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Sample records for field peas pisum

  1. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum via Intercropping and its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum Management

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    Abel eTeshome

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L. pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.. This trait is expressed in some genotypes (Np genotypes of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of neoplastic pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36% whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10% and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of neoplastic pods dropped significantly (7%. In order to enhance neoplastic expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of neoplastic pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping neoplastic genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in neoplastic genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting neoplastic formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems.

  2. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems. PMID:27242855

  3. Stimulation of nodulation in field peas (Pisum sativum) by low concentrations of ammonium in hydroponic culture

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    Waterer, J. G.; Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Although the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of mineral N (> 1.0 mM) on nodule development and function have often been studied, the effects of low, static concentrations of NH4+ (hydroponic culture on nodule establishment and nitrogenase activity in field peas [Pisum sativum L. cv. Express (Svalof AB)] for the initial 28 days after planting (DAP). Peas grown in the presence of low concentrations of NH4+ had significantly greater nodule numbers (up to 4-fold) than plants grown without NH4+. Nodule dry weight per plant was significantly higher at 14, 21 and 28 DAP in plants grown in the presence of NH4+, but individual nodule mass was lower than in plants grown without NH4+. The nodulation pattern of the plants supplied with NH4+ was similar to that often reported for supernodulating mutants, however the plants did not express other growth habits associated with supernodulation. Estimates of N2 fixation indicate that the plus-NH4+ peas fixed as much or more N2 than the plants supplied with minus-NH4+ nutrient solution. There were no significant differences in nodule numbers, nodule mass or NH4+ uptake between the plants grown at the two concentrations of NH4+. Nodulation appeared to autoregulate by 14 DAP in the minus-NH4+ treatment. Plant growth and N accumulation in the minus-NH4+ plants lagged behind those of the plus-NH4+ treatments prior to N2 fixation becoming well established in the final week of the experiment. The plus-NH4+ treatments appeared not to elicit autoregulation and plants continued to initiate nodules throughout the experiment.

  4. Stimulation of nodulation in field peas (Pisum sativum) by low concentrations of ammonium in hydroponic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterer, J. G.; Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Although the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of mineral N (> 1.0 mM) on nodule development and function have often been studied, the effects of low, static concentrations of NH4+ (nodulation are unknown. In the present experiments we examine the effects of static concentrations of NH4+ at 0, 0.1 and 0.5 mM in flowing, hydroponic culture on nodule establishment and nitrogenase activity in field peas [Pisum sativum L. cv. Express (Svalof AB)] for the initial 28 days after planting (DAP). Peas grown in the presence of low concentrations of NH4+ had significantly greater nodule numbers (up to 4-fold) than plants grown without NH4+. Nodule dry weight per plant was significantly higher at 14, 21 and 28 DAP in plants grown in the presence of NH4+, but individual nodule mass was lower than in plants grown without NH4+. The nodulation pattern of the plants supplied with NH4+ was similar to that often reported for supernodulating mutants, however the plants did not express other growth habits associated with supernodulation. Estimates of N2 fixation indicate that the plus-NH4+ peas fixed as much or more N2 than the plants supplied with minus-NH4+ nutrient solution. There were no significant differences in nodule numbers, nodule mass or NH4+ uptake between the plants grown at the two concentrations of NH4+. Nodulation appeared to autoregulate by 14 DAP in the minus-NH4+ treatment. Plant growth and N accumulation in the minus-NH4+ plants lagged behind those of the plus-NH4+ treatments prior to N2 fixation becoming well established in the final week of the experiment. The plus-NH4+ treatments appeared not to elicit autoregulation and plants continued to initiate nodules throughout the experiment.

  5. Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea belongs to the Leguminosae plant family, the third largest flowering plant family with 800 genera and over 18,000 species. Tribe Fabeae is considered one of the youngest groups in the legumes and Bayesian molecular clock and ancestral range analysis suggest a crown age of 23 – 16 Mya, in the mi...

  6. YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN FIELD PEA (Pisum arvense L. LINES

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    A TEKELI

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characters such as main stem length (cm, number of branches per plant, leaf length (cm, number of leaves per main stem, number of leaflets per leaf, diameter of main stem (mm, pods / main stem and seeds / pod as well as agricultural herbage yield (t ha-1, dry matter yield (t ha-1, seed yield (t ha-1, crude protein (% were investigated in Trakya, during the 1999-2002. The maximum main stem length (124.375 cm, leaf length (24.808 cm, number of pods per main stem (16.526, herbage yield (27.881 t ha-1, dry matter yield (7.319 t ha-1 and seed yield (2.590 t ha-1 were determined from the 16-K and 16-DY field pea lines. K line has given higher values than four lines for the number of branches per plant (5.567. Main stem diameter ranged from 3.077 to 4.300 mm. It’s found that the 23.025 leaves/main stem, 6.833 leaflets/leaf, 7.692 seeds/pod and 17.550% crude protein from the field pea lines.

  7. FIELD PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L. BIOMASS PRODUCTION DEPENDED ON SEED AGE AND AGROECOLOGICAL GROWTH CONDITIONS

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    Irena Rapčan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Influence of weather conditions and seed age on fresh and dry biomass production, field germination, seed yield and 1000 seed weight of field pea were investigated in field trials during two years at two locations of East Croatia (Osijek and Vinkovci. Seed of „Timo“ cultivar 9 and 21 month old was used for sowing. In the investigation of the years influence, significantly higher (p=0.01 average green mass yield (57,035 t/ha, dry matter yield (9.796 t/ha and 1000 seed weight (129.7 g was found in the first year of the investigation. On the average for years, significantly higher field germination (87.0% and seed yield (2.173 t/ha at p=0.01, and green mass yield (55.728 t/ha and 1000 seed weight (130.1 g at p=0.05 were found at location Osijek. Seed of 21 month old had higher (p=0.01 average green mass yield (64.376 t/ha, dry matter yield (10.934 t/ha and 1000 seed weight (134 g but significantly lower field germination (76.4% at location Vinkovci in the investigation of seed age and location influences during 2005 year..

  8. Studies on the Control of Ascochyta Blight in Field Peas (Pisum sativum L.) Caused by Ascochyta pinodes in Zhejiang Province, China.

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    Liu, Na; Xu, Shengchun; Yao, Xiefeng; Zhang, Guwen; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Feng, Zhijuan; Gong, Yaming

    2016-01-01

    Ascochyta blight, an infection caused by a complex of Ascochyta pinodes, Ascochyta pinodella, Ascochyta pisi, and/or Phoma koolunga, is a destructive disease in many field peas (Pisum sativum L.)-growing regions, and it causes significant losses in grain yield. To understand the composition of fungi associated with this disease in Zhejiang Province, China, a total of 65 single-pycnidiospore fungal isolates were obtained from diseased pea samples collected from 5 locations in this region. These isolates were identified as Ascochyta pinodes by molecular techniques and their morphological and physiological characteristics. The mycelia of ZJ-1 could penetrate pea leaves across the stomas, and formed specific penetration structures and directly pierced leaves. The resistance level of 23 available pea cultivars was tested against their representative isolate A. pinodes ZJ-1 using the excised leaf-assay technique. The ZJ-1 mycelia could penetrate the leaves of all tested cultivars, and they developed typical symptoms, which suggested that all tested cultivars were susceptible to the fungus. Chemical fungicides and biological control agents were screened for management of this disease, and their efficacies were further determined. Most of the tested fungicides (11 out of 14) showed high activity toward ZJ-1 with EC50 pea-related niches and significantly reduced the severity of disease under greenhouse and field conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first study on ascochyta blight in field peas, and results presented here will be useful for controlling the disease in this area.

  9. Diversity of pea (Pisum sativum) accessions based on morphological data for sustainable field pea breeding in Argentina.

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    Gatti, I; Espósito, M A; Almirón, P; Cravero, V P; Cointry, E L

    2011-10-31

    We characterized 13 accessions of dry peas of different origins from various growing regions in Argentina, based on three replications of 20 plants cultivated in 2009 and 2010 in a greenhouse, with the objective of selecting those with favorable characteristics for use in breeding programs. Significant differences were found for length and width of stipule and pod, length of the internodes and leaflets, plant height, total number of nodes, number of nodes at the first pod, number of days to flowering and to harvest, number of pods and seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and grain diameter, demonstrating a high degree of genetic variability. Phenotypic correlation analysis demonstrated that large pods produced more seeds per pod, but the seed weight decreased. Plants with smaller number of nodes in the first pod were more productive. Estimates of genotypic correlation coefficients indicated a strong inherent association among the different traits. Clustering methods grouped the accessions into five clusters. Cluster 5 included two accessions and showed the highest values for length and width of stipules (4.9 and 4.5 cm, respectively), length of leaflets (7.43 cm) and days to flowering (122.6), while cluster 3, with one accession, and cluster 4, with two accessions, showed the highest values for number of seeds per pod (3.78 and 4.39), number of pods per plant (5.33 and 5.70), length of pods (5.54 and 5.72 cm), and width of pods (1.21 and 1.20 cm, respectively). We conclude that accessions in clusters 3 and 4 would be useful for crosses with other cultivars in pea breeding programs.

  10. Fatty acid profiling of the seed oils of some varieties of field peas (Pisum sativum) by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS: towards the development of an oilseed pea.

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    Villalobos Solis, Manuel Ivan; Patel, Anil; Orsat, Valérie; Singh, Jaswinder; Lefsrud, Mark

    2013-08-15

    Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS) was used to study the fatty acid profile from the oil of harvested field pea (Pisum sativum) varieties as part of a research project to develop this legume as a commercial oilseed for Canada. The seed oils from pea samples contained palmitic and stearic acids as major saturated fatty acids. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids found. Small percentages of other long chain fatty acids were also detected. This profile suggests that the species of field pea investigated might have the potential to be used as raw materials to develop a future new oilseed crop for the food industry. Fatty acid extracts did not require further manipulation before final analysis by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS, indicating the utility and relative simplicity of this technique for future screening studies.

  11. Danish Rhizobium leguminosarum strains nodulating ‘Afghanistan’ pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen; Sørensen, Lasse Holst; Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1986-01-01

    A wild pea (Pisum sativum L.) native to Afghanistan normally known to be resisant to nodulation with European strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum was nodulated early and effectively in field soil in Denmark. Isolates from nodules formed effective nodules abundantly on 'Afghanistan' on reinfection...... pattern with Rhizobium leguminosarum strains isolated from a modern pea variety cultivated in the same field....

  12. Studies on the control of ascochyta blight in field peas (Pisum sativum L. caused by Ascochyta pinodes in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na eLiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ascochyta blight, an infection caused by a complex of Ascochyta pinodes, Ascochyta pinodella, Ascochyta pisi, and/or Phoma koolunga, is a destructive disease in many field peas (Pisum sativum L.-growing regions, and it causes significant losses in grain yield. To understand the composition of fungi associated with this disease in Zhejiang Province, China, a total of 65 single-pycnidiospore fungal isolates were obtained from diseased pea samples collected from 5 locations in this region. These isolates were identified as Ascochyta pinodes by molecular techniques and their morphological and physiological characteristics. The mycelia of ZJ-1 could penetrate pea leaves across the stomas, and formed specific penetration structures and directly pierced leaves. The resistance level of 23 available pea cultivars was tested against their representative isolate A. pinodes ZJ-1 using the excised leaf-assay technique. The ZJ-1 mycelia could penetrate the leaves of all tested cultivars, and they developed typical symptoms, which suggested that all tested cultivars were susceptible to the fungus. Chemical fungicides and biological control agents were screened for management of this disease, and their efficacies were further determined. Most of the tested fungicides (11 out of 14 showed high activity towards ZJ-1 with EC50 < 5 μg/mL. Moreover, fungicides, including tebuconazole, boscalid, iprodione, carbendazim and fludioxonil, displayed more than 80% disease control efficacy under the recorded conditions. Three biocontrol strains of Bacillus sp. and one of Pantoea agglomerans were isolated from pea-related niches and significantly reduced the severity of disease under greenhouse and field conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first study on ascochyta blight in field peas, and results presented here will be useful for controlling the disease in this area.

  13. Breeding potential of the field pea (Pisum sativum L. cultivars and their progenies

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    Valentin Kosev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inheritance and gene effects structure were investigated for ten quantitative traits in field cultivars by a full diallel model of four parents – the cultivars Kerpo, Pleven 10, Mir and EFB33. Overdominance was prevalent for most of the traits in both hybrid generations (F1 and F2 except for 1000-seed weigth. A non-additive gene action appeared to be more predominant for the inheritance of most traits studied. The fraction of h2/H2 indicated that at least one group of genes controlled dominance for all the traits, namely for seed weight per plant (6, seeds per pod (3. The Н2/4Н1 ratio was close to the expected value of 0.25 for seeds per plant and seed weight per plant, indicating a symmetrical distribution of dominant and recessive genes. Dominant alleles were more frequent in parental forms for the inheritance of most traits except seeds per pod in F1. In the case of seeds per pod (F1 and 1000-seed weight (F1 and F2 a comparatively low difference was established between the coefficient of heritability in narrow and broad sense, indicating that the selection in early generations may be effective. The genotypes with exhibited dominant alleles were EFB33 for plant height, first pod height, internode distance and fertile nodes per plant, Mir for pods per plant, nodes per plant and 1000-seed weight and Pleven 10 for seeds per plant and seed weight per plant. Kerpo had recessive alleles for all the tested traits except seeds per pod.

  14. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in the genomics era

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    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) was the original model organism for Mendel´s discovery of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species, largely as a consequence of its low multiplication rat...

  15. Discriminant Analysis of Defective and Non-Defective Field Pea (Pisum sativum L. into Broad Market Grades Based on Digital Image Features.

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    Linda S McDonald

    Full Text Available Field peas (Pisum sativum L. are generally traded based on seed appearance, which subjectively defines broad market-grades. In this study, we developed an objective Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA model to classify market grades of field peas based on seed colour, shape and size traits extracted from digital images. Seeds were imaged in a high-throughput system consisting of a camera and laser positioned over a conveyor belt. Six colour intensity digital images were captured (under 405, 470, 530, 590, 660 and 850nm light for each seed, and surface height was measured at each pixel by laser. Colour, shape and size traits were compiled across all seed in each sample to determine the median trait values. Defective and non-defective seed samples were used to calibrate and validate the model. Colour components were sufficient to correctly classify all non-defective seed samples into correct market grades. Defective samples required a combination of colour, shape and size traits to achieve 87% and 77% accuracy in market grade classification of calibration and validation sample-sets respectively. Following these results, we used the same colour, shape and size traits to develop an LDA model which correctly classified over 97% of all validation samples as defective or non-defective.

  16. Discriminant Analysis of Defective and Non-Defective Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) into Broad Market Grades Based on Digital Image Features.

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    McDonald, Linda S; Panozzo, Joseph F; Salisbury, Phillip A; Ford, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Field peas (Pisum sativum L.) are generally traded based on seed appearance, which subjectively defines broad market-grades. In this study, we developed an objective Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model to classify market grades of field peas based on seed colour, shape and size traits extracted from digital images. Seeds were imaged in a high-throughput system consisting of a camera and laser positioned over a conveyor belt. Six colour intensity digital images were captured (under 405, 470, 530, 590, 660 and 850nm light) for each seed, and surface height was measured at each pixel by laser. Colour, shape and size traits were compiled across all seed in each sample to determine the median trait values. Defective and non-defective seed samples were used to calibrate and validate the model. Colour components were sufficient to correctly classify all non-defective seed samples into correct market grades. Defective samples required a combination of colour, shape and size traits to achieve 87% and 77% accuracy in market grade classification of calibration and validation sample-sets respectively. Following these results, we used the same colour, shape and size traits to develop an LDA model which correctly classified over 97% of all validation samples as defective or non-defective.

  17. Soil and foliar zinc biofortification in field pea (Pisum sativum L.): Grain accumulation and bioavailability in raw and cooked grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblaciones, M J; Rengel, Z

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the potential of cooked field peas to be used in Zn biofortification programs, all combinations of soil Zn application of 0, 4 and 8mgZnSO4·7H2Okg(-1) and foliar Zn application of 0 and two sprays of 0.25% or 0.5% (w/v) ZnSO4·7H2O before flowering and at early grain-filling stage were tested. Soil Zn application increased Zn-DTPA concentration 3.7- to 5.6-times depending on the Zn soil treatments. Grain Zn concentrations higher than 60mgZnkg(-1) were obtained with all foliar Zn applications, alone or in combination with soil Zn applications, and grain Zn bioavailability was adequate (phytate:Zn ratios lower than 15). Processing (freezing and cooking) caused a decrease of about 30% in grain Zn concentration and a 17%-increase in phytate:Zn ratios (to ⩽9.5). The combined application of 8mgZnSO4·7H2Okg(-1) soil+0.25% (w/v) ZnSO4·7H2O foliarly could be a good option for biofortifying field peas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The genetic diversity and evolution of field pea (Pisum studied by high throughput retrotransposon based insertion polymorphism (RBIP marker analysis

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    Smýkal Petr

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic diversity of crop species is the result of natural selection on the wild progenitor and human intervention by ancient and modern farmers and breeders. The genomes of modern cultivars, old cultivated landraces, ecotypes and wild relatives reflect the effects of these forces and provide insights into germplasm structural diversity, the geographical dimension to species diversity and the process of domestication of wild organisms. This issue is also of great practical importance for crop improvement because wild germplasm represents a rich potential source of useful under-exploited alleles or allele combinations. The aim of the present study was to analyse a major Pisum germplasm collection to gain a broad understanding of the diversity and evolution of Pisum and provide a new rational framework for designing germplasm core collections of the genus. Results 3020 Pisum germplasm samples from the John Innes Pisum germplasm collection were genotyped for 45 retrotransposon based insertion polymorphism (RBIP markers by the Tagged Array Marker (TAM method. The data set was stored in a purpose-built Germinate relational database and analysed by both principal coordinate analysis and a nested application of the Structure program which yielded substantially similar but complementary views of the diversity of the genus Pisum. Structure revealed three Groups (1-3 corresponding approximately to landrace, cultivar and wild Pisum respectively, which were resolved by nested Structure analysis into 14 Sub-Groups, many of which correlate with taxonomic sub-divisions of Pisum, domestication related phenotypic traits and/or restricted geographical locations. Genetic distances calculated between these Sub-Groups are broadly supported by principal coordinate analysis and these, together with the trait and geographical data, were used to infer a detailed model for the domestication of Pisum. Conclusions These data provide a clear picture

  19. Effects of phosphorus fertilizer rate and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain on field pea (Pisum sativum subsp. arvense (L. Asch. growth and yield

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    Bahram SALEHI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at Rezvanshahr, Guilan province, Iran, to evaluate the effects of phosphorus fertilizer rate and Pseudomonas fluorescens strains on growth and yield of field pea (Pisum sativum L.. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a factorial arrangement with three replicates. Factors were phosphorus fertilizer rates (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 as triple superphosphate, and seed inoculation with P. florescens strains [control (non-inoculated, inoculated with strain R41, and strain R187. Analysis of variance showed that plant height, seed yield, pod number per m2, 100-seed weight, biological yield, harvest index, and leaf P concentration were significantly influenced by phosphorus fertilizer rate and P. florescens strain. At the same time, phosphorus fertilizer rate × P. fluorescens strain interaction was significant only for 100-seed weight. On the other hand, seed number per pod was significantly affected neither by phosphorus fertilizer rate nor by pseudomonas strains. Result showed that seed yield was significantly increased from 1099 ± 67 to 1898 ± 118 kg ha-1 as P2O5 application rate increased from 0 to 75 kg ha-1, and thereafter relatively remained constant. There was no significant difference in seed yield between plants raised from inoculated seeds with P. fluorescens, strain R187 (1664 ± 97 kg ha-1 and those raised from inoculated seeds with P. fluorescens, strain R41 (1669 ± 104 kg ha-1. At the same time, plants raised from inoculated seeds with P. fluorescens (both strains produced greater grain yield compared to those raised from uninoculated seeds (1370 ± 80 kg ha-1. Based on the results of this study, P2O5 application at the rate of 75 kg ha-1 and inoculation with pseudomonas bacteria are recommended for obtaining the greatest seed yield in field pea.

  20. In vitro digestibility, protein composition and techno-functional properties of Saskatchewan grown yellow field peas (Pisum sativum L.) as affected by processing.

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    Ma, Zhen; Boye, Joyce I; Hu, Xinzhong

    2017-02-01

    Saskatchewan grown yellow field pea was subjected to different processing conditions including dehulling, micronization, roasting, conventional/microwave cooking, germination, and combined germination and conventional cooking/roasting. Their nutritional and antinutritional compositions, functional properties, microstructure, thermal properties, in vitro protein and starch digestibility, and protein composition were studied. Processed field peas including conventional cooked yellow peas (CCYP), microwave cooked yellow peas (MCYP), germinated-conventional cooked yellow peas (GCCYP), and germinated-roasted yellow peas (GRYP) exhibited the significantly higher in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), which was in accordance with their significantly lower trypsin inhibitor activity and tannin content. The SDS-PAGE and size exclusion HPLC profiles of untreated pea proteins and their hydrolysates also confirmed the IVPD result that these four treatments facilitated the hydrolysis of pea proteins to a greater extent. The CCYP, MCYP, GCCYP, and GRYP also exhibited significantly higher starch digestibility which was supported by their lower onset (To), peak (Tp), and conclusion (Tc) temperatures obtained from DSC thermogram, their lower pasting properties and starch damage results, as well as their distinguished amorphous flakes' configuration observed on the scanning electron microscopic image. LC/ESI-MS/MS analysis following in-gel digests of SDS-PAGE separated proteins allowed detailed compositional characterization of pea proteins. The present study would provide fundamental information to help to better understand the functionality of field peas as ingredients, and particularly in regards to agri-food industry to improve the process efficiency of field peas with enhanced nutritional and techno-functional qualities.

  1. Genome sequence of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, S.; Gibbs, R. A.; Gerardo, N. M.

    2010-01-01

    Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first...... from bacteria; thus the reduced gene count of Buchnera does not reflect gene transfer to the host genome. The inventory of metabolic genes in the pea aphid genome suggests that there is extensive metabolite exchange between the aphid and Buchnera, including sharing of amino acid biosynthesis between...

  2. Spatial variation of N-2-fixation in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) at the field scale determined by the N-15 natural abundance method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Holdensen, Lars; Wulfsohn, D.;

    2010-01-01

    Grain legumes such as field pea are known to have high variability of yield and dinitrogen (N2) fixation between seasons, but less is known about the yearly spatial variability within a field. The objective of this study was to improve the understanding of spatial field scale variability of field...... pea dry matter (DM) yield and nitrogen (N) acquisition from fixation and soil within a 10 ha farmer’s field. A 42 m systematic random grid providing 56 plant sampling locations across 10 ha supplemented by soil data provided from an existing database were used to determine whether the observed spatial...... variability could be explained by the variability in selected abiotic soil properties. All measured soil variables showed substantial variability across the field and the pea dry matter production ranged between 4.9 and 13.8 Mg ha−1 at maturity. The percent of total N derived from the atmosphere (%Ndfa...

  3. Pre-fractionation strategies to resolve pea (Pisum sativum) sub-proteomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Menckhoff, Ljiljana; Kukavica, Biljana M.; Lüthje, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are important crop plants and pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been investigated as a model with respect to several physiological aspects. The sequencing of the pea genome has not been completed. Therefore, proteomic approaches are currently limited. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of available EST-databases as well as the high homology of the pea and medicago genome (Medicago truncatula Gaertner) allow the successful identification of proteins. Due to the un-sequenced pea genome, pre-fractionation approaches have been used in pea proteomic surveys in the past. Aside from a number of selective proteome studies on crude extracts and the chloroplast, few studies have targeted other components such as the pea secretome, an important sub-proteome of interest due to its role in abiotic and biotic stress processes. The secretome itself can be further divided into different sub-proteomes (plasma membrane, apoplast, cell wall proteins). Cell fractionation in combination with different gel-electrophoresis, chromatography methods and protein identification by mass spectrometry are important partners to gain insight into pea sub-proteomes, post-translational modifications and protein functions. Overall, pea proteomics needs to link numerous existing physiological and biochemical data to gain further insight into adaptation processes, which play important roles in field applications. Future developments and directions in pea proteomics are discussed. PMID:26539198

  4. Pre-fractionation strategies to resolve pea (Pisum sativum sub-proteomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nicole Meisrimler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are important crop plants and pea (Pisum sativum L. has been investigated as a model with respect to several physiological aspects. The sequencing of the pea genome has not been completed. Therefore, proteomic approaches are currently limited. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of available EST-databases as well as the high homology of the pea and medicago genome (Medicago truncatula G. allow the successful identification of proteins. Due to the un-sequenced pea genome, pre-fractionation approaches have been used in pea proteomic surveys in the past. Aside from a number of selective proteome studies on crude extracts and the chloroplast, few studies have targeted other components such as the pea secretome, an important sub-proteome of interest due to its role in abiotic and biotic stress processes. The secretome itself can be further divided into different sub-proteomes (plasma membrane, apoplast, cell wall proteins. Cell fractionation in combination with different gel-electrophoresis, chromatography methods and protein identification by mass spectrometry are important partners to gain insight into pea sub-proteomes, post-translational modifications and protein functions. Overall, pea proteomics needs to link numerous existing physiological and biochemical data to gain further insight into adaptation processes, which play important roles in field applications. Future developments and directions in pea proteomics are discussed.

  5. Swimming of the pea crab (Pinnotheres pisum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, C.P.C.; Muller, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic organisms have to deal with different hydrodynamic regimes, depending on their size and speed during locomotion. The pea crab swims by beating the third and fourth pereiopod on opposite sides as pairs. Using particle tracking velocimetry and high-speed video recording, we quantify the kinema

  6. Genome sequence of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, S.; Gibbs, R. A.; Gerardo, N. M.;

    2010-01-01

    Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first...... published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we...... include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and sugar transport. Gene losses include genes central to the IMD immune pathway, selenoprotein utilization, purine salvage, and the entire urea cycle. The pea aphid genome reveals that only a limited number of genes have been acquired...

  7. Cannibalism in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lucy C; Desjonqueres, Camille; Leather, Simon R

    2014-12-01

    Previous observations of cannibalism have been made in the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (L.): this article seeks to quantify factors contributing to such behaviors. We observed and quantified the responses of a number of clones and life stages to varying levels of starvation, in the form of increasingly desiccated Vica faba L. plants (receiving 50, 25, or 10 mL every second day) or a complete absence of host plant. We found that, while the longest incidences of cannibalism are carried out by juveniles (F = 3.45, P = 0.019, df = 3) and targeted at adults, the starvation treatments had the most significant effect on the prevalence of cannibalism in mature A. pisum (F = 2.24, P = 0.025, df = 9). Furthermore, there was no difference between the prevalence or duration of cannibalistic activities within and between different clones (P ≥ 0.05 in all cases), though juveniles were more likely to target unrelated aphids (V = 6 112, P = 0.011), and spent more time feeding on aphids from the same culture (V = 6 062, P = 0.018).

  8. Pea (Pisum sativum L. in the Genomic Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Redden

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. was the original model organism used in Mendel’s discovery (1866 of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species. Although the size and repetitive nature of the pea genome has so far restricted its sequencing, comprehensive genomic and post genomic resources already exist. These include BAC libraries, several types of molecular marker sets, both transcriptome and proteome datasets and mutant populations for reverse genetics. The availability of the full genome sequences of three legume species has offered significant opportunities for genome wide comparison revealing synteny and co-linearity to pea. A combination of a candidate gene and colinearity approach has successfully led to the identification of genes underlying agronomically important traits including virus resistances and plant architecture. Some of this knowledge has already been applied to marker assisted selection (MAS programs, increasing precision and shortening the breeding cycle. Yet, complete translation of marker discovery to pea breeding is still to be achieved. Molecular analysis of pea collections has shown that although substantial variation is present within the cultivated genepool, wild material offers the possibility to incorporate novel traits that may have been inadvertently eliminated. Association mapping analysis of diverse pea germplasm promises to identify genetic variation related to desirable agronomic traits, which are historically difficult to breed for in a traditional manner. The availability of high throughput ‘omics’ methodologies offers great promise for the development of novel, highly accurate selective breeding tools for improved pea genotypes that are sustainable under current and future climates and farming systems.

  9. Discriminant Analysis of Defective and Non-Defective Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) into Broad Market Grades Based on Digital Image Features

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, Linda S; Panozzo, Joseph F; Salisbury, Phillip A; Ford, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    .... In this study, we developed an objective Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model to classify market grades of field peas based on seed colour, shape and size traits extracted from digital images...

  10. Spatial variation of N-2-fixation in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) at the field scale determined by the N-15 natural abundance method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Holdensen, Lars; Wulfsohn, D.

    2010-01-01

    variability could be explained by the variability in selected abiotic soil properties. All measured soil variables showed substantial variability across the field and the pea dry matter production ranged between 4.9 and 13.8 Mg ha−1 at maturity. The percent of total N derived from the atmosphere (%Ndfa...... pea dry matter production and humus content, potassium content (collinear with humus) and total N in the 0–25 cm topsoil. No correlation was found between any individual soil property and %Ndfa or kg N fixed ha−1. It was not possible to create a satisfactory global multi-regression model for the field...... dry matter production and N2-fixation. A number of other models were tested, but the best was only able to explain less than 40% of the variance in %Ndfa using seven soil properties. Together with the use of interpolated soil data, high spatial variation of soil 15N natural abundance, a mean increase...

  11. Gene knockdown by RNAi in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rispe Claude

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi is a powerful method to inhibit gene expression in a sequence specific manner. Results Here, we described the development of RNAi by micro-injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Injection of dsRNA into whole aphid body induced the silencing of two marker genes with different expression patterns: the ubiquitously expressed Ap-crt genes encoding a calreticulin and the gut specific Ap-cath-L gene encoding a cathepsin-L. Time-course analysis of the silencing showed similar temporal patterns for both genes: inhibition started at 1 day after injection, reached its maximum at 5 days and stopped at 7 days. A comparable 40% decrease of gene expression was observed for Ap-crt and Ap-cath-L. Conclusion The pea aphid is the first Hemipteran insect for which genome sequence will be available soon. The gene knockdown technique developed in this study will be an essential post-genomic tool for further investigations in aphidology.

  12. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greenhouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.), and peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleeger, Thomas; Olszyk, David; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2011-02-01

    Although laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective, and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive to obtain. Toxicology tests were conducted on potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in a native soil in pots in the greenhouse and were compared to plants grown outside under natural environmental conditions to determine toxicological differences between environments, whether different plant developmental stages were more sensitive to herbicides, and whether these species were good candidates for plant reproductive tests. The reproductive and vegetative endpoints of the greenhouse plants and field-grown plants were also compared. The herbicides bromoxynil, glyphosate, MCPA ([4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy] acetic acid), and sulfometuron-methyl were applied at below field application rates to potato plants at two developmental stages. Peas and soybeans were exposed to sulfometuron-methyl at similar rates at three developmental stages. The effective herbicide concentrations producing a 25% reduction in a given measure differed between experimental conditions but were generally within a single order of magnitude within a species, even though there were differences in plant morphology. This study demonstrated that potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in pots in a greenhouse produce phytotoxicity results similar to those grown outside in pots; that reproductive endpoints in many cases were more sensitive than vegetative ones; and that potato and pea plants are reasonable candidates for asexual and sexual reproductive phytotoxicity tests, respectively. Plants grown in pots in a greenhouse and outside varied little in toxicity. However, extrapolating those toxicity results to native plant communities in the field is basically unknown and in need of research. © 2010 SETAC.

  13. On the shock response of Pisum Sativum (a.k.a the Common Pea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighs, James; Hazell, Paul; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth

    2011-06-01

    The high strain-rate response of biological and organic structures is of interest to numerous fields ranging from the food industry (dynamic pasteurisation) to astrobiology (e.g. the theory of panspermia, which suggests that planets could be `seeded' with life `piggy-backing' of interplanetary bodies). Consequently, knowledge of the damage mechanisms and viability of shocked organic material is of paramount importance. In this study a single-stage gas-gun has been employed to subject samples of Pisum Sativum (the Common Pea) to semi-planar shock loading, corresponding to impact pressures of up to c.3 GPa. The experimental approach adopted is discussed along with results from Manganin gauges embedded in the target capsule which show the loading history. Further, the viability of the shock-loaded peas was investigated via attempts at germination. Finally, microscopic examination of the impacted specimens allowed a qualitative assessment of damage mechanisms to be made.

  14. Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Global Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food and feed legume grown across many temperate regions of the world, especially from Asia to Europe and North America. The goal of this study was to use 30 informative pea microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in a global core from the USDA and ...

  15. Pea (Pisum sativum) Seed Production as an Assay for Reproductive Effects Due to Herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even though herbicide drift can affect plant reproduction, current plant testing protocols emphasize effects on vegetative growth. In this study, we determined whether a short–growing season plant can indicate potential effects of herbicides on seed production. Pea (Pisum sativum...

  16. Can sucrose content in the phloem sap reaching field pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) be an accurate indicator of seed growth potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier-Jolain, Nathalie; Salon, Christophe

    2003-11-01

    The composition of the translocates reaching the seeds of pea plants having various nitrogen (N) nutrition regimes was investigated under field situations. Sucrose flow in the phloem sap increased with the node number, but was not significantly different between N nutrition levels. Because N deficiency reduced the number of flowering nodes and the number of seeds per pod, the sucrose flow bleeding from cut peduncles was divided by the number of seeds to give the amount of assimilates available per seed. The sucrose concentration in phloem sap supplied to seeds at the upper nodes was higher than that at the lower nodes. The flow of sucrose delivered to the seeds during the cell division period was correlated with seed growth potential. Seeds from the more N-stressed plants had both the highest seed growth rate and received a higher sucrose flux per seed during the cell division period. As seed growth rate is highly correlated with the number of cotyledonary cells produced during the cell division period, sucrose flow in phloem sap is proposed to be an important determinant of mitotic activity in seed embryos. The carbon (C)/N ratio of the flow of translocates towards seeds was higher under conditions of N-deficiency than with optimal N nutrition, indicating that N flux towards seeds, in itself, is not the main determinant of seed growth potential.

  17. Modification of Cry4Aa toward Improved Toxin Processing in the Gut of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rausch, Michael A; Chougule, Nanasaheb P; Deist, Benjamin R; Bonning, Bryony C

    2016-01-01

    .... Our goal was to optimize a naturally occurring insecticidal crystalline (Cry) toxins produced by the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for use against the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum...

  18. SSR genetic linkage map construction of pea(Pisum sativum L.) based on Chinese native varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuelian; Sun; Tao; Yang; Junjie; Hao; Xiaoyan; Zhang; Rebecca; Ford; Junye; Jiang; Fang; Wang; Jianping; Guan; Xuxiao; Zong

    2014-01-01

    Simple sequence repeat(SSR)markers have previously been applied to linkage mapping of the pea(Pisum sativum L.)genome.However,the transferability of existing loci to the molecularly distinct Chinese winter pea gene pool was limited.A novel set of pea SSR markers was accordingly developed.Together with existing SSR sequences,the genome of the G0003973(winter hardy)×G0005527(cold sensitive)cross was mapped using 190 F2individuals.In total,157 SSR markers were placed in 11 linkage groups with an average interval of 9.7 cM and total coverage of 1518 cM.The novel markers and genetic linkage map will be useful for marker-assisted pea breeding.

  19. Transient expression of acidic fibroblast growth factor in pea (Pisum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... Key words: Pea plants, acidic fibroblast growth factor, leave injection, plant ... It plays important roles in various stages of development and morphogenesis and also in angiogenesis and wound healing processes (Basilico and.

  20. Development of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Chickpea (Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    Keywords: green pea, chickpea, snack, frying, steaming, baking, microwave cooking, sensory .... characteristic of volatiles derived from cooked dhal. Assessors ... snacks could be attributed to crust formation during frying. According to Gupta.

  1. Shelf Life Extension of Maple pea (Pisum sativum var. arvense L. Spread Using Sous Vide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ķirse Asnate

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sous vide packaging on the shelf life of maple pea (Pisum sativum var. arvense L. spread. Pea spreads were made of ground re-hydrated cooked maple peas ‘Bruno’ (Pisum sativum var. arvense L., to which salt, citric acid, oil, and spices were added. Pea spread was stored in polyamide/polyethylene (PA/PE film pouches, packaged in vacuum and hermetically sealed. Pea spread pouches were heat treated in a water bath, then rapidly cooled in ice-water and stored at 4.0 ± 0.5 °C. Sous vide was applied in three different heat regimens +(65.0; 80.0 and 100.0 ± 0.5 °C with cooking times 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min at a constant temperature. Total plate count was determined according to ISO 4833-1:2014 on Plate Count Agar and Enterobacteriaceae determination was performed in accordance with ISO 21528-2:2004 on Violet Red Bile Glucose Agar. Total plate count in pea spread without thermal treatment was 3.41 log10 CFU g−1, in all sous vide packaged pea spread samples microbial contamination was significantly lower (p < 0.05. Enterobacteriaceae were not detected in any samples. It is possible to extend the shelf life of sous vide maple pea spread up to 14 weeks when stored at 4.0 ± 0.5 °C.

  2. De Novo Assembly of the Pea (Pisum sativum L. Nodule Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Zhukov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large size and complexity of the garden pea (Pisum sativum L. genome hamper its sequencing and the discovery of pea gene resources. Although transcriptome sequencing provides extensive information about expressed genes, some tissue-specific transcripts can only be identified from particular organs under appropriate conditions. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of polyadenylated transcripts from young pea nodules and root tips on an Illumina GAIIx system, followed by de novo transcriptome assembly using the Trinity program. We obtained more than 58,000 and 37,000 contigs from “Nodules” and “Root Tips” assemblies, respectively. The quality of the assemblies was assessed by comparison with pea expressed sequence tags and transcriptome sequencing project data available from NCBI website. The “Nodules” assembly was compared with the “Root Tips” assembly and with pea transcriptome sequencing data from projects indicating tissue specificity. As a result, approximately 13,000 nodule-specific contigs were found and annotated by alignment to known plant protein-coding sequences and by Gene Ontology searching. Of these, 581 sequences were found to possess full CDSs and could thus be considered as novel nodule-specific transcripts of pea. The information about pea nodule-specific gene sequences can be applied for gene-based markers creation, polymorphism studies, and real-time PCR.

  3. Effect of ensiling moist field bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum) and lupine (Lupinus spp.) grains on the contents of alkaloids, oligosaccharides and tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefrom, A; Ott, E M; Hoedtke, S; Zeyner, A

    2013-12-01

    Ensiling legume grain may be an inexpensive and ecologically interesting method to produce a high-protein feed of local origin. The typically patchy maturation recommends harvesting and ensiling the seeds in moist condition. Developing a method for preserving legume grains harvested before maturation by lactic acid fermentation would have several advantages. Under laboratory conditions, crushed legume seeds of beans, peas and lupines with high moisture content of 35 % were ensiled with different additives (molasses and lactic acid bacteria). To characterize the final silages, contents of proximate nutrients and antinutritional factors (alkaloids, oligosaccharides, tannins) were analysed. The addition of lactic acid bacteria ensured a fast and pronounced lactic acid production and decreased contents of undesired fermentation products like ethanol. An additional use of molasses for ensilage did not provide a remarkable additional benefit. Excluding sugar and starch, the contents of proximate nutrients were not remarkably altered after ensiling. As an overall effect, lactic acid fermentation reduced tannins and oligosaccharides. It can be supposed that the oligosaccharides after breakdown of the complex molecules acted as a source of fermentable carbohydrates. A relevant reduction of alkaloids did not occur. The lactic acid fermentation of legume grains can be recommended as an appropriate method for conservation. With respect to the economic advantages and compared with methods of chemical preservation, the lactic acid fermentation of legume grains under anaerobic conditions is an environmentally compliant procedure and therefore also an option for organic farming. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Long-term iron deficiency: Tracing changes in the proteome of different pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Lyon, David; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Lüthje, Sabine

    2016-05-17

    Iron deficiency (-Fe) is one of the major problems in crop production. Dicots, like pea (Pisum sativum L.), are Strategy I plants, which induce a group of specific enzymes such as Fe(III)-chelate reductase (FRO), Fe responsive transporter (IRT) and H(+)-ATPase (HA) at the root plasma membrane under -Fe. Different species and cultivars have been shown to react diversely to -Fe. Furthermore, different kinds of experimental set-ups for -Fe have to be distinguished: i) short-term vs. long-term, ii) constant vs. acute alteration and iii) buffered vs. unbuffered systems. The presented work compares the effects of constant long-term -Fe in an unbuffered system on roots of four different pea cultivars in a timely manner (12, 19 and 25days). To differentiate the effects of -Fe and plant development, control plants (+Fe) were analyzed in comparison to -Fe plants. Besides physiological measurements, an integrative study was conducted using a comprehensive proteome analysis. Proteins, related to stress adaptation (e.g. HSP), reactive oxygen species related proteins and proteins of the mitochondrial electron transport were identified to be changed in their abundance. Regulations and possible functions of identified proteins are discussed. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) belongs to the legume family (Fabaceae) and is an important crop plant due to high Fe, starch and protein contents. According to FAOSTAT data (September 2015), world production of the garden pea quadrupled from 1970 to 2012. Since the initial studies by Gregor Mendel, the garden pea became the most-characterized legume and has been used in numerous investigations in plant biochemistry and physiology, but is not well represented in the "omics"-related fields. A major limitation in pea production is the Fe availability from soils. Adaption mechanisms to Fe deficiency vary between species, and even cultivars have been shown to react diversely. A label-free proteomic approach, in combination with physiological measurements

  5. Photosynthesis and growth responses of pea Pisum sativum L. under heavy metals stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabrine Hattab; Boutheina Dridi; Lassad Chouba; Mohamed Ben Kheder; Hamadi Bousetta

    2009-01-01

    The present work aims to study the physiological effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in pea (Pisum sativum).Pea plants were exposed to increasing doses of cadmium chloride (CdCl_2) and copper chloride (CuCl_2) for 20 d.The examined parameters,namely root and shoot lengths,the concentration of photosynthetic pigments and the rate of photosynthesis were affected by the treatments especially with high metals concentrations.The analysis of heavy metals accumulation shows that leaves significantly accumulate cadmium for all the tested concentrations.However,copper was significantly accumulated only with the highest tested dose.This may explain the higher inhibitory effects of cadmium on photosynthesis and growth in pea plants.These results are valuable for understanding the biological consequences of heavy metals contamination particularly in soils devoted to organic agriculture.

  6. Genetic analysis of pod dehiscence in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Norman F; Brauner, Soren; Przyborowski, Jerzy A

    2002-01-01

    The inheritance of the dehiscent pod character was investigated in two recombinant inbred populations using a simplified correlation analysis. The approach identified three regions on the pea genome that affect the expression of pod dehiscence. The region on linkage group III corresponded to the expected position of Dpo, a gene known to influence pod dehiscence. A locus on linkage group V appeared to have a slightly smaller effect on expression of the phenotype. The third region was observed only in one cross, had a greater effect than Dpo, and was postulated to be yellow pod allele at the Gp locus

  7. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greehouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.) and peas (Pisum sataivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    While laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and exp...

  8. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Grusak, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75%) at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  9. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka P Sankaran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75% at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  10. INHERITANCE OF QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN DRY PEA (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranko Gantner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted with six parental genotypes: varieties Anno, Gold, Joel, Junior, PF-G1 and Shawnee with aim to improve the dry pea breeding for higher grain yield. Objectives of the research were to investigate: a the inheritance of grain yield per plant and its components; b to determination of the combining ability of parents and their cross-combinations; c the interrelationships among grain yield, its components and morphological traits; d choosing the primary selection criteria; e choosing the best cross-combinations in order to achieve the highest selection response of grain yield; f simple and digenic epistatic gene-effects in the chosen cross-combinations which determ the trait chosen as a primary selection criterion; g the genetic components of variation in the chosen cross-combinations of the trait chosen as a primary selection criterion; h the anticipation of genetic gain of grain yield per plant of the chosen cross-combinations. The research was conducted on experimental fields and laboratories of the Agricultural Institute Osijek. Parental lines were chosen in 2006, the first series of crossings in a diallel fashion were performed in 2007, and the second series in 2008, in a diallel fashion plus back-crossing. The obtained generation material (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 i BC2 of 15 biparental combinations was seeded in the field trial in 2009. Measurement of the yield, its components and morfological traits was done at the end of vegetation. The inheritance of investigated traits was estimated using Hayman’s approach to diallel analysis, combining abilities were determined using Griffing’s approach to diallel analysis, interrelationships among investigated traits were determined using correlation analysis, the primary selection criterion was chosen according to the inheritance of the investigated traits and their interrelationships, best cross-combinations were chosen upon Griffing’s analysis results and two principles: a

  11. Analysis of nucleolar pre-rRNA processing sites in pea(Pisum sativum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG; Hong; (龙; 鸿); ZENG; Xianlu; (曾宪录); JIAO; Mingda; (焦明大); HU; Bo; (胡; 波); SUN; Haijing; (孙海晶); LIU; Zhenlan; (刘振兰); ZHANG; Liyong; (张立勇); HAO; Shui; (郝; 水)

    2003-01-01

    The location of rRNA processing was analyzed by using in situ hybridization with ITS1 probe and immunolabeling of anti-fibrillarin mAb in pea (Pisum sativum) root pole cells. The results showed that rRNA processing sites were in dense fibrillar components (DFCs) and granular components (GCs), but not in fibrillar centers (FCs). Low doses of actinomycin D (AMD) treatment can selectively suppress pre-rRNA synthesis but cannot disturb the processing of preformed pre-rRNAs. With AMD treatment prolonged, the density of labeled signals gradually decreased, indicating the preformed pre-rRNAs were gradually processed.

  12. Novel plant-microbe rhizosphere interaction involving Streptomyces lydicus WYEC108 and the pea plant (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokala, Ranjeet K; Strap, Janice L; Jung, Carina M; Crawford, Don L; Salove, Michelle Hamby; Deobald, Lee A; Bailey, J Franklin; Morra, M J

    2002-05-01

    A previously undescribed plant-microbe interaction between a root-colonizing Streptomyces species, S. lydicus WYEC108, and the legume Pisum sativum is described. The interaction is potentially of great importance to the health and growth in nature of this nodulating legume. The root-colonizing soil actinomycete S. lydicus WYEC108 influences pea root nodulation by increasing root nodulation frequency, possibly at the level of infection by Rhizobium spp. S. lydicus also colonizes and then sporulates within the surface cell layers of the nodules. Colonization leads to an increase in the average size of the nodules that form and improves the vigor of bacteroids within the nodules by enhancing nodular assimilation of iron and possibly other soil nutrients. Bacteroid accumulation of the carbon storage polymer, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate, is reduced in colonized nodules. Root nodules of peas taken from agricultural fields in the Palouse hills of northern Idaho were also found to be colonized by actinomycete hyphae. We hypothesize that root and nodule colonization is one of several mechanisms by which Streptomyces acts as a naturally occurring plant growth-promoting bacterium in pea and possibly other leguminous plants.

  13. Nitrogen deficiency hinders etioplast development in stems of dark-grown pea (Pisum sativum) shoot cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kósa, Annamária; Preininger, Éva; Böddi, Béla

    2015-11-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N) deprivation were studied in etiolated pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Zsuzsi) grown in shoot cultures. The average shoot lengths decreased and the stems significantly altered considering their pigment contents, 77 K fluorescence spectra and ultrastructural properties. The protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) content and the relative contribution of the 654-655 nm emitting flash-photoactive Pchlide form significantly decreased. The etioplast inner membrane structure characteristically changed: N deprivation correlated with a decrease in the size and number of prolamellar bodies (PLBs). These results show that N deficiency directly hinders the pigment production, as well as the synthesis of other etioplast inner membrane components in etiolated pea stems. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Studies on antioxidative enzymes induced by cadmium in pea plants (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nalini; Singh, Gaurav Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Swati) exposed to different concentration of cadmium (50,100, 200 microM Cd) under controlled glass house conditions were quantified for different physiological parameters and antioxidative enzymes. In pea plants, Cd produced a significant inhibition of growth and induced chlorosis, marginal yellowing and necrosis in young leaves, the effect being most pronounced at 200 microM Cd supply. An alteration in the activated oxygen metabolism of pea plants were also detected as evidenced by an increase in concentration of H2O2 and TBARS along with decrease in the chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration in leaves. Cadmium toxicity induced an increase in non-protein thiol, ascorbate, proline and cysteine concentration. A significant increment in the activity of SOD, APX and GR, and a decrease in CAT was observed as a result of Cd treatment. The enhanced activity of SOD and inhibition of CAT and POD produces a high build up of H2O2 which appears to be the main cause of oxidative stress due to Cd toxicity in pea plants.

  15. Growth and some physiological attributes of pea (Pisum sativum L.) as affected by salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, F; Khavari-Nejad, R A; Rastgar-Jazii, F; Sticklen, M

    2007-08-15

    The effects of salt stress were studied on growth and physiology of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Green Arrow) in a pot study. Pea plants were treated with NaCl at 0, 10, 30, 50 and 70 mM in Hoagland solution. Plants were harvested after 21 days for measurements of physiological parameters. The highest NAR and RGR were found in 10 mM NaCl. However, in 70 mM NaCl, RGR and RLGR were significantly decreased in respect of other concentrations of NaCl. In 50 and 70 mM NaCl, chlorophylls contents and photosynthetic rate, were significantly decreased and CO2 compensation concentration and respiration rate increased in comparison with control. In 10 and 30 mM NaCl gas exchanges and chlorophyll contents were not significantly decrease in respect of control. Results indicated that Pisum sativum L. cv. Green Arrow can tolerate to 70 mM NaCl, also growth of plants in 10 and 30 mM NaCl was better than that of those in 0 mM NaCl.

  16. Characterization of low-strigolactone germplasm in pea (Pisum sativum L.) resistant to crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavan, Stefano; Schiavulli, Adalgisa; Marcotrigiano, Angelo Raffaele; Bardaro, Nicoletta; Bracuto, Valentina; Ricciardi, Francesca; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Lotti, Concetta; Bouwmeester, Harro; Ricciardi, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) is a devastating parasitic weed threatening the cultivation of legumes around the Mediterranean and in theMiddle East. So far, only moderate levels of resistance were reported to occur in pea (Pisum sativum L.) natural germplasm, and most commercial cu

  17. Effects of long-term reduced tillage on weed infestation of pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Woźniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated weed infestation of pea (Pisum sativum L. cultivated under conditions of conventional (CT, reduced (RT and herbicide tillage (HT. It demonstrated the highest weed density per m2 in plots with the herbicide (HT and reduced (RT systems and significantly lower weed infestation in plots cultivated in the conventional system (CT. In addition, more weeds occurred at the third leaf stage (13/14 in BBCH scale than at the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH of pea. The highest biomass was produced by weeds in the herbicide system (HT, a lower one – in the reduced system (RT, and the lowest one – in the conventional system (CT. The air-dry weight of weeds depended also on pea development stage. At the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH, the air-dry weight of weeds was significantly higher than at the third leaf stage (13/14 BBCH. The tillage system was also observed to influence the species composition of weeds. This trait was also affected by the period of weed infestation assessment. At the third leaf stage of pea (13/14 BBCH, there occurred 26 weed species, including 24 annual ones. The most abundant species included: Chenopodium album L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L. Med., Matricaria inodora L., Thlaspi arvense L., and Fallopia convolvulus (L. A. Löve. At the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH, the pea crop was colonized by 24 weed species, including 3 perennial ones. At this stage the predominant species included: Avena fatua L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Papaver rhoeas L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P.B., Matricaria inodora L., and Galeopsis tetrahit L.

  18. Purification and Characterization of a Lectin from Green Split Peas (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Charlene Cheuk Wing; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-11-01

    Lectins have captured the attention of a large number of researchers on account of their various exploitable activities, including antitumor, immunomodulatory, antifungal, as well as HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities. A mannose/glucose-specific lectin was isolated from green split peas (a variety of Pisum sativum) and characterized. The purification step involved anion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, cation-exchange chromatography on an SP-Sepharose column, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on Superdex 200. The purified lectin had a native molecular mass of around 50 kDa as determined by size exclusion chromatography. It appeared as a heterotetramer, composed of two distinct polypeptide bands with a molecular mass of 6 and 19 kDa, respectively, in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The N-terminal sequence of green split pea lectin shows some degree of homology compared to lectins from other legume species. Its hemagglutinating activity was inhibited by glucose, mannose, and sucrose, and attenuated at pH values higher than 12 or lower than 3. Hemagglutinating activity was preserved at temperatures lower than 80 °C. The lectin did not show antifungal activity toward fungi including Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. Green split pea lectin showed a mitogenic effect toward murine splenocytes and could inhibit the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

  19. Digestion by pigs of non-starch polysaccharides in wheat and raw peas (Pisum sativum) fed in mixed diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlad, J S; Mathers, J C

    1991-03-01

    The digestion by pigs of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in wheat and raw peas (Pisum sativum) fed in mixed diets was measured. In the four experimental diets, wheat was included at a constant 500 g/kg whilst peas contributed 0-300 g/kg and these were the only dietary sources of NSP. Separate estimates of digestibility for wheat and peas were obtained by using a multiple linear regression technique which also tested the possibility that the presence of peas might influence the digestibility of wheat NSP. There was little evidence of the latter and it was found that the digestibility of peas NSP (0.84) was considerably greater than that of wheat (0.65). The non-cellulosic polysaccharides (NCP) had twofold greater digestibilities than had cellulose for both foods with essentially all the peas NCP being digested. Faecal alpha, epsilon-diaminopimelic acid concentration increased with feeding of peas, suggesting stimulation of bacterial biomass production in the large intestine using the readily fermented peas NSP. All three major volatile fatty acids produced by large intestinal fermentation were detected in jugular blood and increased significantly with increasing peas inclusion rate in the diet.

  20. Cultivar and Rhizobium Strain Effects on the Symbiotic Performance of Pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif

    1983-01-01

    content and dry weight/N ratio. At harvest 63 days after planting, cultivars accounted for 75% of the variation in dry weight, while the Rhizobium strains accounted for 63% of the variation in N-content and 70% of the variation in dry weight/N ratio. Cultivar × strain interactions were statistically......The symbiotic performance of four pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars in combination with each of four strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum was studied in growth chamber experiments in order to estimate the effects of cultivars, strains and cultivar × strain interaction on the variation in dry weight, N...... significant, but of minor quantitative importance, accounting for 5–15% of the total variation. Rhizobium strains also influenced the partitioning of N between reproductive and vegetative plant parts and between root and shoot biomass....

  1. Post-reproductive parthenogenetic pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum are visually identifiable and disproportionately positioned distally to clonal colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik T. Saberski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of kin-selection in the evolution of post-reproductive life is controversial. While anthropological and demographic studies strongly suggest that humans and a few other species experience kin selection for significant post-reproductive survival, these results are necessarily correlational. Understanding could therefore be advanced by the development of a globally available, field and laboratory tractable experimental model of kin-selected post-reproductive survival. In only one invertebrate (Quadrartus yoshinomiyai, a gall-forming aphid endemic to Japan have individuals too old to reproduce been shown to be both numerous in natural habitats and able to help close relatives survive or reproduce. Pea aphids, (Acyrthosiphon pisum, common, tractable organisms, frequently outlive their reproductive ages in laboratories, live in tight interacting groups that are often clonal, and therefore should be evaluated as potential model organisms for the study of adaptive post-reproductive life. The first major step in this process is to identify an optimal method for assessing if a parthenogenetic adult is post-reproductive. We evaluated three methods, relying respectively on isolation in clip cages, visual examination for embryonic eyespots, and dissection. In every case each method identified the same individuals as reproductive versus post-reproductive. While the clip-cage method requires a multi-day wait to produce data, and dissection is inevitably fatal, the eyespot method is quick (under one minute per individual easy, and non-invasive. This method makes it possible to accurately assess the post-reproductive status of a large number of parthenogenetic pea aphids. We demonstrate the usefulness of the eyespot method in showing that while reproductively valuable adults tend to place themselves near the centers of clonal colonies, less valuable post-reproductive adults are more often at or beyond the edges of colonies. These encouraging early

  2. Post-reproductive parthenogenetic pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) are visually identifiable and disproportionately positioned distally to clonal colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberski, Erik T; Diamond, Julia Daisy; Henneman, Nathaniel Fath; Levitis, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    The role of kin-selection in the evolution of post-reproductive life is controversial. While anthropological and demographic studies strongly suggest that humans and a few other species experience kin selection for significant post-reproductive survival, these results are necessarily correlational. Understanding could therefore be advanced by the development of a globally available, field and laboratory tractable experimental model of kin-selected post-reproductive survival. In only one invertebrate (Quadrartus yoshinomiyai, a gall-forming aphid endemic to Japan) have individuals too old to reproduce been shown to be both numerous in natural habitats and able to help close relatives survive or reproduce. Pea aphids, (Acyrthosiphon pisum), common, tractable organisms, frequently outlive their reproductive ages in laboratories, live in tight interacting groups that are often clonal, and therefore should be evaluated as potential model organisms for the study of adaptive post-reproductive life. The first major step in this process is to identify an optimal method for assessing if a parthenogenetic adult is post-reproductive. We evaluated three methods, relying respectively on isolation in clip cages, visual examination for embryonic eyespots, and dissection. In every case each method identified the same individuals as reproductive versus post-reproductive. While the clip-cage method requires a multi-day wait to produce data, and dissection is inevitably fatal, the eyespot method is quick (under one minute per individual) easy, and non-invasive. This method makes it possible to accurately assess the post-reproductive status of a large number of parthenogenetic pea aphids. We demonstrate the usefulness of the eyespot method in showing that while reproductively valuable adults tend to place themselves near the centers of clonal colonies, less valuable post-reproductive adults are more often at or beyond the edges of colonies. These encouraging early results provide both

  3. Effectiveness of rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase for growth promotion of peas (Pisum sativum) under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Z A; Munir, A; Asghar, H N; Shaharoona, B; Arshad, M

    2008-05-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to assess the effectiveness of rhizobacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase for growth promotion of peas under drought conditions. Ten rhizobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of different crops (peas, wheat, and maize) were screened for their growth promoting ability in peas under axenic condition. Three rhizobacterial isolates, Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G (ACC-5), P. fluorescens (ACC-14), and P. putida biotype A (Q-7), were selected for pot trial on the basis of their source, ACC deaminase activity, root colonization, and growth promoting activity under axenic conditions. Inoculated and uninoculated (control) seeds of pea cultivar 2000 were sown in pots (4 seeds/pot) at different soil moisture levels (25, 50, 75, and 100% of field capacity). Results revealed that decreasing the soil moisture levels from 100 to 25% of field capacity significantly decreased the growth of peas. However, inoculation of peas with rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase significantly decreased the "drought stress imposed effects" on growth of peas, although with variable efficacy at different moisture levels. At the lowest soil moisture level (25% field capacity), rhizobacterial isolate Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G (ACC-5) was found to be more promising compared with the other isolates, as it caused maximum increases in fresh weight, dry weight, root length, shoot length, number of leaves per plant, and water use efficiency on fresh and dry weight basis (45, 150, 92, 45, 140, 46, and 147%, respectively) compared with respective uninoculated controls. It is highly likely that rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase might have decreased the drought-stress induced ethylene in inoculated plants, which resulted in better growth of plants even at low moisture levels. Therefore, inoculation with rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase could be helpful in eliminating the inhibitory effects of drought stress on the

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure among pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars as revealed by simple sequence repeat and novel genic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Ajay; Mamidi, Sujan; McPhee, Kevin

    2014-10-01

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important cool season legume crop widely grown around the world. This research provides a basis for selection of pea germplasm across geographical regions in current and future breeding and genetic mapping efforts for pea improvement. Eleven novel genic markers were developed from pea expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences having significant similarity with gene calls from Medicago truncatula spanning at least one intron. In this study, 96 cultivars widely grown or used in breeding programs in the USA and Canada were analyzed for genetic diversity using 31 microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 11 novel EST-derived genic markers. The polymorphic information content varied from 0.01-0.56 among SSR markers and 0.04-0.43 among genic markers. The results showed that SSR and EST-derived genic markers displayed one or more highly reproducible, multi-allelic, and easy to score loci ranging from 200 to 700 bp in size. Genetic diversity was assessed through unweighted neighbor-joining method, and 96 varieties were grouped into three main clusters based on the dissimilarity matrix. Four subpopulations were determined through STRUCTURE analysis with no significant geographic separation of the subpopulations. The findings of the present study can be used to select diverse genotypes to be used as parents of crosses aimed for breeding improved pea cultivars.

