored, and we find that with proper aiming of the neutral beams, meaningful experiments can be performed to advance toward these objectives. Finally, it is pointed out that if we achieve enhanced n tau confinement by means of field reversal, then quasi-steady-state operation of MFTF is conceivable

  9. Awareness descriptions of three PTSD diagnosed patients’ inner experiences before, during and after Thought Field Therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Martinussen, Anita

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Thought Field Therapy (TFT) is a psychotherapeutic modality often utilised for single-session trauma treatment. It applies sensory stimulation to desensitise painful feelings, and may thus be called a psycho-sensory therapy. Qualitative research on TFT is particularly scarce, and this processual study seeks to fill that void. Research question How do PTSD patients describe their inner experiences before, during and after Thought Field Therapy? Method Three patients diagnose...

  10. Direct measurement of macroscopic electric fields produced by collective effects in electron-impact experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velotta, R.; Avaldi, L.; Camilloni, R.; Giammanco, F.; Spinelli, N.; Stefani, G.

    1996-01-01

    The macroscopic electric field resulting from the space charge produced in electron-impact experiments has been characterized by using secondary electrons of well-defined energy (e.g., Auger or autoionizing electrons) as a probe. It is shown that the measurement of the kinetic-energy shifts suffered by secondary electrons is a suitable tool for the analysis of the self-generated electric field in a low-density plasma. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. Electronic ground support equipment for the Cluster Electric Field and Wave Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sten, T.A.

    1992-10-01

    In a collaboration between ESA and NASA, ionosphere plasma structures will be studied by four indentical space probes to be launched in 1995 from French Guiana. The Electric Field and Wave (EFW) experiment will be designed to measure electric field and density fluctations by means of four sensors, each deployed on a 50 meter wire boom. In order to perform comprehensive tests and calibrations of the EFW experiment, computer controlled electronic ground support equipment has been developed. This report describes the hardware of the equipment, produced and assembled at the University of Oslo. 15 figs

  12. FLOWCHART; a computer program for plotting flowcharts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Bernice

    1982-01-01

    The computer program FLOWCHART can be used to very quickly and easily produce flowcharts of high quality for publication. FLOWCHART centers each element or block of text that it processes on one of a set of (imaginary) vertical lines. It can enclose a text block in a rectangle, circle or other selected figure. It can draw a 'line connecting the midpoint of any side of any figure with the midpoint of any side of any other figure and insert an arrow pointing in the direction of flow. It can write 'yes' or 'no' next to the line joining two figures. FLOWCHART creates flowcharts using some basic plotting subroutine* which permit plots to be generated interactively and inspected on a Tektronix compatible graphics screen or plotted in a deferred mode on a Houston Instruments 42' pen plotter. The size of the plot, character set and character height in inches are inputs to the program. Plots generated using the pen plotter can be up to 42' high--the larger size plots being directly usable as visual aids in a talk. FLOWCHART centers each block of text on an imaginary column line. (The number of columns and column width are specified as input.) The midpoint of the longest line of text within the block is defined to be the center of the block and is placed on the column line. The spacing of individual words within the block is not altered when the block is positioned. The program writes the first block of text in a designated column and continues placing each subsequent block below the previous block in the same column. A block of text may be placed in a different column by specifying the number of the column and an earlier block of text with which the new block is to be aligned. If block zero is given as the earlier block, the new text is placed in the new column continuing down the page below the previous block. Optionally a column and number of inches from the top of the page may be given for positioning the next block of text. The program will normally draw one of five

  13. Interpretation of field experiments on the flow of water and tracers through crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkinson, D.P.; Lever, D.A.; Robinson, P.C.; Bourke, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews recent work at Harwell on the interpretation of field experiments on the flow of water and tracers through crystalline rock. First a model for the radial transport of tracers through an isolated fracture is outlined and used to analyse a recent Swedish experiment at Finnsjoen. Secondly, the theoretical and experimental approach that is being used to quantify flow and dispersion through networks of fractures is described

  14. Organic wastes from bioenergy and ecological sanitation as soil fertility improver: a field experiment in a tropical Andosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, A.; Nehls, T.; George, E.; Kaupenjohann, M.

    2015-11-01

    Andosols require the regular application of phosphorus (P) to sustain crop productivity. In a practice oriented field experiment at an Andosol site in NW Tanzania, the effects of various soil amendments (standard compost, urine, biogas slurry and CaSa-compost [biochar and sanitized human excreta]) on (i) the productivity of locally grown crop species, on (ii) the plants' nutrient status and on (iii) the soil's physico-chemical properties were studied. None of the amendments had any significant effect on soil moisture, so the observed variation in crop yield and plant nutrition reflected differences in nutrient availability. The application of CaSa-compost increased the level of available P in the top-soil from 0.5 to 4.4 mg kg-1 and the soil pH from 5.3 to 5.9. Treatment with biogas slurry, standard compost and CaSa-compost increased the above-ground biomass of Zea mays by, respectively, 140, 154 and 211 %. The grain yields of maize on soil treated with biogas slurry, standard compost and CaSa-compost were, respectively, 2.63, 3.18 and 4.40 t ha-1, compared to only 1.10 t ha-1 on unamended plots. All treatments enhanced crop productivity and increased the uptake of nutrients into the maize grains. The CaSa-compost was especially effective in mitigating P deficiency and soil acidification. We conclude that all treatments are viable as substitute for synthetic fertilizers. However, further steps are required to integrate the tested soil amendments into farm-scale nutrient management and to balance the additions and removals of nutrients, so that the loop can be closed.

  15. Effects of a PID Control System on Electromagnetic Fields in an nEDM Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    The Kellogg Radiation Laboratory is currently testing a prototype for an experiment that hopes to identify the electric dipole moment of the neutron. As part of this testing, we have developed a PID (proportional, integral, derivative) feedback system that uses large coils to fix the value of local external magnetic fields, up to linear gradients. PID algorithms compare the current value to a set-point and use the integral and derivative of the field with respect to the set-point to maintain constant fields. We have also developed a method for zeroing linear gradients within the experimental apparatus. In order to determine the performance of the PID algorithm, measurements of both the internal and external fields were obtained with and without the algorithm running, and these results were compared for noise and time stability. We have seen that the PID algorithm can reduce the effect of disturbance to the field by a factor of 10.

  16. Magnetic Field Monitoring in the SNS and LANL Neutron EDM Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Alina; SNS nEDM Collaboration; LANL nEDM Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The SNS neutron EDM experiment requires the ability to precisely control and monitor the magnetic field inside of the fiducial volume. However, it is not always practical (or even possible) to measure the field within the region of interest directly. To remedy this issue, we have designed a field monitoring system that will allow us to reconstruct the field inside of the fiducial volume using noninvasive measurements of the field components at discrete locations external to this volume. A prototype probe array (consisting of 12 single-axis fluxgate magnetometer sensors) was used to monitor the magnetic field within the fiducial volume of an in-house magnetic testing apparatus. In this talk, the design and results of this test will be presented, and the possible implementation of this field monitoring method may have in the room temperature LANL neutron EDM experiment will be discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Award Number DE-SC-0014622.

  17. Self-generated magnetic fields in direct-drive implosion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igumenshchev, I. V.; Nilson, P. M.; Goncharov, V. N. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Electric and self-generated magnetic fields in direct-drive implosion experiments on the OMEGA Laser Facility were investigated employing radiography with ∼10- to 60-MeV protons. The experiment used plastic-shell targets with imposed surface defects (glue spots, wires, and mount stalks), which enhance self-generated fields. The fields were measured during the 1-ns laser drive with an on-target intensity ∼10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Proton radiographs show multiple ring-like structures produced by electric fields ∼10{sup 7} V/cm and fine structures from surface defects, indicating self-generated fields up to ∼3 MG. These electric and magnetic fields show good agreement with two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations when the latter include the ∇T{sub e} × ∇n{sub e} source, Nernst convection, and anisotropic resistivity. The simulations predict that self-generated fields affect heat fluxes in the conduction zone and, through this, affect the growth of local perturbations.

  18. The PLOT (Paleolimnological Transect) Project in the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromig, R.; Andreev, A.; Baumer, M.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Fedorov, G.; Frolova, L.; Krastel, S.; Lebas, E.; Ludikova, A.; Melles, M.; Meyer, H.; Nazarova, L.; Pestryakova, L.; Savelieva, L.; Shumilovskikh, L.; Subetto, D.; Wagner, B.; Wennrich, V.

    2017-12-01

    The joint Russian- German project 'PLOT - Paleolimnological Transec' aims to recover lake sediment sequences along a >6000 km long longitudinal transect across the Eurasian Arctic in order to investigate the Late Quaternary climatic and environmental history. The climate history of the Arctic is of particular interest since it is the region, which is experiencing major impact of the current climate change. The project is funded for three years (2015-2018) by the Russian and German Ministries of Research. Since 2013 extensive fieldwork, including seismic surveys, coring, and hydrological investigations, was carried out at lakes Ladoga (NW Russia, pilot study), Bolshoye Shuchye (Polar Urals), Emanda (Verkhoyansk Range, field campaign planned for August 2017), Levinson-Lessing and Taymyr (Taymyr Peninsula). Fieldwork at lakes Bolshoye Shuchye, Levinson-Lessing and Taymyr was conducted in collaboration with the Russian-Norwegian CHASE (Climate History along the Arctic Seaboard of Eurasia) project. A major objective of the PLOT project was to recover preglacial sediments. A multiproxy approach was applied to the analytical work of all cores, including (bio-)geochemical, sedimentological, geophysical, and biological analyses. First data implies the presence of preglacial sediments in the cores from all lakes so far visited. Age-depth models, based on radiocarbon dating, OSL dating, paleomagnetic measurements, identification of cryptotephra, and varve counting (where applicable), are in progress. Climate variability in the records shall be compared to that recorded at Lake Eĺgygytgyn (NE Russia), which represents the master record for the Siberian Arctic. The outcome of the PLOT project will be a better understanding of the temporal and spatial variability and development of the Arctic climate. Here, we present the major results and first key interpretations of the PLOT project, along with an outlook on the future strategy and foci. First results from lakes Ladoga

  19. Zipper plot: visualizing transcriptional activity of genomic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Cobos, Francisco; Anckaert, Jasper; Volders, Pieter-Jan; Everaert, Celine; Rombaut, Dries; Vandesompele, Jo; De Preter, Katleen; Mestdagh, Pieter

    2017-05-02

    Reconstructing transcript models from RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data and establishing these as independent transcriptional units can be a challenging task. Current state-of-the-art tools for long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) annotation are mainly based on evolutionary constraints, which may result in false negatives due to the overall limited conservation of lncRNAs. To tackle this problem we have developed the Zipper plot, a novel visualization and analysis method that enables users to simultaneously interrogate thousands of human putative transcription start sites (TSSs) in relation to various features that are indicative for transcriptional activity. These include publicly available CAGE-sequencing, ChIP-sequencing and DNase-sequencing datasets. Our method only requires three tab-separated fields (chromosome, genomic coordinate of the TSS and strand) as input and generates a report that includes a detailed summary table, a Zipper plot and several statistics derived from this plot. Using the Zipper plot, we found evidence of transcription for a set of well-characterized lncRNAs and observed that fewer mono-exonic lncRNAs have CAGE peaks overlapping with their TSSs compared to multi-exonic lncRNAs. Using publicly available RNA-seq data, we found more than one hundred cases where junction reads connected protein-coding gene exons with a downstream mono-exonic lncRNA, revealing the need for a careful evaluation of lncRNA 5'-boundaries. Our method is implemented using the statistical programming language R and is freely available as a webtool.

  20. Experience-based Learning in Acadia National Park: a Successful, Long-running, Model Field Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, M.

    2015-12-01

    This two-week field course has been offered alternate summers since 2000 in Acadia National Park on Mount Desert Island, Maine and addresses the geological history, physical and biological oceanography and principles of community ecology applicable to terrestrial and/or marine communities of coastal Maine. The course is often transformative and deeply meaningful to the students, many of whom have limited travel experience. The essential components of experience-based learning are well represented in this class with multiple opportunities for abstract conceptualization, active experimentation, concrete hands-on experiences and reflective observation built into the course. Each day begins with a lecture introducing concepts, which are then made concrete though daily field trips (4-8 hours in duration) into the park that include rigorous hiking, some kayaking and one commercial nature cruise. Field trips include hands-on experience with lecture concepts, on-site lessons in field methods, and data collection for independent projects. Each field trip is tied to a specific independent project, which are generated by the instructor, but self-selected by the students. Every student is actively involved in data collection during each field trip, with one student in charge of the collection each day. Daily guided journaling in three parts (scientific, personal and creative) and evening discussions provide ample opportunity for the student to reflect on the scientific content of the course, examine their personal reactions to what they have experienced and to be creative, sharing prior experiences, prior learning and their personalities. The course includes two exams, each following a week of lecture and field experiences. Independent research projects include the production of a manuscript-formatted report complete with statistical analysis of the data and a literature-based discussion of the conclusions. The combination of experiential reinforcement of concepts, abundant

  1. Enabling Field Experiences in Introductory Geoscience Classes through the Use of Immersive Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysey, S. M.; Smith, E.; Sellers, V.; Wyant, P.; Boyer, D. M.; Mobley, C.; Brame, S.

    2015-12-01

    Although field experiences are an important aspect of geoscience education, the opportunity to provide physical world experiences to large groups of introductory students is often limited by access, logistical, and financial constraints. Our project (NSF IUSE 1504619) is investigating the use of immersive virtual reality (VR) technologies as a surrogate for real field experiences in introductory geosciences classes. We are developing a toolbox that leverages innovations in the field of VR, including the Oculus Rift and Google Cardboard, to enable every student in an introductory geology classroom the opportunity to have a first-person virtual field experience in the Grand Canyon. We have opted to structure our VR experience as an interactive game where students must explore the Canyon to accomplish a series of tasks designed to emphasize key aspects of geoscience learning. So far we have produced two demo products for the virtual field trip. The first is a standalone "Rock Box" app developed for the iPhone, which allows students to select different rock samples, examine them in 3D, and obtain basic information about the properties of each sample. The app can act as a supplement to the traditional rock box used in physical geology labs. The second product is a fully functioning VR environment for the Grand Canyon developed using satellite-based topographic and imagery data to retain real geologic features within the experience. Players can freely navigate to explore anywhere they desire within the Canyon, but are guided to points of interest where they are able to complete exercises that will be aligned with specific learning goals. To this point we have integrated elements of the "Rock Box" app within the VR environment, allowing players to examine 3D details of rock samples they encounter within the Grand Canyon. We plan to provide demos of both products and obtain user feedback during our presentation.

  2. Porous media experience applicable to field evaluation for compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Gutknecht, P.J.

    1980-06-01

    A survey is presented of porous media field experience that may aid in the development of a compressed air energy storage field demonstration. Work done at PNL and experience of other groups and related industries is reviewed. An overall view of porous media experience in the underground storage of fluids is presented. CAES experience consists of site evaluation and selection processes used by groups in California, Kansas, and Indiana. Reservoir design and field evaluation of example sites are reported. The studies raised questions about compatibility with depleted oil and gas reservoirs, storage space rights, and compressed air regulations. Related experience embraces technologies of natural gas, thermal energy, and geothermal and hydrogen storage. Natural gas storage technology lends the most toward compressed air storage development, keeping in mind the respective differences between stored fluids, physical conditions, and cycling frequencies. Both fluids are injected under pressure into an aquifer to form a storage bubble confined between a suitable caprock structure and partially displaced ground water. State-of-the-art information is summarized as the necessary foundation material for field planning. Preliminary design criteria are given as recommendations for basic reservoir characteristics. These include geometric dimensions and storage matrix properties such as permeability. Suggested ranges are given for injection air temperature and reservoir pressure. The second step in developmental research is numerical modeling. Results have aided preliminary design by analyzing injection effects upon reservoir pressure, temperature and humidity profiles. Results are reported from laboratory experiments on candidate sandstones and caprocks. Conclusions are drawn, but further verification must be done in the field.

  3. fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Arnold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface irrigation, such as flood or furrow, is the predominant form of irrigation in California for agronomic crops. Compared to other irrigation methods, however, it is inefficient in terms of water use; large quantities of water, instead of being used for crop production, are lost to excess deep percolation and tail runoff. In surface-irrigated fields, irrigators commonly cut off the inflow of water when the water advance reaches a familiar or convenient location downfield, but this experience-based strategy has not been very successful in reducing the tail runoff water. Our study compared conventional cutoff practices to a retroactively applied model-based cutoff method in four commercially producing alfalfa fields in Northern California, and evaluated the model using a simple sensor system for practical application in typical alfalfa fields. These field tests illustrated that the model can be used to reduce tail runoff in typical surface-irrigated fields, and using it with a wireless sensor system saves time and labor as well as water.

  4. Application verification research of cloud computing technology in the field of real time aerospace experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Junwei; Chen, Hongyan; Zhao, Jing

    2017-08-01

    According to the requirements of real-time, reliability and safety for aerospace experiment, the single center cloud computing technology application verification platform is constructed. At the IAAS level, the feasibility of the cloud computing technology be applied to the field of aerospace experiment is tested and verified. Based on the analysis of the test results, a preliminary conclusion is obtained: Cloud computing platform can be applied to the aerospace experiment computing intensive business. For I/O intensive business, it is recommended to use the traditional physical machine.

  5. Surface stabilization and revegetation test plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.; Kemp, C.J.; Hayward, W.M.

    1993-09-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Decommissioning and Decontamination Engineering Group and Environmental Technology and Assessment Groups are developing new technologies to improve revegetation techniques for interim stabilization control over underground waste sites within the Radiation Area Remedial Action Program. Successful revegetation is an integral aspect of waste isolation strategy. Unfortunately, revegetation can be very difficult to achieve on the Hanford Site due to several factors: low annual precipitation, unpredictable timing of precipitation, low fertility of available soils, and coarse physical texture of soils covering waste sites. The tests in this report were performed during fiscal years 1992 and 1993 and include the use of two soil sealants in combination with bare soil and a soil/compost mixture and a comparison of a wheatgrass mixture and a native seed mixture. Hydroprobe access ports were placed in one-half of the test plots and moisture data was collected. Soil fertility and plant community characteristics were monitored during the two years of the test. During the first year all sites with compost provided additional fertility and retained greater amounts of soil moisture than noncomposted sites. The use of Enduraseal soil fixative provided greater soil moisture than the use of Aerospray-77 soil fixative. During the second year the use of compost and soil fixative's had a lesser effect on soil moisture. During late summer periods all treatments had very similar soil moisture profiles. The use of compost greatly increased vegetative cover and soil fertility in comparison to sites that had no compost added. Testing of the seed mixtures found that Siberian wheatgrass and Sandberg's bluegrass were the most dominant of the seeded species observed. All plots exhibited a dominant plant cover of volunteer cheatgrass. Biomass production was significantly greater on plots with compost than on the noncomposted plots

  6. TORCAPP: time-dependent cyclotron orbit calculation and plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, L.B.; McNeilly, G.S.

    1979-11-01

    TORCAPP calculates the motion of charged particles in electromagnetic fields with time as the independent variable, and produces a variety of printed and plotted output of results. Finite-size beam behavior is studied conveniently by following groups of particles which define an appropriate phase space area. Since time is the independent variable, general motion in the near-median-plane region may be followed. This includes, for example, loops not enclosing the origin and strongly radial motions. Thus, TORCAPP is particularly useful for injection studies for isochronous cyclotrons, or other devices with near-median-plane charged particle motion

  7. Splatterplots: overcoming overdraw in scatter plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Adrian; Gleicher, Michael

    2013-09-01

    We introduce Splatterplots, a novel presentation of scattered data that enables visualizations that scale beyond standard scatter plots. Traditional scatter plots suffer from overdraw (overlapping glyphs) as the number of points per unit area increases. Overdraw obscures outliers, hides data distributions, and makes the relationship among subgroups of the data difficult to discern. To address these issues, Splatterplots abstract away information such that the density of data shown in any unit of screen space is bounded, while allowing continuous zoom to reveal abstracted details. Abstraction automatically groups dense data points into contours and samples remaining points. We combine techniques for abstraction with perceptually based color blending to reveal the relationship between data subgroups. The resulting visualizations represent the dense regions of each subgroup of the data set as smooth closed shapes and show representative outliers explicitly. We present techniques that leverage the GPU for Splatterplot computation and rendering, enabling interaction with massive data sets. We show how Splatterplots can be an effective alternative to traditional methods of displaying scatter data communicating data trends, outliers, and data set relationships much like traditional scatter plots, but scaling to data sets of higher density and up to millions of points on the screen.

  8. Theoretical considerations and preparatory experiments for poloidal field measurements in tokamaks by far-infrared polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, W; Dodel, G [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Plasmaforschung

    1978-12-01

    Numerical calculations give an optimum wavelength and show the precision requirements for determining poloidal field profiles in tokamaks on the basis of the Faraday effect. The required precision of the polarimetric measurements can be achieved in the far-infrared as is verified in a model experiment using a ferrite modulated HCN laser beam.

  9. Field experiments on seed dispersal by wind in ten umbelliferous species (Apiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongejans, E.; Telenius, A.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents data from experiments on seed dispersal by wind for ten species of the family Apiaceae. Seed shadows were obtained in the field under natural conditions, using wind speeds between four and ten m/s. The flight of individual seeds was followed by eye, and seed shadows were

  10. The role of status and leadership style in sales contests: A natural field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeke, W.; Bagozzi, R.P.; Belschak, F.D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the question whether status alone, as compared to a combined financial/status incentive, is strong enough to motivate team members taking part in a retail sales contest to sell more goods to customers. Using a two-phase natural field experiment, we studied the impact of a sales

  11. Ride Your Luck! A Field Experiment on Lottery-Based Incentives for Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Fabbri (Marco); P.N. Barbieri (Paolo); M. Bigoni (Maria)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe designed a natural-field experiment in the context of local public transportation to test whether rewards in the form of lottery prizes coupled with traditional sanctions efficiently reduce free-riding. We organized a lottery in a medium-size Italian city the participation in which is

  12. Dewey's Concept of Experience for Inquiry-Based Landscape Drawing during Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Alexander; Albrecht, Volker; Wunderlich, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The epistemological and educational philosophy of John Dewey is used as a theoretical basis to analyze processes of knowledge construction during geographical field studies. The experience of landscape drawing as a method of inquiry and a starting point for research-based learning is empirically evaluated. The basic drawing skills are acquired…

  13. Rocket to Creativity: A Field Experience in Problem-Based and Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Sharon F.; Bloom, Lisa A.; Doss, Kristy Kowalske

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the impact of a field experience in problem-based (PBL) and project-based learning (PjBL) on in-service teachers' conceptions of experiential learning. Participants had been enrolled in a hybrid class that included an online component in which they learned about PBL and PjBL, and an experiential component in which they…

  14. Measurement of 3-Axis Magnetic Fields Induced by Current Wires Using a Smartphone in Magnetostatics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, B.; Septianto, R. D.; Suhendra, D.; Iskandar, F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the use of an inexpensive smartphone's magnetic sensor to measure magnetic field components (B[subscript x], B[subscript y] and B[subscript z]) induced by current wires in magnetostatic experiments. The variable parameters used to measure the magnetic sensor's capabilities were: the geometrical shapes of the wire, current…

  15. Nanojets, Electrospray, and Ion Field Evaporation: Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Laboratory Experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luedtke, W. D; Landman, Uzi; Chiu, Y. H; Levandier, D. J; Dressler, R. A; Sok, S; Gordon, M. S

    2008-01-01

    ... experiment and using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The electrospray source is operated in a Taylor cone-jet mode, with the nanojet that forms being characterized by high surface-normal electric field strengths in the vicinity of I V/nm...

  16. Using Norm-Based Appeals to Increase Response Rates in Evaluation Research: A Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Shalini; Stokols, Daniel; Marino, Anne Heberger

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of norm-based persuasive messages for increasing response rates in online survey research. Participants in an interdisciplinary conference were asked to complete two successive postconference surveys and randomly assigned to one of two groups at each time point. The experimental group…

  17. Ultrafast electron field emission from gold resonant antennas studied by two terahertz pulse experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary form only given. Ultrafast electron field emission from gold resonant antennas induced by strong terahertz (THz) transient is investigated using two THz pulse experiments. It is shown that UV emission from nitrogen plasma generated by liberated electrons is a good indication of the local...

  18. The impact of gender diversity on the performance of business teams: evidence from a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, S.; Oosterbeek, H.; van Praag, M.

    This paper reports about a field experiment conducted to estimate the impact of the share of women in business teams on their performance. Teams consisting of undergraduate students in business studies start up a venture as part of their curriculum. We manipulated the gender composition of teams and

  19. The impact of gender diversity on the performance of business teams: evidence from a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, S.; Oosterbeek, H.; van Praag, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a field experiment conducted to estimate the impact of the share of women in business teams on their performance. Teams consisting of undergraduate students in business studies start up a venture as part of their curriculum. We manipulated the gender composition of teams and

  20. The impact of gender diversity on the performance of business teams: evidence from a field experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, S.; Oosterbeek, H.; van Praag, M.

    This paper reports about a field experiment conducted to estimate the impact of the share of women in business teams on their performance. Teams consisting of under-graduate students in business studies start up a venture as part of their curriculum. We manipulated the gender composition of teams

  1. The Preservice Teachers Are Watching: Framing and Reframing the Field Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherff, Lisa; Singer, Nancy Robb

    2012-01-01

    In this article we employ Sizers' (1999) school- and classroom-based lenses for observation and apply them to the events and interactions that teacher education students see during school-based field experiences. Our data include online reflections and discussions among 33 students enrolled in a teacher education program at a large, public…

  2. The effects of payment instruments on charitable giving: Evidence from a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on a door-to-door field experiment on the effects of introducing portable debit terminals for mobile payment authorization on the contributions to charity. About 4,500 households are approached, randomly divided in three experimental treatments, distinguished by the possibility

  3. Theory, Experimental Design, and Econometrics Are Complementary (And So Are Lab and Field Experiments)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Rutström, E. Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    This book confronts and debates the issues faced by the growing field of experimental economics. For example, as experimental work attempts to test theory, it raises questions about the proper relationship between theory and experiments. As experimental results are used to inform policy...

  4. Review of possible experiments in the eutectic growth and thermodiffusion fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmejac, Yves.

    1976-01-01

    The results now available from the SKYLAB and ASTP programmes give a clearer indication of the lines of the research to pursue in the years to come. The criteria necessary for the choice of experiments are analysed in the fields of eutectic solidification and diffusion along a temperature gradient in liquid alloys [fr

  5. Estimating adhesive seed-dispersal distances : field experiments and correlated random walks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouissie, AM; Lengkeek, W; van Diggelen, R

    1. In this study we aimed to estimate distance distributions of adhesively dispersed seeds and the factors that determine them. 2. Seed attachment and detachment were studied using field experiments with a real sheep, a sheep dummy and a cattle dummy. Seed-retention data were used in correlated

  6. The importance of holdup in contracting: Evidence from a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyer, R.; Schoar, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores how the relationship specificity of the investment affects the ex-ante structure of contracts and the ex-post resolution of an ensuing holdup problem. We set up a field experiment in the wholesale market for pens in India where we sent entrepreneurs as auditors to procure large

  7. Gaseous mercury fluxes from forest soils in response to forest harvesting intensity: A field manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Mazur; C.P.J. Mitchell; C.S. Eckley; S.L. Eggert; R.K. Kolka; S.D. Sebestyen; E.B. Swain

    2014-01-01

    Forest harvesting leads to changes in soil moisture, temperature and incident solar radiation, all strong environmental drivers of soil-air mercury (Hg) fluxes. Whether different forest harvesting practices significantly alter Hg fluxes from forest soils is unknown.We conducted a field-scale experiment in a northern Minnesota deciduous forest wherein gaseous Hg...