  5. Transgenerational seasonal timer for suppression of sexual morph production in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Naoki; Kanbe, Takashi; Akimoto, Shin-Ichi; Numata, Hideharu

    2017-08-01

    Many aphid species switch reproductive modes seasonally, with the sexual generations appearing in autumn. Sexual generations are induced by short days. It has been reported that the appearance of sexual morphs is suppressed by a transgenerational factor (a seasonal timer) over several generations after hatching from overwintered eggs. The present study examined whether the seasonal timer measures the number of days from hatching or the number of generations from hatching using the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Homoptera: Aphididae). Effects of temperature and photoperiod on the seasonal timer were also examined by successive rearing. The ability to produce sexual morphs was strongly suppressed in stem mothers (the foundress generation), and gradually recovered over successive generations produced during a few months. The duration for which the seasonal timer could function depended on the number of days from hatching and temperature, but not on photoperiod or the number of generations from hatching. We thus showed in a single study that the seasonal timer of the pea aphid has all the physiological characteristics shown in separate studies in different aphid species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of genetic divergence and heritability in pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Georgieva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on genetic evaluation of five genotypes of forage pea (Glyans, Svit, Kamerton, Modus, Pleven 4 was conducted during 2012-2014 period. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among genotypes for the traits pod width, seeds per plant, seed weight per plant and 1000 seed weight. The estimates of genetic parameters of five varieties of Pisum sativum L. indicated a good amount of genetic variation in the experimental materials under investigation. Moderate phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were observed for most of traits except pod length and pod width. For the traits studied seeds per plant, seed weight per plant and plant height were found high heritability along with high genetic gain indicating preponderance of additive effects. Therefore, selection programme based on these characters would be more effective in improving yield parameters of forage pea. The seed yield was positively and significantly correlated with 1000 seed weight and pod stem, which suggested the possibilities of improving seed yield by simultaneous improvement of these traits.

  7. The influence of rate and time of nitrate supply on nitrogen fixation and yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen

    1986-01-01

    pea, by the lowest rate of nitrate at this application time. The pea very efficiently took up and assimilated the nitrate N supplied. The average fertilizer N recovery was 82%. The later the N was supplied the more efficiently it was recovered. When nitrate was supplied at the flat pod growth stage 88......The influence of nitrate N supply on dry matter production, N content and symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soil-grown pea (Pisum sativum L.) was studied in a pot experiment by means of15N fertilizer dilution. In pea receiving no fertilizer N symbiotic nitrogen fixation, soil and seed-borne N...... contributed with 82, 13 and 5% of total plant N, respectively. The supply of low rates of nitrate fertilizer at sowing (“starter N”) increased the vegetative dry matter production, but not the seed yield significantly. Nitrogen fixation was not significantly decreased by the lower rates of nitrate but higher...

  8. Proteomic analysis of albumin and globulin fractions of pea (Pisum sativum L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dziuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Proteomic analysis is emerging as a highly useful tool in food research, including studies of food allergies. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis involving isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is the most effective method of separating hundreds or even thousands of proteins. In this study, albumin and globulin tractions of pea seeds cv. Ramrod were subjected to proteomic analysis. Selected potentially alergenic proteins were identified based on their molecular weights and isoelectric points. Material and methods. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum L. cv. Ramrod harvested over a period of two years (Plant Breeding Station in Piaski-Szelejewo were used in the experiment. The isolated albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteomic images were analysed in the ImageMaster 2D Platinum program with the use of algorithms from the Melanie application. The relative content, isoelectric points and molecular weights were computed for all identified proteins. Electrophoregrams were analysed by matching spot positions from three independent replications. Results. The proteomes of albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins produced up to several hundred spots (proteins. Spots most characteristic of a given fraction were identified by computer analysis and spot matching. The albumin proteome accumulated spots of relatively high intensity over a broad range of pi values of -4.2-8.1 in 3 molecular weight (MW ranges: I - high molecular-weight albumins with MW of -50-110 kDa, II - average molecular-weight albumins with MW of -20-35 kDa, and III - low molecular-weight albumins with MW of -13-17 kDa. 2D gel electrophoregrams revealed the presence of 81 characteristic spots, including 24 characteristic of legumin and 14 - of vicilin. Conclusions. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proved to be a useful tool for

  9. GROWTH, INSTABILITY AND FORECASTING OF PIGEON PEA, CHICKPEA AND FIELD PEA PULSE PRODUCTION IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Niaz Md. Farhat; Imam, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    The study tried to find out the appropriate models using latest model selection criteria that could describe the best growth pattern of pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production. The study also tried to measure the instability, growth rates of pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production and to determine the efficient time series models, to forecast the future pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production in Bangladesh. Forecasting attempts have been made to achieve the...

  10. Remote sensing study of the influence of herbicides on the spectral reflectance of pea plant leaves (Pisum sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, D.; Alexieva, V.; Yanev, T.; Ivanov, S.

    Results from a remote sensing study of spectral reflectance of leaves of pea plants Pisum sativum L treated by the herbicides atrazine 2 4-D glyphosate fluridone and chlorsulfuron are reported According to the classification of the Herbicide Action Committee reflecting their mode of action they belong to different groups photosystem II bloker - C1 atrazine synthetic auxins - O 2 4-D inhibition of EPSP synthase - G glyphosate photobleaching - F1 fluridone and inhibition of acetoctate synthase - B chlorsulfuron The plants studied were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber in a nutritious medium to which every herbicide was added at three low concentrations 1 mu M 0 1 mu M and 0 01 mu M with respect to the field dose applied in the agricultural practice The spectral measurements of the leaf spectral reflectance were carried out in laboratory using a multichannel spectrometer in the visible and near infrared regions of the spectrum 480 div 810 nm Data was registered in 128 channels at a high spectral resolution of 2 6 nm halfwidth and a spatial resolution of 2 mm 2 The reflectance spectra were obtained from the leaf-reflected radiation referenced against a standard white screen To assess the changes arising in the leaf spectral reflectance under the herbicide action the developed by us approach based on discriminant analysis and other statistical methods was applied The spectral reflectance characteristics SRC were investigated in three spectral intervals 520 div 580 nm region of maximal

  11. [Research progress on the cloning of Mendel's gene in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and its application in genetics teaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng-Hua; Zhu, Bi-Yan; Gao, Feng; Li, Shao-Shan; Li, Niang-Hui

    2013-07-01

    One hundred and fifty years ago, Gregor Mendel investigated the segregation of seven traits in pea (Pisum sativum) and established the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment in genetics. After the two laws of genetics were rediscovered in 1900, the seven traits have been extensively investigated in the fields of plant physiology and biochemistry as well as in the cell and molecular levels. Recently, with the development of molecular technology in genetics, four genes for seed shape (R), stem length (Le), cotyledon colour (I), and flower colour (A) have been cloned and sequenced; and another three genes for immature pod colour (Gp), fasciation (Fa) and pod form (V) have been located in the linkage groups, respectively. The identification and cloning of the four Mendel's genes will help deeply understand the basic concept of gene in many respects: like the diversity of gene function, the different origins for gene mutation in molecular level, and the molecular nature of a dominant gene or a recessive gene. In teaching of genetics, the introduction of most recent research advancements of cloning of Mendel's genes to the students and the interpretation of the Mendel's laws in molecular level will help students promote their learning interests in genetics and help students grasp the whole content from classical genetics to molecular genetics and the developmental direction of this subject.

  12. Isozymes of beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase from Pea Seeds (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, S M; Beevers, L

    1987-12-01

    Four isozymes of beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (beta-NAHA) from pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) have been separated, with one, designated beta-NAHA-II, purified to apparent homogeneity by means of an affinity column constructed by ligating p-aminophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-d-thioglucosaminide to Affi-Gel 202. The other three isozymes have been separated and purified 500- to 1750-fold by chromatography on Concanavalin A-Sepharose, Zn(2+) charged immobilized metal affinity chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex. All four isozymes are located in the protein bodies of the cotyledons. The molecular weight of each isozyme is 210,000. beta-NAHA-II is composed of two heterogenous subunits. The subunits are not held together by disulfide bonds, but sulfhydryl groups are important for catalysis. All four isozymes release p-nitrophenol from both p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminide and p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-d-galactosaminide. The ratio of activity for hydrolysis of the two substrates is pH dependent. The K(m) value for the two substrates and pH optima of the isozymes are comparable to beta-NAHAs from other plant sources.

  13. Integrated effect of microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide in controlling seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani) and improving yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Wasira; Bhuiyan, Mohamed Khurshed Alam; Sultana, Farjana; Hossain, Mohamed Motaher

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the comparative performance of a few microbial antagonists, organic amendments and fungicides and their integration for the management of seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) and yield improvement in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Before setting the experiment in field microplots, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective antagonistic isolate of Trichoderma harzianum, a fungitoxic organic amendment and an appropriate fungicide. A greenhouse pathogenicity test compared differences in seedling mortality in pea inoculated by four isolates of R. solani and identified the isolate RS10 as the most virulent one. Among the 20 isolates screened in dual culture assay on PDA, T. harzianum isolate T-3 was found to show the highest (77.22%) inhibition of the radial growth of R. solani. A complete inhibition (100.00%) of colony growth of R. solani was observed when fungicide Bavistin 50 WP and Provax-200 at the rate of 100 and 250 ppm, respectively, were used, while Provax-200 was found to be highly compatible with T. harzianum. Mustard oilcake gave maximum inhibition (60.28%) of the radial growth of R. solani at all ratios, followed by sesame oilcake and tea waste. Integration of soil treatment with T. harzianum isolate T-3 and mustard oilcake and seed treatment with Provax-200 appeared to be significantly superior in reducing seedling mortality and improving seed yield in pea in comparison to any single or dual application of them in the experimental field. The research results will help growers develop integrated disease management strategies for the control of Rhizoctonia disease in pea. The research results show the need for an integrating selective microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide to achieve appropriate management of seedling mortality (R. solani) and increase of seed yield in pea. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All

  14. Foliar Application of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Increases Antifungal Compounds in Pea (Pisum sativum) Against Erysiphe pisi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, A; Singh, U P; Sarma, B K; Singh, D P; Singh, K P; Singh, A

    2007-09-01

    Systemic effect of two plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains,viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf4) and P. aeruginosa (Pag), was evaluated on pea (Pisum sativum) against the powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe pisi. Foliar spray of the two PGPR strains was done on specific nodal leaves of pea and conidial germination of E. pisi was observed on other nodal leaves,distal to the treated ones. Conidial germination was reduced on distant leaves and at the same time,specific as well as total phenolic compounds increased in the leaves distal to those applied with PGPR strains,thereby indicating a positive correlation. The strains induced accumulation of phenolic compounds in pea leaves and the amount increased when such leaves were get inoculated with E. pisi conidia. Between the two strains, Pag was found to be more effective than Pf4 as its effect was more persistent in pea leaves. Foliar application of PGPR strains for the control of powdery mildew of pea is demonstrated in vitro while correlating it with the increased accumulation of plant phenolics.

  15. Faba bean (Vicia faba minor) and pea seeds (Pisum sativum) as protein sources in lactating ewes’ diets.

    OpenAIRE

    D. Gatta; M.L. Martini; Casini, L.; G.B. Liponi

    2010-01-01

    18 Massese lactating ewes, divided into 3 homogeneous groups for parity and milk yield, were used to evaluate the replacement effects of soybean meal by Faba bean (Vicia faba minor) and Pea (Pisum sativum) seeds. During a 70 days trial (beginning after weaning: 30±1.5 days after lambing) animals were fed three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Each diet was characterised by the presence of only one protein feed. The diets consisted of alfalfa hay (1.1 kg/head/d) and a decreasing amo...

  16. Avaliação da composição química e da digestibilidade in vitro da mistura aveia IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb + ervilha forrageira (Pisum arvense L. em diferentes alturas sob pastejo Evaluation of chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of mixture of oat IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb cv IAPAR 61 + field pea (Pisum arvense L. under grazing in different sward heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Mascarenhas Grise

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das alturas (8,9; 10,0; 11,2; 11,8; 13,3; 13,6; 14,6; 18,2 cm de pastos consorciados de aveia IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb cv IAPAR 61 com ervilha forrageira (Pisum arvense L. sob pastejo sobre a relação folha/colmo (F/C, os teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O delineamento experimental usado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A relação F/C não foi influenciada pela altura do pasto, porém apresentou comportamento quadrático com o avanço na maturidade do pasto. Os teores de PB apresentaram comportamento quadrático ao longo do período experimental, devido à interação entre altura do pasto e o tempo. Os teores de FDN e FDA mostraram um comportamento quadrático ao longo do período experimental, ocorrendo uma diminuição dos mesmos quando as plantas se apresentavam mais baixas e, uma elevação, quando as plantas estavam mais altas, isto ocorreu em função da interação das variáveis tempo e altura. A DIVMS e a DIVMO tiveram incrementos lineares em função do aumento da altura do pasto, porém com comportamento quadrático no tempo (dias em todas as alturas, sendo mais elevadas nas alturas intermediárias do pasto.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different sward heights (8.9, 10.0, 11.2, 11.8; 13.3; 13.6; 14.6; 18.2 cm in the mixture of black oat IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb cv IAPAR 61 + field pea (Pisum arvense L., under grazing, on leaf/stem ratio (L/S, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF contents and dry matter (DMIVD and of organic matter (OMIVD in vitro digestibility. A completely randomized experimental design with two replicates was used. L/S ratio was not influenced by sward height, although it presented quadratic behavior with the progress of

  17. [Regulatory genes of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) controlling the development of nitrogen-fixing nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza: a review of basic and applied aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borisov, A Iu; Vasil'chikov, A G; Voroshilova, V A

    2007-01-01

    The review sums up the long experience of the authors and other researchers in studying the genetic system of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.), which controls sthe development of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis and arbuscular mycorrhiza. A justified phenotypic classification of pea mutants is presented....... Progress in identifying and cloning symbiotic genes is adequately reflected. The feasibility of using double inoculation as a means of increasing the plant productivity is demonstrated, in which the potential of a tripartite symbiotic system (pea plants-root nodule bacteria-arbuscular mycorrhiza...

  18. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of vegetable and grain pea (Pisum sativum L. seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating pea seed developmental process is extremely important for pea breeding. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses to examine the changes in gene expression during seed development in vegetable pea and grain pea, and compare the gene expression profiles of these two pea types. RNA-Seq generated 18.7 G of raw data, which were then de novo assembled into 77,273 unigenes with a mean length of 930 bp. Our results illustrate that transcriptional control during pea seed development is a highly coordinated process. There were 459 and 801 genes differentially expressed at early and late seed maturation stages between vegetable pea and grain pea, respectively. Soluble sugar and starch metabolism related genes were significantly activated during the development of pea seeds coinciding with the onset of accumulation of sugar and starch in the seeds. A comparative analysis of genes involved in sugar and starch biosynthesis in vegetable pea (high seed soluble sugar and low starch and grain pea (high seed starch and low soluble sugar revealed that differential expression of related genes at late development stages results in a negative correlation between soluble sugar and starch biosynthetic flux in vegetable and grain pea seeds. RNA-Seq data was validated by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 30 randomly selected genes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of seed development transcriptomics in pea. The obtained results provide a foundation to support future efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms that control the developmental biology of pea seeds, and serve as a valuable resource for improving pea breeding.

  19. Seasonal dynamics of: the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris, its natural enemies the seven spotted lady beetle Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus and variegated lady beetle Hippodamia variegata Goeze, and their parasitoid Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimani Safura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two important lady beetle species commonly found in alfalfa fields in Iran are the variegated lady beetle Hippodamia variegata Goeze and the seven spotted lady beetle Coccinella septempunctata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. These two species attack many aphid species including the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae. In this study, the seasonal population changes of A. pisum, H. variegata, C. septempunctata and the parasitoid, Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank (Hymenoptera: Braconidae were studied in alfalfa fields in the 2012 and 2013 seasonal periods. The highest ladybird densities were noted on July 5, 2012 and on September 6, 2013 (17.2±2.8 and 13.4±1.6 individuals per 20 sweeps, respectively. Parasitism rates by D. coccinellae ranged from approximately 3 to 6% in two subsequent years, respectively. Parasitism was higher early in the growing season. Most parasitised ladybirds were females. There was no significant relationship between the temperature and relative humidity with pea aphid populations, although the aphid populations declined during the hot summer period. In contrast, the relationship between temperature and the H. variegata population was significant and positive in both years of the study. It has been shown that these lady beetle species have a major role in reducing the pea aphid populations in alfalfa fields. Due to the relatively low percentage of field parasitism by D. coccinellae, this parasite might not reduce the biocontrol efficiency of lady beetle species.

  20. Performance of fourteen improved pea lines (Pisum sativum L. in Challapata zone, Oruro

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    Maiza Benedicto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Challapata zone, cultivated pea varieties are low yielding and long cycle. The research objective was to determine the performance of fourteen pea lines developed by “Pairumani Fitoecogenetics Investigation Center” (CIFP in Challapata zone (Oruro. The 14 pea lines with local pea variety, were planted in row and column generalized experimental design with four replications in tree location randomly selection in Challapata zone (Oruro, between October 2011 and April 2012. The results indicate, that, in general, all the improved lines were superior in green pod yield to the local pea variety (3.69 t.ha-1, between 6.13 and 16.58 t.ha-1, (65.9 and 349.3% respectively. among the improved lines, Pea5_102-1, Pea5_102-6, Pea5_102-5, Pea5_102-2, Pea5_102-3 and Pea5_102-4, with high green pod yield (13.05 and 16.58 t.ha-1, large pod (8.49 to 9.25 cm, mayor number of grains for pod (5.27 to 7.20 grains and intermediate cycle (85 days to the floración, are the superior performance. The lines Pea5_102-14, Pea5_102-10 (Pairumani 3 and Pea5_102-13, because of their characteristics of high green pod yield, the longest pod, the mayor number of grains for pod, early maturity, preference and wide adaptability, and according to the farmer’s criteria, are the most recommend for their use in Challapata zone (Oruro.

  1. Alkali-Soluble Pectin Is the Primary Target of Aluminum Immobilization in Root Border Cells of Pea (Pisum sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Qu, Mei; Fang, Jing; Shen, Ren Fang; Feng, Ying Ming; Liu, Jia You; Bian, Jian Feng; Wu, Li Shu; He, Yong Ming; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that a discrepancy of Al binding in cell wall constituents determines Al mobility in root border cells (RBCs) of pea (Pisum sativum), which provides protection for RBCs and root apices under Al toxicity. Plants of pea (P. sativum L. ‘Zhongwan no. 6’) were subjected to Al treatments under mist culture. The concentration of Al in RBCs was much higher than that in the root apex. The Al content in RBCs surrounding one root apex (104 RBCs) was approximately 24.5% of the total Al in the root apex (0–2.5 mm), indicating a shielding role of RBCs for the root apex under Al toxicity. Cell wall analysis showed that Al accumulated predominantly in alkali-soluble pectin (pectin 2) of RBCs. This could be attributed to a significant increase of uronic acids under Al toxicity, higher capacity of Al adsorption in pectin 2 [5.3-fold higher than that of chelate-soluble pectin (pectin 1)], and lower ratio of Al desorption from pectin 2 (8.5%) compared with pectin 1 (68.5%). These results indicate that pectin 2 is the primary target of Al immobilization in RBCs of pea, which impairs Al access to the intracellular space of RBCs and mobility to root apices, and therefore protects root apices and RBCs from Al toxicity. PMID:27679639

  2. Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and pea seeds (Pisum sativum as protein sources in lactating ewes’ diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gatta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 18 Massese lactating ewes, divided into 3 homogeneous groups for parity and milk yield, were used to evaluate the replacement effects of soybean meal by Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and Pea (Pisum sativum seeds. During a 70 days trial (beginning after weaning: 30±1.5 days after lambing animals were fed three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Each diet was characterised by the presence of only one protein feed. The diets consisted of alfalfa hay (1.1 kg/head/d and a decreasing amount of mixed feed (from 1.1 to 0.7 kg/head/d to fit animals’ requirements. Milk yield, milk chemical composition, animals live weight and BCS, health state and hematochemical parameters were regularly monitored. No diets palatability problems were detected. No significant differences resulted for live weight, BCS, milk yield and milk chemical composition, except for milk protein: higher for faba bean (6.54% and soybean (6.39% respect pea (5.66% diets, P<0.05. No differences resulted for blood parameters too and no clinical signs of illness were observed. Therefore faba bean and pea seeds seem to be able to replace the soybean well.

  3. Alkali-Soluble Pectin Is the Primary Target of Aluminum Immobilization in Root Border Cells of Pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Qu, Mei; Fang, Jing; Shen, Ren Fang; Feng, Ying Ming; Liu, Jia You; Bian, Jian Feng; Wu, Li Shu; He, Yong Ming; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that a discrepancy of Al binding in cell wall constituents determines Al mobility in root border cells (RBCs) of pea (Pisum sativum), which provides protection for RBCs and root apices under Al toxicity. Plants of pea (P. sativum L. 'Zhongwan no. 6') were subjected to Al treatments under mist culture. The concentration of Al in RBCs was much higher than that in the root apex. The Al content in RBCs surrounding one root apex (10(4) RBCs) was approximately 24.5% of the total Al in the root apex (0-2.5 mm), indicating a shielding role of RBCs for the root apex under Al toxicity. Cell wall analysis showed that Al accumulated predominantly in alkali-soluble pectin (pectin 2) of RBCs. This could be attributed to a significant increase of uronic acids under Al toxicity, higher capacity of Al adsorption in pectin 2 [5.3-fold higher than that of chelate-soluble pectin (pectin 1)], and lower ratio of Al desorption from pectin 2 (8.5%) compared with pectin 1 (68.5%). These results indicate that pectin 2 is the primary target of Al immobilization in RBCs of pea, which impairs Al access to the intracellular space of RBCs and mobility to root apices, and therefore protects root apices and RBCs from Al toxicity.

  4. Bioinformatic prediction, deep sequencing of microRNAs and expression analysis during phenotypic plasticity in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leterme Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes can be operated through microRNA (miRNAs mediated gene silencing. MiRNAs are small (18-25 nucleotides non-coding RNAs that play crucial role in regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. In insects, miRNAs have been shown to be involved in multiple mechanisms such as embryonic development, tissue differentiation, metamorphosis or circadian rhythm. Insect miRNAs have been identified in different species belonging to five orders: Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Orthoptera. Results We developed high throughput Solexa sequencing and bioinformatic analyses of the genome of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum in order to identify the first miRNAs from a hemipteran insect. By combining these methods we identified 149 miRNAs including 55 conserved and 94 new miRNAs. Moreover, we investigated the regulation of these miRNAs in different alternative morphs of the pea aphid by analysing the expression of miRNAs across the switch of reproduction mode. Pea aphid microRNA sequences have been posted to miRBase: http://microrna.sanger.ac.uk/sequences/ Conclusions Our study has identified candidates as putative regulators involved in reproductive polyphenism in aphids and opens new avenues for further functional analyses.

  5. Genetic Variability and Association of Quality Characters and Pod Yield in Garden Peas (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Mohammad AL-AYSH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten garden pea landraces in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications over 2 winter seasons 2011 - 2012 and 2012 - 2013 were evaluated at the experimental field of Dara'a Center of Scientific Agricultural Research, GCSAR, Syria. The study showed high heritability (H with high genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV and genetic gain as percent of mean (GA % for vitamin C, chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B, total carotenoids and pod yield plant-1 indicating good scope for selection. The genotypic (rg and phenotypic associations (rph of pod yield plant-1 were significantly positive with protein content, fiber content and total carotenoids but significantly negative with soluble sugars. Path coefficient analysis confirmed that protein content and total soluble solids registered positive direct effects on pod yield plant-1 and negative indirect effects through each other. Protein content should be considered independently or in combination with total soluble solids and chlorophyll A while imposing selection for amelioration of quality and yield in garden peas.

  6. Feeding-based RNA interference of a gap gene is lethal to the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Mao

    Full Text Available The gap gene hunchback (hb is a key regulator in the anteroposterior patterning of insects. Loss-of-function of hb resulted in segmentation defects in the next generation. In this paper, hb expression level was investigated at different developmental stages of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Ap. Aphb mRNA was most early detected at the first instar stage and showed an incontinuous increase in the whole life cycle. Ingested RNA interference was performed at the second instar stage to knockdown the Aphb expression. Continuous feeding of Aphb double-stranded RNA mixed in artificial diet led to reduction of Aphb transcripts and rise of insect lethality. These results indicated that hunchback was a good RNAi target in the management of insect pests.

  7. Genetic Mapping of a Major Resistance Gene to Pea Aphid (Acyrthosipon pisum in the Model Legume Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars G. Kamphuis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to the Australian pea aphid (PA; Acyrthosiphon pisum biotype in cultivar Jester of the model legume Medicago truncatula is mediated by a single dominant gene and is phloem-mediated. The genetic map position for this resistance gene, APR (Acyrthosiphon pisum resistance, is provided and shows that APR maps 39 centiMorgans (cM distal of the A. kondoi resistance (AKR locus, which mediates resistance to a closely related species of the same genus bluegreen aphid (A. kondoi. The APR region on chromosome 3 is dense in classical nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeats (NLRs and overlaps with the region harbouring the RAP1 gene which confers resistance to a European PA biotype in the accession Jemalong A17. Further screening of a core collection of M. truncatula accessions identified seven lines with strong resistance to PA. Allelism experiments showed that the single dominant resistance to PA in M. truncatula accessions SA10481 and SA1516 are allelic to SA10733, the donor of the APR locus in cultivar Jester. While it remains unclear whether there are multiple PA resistance genes in an R-gene cluster or the resistance loci identified in the other M. truncatula accessions are allelic to APR, the introgression of APR into current M. truncatula cultivars will provide more durable resistance to PA.

  8. Revisiting the anatomy of the central nervous system of a hemimetabolous model insect species: the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, Martin; Minoli, Sebastian; Bonhomme, Joël; Homberg, Uwe; Schachtner, Joachim; Tagu, Denis; Anton, Sylvia

    2011-02-01

    Aphids show a marked phenotypic plasticity, producing asexual or sexual and winged or wingless morphs depending on environmental conditions and season. We describe here the general structure of the brain of various morphs of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This is the first detailed anatomical study of the central nervous system of an aphid by immunocytochemistry (synapsin, serotonin, and several neuropeptides), ethyl-gallate staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstructions. The study has revealed well-developed optic lobes composed of lamina, medulla, and lobula complex. Ocelli are only present in males and winged parthenogenetic females. The central complex is well-defined, with a central body divided into two parts, a protocerebral bridge, and affiliated lateral accessory lobes. The mushroom bodies are ill-defined, lacking calyces, and only being visualized by using an antiserum against the neuropeptide orcokinin. The antennal lobes contain poorly delineated glomeruli but can be clearly visualized by performing antennal backfills. On the basis of our detailed description of the brain of winged and wingless parthenogenetic A. pisum females, an anatomical map is now available that should improve our knowledge of the way that these structures are involved in the regulation of phenotypic plasticity.

  9. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Gene Family of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-peng; LIN Ke-jian; LIU Yang; GUI Fu-rong; WANG Gui-rong

    2013-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchRs) are cholinergic receptors that form ligand-gated ion channels by ifve subunits in insect and vertebrate nervous systems. The insect nAChR is the molecular target of a class of insecticides, neonicotinoids. Here, we identiifed and cloned 11 candidate nAChR subunit genes in Acyrthosiphon pisum using genome-based bioinformatics combined modern molecular techniques. Most A. pisum nAChRs including α1, α2, α3, α4, α6, α8, and β1 show highly sequence identities with the counterparts of other insects examined. Expression proifles analysis showed that all subunit genes were expressed in adult head. At least two subunits have alternative splicing that obviously increase A. pisum nicotinic receptor diversity. This study will be invaluable for exploring the molecular mechanisms of neonicotinoid-like insecticides in sucking pests, and for ultimately establishing the screening platform of novel insecticides.

  10. Optimization of agroinfiltration in Pisum sativum provides a new tool for studying the salivary protein functions in the pea aphid complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endrick Guy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are piercing-sucking insect pests and feed on phloem sap. During feeding, aphids inject a battery of salivary proteins into host plant. Some of these proteins function like effectors of microbial pathogens and influence the outcome of plant-aphid interactions. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum is the model aphid and encompasses multiple biotypes each specialized to one or a few legume species, providing an opportunity to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the compatibility between plants and aphid biotypes. We aim to identify the aphid factors that determine the compatibility with host plants, hence involved in the host plant specialization process, and hypothesize that salivary proteins are one of those factors. Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression is a powerful tool to perform functional analyses of effector (salivary proteins in plants. However, the tool was not established for the legume species that A. pisum feeds on. Thus, we decided to optimize the method for legume plants to facilitate the functional analyses of A. pisum salivary proteins. We screened a range of cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum and alfalfa (Medicago sativa. None of the M. sativa cultivars was suitable for agroinfiltration under the tested conditions; however, we established a protocol for efficient transient gene expression in two cultivars of P. sativum, ZP1109 and ZP1130, using A. tumefaciens AGL-1 strain and the pEAQ-HT-DEST1 vector. We confirmed that the genes are expressed from three to ten days post-infiltration and that aphid lines of the pea adapted biotype fed and reproduced on these two cultivars while lines of alfalfa and clover biotypes did not. Thus, the pea biotype recognizes these two cultivars as typical pea plants. By using a combination of ZP1109 and an A. pisum line, we defined an agroinfiltration procedure to examine the effect of in planta expression of selected salivary proteins on A. pisum fitness and demonstrated that

  11. Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends (MACE for transcript-based marker design in pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Zhernakov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at gene-based markers design, we generated and analyzed transcriptome sequencing datasets for six pea (Pisum sativum L. genetic lines that have not previously been massively genotyped. Five cDNA libraries obtained from nodules or nodulated roots of genetic lines Finale, Frisson, Sparkle, Sprint-2 and NGB1238 were sequenced using a versatile 3′-RNA-seq protocol called MACE (Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends. MACE delivers a single next-generation sequence from the 3′-end of each individual cDNA molecule that precisely quantifies the respective transcripts. Since the contig generated from the 3′-end of the cDNA by assembling all sequences encompasses the highly polymorphic 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR, MACE efficiently detects single nucleotide variants (SNVs. Mapping MACE reads to the reference nodule transcriptome assembly of the pea line SGE (Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly GDTM00000000.1 resulted in characterization of over 34,000 polymorphic sites in more than 9700 contigs. Several of these SNVs were located within recognition sequences of restriction endonucleases which allowed the design of co-dominant CAPS markers for the particular transcript. Cleaned reads of sequenced libraries are available from European Nucleotide Archive (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ under accessions PRJEB18101, PRJEB18102, PRJEB18103, PRJEB18104, PRJEB17691.

  12. A protein from the salivary glands of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, is essential in feeding on a host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Navdeep S; Louis, Joe; Pappan, Loretta K; Pappan, Kirk; Begum, Khurshida; Chen, Ming-Shun; Park, Yoonseong; Dittmer, Neal; Marshall, Jeremy; Reese, John C; Reeck, Gerald R

    2008-07-22

    In feeding, aphids inject saliva into plant tissues, gaining access to phloem sap and eliciting (and sometimes overcoming) plant responses. We are examining the involvement, in this aphid-plant interaction, of individual aphid proteins and enzymes, as identified in a salivary gland cDNA library. Here, we focus on a salivary protein we have arbitrarily designated Protein C002. We have shown, by using RNAi-based transcript knockdown, that this protein is important in the survival of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) on fava bean, a host plant. Here, we further characterize the protein, its transcript, and its gene, and we study the feeding process of knockdown aphids. The encoded protein fails to match any protein outside of the family Aphididae. By using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, the transcript and the protein were localized to a subset of secretory cells in principal salivary glands. Protein C002, whose sequence contains an N-terminal secretion signal, is injected into the host plant during aphid feeding. By using the electrical penetration graph method on c002-knockdown aphids, we find that the knockdown affects several aspects of foraging and feeding, with the result that the c002-knockdown aphids spend very little time in contact with phloem sap in sieve elements. Thus, we infer that Protein C002 is crucial in the feeding of the pea aphid on fava bean.

  13. Non-host disease resistance response in pea (Pisum sativum) pods: Biochemical function of DRR206 and phytoalexin pathway localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Herana Kamal; Dalisay, Doralyn S; Kim, Kye-Won; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Yang, Hong; Hartshorn, Christopher M; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2015-05-01

    Continually exposed to potential pathogens, vascular plants have evolved intricate defense mechanisms to recognize encroaching threats and defend themselves. They do so by inducing a set of defense responses that can help defeat and/or limit effects of invading pathogens, of which the non-host disease resistance response is the most common. In this regard, pea (Pisum sativum) pod tissue, when exposed to Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli spores, undergoes an inducible transcriptional activation of pathogenesis-related genes, and also produces (+)-pisatin, its major phytoalexin. One of the inducible pathogenesis-related genes is Disease Resistance Response-206 (DRR206), whose role in vivo was unknown. DRR206 is, however, related to the dirigent protein (DP) family. In this study, its biochemical function was investigated in planta, with the metabolite associated with its gene induction being pinoresinol monoglucoside. Interestingly, both pinoresinol monoglucoside and (+)-pisatin were co-localized in pea pod endocarp epidermal cells, as demonstrated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging. In addition, endocarp epidermal cells are also the site for both chalcone synthase and DRR206 gene expression. Taken together, these data indicate that both (+)-pisatin and pinoresinol monoglucoside function in the overall phytoalexin responses.

  14. Discovery of a Novel er1 Allele Conferring Powdery Mildew Resistance in Chinese Pea (Pisum sativum L. Landraces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suli Sun

    Full Text Available Pea powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease worldwide. Deployment of resistant varieties is the main way to control this disease. This study aimed to screen Chinese pea (Pisum sativum L. landraces resistant to E. pisi, and to characterize the resistance gene(s at the er1 locus in the resistant landraces, and to develop functional marker(s specific to the novel er1 allele. The 322 landraces showed different resistance levels. Among them, 12 (3.73%, 4 (1.24% and 17 (5.28% landraces showed immunity, high resistance and resistance to E. pisi, respectively. The other landraces appeared susceptible or highly susceptible to E. pisi. Most of the immune and highly resistant landraces were collected from Yunnan province. To characterize the resistance gene at the er1 locus, cDNA sequences of PsMLO1 gene were determined in 12 immune and four highly resistant accessions. The cDNAs of PsMLO1 from the immune landrace G0005576 produced three distinct transcripts, characterized by a 129-bp deletion, and 155-bp and 220-bp insertions, which were consistent with those of er1-2 allele. The PsMLO1 cDNAs in the other 15 resistant landraces produced identical transcripts, which had a new point mutation (T→C at position 1121 of PsMLO1, indicating a novel er1 allele, designated as er1-6. This mutation caused a leucine to proline change in the amino acid sequence. Subsequently, the resistance allele er1-6 in landrace G0001778 was confirmed by resistance inheritance analysis and genetic mapping on the region of the er1 locus using populations derived from G0001778 × Bawan 6. Finally, a functional marker specific to er1-6, SNP1121, was developed using the high-resolution melting technique, which could be used in pea breeding via marker-assisted selection. The results described here provide valuable genetic information for Chinese pea landraces and a powerful tool for pea breeders.

  15. Discovery of a Novel er1 Allele Conferring Powdery Mildew Resistance in Chinese Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Suli; Fu, Haining; Wang, Zhongyi; Duan, Canxing; Zong, Xuxiao; Zhu, Zhendong

    2016-01-01

    Pea powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease worldwide. Deployment of resistant varieties is the main way to control this disease. This study aimed to screen Chinese pea (Pisum sativum L.) landraces resistant to E. pisi, and to characterize the resistance gene(s) at the er1 locus in the resistant landraces, and to develop functional marker(s) specific to the novel er1 allele. The 322 landraces showed different resistance levels. Among them, 12 (3.73%), 4 (1.24%) and 17 (5.28%) landraces showed immunity, high resistance and resistance to E. pisi, respectively. The other landraces appeared susceptible or highly susceptible to E. pisi. Most of the immune and highly resistant landraces were collected from Yunnan province. To characterize the resistance gene at the er1 locus, cDNA sequences of PsMLO1 gene were determined in 12 immune and four highly resistant accessions. The cDNAs of PsMLO1 from the immune landrace G0005576 produced three distinct transcripts, characterized by a 129-bp deletion, and 155-bp and 220-bp insertions, which were consistent with those of er1-2 allele. The PsMLO1 cDNAs in the other 15 resistant landraces produced identical transcripts, which had a new point mutation (T→C) at position 1121 of PsMLO1, indicating a novel er1 allele, designated as er1-6. This mutation caused a leucine to proline change in the amino acid sequence. Subsequently, the resistance allele er1-6 in landrace G0001778 was confirmed by resistance inheritance analysis and genetic mapping on the region of the er1 locus using populations derived from G0001778 × Bawan 6. Finally, a functional marker specific to er1-6, SNP1121, was developed using the high-resolution melting technique, which could be used in pea breeding via marker-assisted selection. The results described here provide valuable genetic information for Chinese pea landraces and a powerful tool for pea breeders.

  16. Analysis of the accumulation of Pea enation mosaic virus genomes in seed tissues and lack of evidence for seed transmission in pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail; Larsen, Richard; Murray, Sarah; McPhee, Kevin; Coyne, Clarice

    2009-11-01

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) is an important virus disease of pea. International movement of commercial pea cultivars and germplasm can be problematic due to uncertainty about seed transmission of the viruses responsible for the disease. Whether PEMV is seedborne was assessed by collecting developing seed from infected plants and determining the relative concentrations of the PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 viral genomes using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The relative accumulation of PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 was approximately 1,240 and 13,000 times higher, respectively, in leaf than in embryo tissues. Accumulation of PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 RNA was also significantly higher in pod walls and seed coats than in cotyledons or embryo axes. No evidence was obtained for seed transmission of PEMV in pea. Although PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 genomic RNAs were found in developing seed, no PEMV symptoms were observed in the field on more than 50,000 plants from seed derived from PEMV-infected source plants. These data demonstrate that PEMV is seedborne in pea but do not support a previous report that PEMV is seed transmitted. Absence of seed transmission may result from the low abundance of PEMV viral genomes in embryo tissue.

  17. Regeneration of Pea (’Pisum sativum L’.) Plants from Shoot Apical Meristems,

    Science.gov (United States)

    A procedure has been developed to obtain complete plants from meristems of three cultivars of Pisum sativum L. Benzyladenine (BA) alone or in...combination with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at molar concentrations of 5 x .0000005 and .000001 respectively, induced shoot differentiation in meristems ...complete plant formation. Root formation, on the shoots produced by culturing meristems was induced by reculturing the shoots, 2 cm long, on half strength B5 medium supplemented with NAA at a concentration of .000001 M.

  18. Studies susceptibility of peas and field peas cultivars to Ascochyta pinodes (Jones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to find plants resistant to Ascochyta pinodes causing leaf and pod spot-pot of peas and field peas. Fourty five cultivars of peas and field peas and 6 breeding materials were tested in the field in the period 1975-1979 on artificially inoculated field plots. Cultivars: Bartel, Birte, Bodil, Borek, Jubilat, Karo, Meteor, Rondo and Żółty Pomorski were to found be less susceptible. In laboratory and greenhouse conditions pea and field pea cultivars were examined for susceptibility. to pathotypes 3 and 5 of Ascochyta pinodes. The results obtained proved that cultivars: Bartel, Birte, Bodil, Borek, Jubilat, Karo, Meteor, Rondo and Żółty Pomorski to be less susceptible to two pathotypes of Ascochyta pinodes.

  19. Differential responses to pea bacterial blight in stems, leaves and pods under glasshouse and field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elvira-Recuenco, M.; Bevan, J.R.; Taylor, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to pea bacterial blight (Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi) in different plant parts was assessed in 19 Pisum sativum cultivars and landraces, carrying race-specific resistance genes (R-genes) and two Pisum abyssinicum accessions carrying race-nonspecific resistance. Stems, leaves and pods we

  20. Techno-functional properties of pea (Pisum sativum protein isolates: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barać Miroljub B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to high nutritive quality, good techno-functional properties and low cost, legume protein products are becoming the most appropriate alternative to protein products of animal origin. In food industries, these products are usually used as techno-functional additives which provide specific characteristics of final food products. Legume proteins are commonly used as flour, concentrates, and isolates. The greatest application on industrial scale has soy proteins, and to a lesser extent, in the past 20 years, pea protein isolates. The modest use of pea protein is partly a result of insufficient information relating to their techno-functional properties. This paper is an overview of techno-functional properties of pea proteins and their isolates. Also, the paper deals with the possible use of limited enzymatic hydrolysis as a method for the improvement of their techno-functional properties. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31069

  1. Diversity of segetal weeds in pea (Pisum sativum L. depending on crops chosen for a crop rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, lasting from 1999 to 2006, was conducted at the Research Station in Tomaszkowo, which belongs to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The experiment was set up on brown rusty soil classified as good rye complex 5 in the Polish soil valuation system. The analysis comprised weeds in fields sown with pea cultivated in two four-field crop rotation systems with a different first crop: A. potato – spring barley – pea – spring barley; B. mixture of spring barley with pea – spring barley – pea – spring barley. Every year, at the 2–3 true leaf stage of pea, the species composition and density of individual weed species were determined; in addition, before harvesting the main crop, the dry matter of weeds was weighed. The results were used to analyze the constancy of weed taxa, species diversity, and the evenness and dominance indices, to determine the relationships between all biological indicators analyzed and weather conditions, and to calculate the indices of similarity, in terms of species composition, density and biomass of weeds, between the crop rotations compared. The species richness, density and biomass of weeds in fields with field pea were not differentiated by the choice of the initial crop in a given rotation system. In the spring, the total number of identified taxa was 28 and it increased to 36 before the harvest of pea plants. Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli were the most numerous. Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus and Viola arvensis were constant in all treatments, regardless of what the first crop in rotation was or when the observations were made. The species diversity and the evenness and species dominance indices varied significantly between years and dates of observations. Species diversity calculated on the basis of the density of weed species was higher in the rotation with a mixture of cereals and legumes, while that calculated on

  2. The role of phosphorus in nitrogen fixation by young pea plants (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Iver

    1985-01-01

    The influence of P on N2 fixation and dry matter production of young pea (P. sativum L. cv. Bodil) plants grown in a soil-sand mixture was investigated in growth cabinet experiments. Nodule dry weight, specific C2H2 reduction and P concentration in shoots responded to P addition before any growth...

  3. Assessment of wax coatings in postharvest preservation of the pea (Pisum sativum L. var. Santa Isabel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gabriel Padilla T.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The 'Santa Isabel' pea is the most sown regional variety in Colombia. In order to evaluate the postharvest behavior of 'Santa Isabel', an experiment was conducted that subjected fresh podded peas to different edible wax-coating treatments (Taowax verduras, Ceratec, Ceratec wwd (without washing or disinfection, castor oil, and mineral oil and compared them to treatments with the non-edible wax Cerabrix grees or without waxing (control. The peas were stored in a growth chamber for 2 weeks at a temperature of 7±2°C and a relative humidity of 70±8%. The coating of the pods significantly decreased the loss of fresh weight in the six treatments with coatings, as compared to the control (without coatings. The wax coatings that lost less water included Cerabrix grees (7.78% and Taowax verduras (10.65%, as compared to the control (37.79%. The pH of the grains generally decreased during the 14 days of storage; however, after 10 days, the peas coated with Ceratec and Ceratec wwd again increased the pH of the grain. Furthermore, all of the coatings demonstrated a low incidence of pathogens in the pods, with the better results occurring in the non-edible Cerabrix grees and the edible Taowax verduras; the latter wax also had a good aroma, appearance, and color.

  4. High-Throughput Development of SSR Markers from Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Based on Next Generation Sequencing of a Purified Chinese Commercial Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Fang, Li; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Jinguo; Bao, Shiying; Hao, Junjie; Li, Ling; He, Yuhua; Jiang, Junye; Wang, Fang; Tian, Shufang; Zong, Xuxiao

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food legume globally, and is the plant species that J.G. Mendel used to lay the foundation of modern genetics. However, genomics resources of pea are limited comparing to other crop species. Application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in pea breeding has lagged behind many other crops. Development of a large number of novel and reliable SSR (simple sequence repeat) or microsatellite markers will help both basic and applied genomics research of this crop. The Illumina HiSeq 2500 System was used to uncover 8,899 putative SSR containing sequences, and 3,275 non-redundant primers were designed to amplify these SSRs. Among the 1,644 SSRs that were randomly selected for primer validation, 841 yielded reliable amplifications of detectable polymorphisms among 24 genotypes of cultivated pea (Pisum sativum L.) and wild relatives (P. fulvum Sm.) originated from diverse geographical locations. The dataset indicated that the allele number per locus ranged from 2 to 10, and that the polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.08 to 0.82 with an average of 0.38. These 1,644 novel SSR markers were also tested for polymorphism between genotypes G0003973 and G0005527. Finally, 33 polymorphic SSR markers were anchored on the genetic linkage map of G0003973 × G0005527 F2 population.

  5. Insertional mutation at the Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase gene reduces virulence of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on pea (Pisum sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes white mold disease on pea and on many other economically important pulse, vegetable and field crops, demonstrating a non-host-specific pathogenic mechanism. Despite extensive studies on this pathogen, its pathogenic mechanisms are still incompletely understood. In ord...

  6. Response to water deficit and high temperature of transgenic peas (Pisum sativum L.) containing a seed-specific alpha-amylase inhibitor and the subsequent effects on pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.) survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Majer, Maria José de; Turner, Neil C; Hardie, Darryl C; Morton, Roger L; Lamont, Byron; Higgins, Thomas J V

    2004-02-01

    The effects of water deficit and high temperature on the production of alpha-amylase inhibitor 1 (alpha-AI-1) were studied in transgenic peas (Pisum sativum L.) that were developed to control the seed-feeding pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L., Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Transgenic and non-transgenic plants were subjected to water-deficit and high-temperature treatments under controlled conditions in the glasshouse and growth cabinet, beginning 1 week after the first pods were formed. In the water-deficit treatments, the peas were either adequately watered (control) or water was withheld after first pod formation. The high-temperature experiments were performed in two growth cabinets, one maintained at 27/22 degrees C (control) and one at 32/27 degrees C day/night temperatures, with the vapour pressure deficit maintained at 1.3 kPa. The plants exposure to high temperatures and water deficit produced 27% and 79% fewer seeds, respectively, than the controls. In the transgenic peas the level of alpha-AI-1 as a percentage of total protein was not influenced by water stress, but was reduced on average by 36.3% (the range in two experiments was 11-50%) in the high-temperature treatment. Transgenic and non-transgenic pods of plants grown at 27/22 degrees C and 32/27 degrees C were inoculated with pea weevil eggs to evaluate whether the reduction in level of alpha-AI-1 in the transgenic pea seeds affected pea weevil development and survival. At the higher temperatures, 39% of adult pea weevil emerged, compared to 1.2% in the transgenic peas grown at the lower temperatures, indicating that high temperature reduced the protective capacity of the transgenic peas.

  7. Expression of protein complexes and individual proteins upon transition of etioplasts to chloroplasts in pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanervo, Eira; Singh, Munna; Suorsa, Marjaana; Paakkarinen, Virpi; Aro, Eveliina; Battchikova, Natalia; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2008-03-01

    The protein complexes of pea (Pisum sativum L.) etioplasts, etio-chloroplasts and chloroplasts were examined using 2D Blue Native/SDS-PAGE. The most prominent protein complexes in etioplasts were the ATPase and the Clp and FtsH protease complexes which probably have a crucial role in the biogenesis of etioplasts and chloroplasts. Also the cytochrome b(6)f (Cyt b(6)f) complex was assembled in the etioplast membrane, as well as Rubisco, at least partially, in the stroma. These complexes are composed of proteins encoded by both the plastid and nuclear genomes, indicating that a functional cross-talk exists between pea etioplasts and the nucleus. In contrast, the proteins and protein complexes that bind chlorophyll, with the PetD subunit and the entire Cyt b(6)f complex as an exception, did not accumulate in etioplasts. Nevertheless, some PSII core components such as PsbE and the luminal oxygen-evolvong complex (OEC) proteins PsbO and PsbP accumulated efficiently in etioplasts. After 6 h de-etiolation, a complete PSII core complex appeared with 40% of the maximal photochemical efficiency, but a fully functional PSII was recorded only after 24 h illumination. Similarly, the core complex of PSI was assembled after 6 h illumination, whereas the PSI-light-harvesting complex I was stably assembled only in chloroplasts illuminated for 24 h. Moreover, a battery of proteins responsible for defense against oxidative stress accumulated particularly in etioplasts, including the stromal and thylakoidal forms of ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and PsbS.

  8. Occurrence of Ditylenchus weischeri and Not D. dipsaci in Field Pea Harvest Samples and Cirsium arvense in the Canadian Prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenuta, Mario; Madani, Mehrdad; Briar, Shabeg; Molina, Oscar; Gulden, Robert; Subbotin, Sergei A

    2014-12-01

    The stem nematode, a parasite of the herbaceous perennial weed, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. and identified as Ditylenchus dipsaci (Kühn) Filipjev, was reported in the Canadian prairies in 1979. Recently, D. weischeri Chizhov parasitizing Cirsium arvense was described in Russia, and it has been shown that this species is not an agricultural pest. In this study, we examined Ditylenchus species found in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) grain harvest samples in 2009 and 2010 and from C. arvense shoots in pea fields in the Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Manitoba provinces. Samples from 538 fields (mainly yellow pea) were provided by 151 growers throughout the main pea-growing area of the Canadian prairies. Of the samples collected, 2% were positive for Ditylenchus. The population density of the nematode ranged between 4 and 1,500 nematodes kg(-1) pea harvest sample and related to presence of C. arvense seeds. Positive samples occurred in 2009 but not in 2010 and were from throughout the pea-growing area of the Canadian prairies and not related to cropping history. C. arvense collected from yellow pea fields in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, but not Alberta, were infested with Ditylenchus. Morphological and molecular (ITS-PCR-RFLP) traits indicated that this species belongs to D. weischeri. The results indicated the stem nematode found in yellow pea grain is D. weischeri which resided with C. arvense seeds and debris to pea samples. Unlike D. dipsaci, D. weischeri is not a nematode pest of economic importance; therefore, its presence in the pea harvest samples was not a concern.

  9. Molecular cloning of isoflavone reductase from pea (Pisum sativum L.): evidence for a 3R-isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, N L; Sun, Y; Dixon, R A; VanEtten, H D; Hrazdina, G

    1994-08-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) reduces achiral isoflavones to chiral isoflavanones during the biosynthesis of chiral pterocarpan phytoalexins. A cDNA clone for IFR from pea (Pisum sativum) was isolated using the polymerase chain reaction and expressed in Escherichia coli. Analysis of circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the reduction product sophorol obtained using the recombinant enzyme indicated that the isoflavanone possessed the 3R stereochemistry, in contrast to previous reports indicating a 3S-isoflavanone as the product of the pea IFR. Analysis of CD spectra of sophorol produced using enzyme extracts of CuCl2-treated pea seedlings confirmed the 3R stereochemistry. Thus, the stereochemistry of the isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis in pea is the same as that in (-)-medicarpin biosynthesis in alfalfa, although the final pterocarpans have the opposite stereochemistry. At the amino acid level the pea IFR cDNA was 91.8 and 85.2% identical to the IFRs from alfalfa and chickpea, respectively. IFR appears to be encoded by a single gene in pea. Its transcripts are highly induced in CuCl2-treated seedlings, consistent with the appearance of IFR enzyme activity and pisatin accumulation.

  10. Molecular basis of processing-induced changes in protein structure in relation to intestinal digestion in yellow and green type pea (Pisum sativum L.): A molecular spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gloria Qingyu; Warkentin, Tom; Niu, Zhiyuan; Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the protein inherent molecular structural features of green cotyledon (CDC Striker) and yellow cotyledon (CDC Meadow) pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds using molecular spectroscopic technique (FT/IR-ATR); (2) measure the denaturation of protein molecular makeup in the two types of pea during dry roasting (120°C for 60 min), autoclaving (120°C for 60 min) or microwaving (for 5 min); and (3) correlate the heat-induced changes in protein molecular makeup to the corresponding changes in protein digestibility determined using modified three-step in vitro procedure. Compared with yellow-type, the green-type peas had higher (Ppeas had lower (Ppea-types. However, across the pea types the correlation was not significant. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses on the entire spectral data from the amide region (ca. 1727-1480 cm(-1)) were able to visualize and discriminate the structural difference between pea varieties and processing treatments. This study shows that the molecular spectroscopy can be used as a rapid tool to screen the protein value of raw and heat-treated peas.

  11. Mapping of the multifoliate pinna (mfp) leaf-blade morphology mutation in grain pea Pisum sativum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raghvendra Kumar Mishra; Anil Kumar; Swati Chaudhary; Sushil Kumar

    2009-08-01

    The multifoliate pinna (mfp) mutation alters the leaf-blade architecture of pea, such that simple tendril pinnae of distal domain are replaced by compound pinna blades of tendrilled leaflets in mfp homozygotes. The MFP locus was mapped with reference to DNA markers using F2 and F2:5 RIL as mapping populations. Among 205 RAPD, 27 ISSR and 35 SSR markers that demonstrated polymorphism between the parents of mapping populations, three RAPD markers were found linked to the MFP locus by bulk segregant analyses on mfp/mfp and MFP/MFP bulks assembled from the F2:5 population. The segregational analysis of mfp and 267 DNA markers on 96 F2 plants allowed placement of 26 DNA markers with reference to MFP on a linkage group. The existence of common markers on reference genetic maps and MFP linkage group developed here showed that MFP is located on linkage group IV of the consensus genetic map of pea.

  12. Pea (Pisum sativum in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant protein in place of soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked pea appears interesting in dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked peas as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a “Control” concentrate (8.3% soybean meal was compared to a “Pea” concentrate (5% soybean meal and 15% flaked peas. Forages fed to animals included mixed grass hay and alfalfa hay in experiment 1, and hay (mixed grass and alfalfa plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Milk yield and quality, and the characteristics of grab faecal samples, examined to get some empirical indicators of digestibility, were similar between feeding groups. Compositional changes (crude protein and solubility in forages used as common base in the diets of both experiments had a slight effect on milk and plasma urea contents. There was a tendency for a higher milk urea content in the “Pea” group (32.3 vs 30.1mg/dl in experiment 1, P<0.1; 30.2 vs 28.0mg/dl in experiment 2, P<0.1. The plasma urea content was different only in experiment 2 (4.9 vs 5.6mmol/l, respectively for “Control” and “Pea” groups; P<0.05. The inclusion of the heatprocessed pea within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of soybean meal.

  13. Life-history trade-offs mediate 'personality' variation in two colour morphs of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuett, Wiebke; Dall, Sasha R X; Kloesener, Michaela H; Baeumer, Jana; Beinlich, Felix; Eggers, Till

    2015-01-01

    Life-history trade-offs are considered a major driving force in the emergence of consistent behavioural differences (personality variation); but empirical tests are scarce. We investigated links between a personality trait (escape response), life-history and state variables (growth rate, size and age at first reproduction, age-dependent reproductive rates, lifetime reproductive success, life span) in red and green colour morphs of clonal pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Escape response (dropping/non-dropping off a plant upon a predatory attack) was measured repeatedly to classify individuals as consistent droppers, consistent nondroppers or inconsistents. Red morphs experienced stronger trade-offs between early reproduction and life span than green morphs; and red consistent (non)droppers had highest lifetime reproductive success. Red droppers followed a risk-averse life-history strategy (high late reproduction), red nondroppers a risk-prone strategy (high early reproduction), while reproductive rates were equivalent for all green behavioural types and red inconsistents. This suggests that red morphs suffer the highest costs of dropping (they are most conspicuous to predators), which 'equivalates' fitness payoffs to both risk-takers (red non-droppers) and risk-averse red droppers. The strong trade-off also means that committing to a particular lifestyle (being consistent) maximises fitness. Our study suggests that life-history trade-offs likely mediate personality variation but effects might depend on interactions with other organismal characteristics (here: colour morph).

  14. Genetic diversity of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from pea (Pisum sativum) in subtropical regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Diversity of 42 isolates from effective nodules of Pisum sativum in different geographical regions of China were studied using 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns, 16S rRNA sequencing, 16S–23S rRNA inter-genic spacer (IGS) region RFLP patterns and G-C rich random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The isolates were distributed in two groups on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains from 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns group I were very closely related (identities higher than 99.5%) to Rhizobium leguminosarum USDA 2370. Group II consisting of WzP3 and WzP15 was closely related to Rhizobium etli CFN42. The analysis of the 16S–23S IGS RFLP pat-terns divided the isolates into 18 genotypes and four groups. Group I was clustered with R. legumino-sarum USDA2370. Group II consisted of YcP2, YcP3 and CqP7. The strains of group III were distributed abroad. Group IV consisted of WzP3, WzP15 and R. etli CFN42. RAPD divided the isolates into nine clusters in which group IV only consisted of YcP2 and the strains of group V and IX were from Wenzhou and Xiantao, respectively. This assay demonstrated the geographical effect on genetic diversity of pea rhizobia.

  15. Genetic diversity of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from pea (Pisum sativum) in subtropical regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG ChengYun; YANG JiangKe; LI YouGuo; ZHOU JunOhu

    2008-01-01

    Diversity of 42 isolates from effective nodules of Pisum sativum in different geographical regions of China were studied using 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns, 16S rRNA sequencing, 16S-23S rRNA inter-genic spacer (IGS) region RFLP patterns and G-C rich random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The isolates were distributed in two groups on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains from 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns group Ⅰ were very closely related (identities higher than 99.5%) to Rhizobium leguminosarum USDA 2370. Group Ⅱ consisting of WzP3 and WzP15 was closely related to Rhizobium etli CFN42. The analysis of the 16S-23S IGS RFLP pat-terns divided the isolates into 18 genotypes and four groups. Group Ⅰ was clustered with R. legumino-sarum USDA2370. Group Ⅱ consisted of YcP2, YcP3 and CqP7. The strains of group Ⅲ were distributed abroad. Group Ⅳ consisted of WzP3, WzP15 and R. etli CFN42. RAPD divided the isolates into nine clusters in which group Ⅳ only consisted of YcP2 and the strains of group Ⅴ and Ⅸ were from Wenzhou and Xiantao, respectively. This assay demonstrated the geographical effect on genetic diversity of pea rhizobia.

  16. Modification of Cry4Aa toward Improved Toxin Processing in the Gut of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Rausch

    Full Text Available Aphids are sap-sucking insects (order: Hemiptera that cause extensive damage to a wide range of agricultural crops. Our goal was to optimize a naturally occurring insecticidal crystalline (Cry toxins produced by the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for use against the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. On the basis that activation of the Cry4Aa toxin is a rate-limiting factor contributing to the relatively low aphicidal activity of this toxin, we introduced cathepsin L and cathepsin B cleavage sites into Cry4Aa for rapid activation in the aphid gut environment. Incubation of modified Cry4Aa and aphid proteases in vitro demonstrated enhanced processing of the toxin into the active form for some of the modified constructs relative to non-modified Cry4Aa. Aphids fed artificial diet with toxin at a final concentration of 125 μg/ml showed enhanced mortality after two days for one of the four modified constructs. Although only modest toxin improvement was achieved by use of this strategy, such specific toxin modifications designed to overcome factors that limit aphid toxicity could be applied toward managing aphid populations via transgenic plant resistance.

  17. Identification of RAPD markers and their use for molecular mapping in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheghamirza, Kianoosh; Koveza, Oksana; Konovalov, Fedor; Gostimsky, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    The RAPD method (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) was used for identifying and mapping new molecular markers in pea. RAPD analysis of various cultivars and lines of pea was carried out using 10-mer random primers. The presence of multiple polymorphism between cultivars and lines was revealed; at least one fragment for any given primer was present in the DNA of one form of pea and absent in the DNA of another line or cultivar. To detect molecular markers linked to the genes of chi-15, xa-18 and also to the 12 morphological markers of the L-1238 line, the F2 populations (Chi-15 ? L-1238), (Vio ? L-1238), (Xa-18 ? L-1238), (L-111 ? Chi-15) and (L-84 ? Xa-18) were studied via bulked segregant analysis. DNA molecular analysis of F1 hybrids revealed the presence of parental polymorphic fragments in all of the populations. The study of the F2 plants showed that the obtained fragments are inherited as Mendelian factors. 13 RAPD-markers linked to genes of A/a (flower color), I/i (seed color), Gp/gp (pod color), R/r (seed form), S/s (seeds linkage), and also to genes of Chi-15/chi-15 (leaf color) and Xa-18/xa-18 (leaf color) were discovered. The study of individual plant DNA from the F2 populations allowed us to determine the genetic distances between genes and the RAPD markers linked to them.

  18. Organic cultivation of field pea by use of products with different action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Georgieva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities for increasing the productivity and control of the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L. in field pea (Pisum sativum L. organic cultivation by the use of following bioproducts NeemAzal T/S and Pyrethrum FS-EC (insecticides, applied individually and in combination with Polyversum (growth regulator and fungicide and Biofa (foliar fertilizer, as well as to evaluate the stability of the used mixtures were studied. Synthetic products Nurelle D and Flordimex 420 (alone and in combination were used as a standard. The products were applied once (at budding stage or twice (at budding and flowering stages. The results showed that forage pea productivity was influenced positively by the application of all organic products. The plants treated with the organic combinations formed an average yield of 3190.2 kg/ha, which was only 4.7% lower than that for the synthetic combination of Flordimex+Nurelle D. The highest yield was produced under application of two mixtures: Biofa+Pyrethrum and Polyversum+Pyrethrum at budding and flowering stages (22.0 and 21.8% above untreated control, respectively. These combinations were also distinguished for their most pronounced protective effect against the attack of the pea weevil and decrease in its numbers of 37.0 and 38.5%, respectively. Pyrethrum was distinguished for a lower degree of damaged seeds and a toxic effect against the pea weevil in comparison with NeemAzal. Technologically the most valuable variant, which united high stability, productivity and protection against pea weevil, was the combination of Biofa+Pyrethrum applied twice. Further investigations are indispensible to expand the range of products (bioinsectides, biofertilizers and growth regulators, which provides good insect control and high productivity in pea organic farming conditions.

  19. Water deficit down-regulates miR398 and miR408 in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Živko; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Mikić, Aleksandar; Radović, Svetlana; Maksimović, Vesna

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), recently recognized as important regulator of gene expression at posttranscriptional level, have been found to be involved in plant stress responses. The observation that some miRNAs are up- or down regulated by stress implies that they could play vital roles in plant resistance to abiotic and biotic stress. We investigated the effect of water stress treatment during 10 days on expression of conserved miRNAs-miR398a/b and miR408 in pea plants. This time frame reflects the changes as close as possible to the changes where water stress causes visible effects under field condition. It was observed that dehydration strongly down regulates the expression of both miR398a/b and miR408 in pea roots and shoots. The down-regulation of miR398a/b and the up-regulation of potential target genes - copper superoxide dismutase, CSD1, highlight the involvement of this miRNA in pea stress response. To the contrary, the mRNA level of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5 (COX5b) did not change in roots and shoots of water-stressed plants, compared to control (well) hydrated plants. This suggests that COX5b is not the target of miR398, or that its expression is regulated by some other mechanism. P1B-ATPase expression increased during water deficit only in the shoots of pea; in the roots there were no changes in expression. Our results help to understand the possible role of investigated miRNAs and their contribution to pea capacity to cope with water deficit.

  20. Antifungal genes expressed in transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) do not affect root colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Jagroop Gill; Jacobsen, Hans-Jörg; Cahill, James F; Hall, Linda M

    2017-06-12

    Genetically modified crops have raised concerns about unintended consequences on non-target organisms including beneficial soil associates. Pea transformed with four antifungal genes 1-3 β glucanase, endochitinase, polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins, and stilbene synthase is currently under field-testing for efficacy against fungal diseases in Canada. Transgenes had lower expression in the roots than leaves in greenhouse experiment. To determine the impact of disease-tolerant pea or gene products on colonization by non-target arbuscular mycorrhizae and nodulation by rhizobium, a field trial was established. Transgene insertion, as single gene or stacked genes, did not alter root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF) or root nodulation by rhizobium inoculation in the field. We found no effect of transgenes on the plant growth and performance although, having a dual inoculant with both AMF and rhizobium yielded higher fresh weight shoot-to-root ratio in all the lines tested. This initial risk assessment of transgenic peas expressing antifungal genes showed no deleterious effect on non-target organisms.

  1. Localization of acid phosphatase activity in the apoplast of root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum

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    Marzena Sujkowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the activity of acid phosphatase (AcPase in the apoplast of pea root nodule were investigated. The activity was determined using lead and cerium methods. The results indicated a following sequence of AcPase activity appearance during the development of the infection thread: 1 low AcPase activity appears in the outer part of cells of symbiotic bacteria; 2 bacteria show increased AcPase activity, and the enzyme activity appears in the thread walls; 3 activity exhibits also matrix of the infection thread; 4 bacteria just before their release from the infection threads show high AcPase activity; 5 AcPase activity ceases after bacteria transformation into bacteroids. The increase in bacterial AcPase activity may reflect a higher demand for inorganic phosphorus necessary for propagation of the bacteria within the infection threads and/or involved in bacteria release from the infection threads.

  2. The structure of the endodermis during the development of pea (Pisum sativum L. roots

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    Joanna Kopcińska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is shown on the basis of cytological studies that during the development of the pea root endodermis, the following structures were formed (in order of appearance: proendodermis, Casparian strips, suberin lamellae and secondary cell walls. The proendodermis cells had, in addition to the commonly occurring cell components, small vacuoles filled with phenols. The Casparian strips developed in the radial walls and accounted for no more than 1/3 of their length. The suberin layer, found on all of the endodermis walls, was deposited last over the Casparian strips. The secondary cell wall was formed only in the cells located over the phloem bundles. Its thickness was uniform over the entire circumference of the cell.

  3. Investigation of Stomata Densities in Pea (Pisum sativum L. Lines/Cultivars

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    Reyhan Karayel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine, if stomata density can be used as a criterion in cultivar differentiation or not. In this study, density of stomatas in stipula and abaxial and adaxial surface of leaflets was determined in the flowering and pod set period of 23 pea cultivars and lines that were sowed as wintertime for 2 years. The effect of years on the stomata density in other parts sections except for the stomata numbers in stipula and leaflet adaxial surface were determined on the level of statistical significance. In pod setting period, stomata numbers were higher compared to the flowering period. Stomata number in leaf section of the 5 cultivars used in the trial is in general higher than those of the lines. The determination of year x genotype interaction in the study shows that there is not enough evidence for using this characteristic for cultivar differentiation.

  4. Fatty acid composition of pea (Pisum sativum L., var. Citrina during seed growth

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    Rincón, F.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil content and fatty acid composition of four sizes of raw and canned pea were determined. In the seed growth period, considered (from 4.7 mm to 10.2 mm of diameter, crude oil content was not modified and its level showed a mean value of 2.52% on a dry weight basis. Generally, in raw pea the following fatty acid composition was obtained C18:2 > C18:1 > C16:0 > C18:3 > C18:0; however, during seed growth C18:2 increased and C18:3 decreased. These variations are discussed in relation to environmental temperature and cotyledon/testa ratio modifications during seed growth. A low oil content, which remains constant during seed growth, and a lower linolenic acid content in fine (FN size showed that when Citrina variety is used for processing, peas should be harvested when a FN size are predominant in crop. During canning, crude oil content is not modified in any size, but some differences in fatty acid composition occur between raw and canned peas because, in general, the degree of saturation decreases during canning.Se ha determinado el contenido lipídico y la composición en ácidos grasos de cuatro tamaños de guisantes crudos y enlatados. Durante el período de crecimiento considerado (4.7-10.2 mm de diámetro, el contenido lipídico no es modificado, y el contenido medio fue de 2.52% expresado en peso seco. En general, el predominio de los ácidos grasos en el guisante crudo se ajusta a la fórmula C18:2 > C18:1 > C16:C > C18:3 > C18:0; sin embargo, durante el crecimiento de la semilla incrementa C18:2 y decrecen C18:0 y C18:3. Estas variaciones son discutidas en relación a la temperatura ambiental y a la modificación del cociente cotiledón/testa durante el crecimiento de la semilla. Un bajo contenido lipídico, que permanece constante durante el crecimiento de la semilla, y el menor contenido de C18:3 en el tamaño FN (8.3-8.8 mm, ponen de manifiesto que cuando la variedad Citrina es utilizada para la elaboración de productos

  5. Boron Supply Enhances Aluminum Tolerance in Root Border Cells of Pea (Pisum sativum by Interacting with Cell Wall Pectins

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    Xue Wen Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop growth in acidic soils. Boron (B alleviates Al toxicity in plants, which is mainly considered to be due to the formation of Rhamnogalacturonan II-B (RGII-B complexes, which helps to stabilize the cytoskeleton. It is unclear yet whether this is due to the increasing of net negative charges and/or further mechanisms. Kinetics of Al accumulation and adsorption were investigated using entire cells, cell wall and pectin of root border cells (RBCs of pea (Pisum sativum, to reveal the mechanism of B in interacting with alkali-soluble and chelator-soluble pectin for an increased Al tolerance in RBCs. The results show that B could rescue RBCs from Al-induced cell death by accumulating more Al in the cell wall, predominately in alkali-soluble pectin. Boron also promotes Al3+ adsorption and inhibits Al3+ desorption from alkali-soluble pectin. Thus, more Al3+ is immobilized within the alkali-soluble pectin fraction and less in the chelator-soluble pectin, rendering Al3+ less mobile. Boron induces an increase of RG-II (KDO,2-keto-3-deoxyoctonic acid content for forming more borate-RGII complexes, and the decrease of pectin methyl-esterification, thus creates more negative charges to immobilize Al3+ in cell wall pectin. The study provides evidence that abundant B supply enhances the immobilization of Al in alkali-soluble pectin, thus most likely reducing the entry of Al3+ into the symplast from the surroundings.

  6. The cadmium-tolerant pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant SGECdt is more sensitive to mercury: assessing plant water relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belimov, Andrey A; Dodd, Ian C; Safronova, Vera I; Malkov, Nikita V; Davies, William J; Tikhonovich, Igor A

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals have multiple effects on plant growth and physiology, including perturbation of plant water status. These effects were assessed by exposing the unique Cd-tolerant and Cd-accumulating pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant SGECd(t) and its wild-type (WT) line SGE to either cadmium (1, 4 μM CdCl2) or mercury (0.5, 1, 2 μM HgCl2) in hydroponic culture for 12 days. When exposed to Cd, SGECd(t) accumulated more Cd in roots, xylem sap, and shoot, and had considerably more biomass than WT plants. WT plants lost circa 0.2 MPa turgor when grown in 4 μM CdCl2, despite massive decreases in whole-plant transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. In contrast, root Hg accumulation was similar in both genotypes, but WT plants accumulated more Hg in leaves and had a higher stomatal conductance, and root and shoot biomass compared with SGECd(t). Shoot excision resulted in greater root-pressure induced xylem exudation of SGECd(t) in the absence of Cd or Hg and following Cd exposure, whereas the opposite response or no genotypic differences occurred following Hg exposure. Exposing plants that had not been treated with metal to 50 μM CdCl2 for 1h increased root xylem exudation of WT, whereas 50 μM HgCl2 inhibited and eliminated genotypic differences in root xylem exudation, suggesting differences between WT and SGECd(t) plants in aquaporin function. Thus, root water transport might be involved in mechanisms of increased tolerance and accumulation of Cd in the SGECd(t) mutant. However, the lack of cross-tolerance to Cd and Hg stress in the mutant indicates metal-specific mechanisms related to plant adaptation.

  7. Dickeya dadantii, a plant pathogenic bacterium producing Cyt-like entomotoxins, causes septicemia in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

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    Denis Costechareyre

    Full Text Available Dickeya dadantii (syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi is a plant pathogenic bacteria that harbours a cluster of four horizontally-transferred, insect-specific toxin genes. It was recently shown to be capable of causing an acute infection in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Hemiptera. The infection route of the pathogen, and the role and in vivo expression pattern of these toxins, remain unknown. Using bacterial numeration and immunolocalization, we investigated the kinetics and the pattern of infection of this phytopathogenic bacterium within its insect host. We compared infection by the wild-type strain and by the Cyt toxin-deficient mutant. D. dadantii was found to form dense clusters in many luminal parts of the aphid intestinal tract, including the stomach, from which it invaded internal tissues as early as day 1 post-infection. Septicemia occurred soon after, with the fat body being the main infected tissue, together with numerous early infections of the embryonic chains showing embryonic gut and fat body as the target organs. Generalized septicemia led to insect death when the bacterial load reached about 10(8 cfu. Some individual aphids regularly escaped infection, indicating an effective partial immune response to this bacteria. Cyt-defective mutants killed insects more slowly but were capable of localisation in any type of tissue. Cyt toxin expression appeared to be restricted to the digestive tract where it probably assisted in crossing over the first cell barrier and, thus, accelerating bacterial diffusion into the aphid haemocel. Finally, the presence of bacteria on the surface of leaves hosting infected aphids indicated that the insects could be vectors of the bacteria.

  8. Organic cultivation of field pea by use of products with different action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgieva, N.; Nikolova, I.; Delchev, G.

    2015-07-01

    The possibilities for increasing the productivity and control of the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.) in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) organic cultivation by the use of following bioproducts NeemAzal T/S and Pyrethrum FS-EC (insecticides), applied individually and in combination with Polyversum (growth regulator and fungicide) and Biofa (foliar fertilizer), as well as to evaluate the stability of the used mixtures were studied. Synthetic products Nurelle D and Flordimex 420 (alone and in combination) were used as a standard. The products were applied once (at budding stage) or twice (at budding and flowering stages). The results showed that forage pea productivity was influenced positively by the application of all organic products. The plants treated with the organic combinations formed an average yield of 3190.2 kg/ha, which was only 4.7% lower than that for the synthetic combination of Flordimex+Nurelle D. The highest yield was produced under application of two mixtures: Biofa+Pyrethrum and Polyversum+Pyrethrum at budding and flowering stages (22.0 and 21.8% above untreated control, respectively). These combinations were also distinguished for their most pronounced protective effect against the attack of the pea weevil and decrease in its numbers of 37.0 and 38.5%, respectively. Pyrethrum was distinguished for a lower degree of damaged seeds and a toxic effect against the pea weevil in comparison with NeemAzal. Technologically the most valuable variant, which united high stability, productivity and protection against pea weevil, was the combination of Biofa+Pyrethrum applied twice. Further investigations are indispensible to expand the range of products (bioinsectides, biofertilizers and growth regulators), which provides good insect control and high prod. (Author)

  9. Accumulation of Phosphorus-Containing Compounds in Developing Seeds of Low-Phytate Pea (Pisum sativum L. Mutants

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    Arun S.K. Shunmugam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Low phytic acid (lpa crops are low in phytic acid and high in inorganic phosphorus (Pi. In this study, two lpa pea genotypes, 1-150-81, 1-2347-144, and their progenitor CDC Bronco were grown in field trials for two years. The lpa genotypes were lower in IP6 and higher in Pi when compared to CDC Bronco. The total P concentration was similar in lpa genotypes and CDC Bronco throughout the seed development. The action of myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS (EC 5.5.1.4 is the first and rate-limiting step in the phytic acid biosynthesis pathway. Aiming at understanding the genetic basis of the lpa mutation in the pea, a 1530 bp open reading frame of MIPS was amplified from CDC Bronco and the lpa genotypes. Sequencing results showed no difference in coding sequence in MIPS between CDC Bronco and lpa genotypes. Transcription levels of MIPS were relatively lower at 49 days after flowering (DAF than at 14 DAF for CDC Bronco and lpa lines. This study elucidated the rate and accumulation of phosphorus compounds in lpa genotypes. The data also demonstrated that mutation in MIPS was not responsible for the lpa trait in these pea lines.

  10. Dehydration induces expression of GALACTINOL SYNTHASE and RAFFINOSE SYNTHASE in seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahuta, Lesław B; Pluskota, Wioletta E; Stelmaszewska, Joanna; Szablińska, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    The exposition of 7-day-old pea seedlings to dehydration induced sudden changes in the concentration of monosaccharides and sucrose in epicotyl and roots tissues. During 24h of dehydration, the concentration of glucose and, to a lesser extent, fructose in seedling tissues decreased. The accumulation of sucrose was observed in roots after 4h and in epicotyls after 8h of stress. Epicotyls and roots also began to accumulate galactinol and raffinose after 8h of stress, when small changes in the water content of tissues occurred. The accumulation of galactinol and raffinose progressed parallel to water withdrawal from tissues, but after seedling rehydration both galactosides disappeared. The synthesis of galactinol and raffinose by an early induction (during the first hour of treatment) of galactinol synthase (PsGolS) and raffinose synthase (PsRS) gene expression as well as a later increase in the activity of both enzymes was noted. Signals possibly triggering the induction of PsGolS and PsRS gene expression and accumulation of galactinol and raffinose in seedlings are discussed.

  11. Pea starch (Pisum sativum L.) with slow digestion property produced using β-amylase and transglucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Miaomiao; Zhang, Zhiheng; Yu, Shujuan; Wang, Kai; Gilbert, Robert G; Gao, Qunyu

    2014-12-01

    Starches extracted from wrinkled (WP) and smooth (SP) peas were treated using β-amylase (B) alone and also with a combination of β-amylase and transglucosidase (BT). After enzymatic treatment, the proportions of slowly digested starch in WP-B, WP-BT, SP-B and SP-BT samples were increased by 6%, 9%, 9% and 12%, respectively. Starches treated by a combination of β-amylase and transglucosidase exhibited a smaller amount of longer amylopectin chains, a larger amount of short amylopectin chains, and higher branching fraction. The branching fraction was significantly increased, with an increase of 8%, 10%, 13% and 14% for WP-B, WP-BT, SP-B and SP-BT, respectively. The maximum absorbance and iodine binding of enzyme-treated starches were reduced compared with their native starch parents. The C-type crystalline structure completely disappeared after enzymatic treatment. The results support previous findings that increases in the amount of shorter amylopectin chains and branch fraction are likely to contribute to the slow digestion of starch.

  12. Control of winter forage pea diseases by pea-oat intercropping under field conditions

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    Dalibor Živanov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the experimental field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad to investigate the effect of forage winter pea and winter oat intercropping on ascochyta blight and powdery mildew infections. Seeding rations of pea and oat in Treatment 1 (50:50% and Treatment 2 (75:25%, respectively reduced ascochyta leaf infection by 32.5% and 12.8%, and powdery mildew infection by 12.3% and 17.5%, respectively, compared to pea monoculture used as a control (Treatment 3. The same seeding rations in Treatment 1 and 2 reduced ascochyta blight on pea plants by 37.2% and 18.3%, respectively. However, there were no significant differences between the treatments in reducing powdery mildew on plants. The effects of different treatments on the average number of pods per plant, seed per pod, shriveled pods and seed weight were analyzed using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Negative but not statistically significant effects on those measured parameters were registered in Treatments 2 and 3, while Treatment 1 showed positive effects on all parameters except shriveled pods. According to all data obtained in this research, the intercropping mixture of pea and oat at 50:50% seeding ratio had the best effect on the measured parameters while the intercropping mixture of pea and oat at 75:25% seeding ratio had low to moderate effect in comparison with pea monocrop.

  13. Nuclear-cytoplasmic conflict in pea (Pisum sativum L.) is associated with nuclear and plastidic candidate genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, Vera S; Zaytseva, Olga O; Mglinets, Anatoliy V; Shatskaya, Natalia V; Kosterin, Oleg E; Vasiliev, Gennadiy V

    2015-01-01

    In crosses of wild and cultivated peas (Pisum sativum L.), nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility frequently occurs manifested as decreased pollen fertility, male gametophyte lethality, sporophyte lethality. High-throughput sequencing of plastid genomes of one cultivated and four wild pea accessions differing in cross-compatibility was performed. Candidate genes for involvement in the nuclear-plastid conflict were searched in the reconstructed plastid genomes. In the annotated Medicago truncatula genome, nuclear candidate genes were searched in the portion syntenic to the pea chromosome region known to harbor a locus involved in the conflict. In the plastid genomes, a substantial variability of the accD locus represented by nucleotide substitutions and indels was found to correspond to the pattern of cross-compatibility among the accessions analyzed. Amino acid substitutions in the polypeptides encoded by the alleles of a nuclear locus, designated as Bccp3, with a complementary function to accD, fitted the compatibility pattern. The accD locus in the plastid genome encoding beta subunit of the carboxyltransferase of acetyl-coA carboxylase and the nuclear locus Bccp3 encoding biotin carboxyl carrier protein of the same multi-subunit enzyme were nominated as candidate genes for main contribution to nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility in peas. Existence of another nuclear locus involved in the accD-mediated conflict is hypothesized.

  14. Iron absorption from experimental infant formulas based on pea (Pisum sativum)-protein isolate: the effect of phytic acid and ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, L; Dimitriou, T; Walczyk, T; Hurrell, R F

    2001-01-01

    Infant formula based on pea (Pisum sativum)-protein isolate has been suggested as an alternative to soybean formula in countries where soybean is not a native crop, or when soybean protein cannot be used due to allergic reactions or intolerances. In the present study, Fe absorption from experimental infant formulas based on pea-protein isolate was measured in healthy non-anaemic young women. The influence of phytic acid and ascorbic acid on Fe absorption was evaluated, using a stable-isotope technique based on incorporation of Fe stable-isotope labels into erythrocytes 14 d after administration. Geometric mean Fe absorption increased from 20.7 (+1 SD 41.6, -1 SD 10.3) % to 33.1 (+1 SD 58.6, -1 SD 18.7) %; (P phytic acid. Doubling the molar ratio Fe:ascorbic acid from 1:2.1 to 1:4.2 in the infant formula with native phytic acid content also increased Fe absorption significantly (P phytic acid and ascorbic acid respectively on Fe absorption, but also indicate relatively high fractional Fe absorption from the pea-protein-based formulas. After adjusting for differences in Fe status, our data indicate that Fe absorption from dephytinised pea protein might be less inhibitory than dephytinised soybean protein as measured in a previous study (Hurrell et al. 1998).

  15. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of pea weevil Bruchus pisorum L. (Coleóptera: Bruchidae to volatiles collected from its host Pisum sativum L

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    Ricardo Ceballos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L. (Coleóptera: Bruchidae is one of the most damaging pests of pea (Pisum sativum L. We investigated the role of pea volatiles on the electrophysiological and behavioral response of B. pisorum using electroantennography (EAG and olfactometry bioassays. Plant volatiles emitted at different phenological stages were collected in situ by headspace on Porapak Q traps and analyzed through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Most abundant volatiles identified in all phenological stages were terpenes and green leaf volatiles. All tested volatile extracts elicited significant EAG responses in both male and female B. pisorum, with females exhibiting a greater response (1.35 mV than males (1.02 mV to pea-pod volatiles. Volatiles from each phenological stage stimulated an attractant behavioral response of both males and females B. pisorum in olfactometer bioassay. A larger attraction of B. pisorum females was observed to volatiles from pods over other phenological stages (P < 0.001. These results suggest the relative importance of volatiles cues from plant mediating host location by B. pisorum. This work showed that plant volatiles elicited electrophysiological and behavioral responses and that B. pisorum female can discern between phenological stages of P. sativum based on those chemical cues.

  16. Construction and characterization of two bacterial artificial chromosome libraries of pea (Pisum sativum L.) for the isolation of economically important genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, C J; McClendon, M T; Walling, J G; Timmerman-Vaughan, G M; Murray, S; Meksem, K; Lightfoot, D A; Shultz, J L; Keller, K E; Martin, R R; Inglis, D A; Rajesh, P N; McPhee, K E; Weeden, N F; Grusak, M A; Li, C-M; Storlie, E W

    2007-09-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) has a genome of about 4 Gb that appears to share conserved synteny with model legumes having genomes of 0.2-0.4 Gb despite extensive intergenic expansion. Pea plant inventory (PI) accession 269818 has been used to introgress genetic diversity into the cultivated germplasm pool. The aim here was to develop pea bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries that would enable the isolation of genes involved in plant disease resistance or control of economically important traits. The BAC libraries encompassed about 3.2 haploid genome equivalents consisting of partially HindIII-digested DNA fragments with a mean size of 105 kb that were inserted in 1 of 2 vectors. The low-copy oriT-based T-DNA vector (pCLD04541) library contained 55 680 clones. The single-copy oriS-based vector (pIndigoBAC-5) library contained 65 280 clones. Colony hybridization of a universal chloroplast probe indicated that about 1% of clones in the libraries were of chloroplast origin. The presence of about 0.1% empty vectors was inferred by white/blue colony plate counts. The usefulness of the libraries was tested by 2 replicated methods. First, high-density filters were probed with low copy number sequences. Second, BAC plate-pool DNA was used successfully to PCR amplify 7 of 9 published pea resistance gene analogs (RGAs) and several other low copy number pea sequences. Individual BAC clones encoding specific sequences were identified. Therefore, the HindIII BAC libraries of pea, based on germplasm accession PI 269818, will be useful for the isolation of genes underlying disease resistance and other economically important traits.

  17. Infection dynamic of symbiotic bacteria in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum gut and host immune response at the early steps in the infection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoz, François; Noël, Christine; Errachid, Abdelmounaim; Foray, Vincent; Hance, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    In addition to its obligatory symbiont Buchnera aphidicola, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum can harbor several facultative bacterial symbionts which can be mutualistic in the context of various ecological interactions. Belonging to a genus where many members have been described as pathogen in invertebrates, Serratia symbiotica is one of the most common facultative partners found in aphids. The recent discovery of strains able to grow outside their host allowed us to simulate environmental acquisition of symbiotic bacteria by aphids. Here, we performed an experiment to characterize the A. pisum response to the ingestion of the free-living S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T in comparison to the ingestion of the pathogenic Serratia marcescens Db11 at the early steps in the infection process. We found that, while S. marcescens Db11 killed the aphids within a few days, S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T did not affect host survival and colonized the whole digestive tract within a few days. Gene expression analysis of immune genes suggests that S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T did not trigger an immune reaction, while S. marcescens Db11 did, and supports the hypothesis of a fine-tuning of the host immune response set-up for fighting pathogens while maintaining mutualistic partners. Our results also suggest that the lysosomal system and the JNK pathway are possibly involved in the regulation of invasive bacteria in aphids and that the activation of the JNK pathway is IMD-independent in the pea aphid.

  18. Infection dynamic of symbiotic bacteria in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum gut and host immune response at the early steps in the infection process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Renoz

    Full Text Available In addition to its obligatory symbiont Buchnera aphidicola, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum can harbor several facultative bacterial symbionts which can be mutualistic in the context of various ecological interactions. Belonging to a genus where many members have been described as pathogen in invertebrates, Serratia symbiotica is one of the most common facultative partners found in aphids. The recent discovery of strains able to grow outside their host allowed us to simulate environmental acquisition of symbiotic bacteria by aphids. Here, we performed an experiment to characterize the A. pisum response to the ingestion of the free-living S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T in comparison to the ingestion of the pathogenic Serratia marcescens Db11 at the early steps in the infection process. We found that, while S. marcescens Db11 killed the aphids within a few days, S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T did not affect host survival and colonized the whole digestive tract within a few days. Gene expression analysis of immune genes suggests that S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T did not trigger an immune reaction, while S. marcescens Db11 did, and supports the hypothesis of a fine-tuning of the host immune response set-up for fighting pathogens while maintaining mutualistic partners. Our results also suggest that the lysosomal system and the JNK pathway are possibly involved in the regulation of invasive bacteria in aphids and that the activation of the JNK pathway is IMD-independent in the pea aphid.

  19. Aphidophagous guilds on nettle (Urtica dioica) strips close to fields of green pea, rape and wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AMMAR ALHMEDI; ERIC HAUBRUGE; BERNARD BODSON; FR(E)D(E)RIC FRANCIS

    2007-01-01

    The common nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a perennial and cosmopolitan plant species and is known to be the source of food for a great diversity of insects. To understand the importance of the nettle in agro-ecosystems, a field experiment was carried out in an experimental farm at Gembloux (Belgium) to study the effect of nettle margin strips on aphid and aphidophagous populations in close field crops, namely wheat (Triticum aestivum L.),green pea (Pisum sativum L.) and rape (Brassicae napus L.). The aphids and related beneficial populations were weekly assessed, from March to August 2005, by visual observations in two plots per field crop. A higher abundance of aphidophagous beneficials was collected in nettle strips when compared to the field crops. Particularly, the presence of predatory anthocorids, mirids and green lacewings was observed on nettle only. Nevertheless,the most abundant aphid predatory family, the Coccinellidae, was distributed in both environments, in nettle strips and in crop fields. The field margin supported a significantly higher density of Harmonia axyridis than the field crops. In contrast, the field crops, green pea particularly, supported a higher density of Coccinella septempunctata. The distribution of the aphidophagous species, mainly the ladybirds, was discussed in relation to the host plant and related aphid species and their potential effect on integrated pest management.

  20. RESPONSE OF PEA (PISUM SATIVUM SSP. ARVENSE L. AT SOWING TERM, STAND AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AT VINKOVCI AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rapčan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pea is an exquisite protein crop (it contains 20-37% of protein used for human diet, animal feeding and as sideration. The hypothesis has been set up that the spring field pea for the grain production (cultivar Sobel will respond differently to the sowing term, stand (840,000 and 1,250,000 plants ha-1 and nitrogen fertilization (0 and 60 kg ha-1 The Vinkovci site was known for the grain yield (t ha . In 1997 and 1998 the investigations were conducted via field experiments on semigley soil at Vinkovci sites. Observations and measuring of, for example, phenological phase and more important climatic factors were accomplished during the growing season (temperature and precipitations. The harvest was followed by determination of number of pods, number of grains and grain yield. Obtained results were statistically processed by an adequate method (by a variance analysis of the split-split-plot experiment in four replicates whereas averages of the reached values were used for the results interpretation. -1 being 0.07-1.72 t ha-1 in the first investigation year and 0.14-2.12 t ha-1 in the second one. In 1997 thousand grain weight at Vinkovci site varied between 224.75 and 232.63 g whereas in 1998 it was 203.90-249.73 g. Results of the research justified the hypothesis of the optimal sowing date and stand as well as their interaction.

  1. Inoculation with Pseudomonas spp.containing ACC-deaminase partially eliminates the effects of drought stress on growth,yield,and ripening of pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.ARSHAD; B.SHAHAROONA; T.MAHMOOD

    2008-01-01

    Two preselected plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyelopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)deaminase (EC 4.1.99.4) were used to investigate their potential to ameliorate the effects of drought stress on growth,yield,and ripening of pea (Pisum sativum L.).Inoculated and uninoculated (control) seeds of pea cultivar 2000 were sown in pots (four seeds pot-1) and placed in a wire house.The plants were exposed to drought stress at different stages of growth (vegetative,flowering,and pod formation) by skipping the respective irrigation.Results revealed that inoculation of peas with PGPR containing ACC-deaminase significantly decreased the "drought stress imposed effects" on the growth and yield of peas.Exposure of plants to drought stress at vegetative growth stage significantly decreased shoot growth by 41% in the ease of uninoculated plants,whereas,by only 18% in the case of inoculated plants compared to nonstressed unlnoculated controlGrain yield was decreased when plants were exposed to drought stress at the flowering and pod formation stage,but inoculation resulted in better grain yield (up to 62% and 40% higher,respectively) than the respective uninoculated nonstressed control.Ripening of pods was also delayed in plants inoculated with PGPR,which may imply decreased endogenous ethylene production in inoculated plants.This premise is further supported by the observation that inoculation with PGPR reduced the intensity of classical "triple" response in etiolated pea seedlings,caused by externally applied ACC.It is very probable that the drought stress induced inhibitory effects of ethylene could be partially or completely eliminated by inoculation with PGPR containing ACC-deaminase.

  2. Systemic Induction of the Defensin and Phytoalexin Pisatin Pathways in Pea (Pisum sativum against Aphanomyces euteiches by Acetylated and Nonacetylated Oligogalacturonides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Selim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligogalacturonides (OGs are known for their powerful ability to stimulate the plant immune system but little is known about their mode of action in pea (Pisum sativum. In the present study, we investigated the elicitor activity of two fractions of OGs, with polymerization degrees (DPs of 2–25, in pea against Aphanomyces euteiches. One fraction was nonacetylated (OGs − Ac whereas the second one was 30% acetylated (OGs + Ac. OGs were applied by injecting the upper two rachises of the plants at three- and/or four-weeks-old. Five-week-old roots were inoculated with 105 zoospores of A. euteiches. The root infection level was determined at 7, 10 and 14 days after inoculation using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Results showed significant root infection reductions namely 58, 45 and 48% in the plants treated with 80 µg OGs + Ac and 59, 56 and 65% with 200 µg of OGs − Ac. Gene expression results showed the upregulation of genes involved in the antifungal defensins, lignans and the phytoalexin pisatin pathways and a priming effect in the basal defense, SA and ROS gene markers as a response to OGs. The reduction of the efficient dose in OGs + Ac is suggesting that acetylation is necessary for some specific responses. Our work provides the first evidence for the potential of OGs in the defense induction in pea against Aphanomyces root rot.

  3. [Features of Expression of the PsSst] and PsIgn1 Genes in Nodules of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Symbiotic Mutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, V A; Rychagova, T S; Fedorina, Ya V; Pinaeva, A G; Andronova, E E; Borisova, A Yu; Tikhonovich, I A

    2016-04-01

    The sequences of the PsSst1 and PsIgn1 genes of pea (Pisum sativum L.) homologous to the symbiotic LjSST1 and LjIGN1 genes of Lotusjaponicus (Regel.) K. Larsen are determined. The expression level of PsSst1 and PsIgn1 genes is determined by real-time PCR in nodules of several symbiotic mutants and original lines of pea. Lines with increased (Sprint-2Fix⁻ (Pssym31)) and decreased (P61 (Pssym25)) expression level of both genes are revealed along with the lines characterized by changes in the expression level of only one of these genes. The revealed features of the PsSst1 and PsIgn1 expression allow us to expand the phenotypic characterization of pea symbiotic mutants. In addition, PsSst1 and PsIgn1 cDNA is sequenced in selected mutant lines, characterized by a decreased expression level of these genes in nodules, but no mutations are found.

  4. Jumping-ship can have its costs: implications of predation and host plant species for the maintenance of pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) colour polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, Adalbert

    2013-10-01

    The interplay between the host plant of an insect herbivore and an insect predator (here two-spot ladybird beetles; Adalia bipunctata (L).; Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), feeding upon such a herbivore was examined in the laboratory as factors possibly determining the differential abundance and success of green and red host races of pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris. The experiment comprised three treatments: two host plants (bean and clover), two treatment levels (control and predation) and three colour morph levels (green alone, red alone and green and red in mixture). Green morphs had higher fitness on the general host plant, bean Vicia faba, than on the derived host, clover (Trifolium pratense), in the absence of predation. Although green morph fitness was reduced by predation when infesting bean together with reds, there was no observable net fitness loss due to predation on clover in mixed colonies with red morphs. Red morphs exhibited fitness loss alone on both bean and clover, while clover plants seemingly prevented fitness loss in the presence of predation when red morphs were mixed with green ones. According to this scenario, when colour morphs existed as a mixed colony, the net fitness of either pea aphid morph was not influenced by predation on clover. Predators had significant effects only on red morphs on broad bean either when alone or were mixed together with green morphs. Thus, only red morphs experienced the benefits of switching from the general to the derived host red clover in the presence of predation. For green morphs, there was no apparent cost of switching host plants when they faced predation. Hence, the co-existence of green-red colour polymorphism of pea aphids on single host plants appears to be maintained by the morph gaining fitness on the derived host due to a host plant– and predation–reduction effect. These findings have important implications for understanding the ecology and evolution of host switching by different colour

  5. [Investigation of chromosomes in varieties and translocation lines of pea Pisum sativum L. by FISH, Ag-NOR, and differential DAPI staining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samatadze, T E; Muravenko, O M; Bol'sheva, N L; Amosova, A B; Gostimsckiĭ, S A; Zelenin, A V

    2005-12-01

    The DNA intercalator 9-aminoachridine was used for obtaining high-resolution DAPI patterns of chromosomes of Pisum sativum L. with more than 300 bands per haploid chromosome set. The karyotypes of three pea varieties, Viola, Capital, and Rosa Crown, and two translocation lines, L-108 (T(2-4s)) and M-10 (T(2-7s)), were examined. Based on the results of DAPI staining, we have identified chromosomes, constructed idiograms, and established breakpoints of chromosome translocations. Lines L-108 (T(2-4s)) and M-10 (T(2-7s)) were shown to appear as a result of respectively one translocation between chromosomes 2 and 4 and two translocations between chromosomes 2 and 7. All varieties and translocation lines of pea were examined using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomere repetition probes, 5S and 45S wheat DNA probes. Transcriptional activity of 45S rRNA was detected by Ag-NOR staining. Telomere repetitions were shown to be located only in telomeric chromosome regions. Using high-resolution DAPI staining allowed us to verify localization of 5S genes on pea chromosomes 1, 3, and 5. 45S rDNAs were localized in the secondary constriction regions on the satellite and the satellite thread of chromosome and on the satellite thread and in more proximal satellite heterochromatic region of chromosome 7. The size of 45S rDNA signal on chromosome 7 was larger and its transcriptional activity, higher than the corresponding parameters on chromosome 4 in most of the forms studied. A visual comparison of the results of FISH and Ag-NOR staining of normal and translocated pea chromosomes did not reveal any significant differences between them. The translocations of the satellite chromosomes apparently did not cause significant changes either in the amount of the ribosomal genes or in their transcriptional activity.

  6. Assessment of variation in antioxidative defense system in salt-treated pea (Pisum sativum) cultivars and its putative use as salinity tolerance markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Zahra; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2009-11-01

    The present work describes whether the changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the levels of some non-enzymatic antioxidants could be used as markers of salt tolerance in nine genetically diverse pea (Pisum sativum) cultivars. All cultivars were exposed to four levels of NaCl i.e., 0, 40, 80 and 120mM in sand culture. Plant fresh biomass, total phenolics, total soluble proteins, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in leaves while different forms of tocopherols (alpha-, gamma- and Delta-tocopherol) in fresh seed of salt-stressed and non-stressed plants were analyzed. On the basis of percent inhibition in shoot biomass at the highest salt level (120mM) cultivars 2001-35, 2001-55 and Climax were ranked as tolerant (percent inhibition less than 60%), 2001-20, 9800-5 and 9800-10 moderately tolerant (percent inhibition 60-70%), and 2001-40, 9200 and Tere 2 salt sensitive (percent inhibition more than 70%). Salt stress markedly enhanced the activities of SOD and POD, levels of total phenolics and gamma- and Delta-tocopherols, and decreased the total soluble proteins and CAT activity, while the internal levels of H(2)O(2) remained unaffected in all pea cultivars. Although salt-induced oxidative stress occurred in all pea cultivars, the response of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars with respect to the generation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic metabolites measured in the present study was not consistent. Of different antioxidant enzymes and metabolites analyzed, only CAT activity was found to be a reliable marker of salt tolerance in the set of pea cultivars examined.

  7. Rhythmical changes of a level nitric oxide (NO in roots etiolated seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L. and influence of exogenous calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Glyan’ko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studied time dynamics (during 60 mines a level oxide nitric (NO in cross cuts of roots 2 – day etiolated seedlings of pea sowing (Pisum sativum L. by use of fluorescent probe DAF-2DA and a fluorescent microscope depending on action exogenous calcium (Ca2+. During an exposition of seedlings on water, solution CaCl2 are shown fluctuation in level NO in roots – his increase and decrease that testifies to the certain rhythm in generation NO. Exogenous factors (Ca2+ change time dynamics of level NO in comparison with variant “water”. Ca2+chelate EGTA removes action exogenous calcium on rhythmical change of a level NO in roots. Results are discussed in aspect of close interference of signaling systems and molecules (Ca2+, NO, Н2О2.

  8. Effects of moderately enhanced levels of ozone on the acyl lipid composition and dynamical properties of plasma membranes isolated from garden pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Sellden, G.; Sandelius, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Plasma membranes were isolated from leaves of 16-day-old garden pea, Pisum sativum L., that had been grown in the absence or presence of 65 nl l(-1) ozone for 4 days prior to membrane isolation, Plasma membranes from ozone-fumigated plants contained significantly more acyl lipids per protein than...... those from leaves of plants grown in filtered air on a molar/weight ratio, The ratio between the major acyl lipids, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC), also increased due to the ozone fumigation, while the fatty acid unsaturation level was unaltered in total plasma membrane acyl...... lipids, as well as in PC and PE, The amount of free sterols per protein was unaltered, but the percentage of campesterol increased, concomitant with a decrease in stigmasterol, The dynamical properties of the isolated plasma membranes were assessed using Laurdan fluorescence spectroscopy, which monitors...

  9. Relationship between C2H2 reduction, H2 evolution and 15N2 fixation in root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif

    1983-01-01

    The quantitative relationship between C2H2 reduction, H2 evolution and 15N2 fixation was investigated in excised root nodules from pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Bodil) grown under controlled conditions. The C2H2/N2 conversion factor varied from 3.31 to 5.12 between the 32nd and the 67th day...... after planting. After correction for H2 evolution in air, the factor (C2H2-H2)/N2 decreased to values near the theoretical value 3, or in one case to a value significantly (P H2 production but used...... for N2 reduction, is often stated as the relative efficiency (1-H2/C2H2). This factor varied significantly (P H2 and N2, expressed as the H2/N2 ratio, was independent of plant age, however. This discrepancy and the observation...

  10. Characterization of Pea Vicilin. 1. Denoting Convicilin as the α-Subunit of the Pisum Vicilin Family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Kane, F.E.; Happe, R.P.; Vereijken, J.M.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van

    2004-01-01

    Vicilin, a major globulin protein of pea that has been described as "extremely heterogeneous in terms of its polypeptide composition", was extracted from pea flour under alkaline conditions and subsequently fractionated by salt under acid conditions. This procedure induced the separation of vicilin

  11. Characterization of Pea Vicilin. 1. Denoting Convicilin as the a-Subunit of the Pisum Vicilin Family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Kane, F.E.; Happe, R.P.; Vereijken, J.M.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2004-01-01

    Vicilin, a major globulin protein of pea that has been described as "extremely heterogeneous in terms of its polypeptide composition", was extracted from pea flour under alkaline conditions and subsequently fractionated by salt under acid conditions. This procedure induced the separation of vicilin

  12. Repetitive DNA in the pea (Pisum sativum L. genome: comprehensive characterization using 454 sequencing and comparison to soybean and Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navrátilová Alice

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extraordinary size variation of higher plant nuclear genomes is in large part caused by differences in accumulation of repetitive DNA. This makes repetitive DNA of great interest for studying the molecular mechanisms shaping architecture and function of complex plant genomes. However, due to methodological constraints of conventional cloning and sequencing, a global description of repeat composition is available for only a very limited number of higher plants. In order to provide further data required for investigating evolutionary patterns of repeated DNA within and between species, we used a novel approach based on massive parallel sequencing which allowed a comprehensive repeat characterization in our model species, garden pea (Pisum sativum. Results Analysis of 33.3 Mb sequence data resulted in quantification and partial sequence reconstruction of major repeat families occurring in the pea genome with at least thousands of copies. Our results showed that the pea genome is dominated by LTR-retrotransposons, estimated at 140,000 copies/1C. Ty3/gypsy elements are less diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty1/copia. This is in part due to a large population of Ogre-like retrotransposons which alone make up over 20% of the genome. In addition to numerous types of mobile elements, we have discovered a set of novel satellite repeats and two additional variants of telomeric sequences. Comparative genome analysis revealed that there are only a few repeat sequences conserved between pea and soybean genomes. On the other hand, all major families of pea mobile elements are well represented in M. truncatula. Conclusion We have demonstrated that even in a species with a relatively large genome like pea, where a single 454-sequencing run provided only 0.77% coverage, the generated sequences were sufficient to reconstruct and analyze major repeat families corresponding to a total of 35–48% of the genome. These data

  13. Remote Sensing Study of the Influence of Different Herbicides on the Leaf Spectral Reflectance and Fluorescence of Pea Plants (Pisum sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, Dora; Yanev, Tony; Iliev, Ilko; Alexieva, Vera; Tsaneva, Mariana

    The effective use of airborne and satellite-based remote sensor systems in resource management, agriculture, mineral exploration and environmental monitoring requires an understanding of the nature and limitations of the high-resolution remote sensing data and of various strategies for processing and interpreting it. In developing the necessary knowledge base, ground-based measurements are the expedient source of information. In this study, remote sensing techniques were applied in laboratory for detection of the influence of herbicides 2.4-D, glyphosate, fluridone and acifluorfen on the leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.). According to the classification of the Herbicide Resistance Action Committee with reference to their mode of action they belong to different groups: synthetic auxins - O (2.4-D), inhibition of EPSP synthase - G (glyphosate), photobleaching - F1 (fluridone), and inhibition of PPO - E (acifluorfen). During the last 40 years, these herbicides are among the ones used most widely in agriculture worldwide. The plants studied were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber in a nutritious medium to which every herbicide was added at two low concentrations (1 µM, 0.1 µM) with respect to the field dose applied in the agricultural practice. High-resolution spectral data for leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence were collected from freshly detached leaves using three multichannel spectrometers. Spectral reflectance characteristics were obtained from the leaf reflectance referenced against a standard (white diffuse screen) in the visible and near infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum (450÷850 nm). Fluorescence spectra were taken in the spectral range 650-850 nm. To assess the changes arising in leaf spectral reflectance under the herbicide action we developed and applied an analytical approach based on discriminant analysis and other statistical methods. The spectral characteristics were analyzed in

  14. Iron bioavailability in low phytate pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds have high nutritional value but also contain potential anti-nutritional factors, such as phytate and polyphenols. Phytate can store up to 80% of the phosphorus in seeds. In the seed and during digestion it can complex minerals such as iron and zinc and make them un...

  15. Calcium-calmodulin signalling is involved in light-induced acidification by epidermal leaf cells of pea, Pisum sativum L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzenga, JTM; Staal, M; Prins, HBA

    1997-01-01

    Pathways of signal transduction of red and blue light-dependent acidification by leaf epidermal cells were studied using epidermal strips of the Argenteum mutant of Pisum sativum. In these preparations the contribution of guard cells to the acidification is minimal. The hydroxypyridine nifedipine, a

  16. Inducible expression of Pisum sativum xyloglucan fucosyltransferase in the pea root cap meristem, and effects of antisense mRNA expression on root cap cell wall structural integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fushi; Celoy, Rhodesia M; Nguyen, Trang; Zeng, Weiqing; Keegstra, Kenneth; Immerzeel, Peter; Pauly, Markus; Hawes, Martha C

    2008-07-01

    Mitosis and cell wall synthesis in the legume root cap meristem can be induced and synchronized by the nondestructive removal of border cells from the cap periphery. Newly synthesized cells can be examined microscopically as they differentiate progressively during cap development, and ultimately detach as a new population of border cells. This system was used to demonstrate that Pisum sativum L. fucosyl transferase (PsFut1) mRNA expression is strongly expressed in root meristematic tissues, and is induced >2-fold during a 5-h period when mitosis in the root cap meristem is increased. Expression of PsFut1 antisense mRNA in pea hairy roots under the control of the CaMV35S promoter, which exhibits meristem localized expression in pea root caps, resulted in a 50-60% reduction in meristem localized endogenous PsFut1 mRNA expression measured using whole mount in situ hybridization. Changes in gross levels of cell wall fucosylated xyloglucan were not detected, but altered surface localization patterns were detected using whole mount immunolocalization with CCRC-M1, an antibody that recognizes fucosylated xyloglucan. Emerging hairy roots expressing antisense PsFut1 mRNA appeared normal macroscopically but scanning electron microscopy of tissues with altered CCRC-M1 localization patterns revealed wrinkled, collapsed cell surfaces. As individual border cells separated from the cap periphery, cell death occurred in correlation with extrusion of cellular contents through breaks in the wall.

  17. Gene expression analysis of parthenogenetic embryonic development of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, suggests that aphid parthenogenesis evolved from meiotic oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayalan G Srinivasan

    Full Text Available Aphids exhibit a form of phenotypic plasticity, called polyphenism, in which genetically identical females reproduce sexually during one part of the life cycle and asexually (via parthenogenesis during the remainder of the life cycle. The molecular basis for aphid parthenogenesis is unknown. Cytological observations of aphid parthenogenesis suggest that asexual oogenesis evolved either through a modification of meiosis or from a mitotic process. As a test of these alternatives, we assessed the expression levels and expression patterns of canonical meiotic recombination and germline genes in the sexual and asexual ovaries of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. We observed expression of all meiosis genes in similar patterns in asexual and sexual ovaries, with the exception that some genes encoding Argonaute-family members were not expressed in sexual ovaries. In addition, we observed that asexual aphid tissues accumulated unspliced transcripts of Spo11, whereas sexual aphid tissues accumulated primarily spliced transcripts. In situ hybridization revealed Spo11 transcript in sexual germ cells and undetectable levels of Spo11 transcript in asexual germ cells. We also found that an obligately asexual strain of pea aphid produced little spliced Spo11 transcript. Together, these results suggest that parthenogenetic oogenesis evolved from a meiosis-like, and not a mitosis-like, process and that the aphid reproductive polyphenism may involve a modification of Spo11 gene activity.

  18. Selection of reference genes for expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris (Hemiptera, Aphidiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Yang

    Full Text Available To facilitate gene expression study and obtain accurate qRT-PCR analysis, normalization relative to stable expressed housekeeping genes is required. In this study, expression profiles of 11 candidate reference genes, including actin (Actin, elongation factor 1 α (EF1A, TATA-box-binding protein (TATA, ribosomal protein L12 (RPL12, β-tubulin (Tubulin, NADH dehydrogenase (NADH, vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB, 28S ribosomal RNA (28S, 16S ribosomal RNA (16S, and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, under different developmental stages and temperature conditions, were investigated. A total of four analytical tools, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method, were used to evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls. According to RefFinder, a web-based software tool which integrates all four above-mentioned algorithms to compare and rank the reference genes, SDHB, 16S, and NADH were the three most stable house-keeping genes under different developmental stages and temperatures. This work is intended to establish a standardized qRT-PCR protocol in pea aphid and serves as a starting point for the genomics and functional genomics research in this emerging insect model.

  19. Estudio de la adaptabilidad de cuatro genotipos de guisante (pisum setivum L. var. macrocarpon bajo dos densidades y en dos localidades Adaptabilidad study of varieties of edible pod pea Pisum sativum L. Var. macrocarpon under two densities and two locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar Miguel

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó y comparó el comportamiento agronómico de cuatro variedades de guisante Pisum satim L. var. macrocarpon bajo dos densidades y en dos localidades
    mediante cultivos a libre exposición durante dos semestres. Se midieron variables de tipo morfofisiológico y reproductivo. Las cuatro variedades se adaptaron bien al medio ambiente ya que sus rendimientos fueron bastante aceptables. La variedad Super Mel Sugar logró los mejores puntajes
    en rendimiento y calidad además de la mayor capacidad de adaptación. La variedad Oregon Sugar Pod 11 con buenos rendimientos presentó problemas en el mercado por la deformación de sus vainas. La variedad Dwarf Grey Sugar produce vainas pequeñas cuya calidad se limita a
    mercados de congelación o industrialización pero con altos rendimientos. La variedad Mammouth Melting Sugar obtuvo los rendimientos más bajos, sin embargo su calidad y popularidad la colocan en los primeros lugares del mercado actualmente.
    Four experiments were set to evaluate and to compare the agronomical behavior of four varieties of edible pod pea (Pisum satívum L. var. macrocarpon under two den sities and, two locations during two semesters of 1989. Some of the
    morphophysiologic and reproductive variables showed highly significant differences for varieties and locations. The varieties also showed good adaptation to the environments used since their yield was quite good. Super Mel Sugar varlety had the best production and quality: Oregon Sugar Pod II, with high productions, had some problems of marketing because of the deformated pods; Dwarf Grey Sugar produced small pods no good for fresh market; Mammouth Melting Sugar had the lowest production, even though its quality, and popularity in the fresh markets.

  20. The Effect of Orobanche crenata Infection Severity in Faba Bean, Field Pea, and Grass Pea Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Flores, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape weeds (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops, i.e., faba bean, field pea, and grass pea. Regression functions modeled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2, and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea, and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The increase of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host–parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than four parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size. In contrast

  1. Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

    2014-04-01

    The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-β-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-β-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of β-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the β-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control.

  2. Association mapping of starch chain length distribution and amylose content in pea (Pisum sativum L.) using carbohydrate metabolism candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Margaret A; Shaw, Martin; Cooper, Rebecca D; Frew, Tonya J; Butler, Ruth C; Murray, Sarah R; Moya, Leire; Coyne, Clarice J; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M

    2017-08-01

    Although starch consists of large macromolecules composed of glucose units linked by α-1,4-glycosidic linkages with α-1,6-glycosidic branchpoints, variation in starch structural and functional properties is found both within and between species. Interest in starch genetics is based on the importance of starch in food and industrial processes, with the potential of genetics to provide novel starches. The starch metabolic pathway is complex but has been characterized in diverse plant species, including pea. To understand how allelic variation in the pea starch metabolic pathway affects starch structure and percent amylose, partial sequences of 25 candidate genes were characterized for polymorphisms using a panel of 92 diverse pea lines. Variation in the percent amylose composition of extracted seed starch and (amylopectin) chain length distribution, one measure of starch structure, were characterized for these lines. Association mapping was undertaken to identify polymorphisms associated with the variation in starch chain length distribution and percent amylose, using a mixed linear model that incorporated population structure and kinship. Associations were found for polymorphisms in seven candidate genes plus Mendel's r locus (which conditions the round versus wrinkled seed phenotype). The genes with associated polymorphisms are involved in the substrate supply, chain elongation and branching stages of the pea carbohydrate and starch metabolic pathways. The association of polymorphisms in carbohydrate and starch metabolic genes with variation in amylopectin chain length distribution and percent amylose may help to guide manipulation of pea seed starch structural and functional properties through plant breeding.

  3. Gibberellin (GA3) enhances cell wall invertase activity and mRNA levels in elongating dwarf pea (Pisum sativum) shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L. L.; Mitchell, J. P.; Cohn, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1993-01-01

    The invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) purified from cell walls of dwarf pea stems to homogeneity has a molecular mass of 64 kilodaltons (kD). Poly(A)+RNA was isolated from shoots of dwarf pea plants, and a cDNA library was constructed using lambda gt11 as an expression vector. The expression cDNA library was screened with polyclonal antibodies against pea cell wall invertase. One invertase cDNA clone was characterized as a full-length cDNA with 1,863 base pairs. Compared with other known invertases, one homologous region in the amino acid sequence was found. The conserved motif, Asn-Asp-Pro-Asn-Gly, is located near the N-terminal end of invertase. Northern blot analysis showed that the amount of invertase mRNA (1.86 kb) was rapidly induced to a maximal level 4 h after GA3 treatment, then gradually decreased to the control level. The mRNA level at 4 h in GA3-treated peas was fivefold higher than that of the control group. The maximal increase in activity of pea cell wall invertase elicited by GA3 occcured at 8 h after GA3 treatment. This invertase isoform was shown immunocytochemically to be localized in the cell walls, where a 10-fold higher accumulation occurred in GA3-treated tissue compared with control tissue. This study indicates that the expression of the pea shoot cell-wall invertase gene could be regulated by GA3 at transcriptional and/or translational levels.

  4. faba bean and field pea seed proportion for intercropping system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    or relative yield advantage of 53% was obtained from intercropping 75 Faba bean: 25% field pea. ... sole crop and intercropping with field pea is a viable option for sustainable productivity in ... competitive ability of the crops varies with plant.

  5. EFFECT OF GAMMA RADIATION OF MACRO MUTATIONS, EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY UNDER M2 GENERATION IN PEA (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind KUMAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to study the spectrum of macro mutants, effectiveness and efficiency of different doses of gamma rays in pea variety (Arkel. The seeds were treated with gamma rays viz., 00kR (dry control, 05kR, 10kR, 15kR, 20kR, 25kR, 30kR, 35kR, 40kR (dry seeds and presoaked seeds of the same was exposed to 00kR (wet control, 05kR, 10kR, 15kR, 20kR (kilo Roentgen biological damage was calculated in M1 and M2 generation based on lethality (L and pollen sterility. The irradiated seeds were sown in the M1 field their respective controls and harvested in bulk to raise the M2 generation in Randomized Block Design (RBD with three replications. The spectrum of macro mutants i.e., plant stature (tall, dwarf, small dwarf, maturity (early, late, pod shape (bold, long, short, seed colour (brown, light white, light green and seed shape (small, bold, wrinkled were observed in M2 generation. The usefulness of any mutagen in plant breeding depends not only on its effectiveness but also upon if efficiency. Mutagenic effectiveness is a measure of the frequency of mutations induced by unit mutagen dose, whereas mutagenic efficiency is measure of proportion of mutations in relation of undesirable changes like lethality and sterility are used for gamma rays. A result of the indicated positive relationship in M2 generation with macro mutation, effectiveness and efficiency was found to be highest at lowest doses.

  6. A Combined Comparative Transcriptomic, Metabolomic, and Anatomical Analyses of Two Key Domestication Traits: Pod Dehiscence and Seed Dormancy in Pea (Pisum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Smýkal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the agriculture was one of the turning points in human history, and a central part of this was the evolution of new plant forms, domesticated crops. Seed dispersal and germination are two key traits which have been selected to facilitate cultivation and harvesting of crops. The objective of this study was to analyze anatomical structure of seed coat and pod, identify metabolic compounds associated with water-impermeable seed coat and differentially expressed genes involved in pea seed dormancy and pod dehiscence. Comparative anatomical, metabolomics, and transcriptomic analyses were carried out on wild dormant, dehiscent Pisum elatius (JI64, VIR320 and cultivated, indehiscent Pisum sativum non-dormant (JI92, Cameor and recombinant inbred lines (RILs. Considerable differences were found in texture of testa surface, length of macrosclereids, and seed coat thickness. Histochemical and biochemical analyses indicated genotype related variation in composition and heterogeneity of seed coat cell walls within macrosclereids. Liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry and Laser desorption/ionization–mass spectrometry of separated seed coats revealed significantly higher contents of proanthocyanidins (dimer and trimer of gallocatechin, quercetin, and myricetin rhamnosides and hydroxylated fatty acids in dormant compared to non-dormant genotypes. Bulk Segregant Analysis coupled to high throughput RNA sequencing resulted in identification of 770 and 148 differentially expressed genes between dormant and non-dormant seeds or dehiscent and indehiscent pods, respectively. The expression of 14 selected dormancy-related genes was studied by qRT-PCR. Of these, expression pattern of four genes: porin (MACE-S082, peroxisomal membrane PEX14-like protein (MACE-S108, 4-coumarate CoA ligase (MACE-S131, and UDP-glucosyl transferase (MACE-S139 was in agreement in all four genotypes with Massive analysis of cDNA Ends (MACE data. In

  7. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Moschini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for producing animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among possible alternatives, the heat-processed legume grains seem interesting for dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to evaluate flaked pea and faba beans as substitute for soybean meal in diets for Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a C concentrate (110 g/kg soybean meal, no pea and faba beans was compared to a PF concentrate (150 g/kg flaked pea, 100 g/kg flaked faba beans, no soybean meal. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa in experiment 1 and hay plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Concentrate intake, milk yield and milk quality (rennet coagulation traits included were similar between feeding groups. Parameters on the grab faecal samples, as empirical indicators of digestibility, had a smaller (Pvs 3.1 and 2.3 vs 2.8%, respectively for PF and C in experiment 1 and 2. Some blood indicators of nitrogen metabolism (protein, albumin, urea were similar between the feeding groups. The inclusion of pea and faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a total substitution of soybean meal.