  8. Effects of supervision on tax compliance: Evidence from a field experiment in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Katharina; Torgler, Benno; Kirchler, Erich; Hofmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    We conduct a field experiment on tax compliance, focusing on newly founded firms. As a novelty the effect of tax authorities’ supervision on timely tax payments is examined. Interestingly, results show no positive overall effect of close supervision on tax compliance. PMID:25843992

  9. Increasing public debt collection with nudging: Results of two natural field experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Nielsen, Lisbeth Fyhn; Rasmussen, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Using two natural field experiments, we tested whether nudging could contribute as a cost-free instrument to increase voluntary public debt collection. We manipulated standard reminder notices sent to two samples (N = 396 and N = 549) with public debt in a municipality in Denmark, a country...... that nudging may contribute to public debt collection....

  10. Field experiment on spray drift: Deposition and airborne drift during application to a winter wheat crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, A.; Linnemann, V.; Zande, van de J.C.; Vereecken, H.

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done

  11. Engineering and agronomy aspects of a long-term precision agriculture field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much research has been conducted on specific precision agriculture tools and implementation strategies, but little has been reported on long-term evaluation of integrated precision agriculture field experiments. In 2004 our research team developed and initiated a multi-faceted “precision agriculture...

  12. Does the Unemployement Benefit Institution Affect the Productivity of Workers? Evidence from a Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, M.; Dalton, P.S.; Vargas, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We investigate whether and how the type of unemployment bene t institution affects productivity. We designed a field experiment to compare workers' productivity under a welfare system, where the unemployed receive an unconditional monetary transfer, with their productivity under a workfare

  13. Do terrorist attacks affect ethnic discrimination in the labour market? Evidence from two randomized field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth; Chan, Tak Wing; Ugreninov, Elisabeth; Midtbøen, Arnfinn H; Rogstad, Jon

    2018-01-24

    Terrorist attacks are known to influence public opinion. But do they also change behaviour? We address this question by comparing the results of two identical randomized field experiments on ethnic discrimination in hiring that we conducted in Oslo. The first experiment was conducted before the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway; the second experiment was conducted after the attacks. In both experiments, applicants with a typical Pakistani name were significantly less likely to get a job interview compared to those with a typical Norwegian name. But the ethnic gap in call-back rates were very similar in the two experiments. Thus, Pakistanis in Norway still experienced the same level of discrimination, despite claims that Norwegians have become more positive about migrants after the far-right, anti-migrant terrorist attacks of 2011. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  14. Laboratory experiments on plasma jets in a magnetic field using high-power lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The experiments to simulate astrophysical jet generation are performed using Gekko XII (GXII HIPER laser system at the Institute of Laser Engineering. In the experiments a fast plasma flow generated by shooting a CH plane (10 μm thickness is observed at the rear side of the plane. By separating the focal spot of the main beams, a non-uniform plasma is generated. The non-uniform plasma flow in an external magnetic field (0.2∼0.3 T perpendicular to the plasma is more collimated than that without the external magnetic field. The plasma β, the ratio between the plasma and magnetic pressure, is ≫ 1, and the magnetic Reynolds number is ∼150 in the collimated plasma. It is considered that the magnetic field is distorted by the plasma flow and enhances the jet collimation.

  15. Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Models Using Denver 2006 Field Experiment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nash’at N.; Pruis, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted a series of wake vortex field experiments at Denver in 2003, 2005, and 2006. This paper describes the lidar wake vortex measurements and associated meteorological data collected during the 2006 deployment, and includes results of recent reprocessing of the lidar data using a new wake vortex algorithm and estimates of the atmospheric turbulence using a new algorithm to estimate eddy dissipation rate from the lidar data. The configuration and set-up of the 2006 field experiment allowed out-of-ground effect vortices to be tracked in lateral transport further than any previous campaign and thereby provides an opportunity to study long-lived wake vortices in moderate to low crosswinds. An evaluation of NASA's fast-time wake vortex transport and decay models using the dataset shows similar performance as previous studies using other field data.

  16. 9 CFR 108.3 - Preparation of plot plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of plot plans. 108.3... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.3 Preparation of plot plans. Plot plans shall show all of the buildings on a... on the plot plan the use of immediate adjacent properties such as, residential area, pasture, box...

  17. Manual transportation within the plot and physical damages to bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Mário Jorge Maia de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The manual transportation of banana bunches within plots provokes physical damages to fruits compromising their quality. To assess the influence of the distance banana bunches travel on the shoulders of harvesters within the plot, on the incidence of physical damages present on the peel of fruits of the Nanicão cultivar, two experiments were carried out in the Vale do Ribeira region (SP, in sites with slope < 1%. Each experiment divided the plot in different distance bands, two of which were included in this study: one located far away from the collection roads (30-50 m and 80-100 m distance bands and another in an intermediate position (70-80 m and 130-150 m distance bands. For each distance band, six banana bunches of 36 mm gauged fruits were randomly sampled. Four banana hands were cut from the middle region of each bunch and ten fruits were assessed per hand, totaling 240 fruits per treatment. Bunches were harvested at the same maturity degree and those served as control were not transported. A total of 1440 fruits was assessed in the two experiments. The physical damages on the fruit surface were graded on a scale with 6 divisions: 0-0.25 cm²; 0.25-0.5 cm²; 0.5-1.0 cm²; 1.0-1.5 cm²; 1.5-2.0 cm²; 2.0-2.5 cm². The bunches transported on the shoulders of harvesters on distances over 70 m suffered increased (P < 0.01 damaged area. Most damages presented areas up to 0.5 cm².

  18. Measurement and tricubic interpolation of the magnetic field for the OLYMPUS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer, J.C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA (United States); Diefenbach, J. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Elbakian, G. [Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute), Yerevan (Armenia); Gavrilov, G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Goerrissen, N. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Hasell, D.K.; Henderson, B.S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA (United States); Holler, Y. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Karyan, G. [Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute), Yerevan (Armenia); Ludwig, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Marukyan, H. [Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute), Yerevan (Armenia); Naryshkin, Y. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); O' Connor, C.; Russell, R.L.; Schmidt, A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schneekloth, U. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Suvorov, K.; Veretennikov, D. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    The OLYMPUS experiment used a 0.3 T toroidal magnetic spectrometer to measure the momenta of outgoing charged particles. In order to accurately determine particle trajectories, knowledge of the magnetic field was needed throughout the spectrometer volume. For that purpose, the magnetic field was measured at over 36,000 positions using a three-dimensional Hall probe actuated by a system of translation tables. We used these field data to fit a numerical magnetic field model, which could be employed to calculate the magnetic field at any point in the spectrometer volume. Calculations with this model were computationally intensive; for analysis applications where speed was crucial, we pre-computed the magnetic field and its derivatives on an evenly spaced grid so that the field could be interpolated between grid points. We developed a spline-based interpolation scheme suitable for SIMD implementations, with a memory layout chosen to minimize space and optimize the cache behavior to quickly calculate field values. This scheme requires only one-eighth of the memory needed to store necessary coefficients compared with a previous scheme (Lekien and Marsden, 2005 [1]). This method was accurate for the vast majority of the spectrometer volume, though special fits and representations were needed to improve the accuracy close to the magnet coils and along the toroidal axis.

  19. Urban Field Experiences for Undergraduate Liberal Arts Students: Using Compromised Environments as Living Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; Knee, K.

    2015-12-01

    While urban environments may lack the beauty of relatively pristine field sites, they can be used to deliver an effective demonstration of actual environmental damage. Students demanding applied field experiences from their undergraduate environmental science programs can be well served in urban settings. Here, we present strategies for integrating degraded urban systems into the undergraduate field experience. Urban locations provide an opportunity for a different type of local "field-work" than would otherwise be available. In the upper-level undergraduate Environmental Methods class, we relied on a National Park area located a 10-minute walk from campus for most field exercises. Activities included soil analysis, measuring stream flow and water quality parameters, dendrochronology, and aquatic microbe metabolism. In the non-majors class, we make use of our urban location to contrast water quality in parks and highly channelized urban streams. Students spend labs immersed in streams and wetlands heavily impacted by the urban runoff their city generates. Here we share lesson plans and budgets for field activities that can be completed during a class period of 2.5 hours with a $75 course fee, show how these activities help students gain quantitative competency.

  20. Field experiments with subsurface releases of oil and and dyed water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rye, H.; Brandvik, P.J.; Strom, T.

    1998-01-01

    A field experiment with a subsurface release of oil and air was carried out in June 1996 close to the Frigg Field in the North Sea area. One of the purposes of this sea trial was to increase the knowledge concerning the behaviour of the oil and gas during a subsurface blowout. This was done by releasing oil and air at 106 meters depth with a realistic gas oil ratio (GOR=67) and release velocity of the oil. In addition to the oil release, several releases with dyed water and gas (GOR=7 - 65) were performed. Important and unique data were collected during these subsurface releases. In particular, the experiments with the dyed water releases combined with air turned out to be an efficient way of obtaining field data for the behaviour of subsurface plumes. The main conclusions from analysis for the data collected are: the field methodology used to study blowout releases in the field appears to be appropriate. The use of dyed water to determine the performance of the subsurface plume proved out to be an efficient way to obtain reliable and useful data. The behaviour of the subsurface plume is very sensitive to gas flow rates. For low gas flow rates, the plume did not reach the sea surface at all due to the presence of stratification in the ambient water. Some discrepancies were found between a numerical model for subsurface releases and field results. These discrepancies are pointed out, and recommendations for possible model improvements are given. (author)

  1. The influence of ego depletion on sprint start performance in athletes without track and field experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Chris; Persaud, Brittany N; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Bertrams, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We tested the assumption that ego depletion would affect the sprint start in a sample of N = 38 athletes without track and field experience in an experiment by applying a mixed between- (depletion vs. non-depletion) within- (T1: before manipulation of ego depletion vs. T2: after manipulation of ego depletion) subjects design. We assumed that ego depletion would increase the possibility for a false start, as regulating the impulse to initiate the sprinting movement too soon before the starting signal requires self-control. In line with our assumption, we found a significant interaction as there was only a significant increase in the number of false starts from T1 to T2 for the depletion group while this was not the case for the non-depletion group. We conclude that ego depletion has a detrimental influence on the sprint start in athletes without track and field experience.

  2. Survival and leaching of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicators from manure in field scale experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina; Amin, Mostofa; Lægdsmand, Mette

    The spreading of manure on agricultural land is an economic and practical solution for improving soil quality; however, animal manure frequently contains zoonotic pathogenic bacteria, such as certain Eschericia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. The present experiment was conducted...... as a large multidisciplinary project. Pig manure with a natural content of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicator organisms was followed in soil columns and a field scale experiment. In the field experiment pig manure was injected into agricultural soil. The distribution and survival of natural...... occurring indicator bacteria around a manure slurry slit in the soil was followed. During a period of two months, sections of soils with different distance to the manure string were assayed to obtain information on survival and spread of bacteriophage, faecal indicators (Enterococci, Bacterioides, E. coli...

  3. Polarization-preserving confocal microscope for optical experiments in a dilution refrigerator with high magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladkov, Maksym; Bakker, M P; Chaubal, A U; Reuter, D; Wieck, A D; van der Wal, C H

    2011-04-01

    We present the design and operation of a fiber-based cryogenic confocal microscope. It is designed as a compact cold-finger that fits inside the bore of a superconducting magnet, and which is a modular unit that can be easily swapped between use in a dilution refrigerator and other cryostats. We aimed at application in quantum optical experiments with electron spins in semiconductors and the design has been optimized for driving with and detection of optical fields with well-defined polarizations. This was implemented with optical access via a polarization maintaining fiber together with Voigt geometry at the cold finger, which circumvents Faraday rotations in the optical components in high magnetic fields. Our unit is versatile for use in experiments that measure photoluminescence, reflection, or transmission, as we demonstrate with a quantum optical experiment with an ensemble of donor-bound electrons in a thin GaAs film. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  4. A modified Stern-Gerlach experiment using a quantum two-state magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghigh, Ramin G.; Green, Michael D.; West, Christopher J.

    2018-06-01

    The Stern-Gerlach experiment has played an important role in our understanding of quantum behavior. We propose and analyze a modified version of this experiment where the magnetic field of the detector is in a quantum superposition, which may be experimentally realized using a superconducting flux qubit. We show that if incident spin-1/2 particles couple with the two-state magnetic field, a discrete target distribution results that resembles the distribution in the classical Stern-Gerlach experiment. As an application of the general result, we compute the distribution for a Gaussian waveform of the incident fermion. This analysis allows us to demonstrate theoretically: (1) the quantization of the intrinsic angular momentum of a spin-1/2 particle, and (2) a correlation between EPR pairs leading to nonlocality, without necessarily collapsing the particle's spin wavefunction.