  8. Nickel availability to pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants limits hydrogenase activity of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae bacteroids by affecting the processing of the hydrogenase structural subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, B; Palacios, J M; Hidalgo, E; Imperial, J; Ruiz-Argüeso, T

    1994-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae UPM791 induces the synthesis of an [NiFe] hydrogenase in pea (Pisum sativum L.) bacteroids which oxidizes the H2 generated by the nitrogenase complex inside the root nodules. The synthesis of this hydrogenase requires the genes for the small and large hydrogenase subunits (hupS and hupL, respectively) and 15 accessory genes clustered in a complex locus in the symbiotic plasmid. We show here that the bacteroid hydrogenase activity is limited by the availability of nickel to pea plants. Addition of Ni2+ to plant nutrient solutions (up to 10 mg/liter) resulted in sharp increases (up to 15-fold) in hydrogenase activity. This effect was not detected when other divalent cations (Zn2+, Co2+, Fe2+, and Mn2+) were added at the same concentrations. Determinations of the steady-state levels of hupSL-specific mRNA indicated that this increase in hydrogenase activity was not due to stimulation of transcription of structural genes. Immunoblot analysis with antibodies raised against the large and small subunits of the hydrogenase enzyme demonstrated that in the low-nickel situation, both subunits are mainly present in slow-migrating, unprocessed forms. Supplementation of the plant nutrient solution with increasing nickel concentrations caused the conversion of the slow-migrating forms of both subunits into fast-moving, mature forms. This nickel-dependent maturation process of the hydrogenase subunits is mediated by accessory gene products, since bacteroids from H2 uptake-deficient mutants carrying Tn5 insertions in hupG and hupK and in hypB and hypE accumulated the immature forms of both hydrogenase subunits even in the presence of high nickel levels. Images PMID:8071205

  9. The influence of water stress on biomass and N accumulation, N partitioning between above and below ground parts and on N rhizodeposition during reproductive growth of pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahieu, S.; Germont, Florent; Aveline, A.

    2009-01-01

    are estimated. Moreover, grain legume crops are largely influenced by water stress while the world area exposed to drought periods may increase in the coming years due to global warming. This work aims to quantify biomass and N accumulation, N partitioning between above and below ground parts and N...... of flowering (59 days after sowing, DAS 59), at the end of the drought period applied during pod filling (DAS 74) and at maturity (DAS 101). Water stress strongly affected pea dry weight and N accumulation. In both stressed treatments, nodule biomass and N content were reduced by about 65% in the absence...... rhizodeposition by a pea (Pisum sativum L.) when influenced by water stress. In a controlled environment, pea plants were exposed to a severe drought or not stressed, either at flowering or during pod filling. N rhizodeposition was measured using the split root method and plants were harvested at the end...

  10. Diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum from pea fields in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizobia-mediated biological nitrogen (N) fixation in legumes contributes to yield potential in these crops and also provides residual fertilizer to subsequent cereals. Our objectives were to collect isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum from several pea fields in Washington, examine genetic diversity...

  11. Genomic evidence for complementary purine metabolism in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and its symbiotic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, J S; MacDonald, S J; Jander, G; Nakabachi, A; Thomas, G H; Douglas, A E

    2010-03-01

    The purine salvage pathway recycles purines to nucleotides, promoting efficient utilization of purine nucleotides. Exceptionally among animals with completely sequenced genomes, the pea aphid lacks key purine recycling genes that code for purine nucleoside phosphorylase and adenosine deaminase, indicating that the aphid can neither metabolize nucleosides to the corresponding purines, nor adenosine to inosine. Purine metabolism genes in the symbiotic bacterium Buchnera complement aphid genes, and Buchnera can meet its nucleotide requirement from aphid-derived guanosine. Buchnera demand for nucleosides may have relaxed the selection for purine recycling in the aphid, leading to the loss of key aphid purine salvage genes. Further, the coupled purine metabolism of aphid and Buchnera could contribute to the dependence of the pea aphid on this symbiosis.

  12. Responses of Pea (Pisum sativum Growth and Yield to Residual Effects of Organic and Urea Fertilizers from Previous Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of organic manure in organic farming and long-term mineralization may lead to residual effects on the succeeding crop. So, residual effects of combined cattle manure and urea fertilizer of previous crop (black cumin on growth and yield of pea were examined in a randomized complete block design. Treatments included of  cattle manure (CM, urea (U, three ratios of CM+U full dose application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2 and three ratios of CM+U split application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2, and unfertilized control to previous crop (black cumin in 2012. Pea planted without any fertilizer in 2013. There was no significant difference between control and residual of urea treatment for some parameters including dry matter in flowering stage, plant nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, plant height, yield components, grain yield and biological yield of pea. Biological and grain yields were greater under both residual of cattle manure treatment and integrated treatments compared to residual of urea treatment. The highest grain yield (4000 kg ha-1 was observed in residual of CM:U full dosed application treatment, to the extent that grain yield in this treatment indicated a 1.5-fold increase in comparison with residual of urea treatment. The highest biological yield (8325 kg ha-1 was obtained in residual of CM treatment, though it was not significant different from that of residual of CM:U (1:2 treatments. In general, although residual of urea fertilizer did not leave a notable effect on pea production, but production of this crop relying on residual of cattle manure deems effective to lowering of fertilization cost and ameliorating environmental contaminations.

  13. Analysis of Protein by Spectrophotometric and Computer Colour Based Intensity Method from Stem of Pea (Pisum sativum at Different Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Mushtaque Shah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study proteins were analyzed from pea plants at three different growth stages of stem by spectrophotometric i.e Lowry and Bradford quantitative methods and computer colour intensity based method. Though Spectrophotometric methods are regarded as classical methods, we report an alternate computer based method which gave comparable results. Computer software was developed the for protein analysis which is easier, time and money saving method as compared to the classical methods.

  14. DsRNA degradation in the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) associated with lack of response in RNAi feeding and injection assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Olivier; Swevers, Luc; Smagghe, Guy

    2014-03-01

    Over the past decade, RNA interference (RNAi), the sequence-specific suppression of gene expression, has proven very promising for molecular research in many species, including model insects as Tribolium castaneum and Apis mellifera. It showed its usefulness to analyze gene function and its potential to manage pest populations and reduce disease pathogens. However, in several insects, the efficiency of RNAi is low or very variable at best. One of the factors that could influence RNAi efficiency in insects is degradation of dsRNA after administration to the insect. In this paper, we report on the importance of dsRNA breakdown in the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) associated with the absence of an RNAi response upon oral feeding and injection with dsRNA targeting different genes such as the ecdysone hormone receptor and ultraspiracle. In essence, we discovered that both the salivary secretions of aphids and the hemolymph were able to degrade the dsRNA. In parallel, introduction of dsRNA in the aphid body was not able to provoke a response in the expression of the siRNA core machinery genes.

  15. Reactive oxygen species from type-I photosensitized reactions contribute to the light-induced wilting of dark-grown pea (Pisum sativum) epicotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideg, Eva; Vitányi, Beáta; Kósa, Annamária; Solymosi, Katalin; Bóka, Károly; Won, Sungae; Inoue, Yumi; Ridge, Robert W; Böddi, Béla

    2010-04-01

    Type-II, singlet oxygen-mediated photosensitized damage has already been shown to occur in epicotyls of dark-germinated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings upon illumination, resulting in fast turgor loss and wilting. In this study we show evidence that the palette of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is more complex. Hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals are also formed, suggesting the occurrence of type-I reactions as well. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide injection into the epicotyls in the dark was able to provoke wilting directly. Formation of hydroxyl radicals could also be triggered by the addition of hydrogen peroxide in the dark, preferentially in the mid-sections where wilting occurs, showing that potential mediators of a Fenton reaction are present in the epicotyls, but unevenly distributed. Localization of light-inducible ROS formation fully (hydrogen peroxide) or partially (superoxide radicals) overlaps with the distribution of monomer protochlorophyllide complexes, showing that these pigment forms are capable of provoking both type-I and type-II reactions.

  16. Evaluation of the potential of peas (Pisum sativum L.) to be used in selenium biofortification programs under Mediterranean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblaciones, María J; Rodrigo, Sara M; Santamaría, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se), which has antioxidant, anticancer, and antiviral properties, is an essential micronutrient for humans and animals. This micronutrient is found in high quantity in legumes. Peas have an ever-increasing importance in Spain, and to increase their nutritional value, two foliar Se fertilizers: sodium selenate and sodium selenite, at five different rates: 0, 10, 20, 40, 80 g ha(-1), were studied during the 2010/2011 crop season on semiarid Mediterranean conditions. Sodium selenate was much more effectively taken up by plants compared to sodium selenite. There was a strong linear relationship between the total Se content and Se rate in both sodium selenate and selenite. For each gram of Se fertilization as either sodium selenate or sodium selenite, the increase of total Se concentration in the grain was 148 and 19 μg Se kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Ingestion of 100 g of peas previously fertilized with 10 g of sodium selenate per hectare would result in an intake of 179 μg of Se. This is almost 90 % of the daily recommended dose needed to reduce the chance of some cancers and about 179 % of the minimum concentration required to prevent Se deficiency diseases in animals. The pea has shown to have a strong ability to uptake and accumulate Se under Mediterranean conditions; therefore, this would make it a very strong candidate for inclusion in biofortification programs aiming to increase Se in the food chain.

  17. Extruded pea (Pisum sativum as alternative to soybean protein for dairy cows feeding in organic Alpine farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the use of extruded pea as an alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of dairy cattle raised in organic Alpine farms. The research was carried out in a commercial organic dairy farm located in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy and it considered two separate periods of cows’ lactation: early and late lactation. According to the traditional management practice of alpine dairy herds with the seasonal calving of the cows in early winter, the former period was carried out during the cold season when cows were housed indoors, while the latter period started after the transfer of the entire herd to an alpine pasture for the summer grazing. In both periods, 16 cows of Rendena breed were equally assigned to 2 experimental groups. The dietary forage (meadow hay in early lactation or pasture in late lactation was supplemented to one group of cows with a Control concentrate in which soybean expeller, sunflower expeller and wheat bran were the main protein feeds. Soybean proteins were replaced by extruded peas in the Soy-free concentrate given to the other group of cows. The daily amount of concentrate was adjusted to the individual milk yield on a weekly basis adopting ratios of 0.360 and 0.125 kg of DM per kg of milk in early and late lactation periods, respectively. Cows receiving Soy-free concentrate showed a higher milk yield than the Control cows in both lactation periods (18.7 vs 17.5 kg/d in early lactation and 9.3 vs 8.6 kg/d on pasture, respectively. Milk fat and protein were not affected by the diet at any stage of lactation, while a higher concentration of milk urea was observed in milk samples taken from Soy-free cows in both periods of the study. This result could have been promoted by the higher soluble fraction of extruded pea proteins in comparison to that of soybean expeller. Cows feeding behaviour was monitored only in the early lactation period and despite of the different amount of concentrate consumed by

  18. Ultrastructure and calcium balance in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to extremely low magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyavskaya, N. A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigations of low magnetic field (LMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planned space flights to other planets where the field intensity does not exceed 10 -5 Oe. Pea ( Pisum sativum L.) seeds were grown in an environment of LMF 3 days. In meristem cells of roots exposed to LMF, one could observe such ultrastructural peculiarities as a noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids. Mitochondria were the most sensitive organelle to LMF application. Their size and relative volume in cells increased, matrix was electron-transparent, and cristae reduced. Because of the significant role of calcium signalling in plant responses to different environmental factors, calcium participation in LMF effects was investigated using a pyroantimonate method to identify the localization of free calcium ions. The intensity of cytochemical reaction in root cells after LMF application was strong. The Ca 2+ pyroantimonate deposits were observed both in all organelles and in a hyaloplasm of the cells. Data obtained suggest that the observed LMF effects on ultrastructure of root cells were due to disruptions in different metabolic systems including effects on Ca 2+ homeostasis.

  19. Raw and extruded pea (Pisum sativum and lupin (Lupinus albusvar. Multitalia seeds as protein sources in weaned piglets’ diets: effect on growth rate and blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 42 days trial was carried out using 140 piglets weaned at 28 days of age. The piglets were allocated according to  weight and sex to the 5 dietary treatments with 7 replicates for each treatments (4 pens x 4 castrated males and 3 pens  x 4 females. The piglets were fed according to the following experimental design: 1 control diet (CTR with soybean  meal (SBM 44% c.p. as protein source; 2 CRT diets with 200 g/kg of raw pea (Pisum sativum (RP; 3 CTR diet with  200 g/kg extruded pea (EP; 4 CRT diet with 170 g/kg raw lupin (Lupinus albusvar. Multitalia (RL; 5 CTR diet with  170 g/kg of extruded lupin (EL. During the trial, animals were weighed at 0 - 21 and 42 days from the start of the trial.  Feed intake was monitored and feed conversion ratio was calculated for the periods 0-21 d and 22-42 d. At the end of  the trial, blood samples were taken for 14 animals for each dietary treatment (2 animals per replicate and analysed for  total protein, urea and liver activity (ALT, AST and ALP parameters. Average daily weight gain and feed intake did not  differ according to dietary treatments whereas during the total experimental period (0-42 d, feed conversion ratio was  higher for EP vsCTR diet (2.35 vs2.09, respectively; P   compared with diets containing the raw ingredients did not differ. Feed conversion ratio for the RP was numerically high-  er than for the EP (2.35 vs2.16 and 2.76 vs2.32, respectively during 22-42 d and 0-42 d periods. Blood parameters  did not show significant difference among dietary treatments except for higher total protein for CTR diet vsRL diet, EL  and RP (67.3 vs62.2, 62.8 and 63.6 g/l, respectively; PvsRL  and RL (4.7 vs3.7 and 3.8 mmol/l respectively; P 

  20. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants in response to ambient ozone at a rural site in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, I M; Basahi, J M; Hassan, I A

    2014-11-01

    Egyptian pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L. cultivars Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory) grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered (FA) or non-filtered air (NF) for five consecutive years (2009-2013) at a rural site in northern Egypt. Net photosynthetic rates (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular CO2 (Ci) and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Ozone (O3) was found to be the most prevalent pollutant common at the rural site and is suspected to be involved in the alteration of the physiological parameters measured in the present investigation. PN of different cultivars were found to respond similarly; decreases of 23, 29 and 39% were observed in the cultivars Perfection, Little Marvel and Victory, respectively (averaged over the five years) due to ambient O3. The maximum impairment in PN was recorded in the cultivar Victory (46%) in 2013 when the highest O3 levels were recorded (90 nL L(-1)). The average stomatal conductance decreased by 20 and 18% in the cultivars Little Marvel and Perfection, respectively, while the average stomatal conductance increased on average by 27% in the cultivar Victory. A significant correlation was found between PN and Ci, indicating the importance of non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis, especially in the cultivar Victory. The PN vs. Ci curves were fitted to a non-rectangular hyperbolic model. The actual quantum yield (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) were significantly decreased in the leaves of plants exposed to NF air. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was increased in all cultivars. Exposure to NF air caused reductions in chlorophyll (Chl a) of 19, 16 and 30% in the Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory cultivars, respectively.

  1. Fungi isolated from soil before the seeding and after harvest of pea (Pisum sativum L. after application of bio-control product EM 1 TM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Okorski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was performed during the years 2003- -2005. An influence of EM (Effective Microorganisms on the composition and number of fungi isolated from soil was found in the experiment. A total of 18111 fungal cultures were isolated from the roots of pea at flowering stage. The highest amount and the lowest diversity of fungi were obtained from rhizosphere of pea treated with pesticides (3257 colonies. The greatest diversity of fungi was found in the case of rhizosphere and rhizoplane, where EM was used in soil with the supplement of pesticides. The greatest amount and diversity of fungi were found from the plant roots of the control object. During the flowering stage, the fungi most frequently isolated from soil belonged to the genus Penicillium (40.78% of all isolates and Fusarium (33.37% of all isolates.

  2. Long-term impact of sublethal atrazine perturbs the redox homeostasis in pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Sergei; Shopova, Elena; Kerchev, Pavel; Sergiev, Iskren; Miteva, Lyuba; Polizoev, Djovani; Alexieva, Vera

    2013-02-01

    Atrazine frequently contaminates soil, groundwater, rivers, and ponds. It is well know that acute doses (1-5 mM) of atrazine induce massive generation of singlet oxygen by blocking photosystem II. The sublethal concentrations of this herbicide, similar to those found in the environment, also reduce growth and disrupt photosynthesis in a long-term aspect, but exact mechanisms remain much uncertain. In this study the effects of environmentally relevant atrazine levels, ranging from 0.1 to 10 μM, on pea plants were characterized for up to 20 days. The plants exposed to continuous influence of atrazine exhibited perturbed redox homeostasis with increases of the lipid peroxides, the total and oxidized glutathione pools and elevated guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activities. In contrast, the long-term atrazine impact did not affect superoxide dismutase activity whereas the catalase was inhibited. The perturbations of the redox status and the recruitment of the antioxidant machinery imply that the sublethal atrazine concentrations alter the poise between production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Taken together these results show that the long-term impact of sublethal atrazine has hallmarks of oxidative stress most probably triggered by generation of singlet oxygen.

  3. Efficacy of Si fertilization to modulate the heavy metals absorption by barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Yuqiao, Liu; Qiang, Zhan; Matichenkov, Vladimir; Bocharnikova, Elena; Dåstøl, Magne

    2016-10-01

    Silicon-based fertilizers and soil amendments can have direct and indirect positive influences on cultivated plants. The solid forms of Si-based substances, the most widespread in use, are efficient only at high application rates due to their low level of solubility. Several types of Si-based substances such as fumed silica, slags from the iron and steel industry, modified slags, and a Si-rich product were tested using barley and pea as silicon accumulative and non-accumulative plants, respectively, at two application rates. The plants were grown under toxic concentrations of heavy metals in a greenhouse. Si-rich materials high in water-soluble Si had a positive effect at both the low and high application rates, and for both plant species. This type of substance can be regarded as Si fertilizer, demonstrating greater efficiency at a low application rate and lessened efficiency at a high application rate for protection of the cultivated plants against accumulation of the heavy metals.

  4. Study of Pea Accessions for Development of an Oilseed Pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khodapanahi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Global interest in stable energy resources coupled with growing demand for bio-oils in various conventional and arising industries has renewed the importance of vegetable oil production. To address this global interest, oilseed production has been increased in recent decades by different approaches, such as extending the cultivation area of oil crops, or breeding and growing genetically modified plants. In this study, pea (Pisum sativum L. accessions were screened for lipid content using a rapid extraction method. This method quantifies lipid concentration in pea seeds and was developed by assessing and comparing the results of existing extraction methods used for canola and soybean, the top two Canadian oilseeds. Seeds of 151 field pea accessions were grown to maturity in 2009 and 2010 at McGill University (Quebec, Canada. Overall, lipid concentration in pea seeds ranged from 0.9 to 5.0%. Among several seed characteristics, only seed shape (wrinkled verses round had a significant effect on the total lipid production in the seeds. Peas are a valuable source of protein and starch, but the lipid concentration in their seeds has been undervalued. This research supports the idea of developing a novel dual-purpose oilseed pea that emulates the protein and oil production in soybean seeds while being conveniently adapted to a colder climate.

  5. Influence of tillage on adult and immature pea leaf weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) densities in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanavan, Ryan P; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Schotzko, Dennis J; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2010-06-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has been a major pest of pea, Pisum sativum L., in eastern Washington and northern Idaho since its introduction to the region in the early 1970s. Eggs are deposited in the spring on the soil surface and first instars hatch and move to pea root nodules, where larvae feed before they pupate and adults emerge in mid- to late summer. No-tillage practices are known to reduce pea leaf weevil colonization in pea, but the effects of tillage on larval densities and subsequent adult emergence have not been examined. During 2005, 2006, and 2007, we compared densities of colonizing adult and immature pea leaf weevils on pea plots grown using conventional tillage and no-tillage. In 2005 and 2006, emergence of adult pea leaf weevil was monitored in the same plots. Densities of colonizing adult and immature pea leaf weevil were significantly higher in conventional tillage plots. Larvae in conventional tillage were further along in development than larvae in no-tillage plots during June and July. Densities of emerging adult pea leaf weevil were significantly greater from conventional tillage than no-tillage plots. Based on densities of colonizing and subsequent emerging adults, survival of weevils from egg through adult was greater in conventional tillage plots. Soils under no-tillage are cooler, resulting in later emergence of the pea crop and delayed root nodule development, possibly affecting the ability of first-instar pea leaf weevil to locate host plant roots. Our results indicate no-tillage fields are less suitable for pea leaf weevil colonization and survival than conventional tillage fields.

  6. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants in response to ambient ozone at a rural site in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, I.M.; Basahi, J.M. [Air Pollution Laboratory (APL), Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Hassan, I.A., E-mail: ihassan_eg@yahoo.com [Air Pollution Laboratory (APL), Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, 21526 El Shatby, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2014-11-01

    Egyptian pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L. cultivars Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory) grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered (FA) or non-filtered air (NF) for five consecutive years (2009–2013) at a rural site in northern Egypt. Net photosynthetic rates (P{sub N}), stomatal conductance (g{sub s}), intercellular CO{sub 2} (C{sub i}) and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Ozone (O{sub 3}) was found to be the most prevalent pollutant common at the rural site and is suspected to be involved in the alteration of the physiological parameters measured in the present investigation. P{sub N} of different cultivars were found to respond similarly; decreases of 23, 29 and 39% were observed in the cultivars Perfection, Little Marvel and Victory, respectively (averaged over the five years) due to ambient O{sub 3}. The maximum impairment in P{sub N} was recorded in the cultivar Victory (46%) in 2013 when the highest O{sub 3} levels were recorded (90 nL L{sup −1}). The average stomatal conductance decreased by 20 and 18% in the cultivars Little Marvel and Perfection, respectively, while the average stomatal conductance increased on average by 27% in the cultivar Victory. A significant correlation was found between P{sub N} and C{sub i}, indicating the importance of non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis, especially in the cultivar Victory. The P{sub N} vs. Ci curves were fitted to a non-rectangular hyperbolic model. The actual quantum yield (Φ{sub PSII}) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) were significantly decreased in the leaves of plants exposed to NF air. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was increased in all cultivars. Exposure to NF air caused reductions in chlorophyll (Chl a) of 19, 16 and 30% in the Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory cultivars, respectively. - Highlights: • Ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations recorded were within the ranges of phytotoxicity. • O{sub 3} has a clear influence on the physiological

  7. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  8. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum, faba beans (Vicia fabavar. minor and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as protein sources in broiler diets: effect of extrusion on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion of pea seeds (Pisum sativum (PS, faba bean (Vicia faba, variety minor (FB and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (LS on broiler performance were evaluated. Four hundred sixty two 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments (3 pens per treatment/22 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the base diet (control diet was corn (48.8%, 53.7% and 57%, solvent-extracted soy- bean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, corn oil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The amounts of PS, FB and LS used on an as fed basis were: PS and extruded PS (EPS: 353 (1-10d-old, 356 (11-28d-old and 350 (29- 42d-old g/kg; FB and extruded FB (EFB: 479 (1-10d-old, 497 (11-28d-old and 500 (29-42d old g/kg; LS and extrud- ed LS (ELS: 360 (1-10d-old and 300 (11-42d-old g/kg. High levels of pea (350 g/kg and faba bean (500 g/kg did not show negative effects on body weight gain (BWG and bird feed intake compared to control. Lupin at the 300 g/kg level reduced (P< 0.05 the BWG during the finishing period (22 to 42 d, however the effect disappeared over the whole experimental period (1-42 d compared to the control group. The ELS group had a lower (P< 0.01 feed intake com- pared to the control group and to the LS group. The feed conversion rate (FCR was similar among groups for the whole experimental period; however during the grower period the FCR was higher (P< 0.05 for the PS, FB and EFB groups com- pared to the control group. Birds consuming the PS diet had a reduced (P< 0.05 eviscerated carcass yield compared to the control group. The breast meat percent yield was higher (P< 0.01 for birds consuming the FB and EFB diets compared to the control

  9. 引进豌豆品种的比较与评价%Comparison and Evaluation on Introduced Peas (Pisum sativum L.)Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞; 彭昭欣; 陈禅友

    2015-01-01

    为筛选适宜武汉地区种植的豌豆新品种,对引进国外的9份豌豆品种资源与3个本地品种(对照组),开展品种比较试验。通过观测田间生产性能和营养品质,进行综合分析评价,选出综合性状优良品种3个,可入选开展区域试验;同时选出生长习性和荚色具有特异性状的品种2个,可作种质资源加以利用。%To screen new peas cultivars whichare suitable for Wuhan district ,a field trial was conducted with 9 introduced pea cultivars from abroad and 3 local cultivars as a control group. The author Analyzed the data of field performance and nutrient ingredients,three cultivars with excellent comprehensive characters can be selected into next regional test ,two cultivars with special traits in growth habit and pod color were considered as useful germplasm resources.

  10. Lipid composition of pea (Pisum sativum L. and maize (Zea mays L. root plasma membrane and membrane-bound peroxidase and superoxide dismutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukavica Biljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma membrane was isolated from roots of pea and maize plants and used to analyze POD and SOD isoforms, as well as lipid composition. Among lipids, phospholipids were the main lipid class, with phosphatidylcho­line being the most abundant individual component in both pea and maize plasma membranes. Significant differences between the two plant species were found in the contents of cerebrosides, free sterols, and steryl glycosides. Most maize POD isoforms were with neutral and anionic pI values, but the opposite was observed in pea. While both anionic and cationic SOD isoforms were isolated from maize, only two anionic SOD isoforms were detected in pea.

  11. Formation of electric dipoles in pea stem tissue due to an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Farahani, Elham

    2016-07-01

    For examining the effect of an electrical field (DC) on pea seed, we exposed the pea seeds to electric fields with intensities 1, 4 and 7 kV/cm for 30, 230, 430 and 630 seconds. The tests were repeated three times, and each iteration had 5 seeds. Then, the seeds were moved to packaged plates. Finally, microscopic observation of the pea stem tissue showed that the application of a DC electrical field caused a deformation in the pea stem tissue. The results led us to examine the deformation of the tissue theoretically and to address that deformation as an electrostatic problem. In this regard, we modeled the pea stem based on the formation of electric dipoles. Then, theoretically, we calculated the force acting on each xylem section by coding, and the results were consistent with the experimental data.

  12. Induction of host defences by Rhizobium during ineffective nodulation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) carrying symbiotically defective mutations sym40 (PsEFD), sym33 (PsIPD3/PsCYCLOPS) and sym42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Kira A; Tsyganova, Anna V; Brewin, Nicholas J; Tikhonovich, Igor A; Tsyganov, Viktor E

    2015-11-01

    Rhizobia are able to establish a beneficial interaction with legumes by forming a new organ, called the symbiotic root nodule, which is a unique ecological niche for rhizobial nitrogen fixation. Rhizobial infection has many similarities with pathogenic infection and induction of defence responses accompanies both interactions, but defence responses are induced to a lesser extent during rhizobial infection. However, strong defence responses may result from incompatible interactions between legumes and rhizobia due to a mutation in either macro- or microsymbiont. The aim of this research was to analyse different plant defence reactions in response to Rhizobium infection for several pea (Pisum sativum) mutants that result in ineffective symbiosis. Pea mutants were examined by histochemical and immunocytochemical analyses, light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy and quantitative real-time PCR gene expression analysis. It was observed that mutations in pea symbiotic genes sym33 (PsIPD3/PsCYCLOPS encoding a transcriptional factor) and sym40 (PsEFD encoding a putative negative regulator of the cytokinin response) led to suberin depositions in ineffective nodules, and in the sym42 there were callose depositions in infection thread (IT) and host cell walls. The increase in deposition of unesterified pectin in IT walls was observed for mutants in the sym33 and sym42; for mutant in the sym42, unesterified pectin was also found around degrading bacteroids. In mutants in the genes sym33 and sym40, an increase in the expression level of a gene encoding peroxidase was observed. In the genes sym40 and sym42, an increase in the expression levels of genes encoding a marker of hypersensitive reaction and PR10 protein was demonstrated. Thus, a range of plant defence responses like suberisation, callose and unesterified pectin deposition as well as activation of defence genes can be triggered by different pea single mutations that cause perception of an otherwise

  13. Micronuclei formation in Pisum sativum L. root meristem cells exposed to an electric field or. gamma. -rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.W.; Economou, P.; Cox, C.; Robertson, D.

    1982-01-01

    Gamma radiation (400 R, 800 R; acute exposre), but not a 430 V/m 60 Hz electric field (continuous 5 day exposure in culture medium with a conductivity of 0.08 S/m), induced micronuclei formation in root meristem cells of Pisum sativum L.

  14. Temporal and spatial distribution of roots and competition for nitrogen in pea-barley intercrops - a field study employing P-32 technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2001-01-01

    Root system dynamics, productivity and N use were studied in inter- and sole crops of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on a temperate sandy loam. A P-32 tracer placed at a depth of 12.5, 37.5, 62.5 or 87.5 cm was employed to determine root system dynamics...... by sampling crop leaves at 0, 15, 30 and 45 cm lateral distance. N-15 addition was used to estimate N-2 fixation by pea, using sole cropped barley as reference crop. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER), which is defined as the relative land area under sole crops that is required to produce the yields achieved...... in intercropping, were used to compare the crop growth in intercrops relative to the respective sole crops. The P-32 appearance in leaves revealed that the barley root system grows faster than that of pea. P uptake by the barley root system during early growth stages was approximately 10 days ahead...

  15. Study of DC and AC electric field effect on Pisum sativum seeds growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Bahar; Jaleh, Sojoodi; Yasaman, Yasaie

    2014-07-01

    In this research the effect of electric field on two groups of wet and dry Pisum sativum seeds growth was studied. To generate the required electric field a parallel-plate capacitor with round copper plates of 30 cm diameter was used. The experiments were performed once in fixed exposure duration of 8 min in variable DC electric field of 0.25-1.5 kV/m. The other experiments were performed in variable fields of 50-125 kV/m in fixed exposure duration of 8 min, in two groups of AC and DC electric fields. The experiments were repeated three times. In each experiment 10 seeds were used and there was a sham exposed group for comparison, too. After application of electric field, the seeds were kept for six days in the same growth chamber with the temperature of 25 ± 1 °C and 12 h light/12 h darkness. On the 6th day length of stems and height of roots were measured. After doing statistical analysis, in low intensities of DC electric field, the highest significant increase of mean growth (The average of stem length and the height of roots) was seen in 1.5 kV/m in wet seeds. In high intensities of DC and AC electric fields, the highest significant increase of mean growth was seen in AC electric field of 100 kV/m in wet seeds.

  16. Phosphorus application and elevated CO2 enhance drought tolerance in field pea grown in a phosphorus-deficient vertisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Lauricella, Dominic; Armstrong, Roger; Sale, Peter; Tang, Caixian

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Benefits to crop productivity arising from increasing CO2 fertilization may be offset by detrimental effects of global climate change, such as an increasing frequency of drought. Phosphorus (P) nutrition plays an important role in crop responses to water stress, but how elevated CO2 (eCO2) and P nutrition interact, especially in legumes, is unclear. This study aimed to elucidate whether P supply improves plant drought tolerance under eCO2. Methods A soil-column experiment was conducted in a free air CO2 enrichment (SoilFACE) system. Field pea (Pisum sativum) was grown in a P-deficient vertisol, supplied with 15 mg P kg−1 (deficient) or 60 mg P kg−1 (adequate for crop growth) and exposed to ambient CO2 (aCO2; 380–400 ppm) or eCO2 (550–580 ppm). Drought treatments commenced at flowering. Measurements were taken of soil and leaf water content, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, total soluble sugars and inorganic P content (Pi). Key Results Water-use efficiency was greatest under eCO2 when the plants were supplied with adequate P compared with other treatments irrespective of drought treatment. Elevated CO2 decreased stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and increased the concentration of soluble sugars and relative water contents in leaves. Adequate P supply increased concentrations of soluble sugars and Pi in drought-stressed plants. Adequate P supply but not eCO2 increased root length distribution in deeper soil layers. Conclusions Phosphorus application and eCO2 interactively enhanced periodic drought tolerance in field pea as a result of decreased stomatal conductance, deeper rooting and high Pi availability for carbon assimilation in leaves. PMID:25429008

  17. Seed set, pollen morphology and pollen surface composition response to heat stress in field pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunfei; Lahlali, Rachid; Karunakaran, Chithra; Kumar, Saroj; Davis, Arthur R; Bueckert, Rosalind A

    2015-11-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a major legume crop grown in a semi-arid climate in Western Canada, where heat stress affects pollination, seed set and yield. Seed set and pod growth characteristics, along with in vitro percentage pollen germination, pollen tube growth and pollen surface composition, were measured in two pea cultivars (CDC Golden and CDC Sage) subjected to five maximum temperature regimes ranging from 24 to 36 °C. Heat stress reduced percentage pollen germination, pollen tube length, pod length, seed number per pod, and the seed-ovule ratio. Percentage pollen germination of CDC Sage was greater than CDC Golden at 36 °C. No visible morphological differences in pollen grains or the pollen surface were observed between the heat and control-treated pea. However, pollen wall (intine) thickness increased due to heat stress. Mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance (MIR-ATR) spectra revealed that the chemical composition (lipid, proteins and carbohydrates) of each cultivar's pollen grains responded differently to heat stress. The lipid region of the pollen coat and exine of CDC Sage was more stable compared with CDC Golden at 36 °C. Secondary derivatives of ATR spectra indicated the presence of two lipid types, with different amounts present in pollen grains from each cultivar.

  18. Influence of genotype and processing on the in vitro rate of starch hydrolysis and resistant starch formation in peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrabanja, V; Liljeberg, H G; Hedley, C L; Kreft, I; Björck, I M

    1999-05-01

    The formation of resistant starch (RS) and the rate of starch hydrolysis were evaluated in vitro in a wild type of green-seeded pea genotype RRRbRb BC3 (33-Am) with 32.7% amylose content and in two mutants RRrbrb BC3 (23-Am) and rrRbRb BC3 (65-Am) with amylose contents of 23.3 and 65.1%, respectively. Pea samples were intact or homogenized and subjected either to autoclaving or to boiling at atmospheric pressure. The amount of RS (total starch basis) varied from 6.2 to 12.9% in the 23-Am products and from 31.2 to 33.4% in the 65-Am products. The RS level of the 33-Am product with a regular amylose content was 11.0%. Both the 23-Am and the 65-Am products were abundant sources of dietary fiber (39 and 34%, dry matter basis, respectively) versus 23% in the regular pea product. The amylose/amylopectin ratio was an important determinant of the rate of starch hydrolysis. The hydrolysis indices (HI) and predicted glycemic indices were lowest in the 65-Am peas (HI range = 42-59) as compared to the 23-Am peas (HI range = 53-84). It is concluded that the pea genotypes covered a wide range in starch availability, which is likely to affect nutritional parameters such as glycemic responses and colonic delivery of starch.

  19. Dynamics of mature pea residue nitrogen turnover in unplanted soil under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    mineralizable after 2 yr of decomposition, indicating that the remaining residue N-15 was present in rather recalcitrant soil organic matter. After 90 days of decomposition N-15 unaccounted for corresponded to 10% of the input, increasing to 20-30% after 2-3 yr of decomposition. The main part of the N......The dynamics of N-15-labelled mature, pea (Pisum sativum L.) residue turnover in soil were studied in two 3 yr experiments, using residue sizes of decomposition there was a sharp decline in the amount of N-15 in organic...... to the biomass N-15, but the size of the potentially-mineralizable N-15 pool was much smaller than the biomass N-15 pool. After 3 yr of decomposition, 28% (Expt 1) and 45% (Expt 2) of the residue N-15 input was present in the topsoil in organic forms. Only 1-2% of the residual organic N-15 was potentially...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain CREA-C16 Isolated from Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Roberto; Scotti, Riccardo; Salzano, Melania; Aurilia, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herein, we report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CREA-C16, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that was isolated from the rhizosphere of Pisum sativum L. plants. The genome sequence is ~6 Mb in size, with a G+C content of 60.1%, and includes 4,457 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:28126933

  1. Compared cycling in a soil-plant system of pea and barley residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    and 35% of the pea residue N were unaccounted for. Since these apparent losses are comparable to almost twice the amounts of pea and barley residue N taken up by the perennial ryegrass crop, there seems to be a potential for improved crop residue management in order to conserve nutrients in the soil......Field experiments were carried out on a temperate soil to determine the decline rate, the stabilization in soil organic matter and the plant uptake of N from N-15-labelled crop residues. The fate of N from field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) residues was followed...... in the top 10 cm soil declined rapidly during the initial 86 DAI for all residue types. Leaching of soluble organic materials may have contributed to this decline. At 216 DAI 72, 59 and 45% of the barley, mature pea and green pea residue N, respectively, were present in organic N-forms in the topsoil. During...

  2. Radiosensitivity study in the germination and growth of the pea Pisum sativum L, with seeds exposed to gamma radiation; Estudio de radiosensibilidad en la germinacion y crecimiento de la arveja Pisum sativum L, con semillas expuestas a radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilguan, J.; Carrasco, J.; Marquez, V., E-mail: ilguanjanneth@gmail.com [Escuela Superior Politecnica de Chimborazo, Facultad de Ciencias, Panamericana Sur Km 1 1/2, ECO60155 Riobamba (Ecuador)

    2016-10-15

    Seeds of Pisum sativum L. were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co irradiator belonging to the Subsecretaria de Control y Aplicaciones Nucleares del Ecuador (SCAN), the dose rate at the irradiation time was 4.86 Gy/min. The seeds were grouped in packs of 100 units and exposed at doses of 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180 and 200 Gy. The number of effective germinations, the days for germination, the main stem thickness, the number of branches and the size of the plant were evaluated. To validate the experimentation, the data were analyzed statistically by tests of homogeneity of variances, way ANOVA and Scheffe analysis to each variable. The number of effective germinations was given to 100% for 20 and 40 Gy then decreases to a higher dose reaching 20% to 200 Gy, being the average of the proof near to 90%. Increased germination stimulation at treatment at 20 Gy with an average of 5.0 days was evidenced. Treatment at doses of 20, 40 and 60 Gy generate a plant size greater than the proof whose mean is 68.30 cm. The mean number of branches of the proof is 5.3 with a standard deviation of 0.675, which is greater at doses of 20 and 40 Gy. In the study, is concluded that better results are obtained when irradiating seeds Pisum sativum L, between 20 and 60 Gy. (Author)

  3. Identification of genome regions controlling cotyledon, pod wall/seed coat and pod wall resistance to pea weevil through QTL mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryamanesh, N; Zeng, Y; Byrne, O; Hardie, D C; Al-Subhi, A M; Khan, T; Siddique, K H M; Yan, G

    2013-11-15

    Pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum, is one of the limiting factors for field pea (Pisum sativum) cultivation in the world with pesticide application the only available method for its control. Resistance to pea weevil has been found in an accession of Pisum fulvum but transfer of this resistance to cultivated pea (P. sativum) is limited due to a lack of easy-to-use techniques for screening interspecific breeding populations. To address this problem, an interspecific population was created from a cross between cultivated field pea and P. fulvum (resistance source). Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed to discover the regions associated with resistance to cotyledon, pod wall/seed coat and pod wall resistance. Three major QTLs, located on linkage groups LG2, LG4 and LG5 were found for cotyledon resistance explaining approximately 80 % of the phenotypic variation. Two major QTLs were found for pod wall/seed coat resistance on LG2 and LG5 explaining approximately 70 % of the phenotypic variation. Co-linearity of QTLs for cotyledon and pod wall/seed coat resistance suggested that the mechanism of resistance for these two traits might act through the same pathways. Only one QTL was found for pod wall resistance on LG7 explaining approximately 9 % of the phenotypic variation. This is the first report on the development of QTL markers to probe Pisum germplasm for pea weevil resistance genes. These flanking markers will be useful in accelerating the process of screening when breeding for pea weevil resistance.

  4. Sustainable control of pea bacterial blight : approaches for durable genetic resistance and biocontrol by endophytic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elvira-Recuenco, M.

    2000-01-01

    Key-words: bacterial blight, biological control, biodiversity, endophytic bacteria, L-form, pea, PDRl retrotransposon, Pisum sativum, Pisum abyssinicum, Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi, race specific resistance, race non-specific resistance, Spanish

  5. Effect of phosphorus and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on disease severity of root rot of peas (Pisum sativum) caused by Aphanomyces euteiches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Lars; Kjøller, Rasmus; Rosendahl, Søren

    1998-01-01

    The effects of inorganic phosphate levels and the presence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on disease severity of Aphanomyces euteiches in pea roots were studied. Disease severity on roots and epicotyl as well as the oospore number within infected root tissue were correlated with the phosphorus (P) level...... in the growth medium. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices increased P uptake and the P concentration in the plant but reduced disease development in peas. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by densitometry of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase specific to A.euteiches was used...

  6. Ultrastructure of pea and cress root statocytes exposed to high gradient magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyavskaya, N. A.; Chernishov, V. I.; Polishchuk, O. V.; Kondrachuk, A. V.

    As it was demonstrated by Kuznetsov & Hasenstein (1996) the high gradient magnetic field (HGMF) can produce a ponderomotive force that results in displacements of amyloplasts and causes the root response similar to the graviresponse. It was suggested that the HGMF could allow to imitate the effects of gravity in microgravity and/or change them in laboratory conditions correspondingly, as well as to study statolith-related processes in graviperception. Therefore, the correlation between the direction of the ponderomotive force resulting in statolith displacements and the direction of the HGMF-induced plant curvature can be the serious argument to support this suggestion and needs the detailed ultrastructural analysis. Seeds of dicotyledon Pisum sativum L. cv. Damir-2 and monocotyledon Lepidium sativum L. cv. P896 were soaked and grown in a vertical position on moist filter paper in chambers at room temperature. Tips of primary roots of vertical control, gravistimulated and exposed to HGMF seedlings were fixed for electron microscopy using conventional techniques. At ultrastructural level, we observed no significant changes in the volume of the individual statocytes or amyloplasts, relative volumes of cellular organelles (except vacuoles), number of amyloplasts per statocyte or surface area of endoplasmic reticulum. No consistent contacts between amyloplasts and any cellular structures, including plasma membrane, were revealed at any stage of magneto- and gravistimulation. By 5 min after onset of magnetostimulation, amyloplasts were located along cell wall distant from magnets. In HGMF, the locations of amyloplasts in columella cells were similar to those in horizontally-oriented roots up to 1 h stimulation. In the latter case, there were sometimes cytoplasmic spherical bodies with a dense vesicle-rich cytoplasm in pea statocytes, which were absent in seedlings exposed to HGMF. In cress root statocytes, both gravi- and magnetostimulation were found to cause the

  7. Effects of tillage practices on pea leaf weevil (Sitona lineatus L., Coleoptera: Curculionidae) biology and crop damage: a farm-scale study in the US Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanavan, R P; Bosque-Pérez, N A

    2012-12-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus L., is periodically a significant pest of pea, Pisum sativum L., in the Palouse region of northern Idaho and eastern Washington, USA. Previous on-station research demonstrated significantly greater adult pea leaf weevil colonization, immature survival, adult emergence and plant damage in conventional-tillage compared to no-tillage plots of pea. In experiments conducted during the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons, aerial and ground adult pea leaf weevil colonization of large-scale commercial pea fields under different tillage regimes in northern Idaho and eastern Washington was examined for the first time. Initial pea leaf weevil feeding damage, immature weevil densities and subsequent adult emergence from the fields were also assessed. During both years, significantly more adult pea leaf weevils were captured in conventional-tillage than in no-tillage fields during the crop establishment period in May. No-tillage soils remained wet longer in the spring and could not be planted by growers until later than conventional-tillage fields. Pea planted under conventional-tillage emerged earlier and had significantly greater feeding damage by the pea leaf weevil than no-tillage pea. Significantly, greater immature pea leaf weevil densities and subsequent adult emergence were observed in conventional-tillage than in no-tillage pea fields. Delayed development of root nodules in the cooler, moister conditions of no-tillage pea fields likely resulted in escape from attack and injury during the critical growth stages that ultimately influence yield. Results indicate that large-scale commercial no-tillage pea fields are less suitable for colonization and survival of the pea leaf weevil and suffer less weevil damage than fields under conventional tillage.

  8. Effects of biological insecticides NeemAzal T/S and Pyrethrum FS EC and their interaction with organic products in treatments of pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae on Pisum sativum (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and effects of two biological insecticides, NeemAzal T/S® and Pyrethrum FS EC, applied individually and in combination with Polyversum (a biological growth regulator and fungicide and Biofa (an organic foliar fertilizer, in controlling Acyrthosyphon pisum population density were studied. Nurelle D (a synthetic insecticide, applied alone and in combination with Flordimex 420 (a synthetic growth regulator, was used as a standard. The products were applied once (at budding stage or twice (at budding and flowering stages. Twenty-four variants were studied. The interaction of Pyrethrum with Biofa was the most efficient variant of the biological products, causing a reduction in aphid density that reached 48.2% after double treatment, while Pyrethrum+Polyversum (42.5% was the second most successful treatment. The combination of Pyrethrum with Biofa achieved the highest efficacy and synergism and their efficacy approached that of the synthetic insecticide.

  9. [Regulatory genes of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) controlling the development of nitrogen-fixing nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza: a review of basic and applied aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borisov, A Iu; Vasil'chikov, A G; Voroshilova, V A

    2007-01-01

    . Progress in identifying and cloning symbiotic genes is adequately reflected. The feasibility of using double inoculation as a means of increasing the plant productivity is demonstrated, in which the potential of a tripartite symbiotic system (pea plants-root nodule bacteria-arbuscular mycorrhiza...

  10. Molecular diversity of native rhizobia trapped by five field pea genotypes in Indian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, K; Dudeja, S S; Yadav, R K

    2011-02-01

    Five pea cultivars; HFP 4, HVP 3-5, HFP 9426, Jayanti and Hariyal, being grown in CCS Haryana Agricultural University farm were used to isolate native rhizobia. Selected 54 rhizobia, from all cultivars, were authenticated as rhizobia by plant infectivity test. Along with nodulation, symbiotic effectiveness in terms of symbiotic ratios showed wide range of effectiveness of pea rhizobia from 1.11 to 5.0. DNA of all the 54 rhizobia was extracted and amplified by PCR, using ERIC and 16S rDNA primers. Dendrogram based on ERIC profiles of these 54 rhizobia showed the formation of 13 subclusters at 80% level of similarity. Dendrogram based on RFLP of 16S rDNA by three restriction endonucleases; Msp I, Csp 6I and Rsa I; also formed 13 subclusters at 80% level of similarity. However, positioning of subclusters was different from that of ERIC based dendrogram. Majority of the isolates i.e. 64.8% by ERIC profiles and 44.4% by RFLP of 16S rDNA formed one cluster. Isolates from same nodule were not 100% similar. Considering each cluster representing a rhizobial genotype, both techniques used to assess molecular diversity indicated the presence of 13 genotypes of field pea rhizobia in CCS Haryana Agricultural University farm soil. Two pea rhizobial genotypes were able to nodulate all the five pea cultivars. Furthermore, high strain richness index (0.43-0.5) of field pea rhizobia was observed by both the techniques.

  11. Determination of cadmium and lead species and phytochelatins in pea (Pisum sativum) by HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-MSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Kózka, Małgorzata; Piechalak, Aneta; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Sobczak, Paweł

    2009-07-15

    An analytical approach based on hyphenated techniques was used for studying the speciation of cadmium and lead in Pisum sativum. Proper preservation conditions were employed to avoid the oxidation of -SH groups and corresponding decomposition of metal-binding complexes. SEC column was washed with 5 mM beta-mercaptoethanol and then samples were analysed using ICP-MS as a detector. Results showed that cadmium is the inhibitor of lead uptake. HPLC-ESI-MS(n) assays revealed fragmentation pathways of phytochelatins.

  12. Analysis and Application of Transferable SSR Molecular Markers from Cowpea(Vigna unguiculata)to Pea(Pisum sativum)%豇豆SSR标记在豌豆中的可转移性与应用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘磊; 徐亚芳; 郭瑞; 李佳楠; 胡志辉; 陈禅友

    2014-01-01

    利用豇豆SSR引物筛选在豌豆具通用性的SSR引物。13对豇豆SSR引物中检测出8对引物在豌豆中可扩增,其中5对SSR引物表现出多态性,进而分析11个豌豆品种和5个豇豆品种的遗传多样性与遗传关系。结果表明:平均等位基因数、平均有效等位基因数、平均Shannon指数,在豌豆品种群中分别为2.00、1.64、0.55,豇豆品种群中分别为2.00、1.80、0.53,上述遗传参数反映出供试豌豆品种和豇豆品种具有中等水平的遗传多样性;利用UPGMA聚类分析,能将豌豆品种群和豇豆品种群分为两类,且每个品种群内的各个体之间能进行区分,尤其是两个豌豆品种亚群的聚类结果与其地理来源基本一致。%Aimed to screen out transferable SSR(simple sequence repeat)molecular markers from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to pea (Pisum sativum). Using thirteen cowpea SSR primer pairs, eight primer pairs were successfully cross-amplified in pea. Five of the eight primer pairs exhibited polymorphism,and then to study the genetic variation of eleven pea cultivars and five cowpea culti⁃vars. Results showed that genetic parameters of the average number of alleles,the average effective number of alleles and the average Shannon′s index are 2. 00,1. 64,0. 55 in the pea cultivar group, and 2. 00,1. 80,0. 53 in the cowpea cultivar group,respectively. These indicated that a moderate level of genetic diversity was revealed in the two cultivar groups. In addtion,UPGMA clustering showed that the pea cultivar group and the cowpea cultivar group clustered into their own branches, respectively. Within each group,most of the samples can be distinguished from each other. Especial⁃ly,within the pea cultivar group,all the samples can be divided into two subgroups,which are con⁃sistent with their geographical origin.

  13. Influence of gibberellic acid on the growth and flowering initiation of two types of peas (Pisum sativum L. differing in photoperiod response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Łukasik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It was found that GA3 (0.03 mg per one plant caused significant delay of the flowering of two different genotypes of peas under conditions of an increasing natural day length (March - May. It was expressed both in a greater number of vegetative nodes and in a greater number of days to the first flower. Under conditions of a decreasing day length (August - November most of G type plants treated with GA3 reacted with complete inhibition of the flowering. In K type pea, GA3 treatment in the discussed conditions affected only the number of days from the sowing time to the appearence of the first flower. This stage was greater in treated plants in comparison with the control ones.

  14. The mycorrhizal fungus (¤Glomus intraradices¤) affects microbial activity in the rhizosphere of pea plants (¤Pisum sativum¤)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, C.; Christensen, S.; Jakobsen, I.

    2003-01-01

    Pea plants were grown in gamma-irradiated soil in pots with and without addition of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices at sufficient N and limiting P. Depending on the growth phase of the plant presence of AM had negative or positive effect on rhizosphere activity. Before flowering during nutrient...... in the rhizosphere community during plant growth also supported by changes in the bacteria (DGGE). (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF VERMICOMPOST FROM KITCHEN WASTE ON THE YIELD-ENHANCING CHARACTERISTICS OF PEAS PISUM SATIVUM L. VAR. SACCHARATUM SER. BAJKA VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Pączka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the possibility of using the vermicompost produced from kitchen waste (by Eisenia fetida earthworms to grow sugar peas. Its influence on the dynamics of sprouting of peas and their growth to 21st day was investigated in a pot experiment. Four combinations were realised (control – standard garden soil; (50W – its mixture with 50% of vermicompost; (25W and (10W – with 25% and 10% of vermicompost addition respectively (n=5. Vermicompost from kitchen waste turned out to be useful in the cultivation of peas. No significant differences in the impact of all the analysed substrates on the sprouting of this plant were found. A 10% vermicompost addition (10W was shown to be the most favourable substrate. Its positive influence was shown in the impact on the increase of total average mass (by 33%; p<0.001 and height of the plants (by 12%; p<0.05 and average mass (by 39%; p<0.001 and length (by 12%; p<0.05 of stems.

  16. Nitrogen immobilization and mineralization during initial decomposition of 15N-labelled pea and barley residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The immobilization and mineralization of N following plant residue incorporation were studied in a sandy loam soil using N-15-labelled field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw. Both crop residues caused a net immobilization of soil-derived inorganic N during...

  17. Pea enation mosaic virus genoma RNA contains no polyadenylate sequences and cannot be aminoacylated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, T L; De Zoeten, G A; Hall, T C

    1978-01-01

    An active synthetase enzyme preparation from peas (Pisum sativum L.) did not catalyze the aminoacylation of pea enation mosaic virus RNA. The viral RNA was shown not to contain polyadenylic acid sequences.

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of Pisum sativum accessions for marker-trait association of lipid content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sajjad Ahmad; Simerjeet Kaur; Neil Dylan Lamb-Palmer; Mark Lefsrud; Jaswinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important protein-rich pulse crop produced globally. Increasing the lipid content of Pisum seeds through conventional and contemporary molecular breeding tools may bring added value to the crop. However, knowledge about genetic diversity and lipid content in field pea is limited. An understanding of genetic diversity and population structure in diverse germplasm is important and a prerequisite for genetic dissection of complex characteristics and marker-trait associations. Fifty polymorphic microsatellite markers detecting a total of 207 alleles were used to obtain information on genetic diversity, population structure and marker-trait associations. Cluster analysis was performed using UPGMA to construct a dendrogram from a pairwise similarity matrix. Pea genotypes were divided into five major clusters. A model-based population structure analysis divided the pea accessions into four groups. Percentage lipid content in 35 diverse pea accessions was used to find potential associations with the SSR markers. Markers AD73, D21, and AA5 were significantly associated with lipid content using a mixed linear model (MLM) taking population structure (Q) and relative kinship (K) into account. The results of this preliminary study suggested that the population could be used for marker-trait association mapping studies.

  19. Genetic diversity and population structure of Pisum sativum accessions for marker-trait association of lipid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Field pea (Pisum sativum L. is an important protein-rich pulse crop produced globally. Increasing the lipid content of Pisum seeds through conventional and contemporary molecular breeding tools may bring added value to the crop. However, knowledge about genetic diversity and lipid content in field pea is limited. An understanding of genetic diversity and population structure in diverse germplasm is important and a prerequisite for genetic dissection of complex characteristics and marker-trait associations. Fifty polymorphic microsatellite markers detecting a total of 207 alleles were used to obtain information on genetic diversity, population structure and marker-trait associations. Cluster analysis was performed using UPGMA to construct a dendrogram from a pairwise similarity matrix. Pea genotypes were divided into five major clusters. A model-based population structure analysis divided the pea accessions into four groups. Percentage lipid content in 35 diverse pea accessions was used to find potential associations with the SSR markers. Markers AD73, D21, and AA5 were significantly associated with lipid content using a mixed linear model (MLM taking population structure (Q and relative kinship (K into account. The results of this preliminary study suggested that the population could be used for marker-trait association mapping studies.

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of Pisum sativum accessions for marker-trait association of lipid content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sajjad; Ahmad; Simerjeet; Kaur; Neil; Dylan; Lamb-Palmer; Mark; Lefsrud; Jaswinder; Singh

    2015-01-01

    Field pea(Pisum sativum L.) is an important protein-rich pulse crop produced globally. Increasing the lipid content of Pisum seeds through conventional and contemporary molecular breeding tools may bring added value to the crop. However, knowledge about genetic diversity and lipid content in field pea is limited. An understanding of genetic diversity and population structure in diverse germplasm is important and a prerequisite for genetic dissection of complex characteristics and marker-trait associations. Fifty polymorphic microsatellite markers detecting a total of 207 alleles were used to obtain information on genetic diversity, population structure and marker-trait associations. Cluster analysis was performed using UPGMA to construct a dendrogram from a pairwise similarity matrix. Pea genotypes were divided into five major clusters. A model-based population structure analysis divided the pea accessions into four groups. Percentage lipid content in 35 diverse pea accessions was used to find potential associations with the SSR markers. Markers AD73, D21, and AA5 were significantly associated with lipid content using a mixed linear model(MLM) taking population structure(Q) and relative kinship(K) into account. The results of this preliminary study suggested that the population could be used for marker-trait association mapping studies.

  1. Pea proteins for piglets: effects on digestive processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Guen, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    White-flowered pea ( Pisum sativum ) contains 20 to 25% crude protein (Nx6.25). The pea proteins consist in globulins (60%) and albumins (25%). Because the pea albumin proteins have biological activities due to their metabolic roles in the seed, some of them are called antinutritional factors (ANFs)

  2. Intercropping of wheat and pea as influenced by nitrogen fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, B.B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh;

    2005-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on crop yield, fertilizer and soil nitrogen (N) use was tested on a sandy loam soil at three levels of urea fertilizer N (0, 4 and 8 g N m−2) applied at sowing. The 15N enrichment...... and natural abundance techniques were used to determine N accumulation in the crops from the soil, fertilizer and symbiotic N2 fixation. Intercrops of pea and wheat showed maximum productivity without the supply of N fertilizer. Intercropping increased total dry matter (DM) and N yield, grain DM and N yield......, grain N concentration, the proportion of N derived from symbiotic N2 fixation, and soil N accumulation. With increasing fertilizer N supply, intercropped and sole cropped wheat responded with increased yield, grain N yield and soil N accumulation, whereas the opposite was the case for pea. Fertilizer N...

  3. Increasing the rate of drying reduces metabolic imbalance, lipid peroxidation and critical water content in radicles of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuli, Tobias M; Pammenter, Norman W; Berjak, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Orthodox seeds become desiccation-sensitive as they undergo germination. As a result, germinating seeds serve as a model to study desiccation sensitivity in plant tissues. The effects of the rate of drying on the viability, respiratory metabolism and free radical processes were thus studied during dehydration and wet storage of radicles of Pisum sativum. For both drying regimes desiccation could be described by exponential and inverse modified functions. Viability, as assessed by germination capacity and tetrazolium staining, remained at 100% during rapid (water content for survival. Rapid desiccation was also associated with higher activities and levels of malate dehydrogenase and the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. It was also accompanied by lower hydroperoxide levels and membrane damage. In addition, the activitiy of glutathione reductase was greater during rapid drying. Ageing may have contributed to increased damage during slow dehydration, since viability declined even in wet storage after two weeks. The results presented are consistent with rapid desiccation reducing the accumulation of damage resulting from desiccation-induced aqueous-based deleterious reactions. In addition, they show that radicles are a useful model to study desiccation sensitivity in plant tissues.

  4. COCHLEATA controls leaf size and secondary inflorescence architecture via negative regulation of UNIFOLIATA (LEAFY ortholog) gene in garden pea Pisum sativum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vishakha Sharma; Swati Chaudhary; Arvind Kumar; Sushil Kumar

    2012-12-01

    UNIFOLIATA [(UNI) or UNIFOLIATA-TENDRILLED ACACIA (UNI-TAC)] expression is known to be negatively regulated by COCHLEATA (COCH) in the differentiating stipules and flowers of Pisum sativum. In this study, additional roles of UNI and COCH in P. sativum were investigated. Comparative phenotyping revealed pleiotropic differences between COCH (UNI-TAC and uni-tac) and coch (UNI-TAC and uni-tac) genotypes of common genetic background. Secondary inflorescences were bracteole-less and bracteolated in COCH and coch genotypes, respectively. In comparison to the leaves and corresponding sub-organs and tissues produced on COCH plants, coch plants produced leaves of 1.5-fold higher biomass, 1.5-fold broader petioles and leaflets that were 1.8-fold larger in span and 1.2-fold dorso-ventrally thicker. coch leaflets possessed epidermal cells 1.3-fold larger in number and size, 1.4-fold larger spongy parenchyma cells and primary vascular bundles with 1.2-fold larger diameter . The transcript levels of UNI were at least 2-fold higher in coch leaves and secondary inflorescences than the corresponding COCH organs. It was concluded that COCH negatively regulated UNI in the differentiating leaves and secondary inflorescences and thereby controlled their sizes and/or structures. It was also surmised that COCH and UNI (LFY homolog) occur together widely in stipulate flowering plants.

  5. Actual and potential nitrogen fixation in pea and field bean as affected by combined nitrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mil, van M.

    1981-01-01

    Actual nitrogen fixation of pea and field-bean plants, grown in soil in the open air, was determined as the acetylene reduction of nodulated roots. During the major part of the vegetative growth of these plants, actual nitrogen fixation was equal to the potential maximum nitrogenase activity of the

  6. LATHYROIDES, Encoding a WUSCHEL-Related Homeobox1 Transcription Factor, Controls Organ Lateral Growth, and Regulates Tendril and Dorsal Petal Identities in Garden Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Li Zhuang; Mike Ambrose; Catherine Rameau; Lin Weng; Jun Yang; Xiao-He Hu; Da Luo; Xin Li

    2012-01-01

    During organ development,many key regulators have been identified in plant genomes,which play a conserved role among plant species to control the organ identities and/or determine the organ size and shape.It is intriguing whether these key regulators can acquire diverse function and be integrated into different molecular pathways among different species,giving rise to the immense diversity of organ forms in nature.In this study,we have characterized and cloned LATHYROIDES (LATH),a classical locus in pea,whose mutation displays pleiotropic alteration of lateral growth of organs and predominant effects on tendril and dorsal petal development.LATH encodes a WUSCHEL-related homeobox1 (WOX1) transcription factor,which has a conserved function in determining organ lateral growth among different plant species.Furthermore,we showed that LATH regulated the expression level of TENDRIL-LESS (TL),a key factor in the control of tendril development in compound leaf,and LATH genetically interacted with LOBED STANDARD (LST),a floral dorsal factor,to affect the dorsal petal identity.Thus,LATH plays multiple roles during organ development in pea:it maintains a conserved function controlling organ lateral outgrowth,and modulates organ identities in compound leaf and zygomorphic flower development,respectively.Our data indicated that a key regulator can play important roles in different aspects of organ development and dedicate to the complexity of the molecular mechanism in the control of organ development so as to create distinct organ forms in different species.

  7. E151 (sym15), a pleiotropic mutant of pea (Pisum sativum L.), displays low nodule number, enhanced mycorrhizae, delayed lateral root emergence, and high root cytokinin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James M C; Clairmont, Lindsey; Macdonald, Emily S; Weiner, Catherine A; Emery, R J Neil; Guinel, Frédérique C

    2015-07-01

    In legumes, the formation of rhizobial and mycorrhizal root symbioses is a highly regulated process which requires close communication between plant and microorganism. Plant mutants that have difficulties establishing symbioses are valuable tools for unravelling the mechanisms by which these symbioses are formed and regulated. Here E151, a mutant of Pisum sativum cv. Sparkle, was examined to characterize its root growth and symbiotic defects. The symbioses in terms of colonization intensity, functionality of micro-symbionts, and organ dominance were compared between the mutant and wild type. The endogenous cytokinin (CK) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels and the effect of the exogenous application of these two hormones were determined. E151 was found to be a low and delayed nodulator, exhibiting defects in both the epidermal and cortical programmes though a few mature and functional nodules develop. Mycorrhizal colonization of E151 was intensified, although the fungal functionality was impaired. Furthermore, E151 displayed an altered lateral root (LR) phenotype compared with that of the wild type whereby LR emergence is initially delayed but eventually overcome. No differences in ABA levels were found between the mutant and the wild type, but non-inoculated E151 exhibited significantly high CK levels. It is hypothesized that CK plays an essential role in differentially mediating the entry of the two micro-symbionts into the cortex; whereas it would inhibit the entry of the rhizobia in that tissue, it would promote that of the fungus. E151 is a developmental mutant which may prove to be a useful tool in further understanding the role of hormones in the regulation of beneficial root symbioses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Sustainable control of pea bacterial blight : approaches for durable genetic resistance and biocontrol by endophytic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elvira-Recuenco, M.

    2000-01-01

    Key-words: bacterial blight, biological control, biodiversity, endophytic bacteria, L-form, pea, PDRl retrotransposon, Pisum sativum, Pisum abyssinicum, Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi, race specific resistance, race non-specific resistance, Spanish landraces.Pea bacterial blight (Pseudom

  9. The effect of calcium and pH on nickel accumulation in and rhizotoxicity to pea (Pisum sativum L.) root-empirical relationships and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yonghong, E-mail: yonghong.wu@mail.mcgill.c [Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore Road, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec H9X 3V9 (Canada); Hendershot, William H. [Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore Road, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec H9X 3V9 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    The accumulation and rhizotoxicity of Ni to pea were investigated. Calcium, H, and Ni competed for root-binding sites with high pH and low Ca favoring more Ni accumulation. At low pH, Ca accumulation is the key factor determining root growth, while at medium to high pH, root elongation is more sensitive to Ni concentration. The tissue concentration of Ni and Ca ([Ni]t or [Ca]t, mumol g{sup -1} dry root) can be predicted from total dissolved Ni ([Ni]{sub T}, muM), pH, and total dissolved Ca ([Ca]{sub T}, mM) by two approaches. Approach 1 is the empirical equations [Ni]t = (0.361 pH-0.695[Ca]{sub T})*[Ni]{sub T} and [Ca]t = 8.29 pH + 10.8 [Ca]{sub T}. The second approach involves a two-step model. The surface-bound Ni and Ca are estimated from a surface adsorption model with binding constants derived from independent ion adsorption experiments. Then transfer functions are used to predict internal root Ni and Ca accumulation. - Root accumulation of Ni and its effect on root elongation are mediated by H{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} in solution.

  10. Evaluation of yielding of mixtures of Pisum sativum L. with Triticum aestivum L. grown in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Księżak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the productivity and quality of feed obtained from the mixtures of field pea (Pisum sativum L. with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., depending on the pea cultivar and its percentage in the weight of sown seeds under the conditions of organic farming. A field experiment was carried out in the years 2011–2013 in a randomized split-plot design with four replications. The first factor was a pea ‘Wiato’ or ‘Tarchalska’. The secondary factor was density of a pea mixture sown: 40, 60, and 80%. The yield of mixture seeds as well as the yield and structure of individual components were evaluated. The contents of crude protein and crude fiber, fat, ash, phosphorus, and potassium were determined in cereal grain and pea seeds. The examined factors and weather conditions during the growing season had a significant impact on the growth and yield of pea–spring wheat mixtures. The seed yields of the mixtures with the semi-leafless ‘Tarchalska’ were lower than with ‘Wiato’ (with bipinnate leaves. Increasing the pea percentage in seed material resulted in lower mixture yields. The percentage of pea seeds (regardless of foliage type in the mixture yields was significantly lower than the weight of sown seeds. Increasing the pea percentage in the mixture yield positively influenced the contents of protein, fat, and ash but it caused a decrease in the content of fiber. The pea percentage at sowing had little influence on the content of phosphorus in the mixture seed yields, but it slightly increased the content of potassium, regardless of the pea cultivar. The mixtures with the ‘Wiato’ and ‘Tarchalska’ cultivars contained a similar amount of protein, fiber, and fat, while the mixtures with ‘Tarchalska’ accumulated more ash.

  11. Highly Potent Extracts from Pea (Pisum sativum) and Maize (Zea mays) Roots Can Be Used to Induce Quiescence in Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Hiltpold, Ivan; Turlings, Ted C J

    2015-09-01

    Root exudates can play an important role in plant-nematode interactions. Recent studies have shown that the root cap exudates obtained from several plant species trigger a state of dormancy or quiescence in various genera of nematodes. This phenomenon is not only of fundamental ecological interest, but also has application potential if the plant-produced compound(s) could be used to control harmful nematodes or help to prolong the shelf-life of beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). The identification of the compound(s) involved in quiescence induction has proven to be a major challenge and requires large amounts of active material. Here, we present a high-throughput method to obtain bioactive root extracts from flash-frozen root caps of green pea and maize. The root cap extract obtained via this method was considerably more potent in inducing quiescence than exudate obtained by a previously used method, and consistently induced quiescence in the EPN Heterorhabditis megidis, even after a 30-fold dilution. Extracts obtained from the rest of the root were equally effective in inducing quiescence. Infective juveniles (IJs) of H. megidis exposed to these extracts readily recovered from their quiescent state as soon as they were placed in moist soil, and they were at least as infectious as the IJs that had been stored in water. Excessive exposure of IJs to air interfered with the triggering of quiescence. The implications of these results and the next steps towards identification of the quiescence-inducing compound(s) are discussed from the perspective of applying EPN against soil-dwelling insect pests.

  12. Radio Detection of Green Peas: Implications for Magnetic Fields in Young Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Cardamone, Carolin; Ray, Alak

    2011-01-01

    Green Peas are a new class of young, emission line galaxies that were discovered by citizen volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their low stellar mass, low metallicity and very high star formation rates make Green Peas the nearby (z~0.2) analogs of the Lyman-break Galaxies (LBGs) which account for the bulk of the star formation in the early universe (z~2-5). They thus provide accessible laboratories in the nearby Universe for understanding star formation, supernova feedback, particle acceleration and magnetic field amplification in early galaxies. We report the first direct radio detection of Green Peas with low frequency GMRT observations and our stacking detection with archival VLA FIRST data. We show that the radio emission implies that these extremely young galaxies already have magnetic fields (>30 muG) even larger than that of the Milky Way. This is at odds with the present understanding of magnetic field growth based on amplification of seed fields by dynamo action over a galaxy's lifetime. Our obser...

  13. Identification and Analysis of Genetic Diversity Structure Within Pisum Genus Based on Microsatellite Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Xu-xiao; Rebecca Ford; Robert R Redden; GUAN Jian-ping; WANG Shu-min

    2009-01-01

    To assesse the genetic diversity among wild and cultivated accessions of 8 taxonomic groups in 2 species, and 5 subspecies under Pisum genus, and to analyze population structure and their genetic relationships among various groups of taxonomy,the study tried to verify the fitness of traditionally botanical taxonomic system under Pisum genus and to provide essential information for the exploration and utilization of wild relatives of pea genetic resources. 197 Pisum accessions from 62 counties of 5 continents were employed for SSR analysis using 21 polymorphic primer pairs in this study. Except for cultivated field pea Pisum sativum ssp. sativum vat. sativum (94 genotypes), also included were wild relative genotypes that were classified as belonging to P. fulvum, P. sativum ssp.abyssinicum, P. sativum ssp. asiaticum, P. sativum ssp. transcaucasicum, P. sativum ssp. elatius vat. elatius, P. sativum ssp. elatius vat. pumilio and P. sativum ssp.sativum vat. arvense (103 genotypes). The PCA analyses and 3-dimension PCA graphs were conducted and drawn by NTSYSpe 2.2d statistical package. Nei78 genetic distances among groups of genetic resources were calculated, and cluster analysis using UPGMA method was carried out by using Popgene V1.32 statistical package, the dendrogram was drawn by MEGA3.1 statistical package. Allelie statistics were carried out by Popgene V1.32. The significance test between groups of genotypes was carried out by Fstat V2.9.3.2 statistical package. 104 polymorphic bands were amplified using 21 SSR primer pairs with unambiguous unique polymorphic bands. 4.95 alleles were detected by each SSR primer pair in average, of which 65.56% were effective alleles for diversity. PSAD270, PSAC58, PSAA18, PSAC75, PSAA175 and PSAB72 were the most effective SSR pairs. SSR alleles were uniformly distributed among botanical taxon units under Pisum genus, but significant difference appeared in most pairwise comparisons for genetic diversity between taxon unit based

  14. Effect of Rhizobium inoculation of seeds and foliar fertilization on productivity of Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is the second most important grain legume crop in the world which has a wide array of uses for human food and fodder. One of the major factors that determines the use of field pea is the yield potential of cultivars. Presently, pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds and foliar application of microelement fertilizers are prospective solutions and may be reasonable agrotechnical options. This research was undertaken because of the potentially high productivity of the 'afila' morphotype in good wheat complex soils. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of vaccination with Rhizobium and foliar micronutrient fertilization on yield of the afila pea variety. The research was based on a two-year (2009–2010 controlled field experiment, conducted in four replicates and carried out on the experimental field of the Bayer company located in Modzurów, Silesian region. experimental field soil was Umbrisol – slightly degraded chernozem, formed from loess. Nitragina inoculant, as a source of symbiotic bacteria, was applied before sowing seeds. Green area index (GAI of the canopy, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI were determined at characteristic growth stages. The presented results of this study on symbiotic nitrogen fixation by leguminous plants show that the combined application of Nitragina and Photrel was the best combination for productivity. Remote measurements of the pea canopy indexes indicated the formation of the optimum leaf area which effectively used photosynthetically active radiation. The use of Nitragina as a donor of effective Rhizobium for pea plants resulted in slightly higher GAI values and the optimization of PAR and NDVI. It is not recommended to use foliar fertilizers or Nitragina separately due to the slowing of pea productivity.

  15. Structural and electrical properties of electric field assisted spray deposited pea structured ZnO film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Neha; Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Dutta, Viresh

    2016-05-01

    Spray deposition of ZnO film was carried out. The uneven growth of ZnO nanostructures is resulted for spray deposited ZnO film. Application of DC voltage (1000V) during spray deposition provides formation of pea like structures with uniform coverage over the substrate. Electric field assisted spray deposition provides increased crystallinity with reduced resistivity and improved mobility of the ZnO film as compared to spray deposited ZnO film without electric field. This with large area deposition makes the process more efficient than other techniques.

  16. Optimization of pre-sowing magnetic field doses through RSM in pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M.; Ahmad, I.; Hussain, S. M.; Khera, R. A.; Bokhari, T. H.; Shehzad, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    Seed pre-sowing magnetic field treatment was reported to induce biochemical and physiological changes. In the present study, response surface methodology was used for deduction of optimal magnetic field doses. Improved growth and yield responses in the pea cultivar were achieved using a rotatable central composite design and multivariate data analysis. The growth parameters such as root and shoot fresh masses and lengths as well as yield were enhanced at a certain magnetic field level. The chlorophyll contents were also enhanced significantly vs. the control. The low magnetic field strength for longer duration of exposure/ high strength for shorter exposure were found to be optimal points for maximum responses in root fresh mass, chlorophyll `a' contents, and green pod yield/plant, respectively and a similar trend was observed for other measured parameters. The results indicate that the magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatment can be used practically to enhance the growth and yield in pea cultivar and response surface methodology was found an efficient experimental tool for optimization of the treatment level to obtain maximum response of interest.

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United States from Kenya only under the following conditions and in accordance with all other applicable...

  18. Identification and Characterization of Partial Resistance to Fusarium root rot in the Pisum Core Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Fsp) is a serious seed and root rot pathogen found in both dryland and irrigated peas in the USA. Resistance to Fsp in 44 wild pea accessions from the Pisum Core Collection located in Pullman, WA, USA was characterized under greenhouse conditions. Germination rates, ro...

  19. The comparison of nitrogen use and leaching in sole cropped versus intercropped pea and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and of crop residue management on crop yield, NO3- leaching and N balance in the cropping system was tested in a 2-year lysimeter experiment on a temperate sandy loam soil. The crop rotation...... was pea and barley sole and intercrops followed by winter-rye and a fallow period. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER), which is defined as the relative land area under sole crops that is required to produce the yields achieved in intercropping, was used to compare intercropping performance relative to sole...... from the sole cropped pea and barley lysimeters. Soil N balances indicated depletion of N in the soil-plant system during the experimental period, independent of cropping system and residue management. N complementarity in the cropping system and the synchrony between residual N availability and crop N...

  20. Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in Field-Grown Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Iver

    1986-01-01

    The importance of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) and P fertilizer for P nutrition and dry matter production in field peas (Pisum sativum L.) was studied in moderately P-deficient soil. Half of the experimental plots were fumigated to reduce the level of VAM infection. Shoots and 0 to 30 cm...

  1. Natural incidence of endophytic bacteria in pea cultivars under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira-Recuenco, M; van Vuurde, J W

    2000-11-01

    Pea plants grown in the field were used to study the natural incidence of endophytic bacteria in the stem. Eleven pea cultivars at the flowering stage were screened for the presence of endophytic bacteria using a printing technique with surface disinfested stem cross-sections on 5% Trypticase Soy Agar (TSA). Five cultivars showed colonization. Cultivar Twiggy showed the highest and most consistent colonization and was further investigated. Stems of cv. Twiggy at the pod stage were analyzed for endophytic bacterial types and populations. Cross-sections of surface disinfested stems were printed on 5% TSA. Endophytic bacterial populations decreased from the lower to the upper part of the stem. One section from the third and the fourth internode was surface disinfested, homogenized, and spiral plated on the media 5% TSA, R2A, and SC (Davis et al. 1980). Over a series of 30 samples, 5% TSA gave significantly better recovery of bacterial endophytes compared with R2A and SC media. For most stems, populations ranged from 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/g except in one of the field blocks in which endophyte populations were uniformly higher. Comparison of colony counts by spiral plating and printing showed a positive correlation. The most frequently recovered bacterial types were Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Less frequently isolated were Pseudomonas viridiflava and Bacillus megaterium.

  2. Full-length de novo assembly of RNA-seq data in pea (Pisum sativum L.) provides a gene expression atlas and gives insights into root nodulation in this species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Carvalho, Susete; Aubert, Grégoire; Carrère, Sébastien; Cruaud, Corinne; Brochot, Anne-Lise; Jacquin, Françoise; Klein, Anthony; Martin, Chantal; Boucherot, Karen; Kreplak, Jonathan; da Silva, Corinne; Moreau, Sandra; Gamas, Pascal; Wincker, Patrick; Gouzy, Jérôme; Burstin, Judith

    2015-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies allow an almost exhaustive survey of the transcriptome, even in species with no available genome sequence. To produce a Unigene set representing most of the expressed genes of pea, 20 cDNA libraries produced from various plant tissues harvested at various developmental stages from plants grown under contrasting nitrogen conditions were sequenced. Around one billion reads and 100 Gb of sequence were de novo assembled. Following several steps of redundancy reduction, 46 099 contigs with N50 length of 1667 nt were identified. These constitute the 'Caméor' Unigene set. The high depth of sequencing allowed identification of rare transcripts and detected expression for approximately 80% of contigs in each library. The Unigene set is now available online (http://bios.dijon.inra.fr/FATAL/cgi/pscam.cgi), allowing (i) searches for pea orthologs of candidate genes based on gene sequences from other species, or based on annotation, (ii) determination of transcript expression patterns using various metrics, (iii) identification of uncharacterized genes with interesting patterns of expression, and (iv) comparison of gene ontology pathways between tissues. This resource has allowed identification of the pea orthologs of major nodulation genes characterized in recent years in model species, as a major step towards deciphering unresolved pea nodulation phenotypes. In addition to a remarkable conservation of the early transcriptome nodulation apparatus between pea and Medicago truncatula, some specific features were highlighted. The resource provides a reference for the pea exome, and will facilitate transcriptome and proteome approaches as well as SNP discovery in pea.

  3. Symbiotic N2 fixation in pea and field bean estimated by 15N fertilizer dilution in field experiments with barley as a reference crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen

    1986-01-01

    years. At the full bloom/flat pod growth stage from 30 to 59 per cent of total N2 fixation had taken place. The proportion of total N derived from N2 fixation at maturity was higher in seeds than in vegetative plant parts and amounted to 59.5, 51.3 and 66.3 per cent of total above-ground plant N...... in the two pea cultivars and field bean, respectively (three-year means). The recovery of fertilizer N was 62.2, 70.2, 52.1, and 69.5 per cent in the two pea cultivars, field bean and barley, respectively. Growth analysis indicated that barley did not meet the claims for an ideal reference crop in the15N...... fertilizer dilution technique for estimating N2 fixation in pea and field bean. ‘Starter’-N neither increased the seed yield nor the N content of the grain legumes....

  4. Evaluation of pea accessions and commercial cultivars for Fusarium Root Rot resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Fsp) can result in major yield losses in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Currently no fungicides effectively manage this disease. Previous studies evaluated the Pisum germplasm collection for resistance to Fsp, however, evaluations of commercial marke...

  5. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants.

  6. Oviposition preference of pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. among host and non-host plants and its implication for pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esayas Mendesil eAmosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1 and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm. and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L., in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants.

  7. Beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III from pea (Pisum sativum L.): properties, inhibition by a novel thiolactomycin analogue and isolation of a cDNA clone encoding the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A Lesley; Gane, Andy M; Herbert, Derek; Willey, David L; Rutter, Andrew J; Kille, Peter; Dancer, Jane E; Harwood, John L

    2003-03-01

    A beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase III (KAS III; short-chain condensing enzyme) has been partly purified from pea leaves. The enzyme, which had acetyl-CoA:ACP acyltransferase (ACAT) activity, was resolved from a second, specific, ACAT protein. The KAS III enzyme had a derived molecular mass of 42 kDa (from its cDNA sequence) and operated as a dimer. Its enzymological characteristics were similar to those of two other plant KAS III enzymes except for its inhibition by thiolactomycin. A derivative of thiolactomycin containing a longer (C8 saturated) hydrophobic side-chain (compound 332) was a more effective inhibitor of pea KAS III and showed competitive inhibition towards malonyl-ACP whereas thiolactomycin showed uncompetitive characteristics at high concentrations. This difference may be due to the better fit of compound 332 into a hydrophobic pocket at the active site. A full-length cDNA for the pea KAS III was isolated. This was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase in order to facilitate subsequent purification. Demonstrated activity in preparations from E. coli confirmed that the cDNA encoded a KAS III enzyme. Furthermore, the expressed KAS III had ACAT activity, showing that the latter was inherent. The derived amino acid sequence of the pea cDNA showed 81-87% similarity to that for other plant dicotyledon KAS IIIs, somewhat less for Allium porrum (leek, 71%) and for Porphyra spp. (62%), Synechocystis spp. (65%) and various bacteria (42-65%). The pea KAS III exhibited four areas of homology, three of which were around the active-site Cys(123), His(323) and Asn(353). In addition, a stretch of 23 amino acids (residues 207-229 in the pea KAS III) was almost completely conserved in the plant KAS IIIs. Modelling this stretch showed they belonged to a peptide fragment that fitted over the active site and contained segments suggested to be involved in substrate binding and in conformational changes during

  8. Bradyrhizobium spp. Strains in Symbiosis with Pigeon Pea cv. Fava-Larga under Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Rufini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Optimization of symbiosis between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and legumes has been extensively studied, seeking agricultural sustainability. To evaluate the symbiotic efficiency of nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains belonging to the Bradyrhizobium genus with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. cv. Fava-Larga, experiments were conducted in Leonard jars (axenic conditions, pots with soil, and in the field. Ten strains were tested in Leonard jars, and three strains, in addition to BR 29, were selected according to their ability to promote the growth of pigeon pea, for further tests in pots with different soil types (Inceptsol and Oxisol and in the field (Oxisol. Treatments were compared with strains BR 2003 and BR 2801 (approved as inoculants for pigeon pea, with a non-inoculated control with mineral N fertilization, and with another non-inoculated control (absolute control with low mineral N concentration (Leonard jars or without mineral N fertilization (soil. The efficiency of Bradyrhizobium strains in axenic conditions varies among strains, being higher when pigeon pea cv. Fava-Larga establishes symbiosis with the strains UFLA 03-320, UFLA 03-321, UFLA 04-212, BR 2801, and BR 2003. The soil type influences the symbiotic efficiency of Bradyrhizobium-pigeon pea in soil in the greenhouse, mainly in Inceptsol, in which strains UFLA 04-212, BR 2801, and BR 2003 increased N accumulation in the plant. The strain UFLA 03-320 increased shoot dry matter and N accumulation in the shoot equivalent to the mineral N treatment under field conditions. UFLA 03-320, BR 29, UFLA 03-321, and UFLA 04-212 promoted yields similar to those of the reference strain (BR 2801, and of the mineral N treatment with 70 kg ha-1 urea-N. These results confirm that pigeon pea establishes efficient symbiosis, which provides the N required for its growth. All strains, except for BR 2003, show potential for recommendation as inoculants for grain production. The strain UFLA 03

  9. 孟德尔豌豆基因克隆的研究进展及其在遗传学教学中的应用%Research progress on the cloning of Mendel's gene in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and its application in genetics teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何风华; 朱碧岩; 高峰; 李韶山; 李娘辉

    2013-01-01

    150多年前,孟德尔进行了豌豆7对相对性状的杂交试验,发现了遗传学的两个基本规律.1900年,孟德尔定律被重新发现以后,人们从生理生化、细胞和分子水平等不同层次上对豌豆的这7个性状进行了深入研究.近年,随着分子生物学技术的发展,已有种子形状(R)、茎的长度(Le)、子叶颜色(D和花的颜色(A)等4个性状的基因被克隆;未成熟豆荚的颜色(Gp)、花的着生位置(Fa)和豆荚形状(V)的基因已被定位在各自的连锁群上.4个孟德尔基因的鉴定和克隆加深了人们对基因概念的理解:如基因功能的多样性、在分子水平上基因变异原因的多样性、显性和隐性的分子实质等.在遗传学教学中,把孟德尔基因克隆和研究的最新进展介绍给学生,在分子水平上诠释经典遗传规律,有助于提高学生的学习兴趣,帮助学生全面把握从形式遗传学到分子遗传学的内容和遗传学的发展方向.%One hundred and fifty years ago,Gregor Mendel investigated the segregation of seven traits in pea (Pisum sativum) and established the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment in genetics.After the two laws of genetics were rediscovered in 1900,the seven traits have been extensively investigated in the fields of plant physiology and biochemistry as well as in the cell and molecular levels.Recently,with the development of molecular technology in genetics,four genes for seed shape (R),stem length (Le),cotyledon colour (Ⅰ),and flower colour (A) have been cloned and sequenced; and another three genes for immature pod colour (Gp),fasciation (Fa) and pod form (V) have been located in the linkage groups,respectively.The identification and cloning of the four Mendel's genes will help deeply understand the basic concept of gene in many respects:like the diversity ofgene function,the different origins for gene mutation in molecular level,and the molecular nature of a dominant gene or a

  10. Effect of canning on color, protein and phenolic profile of grains from kidney bean, field pea and chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Naincy; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Thakur, Sheetal

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of canning on color, protein and phenolic profile of grains of kidney bean, field pea and chickpea varieties/accession. Color of grains of different pulses was enhanced after canning. Grains L* (lightness) decreased while a* (redness to yellowness) and b* (greenness to blueness) increased after canning in all the pulses. Protein profiling of grains of different pulses after canning revealed that kidney bean and chickpea, respectively, had the least and the most thermally susceptible polypeptides. Kidney bean and chickpea showed higher Percentage washed drained weight (PWDW) than field pea. Pulse with more grain hardness and PWDW showed higher degree of grain splitting during canning. Grain splitting was also higher in dark colored accessions/varieties as compared to the light colored. Ferulic acid was the most predominant compound present in raw grains of different pulses. Raw kidney bean grains showed higher accumulation of catechin, chlorogenic, protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid than those of chickpea and field pea. Canning caused reduction in all the phenolic compounds except gallic acid and most prominent effect of canning on protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic and ferulic acid was observed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. In vitro digestibility of field pea as influenced by processing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Astorri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field pea meals exposed to different treatments (flaking, extrusion, expansion, dry heating at 150°C/15’ or 30’, dry heating at 150°C/30’ after addition of 1% of xylose, 4% NaOH addition, microwave irradiation at 800 W for 6’ or 9’ were controlled for their 6 and 24 hours in vitro fermentability by the gas production (GP technique. Flaking and extrusion accelerated initial fermentation but tended to reduce 24h GP, whereas dry heating and microwaves mainly improved final gas volume, but NaOH had the opposite effect. Apparent dry matter digestion at 6h was lowered by dry heating, NaOH addition and the shorter microwave irradiation. Xylose addition did not substantially change the effects of dry heating, but lowered the initial disappearance. Ammonia concentration was in general lowered by the treatments, suggesting a reduction in protein degradability but also a possible higher microbial uptake for protein synthesis. Microwave irradiation had limited effects on all the parameters. Dry heating, with or without xylose addition, seems interesting to increase rumen escaping protein fraction without accelerating starch fermentation that could expose to higher risks of rumen acidosis.

  12. Rhizodeposition of N by pea and barley and its effect on soil N dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Rhizodeposition of N during plant growth influences the microbial activity in the rhizosphere and constitutes a source of labile organic N, but has not been quantified to the same degree as the rhizodeposition of C. The rhizodeposition of N, defined as root-derived N present in the soil after...... removal of visible roots and root fragments, was determined during field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) growth in a sandy soil at a low concentration of mineral N using a continuous split-root N-15-labelling technique. The N rhizodeposition constituted 15 and 48...... plant(-1) (20% of total plant N) for barley. Incubation of soils, after removal of roots, showed that the N rhizodeposits were labile; 79% of the pea and 48% of the barley root-derived N present in soil at 7 WAP were mineralizable. The root-derived N present in soil at maturity was less labile, since...

  13. Exploring variation in pea protein composition by natural selection and genetic transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzitzikas, E.

    2005-01-01

    Pea (Pisumsativum L.) seeds are a rich and valuable source of proteins, which can have potential for food industrial applications. Pea storage proteins are classified into two major classes: the salt-soluble globulins, and the water-soluble albumin

  14. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds as protein sources in growing-finishing heavy pig diets: effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics and on fresh and seasoned Parma ham quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Prandini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pea and faba bean inclusion in growing-finishing heavy pig diets was evaluated. The following iso-lysinic and iso-energetic diets offered to the pigs in three phases (40-80; 80-120; 120-160 kg were compared: CTR, control diet with soybean meal (SBM as protein source; RP, CTR diet where pea replaced SBM; RF, CTR diet where faba bean replaced SBM. 126 animals were randomly distributed in 3 homogeneous groups with 42 animals each (7 pens with 6 animals each per treatment. The RP and RF diets did not negatively affect the carcass characteristics both of the pigs slaughtered at the conventional weight (127.5 kg and heavy pigs (158.5 kg. The pigs fed the RP and RF diets ate similarly to the pigs fed the CTR overall the trial but RF pigs grew better than CTR animals. The subcutaneous fat of the fresh hams destined for Parma ham production and obtained from pigs fed RP diet had a higher omega 3 fatty acid percentage. Moreover, the RP and RF diets resulted in fat with better omega 3/omega 6 ratio compared with CTR. All the fat samples had iodine numbers within the limit value (70 reported by the Production Disciplinary of Parma ham. No treatment effect was found on the analytical and sensorial characteristics of the Parma hams, except for the aged taste which was more intense in the hams obtained from pigs fed the RF diet. These results indicate that pea and faba bean may be used as an alternative to imported SBM.

  15. Organic fertilization alters the community composition of root associated fungi in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, L.; Nicolaisen, M.; Ravnskov, S.

    2013-01-01

    Organic fertilization is well known to affect individual functional groups of root associated fungi such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and root pathogens, but limited information is available on the effect of organic fertilization at the fungal community composition level. The main objective...... of the present study was to examine the response of communities of root associated fungi in Pisum sativum to Protamylasse, an organic fertilizer used in pea production. Plants were grown in pots with field soil amended with four different levels of Protamylasse. 454 pyrosequencing was employed to examine......, the organic fertilizer Protamylasse clearly affects communities of root associated fungi, which seems to be linked to the life strategy of the different functional groups of root associated fungi. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------...

  16. Changes in the topography of cellular components in pea root statocytes exposed to high gradient magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyavskaya, Ninel A.; Polishchuk, Olexandr V.; Kondrachuk, Alexander V.

    2005-08-01

    High-gradient magnetic field (HGMF) is one of methods, by which gravitropism in plants is studied. The aim of our study was elucidation of HGMF effects on topography of cellular components in root statocytes of 4- day Pisum sativum L. seedlings in comparison to gravistimulation. Under gravistimulation during 5, 30 and 60 min seedlings were rotated 45o; magnetostimulation was carried out along gap between two NdFeB magnets (0.7 T). Morphometric measurements were made from images of whole statocytes, for upper, middle and lower thirds of cells, and proximal and distal halves of cells. Morphometric analysis revealed that HGMF resulted in the redistribution of all cellular components in statocytes. The correlation in the amyloplast distribution between gravistimulation and magnetostimulation was established.

  17. The Rhizobium-pea symbiosis as affected by high temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frings, J.F.J.

    1976-01-01

    A study has been made concerning the effect of high temperatures on the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum and pea plants (Pisum sativum). At 30°C, no nodules were found on the roots of plants growing in nutrient solution after inoculation with the appropriate bacteria. This is in contrast to the

  18. Effect of whole-crop pea (Pisum sativum L.) silages differing in condensed tannin content as a substitute for grass silage and soybean meal on the performance, metabolism, and carcass characteristics of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K J; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Huntington, J A

    2011-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of whole-crop pea (WCP) silages, differing in condensed tannin content, as a substitute for grass silage (GS) and soybean meal on lamb metabolism, performance, plasma metabolites, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. In both experiments lambs were offered either solely GS or a 50:50 mix on a DM basis of GS with either low-tannin (LTPS) or high-tannin (HTPS) pea silage ad libitum. Each forage mix was fed with either 400 g/d of low-protein (LP) concentrate or 400 g/d of LP with an additional 200 g/d of pelletized soybean meal (HP), resulting in 6 dietary treatments. Experiment 1 examined the effects of the diets on metabolism, digestibility, and N balance using 6 lambs in 4 periods of 21 d in an incomplete crossover design. Experiment 2 used 48 lambs and examined the effects of the diets on ADG, plasma metabolites, and carcass characteristics over 56 d. Both experiments were analyzed using a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. In Exp. 1, lambs offered the LTPS diets had a greater (P silages had an increased (P 0.05) of forage type on intake, slaughter BW, or feed conversion efficiency (FCE). However, lambs offered the LTPS had a greater (P 0.05) on carcass composition except for fat depth, which was greater (P silage. Diets containing the HP increased (P < 0.05) carcass weight, hind leg circumference, chop dimensions, and kidney weight. It was concluded that lambs offered LTPS performed better than those offered GS and that LTPS has a concentrate sparing effect. Additionally, the increased tannin concentration in HTPS did not increase performance over lambs offered either GS or LTPS.

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Novel EST-Derived Genic Markers in Pisum sativum (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalu Jain

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Novel markers were developed for pea (Pisum sativum from pea expressed sequence tags (ESTs having significant homology to Medicago truncatula gene sequences to investigate genetic diversity, linkage mapping, and cross-species transferability. Methods and Results: Seventy-seven EST-derived genic markers were developed through comparative mapping between M. truncatula and P. sativum in which 75 markers produced PCR products and 33 were polymorphic among 16 pea genotypes. Conclusions: The novel markers described here will be useful for future genetic studies of P. sativum; their amplification in lentil (Lens culinaris demonstrates their potential for use in closely related species.

  20. Effect of extrusion on the nutritional value of peas for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejdysz, Marcin; Kaczmarek, Sebastian Andrzej; Rutkowski, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the nutritional value of five samples of raw and extruded pea seeds (Pisum sativum L., Tarachalska cv.) from different experimental fields. The study included 150 male 1-day-old Ross 308 chickens, which were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments (50 replications each) and kept in individual cages. From days 1 to 16, all birds received only the basal diets. From days 17 to 21, the control group received still the basal diet, but for the two other groups, 20% of basal diet was replaced by raw or extruded peas. Furthermore, the groups receiving raw or extruded peas were divided into five subgroups of 10 animals each, where the diets contained one of the five pea samples of the same cultivar grown at different locations, respectively. On days 19 and 20, excreta were individually collected, and then all chickens were sacrificed and ileal digesta were sampled for determination of ileal digestibility, which was calculated by the difference method. Extrusion of pea seeds decreased the contents of crude fibre, acid and neutral detergent fibre, trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), phytic P and resistant starch (RS) (p ≤ 0.05), but increased the contents of apparent metabolisable energy (AMEN) by approximately 2.25 MJ/kg dry matter (DM). Furthermore, extrusion improved the DM and crude protein digestibility significantly by about 21.3% and 11.6%, respectively. Similar results were observed for the digestibility of all analysed amino acids. In conclusion, extrusion markedly influenced the chemical composition of peas, reduced their contents of phytic P, TIA and RS and consequently had a positive impact on nutrient digestibility and AMEN values.

  1. Pea powdery mildew er1 resistance is associated to loss-of-function mutations at a MLO homologous locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavan, S.N.C.; Schiavulli, A.; Appiano, M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Bai, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The powdery mildew disease affects several crop species and is also one of the major threats for pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivation all over the world. The recessive gene er1, first described over 60 years ago, is well known in pea breeding, as it still maintains its efficiency as a powdery mildew

  2. The Effect of Oregano and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Field Pea Silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soycan-Önenç, Sibel; Koc, Fisun; Coşkuntuna, Levent; Özdüven, M Levent; Gümüş, Tuncay

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of field pea silages which were the organic acid (OA) alternative of oregano and cinnamon essential oils on fermentation quality and aerobic stability. Whole crop pea was harvested at full pod stage and wilted in the laboratory at the 48 h. The chopped pea was mixed and divided into equal portions allocated to five groups: CON (non-treated), distilled water, denoted as control group; OA group, a mixture of 60% formic acid, 20% sodium formate and 20% water applied at a rate of 5 g/kg fresh forage (Silofarm Liquid, Farmavet); origanum (ORE) group, Origanum onites essential oil at 400 mg/kg fresh forage; cinnamon (CIN) group, cinnamon essential oil at 400 mg/kg fresh forage; origanum+cinnamon (ORECIN) group, a mixture of ORE and CIN applied at an equal rate of 400 mg/kg fresh forage. Cinnamon decreased acetic acid (AA), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and weight loss (WL) at the end of 60 days silage. Crude protein (CP) and dry matter (DM) increased by cinnamon essential oil. Yeasts were not detected in any treatments, including the control, after 7 days of air exposure. The CO2 amount decreased and the formation mold was inhibited in the aerobic period by the addition of cinnamon oil. Oregano did not show a similar effect, but when it was used with cinnamon, it showed synergic effect on AA and during aerobic period, it showed antagonistic effect on mold formation and DM losses. It was found in this study that cinnamon can be an alternative to organic acids.

  3. Glucolipids of Zea mays and Pisum sativum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morohashi, Y.; Bandurski, R.S.

    1976-06-01

    The glucolipids formed upon feeding (U--/sup 14/C)glucose to embryos of Zea mays were partially characterized with respect to: (a) metabolic turnover, (b) acid lability, (c) phosphorus content, (d) chromatographic properties, and (e) hydrolysis products. The chloroform--methanol-soluble-assimilated radioactivity was examined specifically for occurrence of a glycosylated prenol phosphate. With the extraction conditions used, no evidence was found for formation of a glucosylated prenol phosphate. Several, as yet unidentified, acid-labile glucolipids undergoing metabolic turnover were observed. Four diglycerides were characterized as hydrolysis products of a fraction that contained /sup 14/C-glucose and phosphorus, and was subject to metabolic turnover. Examination of the 1-butanol-soluble glucolipids from pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings also demonstrated anionic glucolipids, evidencing metabolic turnover but none with the properties of glucosylated prenol phosphate.

  4. Effects of Wildflower Strips and an Adjacent Forest on Aphids and Their Natural Enemies in a Pea Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverin Hatt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Landscape diversification is a key element for the development of sustainable agriculture. This study explores whether the implementation of habitats for pest natural enemies enhances conservation biological control in an adjacent field. In the present study conducted in Gembloux (Belgium in 2016, the effect of two different habitats (wildflower strips and a forest and aphid abundance on the density of aphid natural enemies, mummified aphids and parasitism on pea plants was assessed through visual observations. The effect of the habitats on aphids was also evaluated. The habitats but not aphid density significantly affected hoverfly larvae, which were more abundant adjacent to wildflower strips than to the forest. The contrary was observed for ladybeetle adults, which were positively related with aphids but not affected by the adjacent habitats. The abundance of mummies and the parasitism rate were significantly affected by both the habitats and aphid density. They were both significantly enhanced adjacent to wildflower strips compared to the forest, but the total parasitism rate was low (<1%, questioning whether parasitoids could significantly control aphids on the pea crop. As for the aphids, their abundance was not significantly affected by the adjacent habitats. These results are discussed with respect to the potential of these habitats to provide overwintering sites and food resources for natural enemies, and thereby enhance conservation biological control.

  5. HARDNESS PHENOMENON IN BEACH PEA (Lethyrus maritimus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.D. Chavan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Beach pea is mostly grown on seashores and it contains higher amount of protein than other legumes. However, the pea has several undesirable  attributes, such as long cooking time and hard to germinate (imbibitions that limited its use as food. The present investigation aimed to study the physico-chemical properties, cooking characteristics and hull crude fibre structure of beach pea as compare to other similar legumes. Standard methods of processing pulses were used for present study. Beach pea seeds contained very low grain weight, density, hydration capacity,  hydration index, swelling capacity and swelling index than the green pea and field pea. Beach pea had higher amount of crude protein, ash, crude fibre and polyphenols, but lower in starch content than the green pea and field pea. Without any treatment to beach pea seeds the water uptake capacity was very low. Mechanical treatment to beach pea seeds increasedthe water uptake percentage. The recovery of hull was 3 to 6 times higher in beach pea than that of green pea and field pea. The crude protein  content in beach pea hull was 2-5% higher than others. The beach pea hull, dhal and whole seeds were good source of macro- and micro- minerals than that of the other two peas. The electron microscopic  structure of beach pea hull crude fibre showed a very close and compact structure than green pea and field pea hull crude fibre structure. Lowering the hardness of beach pea seeds with mechanical or chemical treatments will give more scope for their utilization in the human nutrition.

  6. 铝对豌豆根边缘细胞存活率和粘胶层厚度的影响%Influence of Al on cell viability and mucilage of root border cells of pea (Pisum sativum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯英明; 喻敏; 温海祥; 张英慧; 萧洪东; 王惠珍; 何丽烂; 梁火娣

    2005-01-01

    根边缘细胞(Root border cells)是从根冠游离并聚集在根尖周围的一群特殊细胞,铝毒的作用部位正是根尖,因此推测边缘细胞在铝毒反应中起着重要作用.作者研究了不同铝浓度(0、50、100、250、500 (mol/L AlCl3(含0.1 mmol/L CaCl2, pH4.5)与离体豌豆(Pisum Sativum)根边缘细胞共培养1 h、2 h、4 h、6 h、8 h、24 h后根边缘细胞存活率、粘胶层厚度及细胞数量的变化,以揭示铝毒胁迫边缘细胞的响应.结果为:随着处理时间的延长,边缘细胞的存活率明显下降;在0~100 (mol/L铝浓度范围,边缘细胞存活率有随铝浓度升高而降低的趋势;8 h及24 h边缘细胞存活率为铝浓度500 (mol/L时显著高于0、50、100和250 (mol/L时,6 h边缘细胞存活率为250和500 (mol/L铝浓度时显著高于0、50、100 (mol/L AlCl3时.随处理时间延长,边缘细胞数量降低,铝浓度100,250和500 (mol/L时边缘细胞数量低于0和50 (mol/L时,且铝浓度越高,细胞数量越少;随处理时间延长和铝浓度升高,粘胶层相对面积增加,铝浓度500和250 (mol/L时粘胶层相对面积增加尤为明显.通过与pH 7.01水溶液及pH 4.50水溶液中粘胶层变化的比较,发现粘胶层在铝处理8 h后出现一个峰值,可能是粘胶物质的诱导合成和分泌.研究结果表明,铝毒对根边缘细胞具有致死效应,这种致死效应在一定浓度范围符合剂量依数性关系,高浓度时则边缘细胞存活率反而升高,这与根边缘细胞对铝毒作出的适应性响应--粘胶层的增厚和细胞降解增强有关.粘胶层起着保护和减轻边缘细胞铝毒的作用.

  7. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, rapeseed and dry pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Jeuffroy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas, originate from soils at global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes allow to reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emission. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and during the residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed-rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted during 4 consecutive years, aiming at comparing the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly linked with the site soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after pea. These results, combined with the emission reduction allowed by the production and transport of the N fertiliser not applied on the pea crop, should be confirmed in a larger range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emission linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease of N2O emissions to 20–25% by including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. At a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions

  8. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, rapeseed and dry pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuffroy, M. H.; Baranger, E.; Carrouée, B.; de Chezelles, E.; Gosme, M.; Hénault, C.; Schneider, A.; Cellier, P.

    2012-07-01

    Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas, originate from soils at global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes allow to reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emission. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and during the residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity) and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed-rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted during 4 consecutive years, aiming at comparing the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not) or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly linked with the site soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after pea. These results, combined with the emission reduction allowed by the production and transport of the N fertiliser not applied on the pea crop, should be confirmed in a larger range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emission linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease of N2O emissions to 20-25% by including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. At a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions at field level has to be cumulated with the reduction of GHG emissions linked with the lower level of production and transport of the N

  9. Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in Field-Grown Crops. I. Mycorrhizal Infection in Cereals and Peas at Various Times and Soil Depths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Iver; Nielsen, N.E.

    1983-01-01

    Development of infection by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) was studied in some field-grown crops. An infection plateau was reached within the first month after seedling emergence of spring barley, oats and peas. During the rest of the growth period the proportion of root length infected...

  10. Genomic tools in pea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim eTAYEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22-25 percent protein, complex starch and fibre constituents and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tonnes produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel’s experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress towards deciphering the pea genome.

  11. Pulsed magnetic field improves seed quality of aged green pea seeds by homeostasis of free radical content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jyotsna; Anand, Anjali; Pandita, V K; Nagarajan, Shantha

    2016-11-01

    To elucidate the mechanism responsible for magnetic field induced seed invigoration in aged seeds an experiment was conducted on six year old garden pea seeds stored under controlled (20 °C and 40% RH) condition. Aged seeds were magnetoprimed by exposing to pulsed magnetic field (PMF) of 100 mT for 1 h in three pulsed modes. The 6 min on and off PMF showed significant improvement in germination (7.6%) and vigor (84.8%) over aged seeds. Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production increased in germinating primed seeds by 27 and 52%, respectively, over aged seeds. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) (NADH) peroxidase and superoxide dismutase involved in generation of hydrogen peroxide showed increased activity in PMF primed seeds. Increase in catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity after 36 h of imbibition in primed seeds demonstrated its involvement in seed recovery during magnetopriming. An increase in total antioxidants also helped in maintaining the level of free radicals for promoting germination of magnetoprimed seeds. A 44% increase in level of protein carbonyls after 36 h indicated involvement of protein oxidation for counteracting and/or utilizing the production of ROS and faster mobilization of reserve proteins. Higher production of free radicals in primed seeds did not cause lipid peroxidation as malondialdehyde content was low. Lipoxygenase was involved in the germination associated events as the magnitude of activity was higher in primed aged seeds compared to aged seeds. Our study elucidated that PMF mediated improvement in seed quality of aged pea seeds was facilitated by fine tuning of free radicals by the antioxidant defense system and protein oxidation.

  12. Repeat-pulse 13CO2 labeling of canola and field pea: implications for soil organic matter studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, Amy; Knight, Diane; Farrell, Richard; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2010-10-15

    Both the quantity and quality of plant residues can impact soil properties and processes. Isotopic tracers can be used to trace plant residue decomposition if the tracer is homogeneously distributed throughout the plant. Continuous labeling will homogeneously label plants but is not widely accessible because elaborate equipment is needed. In order to determine if the more accessible repeat-pulse labeling method could be used to trace plant residue decomposition, this labeling procedure was employed using (13)CO(2) to enrich field pea and canola plants in a controlled environment. Plants were exposed weekly to pulses of 33 atom% (13)CO(2) and grown to maturity. The distribution of the label throughout the plant parts (roots, stem, leaves, and pod) and biochemical fractions (ADF and ADL) was determined. The label was not homogeneously distributed throughout the plant; in particular, the pod fractions were less enriched than other fractions indicating the importance of continuing labeling well into plant maturity for pod-producing plants. The ADL fraction was also less enriched than the ADF fraction. Because of the heterogeneity of the label throughout the plant, caution should be applied when using the repeat-pulse method to trace the fate of (13)C-labeled residues in the soil. However, root contributions to below-ground C were successfully determined from the repeat-pulse labeled root material, as was (13)C enrichment of soil within the top 15 cm. Canola contributed more above- and below-ground residue C than field pea; however, canola was also higher in ADF and ADL fractions indicating a more recalcitrant residue.

  13. CLASIFICACIÓN DE 42 LÍNEAS MEJORADAS DE ARVEJA (PISUM SATIVUM L. POR CARACTERES MORFOLÓGICOS Y COMPORTAMIENTO AGRONÓMICO CLASSIFICATION OF 42 GENOTYPES OF PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L. ACCORDING TO THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND AGRONOMIC BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Andrés Pacheco Ch.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la Sabana de Bogotá (Colombia, bajo condiciones de invernadero, durante dos ciclos de cultivo. En el primero se evaluaron las variables morfológicas y agronómicas, relacionadas con: componentes de rendimiento, precocidad, altura y hábito de crecimiento, cantidad de ramas, tipo de hoja; tamaño de hoja, tipo y grado de curvatura de la vaina, tamaño de pedúnculo, número de vainas por racimo, color de flor y características morfológicas del grano. En el segundo ciclo se evaluó la enfermedad “ascochyta” causada por Ascochyta spp. y Mycosphaerella spp. El objetivo de esta investigación fue: identificar líneas genéticas promisorias para continuar el programa de fitomejoramiento en arveja. El Análisis Factorial de Datos Mixtos AFDM, permitió agrupar las 42 líneas de mejora genética en 4 clases de variación cualitativa y cuantitativa, como también seleccionar a los genotipos M-049, M-078, M-080 y M-082 como sobresalientes por caracteres agronómicos.The study was carried out in the Bogotá plateau (Colombia, under greenhouse conditions during two crop cycles. During the first cycle the morphological and agronomical variables associated with yield components, such us precocity, growth habit, number of branches, leaf type, leaf size, type and degree of curvature of pod, size of peduncle, number of pods per cluster, flower color and grain morphological characteristics were evaluated. In the second cycle, the disease “ascochyta” caused by Ascochyta spp. and Mycosphaerella spp was evaluated. The objective of this research was to identify pea lines prospective for plant breeding. The factorial analysis of mixed data (FAMD, allowed clustering 42 genotypes into 4 groups of qualitative and quantitative variation and also selecting the materials M-049, M-078, M-080 and M-082 as the best genotypes according to their agronomical characters.

  14. Primary and secondary abscission in Pisum sativum and Euphorbia pulcherrima –how do they compare and how do they differ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kathrine (Trine eHvoslef-Eide

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAbscission is a highly regulated and coordinated developmental process in plants. It is important to understand the processes leading up to the event, in order to better control abscission in crop plants. This has the potential to reduce yield losses in the field and increase the ornamental value of flowers and potted plants. A reliable method of abscission induction in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima flowers has been established to study the process in a comprehensive manner. By correctly decapitating buds of the third order, abscission can be induced in one week. AFLP differential display (DD was used to search for genes regulating abscission. Through validation using qRT-PCR, more information of the genes involved during induced secondary abscission have been obtained. A study using two mutants of pea (Pisum sativum in the def (Developmental funiculus gene have been performed and compared these with wild type peas (tall and dwarf in both cases. The def mutant results in a deformed, abscission-less zone instead of normal primary abscission at the funiculus. RNA in situ hybridization studies using gene sequences from the poinsettia differential display, resulted in six genes differentially expressed for abscission specific genes in both poinsettia and pea. Two of these genes are associated with gene up- or down-regulation during the first two days after decapitation in poinsettia. Present and previous results in poinsettia (biochemically and gene expressions, enables a more detailed division of the secondary abscission phases in poinsettia than what has previously been described from primary abscission in Arabidopsis.This study compares the inducible secondary abscission in poinsettia and the non-abscising mutants/wild types in pea demonstrating primary abscission zones. The results may have wide implications on the understanding of abscission, since pea and poinsettia have been separated for 94-98 million years in evolution, hence

  15. Optimization of Neutral Comet Assay for studying DNA double-strand breaks in pea and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an adaptation of the Comet assay under neutral conditions for mono- and dicotyledonous plants pea (Pisum sativum L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Modifications concern lysis and electrophoresis steps, respectively. Electrophoresis was carried out varying the intensity of the electric field. A linear relationship between the percentages of DNA in the tail from control background with alteration of intensity was found. Trypan blue dye exclusion test was used in order to determine the intactness of nuclear membrane of the isolated nuclei from both plant model systems. Assessment was conducted on non-irradiated and irradiated nuclei on a monolayer with three doses of UVC. It was found that the share of intact nuclei (trypan blue negative ones is about 95% in controls. Gradual dose-related increase of damaged nuclei was observed in both species, reaching statistical significance only at the higher dose applied.

  16. Response of Pisum sativum (Fabales: Fabaceae) to Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation: effect of adult weevil density on damage, larval population, and yield loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankosky, M A; Cárcamo, H A; Dosdall, L M

    2011-10-01

    Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive pest in North America and its geographical range is currently expanding across the Canadian prairies. Adults and larvae of S. lineatus feed upon the foliage and root nodules, respectively, of field pea, Pisum sativum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and may contribute to economic losses when population densities are high. Integrated pest management (IPM) programs that incorporate economic thresholds should be used to manage S. lineatus populations in a sustainable manner. The impact of nitrogen fertilizer on field pea yield and the relationships between adult weevil density and above- and below-ground damage and yield were investigated in southern Alberta, Canada using exclusion cages on field pea plots. In each cage, 32 field pea plants were exposed to weevil densities ranging from zero to one adult weevil per plant. Nitrogen-fertilized plants yielded 16% more than unfertilized plants. Nitrogen-fertilized plants had fewer root nodules than unfertilized plants, but fertilizer had no effect on foliar feeding by S. lineatus. Adult density affected foliar feeding damage, with increases in above-ground damage associated with increases in S. lineatus density. Adult density did not affect root nodule damage, larval density, foliar biomass or seed weight. Overall, these results indicate that terminal leaf damage may be used to estimate adult weevil density but cannot be used to predict larval density or yield loss. Further research is required to better understand the impact of larval damage on yield and determine if economic thresholds can be developed using data from large-scale production systems.

  17. Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the aleurone grains of Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia Konopska

    2015-01-01

    Aleurone grains from Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons were isolated partly according to Tombs's method (1967). Nitrogen compounds content was determined in them by Kjeldahl's micromethod, and in the particular fractions after Thiman and Laloraya (1960). Mainly protein N was detected in the aleurone grains, constituting 14.8 and 15.2 per cent of the dry mass of pea and Iris seeds, respectively. Moreover, phosphorus compounds were fractionated according to Holden and Pir...

  18. Alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content in pea leaves under long-term drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Ilhami; Öztürk, Lokman; Demir, Yavuz; Unlükara, Ali; Kurunç, Ahmet; Düzdemir, Oral

    2014-09-01

    The effects of long-term drought stress on chlorophyll, proline, protein and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents, malondialdehyde (MDA) in terms of lipid peroxidation and on the changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POX; EC 1.11.1.7) in the leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were studied in field conditions. Chlorophyll and protein contents in leaves decreased significantly with increased drought stress. The proline content increased markedly under water deficit. MDA amounts were elevated as a result of water shortage, whereas H(2)O(2) content changed slightly in pea leaves exposed to drought stress. Drought stress markedly enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POX but slightly changed the activity of APX. We conclude that in field conditions, long-term water shortage increased the susceptibility to drought in peas.

  19. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on crop yields in a field pea-spring wheat-potato rotation system with calcareous soil in semi-arid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.A.; Zhang, S.; Hua, S.; Rao, X.

    2016-11-01

    The object of the present study was to investigate the yield-affecting mechanisms influenced by N and P applications in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. The experimental treatments were as follows: NF (no fertilizer), N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), and NP (nitrogen plus phosphorus) in a field pea-spring wheat-potato cropping system. This study was conducted over six years (2003-2008) on China’s semi-arid Loess Plateau. The fertilizer treatments were found to decrease the soil water content more than the NF treatment in each of the growing seasons. The annual average yields of the field pea crops during the entire experimental period were 635, 677, 858, and 1117 kg/ha for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. The annual average yields were 673, 547, 966, and 1056 kg/ha for the spring wheat crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. Also, the annual average yields were 1476, 2120, 1480, and 2424 kg/ha for the potato crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. In the second cycle of the three-year rotation, the pea and spring wheat yields in the P treatment were 1.2 and 2.8 times higher than that in the N treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, the potato crop yield in the N treatment was 3.1 times higher than that in the P treatment. In conclusion, the P fertilizer was found to increase the yields of the field pea and wheat crops, and the N fertilizer increased the potato crop yield in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. (Author)

  20. Identification of a transport mechanism for NH4+ in the symbiosome membrane of pea root nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritzen, P.; Rosendahl, L.

    1997-01-01

    Symbiosome membrane vesicles, facing bacteroid-side-out, were purified from pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules and used to study NH4+ transport across the membrane by recording vesicle uptake of the NH4+ analog [C-14]methylamine (MA). Membrane potentials (Delta psi) were imposed on the vesicles...

  1. Diazotroph community structure and abundance in wheat-fallow and wheat-pea crop rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological input of nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere either through free-living diazotrophs or legume-associated rhizobia can help alleviate fertilizer use in agricultural systems. In this study, we investigated the effect of N fertilizer and winter pea (Pisum sativum L.) crop on the diversity and a...

  2. Identification of Ononitol and O-methyl-scyllo-inositol in Pea Root Nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif; Egsgaard, Helge

    1984-01-01

    Ononitol (4-O-methyl-myo-inositol) and O-methyl-scyllo-inositol were identified in pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules formed by twoRhizobium leguminosarum strains. Ononitol was the major soluble carbohydrate in nodules formed by strain 1045 while O-methyl-scyllo-inositol and two unidentified...

  3. Characterization of Pea Vicilin. 2. Consequences of Compositional Heterogeneity on Heat-Induced Gelation Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Kane, F.E.; Happe, R.P.; Vereijken, J.M.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van

    2004-01-01

    The gelling characteristics of two vicilin fractions from pea (Pisum sativum L.) were compared over a range of pH and salt conditions after preliminary results showed that despite having equal opportunity to unfold, and expose hydrophobic residues, they had different minimum gelling concentrations

  4. Effect of combined nitrogen on symbiotic nitrogen fixation in pea plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwaard, F.

    1979-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing activity of the symbiotic system of Pisum sativum with Rhizobium leguminosarum is adversely affected by combined nitrogen. Both ammonium chloride and potassium nitrate, when added to the roots, lower the nitrogenase activity (acetylene-reduction) of intact pea plants. During a 3-

  5. Root rot of peas in the Netherlands: fungal pathogens, inoculum potential and soil receptivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyarzun, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fungi associated to pea (Pisum sativum L.) root rot were studied. Fusarium and Oomycetes were most common. Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, Fsp, was widely distributed and the most frequent fungus in roots of diseased crops. The pathogens Thielaviopsis basicola , Tb, and Aphanomyces euteiches, Ae, wer

  6. Determination of mycoflora of pea (Pisum sativum) seeds and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... nodules fixing of free nitrogen of air in roots of legumes and improve soil .... 25°C. Five grams of the medium was applied around roots for each pot. For evaluation of ... germination was not observed in these plants. Seeds.

  7. Photosynthetic responses of pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Little ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... meteorological parameters, levels of solar radiation as influenced by latitude ... nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone. (O3) have fundamental ... over time due to saturated CO2 binding to Rubisco and.

  8. Gene-based SNP discovery and genetic mapping in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Anoop; Ramsay, Larissa; Sanderson, Lacey-Anne; Stonehouse, Robert; Li, Rong; Condie, Janet; Shunmugam, Arun S K; Liu, Yong; Jha, Ambuj B; Diapari, Marwan; Burstin, Judith; Aubert, Gregoire; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Bett, Kirstin E; Warkentin, Thomas D; Sharpe, Andrew G

    2014-10-01

    Gene-based SNPs were identified and mapped in pea using five recombinant inbred line populations segregating for traits of agronomic importance. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is one of the world's oldest domesticated crops and has been a model system in plant biology and genetics since the work of Gregor Mendel. Pea is the second most widely grown pulse crop in the world following common bean. The importance of pea as a food crop is growing due to its combination of moderate protein concentration, slowly digestible starch, high dietary fiber concentration, and its richness in micronutrients; however, pea has lagged behind other major crops in harnessing recent advances in molecular biology, genomics and bioinformatics, partly due to its large genome size with a large proportion of repetitive sequence, and to the relatively limited investment in research in this crop globally. The objective of this research was the development of a genome-wide transcriptome-based pea single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker platform using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 1,536 polymorphic SNP loci selected from over 20,000 non-redundant SNPs identified using deep transcriptome sequencing of eight diverse Pisum accessions were used for genotyping in five RIL populations using an Illumina GoldenGate assay. The first high-density pea SNP map defining all seven linkage groups was generated by integrating with previously published anchor markers. Syntenic relationships of this map with the model legume Medicago truncatula and lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) maps were established. The genic SNP map establishes a foundation for future molecular breeding efforts by enabling both the identification and tracking of introgression of genomic regions harbouring QTLs related to agronomic and seed quality traits.