  5. On-plot drinking water supplies and health: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbo, Alycia; Williams, Ashley R; Evans, Barbara; Hunter, Paul R; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have found that household access to water supplies near or within the household plot can reduce the probability of diarrhea, trachoma, and other water-related diseases, and it is generally accepted that on-plot water supplies produce health benefits for households. However, the body of research literature has not been analyzed to weigh the evidence supporting this. A systematic review was conducted to investigate the impacts of on-plot water supplies on diarrhea, trachoma, child growth, and water-related diseases, to further examine the relationship between household health and distance to water source and to assess whether on-plot water supplies generate health gains for households. Studies provide evidence that households with on-plot water supplies experience fewer diarrheal and helminth infections and greater child height. Findings suggest that water-washed (hygiene associated) diseases are more strongly impacted by on-plot water access than waterborne diseases. Few studies analyzed the effects of on-plot water access on quantity of domestic water used, hygiene behavior, and use of multiple water sources, and the lack of evidence for these relationships reveals an important gap in current literature. The review findings indicate that on-plot water access is a useful health indicator and benchmark for the progressive realization of the Sustainable Development Goal target of universal safe water access as well as the human right to safe water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Sampling in the Snow: High School Winter Field Experiences Provide Relevant, Real World Connections Between Scientific Practices and Disciplinary Core Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E. W.; Burakowski, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    For much of the northern United States, the months surrounding the winter solstice are times of increased darkness, low temperatures, and frozen landscapes. It's a time when many high school science educators, who otherwise would venture outside with their classes, hunker down and are wary of the outdoors. However, a plethora of learning opportunities lies just beyond the classroom. Working collaboratively, a high school science teacher and a snow scientist have developed multiple activities to engage students in the scientific process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting the winter world using snow data to (1) learn about the insulative properties of snow, and (2) to learn about the role of snow cover on winter climate through its reflective properties while participating in a volunteer network that collects snow depth, albedo (reflectivity), and density data. These outdoor field-based snow investigations incorporate Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and disciplinary core ideas, including ESS2.C: The roles of water in Earth's surface processes and ESS2.D: Weather and Climate. Additionally, the lesson plans presented address Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in Mathematics, including the creation and analysis of bar graphs and time series plots (CCSS.Math.HSS-ID.A.1) and xy scatter plots (CCSS.Math.HSS-ID.B.6). High school students participating in the 2013/2014 snow sampling season described their outdoor learning experience as "authentic" and "hands-on" as compared to traditional class indoors. They emphasized that learning outdoors was essential to their understanding of underlying content and concepts because they "learn through actual experience."

  7. From Formal Expertise to Co-expertise: Experience in the Field of Protection against Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    As a result of the growing difficulties confronting the heads of public and private high-risk activities, expertise practices have changed radically over the past years in the areas of risk assessment and management. In answer to the erosion of the credibility and legitimacy of traditional 'scientific' expertise, new forms of expertise based on citizen participation have emerged, particularly in fields involving public trust. The author's aim is to analyse the main changes in the field of radiological protection, on the basis of his 25 years of experience in the field. In conclusion, the author discusses the independence of expert assessment, an issue central to the present debate on the organization and practice of expertise in the field of high-risk activities

  8. Evidence of circular Rydberg states in beam-foil experiments: Role of the surface wake field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Puri, Nitin K.; Kumar, Pravin; Nandi, T.

    2017-12-01

    We have employed the concept of the surface wake field to model the formation of the circular Rydberg states in the beam-foil experiments. The experimental studies of atomic excitation processes show the formation of circular Rydberg states either in the bulk of the foil or at the exit surface, and the mechanism is explained by several controversial theories. The present model is based on the interesting fact that the charge state fraction as well as the surface wake field depend on the foil thickness and it resolves a long-standing discrepancy on the mechanism of the formation of circular Rydberg states. The influence of exit layers is twofold. Initially, the high angular momentum Rydberg states are produced in the last layers of the foil by the Stark switching due to the bulk wake field and finally, they are transferred to the circular Rydberg states as a single multiphoton process due to the influence of the surface wake field.

  9. Experiment and modeling of an atmospheric pressure arc in an applied oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, Max; Roquemore, A. L.; Zweben, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    A set of experiments are carried out to measure and understand the response of a free-burning atmospheric pressure carbon arc to applied transverse dc and ac magnetic fields. The arc is found to deflect parabolically for the dc field and assumes a growing sinusoidal structure for the ac field. A simple analytic two-parameter fluid model of the arc dynamics is derived, in which the arc response is governed by the arc jet originating at the cathode, with the applied JxB force balanced by inertia. Time variation of the applied field allows evaluation of the parameters individually. A fit of the model to the experimental data gives a value for the average jet speed an order of magnitude below Maecker's estimate of the maximum jet speed [H. Maecker, Z. Phys. 141, 198 (1955)]. An example industrial application of the model is considered. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  10. NSF GK-12 Fellows as Mentors for K-12 Teachers Participating in Field Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellins, K.; Perry, E.

    2005-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG) recognizes the value of providing educational opportunities to K-12 teachers who play a critical role in shaping the minds of young people who are the future of our science. To that end, UTIG established the "Texas Teachers in the Field" program in 2000 to formalize the participation of K-12 teachers in field programs that included UTIG scientists. In 2002, "Texas Teachers in the Field" evolved through UTIG's involvement in a University of Texas at Austin GK-12 project led by the Environmental Sciences Institute, which enabled UTIG to partner a subset of GK-12 Fellows with teachers participating in geophysical field programs. During the three years of the GK-12 project, UTIG successfully partnered four GK-12 Fellows with five K-12 teachers. The Fellows served as mentors to the teachers, as liaisons between UTIG scientists leading field programs and teachers and their students, and as resources in science, mathematics, and technology instruction. Specifically, Fellows prepared teachers and their students for the field investigations, supervised the design of individual Teacher Research Experience (TRE) projects, and helped teachers to develop standards-aligned curriculum resources related to the field program for use in their own classrooms, as well as broader distribution. Although all but one TRE occurred during the school year, Texas school districts and principals were willing to release teachers to participate because the experience and destinations were so extraordinary (i.e., a land-based program in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina; and research cruises to the Southeast Caribbean Sea and Hess Deep in the Pacific Ocean) and carried opportunities to work with scientists from around the world. This exceptional collaboration of GK-12 Fellows, K-12 teachers and research scientists enriches K-12 student learning and promotes greater enthusiasm for science. The level of mentoring, preparation and follow-up provided

  11. Turbulent Dynamo Amplification of Magnetic Fields in Laser-Produced Plasmas: Simulations and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeferacos, P.; Rigby, A.; Bott, A.; Bell, A.; Bingham, R.; Casner, A.; Cattaneo, F.; Churazov, E.; Forest, C.; Katz, J.; Koenig, M.; Li, C.-K.; Meinecke, J.; Petrasso, R.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B.; Ross, J.; Ryutov, D.; Ryu, D.; Reville, B.; Miniati, F.; Schekochihin, A.; Froula, D.; Lamb, D.; Gregori, G.

    2017-10-01

    The universe is permeated by magnetic fields, with strengths ranging from a femtogauss in the voids between the filaments of galaxy clusters to several teragauss in black holes and neutron stars. The standard model for cosmological magnetic fields is the nonlinear amplification of seed fields via turbulent dynamo. We have conceived experiments to demonstrate and study the turbulent dynamo mechanism in the laboratory. Here, we describe the design of these experiments through large-scale 3D FLASH simulations on the Mira supercomputer at ANL, and the laser-driven experiments we conducted with the OMEGA laser at LLE. Our results indicate that turbulence is capable of rapidly amplifying seed fields to near equipartition with the turbulent fluid motions. This work was supported in part from the ERC (FP7/2007-2013, No. 256973 and 247039), and the U.S. DOE, Contract No. B591485 to LLNL, FWP 57789 to ANL, Grant No. DE-NA0002724 and DE-SC0016566 to the University of Chicago, and DE-AC02-06CH11357 to ANL.

  12. Rethermalization of a field-reversed configuration plasma in translation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himura, H.; Okada, S.; Sugimoto, S.; Goto, S.

    1995-01-01

    A translation experiment of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma is performed on the FIX machine [Shiokawa and Goto, Phys. Fluids B 5, 534 (1993)]. The translated FRC bounces between magnetic mirror fields at both ends of a confinement region. The plasma loses some of its axial kinetic energy when it is reflected by the magnetic mirror field, and eventually settles down in the confinement region. In this reflection process, the plasma temperature rises significantly. Such plasma rethermalization has been observed in OCT-L1 experiments [Ito et al., Phys. Fluids 30, 168 (1987)], but rarely in FRX-C/T experiments [Rej et al., Phys. Fluids 29, 852 (1986)]. It is found that the rethermalization depends on the relation between the plasma temperature and the translation velocity. The rethermalization occurs only in the case where the translation velocity exceeds the sound velocity. This result implies the rethermalization is caused by a shock wave induced within the FRC when the plasma is reflected by the magnetic mirror field. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  13. A balloon-borne experiment to investigate the Martian magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingenschuh, K.; Feldhofer, H.; Koren, W.; Jernej, I.; Stachel, M.; Riedler, W.; Slamanig, H.; Auster, H.-U.; Rustenbach, J.; Fornacon, H. K.; Schenk, H. J.; Hillenmaier, O.; Haerendel, G.; Yeroshenko, Ye.; Styashkin, V.; Zaroutzky, A.; Best, A.; Scholz, G.; Russell, C. T.; Means, J.; Pierce, D.; Luhmann, J. G.

    1996-03-01

    The Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy, of Sciences (Graz, Austria) in cooperation with MPE (Berlin, Germany), GFZ Potsdam (Obs. Niemegk, Germany) IZMIRAN/IOFAN (Moscow, Russian) and IGPP/UCLA (Los Angeles, USA) is designing the magnetic field experiment MAGIBAL (MAGnetic field experiment aboard a martian BALloon) to investigate the magnetic field on the surface of Mars. The dual sensor fluxgate magnetometer is part of the MARS-98/MARS-TOGETHER balloon payload. During a ten days period the balloon will float over a distance of about 2000 km at altitudes between 0 and 4 km. Due to the limited power and telemetry allocation the magnetometer can transmit only one vector per ten seconds and spectral information in the frequency range from 2 - 25 Hz. The dynamic range is +/- 2000 nT. The main scientific objectives of the experiment are: • Determination of the magnetism of the Martian rocks • Investigation of the leakage of the solar wind induced magnetosphere using the correlation between orbiter and balloon observations • Measurement of the magnetic field profile between the orbiter and the surface of Mars during the descent phase of the balloon. Terrestrial test flights with a hot air balloon were performed in order to test the original MAGIBAL equipment under balloon flight conditions.

  14. The generation and amplification of intergalactic magnetic fields in analogue laboratory experiments with high power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, G.; Reville, B.; Miniati, F.

    2015-11-01

    The advent of high-power laser facilities has, in the past two decades, opened a new field of research where astrophysical environments can be scaled down to laboratory dimensions, while preserving the essential physics. This is due to the invariance of the equations of magneto-hydrodynamics to a class of similarity transformations. Here we review the relevant scaling relations and their application in laboratory astrophysics experiments with a focus on the generation and amplification of magnetic fields in cosmic environment. The standard model for the origin of magnetic fields is a multi stage process whereby a vanishing magnetic seed is first generated by a rotational electric field and is then amplified by turbulent dynamo action to the characteristic values observed in astronomical bodies. We thus discuss the relevant seed generation mechanisms in cosmic environment including resistive mechanism, collision-less and fluid instabilities, as well as novel laboratory experiments using high power laser systems aimed at investigating the amplification of magnetic energy by magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. Future directions, including efforts to model in the laboratory the process of diffusive shock acceleration are also discussed, with an emphasis on the potential of laboratory experiments to further our understanding of plasma physics on cosmic scales.

  15. About the Toroidal Magnetic Field of a Tokamak Burning Plasma Experiment with Superconducting Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucato, E.

    2002-01-01

    In tokamaks, the strong dependence on the toroidal magnetic field of both plasma pressure and energy confinement is what makes possible the construction of small and relatively inexpensive burning plasma experiments using high-field resistive coils. On the other hand, the toroidal magnetic field of tokamaks using superconducting coils is limited by the critical field of superconductivity. In this article, we examine the relative merit of raising the magnetic field of a tokamak plasma by increasing its aspect ratio at a constant value of the peak field in the toroidal magnet. Taking ITER-FEAT as an example, we find that it is possible to reach thermonuclear ignition using an aspect ratio of approximately 4.5 and a toroidal magnetic field of 7.3 T. Under these conditions, fusion power density and neutron wall loading are the same as in ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor], but the normalized plasma beta is substantially smaller. Furthermore, such a tokamak would be able to reach an energy gain of approximately 15 even with the deterioration in plasma confinement that is known to occur near the density limit where ITER is forced to operate

  16. Field experiments on eyewitness identification: towards a better understanding of pitfalls and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gary L

    2008-02-01

    The Illinois pilot program on lineup procedures has helped sharpen the focus on the types of controls that are needed in eyewitness field experiments and the limits that exist for interpreting outcome measures (rates of suspect and filler identifications). A widely-known limitation of field experiments is that, unlike simulated crime experiments, the guilt or innocence of the suspects is not easily known independently of the behavior of the eyewitnesses. Less well appreciated is that the rate of identification of lineup fillers, although clearly errors, can be a misleading measure if the filler identification rate is used to assess which of two or more lineup procedures is the better procedure. Several examples are used to illustrate that there are clearly improper procedures that would yield fewer identifications of fillers than would their proper counterparts. For example, biased lineup structure (e.g., using poorly matched fillers) as well as suggestive lineup procedures (that can result from non-blind administration of lineups) would reduce filler identification errors compared to unbiased and non-suggestive procedures. Hence, under many circumstances filler identification rates can be misleading indicators of preferred methods. Comparisons of lineup procedures in future field experiments will not be easily accepted in the absence of double-blind administration methods in all conditions plus true random assignment to conditions.