  9. Number and Effectiveness of Pea Rhizobia in Danish Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    Most of 44 Danish soils tested contain between 1000 and 10 000 pea rhizobia (Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viceae) per gram. Pea rhizobia were not detected in acid moor and forest soils. Only one case of failed nodulation in peas in the field has been noted, in spots in a reclaimed sandy heath...

  10. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T-cannula or a ......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T.......05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P ... meal, rapeseed cake, and especially lupine, although all tested feedstuffs seem appropriate for inclusion in diets for organic pigs....

  11. Kinetics of Ca2+- and ATP-dependent, voltage-controlled anion conductance in the plasma membrane of mesophyll cells of Pisum sativum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzenga, J.T.M.; van Volkenburgh, E.

    1997-01-01

    Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to measure anion currents through the plasma membrane of protoplasts of mesophyll cells of expanding pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves. Voltage-induced changes of the currents could be modelled with single exponential activation and deactivation kinetics. The

  12. Comparative phloem Mobility of nickel in nonsenescent plants. [Pisum sativa L. ; Pelargonium zonale L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, P.M.; Chamel, A.

    1986-06-01

    /sup 63/Ni was applied to nonsenescent source leaves and found to be transported to sink tissues in pea (Pisum saativum L.) and geranium plants (Pelargonium zonale L.). The comparative mobilities (percent tracer transported out of source leaf division % /sup 86/Rb transported) for /sup 63/Ni in peas was 2.12 and in geranium 0.25. The value for the phloem mobile /sup 86/Rb was 1.00. By contrast, the comparative mobility of /sup 45/Ca, which is relatively immobile in the phloem, was low (0.05 in peas, 0.00 in geranium). Interruption of the phloem pathway between source and sink leaves by steam girdling almost completely inhibited /sup 63/Ni accumulation in the sink leaves of both species. The authors conclude that Ni is transported from nonsenescent source leaves to sink tissues via the phloem of leguminous and nonleguminous plants.

  13. The Influence of Lead on Generation of Signalling Molecules and Accumulation of Flavonoids in Pea Seedlings in Response to Pea Aphid Infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Agnieszka; Drzewiecka, Kinga; Kęsy, Jacek; Marczak, Łukasz; Narożna, Dorota; Grobela, Marcin; Motała, Rafał; Bocianowski, Jan; Morkunas, Iwona

    2017-08-24

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an abiotic factor, i.e., lead at various concentrations (low causing a hormesis effect and causing high toxicity effects), on the generation of signalling molecules in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Cysterski) seedlings and then during infestation by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris). The second objective was to verify whether the presence of lead in pea seedling organs and induction of signalling pathways dependent on the concentration of this metal trigger defense responses to A. pisum. Therefore, the profile of flavonoids and expression levels of genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway (phenylalanine ammonialyase and chalcone synthase) were determined. A significant accumulation of total salicylic acid (TSA) and abscisic acid (ABA) was recorded in the roots and leaves of pea seedlings growing on lead-supplemented medium and next during infestation by aphids. Increased generation of these phytohormones strongly enhanced the biosynthesis of flavonoids, including a phytoalexin, pisatin. This research provides insights into the cross-talk between the abiotic (lead) and biotic factor (aphid infestation) on the level of the generation of signalling molecules and their role in the induction of flavonoid biosynthesis.

  14. Development and Characterization of 37 Novel EST-SSR Markers in Pisum sativum (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Zhuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Simple sequence repeat markers were developed based on expressed sequence tags (EST-SSR and screened for polymorphism among 23 Pisum sativum individuals to assist development and refinement of pea linkage maps. In particular, the SSR markers were developed to assist in mapping of white mold disease resistance quantitative trait loci. Methods and Results: Primer pairs were designed for 46 SSRs identified in EST contiguous sequences assembled from a 454 pyrosequenced transcriptome of the pea cultivar, ‘LIFTER’. Thirty-seven SSR markers amplified PCR products, of which 11 (30% SSR markers produced polymorphism in 23 individuals, including parents of recombinant inbred lines, with two to four alleles. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.43 and from 0.31 to 0.83, respectively. Conclusions: These EST-SSR markers for pea will be useful for refinement of pea linkage maps, and will likely be useful for comparative mapping of pea and as tools for marker-based pea breeding.

  15. Fungicide application and phosphorus uptake by hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi into field-grown peas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiger, P.F.; Spliid, N.H.; Jakobsen, I.

    2001-01-01

    P uptake were not affected by fungicide applications apart from application of the propiconazole/fenpropimorph mixture at 100 x the recommended rate. This rate completely inhibited plant growth. AM root colonisation was reduced by the high rate of carbendazim application only. This reduction had...... no effect on plant growth which may be due to the fertile soil conditions at the field site. It is concluded that the testing for side effects of pesticides on non-target organisms should include functional parameters such as P uptake by AM fungi. Such measures may be more sensitive to harmful effects than...... from overall P uptake, Fungicides were added to the soil inside the HCs at concentrations assumed to reflect their concentration in the surrounding soil. At two harvests, plant growth, total P and P-32 uptake as well as root length density and AM root colonisation were measured. Length of hyphae inside...

  16. Molecular Prediction of Pea Footrot Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebimieowei Etebu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available PCR based assays were developed in this study to quantitatively predict pea footrot infections in agricultural soils prior to cultivation. Pea footrot disease due to Nectria haematococca (anamorph Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi is linked to the presence of six pea pathogenicity (PEP genes (PDA1, PEP1, PEP2, PEP3, PEP4 and PEP5. Whilst molecular assays have been used recently to selectively detect these genes in soil- DNA, quantitative molecular assay has been extended to only the PEP3 gene whose role in pea pathogenicity is yet unknown. In this research, PCR-based quantification assays were developed to quantify the two pea pathogenicity genes (PDA and PEP5 with identified roles in pea pathogenicity from soil-DNA obtained from fields with pea footrot histories. Results showed that the quantitative molecular assays developed herein were both efficient. Amplification efficiency of the Q-PCR assay for the PDA and PEP5 gene were 97 and 89%, respectively. PDA and PEP5 gene copy numbers were shown to vary significantly (p = 0.01 between fields. However, the PDA gene copy numbers were relatively higher than those of the PEP5 gene in agricultural fields. The genes, especially PEP5 gene, were comparable to and positively correlated to the number of spores of pathogenic N. haematococca, and footrot disease. The PDA gene alone in soil could not cause footrot disease in peas after 8 weeks of planting; assays directed at it alone may therefore be insufficient to predict pea footrot disease. However, the molecular assay targeting the PDA alongside the PEP5 gene offers the opportunity for quantitative prediction of pea footrot infections in agricultural soils prior to cultivation.

  17. Red light-induced acidification by pea leaf epidermal cells is regulated by more than one phytochrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzenga, J.T.M.; Staal, M; Prins, H.B A

    2000-01-01

    Leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) grown in red light develop normally, provided that functional phytochrome B is present. In the chromophore mutant pcd2 and in the phytochrome B mutant 1v the leaves remain small. Although some chlorophyll development takes place, the leaf size of red light-grown muta

  18. Growth under UV-B radiation increases tolerance to high-light stress in pea and bean plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolink, EM; van Schalkwijk, [No Value; Posthumus, F; van Hasselt, PR

    2001-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants were exposed to enhanced levels of UV-B radiation in a growth chamber. Leaf discs of UV-B treated and control plants were exposed to high-light (HL) stress (PAR: 1200 mu mol m(-2) s(-1)) to study whether pre-treatment with UV-B affected

  19. Tangible benefits of the pea aphid genome sequencing in proteomics research: enhancements in protein identification, data incorporation, and evaluation criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, is an important agricultural pest and a model system for numerous aspects of aphid biology, including sexual and asexual reproduction, bacterial endosymbiosis, insecticide resistance, and the evolution of aphid and plant host interactions. Recently, its complete ...

  20. Genetic dissection of nitrogen nutrition in pea through a QTL approach of root, nodule, and shoot variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourion, Virginie; Rizvi, Syed Masood Hasan; Fournier, Sarah; de Larambergue, Henri; Galmiche, Fabien; Marget, Pascal; Duc, Gérard; Burstin, Judith

    2010-06-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is the third most important grain legume worldwide, and the increasing demand for protein-rich raw material has led to a great interest in this crop as a protein source. Seed yield and protein content in crops are strongly determined by nitrogen (N) nutrition, which in legumes relies on two complementary pathways: absorption by roots of soil mineral nitrogen, and fixation in nodules of atmospheric dinitrogen through the plant-Rhizobium symbiosis. This study assessed the potential of naturally occurring genetic variability of nodulated root structure and functioning traits to improve N nutrition in pea. Glasshouse and field experiments were performed on seven pea genotypes and on the 'Cameor' x 'Ballet' population of recombinant inbred lines selected on the basis of parental contrast for root and nodule traits. Significant variation was observed for most traits, which were obtained from non-destructive kinetic measurements of nodulated root and shoot in pouches, root and shoot image analysis, (15)N quantification, or seed yield and protein content determination. A significant positive relationship was found between nodule establishment and root system growth, both among the seven genotypes and the RIL population. Moreover, several quantitative trait loci for root or nodule traits and seed N accumulation were mapped in similar locations, highlighting the possibility of breeding new pea cultivars with increased root system size, sustained nodule number, and improved N nutrition. The impact on both root or nodule traits and N nutrition of the genomic regions of the major developmental genes Le and Af was also underlined.

  1. Performance and meat quality of Nordic Red and Aberdeen Angus bulls offered faba bean or field pea based whole crop legume-cereal silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Kalevi Huuskonen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of silage plant species (faba bean and field pea based whole crop legume-cereals vs. grass on performance and meat quality of growing Aberdeen Angus (AA and Nordic Red (NR bulls. A 2×3 factorial design was used. The experiment comprised 30 AA and 30 NR bulls. Both breeds were randomly allotted to the three feeding treatments. The compositions (g kg-1 dry matter of diets were: 1 grass silage (650 plus rolled barley (350, 2 faba bean-wheat silage (650 plus rolled barley (350 and 3 pea-wheat silage (650 plus rolled barley (350. The experimental diets were offered as total mixed rations ad libitum. The AA bulls grew faster, had better feed conversion rates and superior dressing proportion and carcass conformation compared to the NR bulls. Replacing grass silage by whole crop legume-cereal silages in the diet did not have remarkable effects on animal performance, carcass characteristics or meat quality.

  2. [Fasciation in pea: basic principles of morphogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniushin, A A; Gostimskiĭ, S A

    2006-01-01

    A study of fasciated pea Pisum sativum L. (Fabaceae) mutant Shtambovy in comparison with the wild type (Nemchinovsky cultivar) has shown that fasciation is a result of abnormal cohesion of axial or other structures which arise in a superfluous amount due to uncontrolled meristic processes. In some cases, the organs with the same number and position as in the wild type can be fascinated. Subsequent defasciation and some features of tissue differentiation suggest that the meristem of a fasciated shoot retains a certain degree of discreteness which reflects its complex structure. The number and position of leaves in a node is a function of the diameter of the leaf primordium inhibitory zone, size of the shoot apical meristem, and number of bundles in a shoot. In the absence of the apex proliferative activity combined with the reduction of phyllomes in the upper nodes, abnormal cohesion of the second order axes, racemes, can take place. As a result, inflorescences of special type develop.

  3. Fine structure of fusion products from soybean cell culture and pea leaf protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowke, L C; Constabel, F; Gamborg, O L

    1977-01-01

    Protoplasts from pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves and cultured soybean (Glycine max L.) cells were fused by means of polyethylene glycol and subsequently cultured for one week. Both agglutinated protoplasts and cultured fusion products were examined by electron microscopy. Agglutination occurred over large areas of the plasma membranes. The membrane contanct was discontinuous and irregularly spaced. Many cultured fusion products regenerated cell walls and divided to form cell clusters. Fusion of pea and soybean interphase nuclei occurred in some cells. The detection of heterochromatin typical of pea in the synkaryon, even after division, suggests the cells were hybrids. The cytoplasm of the cells from the fusion products contained both soybean leucoplasts and pea chloroplasts. The chloroplasts had apparently ceased dividing and some showed signs of degenerating. Large multinucleate fusion products developed cell walls but failed to divide.

  4. Processing Pisum sativum seed storage protein precursors in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGLIJUN; CDOMONEY; 等

    1990-01-01

    The profile of polypeptides separated by SDS-PAGE from seed of major crop species such as pea(Pisum sativum) is complex,resulting from cleavage (processing) of precursors expressed from multiple copies of genes encoding vicilin and legumin,the major storage globulins.Translation in vitro of mRNAs hybridselected from mid-maturation pea seed RNAs by defined vicilin and legumin cDNA clones provided precursor molecules that were cleaved in vitro by a cell-free protease extract obtained from similar stage seed;the derived polypeptides were of comparable sizes to those observed in vivo.The feasibility of transcribing mRNA in vitro from a cDNA clone and cleavage in vitro of the derived translation products was established for a legumin clone,providing a method for determining polypeptide products of an expressed sequence.This approach will also be useful for characterising cleavage site requirements since modifications an readily be introduced at the DNA level.

  5. Effect of presowing magnetic treatment on properties of pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M.; Haq, Z. U.; Jamil, Y.; Ahmad, M. R.

    2012-02-01

    The pea seeds were exposed to full-wave rectified sinusoidal magnetic fields. The effects of electromagnetic treatment on seedling growth and chlorophyll contents and have been investigated. Seed were sown after magnetic field treatment according to ISTA under controlled laboratory conditions. The magnetic filed treatment of seeds increased the growth significantly (Pmagnetic field could be used to enhance the growth in pea plant.

  6. Bean pod mottle virus: a new powerful tool for functional genomics studies in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziadi, Chouaib; Blanchet, Sophie; Richard, Manon M S; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Geffroy, Valérie; Pflieger, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important legume worldwide. The importance of pea in arable rotations and nutritional value for both human and animal consumption have fostered sustained production and different studies to improve agronomic traits of interest. Moreover, complete sequencing of the pea genome is currently underway and will lead to the identification of a large number of genes potentially associated with important agronomic traits. Because stable genetic transformation is laborious for pea, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) appears as a powerful alternative technology for determining the function of unknown genes. In this work, we present a rapid and efficient viral inoculation method using DNA infectious plasmids of Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-derived VIGS vector. Six pea genotypes with important genes controlling biotic and/or abiotic stresses were found susceptible to BPMV carrying a GFP reporter gene and showed fluorescence in both shoots and roots. In a second step, we investigated 37 additional pea genotypes and found that 30 were susceptible to BPMV and only 7 were resistant. The capacity of BPMV to induce silencing of endogenes was investigated in the most susceptible genotype using two visual reporter genes: PsPDS and PsKORRIGAN1 (PsKOR1) encoding PHYTOENE DESATURASE and a 1,4-β-D-glucanase, respectively. The features of the 'one-step' BPMV-derived VIGS vector include (i) the ease of rub-inoculation, without any need for biolistic or agro-inoculation procedures, (ii) simple cost-effective procedure and (iii) noninterference of viral symptoms with silencing. These features make BPMV the most adapted VIGS vector in pea to make low- to high-throughput VIGS studies.

  7. Effects of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on garden pea and string bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, A.G.

    1976-02-01

    Garden Peas (Pisum Sativum) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were exposed to 24 ppM of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/). Germination of bean seeds was delayed about 48 hours. On the 18th day after exposure none of the bean seedlings exposed to NO/sub 2/ survived while about 30 percent of the beans exposed to CO survived. The survival of the pea seedlings was not affected. No effect was noted on stem length. Formation of new leaves was decreased and dropping of old leaves was increased in both test species with more drastic effects noted in the beans. (JTE)

  8. Sensitivity of two garden pea genotypes to physical and chemical mutagens

    OpenAIRE

    Slavka Kalapchieva; Nasya Tomlekova

    2016-01-01

    A study on the sensitivity of two breeding lines of garden pea to mutagenic agents was carried out in the Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Plovdiv. The purpose was to evaluate the sensitivity of the Pisum sativum L. genotypes to physical and chemical mutagens. In the experiment, the pea seeds were irradiated single or combined with 60Co gamma rays (40, 80, 100, 200 and 400 Gy) and Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 %. Visible morphological changes of the ...

  9. Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the aleurone grains of Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Konopska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aleurone grains from Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons were isolated partly according to Tombs's method (1967. Nitrogen compounds content was determined in them by Kjeldahl's micromethod, and in the particular fractions after Thiman and Laloraya (1960. Mainly protein N was detected in the aleurone grains, constituting 14.8 and 15.2 per cent of the dry mass of pea and Iris seeds, respectively. Moreover, phosphorus compounds were fractionated according to Holden and Pirie (1955. Analyses demonstrated the presence in aleurone grains of inorganic P, acid-soluble organophosphorus compounds, phospholipids and RNA.

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: pea aphid [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sum_NL.png Acyrthosiphon_pisum_S.png Acyrthosiphon_pisum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.c...gi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=NL http:...//biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=NS ...

  11. Morphological characterization of fungi associated with the ascochyta blight complex and pathogenic variability of Mycosphaerella pinodes on field pea crops in central Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Field pea crops in central Alberta were surveyed for ascochyta blight from 2011 to 2012 and fungal isolates were recovered from foliar lesions on selected plants. Cultural and microscopic characterization of the 275 isolates obtained revealed that 272 were of Mycosphaerella pinodes and three were of Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Ascochyta pisi or Phoma koolunga were not identified. Isolates of M. pinodes were divided into two groups, GI and GII, based on visual assessment of culture characteristics. GI isolates (light to dark, mostly gray colony color; pycnidial distribution radial and concentric; conidia 10.5–14.5 × 4.2–6.2 μm most with one septum, occasionally two, constricted at the septum; spore mass light buff to flesh color were predominant (83%, while GII isolates (dark to gray colony color; pycnidia abundant; conidia 8–16 × 3.5–6.2 μm most with 1 septum, constricted at the septum; spore mass light buff to flesh color were less common (17%. The cultures of GII isolates were similar to recent descriptions of A. pisi, but they differed in spore color. In a host differential study, 13 pathotypes of M. pinodes were identified from 110 single-spore isolates. Pathotype I was predominant (88 isolates and virulent on all nine differential genotypes. The other pathotypes (pathotypes II–XIII were rare (1–6 isolates of each. Comparison of the present results with earlier studies suggests that pathotype I has been prevalent for many years, and that its aggressiveness on the host differentials has increased over time. Emphasis should be placed on breeding for resistance to M. pinodes in field pea cultivars intended for deployment in central Alberta.

  12. Durable broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance in pea er1 plants is conferred by natural loss-of-function mutations in PsMLO1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humphry, M.; Reinstädler, A.; Ivanov, S.; Bisseling, T.; Panstruga, R.

    2011-01-01

    Loss-of-function alleles of plant-specific MLO (Mildew Resistance Locus O) genes confer broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance in monocot (barley) and dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato) plants. Recessively inherited powdery mildew resistance in pea (Pisum sativum) er1 plants is, in many aspects,

  13. A 200 bp region of the pea ENOD12 promoter is sufficient for nodule-specific and nod factor induced expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijn, I; Christiansen, H; Lauridsen, P

    1995-01-01

    ENOD12 is one of the first nodulin genes expressed upon inoculation with Rhizobium and also purified Nod factors are able to induce ENOD12 expression. The ENOD12 gene family in pea (Pisum sativum) has two members. A cDNA clone representing PsENOD12A [26] and a PsENOD12B genomic clone [7] have bee...

  14. Rapid transcriptome characterization and parsing of sequences in a non-model host-pathogen interaction; pea-Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Xiaofeng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most important diseases of pea (Pisum sativum L., however, little is known about the genetics and biochemistry of this interaction. Identification of genes underlying resistance in the host or pathogenicity and virulence factors in the pathogen will increase our knowledge of the pea-S. sclerotiorum interaction and facilitate the introgression of new resistance genes into commercial pea varieties. Although the S. sclerotiorum genome sequence is available, no pea genome is available, due in part to its large genome size (~3500 Mb and extensive repeated motifs. Here we present an EST data set specific to the interaction between S. sclerotiorum and pea, and a method to distinguish pathogen and host sequences without a species-specific reference genome. Results 10,158 contigs were obtained by de novo assembly of 128,720 high-quality reads generated by 454 pyrosequencing of the pea-S. sclerotiorum interactome. A method based on the tBLASTx program was modified to distinguish pea and S. sclerotiorum ESTs. To test this strategy, a mixture of known ESTs (18,490 pea and 17,198 S. sclerotiorum ESTs from public databases were pooled and parsed; the tBLASTx method successfully separated 90.1% of the artificial EST mix with 99.9% accuracy. The tBLASTx method successfully parsed 89.4% of the 454-derived EST contigs, as validated by PCR, into pea (6,299 contigs and S. sclerotiorum (2,780 contigs categories. Two thousand eight hundred and forty pea ESTs and 996 S. sclerotiorum ESTs were predicted to be expressed specifically during the pea-S. sclerotiorum interaction as determined by homology search against 81,449 pea ESTs (from flowers, leaves, cotyledons, epi- and hypocotyl, and etiolated and light treated etiolated seedlings and 57,751 S. sclerotiorum ESTs (from mycelia at neutral pH, developing apothecia and developing sclerotia. Among those ESTs specifically expressed

  15. Extracellular proteins in pea root tip and border cell exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fushi; VanEtten, Hans D; Tsaprailis, George; Hawes, Martha C

    2007-02-01

    Newly generated plant tissue is inherently sensitive to infection. Yet, when pea (Pisum sativum) roots are inoculated with the pea pathogen, Nectria haematococca, most newly generated root tips remain uninfected even though most roots develop lesions just behind the tip in the region of elongation. The resistance mechanism is unknown but is correlated spatially with the presence of border cells on the cap periphery. Previously, an array of >100 extracellular proteins was found to be released while border cell separation proceeds. Here we report that protein secretion from pea root caps is induced in correlation with border cell separation. When this root cap secretome was proteolytically degraded during inoculation of pea roots with N. haematococca, the percentage of infected root tips increased from 4% +/- 3% to 100%. In control experiments, protease treatment of conidia or roots had no effect on growth and development of the fungus or the plant. A complex of >100 extracellular proteins was confirmed, by multidimensional protein identification technology, to comprise the root cap secretome. In addition to defense-related and signaling enzymes known to be present in the plant apoplast were ribosomal proteins, 14-3-3 proteins, and others typically associated with intracellular localization but recently shown to be extracellular components of microbial biofilms. We conclude that the root cap, long known to release a high molecular weight polysaccharide mucilage and thousands of living cells into the incipient rhizosphere, also secretes a complex mixture of proteins that appear to function in protection of the root tip from infection.

  16. Multiple impacts of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 on nutrient and ABA relations of Pisum sativum

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Fan; Chen, Lin; Belimov, Andrey A; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I.; Gong, Fan; Meng, Xu; Hartung, Wolfram; Jeschke, Dieter W.; Davies, William J.; Dodd, Ian C.

    2012-01-01

    Resolving the physiological mechanisms by which rhizobacteria enhance plant growth is difficult, since many such bacteria contain multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To understand further how the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (ACCd)-containing rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 affects plant growth, the flows and partitioning of mineral nutrients and abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolism were studied in pea (Pisum sativum) plants following rhizosphere bacter...

  17. Role of Pea Enation Mosaic Virus Coat Protein in the Host Plant and Aphid Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Doumayrou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in plant virus–vector interactions is essential for the development of effective control measures for aphid-vectored epidemic plant diseases. The coat proteins (CP are the main component of the viral capsids, and they are implicated in practically every stage of the viral infection cycle. Pea enation mosaic virus 1 (PEMV1, Enamovirus, Luteoviridae and Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2, Umbravirus, Tombusviridae are two RNA viruses in an obligate symbiosis causing the pea enation mosaic disease. Sixteen mutant viruses were generated with mutations in different domains of the CP to evaluate the role of specific amino acids in viral replication, virion assembly, long-distance movement in Pisum sativum, and aphid transmission. Twelve mutant viruses were unable to assemble but were able to replicate in inoculated leaves, move long-distance, and express the CP in newly infected leaves. Four mutant viruses produced virions, but three were not transmissible by the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Three-dimensional modeling of the PEMV CP, combined with biological assays for virion assembly and aphid transmission, allowed for a model of the assembly of PEMV coat protein subunits.

  18. LONG-TERM EFFICACY OF PROTEIN-ENRICHED PEA FLOUR AGAINST TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE IN WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pretheep-Kumar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term efficacy of the protein-enriched flour of pea (Pisum sativum L. var. Bonneville in its toxicity, progeny reduction and organoleptic properties was evaluated by combining it with wheat flour and testing the admixture against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. The toxicity and progeny-reducing effects of the wheat flour treated with protein-enriched pea flour were stable for a period of 5 months when stored at 28°C with 75% r.h. Heat treatment destroyed the biological activity of the protein-enriched pea flour containing the active ingredient due to the denaturation of proteins. The organoleptic properties of stored wheat flour were not affected by the treatment with protein-enriched pea flour.

  19. Olfactory cues from different plant species in host selection by female pea moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöming, Gunda; Norli, Hans Ragnar

    2015-03-01

    In herbivorous insects specialized on few plant species, attraction to host odor may be mediated by volatiles common to all host species, by specific compounds, or combinations of both. The pea moth Cydia nigricana is an important pest of the pea. Volatile signatures of four host plant species were studied to identify compounds involved in pea moth host selection and to improve previously reported attractive volatile blends. P. sativum and alternative Fabaceae host species were compared regarding female attraction, oviposition, and larval performance. Pea moth females were strongly attracted to the sweet pea Lathyrus odoratus, but larval performance on that species was moderate. Chemical analyses of sweet pea odor and electrophysiological responses of moth antennae led to identification of seven sweet-pea-specific compounds and ten compounds common to all tested host species. Blends of these specific and common cues were highly attractive to mated pea moth females in wind tunnel and field experiments.

  20. Yield and quality of sugar snap pea in the Ebro Valley: sowing date and seed density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Azpilicueta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L. var. macrocarpon Ser. is an edible-podded sweet pea that is being considered as a new totally mechanized crop to supply raw material to the agri-food industry of the Ebro Valley (Northern Spain. It is of great interest from an agronomic and commercial standpoint but neither its agronomic behaviour nor its adaptation to the area are known. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sowing date and seed density on the growth and yield of the sugar snap pea at industrial scale. Six randomized blocks experiments with four replicates were conducted on irrigated land in Villafranca (Navarra, Spain in 1998, 1999, and 2000. Three experiments for testing sowing dates (Mar., Apr., and May and another three for seed densities (from 75 to 150 plants m-2 were performed. Phenological development, thermal integral and qualitative and quantitative yield controls were performed. Sugar snap pea required 960 ºC d-1 (Tb = 3 ºC from sowing to harvest. The early sowings gave more biomass, but yield was similar. However, Harvest Index and crop morphology varied. The sowing densities had similar yields sowing that sugar snap pea has a bigger adaptation availability. Sugar snap peas can be satisfactorily cultivated at industrial scale in the zone with sowings between Mar. and May and with seeding densities between 75 and 150 plants m-2.

  1. A noncalibration spectroscopic method to estimate ether extract and fatty acid digestibility of feed and its validation with flaxseed and field pea in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L F; Swift, M L; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-10-01

    Digestibility of ether extract (EE) or fatty acids (FA) is traditionally measured by chemical analyses for EE or GLC methods for FA combined with marker concentration in diet and digesta or feces. Digestibility of EE or FA may be predicted by marker concentrations and spectral analyses of diet and digesta or feces. On the basis of Beer's law, a noncalibration spectroscopic method, which used functional group digestibility (FGD) determined with marker concentration and peak intensity of spectra of diets and undigested residues (digesta or feces), was developed to predict the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of total FA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of EE. To validate, 4 diets containing 30% flaxseed and field pea coextruded with 4 extruder treatments and a wheat and soybean basal diet with predetermined AID of total FA and ATTD of EE were used. Samples of ingredients, diets, and freeze-dried digesta and feces were scanned on a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instrument with a single-reflection attenuated total reflection (ATR) accessory. The intensity of either the methylene (CH2) antisymmetric stretching peak at 2,923 cm(-1) (R(2) = 0.90, P method using FGD at 2,923 and 2,852 cm(-1) (R(2) = 0.75, P methods or predictions based on calibrations, the AID of total FA and ATTD of EE can also be estimated directly from ATR FT-IR spectra, provided the ratio of marker in the diet and undigested residue is known.

  2. Evaluation of SRAP markers for mapping of Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Guindon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Linkage maps have become important tools for genetic studies. With the aim of evaluating the SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism technique for linkage mapping in Pisum sativum L., a F2 mapping population derived from an initial cross between cvs. DDR11 and Zav25 was generated. A total of 25 SRAP primer combinations were evaluated in 45 F2 plants and both parental lines, generating 208 polymorphic bands/markers. The markers were analyzed by the chi-square goodness-of-fit test to check the expected Mendelian segregation ratio. The resulting linkage map consists of 112 genetic markers distributed in 7 linkage groups (LGs, covering a total of 528.8 cM. The length of the LGs ranged from 47.6 to 144.3 cM (mean 75.54 cM, with 9 to 34 markers. The linkage map developed in this study indicates that the SRAP marker system could be applied to mapping studies of pea.

  3. Starch gelatinization and physical quality of pea flakes in canine dinners as affected by soaking, steam treatment and infrared radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.C.; Zandstra, T.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2008-01-01

    Cleaned, whole smooth green peas (Pisum sativum L.) were reconstituted by soaking in tap water of 40¿°C (15, 20 or 25¿min) and subsequently either toasted (100¿°C during 1.5¿min) and infrared (IR) radiated or just IR radiated. For IR radiation, a small-scale, propane-fired IR radiation plant was use

  4. Starch gelatinization and physical quality of pea flakes in canine dinners as affected by soaking, steam treatment and infrared radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.C.; Zandstra, T.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2008-01-01

    Cleaned, whole smooth green peas (Pisum sativum L.) were reconstituted by soaking in tap water of 40¿°C (15, 20 or 25¿min) and subsequently either toasted (100¿°C during 1.5¿min) and infrared (IR) radiated or just IR radiated. For IR radiation, a small-scale, propane-fired IR radiation plant was

  5. Mechanism of gibberellin-dependent stem elongation in peas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.; Sovonick-Dunford, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    Stem elongation in peas (Pisum sativum L.) is under partial control by gibberellins, yet the mechanism of such control is uncertain. In this study, we examined the cellular and physical properties that govern stem elongation, to determine how gibberellins influence pea stem growth. Stem elongation of etiolated seedlings was retarded with uniconozol, a gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, and the growth retardation was reversed by exogenous gibberellin. Using the pressure probe and vapor pressure osmometry, we found little effect of uniconozol and gibberellin on cell turgor pressure or osmotic pressure. In contrast, these treatments had major effects on in vivo stress relaxation, measured by turgor relaxation and pressure-block techniques. Uniconozol-treated plants exhibited reduced wall relaxation (both initial rate and total amount). The results show that growth retardation is effected via a reduction in the wall yield coefficient and an increase in the yield threshold. These effects were largely reversed by exogenous gibberellin. When we measured the mechanical characteristics of the wall by stress/strain (Instron) analysis, we found only minor effects of uniconozol and gibberellin on the plastic compliance. This observation indicates that these agents did not alter wall expansion through effects on the mechanical (viscoelastic) properties of the wall. Our results suggest that wall expansion in peas is better viewed as a chemorheological, rather than a viscoelastic, process.

  6. Availability of nitrogen in 15N-labelled mature pea residues to subsequent crops in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    rape (Brassica napus oleifera L.) recovered about 13% of the pea residue N during the initial 3 months of growth. At maturity the crops had recovered 15 and 13% respectively. This indicates that a major part of the residue N was mineralized and thus available to autumn-sown crops a few months after...... incorporation of the residues. At maturity, the pea residue N constituted fertilizer) N accumulated by crops. The recovery of pea residue N in successive autumn-sown crops of barley....... The concentration of organic N-15 in topsoils showed that 55% to 59% of the organic N-15 had been released during 3 yr of decomposition in soils cropped to autumn- or spring-sown crops respectively. The total crop recovery of N-15 was only 20% for autumn-sown and 9% for spring-sown crops. This indicates...

  7. Winter Pea: Promising New Crop for Washington's Dryland Wheat-Fallow Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Schillinger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year tillage-based winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.-summer fallow (WW-SF rotation has been practiced by the vast majority of farmers in the low-precipitation (<300 mm annual rainfed cropping region of east-central Washington and north-central Oregon for 140 years. Until recently, alternative crops (i.e., those other than WW so far tested have not been as economically viable or stable as WW-SF. A 6-year field study was conducted near Ritzville, WA (292 mm avg. annual precipitation to determine the yield and rotation benefits of winter pea (Pisum sativum L. (WP. Two 3-year rotations were evaluated: WP-spring wheat (SW-SF vs. WW-SW-SF. Winter pea yields averaged 2,443 vs. 4,878 kg/ha for WW. No fertilizer was applied to WP whereas 56 kg N and 11 kg S/ha were applied to WW. Winter pea used significantly less soil water than WW. Over the winter months, a lesser percentage of precipitation was stored in the soil following WP compared to WW because: (i very little WP residue remained on the soil surface after harvest compared to WW, and (ii the drier the soil, the more precipitation is stored in the soil over winter. However, soil water content in the spring was still greater following WP vs. WW. Soil residual N in the spring (7 months after the harvest of WP and WW was greater in WP plots despite not applying fertilizer to produce WP. Spring wheat grown after both WP and WW received the identical quantity of N, P, and S fertilizer each year. Average yield of SW was 2,298 and 2,011 kg/ha following WP and WW, respectively (P < 0.01. Adjusted gross economic returns for these two rotation systems were similar. Based partially on the results of this study, numerous farmers in the dry WW-SF region have shown keen interest in WP and acreage planted WP in east-central Washington has grown exponentially since 2013. This paper provides the first report of the potential for WP in the typical WW-SF region of the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW.

  8. Characterization of regenerated butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) accessions for morphological, phenology, reproductive and potential nutraceutical, pharmaceutical trait utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfly pea, Clitoria ternatea, has been used in Africa as a companion crop and in the United States as an ornamental. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU curates 28 butterfly pea accessions. Butterfly pea accessions were transplanted from about 30-day-old seedlings to the field in Griffin, GA, around 01 June ...

  9. Two ways of plant regeneration from immature cotyledons of pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nadolska-Orczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different systems of plant regeneration via organogenesis and embryogenesis from immature cotyledons of pea (Pisum sativum L. were developed. The first system was direct multiple shoot regeneration from the proximal to the embryo axis, injured part of cotyledon. The ability of six Polish cultivars to shoot formation was very high. The percent of regenerating cotyledons was from 73 to 86 and mean number of shoots from 3.5 to 9.9 after seven weeks of culture. This multiplification could be prolonged for next several months. The second system was somatic embryogenesis, initiating from the same part of cotyledon simultaneously with slowly proliferating callus. Only three out of six cultivars formed embryoids. The differences of ability to embryo formation ranged between 43% of responding explants for Heiga cultivar to only 6% for Cud Ameryki. The mean number of embryoids was from 4.2 to 2.3.

  10. Auxin polar transport of etiolated epicotyls of ageotropum pea seedlings is not affected by gravistimulation: Relevance to automorphosis-like growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K.; Hoshino, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Ueda, J.

    Both true microgravity conditions in space STS-95 space experiment and simulated ones on a three-dimensional 3-D clinostat have been demonstrated to induce automorphosis in etiolated pea Pisum sativum L cv Alaska seedlings represented as epicotyl bending as well as changes in root growth direction and inhibition of hook formation and to alter the activities of auxin polar transport of epicotyls The fact that the application of inhibitors of auxin polar transport phenocopied automorphosis together with the result of detail kinetic analyses of epicotyl bending on the 3-D clinostat suggests that automorphosis of etiolated pea epicotyls is due to suppression of a negative gravitropic response on 1 g conditions and graviresponse of etiolated pea seedlings under 1 g conditions requires normal activities of auxin polar transport To study the role of auxin polar transport in graviresponse in early growth stage of etiolated pea seedlings effect of gravistimulation on auxin polar transport in epicotyls of Alaska pea seedlings was studied in comparison with that of the agravitropic pea mutant ageotropum seedlings Dry pea seeds whose embryo axes were set in a horizontal position referred to as horizontal position or an inclinational one to the gravity vector referred to as inclinational position allowed to germinate and grow in the dark for 2 5 days Epicotyls of etiolated Alaska pea seedlings grown under horizontal position showed negative gravitropisum due to relatively larger elongation in the proximal side to the cotyledons

  11. Identification of the 64 kilodalton chloroplast stromal phosphoprotein as phosphoglucomutase. [Pisum sativum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvucci, M.E.; Drake, R.R.; Broadbent, K.P.; Haley, B.E. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA)); Hanson, K.R.; McHale, N.A. (Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Phosphorylation of the 64 kilodalton stromal phosphoprotein by incubation of pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplast extracts with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP decreased in the presence of Glc-6-P and Glc-1,6-P{sub 2}, but was stimulated by glucose. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis following incubation of intact chloroplasts and stromal extracts with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP, or incubation of stromal extracts and partially purified phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1) with ({sup 32}P)Glc-1-P showed that the identical 64 kilodalton polypeptide was labeled. A 62 kilodalton polypeptide was phosphorylated by incubation of tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) stromal extracts with either ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP or ({sup 32}P)Glc-1-P. In contrast, an analogous polypeptide was not phosphorylated in extracts from a tobacco mutant deficient in plastid phosphoglucomutase activity. The results indicate that the 64 (or 62) kilodalton chloroplast stromal phosphoprotein is phosphoglucomutase.

  12. Eliminating anti-nutritional plant food proteins: the case of seed protease inhibitors in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Alfonso; Arques, Maria C; Dalmais, Marion; Le Signor, Christine; Chinoy, Catherine; Olias, Raquel; Rayner, Tracey; Isaac, Peter G; Lawson, David M; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Domoney, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Several classes of seed proteins limit the utilisation of plant proteins in human and farm animal diets, while plant foods have much to offer to the sustainable intensification of food/feed production and to human health. Reduction or removal of these proteins could greatly enhance seed protein quality and various strategies have been used to try to achieve this with limited success. We investigated whether seed protease inhibitor mutations could be exploited to enhance seed quality, availing of induced mutant and natural Pisum germplasm collections to identify mutants, whilst acquiring an understanding of the impact of mutations on activity. A mutant (TILLING) resource developed in Pisum sativum L. (pea) and a large germplasm collection representing Pisum diversity were investigated as sources of mutations that reduce or abolish the activity of the major protease inhibitor (Bowman-Birk) class of seed protein. Of three missense mutations, predicted to affect activity of the mature trypsin / chymotrypsin inhibitor TI1 protein, a C77Y substitution in the mature mutant inhibitor abolished inhibitor activity, consistent with an absolute requirement for the disulphide bond C77-C92 for function in the native inhibitor. Two further classes of mutation (S85F, E109K) resulted in less dramatic changes to isoform or overall inhibitory activity. The alternative strategy to reduce anti-nutrients, by targeted screening of Pisum germplasm, successfully identified a single accession (Pisum elatius) as a double null mutant for the two closely linked genes encoding the TI1 and TI2 seed protease inhibitors. The P. elatius mutant has extremely low seed protease inhibitory activity and introgression of the mutation into cultivated germplasm has been achieved. The study provides new insights into structure-function relationships for protease inhibitors which impact on pea seed quality. The induced and natural germplasm variants identified provide immediate potential for either halving

  13. Analytical comparison and sensory representativity of SAFE, SPME, and Purge and Trap extracts of volatile compounds from pea flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, Chloe; Gourrat, Karine; Jerosch, Heike; Cayot, Nathalie

    2012-12-01

    Pisum sativum is of great economic and nutritional interest due to its protein content. Nevertheless, pea products are underused as a protein source in human food because of their strong beany flavour. Therefore, the objective of this study was to select an efficient and representative method to extract volatile molecules of pea flour. In the first step, three extraction methods were chosen: solid phase micro extraction (SPME); Purge and Trap extraction and solvent assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). The corresponding extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. In the second step, the sensory representativity of the extracts was assessed either by direct gas chromatography-olfactometry for SPME and for Purge and Trap extracts, or by sniffing for the aqueous SAFE extract. It appeared that SAFE extraction was the most suitable method because of its good extraction capacities and its high sensory representativity of the global odour of pea flour.

  14. Prevalence, Development, and Significance of Ascochyta Blight Caused by Peyronellaea pinodes in Pisum elatius Populations Growing in Natural Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golani, M; Frenkel, O; Bornstein, M; Shulhani, R; Abbo, S; Shtienberg, D

    2016-08-01

    Wild Pisum populations prevail in Israel in regions with diverse climatic conditions. A comprehensive survey was conducted in the winters of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at two sites in northern Israel, aiming to (i) document the density of Pisum elatius plants in natural ecosystems and elucidate factors related to their initial infection by Ascochyta blight and (ii) determine the factors governing disease development over time on individual plants. The surveyors identified P. elatius plants growing in designated quadrats, inspected each plant visually, and recorded the incidence and severity of its Ascochyta blight symptoms. Ascochyta blight, caused by Peyronellaea pinodes, was ubiquitous in Pisum elatius populations at both survey sites in both seasons. However, the total leaf area exhibiting disease symptoms of individual plants was very low, and stem and pod infections were rarely observed. Based on analyses of the survey data, it was suggested that, in natural ecosystems, the teleomorph stage of Peyronellaea pinodes serves as the main source of the primary and the secondary inoculum of the disease. In addition, it was found that infected leaves dropped off soon after infection, thereby precluding development of stem lesions. The plants continued growing and did not die; thus, they overcame the disease and could be considered "cured". This phenomenon was examined and confirmed in artificially inoculated, potted-plant experiments. It would be worthwhile to exploit the potential of this unique resistance mechanism as a tool for Ascochyta blight management in pea breeding.

  15. Effects of substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran on digestion and growth performance in rabbits in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lounaouci-Ouyed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the trial was to study the effects of replacement of a soybean meal-alfalfa-maize based diet by a mixture of field bean (g/kg as fed: 257 crude protein [CP], 139 neutral detergent fibre [NDF] or pea (g/kg as fed: 203 CP, 122 NDF combined with hard wheat bran (g/kg as fed: 140 CP, 396 NDF and without supplementation of synthetic DL-methionine, on diet digestibility, growth and slaughter traits of growing rabbits. Three diets were formulated: a control diet mainly consisting of 15% of soybean meal, alfalfa and maize (SBM15 diet; g/kg as fed: 161 CP and 267 NDF and 2 experimental diets based on 26% of field bean (FB26 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 250 NDF or 30% of pea (P30 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 255 NDF as main protein source, and completed with hard wheat bran (34 and 40%, respectively for FB26 and P30 diets partly replacing alfalfa and maize. Diets were distributed ad libitum to 3 groups of 40 mixed-sex growing rabbits of Algerian white population, placed in collective cages (4 rabbits/cage from weaning (28 d, mean weight: 614±112 g until 77 d of age (slaughter. Faecal digestibility was measured between 42 and 46 d of age in 7 rabbits/group. Gross energy and crude protein digestibility coefficients were similar for SBM15 and FB26 diets (78.6 and 86.4%, respectively and lower for P30 diet (75.1 and 83.6%, respectively; P≤0.03. Treatments had no effect (P=0.12 on mortality rate, which was on av. 9.2%. Treatments did not affect growth performance from 28 to 77 d of age (30.8 g/d or feed intake (mean 94.6 g/d, but feed conversion ratio was higher for rabbits fed FB26 and P30 diets compared to those fed SBM15 diet (3.13 vs. 2.94; P=0.006. The dressing out percentages (mean 66.6% and the muscle/bone ratio (6.8 were similar for the 3 groups of rabbits. In conclusion, the substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran, without methionine supplementation, does not seem to affect

  16. Effect of sodium fluoride and sodium nitroprouside on Cicer arietinum and Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the individual and combine effect of sodium fluoride (NaF and sodium nitroprouside (SNP on germination and biochemical parameters (pigments, sugar, protein, amino acid, and phenol of Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum and peas (Pisum sativum has been studied. After three days of NaF treatment, reductions were observed in percentage of seed germination, root and shoot length, and pigment content with increasing concentration of NaF (1 to 4 mg L-1. Seedlings treated with SNP, both alone and in combination of NaF, showed enhancement in seed germination as well as other growth parameters. NaF-treated seedlings were found to accumulate more soluble sugars and phenols, which were further increased by SNP treatment thereby indicating a synergistic effect of the possible reasons for the ameliorative effects of SNP in seedlings of Pisum sativum growing under NaF stress. Results also demonstrated that SNP application did not show any improvement in both morpho-physiologically and biochemically under sodium fluoride stress condition.

  17. Nitrogen transfer in the interface between the symbionts in pea root nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, L.; Mouritzen, P.; Rudbeck, A.

    2001-01-01

    Transport mechanisms for transfer of nitrogen from the bacteroid side across the symbiosome membrane of pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules were identified by the use of energised bacteroid side-out symbiosome membrane vesicles. Such membrane vesicles were used to study a mechanism with high...... as ammonium. In the symbiosome subfraction, which represents the interface between the symbionts, specific aspartate aminotransferase activity was more than four times as high as in the bacteroid cytosol. This finding supports a hypothesis that transamination cycles operating between the symbionts may...

  18. Genotypic and symbiotic diversity of Rhizobium populations associated with cultivated lentil and pea in sub-humid and semi-arid regions of Eastern Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Riah, N.; Béna, Gilles; Djekoun, A.; Heulin, K.; De Lajudie, Philippe; Laguerre, G.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic structure of rhizobia nodulating pea and lentil in Algeria, Northern Africa was determined. A total of 237 isolates were obtained from root nodules collected on lentil (Lens culinaris), proteaginous and forage pea (Pisum sativum) growing in two eco-climatic zones, sub-humid and semi-arid, in Eastern Algeria. They were characterised by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region (IGS), and the nodD-F symbiotic region. The combination of...

  19. The Content of Phenolic Compounds in the Pea Seedling Root Exudates Depends on the Size of Their Roots and Inoculation of Bacteria Mutualistic and Antagonistic Type of Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Makarova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the bacteria Rhizobium and Pseudomonas on total content of phenolic compounds (PC and their individual components (apigenin, naringenin, dibutyl-ortho-phthalate, pisatin, N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine in the root exudates of the pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. at two different growth stages was studied . Bacteria have similar affect on the total number of PC and the number of constituent apigenine, phthalate and pisatine. Difference at the impact of these bacteria on the content of naringenin and N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine was detected, which can be attributed to the peculiarities of the interactions of plants of peas with bacteria-antagonists and mutualists.

  20. Bacterial communities associated with host-adapted populations of pea aphids revealed by deep sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Gauthier

    Full Text Available Associations between microbes and animals are ubiquitous and hosts may benefit from harbouring microbial communities through improved resource exploitation or resistance to environmental stress. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, is the host of heritable bacterial symbionts, including the obligate endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola and several facultative symbionts. While obligate symbionts supply aphids with key nutrients, facultative symbionts influence their hosts in many ways such as protection against natural enemies, heat tolerance, color change and reproduction alteration. The pea aphid also encompasses multiple plant-specialized biotypes, each adapted to one or a few legume species. Facultative symbiont communities differ strongly between biotypes, although bacterial involvement in plant specialization is uncertain. Here, we analyse the diversity of bacterial communities associated with nine biotypes of the pea aphid complex using amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Combined clustering and phylogenetic analyses of 16S sequences allowed identifying 21 bacterial OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Unit. More than 98% of the sequencing reads were assigned to known pea aphid symbionts. The presence of Wolbachia was confirmed in A. pisum while Erwinia and Pantoea, two gut associates, were detected in multiple samples. The diversity of bacterial communities harboured by pea aphid biotypes was very low, ranging from 3 to 11 OTUs across samples. Bacterial communities differed more between than within biotypes but this difference did not correlate with the genetic divergence between biotypes. Altogether, these results confirm that the aphid microbiota is dominated by a few heritable symbionts and that plant specialization is an important structuring factor of bacterial communities associated with the pea aphid complex. However, since we examined the microbiota of aphid samples kept a few generations in controlled conditions, it may be that

  1. Magnetic treatment of irrigation water and snow pea and chickpea seeds enhances early growth and nutrient contents of seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Harsharn S; Maheshwari, Basant L

    2011-01-01

    The effects of magnetic treatment of irrigation water and snow pea (Pisum sativum L var. macrocarpon) and Kabuli chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) seeds on the emergence, early growth and nutrient contents of seedlings were investigated under glasshouse conditions. The treatments included (i) magnetic treatment of irrigation water (MTW), (ii) magnetic treatment of seeds (MTS), (iii) magnetic treatment of irrigation water and seeds (MTWS) and (iv) no magnetic treatment of irrigation water or seeds as control treatment. A magnetic treatment device with two permanent magnets (magnetic induction: 3.5-136 mT) was used for the above treatments. Seeds were sown in washed sand and seedlings were harvested at 20 days. The results showed that MTW led to a significant (P < 0.05) increase in emergence rate index (ERI; 42% for snow pea and 51% for chickpea), shoot dry weight (25% for snow pea and 20% for chickpea) and contents of N, K, Ca, Mg, S, Na, Zn, Fe and Mn in both seedling varieties compared to control seedlings. Likewise, there were significant increases in ERI (33% for snow peas and 37% for chickpea), shoot dry weight (11% for snow pea and 4% for chickpea) and some nutrients of snow pea and chickpea seedlings with MTS in comparison with the controls. The results of this study suggest that both MTW and MTS have the potential to improve the early seedling growth and nutrient contents of seedlings.

  2. Improvement of pea biomass and seed productivity by simultaneous increase of phloem and embryo loading with amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lizhi; Garneau, Matthew G; Majumdar, Rajtilak; Grant, Jan; Tegeder, Mechthild

    2015-01-01

    The development of sink organs such as fruits and seeds strongly depends on the amount of nitrogen that is moved within the phloem from photosynthetic-active source leaves to the reproductive sinks. In many plant species nitrogen is transported as amino acids. In pea (Pisum sativum L.), source to sink partitioning of amino acids requires at least two active transport events mediated by plasma membrane-localized proteins, and these are: (i) amino acid phloem loading; and (ii) import of amino acids into the seed cotyledons via epidermal transfer cells. As each of these transport steps might potentially be limiting to efficient nitrogen delivery to the pea embryo, we manipulated both simultaneously. Additional copies of the pea amino acid permease PsAAP1 were introduced into the pea genome and expression of the transporter was targeted to the sieve element-companion cell complexes of the leaf phloem and to the epidermis of the seed cotyledons. The transgenic pea plants showed increased phloem loading and embryo loading of amino acids resulting in improved long distance transport of nitrogen, sink development and seed protein accumulation. Analyses of root and leaf tissues further revealed that genetic manipulation positively affected root nitrogen uptake, as well as primary source and sink metabolism. Overall, the results suggest that amino acid phloem loading exerts regulatory control over pea biomass production and seed yield, and that import of amino acids into the cotyledons limits seed protein levels.

  3. 豌豆基因组SSR标记在蚕豆中的通用性分析%Transferability of Pea SSR Markers in Horsebean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯万伟; 刘玉皎

    2012-01-01

    分析了21对豌豆(Pisum sativum)基因组SSR引物在10个蚕豆(Vicia faba)品种中的通用性.结果表明,豌豆基因组SSR引物在蚕豆中的通用性达38.10%,有效引物在蚕豆品种中的多态性比例为100%.%Transferability of 21 pairs of SSR markers of pea (Pisum sativum) in horsebean (Vicia faba) was tested. Results showed that the transferability rate of pea SSR in horsebean was 38.10%, and polymorphism rate of effective SSR in horse-bean was 100%.

  4. [Non-thermal effect of GSM electromagnetic radiation on quality of pea seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselova, T V; Veselovskiĭ, V A; Deev, L I; Baĭzhumanov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The seeds with low level of room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) were selected from a lot of air-dry peas (Pisum sativum) with 62% germination. These strong seeds (95-97% germination percentage) in air-dry, imbibed or emerged states were exposed to 905 MHz GSM-band electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The following effects of EMR were observed. Fraction II with higher RTP level appeared in the air-dry seeds. The germination rate decreased 2-3 fold in the air-dry, swollen and sprouting seeds due to an increase in the ratio of the seedlings with morphological defects (from 3 to 38%) and suffocated seeds (from 1 to 15%). We suggest tentative mechanisms to account for the decreased fitness of peas under GSM-band EMR (905 MHz); also discussed is the role of non-enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates and amino-carbonyl reaction in this process.

  5. [Effect of 1-MCP on senescence and quality in cold-stored edible podded pea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zheng, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Lan; Feng, Lei; Su, Xin-Guo; Jiang, Yue-Ming

    2004-04-01

    The effects of 1-MCP (1-methylcyclo-propene) at 0.5, 1 and 2 muL/L on senescence and quality attributes in edible podded pea (Pisum sativum L.var.Saccharatum) during cold storage at 1 degrees C were investigated. The results indicated that treatments with 1 and 2 microL/L 1-MCP significantly inhibited respiratory rate, ethylene production and superoxide production, maintained higher levels of SOD, AsA-POD activities and chlorophyll and AsA contents, reduced the increases in MDA and fiber contents and decay index, thereby delayed the senescence process and quality deterioration. Treatment with 0.5 microL/L 1-MCP showed no significant effects on senescence and quality changes in harvested edible podded pea.

  6. Centrifugal partition chromatography as a tool for preparative purification of pea albumin with enhanced yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérot, Serge; Le Goff, Elisabeth; Foucault, Alain; Quillien, Laurence

    2007-01-15

    A new procedure including the use of centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) is proposed to purify PA1b and its isoforms. These pea (Pisum sativum L.) seed proteins are toxic against weevils and can be used as an environment-friendly insecticide. CPC was applied to a whole albumin fraction prepared from pea flour. The butanol:aqueous TFA system used in CPC allowed the separation of PA1b from other albumins and a degree of purification above 95%. Compared to analytical procedures based on methanol extraction, anion exchange and then reversed-phase chromatography (RPC), CPC recovered PA1b in much better yield, which is indispensable for large-scale purification of a biodegradable insecticide.

  7. Modulation of legume defense signaling pathways by native and non-native pea aphid clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sanchez-Arcos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum is a complex of at least 15 genetically different host races that are native to specific legume plants, but can all develop on the universal host plant Vicia faba. Despite much research it is still unclear why pea aphid host races (biotypes are able to colonize their native hosts while other host races are not. All aphids penetrate the plant and salivate into plant cells when they test plant suitability. Thus plants might react differently to the various pea aphid host races. To find out whether legume species vary in their defense responses to different pea aphid host races, we measured the amounts of salicylic acid (SA, the jasmonic acid-isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile, other jasmonate precursors and derivatives, and abscisic acid (ABA in four different species (Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratense, Pisum sativum, V. faba after infestation by native and non-native pea aphid clones of various host races. Additionally, we assessed the performance of the clones on the four plant species. On M. sativa and T. pratense, non-native clones that were barely able to survive or reproduce, triggered a strong SA and JA-Ile response, whereas infestation with native clones led to lower levels of both phytohormones. On P. sativum, non-native clones, which survived or reproduced to a certain extent, induced fluctuating SA and JA-Ile levels, whereas the native clone triggered only a weak SA and JA-Ile response. On the universal host V. faba all aphid clones triggered only low SA levels initially, but induced clone-specific patterns of SA and JA-Ile later on. The levels of the active JA-Ile conjugate and of the other JA-pathway metabolites measured showed in many cases similar patterns, suggesting that the reduction in JA signaling was due to an effect upstream of OPDA. ABA levels were downregulated in all aphid clone-plant combinations and were therefore probably not decisive factors for aphid-plant compatibility. Our results

  8. Transcriptional profiling of the pea shoot apical meristem reveals processes underlying its function and maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Mohan B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM in plant development and organ formation, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling its function is limited. Genomic tools have the potential to unravel the molecular mysteries of the SAM, and legume systems are increasingly being used in plant-development studies owing to their unique characteristics such as nitrogen fixation, secondary metabolism, and pod development. Garden pea (Pisum sativum is a well-established classic model species for genetics studies that has been used since the Mendel era. In addition, the availability of a plethora of developmental mutants makes pea an ideal crop legume for genomics studies. This study aims to utilise genomics tools in isolating genes that play potential roles in the regulation of SAM activity. Results In order to identify genes that are differentially expressed in the SAM, we generated 2735 ESTs from three cDNA libraries derived from freshly micro-dissected SAMs from 10-day-old garden peas (Pisum sativum cv Torsdag. Custom-designed oligonucleotide arrays were used to compare the transcriptional profiles of pea SAMs and non-meristematic tissues. A total of 184 and 175 transcripts were significantly up- or down-regulated in the pea SAM, respectively. As expected, close to 61% of the transcripts down-regulated in the SAM were found in the public database, whereas sequences from the same source only comprised 12% of the genes that were expressed at higher levels in the SAM. This highlights the under-representation of transcripts from the meristematic tissues in the current public pea protein database, and demonstrates the utility of our SAM EST collection as an essential genetic resource for revealing further information on the regulation of this developmental process. In addition to unknowns, many of the up-regulated transcripts are known to encode products associated with cell division and proliferation

  9. Ethylene Signaling Influences Light-Regulated Development in Pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, James L; Foo, Eloise M; Hecht, Valérie; Ridge, Stephen; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K; Reid, James B

    2015-09-01

    Plant responses to light involve a complex network of interactions among multiple plant hormones. In a screen for mutants showing altered photomorphogenesis under red light, we identified a mutant with dramatically enhanced leaf expansion and delayed petal senescence. We show that this mutant exhibits reduced sensitivity to ethylene and carries a nonsense mutation in the single pea (Pisum sativum) ortholog of the ethylene signaling gene ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2). Consistent with this observation, the ein2 mutation rescues the previously described effects of ethylene overproduction in mature phytochrome-deficient plants. In seedlings, ein2 confers a marked increase in leaf expansion under monochromatic red, far-red, or blue light, and interaction with phytochromeA, phytochromeB, and long1 mutants confirms that ein2 enhances both phytochrome- and cryptochrome-dependent responses in a LONG1-dependent manner. In contrast, minimal effects of ein2 on seedling development in darkness or high-irradiance white light show that ethylene is not limiting for development under these conditions. These results indicate that ethylene signaling constrains leaf expansion during deetiolation in pea and provide further evidence that down-regulation of ethylene production may be an important component mechanism in the broader control of photomorphogenic development by phytochrome and cryptochrome.

  10. The pea gene NA encodes ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Sandra E; Elliott, Robert C; Helliwell, Chris A; Poole, Andrew T; Reid, James B

    2003-01-01

    The gibberellin (GA)-deficient dwarf na mutant in pea (Pisum sativum) has severely reduced internode elongation, reduced root growth, and decreased leaflet size. However, the seeds develop normally. Two genes, PsKAO1 and PsKAO2, encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases of the subfamily CYP88A were isolated. Both PsKAO1 and PsKAO2 had ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO) activity, catalyzing the three steps of the GA biosynthetic pathway from ent-kaurenoic acid to GA(12) when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In addition to the intermediates ent-7alpha-hydroxykaurenoic acid and GA(12)-aldehyde, some additional products of the pea KAO activity were detected, including ent-6alpha,7alpha-dihydroxykaurenoic acid and 7beta-hydroxykaurenolide. The NA gene encodes PsKAO1, because in two independent mutant alleles, na-1 and na-2, PsKAO1 had altered sequences and the five-base deletion in PsKAO1 associated with the na-1 allele cosegregated with the dwarf na phenotype. PsKAO1 was expressed in the stem, apical bud, leaf, pod, and root, organs in which GA levels have previously been shown to be reduced in na plants. PsKAO2 was expressed only in seeds and this may explain the normal seed development and normal GA biosynthesis in seeds of na plants.