  17. Design of Field Experiments for Adaptive Sampling of the Ocean with Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H.; Ooi, B. H.; Cho, W.; Dao, M. H.; Tkalich, P.; Patrikalakis, N. M.

    2010-05-01

    Due to the highly non-linear and dynamical nature of oceanic phenomena, the predictive capability of various ocean models depends on the availability of operational data. A practical method to improve the accuracy of the ocean forecast is to use a data assimilation methodology to combine in-situ measured and remotely acquired data with numerical forecast models of the physical environment. Autonomous surface and underwater vehicles with various sensors are economic and efficient tools for exploring and sampling the ocean for data assimilation; however there is an energy limitation to such vehicles, and thus effective resource allocation for adaptive sampling is required to optimize the efficiency of exploration. In this paper, we use physical oceanography forecasts of the coastal zone of Singapore for the design of a set of field experiments to acquire useful data for model calibration and data assimilation. The design process of our experiments relied on the oceanography forecast including the current speed, its gradient, and vorticity in a given region of interest for which permits for field experiments could be obtained and for time intervals that correspond to strong tidal currents. Based on these maps, resources available to our experimental team, including Autonomous Surface Craft (ASC) are allocated so as to capture the oceanic features that result from jets and vortices behind bluff bodies (e.g., islands) in the tidal current. Results are summarized from this resource allocation process and field experiments conducted in January 2009.

  18. Plot - level stem volume estimation and tree species discrimination with CASI remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Johan; Wallerman, J.; Olsson, Haakan

    1999-10-01

    Spectral data from the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI), with four bands (460-495 nm, 550-580 nm, 660-682 nm, 740-762 nm) acquired from a forest test area (Lat. 60 deg 00` N, Long. 17 deg 18` E), the Kaettboele estate near Uppsala, was analysed together with forest data from a number of field plots. Data from two flight lines, one towards and the other perpendicular to the sun was used. Information about stem volume and species composition from plots with 10-m radius, 138 in the first and 120 in the second flight line, was available. There was a positive correlation (R{sup 2} 0.51-0.53) between stem volume and the inverted radiance for all four bands on plot level. The strong correlation between stem volume and a shadow density measure indicates that shadows explain much of the correlation. For the flight line perpendicular to the sun, the correlation was stronger for the side towards the sun compared to the side away from the sun. In the first flight line, plots with a stem volume > 120 m{sup 3}ha{sup -1} were classified according to the tree species composition (pine, spruce, deciduous trees). Groups were formed based on the classification, and the hypothesis that there was no difference in spectral radiance between these groups was tested. It was possible to separate pine dominated plots from spruce dominated plots. It was also possible to separate spruce dominated plots from spruce dominated plots with a minor portion of pine, but not pine dominated plots from pine dominated plots with a minor portion of spruce. The near-infrared band was the best band for discrimination of tree species 16 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  19. Enviromental behavior of sulfentrazone and fipronil in a Brazilian clayey latosol: field experiment and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Penna Scorza Júnior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been an urgent need to assess pesticide environmental behavior under Brazilian field conditions and to evaluate the risks associated to its use in agriculture. Besides a qualitative and quantitative interpretation of field experiments to acquire understanding about pesticide environmental behaviour, field experiments are important to test pesticide fate models. Environmental behaviour of fipronil and sulfentrazone in a sugarcane area in Dourados, MS, was evaluated until 257 days after application. Moreover, the PEARL model was tested to simulate the fate of these two pesticides in the field. Soil samples for pesticide residue quantification and water content were taken at 0-10, 10-30, 30-50, 50-70 and 70-100 cm depth. There was a fast dissipation of both pesticides at soil surface within 15 days after application and their leaching was not beyond 30 cm depth. Dissipation and leaching satisfactory simulations for both pesticides were achieved only after calibration of half-life values or using a reduced initial dose. This study shows that fast dissipation of pesticides in the field can be an important process to consider when assessing the environmental behavior of pesticides in Brazil.

  20. Females and STEM: Determining the K-12 Experiences that Influenced Women to Pursue STEM Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anne Marie

    In the United States, careers in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) are increasing yet there are not enough trained personnel to meet this demand. In addition, of those that seek to pursue STEM fields in the United States, only 26% are female. In order to increase the number of women seeking STEM based bachelor's degrees, K-12 education must provide a foundation that prepares students for entry into these fields. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to determine the perceived K-12 experiences that influenced females to pursue a STEM field. Twelve college juniors or seniors seeking a degree in Biology, Mathematics, or Physics were interviewed concerning their K-12 experiences. These interviews were analyzed and six themes emerged. Teacher passion and classroom characteristics such as incorporating challenging activities played a significant role in the females' decisions to enter STEM fields. Extra-curricular activities such as volunteer and mentor opportunities and the females' need to benefit others also influenced females in their career choice. Both the formal (within the school) and informal (outside of the traditional classroom) pipeline opportunities that these students encountered helped develop a sense of self-efficacy in science and mathematics; this self-efficacy enabled them to persist in pursuing these career fields. Several participants cited barriers that they encountered in K-12 education, but these barriers were primarily internal as they struggled with overcoming self-imposed obstacles in learning and being competitive in the mathematics and science classrooms. The experiences from these female students can be used by K-12 educators to prepare and encourage current female students to enter STEM occupations.

  1. CRISP. D3.3. Final report on field experiments and tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmer, C.J.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Gustavsson, R.; Andrieu, C.

    2006-06-01

    This document describes the high level results of the three field experiments and tests performed within the CRISP project. The aims of the document are: To give an account of the lessons learned from the experiments as they have been performed; To give recommendations for strategic use of intelligent ICT in high-DG power networks (thinking forward from our experience in the experiments); and To compile 'industrial guidelines and recommendations' for the strategic use of intelligent ICT for various operational aspects of high-DG power networks. These strategic recommendations will not only cover technology issues, but also business, economic, and market considerations. The role of utilities and third parties in utilising this new technology in this changing scene forms an important issue to be dealt with

  2. Simulating the volatilization of solvents in unsaturated soils during laboratory and field infiltration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H. Jean; Jaffe, Peter R.; Smith, James A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes laboratory and field experiments which were conducted to study the dynamics of trichloroethylene (TCE) as it volatilized from contaminated groundwater and diffused in the presence of infiltrating water through the unsaturated soil zone to the land surface. The field experiments were conducted at the Picatinny Arsenal, which is part of the United States Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program. In both laboratory and field settings the gas and water phase concentrations of TCE were not in equilibrium during infiltration. Gas-water mass transfer rate constants were calibrated to the experimental data using a model in which the water phase was treated as two phases: a mobile water phase and an immobile water phase. The mass transfer limitations of a volatile organic compound between the gas and liquid phases were described explicitly in the model. In the laboratory experiment the porous medium was nonsorbing, and water infiltration rates ranged from 0.076 to 0.28 cm h−1. In the field experiment the water infiltration rate was 0.34 cm h−1, and sorption onto the soil matrix was significant. The laboratory-calibrated gas-water mass transfer rate constant is 3.3×10−4 h−1 for an infiltration rate of 0.076 cm h−1 and 1.4×10−3 h−1 for an infiltration rate of 0.28 cm h−1. The overall mass transfer rate coefficients, incorporating the contribution of mass transfer between mobile and immobile water phases and the variation of interfacial area with moisture content, range from 3×10−4 h−1 to 1×10−2 h−1. A power law model relates the gas-water mass transfer rate constant to the infiltration rate and the fraction of the water phase which is mobile. It was found that the results from the laboratory experiments could not be extrapolated to the field. In order to simulate the field experiment the very slow desorption of TCE from the soil matrix was incorporated into the mathematical model. When desorption from the

  3. From research plots to prototype biomass plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, W.A.; Vanstone, B.J.; Gambles, R.L.; Zsuffa, L. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    The development of biomass energy plantations is now expanding from the research plot phase into the next level of development at larger scale plantings. This is necessary to provide: more accurate information on biomass yields, realistic production cost figures, venues to test harvesting equipment, demonstration sites for potential producers, and a supply of feedstock for prototype conversion facilities. The paper will discuss some of these objectives and some of the challenges encountered in the scale-up process associated with a willow prototype plantation project currently under development in Eastern Canada.

  4. Randomized field experiments for program planning, development, and evaluation: an illustrative bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruch, R F; Mcsweeny, A J; Soderstrom, E J

    1978-11-01

    This bibliography lists references to over 300 field experiments undertaken in schools, hospitals, prisons, and other social settings, mainly in the U.S. The list is divided into 10 major categories corresponding to the type of program under examination. They include: criminal and civil justice programs, mental health, training and education, mass media, information collection, utilization, commerce and industry, welfare, health, and family planning. The main purpose of the bibliography is to provide evidence on feasibility and scope of randomized field tests, since despite their advantages, it is not always clear from managerial, political, and other constraints on research that they can be mounted. Dates of publications range from 1944 to 1978.

  5. Search for Chameleon Scalar Fields with the Axion Dark Matter Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybka, G.; Hotz, M.; Rosenberg, L. J; Asztalos, S. J.; Carosi, G.; Hagmann, C.; Kinion, D.; van Bibber, K.; Hoskins, J.; Martin, C.; Sikivie, P.; Tanner, D. B.; Bradley, R.; Clarke, J.

    2010-01-01

    Scalar fields with a 'chameleon' property, in which the effective particle mass is a function of its local environment, are common to many theories beyond the standard model and could be responsible for dark energy. If these fields couple weakly to the photon, they could be detectable through the afterglow effect of photon-chameleon-photon transitions. The ADMX experiment was used in the first chameleon search with a microwave cavity to set a new limit on scalar chameleon-photon coupling β γ excluding values between 2x10 9 and 5x10 14 for effective chameleon masses between 1.9510 and 1.9525 μeV.

  6. Critical fields and growth rates of the Tayler instability as probed by a columnar gallium experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ruediger, Guenther; Gellert, Marcus; Schultz, Manfred; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Stefani, Frank; Gundrum, Thomas; Seilmayer, Martin; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2012-01-01

    Many astrophysical phenomena (such as the slow rotation of neutron stars or the rigid rotation of the solar core) can be explained by the action of the Tayler instability of toroidal magnetic fields in the radiative zones of stars. In order to place the theory of this instability on a safe fundament it has been realized in a laboratory experiment measuring the critical field strength, the growth rates as well as the shape of the supercritical modes. A strong electrical current flows through a...

  7. The Cornell field-reversed ion ring experiment FIREX: experimental design and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podulka, W J; Greenly, J B; Anderson, D E; Glidden, S C; Hammer, D A; Omelchenko, Yu A; Sudan, R N [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Laboratory of Plasma Studies

    1997-12-31

    The goal of FIREX (Field-reversed Ion Ring EXperiment) is to produce a fully field-reversed ring with 1 MeV protons. Such a ring requires about (2-3) x 10{sup 17} protons, or 30-50 mC of charge. This charge is to be injected as an annular proton beam through a suitable magnetic cusp configuration to produce a compact ring. The critical design issues for the ion beam accelerator are described. First experimental results of ion diode operation indicate that the design is capable of producing the required beam parameters. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs.

  8. The Cornell field-reversed ion ring experiment FIREX: experimental design and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podulka, W.J.; Greenly, J.B.; Anderson, D.E.; Glidden, S.C.; Hammer, D.A.; Omelchenko, Yu.A.; Sudan, R.N.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of FIREX (Field-reversed Ion Ring EXperiment) is to produce a fully field-reversed ring with 1 MeV protons. Such a ring requires about (2-3) x 10 17 protons, or 30-50 mC of charge. This charge is to be injected as an annular proton beam through a suitable magnetic cusp configuration to produce a compact ring. The critical design issues for the ion beam accelerator are described. First experimental results of ion diode operation indicate that the design is capable of producing the required beam parameters. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs

  9. Subsurface oil release field experiment - observations and modelling of subsurface plume behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rye, H.; Brandvik, P.J.; Reed, M.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at sea, in which oil was released from 107 metres depth, in order to study plume behaviour. The objective of the underwater release was to simulate a pipeline leakage without gas and high pressure and to study the behaviour of the rising plume. A numerical model for the underwater plume behaviour was used for comparison with field data. The expected path of the plume, the time expected for the plume to reach the sea surface and the width of the plume was modelled. Field data and the numerical model were in good agreement. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  10. Transport and confinement studies in the RFX-mod reversed-field pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innocente, P.; Alfier, A.; Carraro, L.; Lorenzini, R.; Pasqualotto, R.; Terranova, D.