  11. Comportement agronomique d'une collection de pois (Pisum sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouslama, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Agronomical Behaviour of a Pea Collection (Pisum sativum L.. This experience was achieved under greenhouse conditions. Twelve genotypes of pea were used (Asgrow, Jumbo, Lincoln, Merveille de Kelvedon, Purser, Rajai Torpe, Snajor Kosep, Korai,Wando, Rondo, local genotype, Major Kosep Korai and Surgevil. They were cultivated on peat during 5.5 months (from October to April. Some agronomical parameters were studied: resistance to diseases, (Powdery-mildew, mildew, top yellow virus, anthracnose, browning, fresh matter, number of branches/plant, number of flowers/plant, number of pods/ plant and the yield of grains /plant. Results showed that only the genotype Purser is resistant to all diseases and Surgevil is sensitive only to the Top Yellow virus. The local genotype is sensitive to three frequent diseases (Powdery-mildew, mildew and Anthracnose. With regard to vegetative growth, the highest yield of fresh matter do not contribute towards a high fertility rate. In fact, only the genotypes having a weak yield of fresh matter (Snajor Kosep Korai, Asgrow, Major Kosep Korai, Rajai Torpe and Purser have the most important rate of fertility (> 30%. Within this group, the most important yield (> 9 g/plant is a result of high: number of pods/plant (7.5 to 21.6 and of grains/pod (2.8 to 4.92. Finally, genotype Purser should be retained for farmers and programs of genetic amelioration for its resistance to diseases and agronomical performances.

  12. Effect of Pisum sativum as protein supplement on buffalo milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Grassi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out at an organic buffalo dairy farm in order to investigate the effect of feeding protein peas (Pisum sativum L. as an alternative protein source for buffalo cow diets. Two concentrates were formulated to contain (as fed basis either 350 g/kg of soybean cake (SC or 450 g/kg of peas (PC as the main protein sources. The two concentrates were formulated to be almost isonitrogenous (on average crude protein 240 g/kg DM. Two groups of 10 buffalo cows were used in a 100-day lactation study (from 10 days in milk onwards. Cows were blocked into two groups according to lactation number and previous milk yield and were assigned to one of two dietary treatments: control group was offered in the milking parlour 3 kg of SC, while treatment group was offered the same quantity of PC. All cows were fed a total mixed ration containing 3 kg of SC. Daily milk yield was not affected by treatment, as well as, milk fat and protein percentages, somatic cell count, urea content and fatty acid composition.

  13. Immunocytochemical localization of Pisum sativum TRXs f and m in non-photosynthetic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, José A; Vignols, Florence; Cazalis, Roland; Serrato, Antonio J; Pulido, Pablo; Sahrawy, Mariam; Meyer, Yves; Cejudo, Francisco Javier; Chueca, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Plants are the organisms containing the most complex multigenic family for thioredoxins (TRX). Several types of TRXs are targeted to chloroplasts, which have been classified into four subgroups: m, f, x, and y. Among them, TRXs f and m were the first plastidial TRXs characterized, and their function as redox modulators of enzymes involved in carbon assimilation in the chloroplast has been well-established. Both TRXs, f and m, were named according to their ability to reduce plastidial fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH), respectively. Evidence is presented here based on the immunocytochemistry of the localization of f and m-type TRXs from Pisum sativum in non-photosynthetic tissues. Both TRXs showed a different spatial pattern. Whilst PsTRXm was localized to vascular tissues of all the organs analysed (leaves, stems, and roots), PsTRXf was localized to more specific cells next to xylem vessels and vascular cambium. Heterologous complementation analysis of the yeast mutant EMY63, deficient in both yeast TRXs, by the pea plastidial TRXs suggests that PsTRXm, but not PsTRXf, is involved in the mechanism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification. In agreement with this function, the PsTRXm gene was induced in roots of pea plants in response to hydrogen peroxide.

  14. Sugar-Binding Activity of Pea Lectin Expressed in White Clover Hairy Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, C. L.; Logman, TJJ.; Stam, H. C.; Kijne, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Introduction of the pea (Pisum sativum L.) lectin (PSL) gene into white clover (Trifolium repens L.) hairy roots facilitates nodulation by the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae, which normally nodulates pea and not white clover (C.L. Diaz, L.S. Melchers, P.J.J. Hooykaas, B.J.J. Lugtenberg, and J.W. Kijne [1989] Nature 338: 579-581). Here, we show that PSL is functionally expressed in transgenic white clover hairy roots transformed with the PSL gene. PSL could be isolated from these roots by affinity chromatography. Immunoanalysis of PSL showed the presence of polypeptides corresponding to the PSL precursor and its [beta] subunits. In addition, we developed a highly sensitive localization technique based on specific binding of a glycan moiety of rat IgE to PSL. Similar to the situation in pea roots, PSL appeared to be localized on the external cell surface of elongated epidermal cells and on the tips of emerging and growing root hairs of transgenic white clover hairy roots. PSL was not observed on normal white clover roots and on hairy roots without the PSL gene. These results show that (a) in transgenic white clover hairy roots, PSL is correctly processed and targeted to root cells susceptible to rhizobial infection, and (b) like in pea roots, PSL is surface bound with at least one of its two sugar-binding sites available for (rhizobial) ligands. PMID:12228660

  15. Pea VEGETATIVE2 Is an FD Homolog That Is Essential for Flowering and Compound Inflorescence Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmilch, Frances C; Berbel, Ana; Hecht, Valérie; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Madueño, Francisco; Weller, James L

    2015-04-01

    As knowledge of the gene networks regulating inflorescence development in Arabidopsis thaliana improves, the current challenge is to characterize this system in different groups of crop species with different inflorescence architecture. Pea (Pisum sativum) has served as a model for development of the compound raceme, characteristic of many legume species, and in this study, we characterize the pea VEGETATIVE2 (VEG2) locus, showing that it is critical for regulation of flowering and inflorescence development and identifying it as a homolog of the bZIP transcription factor FD. Through detailed phenotypic characterizations of veg2 mutants, expression analyses, and the use of protein-protein interaction assays, we find that VEG2 has important roles during each stage of development of the pea compound inflorescence. Our results suggest that VEG2 acts in conjunction with multiple FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) proteins to regulate expression of downstream target genes, including TERMINAL FLOWER1, LEAFY, and MADS box homologs, and to facilitate cross-regulation within the FT gene family. These findings further extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying compound inflorescence development in pea and may have wider implications for future manipulation of inflorescence architecture in related legume crop species.

  16. Auxin Does Not Alter the Permeability of Pea Segments to Tritium-labeled Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowler, M J; Rayle, D L

    1974-02-01

    The possibility of an auxin effect on the permeability of pea (Pisum sativum L. ev. Alaska) segments to tritium-labeled water has been investigated by three separate laboratories, and the combined results are presented. We were unable to obtain any indication of a rapid effect of indoleacetic acid on the efflux of (3)HHO when pea segments previously "loaded" for 90 minutes with (3)HHO were transferred to unlabeled aqueous medium with indoleacetic acid. We were able to confirm that segments pretreated with (3)HHO plus indoleacetic acid for 60 to 90 minutes can show an enhanced (3)HHO release as compared with minus indoleacetic acid controls. However, this phenomenon appears to be due to an increased uptake of (3)HHO during the prolonged indoleacetic acid pretreatment, and therefore we conclude that auxin does not alter the permeability of pea segments to (3)HHO in either short term or long term tests. We confirm previous reports that the uptake of (3)HHO in pea segments proceeds largely through the cut surfaces, and that the cuticle is a potent barrier to (3)HHO flux.

  17. Inheritance patterns of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of pea aphid biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccoud, Jean; Bonhomme, Joël; Mahéo, Frédérique; de la Huerta, Manon; Cosson, Olivier; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    Herbivorous insects frequently harbor bacterial symbionts that affect their ecology and evolution. Aphids host the obligatory endosymbiont Buchnera, which is required for reproduction, together with facultative symbionts whose frequencies vary across aphid populations. These maternally transmitted secondary symbionts have been particularly studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, which harbors at least 8 distinct bacterial species (not counting Buchnera) having environmentally dependent effects on host fitness. In particular, these symbiont species are associated with pea aphid populations feeding on specific plants. Although they are maternally inherited, these bacteria are occasionally transferred across insect lineages. One mechanism of such nonmaternal transfer is paternal transmission to the progeny during sexual reproduction. To date, transmission of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of aphids has been investigated in only a handful of aphid lineages and 3 symbiont species. To better characterize this process, we investigated inheritance patterns of 7 symbiont species during sexual reproduction of pea aphids through a crossing experiment involving 49 clones belonging to 9 host-specialized biotypes, and 117 crosses. Symbiont species in the progeny were detected with diagnostic qualitative PCR at the fundatrix stage hatching from eggs and in later parthenogenetic generations. We found no confirmed case of paternal transmission of symbionts to the progeny, and we observed that maternal transmission of a particular symbiont species (Serratia symbiotica) was quite inefficient. We discuss these observations in respect to the ecology of the pea aphid.

  18. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  19. Growth, seed development and genetic analysis in wild type and Def mutant of Pisum sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayeh Kwadwo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The def mutant pea (Pisum sativum L showed non-abscission of seeds from the funicule. Here we present data on seed development and growth pattern and their relationship in predicting this particular trait in wild type and mutant lines as well as the inheritance pattern of the def allele in F2 and F3 populations. Findings Pod length and seed fresh weight increase with fruit maturity and this may affect the abscission event in pea seeds. However, the seed position in either the distal and proximal ends of the pod did not show any difference. The growth factors of seed fresh weight (FW, width of funicles (WFN, seed width (SW and seed height (SH were highly correlated and their relationships were determined in both wild type and def mutant peas. The coefficient of determination R2 values for the relationship between WFN and FW, SW and SH and their various interactions were higher for the def dwarf type. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that variation of WFN was associated with SH and SW. Pearson's chi square analysis revealed that the inheritance and segregation of the Def locus in 3:1 ratio was significant in two F2 populations. Structural analysis of the F3 population was used to confirm the inheritance status of the Def locus in F2 heterozygote plants. Conclusions This study investigated the inheritance of the presence or absence of the Def allele, controlling the presence of an abscission zone (AZ or an abscission-less zone (ALZ forming in wild type and mutant lines respectively. The single major gene (Def controlling this phenotype was monogenic and def mutants were characterized and controlled by the homozygous recessive def allele that showed no palisade layers in the hilum region of the seed coat.

  20. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If...

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis in pea treated with microbial consortia of beneficial microbes reveals changes in the protein network to enhance resistance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Akansha; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Surendra; Singh, Vinay; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2015-06-15

    Microbial consortia may provide protection against pathogenic ingress via enhancing plant defense responses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PJHU15, Trichoderma harzianum TNHU27 and Bacillus subtilis BHHU100 were used either singly or in consortia in the pea rhizosphere to observe proteome level changes upon Sclerotinia sclerotiorum challenge. Thirty proteins were found to increase or decrease differentially in 2-DE gels of pea leaves, out of which 25 were identified by MALDI-TOF MS or MS/MS. These proteins were classified into several functional categories including photosynthesis, respiration, phenylpropanoid metabolism, protein synthesis, stress regulation, carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism and disease/defense-related processes. The respective homologue of each protein identified was trapped in Pisum sativum and a phylogenetic tree was constructed to check the ancestry. The proteomic view of the defense response to S. sclerotiorum in pea, in the presence of beneficial microbes, highlights the enhanced protection that can be provided by these microbes in challenged plants.

  2. Age-dependent variation in membrane lipid synthesis in leaves of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Sandelius, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    leaf of older plants, acetate was predominantly allocated into phosphatidylglycerol (PG), which remained the major radiolabelled lipid during the 3 d studied. The proportion of radioactivity recovered in MGDG decreased with increasing plant age up to 20 d, suggesting that, in expanded leaves, MGDG...... is more stable and requires renewal to a lower extent than PG. When the second oldest leaf approached senescence, labelling of MGDG again increased, indicating an increased need for thylakoid repair. The proportion of acetate allocated into phosphatidylethanolamine and free sterols was largest in leaves...... of 18-26-d-old plants and in the youngest leaves, respectively. Thus, these results demonstrate that the distribution of newly synthesized fatty acids between acyl lipid synthesis in the chloroplast and extraplastidial membranes strongly varies with leaf age, as do the proportion utilized for sterol...

  3. Expression of arginine decarboxylase is induced during early fruit development and in young tissues of Pisum sativum (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Amador, M A; Carbonell, J; Granell, A

    1995-09-01

    A cDNA coding for arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.19) has been isolated from a cDNA library of parthenocarpic young fruits of Pisum sativum (L.). The deduced aminoacid sequence is 74%, 46% and 35% identical to ADCs from tomato, oat and Escherichia coli, respectively. When the pea ADC cDNA was put under the control of the galactose inducible yeast promoter CYC1-GAL10 and introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it conferred galactose-regulated expression of the ADC activity. The ADC activity expressed in S. cerevisiae was inhibited 99% by alpha-DL-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), a specific inhibitor of ADC activity. No activity was detected in the untransformed S. cerevisiae, nor when it was transformed with an antisense ADC construct. This provides direct evidence that the ADC cDNA from pea encoded a functional, specific ADC activity and that S. cerevisiae is able to process correctly the protein. In the pea plant, gene expression of the ADC is high in young developing tissues like shoot tips, young leaflets and flower buds. Fully expanded leaflets and roots have much lower, but still detectable, levels of the ADC transcript. In the ovary and fruit, they are developmentally regulated, showing high levels of expression during the early stages of fruit growth, which in pea is mainly due to cell expansion. The observed changes in the steady-state levels of ADC mRNA alone, however, cannot account for the differences in ADC activity suggesting that other regulatory mechanisms must be acting.

  4. Relationship of (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 9/ metabolism to photoperiod-induced flowering in pisum sativum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proebsting, W.M.; Heftmann, E.

    1980-07-01

    The late flowering line of pea designated G is an obligate long day plant with respect to flowering. (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 9/ metabolism by leaves of G was studied. In short days (SD), (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 9/ was converted to a series of polar compounds. The synthesis of these polar compounds was blocked by 1 long day (D). One LD also induced flowering. Reproductive G plants which reverted to the vegetative state regained the ability to synthesize polar gibberellins from (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 9/. These observations support the hypothesis that flowering in Pisum is inhibited by a polar gibberellin produced in SD. LD prevent the synthesis of polar gibberellins, permitting flowering to take place.

  5. The same allele of translation initiation factor 4E mediates resistance against two potyvirus species in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Rasmussen, Marianne; Møller, I S; Tulinius, G

    2007-01-01

    was overcome, and virus from these plants had a codon change causing an Arg to His change at position 116 of the predicted viral genome-linked protein (VPg). Accordingly, plants carrying the wlv resistance gene were infected upon inoculation with BYMV-W derived from cDNA with a His codon at position 116......Pathogenicity of two sequenced isolates of Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) was established on genotypes of Pisum sativum L. reported to carry resistance genes to BYMV and other potyviruses. Resistance to the white lupin strain of BYMV (BYMV-W) is inherited as a recessive gene named wlv that maps...... to linkage group VI together with other Potyvirus resistances. One of these, sbm1, confers resistance to strains of Pea seedborne mosaic virus and previously has been identified as a mutant allele of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E gene (eIF4E). Sequence comparison of eIF4E from BYMV...

  6. Elevated CO2 decreases the response of the ethylene signaling pathway in Medicago truncatula and increases the abundance of the pea aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huijuan; Sun, Yucheng; Li, Yuefei; Liu, Xianghui; Zhang, Wenhao; Ge, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The performance of herbivorous insects is greatly affected by plant nutritional quality and resistance, which are likely to be altered by rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 . We previously reported that elevated CO2 enhanced biological nitrogen (N) fixation of Medicago truncatula, which could result in an increased supply of amino acids to the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). The current study examined the N nutritional quality and aphid resistance of sickle, an ethylene-insensitive mutant of M. truncatula with supernodulation, and its wild-type control A17 under elevated CO2 in open-top field chambers. Regardless of CO2 concentration, growth and amino acid content were greater and aphid resistance was lower in sickle than in A17. Elevated CO2 up-regulated N assimilation and transamination-related enzymes activities and increased phloem amino acids in both genotypes. Furthermore, elevated CO2 down-regulated expression of 1-amino-cyclopropane-carboxylic acid (ACC), sickle gene (SKL) and ethylene response transcription factors (ERF) genes in the ethylene signaling pathway of A17 when infested by aphids and decreased resistance against aphids in terms of lower activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Our results suggest that elevated CO2 suppresses the ethylene signaling pathway in M. truncatula, which results in an increase in plant nutritional quality for aphids and a decrease in plant resistance against aphids.

  7. Strigolactones and the Regulation of Pea Symbioses in Response to Nitrate and Phosphate Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eloise Foo; Kaori Yoneyama; Cassandra J. Hugill; Laura J. Quittenden; James B. Reid

    2013-01-01

    New roles for the recently identified group of plant hormones,the strigolactones,are currently under active investigation.One of their key roles is to regulate plant symbioses.These compounds act as a rhizosphere signal in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and as a positive regulator of nodulation in legumes.The phosphorous and nitrogen status of the soil has emerged as a powerful regulator of strigolactone production.However,until now,the potential role of strigolactones in regulating mycorrhizal development and nodulation in response to nutrient deficiency has not been proven.In this paper,the role of strigolactone synthesis and response in regulating these symbioses is examined in pea (Pisum sativum L.).Pea is well suited to this study,since there is a range of well-characterized strigolactone biosynthesis and response mutants that is unique amongst legumes.Evidence is provided for a novel endogenous role for strigolactone response within the root during mycorrhizal development,in addition to the action of strigolactones on the fungal partner.The strigolactone response pathway that regulates mycorrhizal development also appears to differ somewhat from the response pathway that regulates nodulation.Finally,studies with strigolactone-deficient pea mutants indicate that,despite strong regulation of strigolactone production by both nitrogen and phosphate,strigolactones are not required to regulate these symbioses in response to nutrient deficiency.

  8. The Pea Photoperiod Response Gene STERILE NODES Is an Ortholog of LUX ARRHYTHMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Lim Chee; Hecht, Valérie; Sussmilch, Frances C; Weller, James L

    2014-06-01

    The STERILE NODES (SN) locus in pea (Pisum sativum) was one of the first photoperiod response genes to be described and provided early evidence for the genetic control of long-distance signaling in flowering-time regulation. Lines homozygous for recessive sn mutations are early flowering and photoperiod insensitive, with an increased ability to promote flowering across a graft union in short-day conditions. Here, we show that SN controls developmental regulation of genes in the FT family and rhythmic regulation of genes related to circadian clock function. Using a positional and functional candidate approach, we identify SN as the pea ortholog of LUX ARRHYTHMO, a GARP transcription factor from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) with an important role in circadian clock function. In addition to induced mutants, sequence analysis demonstrates the presence of at least three other independent, naturally occurring loss-of-function mutations among known sn cultivars. Examination of genetic and regulatory interactions between SN and two other circadian clock genes, HIGH RESPONSE TO PHOTOPERIOD (HR) and DIE NEUTRALIS (DNE), suggests a complex relationship in which HR regulates expression of SN and the role of DNE and HR in control of flowering is dependent on SN. These results extend previous work to show that pea orthologs of all three Arabidopsis evening complex genes regulate clock function and photoperiod-responsive flowering and suggest that the function of these genes may be widely conserved.

  9. Bioassay-guided fractionation of a hepatoprotective and antioxidant extract of pea by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seida, Ahmed A; El Tanbouly, Nebal D; Islam, Wafaa T; Eid, Hanaa H; El Maraghy, Shohda A; El Senousy, Amira S

    2015-01-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the hydroalcoholic extract (PE) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) by-product were evaluated, using CCl4-induced oxidative stress and hepatic damage in rats. These activities were assessed via measuring alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein and albumin, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), protein thiols (PSH), nitrite/nitrate levels, glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, as well as, histopathological evaluation. PE revealed significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities mostly found in n-butanol fraction. Chromatographic fractionation of this active fraction led to the isolation of five flavonoid glycosides namely, quercetin-3-O-sophorotrioside (1), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (2), quercetin-3-O-(6″″-O-E sinapoyl)-sophorotrioside (3), quercetin-3-O-(6″″-O-E feruloyl)-sophorotrioside (4) and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5). The isolated compounds were quantified in PE, using a validated HPLC method and the nutritional composition of pea by-product was also investigated. Our results suggest that pea by-product contained biologically active constituents which can be utilised to obtain high value added products for nutraceutical use.

  10. [Enhanced Resistance of Pea Plants to Oxidative: Stress Caused by Paraquat during Colonization by Aerobic Methylobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonova, N V; Doronina, N Y; Trotsenko, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    The influence of colonization of the pea (Pisum sativum L.) by aerobic methylobacteria of five different species (Methylophilus flavus Ship, Methylobacterium extorquens G10, Methylobacillus arboreus Iva, Methylopila musalis MUSA, Methylopila turkiensis Sidel) on plant resistance to paraquat-induced stresses has been studied. The normal conditions of pea colonization by methylobacteria were characterized by a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidases) and in the concentrations of endogenous H2O2, proline, and malonic dialdehyde, which is a product of lipid peroxidation and indicator of damage to plant cell membranes, and an increase in the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus (the content of chlorophylls a, b and carotenoids). In the presence of paraquat, the colonized plants had higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, stable photosynthetic indices, and a less intensive accumulation of the products of lipid peroxidation as compared to noncolonized plants. Thus, colonization by methylobacteria considerably increased the adaptive protection of pea plants to the paraquat-induced oxidative stress.

  11. Inheritance of quantitative traits in crosses between two Pisum sativum subspecies with particular reference to their breeding value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosev, V; Pachev, I; Angelova, S; Mikić, A

    2012-01-01

    The experimental study was conducted during the period of 2008-2010 at the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops in Pleven. The hybridization scheme included direct and back crosses covering four varieties of forage pea (Pisum sativum L.), namely two spring ones, Usatii 90 and Kamerton from Ukraine, and a winter one from Bulgaria, Pleven 10. There was analyzed the inheritance of quantitative traits such as plant height, height to first pod, pod number per plant, seed number per plant, seed number per pod, seed weight per plant and number of fertile nodes per plant of parental components (P1 and P2) and both first (F1) and second (F2) hybrid generations. The cross Usatii 90 x Pleven 10 showed the highest real heterosis effect for plant height (8.26%), pods per plant (158.79%), seeds per plant (272.16%), seeds per pod (42.09%), seed weight per plant (432.43%) and number of fertile nodes per plant (117.14%). The cross Pleven 10 x Usatii 90 had the highest real heterosis effect height to first pod (11.06%). In F2 plants, the strongest depression for plant height (5.88%), seeds per plant (57.88%), seeds per pod (55.93%) and seed weight per plant (55.99%) was in the cross Usatii 90 x Pleven 10, for height to first pod (1.47%) in the cross Kamerton x Pleven 10 and for number of fertile nodes per plant (15.91%) in the cross Pleven 10 x Usatii 90. The highest positive degree of transgression for number of fertile nodes per plant (165.64%) and seed weight per plant (162.10%) was in the cross Pleven 10 x Kamerton and for pod number per plant (102.54%) and seeds per plant (99.13%) in Kamerton x Pleven 10. The stability of the characters was determined. Low variability in F1 and F2 was found in plant height (3.97-6.85%). Variability of number seeds per plant in F1 was highest (11.86-33.23%). For all other traits, the variability varied from average to high. A lower narrow-sense heritability coefficient was observed for plant height, height to first pod, pods per

  12. Preservative potential of cumin essential oil for Pisum sativum L. during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Narendra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The samples of stored seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L. were collected from 30 farmer markets. The mycobiota analysis showed presence of 15 fungal species and one species of insect Callosobruchus chinensis. The fungi such as Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceous, A. terreus were found to be dominant based on percent frequency of each in blotter method in unsterilized and sterilized seeds 18.9-7.9, 15.0-3.9, 12.2-3.7, 10.1-1.7, respectively, and in agar plate technique 17.9-8.3, 15.1-9.5, 12.8-5, 7.9.7-6.7, respectively. These species showed reduction in terms of weight loss, germination and protein content in pathogenicity testing. Essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from fruits of Cuminum cyminum L. was evaluated against the most common occurring funi such as A. flavus and A. niger as well as the insect species C. chinensis and the oil exhibited high toxicity. The oil killed the tested fungi and showed thermostable nature at its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 400 ppm. The oil safely preserved pea seeds up to 120 days at 0.50 (1,000 ppm and 0.76 ml (1,500 ppm in polyethylene and jute bags of 500 ml capacity containing 400 g seeds separately. There were no changes in organoleptic appereance of food seeds during storage. The oil has beneficial effect on number of visible nodule formation and shoot and root dry biomass of 15-day-old plants in comparison to control sets. The cumin oil was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS.

  13. The tropic response of plant roots to oxygen: oxytropism in Pisum sativum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Plant roots are known to orient growth through the soil by gravitropism, hydrotropism, and thigmotropism. Recent observations of plant roots that developed in a microgravity environment in space suggested that plant roots may also orient their growth toward oxygen (oxytropism). Using garden pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Weibul's Apollo) and an agravitropic mutant (cv. Ageotropum), root oxytropism was studied in the controlled environment of a microrhizotron. A series of channels in the microrhizotron allowed establishment of an oxygen gradient of 0.8 mmol mol-1 mm-1. Curvature of seedling roots was determined prior to freezing the roots for subsequent spectrophotometric determinations of alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Oxytropic curvature was observed all along the gradient in both cultivars of pea. The normal gravitropic cultivar showed a maximal curvature of 45 degrees after 48 h, while the agravitropic mutant curved to 90 degrees. In each cultivar, the amount of curvature declined as the oxygen concentration decreased, and was linearly related to the root elongation rate. Since oxytropic curvature occurred in roots exposed to oxygen concentrations that were not low enough to induce the hypoxically responsive protein alcohol dehydrogenase, we suspect that the oxygen sensor associated with oxytropism does not control the induction of hypoxic metabolism. Our results indicate that oxygen can play a critical role in determining root orientation as well as impacting root metabolic status. Oxytropism allows roots to avoid oxygen-deprived soil strata and may also be the basis of an auto-avoidance mechanism, decreasing the competition between roots for water and nutrients as well as oxygen.

  14. Effect of arabinogalactan proteins from the root caps of pea and Brassica napus on Aphanomyces euteiches zoospore chemotaxis and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannesan, Marc Antoine; Durand, Caroline; Burel, Carole; Gangneux, Christophe; Lerouge, Patrice; Ishii, Tadashi; Laval, Karine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Driouich, Azeddine; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2012-08-01

    Root tips of many plant species release a number of border, or border-like, cells that are thought to play a major role in the protection of root meristem. However, little is currently known on the structure and function of the cell wall components of such root cells. Here, we investigate the sugar composition of the cell wall of the root cap in two species: pea (Pisum sativum), which makes border cells, and Brassica napus, which makes border-like cells. We find that the cell walls are highly enriched in arabinose and galactose, two major residues of arabinogalactan proteins. We confirm the presence of arabinogalactan protein epitopes on root cap cell walls using immunofluorescence microscopy. We then focused on these proteoglycans by analyzing their carbohydrate moieties, linkages, and electrophoretic characteristics. The data reveal (1) significant structural differences between B. napus and pea root cap arabinogalactan proteins and (2) a cross-link between these proteoglycans and pectic polysaccharides. Finally, we assessed the impact of root cap arabinogalactan proteins on the behavior of zoospores of Aphanomyces euteiches, an oomycetous pathogen of pea roots. We find that although the arabinogalactan proteins of both species induce encystment and prevent germination, the effects of both species are similar. However, the arabinogalactan protein fraction from pea attracts zoospores far more effectively than that from B. napus. This suggests that root arabinogalactan proteins are involved in the control of early infection of roots and highlights a novel role for these proteoglycans in root-microbe interactions.

  15. Variability within a pea core collection of LEAM and HSP22, two mitochondrial seed proteins involved in stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelange-Macherel, Marie-Hélène; Payet, Nicole; Lalanne, David; Neveu, Martine; Tolleter, Dimitri; Burstin, Judith; Macherel, David

    2015-07-01

    LEAM, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, and HSP22, a small heat shock protein, were shown to accumulate in the mitochondria during pea (Pisum sativum L.) seed development, where they are expected to contribute to desiccation tolerance. Here, their expression was examined in seeds of 89 pea genotypes by Western blot analysis. All genotypes expressed LEAM and HSP22 in similar amounts. In contrast with HSP22, LEAM displayed different isoforms according to apparent molecular mass. Each of the 89 genotypes harboured a single LEAM isoform. Genomic and RT-PCR analysis revealed four LEAM genes differing by a small variable indel in the coding region. These variations were consistent with the apparent molecular mass of each isoform. Indels, which occurred in repeated domains, did not alter the main properties of LEAM. Structural modelling indicated that the class A α-helix structure, which allows interactions with the mitochondrial inner membrane in the dry state, was preserved in all isoforms, suggesting functionality is maintained. The overall results point out the essential character of LEAM and HSP22 in pea seeds. LEAM variability is discussed in terms of pea breeding history as well as LEA gene evolution mechanisms.

  16. Starch gelatinization and physical quality of pea flakes in canine dinners as affected by soaking, steam treatment and infrared radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S C; Zandstra, T; van der Poel, A F B

    2008-06-01

    Cleaned, whole smooth green peas (Pisum sativum L.) were reconstituted by soaking in tap water of 40 degrees C (15, 20 or 25 min) and subsequently either toasted (100 degrees C during 1.5 min) and infrared (IR) radiated or just IR radiated. For IR radiation, a small-scale, propane-fired IR radiation plant was used with average residence times of 58 and 92 s respectively. After exiting the conveyor belt, peas were held for a pre-determined period (holding: 0, 15 or 30 min respectively) in a well-insulated container. Finally, all radiated peas were flaked (roll distance 0.75 mm) in a flaking mill located posterior to the IR plant and analysed for chemical and physical properties. Initial pea starch gelatinization degree (SGD) was 10.1% at a total starch content of 410.1 g/kg. Infrared processing during 92 s significantly improved the SGD (from 10.1% to 32.8%) of pea flakes compared to treatment during 58 s (SGD of 18.6%). The SGD was further improved with steam treatment of peas, prior to IR. For all determined parameters, no effect of holding time could be observed. Starch gelatinization degree can be improved by soaking, toasting and IR processing. The substantial improvement of SGD, however can be only obtained by a longer IR residence time as well as through toasting, prior to the IR processing. The improvements in SGD, however are paralleled by a lower durability of flakes (range 34.9% to 87.4%).

  17. Differential Gene Expression in the Meristem and during Early Fruit Growth of Pisum sativum L. Identifies Potential Targets for Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha Ninan, Annu; Shah, Anish; Song, Jiancheng; Jameson, Paula E.

    2017-01-01

    For successful molecular breeding it is important to identify targets to the gene family level, and in the specific species of interest, in this case Pisum sativum L. The cytokinins have been identified as a key breeding target due to their influence on plant architecture, and on seed size and sink activity. We focused on the cytokinin biosynthetic gene family (the IPTs) and the gene family key to the destruction of cytokinins (the CKXs), as well as other gene families potentially affected by changing cytokinin levels. These included key meristem genes (WUS and BAM1) and the transporter gene families, sucrose transporters (SUTs) and amino acid permeases (AAPs). We used reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) to monitor gene expression in the vegetative meristem and in pre- and post-fertilisation young pea fruits. PsWUS expression was specific to the shoot apical meristem while PsBAM1 was highly expressed in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) but was also expressed at a low level in the young fruit. Differential expression was shown between genes and within gene families for IPT, CKX, SUT, and AAP. PsCKX7 showed strong gene family member-specific expression in the SAM, and was also expressed in young pea fruits. We suggest that PsCKX7 is a potential target for downregulation via molecular breeding or gene editing. PMID:28212324

  18. Differential Gene Expression in the Meristem and during Early Fruit Growth of Pisum sativum L. Identifies Potential Targets for Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annu Smitha Ninan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For successful molecular breeding it is important to identify targets to the gene family level, and in the specific species of interest, in this case Pisum sativum L. The cytokinins have been identified as a key breeding target due to their influence on plant architecture, and on seed size and sink activity. We focused on the cytokinin biosynthetic gene family (the IPTs and the gene family key to the destruction of cytokinins (the CKXs, as well as other gene families potentially affected by changing cytokinin levels. These included key meristem genes (WUS and BAM1 and the transporter gene families, sucrose transporters (SUTs and amino acid permeases (AAPs. We used reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR to monitor gene expression in the vegetative meristem and in pre- and post-fertilisation young pea fruits. PsWUS expression was specific to the shoot apical meristem while PsBAM1 was highly expressed in the shoot apical meristem (SAM but was also expressed at a low level in the young fruit. Differential expression was shown between genes and within gene families for IPT, CKX, SUT, and AAP. PsCKX7 showed strong gene family member-specific expression in the SAM, and was also expressed in young pea fruits. We suggest that PsCKX7 is a potential target for downregulation via molecular breeding or gene editing.

  19. Proteomic Profiling of the Microsomal Root Fraction: Discrimination of Pisum sativum L. Cultivars and Identification of Putative Root Growth Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Lüthje, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Legumes are a large and economically important family, containing a variety of crop plants. Alongside different cereals, some fruits, and tropical roots, a number of leguminosae evolved for millennia as crops with human society. One of these legumes is Pisum sativum L., the common garden pea. In the past, breeding has been largely selective on improved above-ground organs. However, parameters, such as root-growth, which determines acquisition of nutrients and water, have largely been underestimated. Although the genome of P. sativum is still not fully sequenced, multiple proteomic studies have been published on a variety of physiological aspects in the last years. The presented work focused on the connection between root length and the influence of the microsomal root proteome of four different pea cultivars after five days of germination (cultivar Vroege, Girl from the Rhineland, Kelvedon Wonder, and Blauwschokker). In total, 60 proteins were identified to have significantly differential abundances in the four cultivars. Root growth of five-days old seedlings and their microsomal proteome revealed a similar separation pattern, suggesting that cultivar-specific root growth performance is explained by differential membrane and ribosomal protein levels. Hence, we reveal and discuss several putative root growth protein markers possibly playing a key role for improved primary root growth breeding strategies. PMID:28257117

  20. SGRL can regulate chlorophyll metabolism and contributes to normal plant growth and development in Pisum sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Andrew; Moreau, Carol; Chinoy, Catherine; Spanner, Rebecca; Dalmais, Marion; Le Signor, Christine; Bendahmane, Abdel; Klenell, Markus; Domoney, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Among a set of genes in pea (Pisum sativum L.) that were induced under drought-stress growth conditions, one encoded a protein with significant similarity to a regulator of chlorophyll catabolism, SGR. This gene, SGRL, is distinct from SGR in genomic location, encoded carboxy-terminal motif, and expression through plant and seed development. Divergence of the two encoded proteins is associated with a loss of similarity in intron/exon gene structure. Transient expression of SGRL in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana promoted the degradation of chlorophyll, in a manner that was distinct from that shown by SGR. Removal of a predicted transmembrane domain from SGRL reduced its activity in transient expression assays, although variants with and without this domain reduced SGR-induced chlorophyll degradation, indicating that the effects of the two proteins are not additive. The combined data suggest that the function of SGRL during growth and development is in chlorophyll re-cycling, and its mode of action is distinct from that of SGR. Studies of pea sgrL mutants revealed that plants had significantly lower stature and yield, a likely consequence of reduced photosynthetic efficiencies in mutant compared with control plants under conditions of high light intensity.

  1. Differential Gene Expression in the Meristem and during Early Fruit Growth of Pisum sativum L. Identifies Potential Targets for Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha Ninan, Annu; Shah, Anish; Song, Jiancheng; Jameson, Paula E

    2017-02-16

    For successful molecular breeding it is important to identify targets to the gene family level, and in the specific species of interest, in this case Pisum sativum L. The cytokinins have been identified as a key breeding target due to their influence on plant architecture, and on seed size and sink activity. We focused on the cytokinin biosynthetic gene family (the IPTs) and the gene family key to the destruction of cytokinins (the CKXs), as well as other gene families potentially affected by changing cytokinin levels. These included key meristem genes (WUS and BAM1) and the transporter gene families, sucrose transporters (SUTs) and amino acid permeases (AAPs). We used reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) to monitor gene expression in the vegetative meristem and in pre- and post-fertilisation young pea fruits. PsWUS expression was specific to the shoot apical meristem while PsBAM1 was highly expressed in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) but was also expressed at a low level in the young fruit. Differential expression was shown between genes and within gene families for IPT, CKX, SUT, and AAP. PsCKX7 showed strong gene family member-specific expression in the SAM, and was also expressed in young pea fruits. We suggest that PsCKX7 is a potential target for downregulation via molecular breeding or gene editing.

  2. Male internal reproductive structures of European pea crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae): vas deferens morphology and spermatozoal ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carola; Klaus, Sebastian; Tudge, Christopher C

    2013-11-01

    Pea crabs of the subfamily Pinnotherinae (Pinnotheridae) have a high investment in reproduction and an outstanding reproductive output, probably as an adaptation to the required increase in reproductive rate due to the pinnotherids small size and their parasitic, host-dependant way of life. In the present study, we investigate the male internal reproductive structures and the ultrastructure of spermatozoa of Pinnotheres pisum and Nepinnotheres pinnotheres by histological methods and both scanning- and transmission electron microscopy. In the Brachyura, the male internal reproductive systems generally consist of paired testes and corresponding vasa deferentia where spermatozoa develop and mature. Spermatozoal ultrastructure of the investigated pinnotherids conforms to the thoracotreme type, however, N. pinnotheres has an accessory opercular ring and a periopercular rim, neither of which are present in spermatozoa of P. pisum. Spermatozoa are enclosed within spermatophores in the secretory proximal vas deferens. Two types of secretions were observed in P. pisum and N. pinnotheres: an electron dense substance secreted in the proximal vas deferens involved in spermatophore formation, and large electron-luscent vesicles constituting the seminal plasma in the medial and distal vas deferens. The medial vas deferens is strongly widened compared to other brachyurans to purpose storing spermatophores embedded in seminal plasma. Tubular appendices, which produce and store large amounts of seminal plasma, arise from the distal region of the vas deferens. The appendices extend into the ventral cephalothorax and also in the first pleomere. The latter being an exceptional location for reproductive structures among male brachyurans.

  3. Evidence of non-functional redundancy between two pea h-type thioredoxins by specificity and stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, José A; López-Jaramillo, Francisco J; Serrato, Antonio J; Ortega-Muñoz, Mariano; Aguado-Llera, David; Sahrawy, Mariam; Santoyo-Gonzalez, Francisco; Neira, José L; Chueca, Ana

    2010-04-15

    The largest group of plant thioredoxins (TRXs) consists of the so-called h-type; their great number raises questions about their specific or redundant roles in plant cells. Pisum sativum thioredoxin h1 (PsTRXh1) and Pisum sativum thioredoxin h2 (PsTRXh2) are both h-type TRXs from pea (Pisum sativum) previously identified and biochemically characterized. While both are involved in redox regulation and show a high-sequence identity (60%), they display different behavior during in vitro and in vivo assays. In this work, we show that these two proteins display different specificity in the capturing of protein targets in vitro, by the use of a new stringent method. PsTRXh2 interacted with classical antioxidant proteins, whereas PsTRXh1 showed a completely different pattern of targeted proteins, and was able to capture a transcription factor. We also showed that the two proteins display very different thermal and chemical stabilities. We suggest that the differences in thermal and chemical stability point to a distinct and characteristic pattern of protein specificity.

  4. Changes in free polyamines and related enzymes during stipule and pod wall development in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Soumen; Lahiri, Kajari; Bharati, Ghosh

    2002-08-01

    Level of free polyamines, their key metabolic enzymes, and other features related to ageing were examined during stipule and pod wall development in pea (Pisum sativum). Free polyamine titre (per unit fresh mass) in both the organs, the specific activities of arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase in the pod wall, gradually decreased with maturation. In stipule, these enzymes attained peak activity at 15 days after pod emergence and declined thereafter. Ornithine decarboxylase activity was greater in pod wall than in stipule; while, arginine decarboxylase activity was higher in stipule. Activity of degradative enzyme diamine oxidase increased with the onset of senescence in both the organs. Chlorophyll and electrical conductance had a inverse relationship throughout the experimental period, whereas, the chlorophyll content was directly related with polyamine levels in both stipule and pod wall during aging. On the other hand, protein and RNA contents were positively correlated with free polyamines throughout the test period in stipule, but in the pod wall this was true only for the later stages of development.

  5. Role of LLD, a new locus for leaflet/pinna morphogenesis in Pisum sativum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seema Prajapati; Sushil Kumar

    2001-12-01

    Properties of a mutant at the LLD (LEAF-LET DEVELOPMENT) locus in pea Pisum sativum L. are reported in this paper. Plants homozygous for the Mendelian recessive mutation lld bear leaves in which a few to many leaflets are incompletely developed. Opposite pinnae of rachis nodes often formed fused incompletely developed leaflets. The lld mutation was observed to abort pinna development at almost all morphogenetic stages. The lld mutation demonstrated high penetrance and low expressivity. The phenotypes of lld plants in tl, tac, tl tac, tl af and tl af tac backgrounds suggested that LLD function is involved in the separation of lateral adjacent blastozones differentiated on primary, secondary and tertiary rachides and lamina development in leaflets. The aborted development of tendrils and leaflets in lld mutants was related to deficiency in vascular tissue growth. The morphological and anatomical features of the leaflets formed on a tl lld double mutant permitted a model of basipetal leaflet development. The key steps of leaflet morphogenesis include origin of the lamina by splitting of a radially symmetrical growing pinna having abaxial outer surface, opposite to the vascular cylinder, through an invaginational groove, differentiation of adaxial surface along the outer boundary of split tissue in the groove and expansion of the lamina ridges so formed into lamina spans.

  6. Genetic interaction and mapping studies on the leaflet development (lld) mutant in Pisum sativum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushil Kumar; Raghvendra Kumar Mishra; Arvind Kumar; Swati Chaudhary; Vishakha Sharma; Renu Kumari

    2012-12-01

    In Pisum sativum, the completely penetrant leaflet development (lld) mutation is known to sporadically abort pinnae suborgans in the unipinnate compound leaf. Here, the frequency and morphology of abortion was studied in each of the leaf suborgans in 36 genotypes and in presence of auxin and gibberellin, and their antagonists. Various lld genotypes were constructed by multifariously recombining lld with a coch homeotic stipule mutation and with af, ins, mare, mfp, tl and uni-tac leaf morphology mutations. It was observed that the suborgans at all levels of pinna subdivisions underwent lld-led abortion events at different stages of development. As in leafblades, lld aborted the pinnae in leaf-like compound coch stipules. The lld mutation interacted with mfp synergistically and with other leaf mutations additively. The rod-shaped and trumpet-shaped aborted pea leaf suborgans mimicked the phenotype of aborted leaves in HD-ZIP-III-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. Suborganwise aborted morphologies in lld gnotypes were in agreement with basipetal differentiation of leaflets and acropetal differentiation in tendrils. Altogether, the observations suggested that LLD was the master regulator of pinna development. On the basis of molecular markers found linked to lld, its locus was positioned on the linkage group III of the P. sativum genetic map.

  7. Faba beans and peas in poultry feed: economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskina, Liga; Cerina, Sallija

    2017-10-01

    Broiler diets mainly consist of cereals and protein-rich feed sources; in the EU-27, poultry farming consumes 24% of the total amount of protein-rich feedstuffs. Since the EU produces only 30% of the total quantity of protein crops used for feed, it is necessary to promote the use of traditional European protein crops (beans, peas) for feed in livestock farming. The research aim is to identify economic gains from the production of broiler chicken meat, replacing soybean meal with domestic faba beans and field peas in broiler chicken diets. Adding field peas and faba beans to the broiler feed ration resulted in a significant live weight increase (5.74-11.95%) at the selling age, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio by 0.61-6.06%, and decrease in the product unit cost (15.34-37.06%) as well as an increase in the production efficiency factor (8.70-48.54), compared with the control group. The optimum kind of legume species used in the broiler diet was peas, which were added in the amount of 200 g kg(-1) , resulting in live weight gain, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio and an increase in the production efficiency factor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Cellular and Subcellular Localization of Endogenous Nitric Oxide in Young and Senescent Pea Plants12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpas, Francisco J.; Barroso, Juan B.; Carreras, Alfonso; Quirós, Miguel; León, Ana M.; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Esteban, Francisco J.; Valderrama, Raquel; Palma, José M.; Sandalio, Luisa M.; Gómez, Manuel; del Río, Luis A.

    2004-01-01

    The cellular and subcellular localization of endogenous nitric oxide (NO˙) in leaves from young and senescent pea (Pisum sativum) plants was studied. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of pea leaf sections with the fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate revealed that endogenous NO˙ was mainly present in vascular tissues (xylem and phloem). Green fluorescence spots were also detected in the epidermal cells, palisade and spongy mesophyll cells, and guard cells. In senescent leaves, NO˙ generation was clearly reduced in the vascular tissues. At the subcellular level, by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy with the spin trap Fe(MGD)2 and fluorometric analysis with 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate, NO˙ was found to be an endogenous metabolite of peroxisomes. The characteristic three-line electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of NO˙, with g = 2.05 and aN = 12.8 G, was detected in peroxisomes. By fluorometry, NO˙ was also found in these organelles, and the level measured of NO˙ was linearly dependent on the amount of peroxisomal protein. The enzymatic production of NO˙ from l-Arg (nitric oxide synthase [NOS]-like activity) was measured by ozone chemiluminiscence. The specific activity of peroxisomal NOS was 4.9 nmol NO˙ mg−1 protein min−1; was strictly dependent on NADPH, calmodulin, and BH4; and required calcium. In senescent pea leaves, the NOS-like activity of peroxisomes was down-regulated by 72%. It is proposed that peroxisomal NO˙ could be involved in the process of senescence of pea leaves. PMID:15347796

  9. Cadmium accumulation and buffering of cadmium-induced stress by arbuscular mycorrhiza in three Pisum sativum L. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; Calantzis, Catherine; Turnau, Katarzyna; Caussanel, Jean-Pierre; Belimov, Andrei A; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Strasser, Reto J; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne

    2002-05-01

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhiza in reducing Cd stress was investigated in three genotypes of Pisum sativum L. (cv. Frisson, VIR4788, VIR7128), grown in soil/sand pot cultures in the presence and absence of 2-3 mg kg(-1) bioavailable Cd, and inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. Shoot, root and pod biomass were decreased by Cd in non-mycorrhizal plants. The presence of mycorrhiza attenuated the negative effect of Cd so that shoot biomass and activity of photosystem II, based on chlorophyll a fluorescence, were not significantly different between mycorrhizal plants growing in the presence or absence of the heavy metal (HM). Total P concentrations were not significantly different between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants treated with Cd. From 20-50-fold more Cd accumulated in roots than in shoots of Cd-treated plants, and overall levels were comparable to other metal-accumulating plants. Genetic variability in Cd accumulation existed between the pea genotypes. Concentration of the HM was lowest in roots of VIR4788 and in pods of VIR4788 and VIR7128. G. intraradices inoculation decreased Cd accumulation in roots and pods of cv. Frisson, whilst high concentrations were maintained in roots and pods of mycorrhizal VIR7128. Shoot concentrations of Cd increased in mycorrhizal cv. Frisson and VIR4788. Sequestration of Cd in root cell walls and/or cytoplasm, measured by EDS/SEM, was comparable between non-mycorrhizal pea genotypes but considerably decreased in mycorrhizal cv. Frisson and VIR7128. Possible mechanisms for mycorrhiza buffering of Cd-induced stress in the pea genotypes are discussed.

  10. PEA chloroplasts under clino-rotation: lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranenko, V. V.

    The lipid peroxidation (LP) intensity and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in chloroplasts of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants grown for 7 and 14 days under clino-rotation. An increase in LP levels in chloroplasts during both terms of clinorotation in comparison with stationary controls was documented. SOD activity increased in chloroplasts of plants that were clino-rotated for seven days. SOD has a significant protective effect by diminishing the availability of O2-. However, under more prolonged clino-rotation (14 days), SOD activity decreased but was still higher than in the control samples. In accordance with Selye's oxidative stress theory (Selye, 1956; modified by Leshem et al., 1998), plants that were clino-rotated for seven days are presumed to be in a stage of resistance while 14-day plants reached a stage of exhaustion.

  11. Pea border cell maturation and release involve complex cell wall structural dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef; Guo, Xiaoyuan; Hansen, Aleksander Riise

    2017-01-01

    The adhesion of plant cells is vital for support and protection of the plant body and is maintained by a variety of molecular associations between cell wall components. In some specialized cases though, plant cells are programmed to detach and root cap-derived border cells are examples of this....... Border cells (in some species known as border-like cells) provide an expendable barrier between roots and the environment. Their maturation and release is an important but poorly characterized cell separation event. To gain a deeper insight into the complex cellular dynamics underlying this process, we...... undertook a systematic, detailed analysis of pea (Pisum sativum) root tip cell walls. Our study included immuno-carbohydrate microarray profiling, monosaccharide composition determination, Fourier-transformed infrared microspectroscopy (FT-IR), quantitative RT-PCR of cell wall biosynthetic genes, analysis...

  12. Inhibition and stimulation of root respiration in pisum and plantago by hydroxamate : its consequences for the assessment of alternative path activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, R; Blacquière, T

    1984-07-01

    The contribution of the alternative pathway in root respiration of Pisum sativum L. cv Rondo, Plantago lanceolata L., and Plantago major L. ssp major was determined by titration with salicylhydroxamate (SHAM) in the absence and presence of cyanide. SHAM completely inhibited the cyanide-resistant component of root respiration at 5 to 10 millimolar with an apparent K(i) of 600 micromolar. In contrast, SHAM enhanced pea root respiration by 30% at most, at concentrations below 15 millimolar. An unknown oxidase appeared to be responsible for this stimulation. Its maximum activity in the presence of low SHAM concentrations (1-5 millimolar) was 40% of control respiration rate in pea roots, since 25 millimolar SHAM resulted in 10% inhibition. In plantain roots, the maximum activity was found to be 15%. This hydroxamate-activated oxidase was distinct from the cytochrome path by its resistance to antimycin. The results of titrations with cyanide and antimycin indicated that high SHAM concentrations (up to 25 millimolar) block the hydroxamate-activated oxidase, but do not affect the cytochrome path and, therefore, are a reliable tool for estimating the activity of the alternative path in vivo. A considerable fraction of root respiration was mediated by the alternative path in plantain (45%) and pea (15%), in the latter because of the saturation of the cytochrome path.

  13. Impact of climate and diseases on pea yields: what perspectives with climate change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénézit Maud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For farmers, pea crop is characterized by a large yield variability between years, between areas, and even between fields in a same small area in a given year. In dry year, spring pea crops are mostly affected by water stress and high temperature but significant yield losses can also be caused by a root disease, Aphanomyces euteiches, particularly during wet years. Winter pea can escape partially from drought, high temperature, and root disease during the reproductive phase of the crop cycle. However, when winters are mild, without progressive negative temperatures, which provide frost acclimation, available cultivars are not resistant enough to frost and are susceptible to aerial diseases such as ascochyta blight and bacterial blight (Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi, thus leading to yield losses. A better adaptation of sowing dates, an improvement of lodging resistance and a limitation of the sowing density can limit the development of ascochyta blight for winter pea crops. For spring pea, an increased use of Aphanomyces soil test could avoid to sow the crop in infested fields. Current spring pea varieties are the result of changes in plant architecture including the reduction of 1000-seed weight that have led to yield losses by increasing the fragility of variety facing these stresses. The development of a pea crop model, simulating the effect of various stress encountered on winter and spring pea crops, can help to better define the regions adapted for the production of these two types of cultivars, and also help the breeders to better define and choose which trait to improve in order to increase the pea productivity and yield stability. National and European projects are in course to breed new varieties more adapted to different stresses.

  14. The cellular immune response of the pea aphid to foreign intrusion and symbiotic challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonin Schmitz

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum has low immune defenses. However, its immune components are largely undescribed, and notably, extensive characterization of circulating cells has been missing. Here, we report characterization of five cell categories in hemolymph of adults of the LL01 pea aphid clone, devoid of secondary symbionts (SS: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, spherulocytes and wax cells. Circulating lipid-filed wax cells are rare; they otherwise localize at the basis of the cornicles. Spherulocytes, that are likely sub-cuticular sessile cells, are involved in the coagulation process. Prohemocytes have features of precursor cells. Plasmatocytes and granulocytes, the only adherent cells, can form a layer in vivo around inserted foreign objects and phagocytize latex beads or Escherichia coli bacteria injected into aphid hemolymph. Using digital image analysis, we estimated that the hemolymph from one LL01 aphid contains about 600 adherent cells, 35% being granulocytes. Among aphid YR2 lines differing only in their SS content, similar results to LL01 were observed for YR2-Amp (without SS and YR2-Ss (with Serratia symbiotica, while YR2-Hd (with Hamiltonella defensa and YR2(Ri (with Regiella insecticola had strikingly lower adherent hemocyte numbers and granulocyte proportions. The effect of the presence of SS on A. pisum cellular immunity is thus symbiont-dependent. Interestingly, Buchnera aphidicola (the aphid primary symbiont and all SS, whether naturally present, released during hemolymph collection, or artificially injected, were internalized by adherent hemocytes. Inside hemocytes, SS were observed in phagocytic vesicles, most often in phagolysosomes. Our results thus raise the question whether aphid symbionts in hemolymph are taken up and destroyed by hemocytes, or actively promote their own internalization, for instance as a way of being transmitted to the next generation. Altogether, we

  15. Pea p68, a DEAD-box helicase, provides salinity stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by reducing oxidative stress and improving photosynthesis machinery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Tuteja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The DEAD-box helicases are required mostly in all aspects of RNA and DNA metabolism and they play a significant role in various abiotic stresses, including salinity. The p68 is an important member of the DEAD-box proteins family and, in animal system, it is involved in RNA metabolism including pre-RNA processing and splicing. In plant system, it has not been well characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of p68 from pea (Pisum sativum and its novel function in salinity stress tolerance in plant. RESULTS: The pea p68 protein self-interacts and is localized in the cytosol as well as the surrounding of cell nucleus. The transcript of pea p68 is upregulated in response to high salinity stress in pea. Overexpression of p68 driven by constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco transgenic plants confers enhanced tolerances to salinity stress by improving the growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery. Under stress treatment, pea p68 overexpressing tobacco accumulated higher K+ and lower Na+ level than the wild-type plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation was remarkably regulated by the overexpression of pea p68 under salinity stress conditions, as shown from TBARS content, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and 8-OHdG content and antioxidant enzyme activities. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge this is the first direct report, which provides the novel function of pea p68 helicase in salinity stress tolerance. The results suggest that p68 can also be exploited for engineering abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants of economic importance.

  16. Identification of a transport mechanism for NH4+ in the symbiosome membrane of pea root nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritzen, P.; Rosendahl, L.

    1997-01-01

    Symbiosome membrane vesicles, facing bacteroid-side-out, were purified from pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules and used to study NH4+ transport across the membrane by recording vesicle uptake of the NH4+ analog [C-14]methylamine (MA). Membrane potentials (Delta psi) were imposed on the vesicles...... indicates that NH4+ and MA compete for the same uptake mechanism. The observed fluxes suggest that voltage-driven channels are operating in the wsymbiosome membrane and that these are capable of transporting NH4+ at high rates from the bacteroid side of the membrane to the plant cytosol. The p...

  17. Studies on gene structure, enzymatic activity and regulatory mechanism of acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase from G2 pea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yunjian (徐云剑); GU Xuesong (顾雪松); LI Jun (李珺); LI Qing (李 晴); Peter J. Davies; ZHU Yuxian (朱玉贤)

    2003-01-01

    The AAIR genomic DNA of G2 pea (Pisum sativum L.) was amplified by PCR method. Sequence analysis showed that it was composed of 8 introns and 9 exons with three of the introns containing specific A/T-rich endogenous promoter regions. Molecular hybridization experiments revealed that the expression of AAIR remained at a high level before and after flowering if grown in short day growth chambers. However, when grown under long day conditions, the level of AAIR expression declined very rapidly after flowering. This variation of AAIR expression is consistent with the change of enzymatic activity of acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase. Functional complementation experiments carried out using an acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase deficient E. coli strain showed that these cells could not grow on M9 medium without addition of branched-chain amino acids unless they were transformed with the AAIR expression vector. Further study revealed that overexpression of the pea AAIR cDNA in acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase deficient E. coli strain enhanced significantly its branched-chain amino acid biosynthetic capacity. Results from gel shift experiments showed that fractions of pea nuclear protein extracts could bind specifically to some A/T rich regions present in introns of the AAIR gene. The A/T-rich-region-binding proteins remained at a steady level in the non-senescing apical buds of short-day grown G2 pea. In the rapid-senescing apical buds of long-day grown G2 pea, the levels of these proteins declined rapidly after flower initiation. Therefore, the nuclear protein binding capacities to endogenous promoter regions may constitute an important mechanism to regulate AAIR gene expression.

  18. Two major er1 alleles confer powdery mildew resistance in three pea cultivars bred in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suli Sun; Yuhua He; Cheng Dai; Canxing Duan; Zhendong Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease of pea (Pisum sativum L.). The use of cultivars carrying powdery mildew resistance alleles at the er1 locus is the most effective and economical means of controlling this disease. The objectives of this study were to screen Chinese elite pea cultivars for resistance to E. pisi and to identify the responsible gene at the er1 locus. Among the 37 pea cultivars tested, three (Yunwan 8, Yunwan 21, and Yunwan 23) were immune to E. pisi infection in phenotypic evaluations. The full-length cDNA sequences of the er1 candidate gene, PsMLO1, from the three resistant cultivars and control plants were analyzed. Comparison of the cDNA sequences of 10 clones revealed differences among the powdery mildew-resistant cultivars, susceptible controls, and wild-type cultivar Sprinter. The observed resistance in Yunwan 8 plants resulted from a point mutation (C→G) at position 680 of PsMLO1 that introduced a stop codon, leading to premature termination of protein synthesis. The responsible resistance allele was identified as er1–1. Powdery mildew resistance in Yunwan 21 and Yunwan 23 plants was caused by identical insertions or deletions in PsMLO1. Three distinct PsMLO1 transcripts were observed in Yunwan 21 and Yunwan 23 plants. These transcripts were characterized by a 129-bp deletion and 155-and 220-bp insertions, respectively. The responsible resistance allele was identified as er1–2. We have characterized two important er1 alleles in three E. pisi-resistant pea cultivars bred in Yunnan Province, China. These cultivars represent important genetic resources for the breeding of powdery mildew-resistant pea cultivars.

  19. Two major er1 alleles confer powdery mildew resistance in three pea cultivars bred in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suli Sun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease of pea (Pisum sativum L.. The use of cultivars carrying powdery mildew resistance alleles at the er1 locus is the most effective and economical means of controlling this disease. The objectives of this study were to screen Chinese elite pea cultivars for resistance to E. pisi and to identify the responsible gene at the er1 locus. Among the 37 pea cultivars tested, three (Yunwan 8, Yunwan 21, and Yunwan 23 were immune to E. pisi infection in phenotypic evaluations. The full-length cDNA sequences of the er1 candidate gene, PsMLO1, from the three resistant cultivars and control plants were analyzed. Comparison of the cDNA sequences of 10 clones revealed differences among the powdery mildew-resistant cultivars, susceptible controls, and wild-type cultivar Sprinter. The observed resistance in Yunwan 8 plants resulted from a point mutation (C → G at position 680 of PsMLO1 that introduced a stop codon, leading to premature termination of protein synthesis. The responsible resistance allele was identified as er1–1. Powdery mildew resistance in Yunwan 21 and Yunwan 23 plants was caused by identical insertions or deletions in PsMLO1. Three distinct PsMLO1 transcripts were observed in Yunwan 21 and Yunwan 23 plants. These transcripts were characterized by a 129-bp deletion and 155- and 220-bp insertions, respectively. The responsible resistance allele was identified as er1–2. We have characterized two important er1 alleles in three E. pisi-resistant pea cultivars bred in Yunnan Province, China. These cultivars represent important genetic resources for the breeding of powdery mildew-resistant pea cultivars.