    2007-01-01

    In the modified RFX experiment (RFX-mod) external magnetic field coils and a close fitting thin conductive shell control radial magnetic fields. In the so-called virtual shell (VS) operation, radial field zeroing at the thin shell radius is stationary provided by the feedback-controlled coils. First experiments on RFX-mod proved the capability of the active scheme to steadily reduce the radial magnetic field. Furthermore it has been found that such edge magnetic field control extends its beneficial effects to the whole plasma. With respect to the old RFX, where magnetohydrodynamic modes amplitude was controlled by the use of a passive thick conductive shell, a stationary 2- to 3-fold reduction of the B r field amplitude in the core is obtained. The reduction of field fluctuations positively reflects on confinement. In fact, a strong reduction of the loop voltage is observed and correspondingly a 3-fold increase in pulse length is achieved by using the same poloidal flux swing. Temperature and particle measurements confirm the improved confinement properties of the VS operation. With a lower ohmic input power, higher electron temperature and lower particle influx are measured. Particle and heat transport have been studied by means of a 1D code. Local power balance was used to compute the heat conductivity profile: for the VS discharges a lower conductivity over a significant region of the plasma is found. The improved properties of RFX-mod VS operation provide a better confinement scaling in terms of plasma current. The results show that compared with the thick shell configuration, a significant confinement improvement can be obtained under stationary conditions by actively controlling the plasma magnetic boundary

  11. Comparison of laboratory and field experience of PWSCC in Alloy 182 weld metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.; Meunier, M.-C.; Steltzlen, F. [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, Paris La Defense (France); Calonne, O.; Foucault, M. [AREVA NP, Centre Technique, Le Creusot Cedex (France); Combrade, P. [ACXCOR, Saint Etienne (France); Amzallag, C. [EDF, SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France)

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory studies of stress corrosion cracking of the nickel base weld metal, Alloy 182, in simulated PWR primary water suggest similar resistance to crack initiation and somewhat enhanced propagation rates relative to wrought Alloy 600. By contrast, field experience of cracking in the primary circuits of PWRs shows in general much better performance for Alloy 182 relative to Alloy 600 than would be anticipated from laboratory studies. This paper endeavours to resolve this apparent conundrum. It draws on the conclusions of recent research that has focussed on the role of surface finish, particularly cold work and residual stresses resulting from different fabrication processes, on the risk of initiating IGSCC in nickel base alloys in PWR primary water. It also draws on field experience of stress corrosion cracking that highlights the important role of surface finish for crack initiation. (author)

  12. ASPI experiment: measurements of fields and waves on board the INTERBALL-1 spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Klimov

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available The plasma-wave experiment ASPI (analysis of spectra of plasma waves and instabilities on board the INTERBALL spacecraft is a combined wave diagnostics experiment. It performs measurements of the DC and AC magnetic field vector by flux-gate and search-coil sensors, the DC and AC electric field vector by Langmuir double probes and the plasma current by Langmuir split probe. Preliminary data analysis shows the low noise levels of the sensors and the compatibility of new data with the results of previous missions. During several months of in-orbit operation a rich collection of data was acquired, examples of which at the magnetopause and plasma sheet are presented in second part of the paper.

  13. New indoor environment chambers and field experiment offices for research on human comfort, health and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Langkilde, Gunnar; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2004-01-01

    The article describes three new indoor environment chambers, a new laboratory for the study of air movement in spaces and five offices for controlled environment exposures of human subjects in field experiments at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of...... of Denmark. Together with three older chambers, the Centre now has at its disposal 12 spaces for studying indoor environments and their impact on human comfort, health and productivity.......The article describes three new indoor environment chambers, a new laboratory for the study of air movement in spaces and five offices for controlled environment exposures of human subjects in field experiments at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University...

  14. The Role of Laboratory Experiments in the Validation of Field Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouneyrac, Catherine; Lagarde, Fabienne; Chatel, Amelie

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence and persistency of microplastics (MPs) in aquatic environments are of particular concern, since they constitute a potential threat to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, evaluating this threat and the impacts of MP on aquatic organisms is challenging. MPs form a very...... and to what degree these complexities are addressed in the current literature, to: (1) evaluate how well laboratory studies, investigated so far, represent environmentally relevant processes and scenarios and (2) suggest directions for future research The Role of Laboratory Experiments in the Validation...... of Field Data | Request PDF. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/310360438_The_Role_of_Laboratory_Experiments_in_the_Validation_of_Field_Data [accessed Jan 15 2018]....

  15. Preference effects on friendship choice: Evidence from an online field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Siyu; Xie, Yu

    2017-08-01

    Observed friendship choices are constrained by social structures and thus problematic indicators for underlying personal preferences. In this paper, we report on a study demonstrating the causal effects of preference in friendship choice based on an online field experiment. Specifically, we tested two important forces that govern friendship choices: preference for shared group identity (operationalized as the desire to befriend others sharing the same place-of-origin identity) and preference for high status (operationalized as the desire to befriend others from high-status institutions). Using an online field experiment in one of the largest social network service websites in China, we investigated the causal preference effects of these two forces free from structural constraints. The results of our study confirm the preference effects on friendship choice in both of the two dimensions we tested. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Dataset on information strategies for energy conservation: A field experiment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Victor L; Delmas, Magali A; Locke, Stephen L; Singh, Amarjeet

    2018-02-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled: "Information strategies for energy conservation: a field experiment in India" (Chen et al., 2017) [1]. The availability of high-resolution electricity data offers benefits to both utilities and consumers to understand the dynamics of energy consumption for example, between billing periods or times of peak demand. However, few public datasets with high-temporal resolution have been available to researchers on electricity use, especially at the appliance-level. This article describes data collected in a residential field experiment for 19 apartments at an Indian faculty housing complex during the period from August 1, 2013 to May 12, 2014. The dataset includes detailed information about electricity consumption. It also includes information on apartment characteristics and hourly weather variation to enable further studies of energy performance. These data can be used by researchers as training datasets to evaluate electricity usage consumption.

  17. No Margin, No Mission? A Field Experiment on Incentives for Public Services Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf, Nava; Bandiera, Oriana; Jack, Kelsey

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of research investigates the effect of pay for performance in firms, yet less is known about the effect of non-financial rewards, especially in organizations that hire individuals to perform tasks with positive social spillovers. We conduct a field experiment in which agents recruited by a public health organization to sell condoms are randomly allocated to four groups. Agents in the control group are hired as volunteers, whereas agents in the three treatment groups receive...

  18. Insights into organic carbon oxidation potential during fluvial transport from laboratory and field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, J. S.; Dellinger, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Fuchs, M. C.; Golombek, N.; Hilton, R. G.; Hovius, N.; Lupker, M.; Repasch, M. N.; Sachse, D.; Turowski, J. M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Wittmann, H.

    2017-12-01

    Over geologic timescales, the exchange of organic carbon (OC) between the atmosphere, hydropshere, biosphere and geosphere can be a major control on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. The carbon fluxes from the oxidation of rock-derived OC (a CO2 source) and erosion, transport, and burial of biospheric OC (a potential CO2 sink) during fluvial transit are approximately the same order of magnitude or larger than those from silicate weathering. Despite field data showing increasing oxidation of OC moving downstream in lowland rivers, it is unclear if losses occur primarily during active fluvial transport, where OC is in continual motion within an aerated river, or during periods of temporary storage in river floodplains which may be anoxic. The unknown location of OC oxidation (i.e., river vs. floodplain) limits our ability to mechanistically link geochemical and geomorphic processes which are required to develop models capable of predicting OC losses, constrain carbon budgets, and unravel links between climate, tectonics, and erosion. To fill this knowledge gap, we investigated OC oxidation in controlled laboratory experiments and a simplified field setting. We performed experiments in annular flumes that simulate fluvial transport without floodplain storage, allowing mixtures of OC-rich and siliciclastic sediment to be transported for distances of 1000 km. Preliminary experiments exploring both rock-derived and biospheric OC sources show minimal OC oxidation during active river transport, consistent with the idea that the majority of OC loss occurs during transient floodplain storage. These results are also consistent with new field data collected in the Rio Bermejo, Argentina, a lowland river traversing 800 km with no tributary inputs, where aged floodplain deposits have 3 to 10 times lower OC concentrations compared to modern river sediments. Together our field data and experiments support the hypothesis that oxidation of OC occurs primarily during

  19. Do Schools Discriminate Against Homosexual Parents? Evidence from an Internet Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Serrano, Luis; Meix-Llop, Enric

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of homosexual rights is a controversial issue in many countries. Spain was the third country in the world (after Netherlands and Belgium) to introduce a law recognizing homosexual marriage and adoption of children. In this paper, we examine for the first time whether schools are more hesitant to give feedback to homosexual parents during children's pre-registration period in Spain. In order to do that, we designed an internet field experiment to be conducted in ...

  20. A SOCIAL MEDIA CAMPAIGN APPLICATION IN A MARKETING FIELD EXPERIENCE COURSE

    OpenAIRE

    Mine Ucok Hughes

    2014-01-01

    Most university students today use social media daily, are knowledgeable about a myriad of applications, and can navigate numerous platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter. Despite their affinity for social media, however, it is not clear whether or not they understand how social media can be used to create effective marketing strategies. This paper describes a social media assignment that was incorporated into a marketing field experience course for undergraduate students. The aim of the pape...

  1. Pyranometer offsets triggered by ambient meteorology: insights from laboratory and field experiments

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Oswald; H. Pietsch; D. J. Baumgartner; P. Weihs; H. E. Rieder

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates effects of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements performed with pyranometers contained in various heating/ventilation systems (HV-systems). It focuses particularly on instrument offsets observed following precipitation events. To quantify pyranometer responses to precipitation, a series of controlled laboratory experiments as well as two targeted field campaigns were performed in 2016. The results indicate that precipitation (as simulated by spr...

  2. No Margin, no Mission? A Field Experiment on Incentives for public service delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Nava Ashraf; Oriana Bandiera; Kelsey Jack

    2012-01-01

    A substantial body of research investigates the design of incentives in firms, yet less is known about incentives in organizations that hire individuals to perform tasks with positive social spillovers. We conduct a field experiment in which agents hired by a public health organization are randomly allocated to four groups. Agents in the control group receive a standard volunteer contract often offered for this type of task, whereas agents in the three treatment groups receive small financial...

  3. No margin, no mission? A Field Experiment on Incentives for Pro-Social Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf, Nava; Bandiera, Oriana; Jack, Kelsey

    2012-01-01

    A substantial body of research investigates the design of incentives in firms, yet less is known about incentives in organizations that hire individuals to perform tasks with positive social spillovers. We conduct a field experiment in which agents hired by a public health organization are randomly allocated to four groups. Agents in the control group receive a standard volunteer contract often offered for this type of task, whereas agents in the three treatment groups receive small financial...

  4. Translation of field-reversed configurations in the FRX C/T experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rej, D.J.; Armstrong, W.T.; Chrien, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    One of the unique features inherent to compact toroids is the potential ability to translate the plasma along its geometric axis. CT translation has proven useful in reactor design studies, and has been the focus of several experimental investigations. In this paper, we report on the initial results from translation experiments performed with the field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas generated in the FRX-C/T device

  5. Translation of field-reversed configurations in the FRX C/T experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rej, D.J.; Armstrong, W.T.; Chrien, R.E.; Klingner, P.L.; Linford, R.K.; McKenna, K.F.; Milroy, R.D.; Sherwood, E.G.; Siemon, R.E.; Tuszewski, M.

    1984-01-01

    One of the unique features inherent to compact toroids is the potential ability to translate the plasma along its geometric axis. CT translation has proven useful in reactor design studies, and has been the focus of several experimental investigations. In this paper, we report on the initial results from translation experiments performed with the field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas generated in the FRX-C/T device.

  6. Preparing beginning reading teachers: An experimental comparison of initial early literacy field experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Lake, Vickie E.; Greulich, Luana; Folsom, Jessica S.; Guidry, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This randomized-control trial examined the learning of preservice teachers taking an initial Early Literacy course in an early childhood education program and of the kindergarten or first grade students they tutored in their field experience. Preservice teachers were randomly assigned to one of two tutoring programs: Book Buddies and Tutor Assisted Intensive Learning Strategies (TAILS), which provided identical meaning-focused instruction (shared book reading), but differed ...

  7. Using Economic Incentives to Reduce Electricity Consumption: A field Experiment in Matsuyama, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kenichi Mizobuchi; Kenji Takeuchi

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of economic incentives in promoting electricity-conservation behavior among Japanese households. Fifty-three Japanese households participated in a field experiment and were offered monetary rewards depending on their rate of reduction in electricity consumption. To avoid bias in sample selection, which is typically present in previous studies, we adopted a request-based approach for recruiting participants. Results showed that only 34% of the participants...

  8. Vertical sampling flights in support of the 1981 ASCOT cooling tower experiments: field effort and data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, G.T.

    1982-03-01

    During the month of August 1981, three nights of experimental sampling of tracers released into the cooling tower plume of a geothermal power plant were conducted. In these experiments a tethered balloon was used to lift a payload so as to obtain vertical profiles of the cooling tower plume and the entrained tracers. A description of the equipment used, the field effort and the data acquired are presented here.

  9. Hidden Benefits of Reward : A Field Experiment on Motivation and Monetary Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Kvaløy, Ola; Nieken, Petra; Schöttner, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a field experiment in a controlled work environment to investigate the effect of motivational talk and its interaction with monetary incentives. We find that motivational talk significantly improves performance only when accompanied by performance pay. Moreover, performance pay slightly reduces performance unless it is accompanied by motivational talk. These effects also carry over to the quality of work. Performance pay alone leads to more mistakes. Adding motivational talk make...

  10. Do Wage Cuts Damage Work Morale? Evidence from a Natural Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kube, Sebastian; Maréchal, Michel; Puppe, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    Employment contracts are often incomplete, leaving many responsibilities subject to workers� discretion. High work morale is therefore essential for sustaining voluntary cooperation and high productivity in firms. We conducted a field experiment to test whether workers reciprocate wage cuts and raises with low or high work productivity. Wage cuts had a detrimental and persistent impact on productivity, reducing average output by more than 20 percent. An equivalent wage increase, however, di...

  11. Presentation and interpretation of field experiments of gaseous UF6 releases in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.; Boulaud, D.; Deville-Cavelin, G.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental programme concerning the behaviour of UF 6 released in gaseous phase in the atmosphere has been conducted in the years 1986-1989 by the french Atomic Energy Commission and Eurodif. Three field tests have been performed on the CEA/CESTA experimental site. These experiments permitted to get informations about the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction of the UF 6 , the behaviour of the hydrolysis products in the atmosphere and the granulometry of the solid particles

  12. Presentation and interpretation of field experiments of gaseous UF6 releases in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabol, B.; Boulaud, D.; Deville-Cavelin, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de l`Environnement et des Installations; Geisse, C.; Iacona, L. [EURODIF, 26 - Pierrelatte (France)

    1992-12-31

    An experimental programme concerning the behaviour of UF{sub 6} released in gaseous phase in the atmosphere has been conducted in the years 1986-1989 by the french Atomic Energy Commission and Eurodif. Three field tests have been performed on the CEA/CESTA experimental site. These experiments permitted to get informations about the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction of the UF{sub 6}, the behaviour of the hydrolysis products in the atmosphere and the granulometry of the solid particles.

  13. The Impact of Gender Diversity on the Performance of Business Teams: Evidence from a Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Oosterbeek, Hessel; van Praag, Mirjam

    2011-01-01

    This discussion paper resulted in an article in Management Science . Volume 59 issue 7, pages 1514-1528. This paper reports on a field experiment conducted to estimate the impact of the share of women in business teams on their performance. Teams consisting of undergraduate students in business studies start up a venture as part of their curriculum. We manipulated the gender composition of teams and assigned students randomly to teams, conditional on their gender. We find that teams with an e...

  14. The importance of the toroidal magnetic field for the feasibility of a tokamak burning plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucato, E.

    2000-01-01

    The next step in the demonstration of the scientific feasibility of a tokamak fusion reactor is a DT burning plasma experiment for the study and control of self-heated plasmas. In this paper, the authors examine the role of the toroidal magnetic field on the confinement of a tokamak plasma in the ELMy H-mode regime--the operational regime foreseen for ITER

  15. DO SELF-THEORIES EXPLAIN OVERCONFIDENCE AND FINANCIAL RISK TAKING? A field experiment.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand Koebel; André Schmitt; Sandrine Spaeter

    2015-01-01

    How people develop beliefs about themselves (self-theories) plays an important role on motivation and achievement as shown by Carol Dweck’s life-long research. In this paper, we conduct a field experiment to investigate whether self-theories impact overconfidence and risk taking. Self-theories deal with how an individual perceives some of her attributes such as intelligence, personality or moral character. In this paper, we are interested by how people perceive their mindset (fixed or growth)...

  16. Experiences of using mobile technologies and virtual field tours in Physical Geography: implications for hydrology education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kingston

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Education in hydrology is changing rapidly due to diversification of students, emergent major scientific and practical challenges that our discipline must engage with, shifting pedagogic ideas and higher education environments, the need for students to develop new discipline specific and transferrable skills, and the advent of innovative technologies for learning and teaching. This paper focuses on new technologies in the context of learning and teaching in Physical Geography and reflects on the implications of our experiences for education in hydrology. We evaluate the experience of designing and trialling novel mobile technology-based field exercises and a virtual field tour for a Year 1 undergraduate Physical Geography module at a UK university. The new exercises are based on using and obtaining spatial data, operation of meteorological equipment (explained using an interactive DVD, and include introductions to global positioning systems (GPS and geographical information systems (GIS. The technology and exercises were well received in a pilot study and subsequent rolling-out to the full student cohort (∼150 students. A statistically significant improvement in marks was observed following the redesign. Although the students enjoyed using mobile technology, the increased interactivity and opportunity for peer learning were considered to be the primary benefits by students. This is reinforced further by student preference for the new interactive virtual field tour over the previous "show-and-tell" field exercise. Despite the new exercises having many advantages, exercise development was not trivial due to the high start-up costs, the need for provision of sufficient technical support and the relative difficulty of making year-to-year changes (to the virtual field tour in particular. Our experiences are highly relevant to the implementation of novel learning and teaching technologies in hydrology education.

  17. Experiences of using mobile technologies and virtual field tours in Physical Geography: implications for hydrology education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, D. G.; Eastwood, W. J.; Jones, P. I.; Johnson, R.; Marshall, S.; Hannah, D. M.

    2012-05-01

    Education in hydrology is changing rapidly due to diversification of students, emergent major scientific and practical challenges that our discipline must engage with, shifting pedagogic ideas and higher education environments, the need for students to develop new discipline specific and transferrable skills, and the advent of innovative technologies for learning and teaching. This paper focuses on new technologies in the context of learning and teaching in Physical Geography and reflects on the implications of our experiences for education in hydrology. We evaluate the experience of designing and trialling novel mobile technology-based field exercises and a virtual field tour for a Year 1 undergraduate Physical Geography module at a UK university. The new exercises are based on using and obtaining spatial data, operation of meteorological equipment (explained using an interactive DVD), and include introductions to global positioning systems (GPS) and geographical information systems (GIS). The technology and exercises were well received in a pilot study and subsequent rolling-out to the full student cohort (∼150 students). A statistically significant improvement in marks was observed following the redesign. Although the students enjoyed using mobile technology, the increased interactivity and opportunity for peer learning were considered to be the primary benefits by students. This is reinforced further by student preference for the new interactive virtual field tour over the previous "show-and-tell" field exercise. Despite the new exercises having many advantages, exercise development was not trivial due to the high start-up costs, the need for provision of sufficient technical support and the relative difficulty of making year-to-year changes (to the virtual field tour in particular). Our experiences are highly relevant to the implementation of novel learning and teaching technologies in hydrology education.

  18. Impacts of distinct observations during the 2009 Prince William Sound field experiment: A data assimilation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Chao, Y.; Farrara, J.; McWilliams, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    A set of data assimilation experiments, known as Observing System Experiments (OSEs), are performed to assess the relative impacts of different types of observations acquired during the 2009 Prince William Sound Field Experiment. The observations assimilated consist primarily of three types: High Frequency (HF) radar surface velocities, vertical profiles of temperature/salinity (T/S) measured by ships, moorings, Autonomous Underwater Vehicles and gliders, and satellite sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The impact of all the observations, HF radar surface velocities, and T/S profiles is assessed. Without data assimilation, a frequently occurring cyclonic eddy in the central Sound is overly persistent and intense. The assimilation of the HF radar velocities effectively reduces these biases and improves the representation of the velocities as well as the T/S fields in the Sound. The assimilation of the T/S profiles improves the large scale representation of the temperature/salinity and also the velocity field in the central Sound. The combination of the HF radar surface velocities and sparse T/S profiles results in an observing system capable of representing the circulation in the Sound reliably and thus producing analyses and forecasts with useful skill. It is suggested that a potentially promising observing network could be based on satellite SSHs and SSTs along with sparse T/S profiles, and future satellite SSHs with wide swath coverage and higher resolution may offer excellent data that will be of great use for predicting the circulation in the Sound.

  19. Survey of academic field experiences (SAFE: trainees report harassment and assault.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn B H Clancy

    Full Text Available Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666 to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites.

  20. Survey of academic field experiences (SAFE): trainees report harassment and assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Kathryn B H; Nelson, Robin G; Rutherford, Julienne N; Hinde, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666) to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites.

  1. Survey of Academic Field Experiences (SAFE): Trainees Report Harassment and Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Nelson, Robin G.; Rutherford, Julienne N.; Hinde, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666) to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites. PMID:25028932

  2. The magnetic field experiment onboard Equator-S and its scientific possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-H. Fornacon

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The special feature of the ringcore fluxgate magnetometer on Equator-S is the high time and field resolution. The scientific aim of the experiment is the investigation of waves in the 10–100 picotesla range with a time resolution up to 64 Hz. The instrument characteristics and the influence of the spacecraft on the magnetic field measurement will be discussed. The work shows that the applied pre- and inflight calibration techniques are sufficient to suppress spacecraft interferences. The offset in spin axis direction was determined for the first time with an independent field measurement by the Equator-S Electron Drift Instrument. The data presented gives an impression of the accuracy of the measurement.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (instruments and techniques · Space plasma physics (instruments and techniques

  3. The magnetic field experiment onboard Equator-S and its scientific possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-H. Fornacon

    Full Text Available The special feature of the ringcore fluxgate magnetometer on Equator-S is the high time and field resolution. The scientific aim of the experiment is the investigation of waves in the 10–100 picotesla range with a time resolution up to 64 Hz. The instrument characteristics and the influence of the spacecraft on the magnetic field measurement will be discussed. The work shows that the applied pre- and inflight calibration techniques are sufficient to suppress spacecraft interferences. The offset in spin axis direction was determined for the first time with an independent field measurement by the Equator-S Electron Drift Instrument. The data presented gives an impression of the accuracy of the measurement.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (instruments and techniques · Space plasma physics (instruments and techniques

  4. Contour plotting programs for printer and Calcomp plotter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, P.

    1980-07-01

    Contour plotting programs for plotting contour diagrams on printers or Calcomp plotters are described. The subroutines also exist in versions that are useful for the special application of finding minima and saddlepoints of nuclear potential energy surfaces generated by the subroutine PETR3 of another program package. For the general user, however, the most interesting aspect of the plotting package is probably the possibility of generating printer contour plots. The plotting of printer contour plots is a very fast and convenient way of displaying two-dimensional functions. 3 figures

  5. Data from the Hot Serial Cereal Experiment for modeling wheat response to temperature: field experiments and AgMIP-Wheat multi-model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martre, Pierre; Kimball, Bruce A.; Ottman, Michael J.; Wall, Gerard W.; White, Jeffrey W.; Asseng, Senthold; Ewert, Frank; Cammarano, Davide; Maiorano, Andrea; Aggarwal, Pramod K.; Supit, I.; Wolf, J.

    2018-01-01

    The dataset reported here includes the part of a Hot Serial Cereal Experiment (HSC) experiment recently used in the AgMIP-Wheat project to analyze the uncertainty of 30 wheat models and quantify their response to temperature. The HSC experiment was conducted in an open-field in a semiarid

  6. ADX: a high field, high power density, Advanced Divertor test eXperiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, R.; Labombard, B.; Marmar, E.; Irby, J.; Shiraiwa, S.; Terry, J.; Wallace, G.; Whyte, D. G.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.; ADX Team

    2014-10-01

    The MIT PSFC and collaborators are proposing an advanced divertor experiment (ADX) - a tokamak specifically designed to address critical gaps in the world fusion research program on the pathway to FNSF/DEMO. This high field (6.5 tesla, 1.5 MA), high power density (P/S ~ 1.5 MW/m2) facility would utilize Alcator magnet technology to test innovative divertor concepts for next-step DT fusion devices (FNSF, DEMO) at reactor-level boundary plasma pressures and parallel heat flux densities while producing high performance core plasma conditions. The experimental platform would also test advanced lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) and ion-cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) actuators and wave physics at the plasma densities and magnetic field strengths of a DEMO, with the unique ability to deploy launcher structures both on the low-magnetic-field side and the high-field side - a location where energetic plasma-material interactions can be controlled and wave physics is most favorable for efficient current drive, heating and flow drive. This innovative experiment would perform plasma science and technology R&D necessary to inform the conceptual development and accelerate the readiness-for-deployment of FNSF/DEMO - in a timely manner, on a cost-effective research platform. Supported by DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  7. Wow, My Science Teacher Does Real Research! Engaging and Motivating Students Using Experiences from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.

    2013-12-01

    Students respond to personal connections. When K-12 science teachers are able to participate as field assistants on research projects, their students can benefit greatly from the stories, pictures, and video transmitted or brought back from the field. Teachers can translate and tailor their learning while in the field to the level of their students. Students are ';hooked' into science content by seeing their own teacher out there actually ';doing' science. The teacher is able to provide a direct content connection for the student, an avenue for understanding why ';learning this' is relevant and important. This presentation provides a case for why science teachers and researchers should collaborate as much as possible. The NSF funded PolarTREC program (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is an excellent example of how to make this collaboration work. The presentation will also provide a look into how teachers can make an effective connection for their students between field science and classroom learning. Alaskan secondary science teacher Carol Scott spent a month at the Kevo Research Station in northern Finland in May/June 2013 as a PolarTREC teacher, and is translating this experience for students. She has also worked on an NSF Research Experience for Teachers grant in Prince William Sound, AK, and has successfully used this work to engage students in the classroom.

  8. Jet Grouting. Control of execution and result parameters. Test fields - Experience in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayarza, P. M.; Vukotic, G.

    2014-01-01

    This article emphasizes the importance of Test Fields in project that includes the Jet Grouting technique. In particular, the Chilean experience is analyzed, where the Jet Grouting was first introduced by Pilots Terratest S. A. in the year 2010, only, only in 2011 the first project using jet columns was constructed. The versatilely of this technique allows its use in a wide variety of projects, for example, soil capacity improvement, settlement control, reduction of soil permeability and other environmental applications. Currently, the most common applications are underpinning existing foundations, ground improvement, lateral support of excavations, hydraulic barriers, slope stabilization, liquefaction control, among others. The Jet Grouting is one of the most demanding soil improvement technique and requires excellence in designing and execution engineers and other involved specialist. It is therefore essential to ensure exhaustive control to the execution and final parameters, in order to check that the product- Jet Grouting element-have the design properties, and implement modifications if necessary. Many authors strongly advises that if there is no comparable experience and even if there is, a Test Field of Jet Grouting elements has to be executed in site. This field consists in a nearby area with similar geotechnical conditions of the project, where Jet Grouting test columns will be constructed. This Test Field will allow selecting the most effective execution parameters and verifying that the final product has he correct design properties. (Author)

  9. Developing the Precision Magnetic Field for the E989 Muon g{2 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Matthias W. [Washington U., Seattle

    2017-01-01

    The experimental value of $(g\\hbox{--}2)_\\mu$ historically has been and contemporarily remains an important probe into the Standard Model and proposed extensions. Previous measurements of $(g\\hbox{--}2)_\\mu$ exhibit a persistent statistical tension with calculations using the Standard Model implying that the theory may be incomplete and constraining possible extensions. The Fermilab Muon g-2 experiment, E989, endeavors to increase the precision over previous experiments by a factor of four and probe more deeply into the tension with the Standard Model. The $(g\\hbox{--}2)_\\mu$ experimental implementation measures two spin precession frequencies defined by the magnetic field, proton precession and muon precession. The value of $(g\\hbox{--}2)_\\mu$ is derived from a relationship between the two frequencies. The precision of magnetic field measurements and the overall magnetic field uniformity achieved over the muon storage volume are then two undeniably important aspects of the e xperiment in minimizing uncertainty. The current thesis details the methods employed to achieve magnetic field goals and results of the effort.

  10. Asian Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project: Draft Field Work Plan for the Asian Long-Range Tracer Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2007-08-01

    This report provides an experimental plan for a proposed Asian long-range tracer study as part of the international Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project. The TEAM partners are China, Japan, South Korea and the United States. Optimal times of year to conduct the study, meteorological measurements needed, proposed tracer release locations, proposed tracer sampling locations and the proposed durations of tracer releases and subsequent sampling are given. Also given are the activities necessary to prepare for the study and the schedule for completing the preparation activities leading to conducting the actual field operations. This report is intended to provide the TEAM members with the information necessary for planning and conducting the Asian long-range tracer study. The experimental plan is proposed, at this time, to describe the efforts necessary to conduct the Asian long-range tracer study, and the plan will undoubtedly be revised and refined as the planning goes forward over the next year.

  11. Magnetic field-aligned plasma expansion in critical ionization velocity space experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.

    1989-01-01

    Motivated by the recent Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) experiments in space, the temporal evolution of a plasma cloud released in an ambient plasma is studied. Time-dependent Vlasov equations for both electrons and ions, along with the Poisson equation for the self-consistent electric field parallel to the ambient magnetic field, are solved. The initial cloud is assumed to consist of cold, warm, and hot electrons with temperatures T/sub c/ ≅ 0.2 eV, T/sub w/ ≅ 2 eV, and T/sub h/ ≅ 10 eV, respectively. It is found that the minor hot electrons escape the cloud, and their velocity distribution function shows the typical time-of-flight dispersion feature - that is, the larger the distance from the cloud, the larger is the average drift velocity of the escaping electrons. The major warm electrons expand along the magnetic field line with the corresponding ion-acoustic speed. The combined effect of the escaping hot electrons and the expanding warm ones sets up an electric potential structure which accelerates the ambient electrons into the cloud. Thus, the energy loss due to the electron escape is partly replenished. The electric field distribution in the potential structure depends on the stage of the evolution; before the rarefaction waves propagating from the edges of the cloud reach its center, the electric fields point into the cloud. After this stage the cloud divides into two subclouds, with each having their own bipolar electric fields. Effects of collisions on the evolution of plasma clouds are also discussed. The relevance of the results seen from the calculations are discussed in the context of recent space experiments on CIV

  12. Technetium-99 behavior in the terrestrial environment. Field observations and radiotracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining data on 99 Tc in the rice paddy field environment is important because Tc is a redox sensitive element. The behavior of Tc is expected to be different under upland field and rice paddy field conditions since the redox conditions in the soil environment differ. However, most of the data on the nuclide behavior in soil were obtained under upland field conditions. To understand the global fallout 99 Tc distributions in soil samples collected in Japan, a simple and rapid separation method was developed in order to determine low-levels of 99 Tc in soil samples by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Also, radiotracer experiments using soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were carried out to clarify the Tc behavior under paddy field conditions. The results of determination of global fallout 99 Tc in Japanese soils indicated that the radionuclide had been accumulating in rice paddy fields. The mechanisms can be explained by the immobilization of Tc in soil under anaerobic conditions. From the radiotracer experiments, it was clear that under waterlogged conditions, the highly mobile TcO 4 - in soil was readily changed to other immobilized forms, such as TcO 2 , TcS 2 and organically bound forms. To this immobilization, the microbial activity seemed to have an important role in Tc sorption reactions. When the soil, which was once kept in anaerobic conditions, was air-dried again and kept in aerobic conditions, the chemical forms of immobilized Tc did not change remarkably. Interestingly, the similar Tc behavior was observed in a real wet forest near the Chernobyl Reactor. (author)

  13. Pyranometer offsets triggered by ambient meteorology: insights from laboratory and field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Sandro M.; Pietsch, Helga; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Weihs, Philipp; Rieder, Harald E.

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates the effects of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation (R) measurements performed with pyranometers contained in various heating and ventilation systems (HV-systems). It focuses particularly on instrument offsets observed following precipitation events. To quantify pyranometer responses to precipitation, a series of controlled laboratory experiments as well as two targeted field campaigns were performed in 2016. The results indicate that precipitation (as simulated by spray tests or observed under ambient conditions) significantly affects the thermal environment of the instruments and thus their stability. Statistical analyses of laboratory experiments showed that precipitation triggers zero offsets of -4 W m-2 or more, independent of the HV-system. Similar offsets were observed in field experiments under ambient environmental conditions, indicating a clear exceedance of BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network) targets following precipitation events. All pyranometers required substantial time to return to their initial signal states after the simulated precipitation events. Therefore, for BSRN-class measurements, the recommendation would be to flag the radiation measurements during a natural precipitation event and 90 min after it in nighttime conditions. Further daytime experiments show pyranometer offsets of 50 W m-2 or more in comparison to the reference system. As they show a substantially faster recovery, the recommendation would be to flag the radiation measurements within a natural precipitation event and 10 min after it in daytime conditions.

  14. Constraining chameleon field theories using the GammeV afterglow experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, A.; Steffen, J.H.; Weltman, A.

    2009-01-01

    The GammeV experiment has constrained the couplings of chameleon scalar fields to matter and photons. Here we present a detailed calculation of the chameleon afterglow rate underlying these constraints. The dependence of GammeV constraints on various assumptions in the calculation is studied. We discuss GammeV-CHASE, a second-generation GammeV experiment, which will improve upon GammeV in several major ways. Using our calculation of the chameleon afterglow rate, we forecast model-independent constraints achievable by GammeV-CHASE. We then apply these constraints to a variety of chameleon models, including quartic chameleons and chameleon dark energy models. The new experiment will be able to probe a large region of parameter space that is beyond the reach of current tests, such as fifth force searches, constraints on the dimming of distant astrophysical objects, and bounds on the variation of the fine structure constant.

  15. Constraining chameleon field theories using the GammeV afterglow experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, A.; Steffen, J. H.; Weltman, A.

    2010-01-01

    The GammeV experiment has constrained the couplings of chameleon scalar fields to matter and photons. Here, we present a detailed calculation of the chameleon afterglow rate underlying these constraints. The dependence of GammeV constraints on various assumptions in the calculation is studied. We discuss the GammeV-CHameleon Afterglow SEarch, a second-generation GammeV experiment, which will improve upon GammeV in several major ways. Using our calculation of the chameleon afterglow rate, we forecast model-independent constraints achievable by GammeV-CHameleon Afterglow SEarch. We then apply these constraints to a variety of chameleon models, including quartic chameleons and chameleon dark energy models. The new experiment will be able to probe a large region of parameter space that is beyond the reach of current tests, such as fifth force searches, constraints on the dimming of distant astrophysical objects, and bounds on the variation of the fine structure constant.

  16. Fate of herbicides in a shallow aerobic aquifer: A continuous field injection experiment (Vejen,Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette; Rügge, K.; Tuxen, Nina

    2001-01-01

    A continuous, natural gradient, field injection experiment, involving six herbicides and a tracer, was performed in a shallow aerobic aquifer near Vejen, Denmark. Bentazone, ()-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) propanoic acid (MCPP), dichlorprop, isoproturon, and the dichlobenil metabolite 2,6-dichlor...... in groundwater potentials. An average flow velocity of 0.5 m/d was observed, as depicted by bromide. Bentazone, BAM, MCPP, and dichlorprop retardation was negligible, and only slight retardation of isoproturon was observed in the continuous injection experiment and a preceding pulse experiment. No degradation...... of bentazone was observed in the aerobic aquifer during the monitoring period. BAM and isoproturon were not degraded within 5 m downgradient of the injection. The two phenoxy acids MCPP and dichlorprop were both degraded in the aerobic aquifer. Near the source a lag phase was observed followed by fast...

  17. Junior physicians' workplace experiences in clinical fields in German-speaking Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Klaghofer, Richard; Abel, Thomas; Buddeberg, Claus

    2005-01-08

    To date, there have been several prospective cohort studies investigating the workplace experiences of junior physicians, but with limited focus on gender issues. The objective of the present study is to explore the workplace experiences of first-year residents according to gender, type of training hospital, and clinical field. Data reported are from the second assessment of the longitudinal Swiss physicians' career development study, begun in 2001. In 2003, 497 residents (54.7% females, 45.3% males) assessed their workplace conditions, social support at work, and effort-reward imbalance. There are few, but relevant, gender related differences in workplace experiences, with female physicians experiencing less mentoring and higher over-commitment, yet more positive social relationships at work. In a multivariate model, significant differences in some workplace variables with regard to type of training hospital and/or clinical field are found: workplace conditions are rated worse in type "A" hospitals (university and cantonal hospitals) than in type "B"/"C"/"D" hospitals (regional hospitals and highly specialised units), and in surgical fields than in internal medicine. In "A" hospitals mentoring is assessed as better, but positive social relationships as worse. Both scales are rated worse in surgical fields than in internal medicine. The effort-reward imbalance (ERI) is rated significantly higher (unfavourable) in "A" hospitals than in "B"/"C"/"D" hospitals, regardless of gender and clinical field. Significantly more subjects with an ERI quotient above 1 (which is unfavourable) work in "A" hospitals, and in surgical fields regardless of hospital type. Of the total sample, 81 subjects (16.3%), 41 males and 40 females, show an ERI quotient above 1. The greater the workload, the worse the rating of workplace conditions, effort-reward imbalance, and over-commitment. Institutional determinants are crucial factors for the workplace experiences and first career steps of

  18. U.S. Army RDECOM-ARDEC's results of the TG-53 experiment and field test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sachi V.; Morcos, Amir

    2009-05-01

    Herein is described the U.S. Army RDECOM-ARDEC's purpose and series of activities conducted at the 2008 NATO SET-093 TG-53 experiment and field test. The overall purpose of the field test as stated by SET-093 panel was to provide a baseline test capable of providing relevant scenarios and data regarding a variety of impulsive generated acoustic events. As organized, the field experiment also allowed the room o study sensor interoperability across multiple platforms and multi-national users via the spider communication framework/reporting structure. This multinational network maintained by the host ETBS with a standardized messaging format with specific goals for each participating organization. ARDEC's role and purpose for the test was to provide situational awareness via the Spider and associated messaging format to the ETBS command center while continuing to gather unique acoustic data from various vantage points. ARDEC had several deliverables for the TG-53 field experiment derived from the mission and spirit of the field test. The most relevant deliverable was to demonstrate sensor interoperability via the Spider network and provide situational awareness by describing the said mortar/artillery events. The second purpose revolved around a relevant environment algorithm validation of the muzzle blast discrimination for future UGS transition in particular the UTAMS II. The algorithm validation information remained internal to the specific data acquisition system and not broadcasted out on the Spider network. The TG-53 field experiments provided the added opportunity to further test and refine the algorithm based on the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and multiresolution analysis. These techniques are used to classify and reliably discriminates between launch and impact artillery and/or mortar events via acoustic signals produced during detonation. Distinct characteristics are found within the acoustic signatures since impact events emphasize concussive and

  19. FLOWPLOT2, 2-D, 3-D Fluid Dynamic Plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.K.; Tunstall, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FLOWPLOT2 is a plotting program used with numerical or analytical fluid dynamics codes to create velocity vector plots, contour plots of up to three fluid parameters (e.g. pressure, density, and temperature), two-dimensional profile plots, three-dimensional curve plots, and/or three-dimensional surface plots for either the u or v velocity components. If the fluid dynamics code computes a transient or simulated time related solution, FLOWPLOT2 can also be used to generate these plots for any specified time interval. Multiple cases generating different plots for different time intervals may be run in one execution of the program. In addition, plots can be created for selected two- dimensional planes of three-dimensional steady-state problems. The user has the option of producing plots on CalComp or Versatec plotters or microfiche and of creating a compressed dataset before plotting. 2 - Method of solution: FLOWPLOT2 reads a dataset written by the fluid dynamics code. This dataset must be written in a specified format and must contain parametric data at the nodal points of a uniform or non-uniform rectangular grid formed by the intersection of the grid lines of the model. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 2500 nodes, 40 y-values for 2-D profile plots and 3-D curve plots, 20 contour values, 3 fluid parameters

  20. INTERRUPTED IN-SITU COMPRESSIVE DEFORMATION EXPERIMENTS ON MMC FOAMS IN AN XCT: EXPERIMENTS AND ESTIMATION OF DISPLACEMENT FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Losch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of a metal-matrix composite foam are investigated by interrupted in-situ compressive deformation experiments within an X-ray computed tomography device (XCT. Each in-situ experiment generates a sequence of reconstructed 3D images of the foam microstructure. From these data, the deformation field is estimated by registring the images corresponding to three consecutive steps. To this end, the generic registration framework of the itk software suite is exploited and combined with several image preprocessing steps. Both segmented (binary images having just two grey values for foreground (strut structure and background (pore space and the result of the Euclidean distance transform (EDT on pore space and solid phase are used. The estimation quality is evaluated based on a sequence of synthetic data sets, where the foam’s microstructure is modelled by a random Laguerre tessellation. For large deformations, a combination of non-rigid registration for the EDT images and partwise-rigid registration on strongly deformed regions of the binary images, yields surprisingly small estimation errors.