  20. The plasma membrane H+-ATPase is related to the development of salicylic acid-induced thermotolerance in pea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Liu, Hongtao; Pan, Qiuhong; Yang, Haoru; Zhan, Jicheng; Huang, Weidong

    2009-04-01

    The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (PM H(+)-ATPase, EC.3.6.1.35) plays a key role in the plant response to environmental stress. In this study, a possible mechanistic link between the PM H(+)-ATPase and salicylic acid (SA)-induced thermotolerance was investigated in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. NingXia) leaves. The burst of free SA in response to heat acclimation (38 +/- 0.5 degrees C) was observed, and peaks appeared subsequently both in activity and amount of PM H(+)-ATPase in pea leaves during heat acclimation. Similarly, exogenous SA also triggered the two peaks in the room temperature (25 +/- 0.5 degrees C). Paclobutrazol (PAC) was employed to infiltrate onto pea leaves prior to heat acclimation treatment. The results showed that the peaks of both free SA and activity of PM H(+)-ATPase still occurred after the PAC pretreatment. In acquired thermotolerance assessment (malondialdehyde content and degree of wilting), spraying SA and fusicoccin (FC, the activator of PM H(+)-ATPase) separately could protect pea leaves from heat injury. Results from RT-PCR and western blotting analysis indicated that the increase in activity of the PM H(+)-ATPase was due to its transcriptional and translational regulation. The subcellular localizations of PM H(+)-ATPase after the FC or SA pretreatment also showed that the PM H(+)-ATPase is important to maintain the integrity of plasma membrane against the heat stress. Taken together, these results suggest PM H(+)-ATPase is related to the development of SA-induced thermotolerance in pea leaves.

  1. Efficacy of seed treatments in reducing seed and root rot of peas in the presence of metalaxyl-resistant Pythium, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five organic seed treatments and eighteen commercial seed treatments were evaluated in a commercial pea field (sandy loam soil) in Paterson, WA to manage seed and root rot of processed peas. The soil from the field site had a mean of 89 total Pythium colonies and 27 metalaxyl-resistant Pythium colo...

  2. Transfer of Nickel from Polluted Soil to Pisum sativum L. and Raphanus sativus L. under Composted Green Amendment and Native Soil Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafady Nivien Allam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compost, inoculation with native soil microbes and their residual effects on bioavailability of nickel by peas (Pisum sativum L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L. grown on polluted soil were investigated in pot experiments. Plants were amendment with different compost levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6% of soil dry weight and inoculated with different native soil microbes (4 fungal species, one bacterial species, 4 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from the polluted soil under study. Significant increases in the biomass of pea and radish plants were observed as a result of amendment application and their residual effects. The mycorrhizal dependency (MD of pea plants was lower than of radish plants. The highest reductions of Ni levels in both plants were observed by the simultaneous applications of compost with microbes or mycorrhizal fungi to polluted soils. Soil pH increased significantly (p < 0.05 as a result of applying native microbes especially with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF alone or combined with compost. The DTPA extractability of soil Ni was significantly decreased with increasing soil pH (p < 0.05. The minimum transfer factor of Ni from polluted soil were 0.067 and 0.089 for pea and radish plants, respectively which were attained as a result of applying compost (0.6% of soil weight inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi. From the results, we can conclude that the use of compost and native soil microbes as a soil remediate could be an effective strategy for soil remediation.

  3. Transfer of N and P from intact or decomposing roots of pea to barley interconnected by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, A.; Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizas in the transfer of N and P between pea (Pisum sativum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants was studied in a controlled environment. The plants were grown together in PVC containers, either in symbiosis with Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith or as non......-mycorrhizal controls, and with their root systems separated by an intermediate buffer zone (2 cm), confined by fine nylon mesh. The pea donor plants were supplied simultaneously with N-15 and P-32, using a split-root labelling technique, in order to follow the flow of N and P to the barley receiver plants during 60 d...... of growth. In half of the containers, the donor-plant shoot was removed 42 d after the start of labelling and the roots were left in the soil to decompose. The reverse transfer of N and P, from barley donor to pea receiver plants was also measured to allow calculation of the net transfer through hyphae...

  4. Amino Acid Transporters Are Localized to Transfer Cells of Developing Pea Seeds1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeder, Mechthild; Offler, Christina E.; Frommer, Wolf B.; Patrick, John W.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the nature and cellular localization of amino acid transport in pea seeds, two cDNA clones belonging to the AAP family of H+/amino acid co-transporters (PsAAP1 and PsAAP2) were isolated from a cotyledon cDNA library of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Functional expression in the yeast amino acid uptake mutants 22Δ6AAL and 22Δ8AA showed that PsAAP1 mediates transport of neutral, acidic, and basic amino acids. RNA-blot analyses showed that PsAAP1 is expressed in seeds and vegetative organs, including amino acid sinks and sources, whereas PsAAP2 could not be detected. For developing seeds, transcripts of PsAAP1 were detected in coats and cotyledons, with seed coats giving a weak signal. In cotyledons, expression was highest in epidermal-transfer-cell-enriched tissue. RNA in situ hybridization analysis showed that PsAAP1 was predominantly present in epidermal transfer cells forming the outer surface of cotyledons, which abuts the seed coats. Overall, our observations suggest that this transporter, which is localized in transfer cells of cotyledons, might play a role in the uptake of the full spectrum of amino acids released from seed coats. PMID:10677425

  5. Partial purification and characterization of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase from pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Almost all the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase activity in nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum, L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.3 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified 80,000-fold by salt fractionation and high performance liquid chromatography, after which it has a high specific activity of about 100 picomoles per minute per microgram in the presence of Ca2+ and reaches half-maximal activation at about 3 x 10(-7) molar free Ca2+, without calmodulin. It is a monomer with a molecular weight near 90,000. It can efficiently use histone III-S, ribosomal S6 protein, and casein as artificial substrates, but it phosphorylates phosvitin only weakly. Its Ca(2+)-dependent kinase activity is half-maximally inhibited by 0.1 millimolar chlorpromazine, by 35 nanomolar K-252a and by 7 nanomolar staurosporine. It is insensitive to sphingosine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, and to basic polypeptides that block other Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases. It is not stimulated by exogenous phospholipids or fatty acids. In intact isolated pea nuclei it preferentially phosphorylates several chromatin-associated proteins, with the most phosphorylated protein band being near the same molecular weight (43,000) as a nuclear protein substrate whose phosphorylation has been reported to be stimulated by phytochrome in a calcium-dependent fashion.

  6. Purification and immunolocalization of an annexin-like protein in pea seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G. B.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    As part of a study to identify potential targets of calcium action in plant cells, a 35-kDa, annexin-like protein was purified from pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules by a method used to purify animal annexins. This protein, called p35, binds to a phosphatidylserine affinity column in a calcium-dependent manner and binds 45Ca2+ in a dot-blot assay. Preliminary sequence data confirm a relationship for p35 with the annexin family of proteins. Polyclonal antibodies have been raised which recognize p35 in Western and dot blots. Immunofluorescence and immunogold techniques were used to study the distribution and subcellular localization of p35 in pea plumules and roots. The highest levels of immunostain were found in young developing vascular cells producing wall thickenings and in peripheral root-cap cells releasing slime. This localization in cells which are actively involved in secretion is of interest because one function suggested for the animal annexins is involvement in the mediation of exocytosis.

  7. Further identification of endogenous gibberellins in the shoots of pea, line G2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halinska, A.; Davies, P.J.; Lee, J.W.; Zhu, Yuxian (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1989-12-01

    To interpret the metabolism of radiolabeled gibberellins A{sub 12}-aldehyde and A{sub 12} in shoots of pea (Pisum sativum L.), the identity of the radiolabeled peaks has to be determined and the endogenous presence of the gibberellins demonstrated. High specific activity ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde were synthesized using a pumpkin endosperm enzyme preparation, and purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was supplied to upper shoots of pea, line G2, to produce radiolabeled metabolites on the 13-OH pathway. Endogenous compounds copurifying with the ({sup 14}C)GAs on HPLC were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The endogenous presence of GA{sub 53}, GA{sub 44}, GA{sub 19} and GA{sub 20} was demonstrated and their HPLC peak identity ascertained. The {sup 14}C was progressively diluted in GAs further down the pathway, proportional to the levels found in the tissue and inversely proportional to the speed of metabolism, ranging from 63% in GA{sub 53} to 4% in GA{sub 20}. Calculated levels of GA{sub 20}, GA{sub 19}, GA{sub 44}, and GA{sub 53} were 42, 8, 10, and 0.5 nanograms/gram, respectively.

  8. Enhanced drought tolerance of transgenic rice plants expressing a pea manganese superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang-Zheng; Wang, Qing-Bin; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Su, Wei-Ai

    2005-04-01

    We investigated the role that manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), an important antioxidant enzyme, may play in the drought tolerance of rice. MnSOD from pea (Pisum sativum) under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter was introduced into chloroplasts of rice (Oryza sativa) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to develop drought-tolerant rice plants. Functional expression of the pea MnSOD in transgenic rice plants (T1) was revealed under drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. After PEG treatment the transgenic leaf slices showed reduced electrolyte leakage compared to wild type (WT) leaf slices, whether they were exposed to methyl viologen (MV) or not, suggesting that transgenic plants were more resistant to MV- or PEG-induced oxidative stress. Transgenic plants also exhibited less injury, measured by net photosynthetic rate, when treated with PEG. Our data suggest that SOD is a critical component of the ROS scavenging system in plant chloroplasts and that the expression of MnSOD can improve drought tolerance in rice.

  9. Sensitivity of two garden pea genotypes to physical and chemical mutagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavka Kalapchieva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A study on the sensitivity of two breeding lines of garden pea to mutagenic agents was carried out in the Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Plovdiv. The purpose was to evaluate the sensitivity of the Pisum sativum L. genotypes to physical and chemical mutagens. In the experiment, the pea seeds were irradiated single or combined with 60Co gamma rays (40, 80, 100, 200 and 400 Gy and Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 %. Visible morphological changes of the stems and leaves were observed in plant of M1 generation, such as shorter stems, double petiole, clover-shaped leaves and a couple of tendrils. Single treatments with 100 Gy 60Co induced the highest mutation frequency M.F. = 7.69 for line 88-7, and М.F. = 2.11 for line 97-3, reported in M2 generation. Higher doses or combined gamma rays and EMS treatments induced more efficiently mutations. Line 88-7 was selected for further mutagenic treatment due to the higher sensitivity assessed.

  10. Proton cellular influx as a probable mechanism of variation potential influence on photosynthesis in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, Vladimir; Sherstneva, Oksana; Surova, Lyubov; Katicheva, Lyubov; Vodeneev, Vladimir

    2014-11-01

    Electrical signals (action potential and variation potential, VP) caused by environmental stimuli are known to induce various physiological responses in plants, including changes in photosynthesis; however, their functional mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the influence of VP on photosynthesis in pea (Pisum sativum L.) was investigated and the proton participation in this process analysed. VP, induced by local heating, inactivated photosynthesis and activated respiration, with the initiation of the photosynthetic response connected with inactivation of the photosynthetic dark stage; however, direct VP influence on the light stage was also probable. VP generation was accompanied with pH increases in apoplasts (0.17-0.30 pH unit) and decreases in cytoplasm (0.18-0.60 pH unit), which probably reflected H(+) -ATPase inactivation and H(+) influx during this electrical event. Imitation of H(+) influx using the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) induced a photosynthetic response that was similar with a VP-induced response. Experiments on chloroplast suspensions showed that decreased external pH also induced an analogous response and that its magnitude depended on the magnitude of pH change. Thus, the present results showed that proton cellular influx was the probable mechanism of VP's influence on photosynthesis in pea. Potential means of action for this influence are discussed.

  11. Identification and characterization of novel NBS-LRR resistance gene analogues from the pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djebbi, S; Bouktila, D; Makni, H; Makni, M; Mezghani-Khemakhem, M

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) is one of the most cultivated le-gumes in the world, and its yield and seed quality are affected by a variety of pathogens. In plants, NBS-LRR (nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat) is the main class of disease resistance genes. Using degenerate primers deduced from conserved motifs in the NBS domain of known resistance genes, we identified 10 NBS sequences in three varieties of P. sativum. The deduced amino acid sequences of the iden-tified resistance gene analogues (RGAs) exhibited the typical motifs of the NBS domain (P-loop, kinase-2, kinase-3a, and the hydrophobic domain, GLPL) present in the majority of plant proteins belonging to the NBS-LRR class. Phylogenetic analysis showed that seven RGAs belonged to the non-TIR-NBS-LRR subclass and three to the TIR-NBS-LRR subclass. The results of this study provide insights into the structure of this class of resistance genes in the pea, and their evolution-ary relationships with those of other plant species.

  12. Properties of Plasma Membrane from Pea Root Seedlings under Altered Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymchuk, D.; Baranenko, V.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Kurylenko, I.; Chyzhykova, O.; Dubovoy, V.

    In this study, the properties of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plasma membrane were examined to determine how the membrane structure and functions are regulated in response to clinorotation (2 rev/min) conditions. Membrane preparations enriched by plasma membrane vesicles were obtained by aqueous two-phase partitioning from 6-day seedling roots. The specific characteristics of H^+-ATPase, lípid composition and peroxidation intensity as well as fluidity of lipid bilayer were analysed. ATP hydrolytic activity was inhibited by ortovanadate and was insensitive to aside and nitrate in sealed plasma membrane vesicles isolated from both clinorotated and control seedlings. Plasma membrane vesicles from clinorotated seedlings in comparison to controls were characterised by increase in the total lipid/protein ratio, ATP hydrolytic activity and intensifying of lipid peroxidation. Sitosterol and campesterol were the predominant free sterol species. Clinorotated seedlings contained a slightly higher level of unsaturated fatty acid than controls. Plasma membrane vesicles were labelled with pyrene and fluorescence originating from monomeric (I_M) molecules and excimeric (I_E) aggregates were measured. The calculated I_E/I_M values were higher in clinorotated seedlings compared with controls reflecting the reduction in membrane microviscosity. The involvement of the changes in plasma membrane lipid content and composition, fluidity and H^+-ATPase activity in response of pea seedlings to altered gravity is discussed.

  13. The conformational stability and biophysical properties of the eukaryotic thioredoxins of Pisum sativum are not family-conserved.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aguado-Llera

    Full Text Available Thioredoxins (TRXs are ubiquitous proteins involved in redox processes. About forty genes encode TRX or TRX-related proteins in plants, grouped in different families according to their subcellular localization. For instance, the h-type TRXs are located in cytoplasm or mitochondria, whereas f-type TRXs have a plastidial origin, although both types of proteins have an eukaryotic origin as opposed to other TRXs. Herein, we study the conformational and the biophysical features of TRXh1, TRXh2 and TRXf from Pisum sativum. The modelled structures of the three proteins show the well-known TRX fold. While sharing similar pH-denaturations features, the chemical and thermal stabilities are different, being PsTRXh1 (Pisum sativum thioredoxin h1 the most stable isoform; moreover, the three proteins follow a three-state denaturation model, during the chemical-denaturations. These differences in the thermal- and chemical-denaturations result from changes, in a broad sense, of the several ASAs (accessible surface areas of the proteins. Thus, although a strong relationship can be found between the primary amino acid sequence and the structure among TRXs, that between the residue sequence and the conformational stability and biophysical properties is not. We discuss how these differences in the biophysical properties of TRXs determine their unique functions in pea, and we show how residues involved in the biophysical features described (pH-titrations, dimerizations and chemical-denaturations belong to regions involved in interaction with other proteins. Our results suggest that the sequence demands of protein-protein function are relatively rigid, with different protein-binding pockets (some in common for each of the three proteins, but the demands of structure and conformational stability per se (as long as there is a maintained core, are less so.

  14. Importance of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi in production of the milk on family farms in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two year field trials (1999-2001 were carried out to determine the effect of seed winter pea inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on number and nodule dry weight g/plant of pea root and also on the yield of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi and triticale cv. Clercal mixture. Just before sowing the inoculation of pea seeds was performed by the variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae which is part of the microbial collection of the Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The highest total nodule number on pea root (28 nodule/plant was determined on the inoculated variant 2 as well as nodule dry weight (0,175 g/plant. Average pea seed yield were ranging from 1327 kg ha-1 (control up to 1825 kg ha-1 (inoculation. Average triticale grain yield were ranging from 2375 kg ha-1 (control up to 3345 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Average total grain yield of winter peas in mixture triticale were ranging from 3702 kg ha-1 (control up to 5045 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. This paper and given results are a humble contribution to the research of pea growth in the Republic of Croatia.

  15. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and.... (a) Identity—(1) Product definition. Frozen peas is the food in “package” form as that term is... the words “frozen” or “quick frozen”. The name of the food shall include a declaration of...

  16. Yield potential of pigeon pea cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield potential of twelve vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajun) cultivars was evaluated at two locations in eastern Kenya during 2012 and 2013 cropping years. Pigeon pea pod numbers, seeds per pod, seed mass, grain yield and shelling percentage were quantified in three replicated plots, arranged in a...

  17. Changes in root gravitropism, ultrastructure, and calcium balance of pea root statocytes induced by A23187

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyavskaya, N.

    The role for calcium in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular events in plants is well known. Calcium signaling has been implicated in plant gravitropism. A carboxylic acid antibiotic A23187 (calcimycin) has been widely used in biological studies since it can translocate calcium across membranes. Seedlings of Pisum sativum L. cv. Uladovsky germinated in a vertically oriented cylinder of moist filter paper soaked in water during 4.5 day had been treated with 10-5 M A23187 for 12 hr. Tips of primary roots of control and A23187-treated pea seedlings were fixed for electron microscopy and electron cytochemistry. Experiments with Pisum sativum 5- day seedlings placed horizontally for 4 h after treatment with 10 μM A23187 during 12 h found that the graviresponsiveness of their primary roots was lost completely (91 % of roots) or inhibited (24 +/- 6° in comparison with 88 +/- 8° in control). At ultrastructural level, there were observed distribution of amyloplasts around the nucleus, remarkable lengthening of statocytes, advanced vacuolization, changes in dictyosome structure, ER fragmentation, cell wall thinning in A23187-treated statocytes. Cytochemical study has indicated that statocytes exposed to calcimycin have contained a number of Ca-pyroantimonate granules detected Ca 2 + ions in organelles and hyaloplasm (unlike the control ones). The deposits were mainly associated with the plasma membrane. Among organelles, mitochondria were notable for their ability to accumulate Ca 2 +. In amyloplasts, a fine precipitate was predominately located in their stroma and envelope lumens. In cell walls, deposits of the reaction product were observed along the periphery and in the median zone. Localization of electron-dense granules of lead phosphate, which indicated Ca 2 +- ATPase activities in pea statocytes exposed to A23187, was generally consistent with that in untreated roots. Apart from plasma membrane, chromatin, and nucleolus components, the cytochemical reaction

  18. Understanding pea resistance mechanisms in response to Fusarium oxysporum through proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillejo, María Ángeles; Bani, Moustafa; Rubiales, Diego

    2015-07-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (Fop) is an important and destructive pathogen affecting pea crop (Pisum sativum) throughout the world. Control of this disease is achieved mainly by integration of different disease management procedures. However, the constant evolution of the pathogen drives the necessity to broaden the molecular basis of resistance to Fop. Our proteomic study was performed on pea with the aim of identifying proteins involved in different resistance mechanisms operating during F. oxysporum infection. For such purpose, we used a two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled to mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analysis to study the root proteome of three pea genotypes showing different resistance response to Fop race 2. Multivariate statistical analysis identified 132 differential protein spots under the experimental conditions (genotypes/treatments). All of these protein spots were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis to deduce their possible functions. A total of 53 proteins were identified using a combination of peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and MSMS fragmentation. The following main functional categories were assigned to the identified proteins: carbohydrate and energy metabolism, nucleotides and aminoacid metabolism, signal transduction and cellular process, folding and degradation, redox and homeostasis, defense, biosynthetic process and transcription/translation. Results obtained in this work suggest that the most susceptible genotypes have increased levels of enzymes involved in the production of reducing power which could then be used as cofactor for enzymes of the redox reactions. This is in concordance with the fact that a ROS burst occurred in the same genotypes, as well as an increase of PR proteins. Conversely, in the resistant genotype proteins responsible to induce changes in the membrane and cell wall composition related to reinforcement were identified. Results are discussed in terms of the differential response to Fop

  19. Pea amyloplast DNA is qualitatively similar to pea chloroplast DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Amyloplast DNA (apDNA), when subjected to digestion with restriction endonucleases, yields patterns nearly identical to that of DNA from mature pea chloroplasts (ctDNA). Southern transfers of apDNA and ctDNA, probed with the large subunit (LS) gene of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), shows hybridization to the expected restriction fragments for both apDNA and ctDNA. However, Northern transfers of total RNA from chloroplasts and amyloplasts, probed again with the LS gene of Rubisco, shows that no detectable LS meggage is found in amyloplasts although LS expression in mature chloroplasts is high. Likewise, two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of etiolated gravisensitive pea tissue shows that both large and small subunits of Rubisco are conspicuously absent; however, in greening tissue these two constitute the major soluble proteins. These findings suggest that although the informational content of these two organelle types is equivalent, gene expression is quite different and is presumably under nuclear control.

  20. [Effects of low temperature at 10 degrees C on some antioxidant enzyme activities and ultrastructures of hypocotylar cells in mung bean and garden pea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Wei; Yang, Ling; Zhang, Yi; Gong, Ju-Fang

    2005-10-01

    Mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus Linn.) and garden pea (Pisum satium Linn.), which were stressed 4 days under a low temperature of 10 degrees C, were used as materials to study the cold tolerance of plant with different resistance. On the 2nd and 3rd day under 10 degrees C stress, both the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities increased significantly in hypocotylar cells of mung bean, so did SOD activity in garden pea, but other physiological indexes in garden pea were not different from the non-treatment groups (Figs. 1-5). In hypocotylar cells of mung bean, SOD activity always maintain at the highest level in a period of time,and so does POD activity (Figs. 3, 4). Ultrastructural results after stress indicated as follows: (1) Plastids in hypocotylar cells of mung bean accumulated much starch (Plate I-6), whereas the form of plastids in hypocotylar cells of garden pea changed maskedly to become dumb-bell-shaped, round or irregular, with the last one being the most common form (Plate I-8, 12); (2) In both mung bean and garden pea, central vacuole was divided into small vacuoles (Plate I-4, 10), and the number of mitochondria increased and became aggregated (Plate I-3, 11, 12). Judging from the activities of protective enzymes and ultrastructures, 10 degrees C low temperature caused non-lethal, temporary injuries to hypocotyls ultrastructures in mung bean, but no visible injury at all, and even improved its cold tolerance to a certain degree in garden pea.

  1. SYMBIOTIC EFFECTIVENESS OF RHIZOBIUM LEGUMINOSARUM BV. VICIAE WITH PEA PLANTS AS INFLUENCED BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Martyniuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the effects of A. chroococcum on the proliferation of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae (Rlv in a solid-carrier inoculant and on symbiotic effectiveness of Rlv with pea plants grown under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory experiment it was found that proliferation of both bacterial species, Rlv and A. chroococcum, in the dual-culture inoculants was efficient, and that A. chroococcum had no adverse effects on the development of the rhizobia (Rlv in the solid-carrier inoculant. In a pot experiment the highest number of nodules was detected on roots of pea plants inoculated with the dual-culture inoculant containing Rlv and A. chroococcum, slightly lower numbers on pea roots inoculated with the mono-culture inoculum of Rlv and almost no nodules were found on the roots of pea un-inoculated (control treatment with the bacteria. In the micro-plot experiment conducted in the years 2011–2012 pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds with the mono-culture inoculant of Rlv or with the mixed inoculant of Rlv and A. chroococcum slightly increased nodule numbers/plant, pod numbers/plant and seed numbers/pod, as compared to the un-inoculated control, but these differences were not reflected in pea seed yields/m2, which were similar in all treatments.

  2. The QE numerical simulation of PEA semiconductor photocathode

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xudong; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Minghua

    2011-01-01

    Several kinds of models have already been proposed for explaining the photoemission process. The exact photoemission theory of semiconductor photocathode was not well established after decades of research. In this paper an integral equation of quantum efficiency (QE) is constructed to describe the photoemission of positive electron affinity (PEA) semiconductor photocathode based on three-step photoemission model. The influences of forbidden gap, electron affinity, photon energy, incident angle, degree of polarization, refractive index, extinction coefficient, initial/final electron energy, relaxation time and external electric field on the QE of PEA semiconductor photocathode are taken into account. In addition, a computer code is also programmed to calculate the QE of K2CsSb photocathode theoretically at 532nm wavelength, the result is in line with the experimental value by and large. What are the reasons caused to the distinction between the experimental measuring and theoretical QE are discussed.

  3. The movement and distribution of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) larvae on pea plants is affected by egg placement and flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, L E; Cribb, B W; Hanan, J; Zalucki, M P

    2010-10-01

    The distribution and movement of 1st instar Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on whole garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants were determined in glasshouse trials. This economically-important herbivore attacks a wide variety of agricultural, horticultural and indigenous plants. To investigate the mechanisms underlying larval intra-plant movement, we used early-flowering and wild-type plant genotypes and placed eggs at different vertical heights within the plants, one egg per plant. Leaf water and nitrogen content and cuticle hardness were measured at the different plant heights. Of 92 individual larvae, 41% did not move from the node of eclosion, 49% moved upwards and 10% moved downwards with the distance moved being between zero and ten plant nodes. Larvae from eggs placed on the lower third of the plant left the natal leaf more often and moved further than larvae from eggs placed in the middle or upper thirds. The low nutritive value of leaves was the most likely explanation for more movement away from lower plant regions. Although larvae on flowering plants did not move further up or down than larvae on non-flowering plants, they more often departed the leaflet (within a leaf) where they eclosed. The final distribution of larvae was affected by plant genotype, with larvae on flowering plants found less often on leaflets and more often on stipules, tendrils and reproductive structures. Understanding intra-plant movement by herbivorous insects under natural conditions is important because such movement determines the value of economic loss to host crops. Knowing the behaviour underlying the spatial distribution of herbivores on plants will assist us to interpret field data and should lead to better informed pest management decisions.

  4. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health.

  5. CADMIUM AND NICKEL COMBINED EFFECT ON ASCORBATE-DEPENDENT MECHANISM OF ANTIOXIDATIVE DEFENSE SYSTEM OF PEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Artiushenko

    2014-04-01

    towards control level, i.e. there is a significant induction of the synthesis process. In addition, the amount of ascorbate oxidized forms, as in previous research period, continued to increase. After 24 hours of experiment we registered similar to 12 hours trend of changes in the content of ascorbic acid metabolites. Violation of pro-/antioxidant balance also accompanied by increased ascorbate peroxidase activity. In the pea root system there is the tendency to increase the ascorbate peroxidase activity and this is in concordance with the increasing content of ascorbic and dehydroascorbate acids. At the beginning of stressful activities caused by cadmium and nickel compounds in the leaves is not the case of ascorbate peroxidase activity changes, although 7-hour influence resulted in a statistically significant increase in activity specified oxidoreductase. By the action of heavy metals in low concentrations the content of ascorbic acid in pea leaves increased by 14%. High content in the medium of at least one of the metals since 7-hour exposure caused the depletion of antioxidant resources, as evidenced by the decrease of ascorbic acid in the assimilation organs. After 24 hours of experiment we observed a slowdown in ascorbate peroxidase activity, which could be explained by the lack of ascorbic acid under prolonged stress exposure. Keywords: Pisum sativum L., cadmium, nickel, ascorbic acid, ascorbate peroxidase.

  6. Effect of mutations in the pea genes Sym33 and Sym40. I. Arbuscular mycorrhiza formation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Lidia M; Petrova, Olesia S; Tsyganov, Viktor E; Borisov, Alexey Y; Tikhonovich, Igor A

    2003-03-01

    Two pea (Pisum sativum L.) symbiotic mutants SGEFix(-)-1 (sym40) and SGEFix(-)-2 (sym33) with abnormalities in infection thread development and function in symbiotic root nodules have been characterised in terms of mycorrhizal colonisation of roots, shoot and root biomass accumulation and shoot and root phosphorus (P) content. The mutation in gene sym33 decreased mycorrhizal colonisation of roots (except arbuscule abundance in mycorrhizal root fragments, which increased) but did not change the effectiveness of mycorrhiza function. The mutation in sym40 did not affect either of these processes. Both mutants showed differences in plant development compared with the wild-type line SGE. The mutants had delayed flowering and pod ripening, and shoot/root biomass ratios and P accumulation also differed from those of SGE. These observations suggest that the gene mutations cause systemic changes in plant development.

  7. Internode length in Pisum. Gene na may block gibberellin synthesis between ent-7. cap alpha. -hydroxykaurenoic acid and biggerellin A/sub 12/-aldehyde. [Pisum sativum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, T.J.; Reid, J.B.

    1987-04-01

    The elongation response of the gibberellin (GA) deficient genotypes na, ls, and lh of peas (Pisum sativum L.) to a range of GA-precursors was examined. Plants possessing gene na did not respond to precursors in the GA biosynthetic pathway prior to GA/sub 12/-aldehyde. In contrast, plants possessing lh and ls responded as well as wild-type plants (dwarfed with AMO-1618) to these compounds. The results suggest that GA biosynthesis is blocked prior to ent-kaurene in the lh and ls mutants and between ent-7..cap alpha..-hydroxykaurenoic acid and GA/sub 12/-aldehyde in the na mutant. Feeds of ent(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid and (/sup 2/H)GA/sub 12/-aldehyde to a range of genotypes supported the above conclusions. The na line WL1766 was shown by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to metabolize(/sup 2/H)GA/sub 12/-aldehyde to a number of (/sup 2/H)C/sub 19/-GAs including GA/sub 1/. However, there was no indication in na genotypes for the metabolism of ent-(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid to these GAs. In contrast, the expanding shoot tissue of all Na genotypes examined metabolized ent-(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid to radioactive compounds that co-chromatographed with GA/sub 1/, GA/sub 8/, GA/sub 20/, and GA/sub 29/. However, insufficient material was present for unequivocal identification of the metabolites. The radioactive profiles from HPLC of extracts of the node treated with ent-(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid were similar for both Na and na plants and contained ent-16..cap alpha..,17-dihydroxykaurenoic acid and ent-6..cap alpha..,7..cap alpha..,16..beta..,17-tetrahydroxykaurenoic acid (both characterized by GC-MS), suggesting that the metabolites arose from side branches of the main GA-biosynthetic pathway. Thus, both Na and na plants appear capable of ent-7..cap alpha..-hydroxylation.

  8. A proposed interplay between peroxidase, amine oxidase and lipoxygenase in the wounding-induced oxidative burst in Pisum sativum seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Thomas; Colville, Louise; Beckett, Richard P; Minibayeva, Farida V; Havaux, Michel; Kranner, Ilse

    2015-04-01

    Plant surfaces form the barrier between a plant and its environment. Upon damage, the wound healing process begins immediately and is accompanied by a rapid production of extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), essential in deterring pathogens, signalling responses and cell wall restructuring. Although many enzymes produce extracellular ROS, it is unclear if ROS-producing enzymes act synergistically. We characterised the oxidative burst of superoxide (O2(·-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that follows wounding in pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings. Rates of ROS production were manipulated by exogenous application of enzyme substrates and inhibitors. The results indicate significant roles for di-amine oxidases (DAO) and peroxidases (Prx) rather than NADPH oxidase. The burst of O2(·-) was strongly dependent on the presence of H2O2 produced by DAO. Potential substrates released from wounded seedlings included linoleic acid that, upon exogenous application, strongly stimulated catalase-sensitive O2(·-) production. Moreover, a 65kD plasma membrane (PM) guaiacol Prx was found in the secretome of wounded seedlings and showed dependence on linoleic acid for O2(·-) production. Lipoxygenases are suggested to modulate O2(·-) production by consuming polyunsaturated fatty acids in the apoplast. Overall, a O2(·-)-producing mechanism involving H2O2-derived from DAO, linoleic acid and a PM-associated Prx is proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pinolide, a new nonenolide produced by Didymella pinodes , the causal agent of ascochyta blight on Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Fondevilla, Sara; Abouzeid, Mohamed A; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2012-05-30

    An aggressive isolate of Didymella pinodes isolated from pea ( Pisum sativum ) produced four different metabolites in vitro. The metabolites isolated from the culture filtrates were characterized by spectroscopic and optical methods. A new nonenolide, named pinolide, was isolated and characterized as (2S*,7R*,8S*,5E,9R*)-2,7,8-trihydroxy-9-propyl-5-nonen-9-olide. Pinolidoxin, the main toxin produced by D. pinodes, was also isolated together with two other closely related nonenolides, identified as herbarumin II and 2-epi-herbarumin II. Herbarumin II and 2-epi-herbarumin II have been previously isolated from the fungi Phoma herbarum and Paraphaeosphaeria recurvifoliae , respectively, but described here to be isolated for the first time from D. pinodes. When tested on leaves of the host plant and other legumes and weeds, pinolidoxin was phytotoxic in all of the plant species, whereas the other three nonenolides did not produce any symptoms. The importance of the stereochemistry of the hydroxy group at C-7 on phytotoxicity also is discussed.

  10. Putrescine metabolism in pea seedligs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wielgat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of putrescine (Putr. and N-carbamoylputrescine (N-CPutr. fed to excised pea seedlings was studied. Contrary to great toxicity of higher than 0.5% Putr., N-CPutr. even at higher concentration was not toxic for the plants. The detoxication of plant cells by carbamoylation of Putr. was postulated. No differences were found in ornithine carbamoyltransferase (EC 2.1.3.3. activity between plants fed with Putr. or N-CPutr. The most label from 14C-putrescine was found in γ-aminobutyric acid. No labeled N-CPutr. was detected. The "oscillatory" mechanism of N-CPutr. synthesis in higher plants was postulated.

  11. FOLIAR OR CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS FOR GARDEN PEAS

    OpenAIRE

    Ion BOZGA; Oli mpia PANDIA; Saracin, Ion; Ioan Christi GANEA

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was the research and controlled study of the main physiological processes of the garden pea, the type Redondo, with the purpose of knowing adaptability the natural conditions in the area. In this purpose, was observed the special behavior of the garden pea Redondo, at the meteorological conditions that exist in this study (temperature, moist, light intensity) determining physiological that took place: photosynthesis, chlorophyll, perspiration, absorption and i...

  12. Peas in a Pod: Environment and Ionization in Green Pea Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Heather; Jaskot, Anne; Drew, Patrick; Pare, Dylan; Griffin, Jon; Petersen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Green Peas are extreme, highly ionized, starburst galaxies with strong [OIII] 5007 emission. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we present statistics on the environment of Green Peas and investigate its effects on their ionized gas properties. Although most dwarf starburst galaxies are in low-density environments, we identify a sample of Green Peas in dense environments. Emission line observations with the WIYN 0.9-meter telescope at Kitt Peak reveal that one cluster Green Pea is more highly ionized in the direction of the cluster center. Ram pressure stripping likely generates this ionization gradient. We explore the role of the environment in enhancing star formation rates and ionization, and we compare the nebular properties of Green Peas in high-density environments to those in low-density environments.

  13. Mid-Infrared and Near Infrared Calibrations for Nutritional Parameters of Triticale (Triticosecale) and Pea (Pisum sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data is lacking about the relative effectiveness of diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed mid-infrared (MidIR) versus near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for calibration development of forage constituents. The objective of this study was to develop MidIR and NIR calibrations for acid detergent fiber ...

  14. Characterisation by proteomics of peribacteroid space and peribacteroid membrane preparations from peaPisum sativum¤) symbiosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saalbach, G.; Erik, P.; Wienkoop, S.

    2002-01-01

    The legume Rhizobium symbiosis leads to the formation of a new compartment in the plant cell, the symbiosome. This compartment harbours the bacteroids surrounded by a peribacteroid membrane (PBM) originating from the plant plasma membrane. The PBM and the space between the PBM and the bacteroid...

  15. Antifeedant Activity and High Mortality in the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae) Induced by Biostable Insect Kinin Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    and whiteflies . But intensive use of imidacloprid has stimulated outbreaks of resistance and cross resistance in many cases [7]. In the group of...Alford DV. Pest and disease management handbook. Oxford, UK: British Crop Protection Enterprises, Blackwell Science Ltd; 2000. [2] Cheng RP, Gellman SH

  16. Using the pea aphid Acrythociphon pisum as a tool for screening biological responses to chemicals and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledger Terence

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though the biological process of aphid feeding is well documented, no one to date has sought to apply it as a tool to screen the biological responses to chemicals and drugs, in ecotoxicology, genotoxicology and/or for interactions in the cascade of sequential molecular events of embryogenesis. Parthenogenetic insect species present the advantage of an anatomical system composed of multiple germarium/ovarioles in the same mother with all the intermediate maturation stages of embryos from oocyte to first instar larva birth. This could be used as an interesting model to visualize at which step drugs interact with the cell signalling pathway during the ordered developmental process. Findings We designed a simple test for screening drugs by investigating simultaneously zygote mitotic division, the progression of embryo development, cell differentiation at early developmental stages and finally organogenesis and population growth rate. We aimed to analyze the toxicology effects of compounds and/or their interference on cellular signalling by examining at which step of the cascade, from zygote to mature embryo, the developmental process is perturbed. We reasoned that a parthenogenetic founder insect, in which the ovarioles shelter numerous embryos at different developmental stages, would allow us to precisely pinpoint the step of embryogenesis in which chemicals act through specific molecular targets as the known ordered homeobox genes. Conclusion Using this method we report the results of a genotoxicological and demographic analysis of three compound models bearing in common a bromo group: one is integrated as a base analog in DNA synthesis, two others activate permanently kinases. We report that one compound (Br-du altered drastically embryogenesis, which argues in favor of this simple technique as a cheap first screening of chemicals or drugs to be used in a number of genotoxicology applications.

  17. DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TRACTOR FRONT MOUNTED PIGEON PEA STEM CUTTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul R. Dange

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Pigeon pea or tur (Cajanus cajan L. Mills. is one of the important pulse crops of India and ranks second to chickpea in area and production. Traditionally the harvesting of pigeon pea is done manually by sickle, which demands considerable amount of labour, drudgery, time and cost to harvest, which reflects on total production cost of the crop. In view of this a tractor operated front mounted pigeon pea stem cutter was developed and being front mounted implement it facilitated better visibility and control to operator. The power was transmitted from pto to gear box. Arrangement of hydraulic cylinder and hydraulic motor was provided on the equipment to facilitate the height of cut and to rotate the conveyer belt. During comparative performance evaluation of developed equipment, the average cutting efficiency and field capacity was found 96.30 % and 0.176 ha/hr respectively. There was increase in fuel consumption and plant damage with increase in speed of operation. The average operation cost of newly developed tractor operated front mounted pigeon pea stem cutter was 64.71% less as compared with manual harvesting of pigeon pea crop. The time saved was almost 1/3rd to that of manual harvesting.

  18. Pea-barley intercropping and short-term subsequent crop effects across European organic cropping conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gooding, M.; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    Grain legumes are known to increase the soil mineral nitrogen (N) content, reduce the infection pressure of soil borne pathogens, and hence enhance subsequent cereals yields. Replicated field experiments were performed throughout W. Europe (Denmark, United Kingdom, France, Germany and Italy....... In the replacement design the total relative plant density is kept constant, while the additive design uses the optimal sole crop density for pea supplementing with ‘extra’ barley plants. The pea and barley crops were followed by winter wheat with and without N application. Additional experiments in Denmark...

  19. To feed or not to feed: plant factors located in the epidermis, mesophyll, and sieve elements influence pea aphid's ability to feed on legume species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Schwarzkopf

    Full Text Available The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, a legume specialist, encompasses at least 11 genetically distinct sympatric host races. Each host race shows a preference for a certain legume species. Six pea aphid clones from three host races were used to localize plant factors influencing aphid probing and feeding behavior on four legume species. Aphid performance was tested by measuring survival and growth. The location of plant factors influencing aphid probing and feeding was determined using the electrical penetration graph (EPG technique. Every aphid clone performed best on the plant species from which it was originally collected, as well as on Vicia faba. On other plant species, clones showed intermediate or poor performance. The most important plant factors influencing aphid probing and feeding behavior were localized in the epidermis and sieve elements. Repetitive puncturing of sieve elements might be relevant for establishing phloem feeding, since feeding periods appear nearly exclusively after these repetitive sieve element punctures. A combination of plant factors influences the behavior of pea aphid host races on different legume species and likely contributes to the maintenance of these races.

  20. Cadmium effects on populations of root nuclei in two pea genotypes inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Ombretta; Massa, Nadia; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Dumas-Gaudot, Eliane; Berta, Graziella

    2007-03-01

    Plants possess a broad range of strategies to cope with cadmium (Cd) stress, including the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. In cell responses towards Cd, the contribution of changes in ploidy levels is still unclear. We used flow cytometry to investigate if nuclear ploidy changes are involved in response mechanisms toward Cd and to analyze the effect of the symbiotic status on populations of nuclei. The impact of Cd was investigated in roots of two pea (Pisum sativum L.) genotypes differing in their Cd-sensitivity (Cd-sensitive VIR4788 and Cd-tolerant VIR7128). In pea seedlings grown under hydropony, 25 and 250 microM Cd concentrations lead to an increase in 4 C together with a decrease in 2 C nuclei. The same genotypes, grown in soil/sand substrate, were inoculated or not with the AM fungus Glomus mosseae BEG12 and treated or not with Cd at transplanting (Cd1) or 2 weeks after (Cd2). The Cd2 increased the proportion of 6 and 8 C nuclei in the mycorrhizal VIR4788 and in the non-mycorrhizal VIR7128 genotypes. Thus, changes in ploidy levels reflect pea responses towards Cd, which are modulated by the symbiotic interaction. The Cd-induced increase in ploidy may account for changes in DNA transcription and/or translation.

  1. Genotypic and symbiotic diversity of Rhizobium populations associated with cultivated lentil and pea in sub-humid and semi-arid regions of Eastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riah, Nassira; Béna, Gilles; Djekoun, Abdelhamid; Heulin, Karine; de Lajudie, Philippe; Laguerre, Gisèle

    2014-07-01

    The genetic structure of rhizobia nodulating pea and lentil in Algeria, Northern Africa was determined. A total of 237 isolates were obtained from root nodules collected on lentil (Lens culinaris), proteaginous and forage pea (Pisum sativum) growing in two eco-climatic zones, sub-humid and semi-arid, in Eastern Algeria. They were characterised by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region (IGS), and the nodD-F symbiotic region. The combination of these haplotypes allowed the isolates to be clustered into 26 distinct genotypes, and all isolates were classified as Rhizobium leguminosarum. Symbiotic marker variation (nodD-F) was low but with the predominance of one nod haplotype (g), which had been recovered previously at a high frequency in Europe. Sequence analysis of the IGS further confirmed its high variability in the studied strains. An AMOVA analysis showed highly significant differentiation in the IGS haplotype distribution between populations from both eco-climatic zones. This differentiation was reflected by differences in dominant genotype frequencies. Conversely, no host plant effect was detected. The nodD gene sequence-based phylogeny suggested that symbiotic gene diversity in pea and lentil nodulating rhizobial populations in Algeria was low compared to that reported elsewhere in the world.

  2. Pea powdery mildew er1 resistance is associated to loss-of-function mutations at a MLO homologous locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Stefano; Schiavulli, Adalgisa; Appiano, Michela; Marcotrigiano, Angelo R; Cillo, Fabrizio; Visser, Richard G F; Bai, Yuling; Lotti, Concetta; Ricciardi, Luigi

    2011-12-01

    The powdery mildew disease affects several crop species and is also one of the major threats for pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivation all over the world. The recessive gene er1, first described over 60 years ago, is well known in pea breeding, as it still maintains its efficiency as a powdery mildew resistance source. Genetic and phytopathological features of er1 resistance are similar to those of barley, Arabidopsis, and tomato mlo powdery mildew resistance, which is caused by the loss of function of specific members of the MLO gene family. Here, we describe the obtainment of a novel er1 resistant line by experimental mutagenesis with the alkylating agent diethyl sulfate. This line was found to carry a single nucleotide polymorphism in the PsMLO1 gene sequence, predicted to result in premature termination of translation and a non-functional protein. A cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker was developed on the mutation site and shown to be fully co-segregating with resistance in F(2) individuals. Sequencing of PsMLO1 from three powdery mildew resistant cultivars also revealed the presence of loss-of-function mutations. Taken together, results reported in this study strongly indicate the identity between er1 and mlo resistances and are expected to be of great breeding importance for the development of resistant cultivars via marker-assisted selection.

  3. Effects of Wounding and Exogenous Jasmonic Acid on the Peroxidation of Membrane Lipid in Pea Seedlings Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yan-yan; LIU Yan-yan; HUANG Wei-dong

    2005-01-01

    The changes of malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, and O2-content, or the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase(CAT), ascrobate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and polyphenol oxidase(PPO) in pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.) under wounding and treatment of exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) were investigated.The results showed that the activities of both phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were significantly increased by wounding and application of JA. The metabolism of reaction oxidative species (ROS) was APX and POD were also increased. Treatment of JA of 1 or 10 μmol L-1 could effectively induce plant defense response,and thus decrease the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid. However, high concentration of JA (100 μmol L-1) resulted in unbalance of metabolism of ROS and promoted the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid. We thus suggested that JA, under the suitable concentration, could induce defense response of pea seedlings to wounding.

  4. Insulin-related peptide 5 is involved in regulating embryo development and biochemical composition in pea aphid with wing polyphenism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan eGuo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In aphids there is a fecundity-dispersal trade-off between wingless and winged morphs. Recent research on the molecular mechanism of wing morphs associated with dispersal reveals that insulin receptors in the insulin signaling (IS pathway regulate alteration of wing morphs in planthoppers. However, little is known about whether genes in the IS pathway are involved in developmental regulation in aphid nymphs with different wing morphs. In this study, we show that expression of the insulin-related peptide 5 gene (Apirp5 affects biochemical composition and embryo development of wingless pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum. After comparing expression levels of major genes in the IS pathway between third instar winged and wingless nymphs, we found that Apirp5 showed higher expression in head and thorax of the wingless nymphs than in the winged nymphs. Although microinjection treatment affects physical performance in aphids, nymphs with RNA interference of Apirp5 had less weight, smaller embryo size and higher carbohydrate and protein contents compared to control group. Comparison between winged and wingless nymphs showed a similar trend. These results indicate that Apirp5 is involved in embryo development and metabolic regulation in wing dimorphic pea aphid.

  5. PEA: Polymorphic Encryption Algorithm based on quantum computation

    OpenAIRE

    Komninos, N.; Mantas, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a polymorphic encryption algorithm (PEA), based on basic quantum computations, is proposed for the encryption of binary bits. PEA is a symmetric key encryption algorithm that applies different combinations of quantum gates to encrypt binary bits. PEA is also polymorphic since the states of the shared secret key control the different combinations of the ciphertext. It is shown that PEA achieves perfect secrecy and is resilient to eavesdropping and Trojan horse attacks. A securit...

  6. Purification and characterization of a casein kinase 2-type protein kinase from pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Almost all the polyamine-stimulated protein kinase activity associated with the chromatin fraction of nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.35 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified over 2000-fold by salt fractionation and anion-exchange and casein-agarose column chromatography, after which it is more than 90% pure. The purified kinase has a specific activity of about 650 nanomoles per minute per milligram protein in the absence of polyamines, with either ATP or GTP as phosphoryl donor. Spermidine can stimulate its activity fourfold, with half-maximal activation at about 2 millimolar. Spermine and putrescine also stimulate activity, although somewhat less effectively. This kinase has a tetrameric alpha 2 beta 2 structure with a native molecular weight of 130,000, and subunit molecular weights of 36,000 for the catalytic subunit (alpha) and 29,000 for the regulatory subunit (beta). In western blot analyses, only the alpha subunit reacts strongly with polyclonal antibodies to a Drosophila casein kinase II. The pea kinase can use casein and phosvitin as artificial substrates, phosphorylating both the serine and threonine residues of casein. It has a pH optimum near 8.0, a Vmax of 1.5 micromoles per minute per milligram protein, and a Km for ATP of approximately 75 micromolar. Its activity can be almost completely inhibited by heparin at 5 micrograms per milliliter, but is relatively insensitive to concentrations of staurosporine, K252a, and chlorpromazine that strongly antagonize Ca(2+) -regulated protein kinases. These results are discussed in relation to recent findings that casein kinase 2-type kinases may phosphorylate trans-acting factors that bind to light-regulated promoters in plants.

  7. Microorganism-associated semiochemicals reduce the size of aphid populations in potato fields

    OpenAIRE

    Alabi, Taofic; Brostaux, Yves; Grigorescu, Alina; Fischer, Christophe; Thonart, Philippe; Lognay, Georges; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François

    2014-01-01

    The chemical cues released by many insect species, including agricultural pests, are used by predators and parasitoids to locate their prey or host. For instance, aphids excrete honeydew, which contains bacteria that produce semiochemicals. Ladybeetles and hoverflies use these semiochemicals to locate the colonies of prey aphid species. One bacterium (Staphylococcus sciuri) has been identified in the honeydew of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. This bacterium is responsible for the product...

  8. Gravistimulation changes expression of genes encoding putative carrier proteins of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, T.; Hitotsubashi, R.; Miyamoto, K.; Tanimoto, E.; Ueda, J.

    STS-95 space experiment has showed that auxin polar transport in etiolated epicotyls of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings is controlled by gravistimulation. In Arabidopsis thaliana auxin polar transport has considered to be regulated by efflux and influx carrier proteins in plasma membranes, AtPIN1 and AtAUX1, respectively. In order to know how gravistimuli control auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls at molecular levels, strenuous efforts have been made, resulting in successful isolation of full-length cDNAs of a putative auxin efflux and influx carriers, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (accession no. AY222857, Chawla and DeMason, 2003) and AtPINs, and also among PsAUX1, AtAUX1 and their related genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 relating to lateral transport of auxin, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1 relating to auxin polar transport. In the present study, we examined the effects of gravistimuli on the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 in etiolated pea seedlings by northern blot analysis. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in hook region of 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat increased as compared with that of the seedlings grown under 1 g conditions. On the other hand, that of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the 1st internode region under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat also increased, while that of PsPIN2 was affected little. These results suggest that expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 regulating polar/lateral transport of auxin is substantially under the control of gravity. A possible role of PsPINs and PsAUX1 of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea seedlings will also be discussed.

  9. A Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain: Primary Epiploic Appendagitis (PEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulbanu Erkan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary epiploic appendagitis (PEA is a rare disease caused by torsion or spontaneous thrombosis of the central vein that drains epiploic appendages (EA. Primary Epiploic Appendagitis (PEA is an ischemic infarction. Although PEA is a self-limiting disease and does not require surgical intervention in most cases, it may mimic diseases that require surgical intervention or aggressive medical therapy, such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, or cholecystitis. In order to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention, PEA should be kept in mind when patients present with acute abdominal pain. In this report, we present a PEA case admitted with abdominal pain.

  10. Response of Endogenous Salicylic Acid and Jasmonates to Mechanical Wounding in Pea Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; PAN Qiu-hong; ZHAN Ji-cheng; TIAN Rong-rong; HUANG Wei-dong

    2008-01-01

    The roles of on endogenous jasmonates (JAs) and salicylic acid (SA) in wounding response were investigated. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings were treated with three different methods including mechanical wounding, JAs application,and SA application. The contents of endogenous JAs and SA, as well as the activities of the related enzymes were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and spectrophotometer, respectively. The results showed that endogenous JA rapidly accumulated within 30 min after wounding. The increase in the activities of both lipoxygenase (LOX) and allene oxide synthase (AOS) lagged behind JAs burst. A second slight increase in JAs level was observed at 24 h after wounding treatment, and at the same time point,higher activities of LOX and AOS were also detected. Endogenous free SA content decreased accompanied with JAs burst. Effects of exogenous JA application were similar to those of wounding treatment on endogenous SA level and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, whereas exogenous SA application led to the significant inhibition of LOX and AOS activities and the decrease of endogenous JAs level at the early stage of treatment. It is thus suggested that JAs burst and SA decrease in early response to wounding may constitute an important mechanism by which plant starts the related defense reaction and adapts to wounding stress.

  11. Anticipatory and reactive crouching of pea aphids in response to environmental perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Matan; Talal, Stav; Inbar, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    Animals use different strategies to deal with changing environmental conditions. While standing and feeding on their host plant, aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) may be exposed to detrimental environmental perturbations, such as strong winds. If aphids are forcibly blown off the plant and spend time on the ground, they will face additional dangers by both ground-dwelling predators and detrimental soil temperature. It is therefore adaptive for aphids to behave in a way that lowers the risk of being removed from the plant. We observed that pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)) display a specific crouched body posture, previously undescribed, which reduces their chance of being carried off from the plant by sudden winds. We exposed aphids in the laboratory to different cues indicative of a windy environment: wind, plant vibration, and visual stimuli. We found that aphids crouch in two situations: 1) reactively, when they are being pulled by a continuous gust of wind threatening to dislodge them. 2) Anticipatorily, when environmental cues, such as plant vibration or continuous movement near their host plant, may signify that sudden wind gusts are expected. Crouching aphids were less likely to be dislodged by a sudden air stream or plant vibration than were aphids that did not crouch. Crouching thus improves the aphids' chances of remaining on their host plant under unfavorable environmental conditions.

  12. Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase, Ornithine Transcarbamylase, and Aspartate Transcarbamylase Activities in the Pea Ovary 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-España, Antonio; Carbonell, Juan; Rubio, Vicente

    1989-01-01

    Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS), ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), and aspartate transcarbamylase (ATC) were assayed in extracts from unpollinated ovaries of Pisum sativum L. CPS and OTC activities were, per milligram protein, the highest reported in a plant tissue, representing an estimated 0.1% of the protein in the ovary. The OTC/CPS and ATC/CPS ratios were about 100 and 0.5, respectively, indicating that most of the carbamoyl phosphate is used for arginine synthesis. The weight, protein content, and CPS, OTC, and ATC activities per ovary were determined during the senescence of the ovary and also during fruit set induced by treatment with gibberellic acid (GA3). In the nontreated ovary the weight and the protein first increased and then decreased dramatically, but the decrease in protein took place much earlier. In the GA3-treated ovaries the increase in weight was considerably greater than the increase in the protein. Whether or not the ovaries were treated with GA3, CPS, OTC, and ATC activities closely followed the changes in protein, and thus their ratios and specific activities remained essentially constant. It appears that treatment with GA3 increases the amount of protein and enzymic activities by preventing a large increase in the rate of protein degradation. In addition, the effects of acetylglutamate, ornithine, and UMP on CPS activity were studied. The pea enzyme exhibits regulatory properties intermediate between those of Escherichia coli and the ureotelic liver enzymes. PMID:16666966

  13. Tissue-specific localization of pea root infection by Nectria haematococca. Mechanisms and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Uvini; Rodriguez, Marianela; Straney, David; Romeo, John T; VanEtten, Hans D; Hawes, Martha C

    2005-04-01

    Root infection in susceptible host species is initiated predominantly in the zone of elongation, whereas the remainder of the root is resistant. Nectria haematococca infection of pea (Pisum sativum) was used as a model to explore possible mechanisms influencing the localization of root infection. The failure to infect the root tip was not due to a failure to induce spore germination at this site, suppression of pathogenicity genes in the fungus, or increased expression of plant defense genes. Instead, exudates from the root tip induce rapid spore germination by a pathway that is independent of nutrient-induced germination. Subsequently, a factor produced during fungal infection and death of border cells at the root apex appears to selectively suppress fungal growth and prevent sporulation. Host-specific mantle formation in response to border cells appears to represent a previously unrecognized form of host-parasite relationship common to diverse species. The dynamics of signal exchange leading to mantle development may play a key role in fostering plant health, by protecting root meristems from pathogenic invasion.

  14. Influence of variation potential on resistance of the photosynthetic machinery to heating in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, Vladimir; Surova, Lyubov; Sherstneva, Oksana; Vodeneev, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    Electrical signals [action potentials (APs) and variation potentials (VPs)] induced by local stimuli are a mechanism that underlies rapid plant response to environmental factors. Such signals induce a number of functional responses, including changes in photosynthesis. Ultimately, these responses are considered to increase plant resistance to stress factors, but this question has been poorly investigated. We studied the influence of VP on photosynthesis and resistance of the photosynthetic machinery to heating in leaves of pea (Pisum sativum). Localized burning induced a VP that decreased photosynthesis parameters [CO(2) assimilation rate and quantum yields of photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII)]. The photosynthetic response was initiated by a decrease in photosynthesis dark-stage activity, which in turn increased resistance of PSI to heating. Three results supported this hypothesized mechanism: (1) the magnitude of VP-induced decrease in CO(2) assimilation and enhanced PSI resistance to heating were highly correlated; (2) the VP influence on PSI resistance to heating was suppressed under a low external CO(2) concentration and (3) decreasing external CO(2) concentration imitated the VP-induced photosynthetic response and increased PSI resistance to heating.

  15. Structural alteration of cell wall pectins accompanies pea development in response to cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Laëtitia; Domon, Jean-Marc; Klimek, John F; Fournet, Françoise; Sellier, Hélène; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Carpita, Nicholas C; Rayon, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) cell wall metabolism in response to chilling was investigated in a frost-sensitive genotype 'Terese' and a frost-tolerant genotype 'Champagne'. Cell walls isolated from stipules of cold acclimated and non-acclimated plants showed that cold temperatures induce changes in polymers containing xylose, arabinose, galactose and galacturonic acid residues. In the tolerant cultivar Champagne, acclimation is accompanied by increases in homogalacturonan, xylogalacturonan and highly branched Rhamnogalacturonan I with branched and unbranched (1→5)-α-arabinans and (1→4)-β-galactans. In contrast, the sensitive cultivar Terese accumulates substantial amounts of (1→4)-β-xylans and glucuronoxylan, but not the pectins. Greater JIM7 labeling was observed in Champagne compared to Terese, indicating that cold acclimation also induces an increase in the degree of methylesterification of pectins. Significant decrease in polygalacturonase activities in both genotypes were observed at the end of cold acclimation. These data indicate a role for esterified pectins in cold tolerance. The possible functions for pectins and their associated arabinans and galactans in cold acclimation are discussed.

  16. Enzymic degradiation of starch granules in the cotyledons of germinating peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, B O; Varner, J E

    1969-06-01

    Starch, total alpha- and beta-amylase, and phosphorylase levels and the zymogram patterns of these 3 starch-degrading enzymes were determined in the cotyledons of smooth pea (Pisum sativum L.) during the first 15 days of germination. Starch is degraded slowly in the first 6 days; during this time, alpha-amylase is very low, beta-amylase is present at a constant level while phosphorylase gradually increases and reaches a peak on the fifth day. Beginning on the sixth day there is a more rapid degradation of starch which coincides with alpha-amylase production. One phosphorylase band and 2 beta-amylase bands are present in the zymogram of the imbibed cotyledon. An additional phosphorylase band and 1 alpha-amylase band appear during germination. Seeds imbibed in benzyladenine, chloramphenicol, and in cycloheximide show retarded growth and slower starch degradation and enzyme production than the controls. We conclude that alpha-amylase is the major enzyme involved in the initial degradation of starch into more soluble forms while phosphorylase and beta-amylase assist in the further conversion to free sugars.

  17. Identification of AFLP and STS markers closely linked to the def locus in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stackelberg, M; Lindemann, S; Menke, M; Riesselmann, S; Jacobsen, H-J

    2003-05-01

    The recessive mutation of the def gene of pea (Pisum sativum L.) leads to the loss of the hilum, the abscission zone between the seed and the pod. Thereby, it reduces the free dispersal of the seeds through pod shattering. As a prerequisite for a gene isolation via a map-based cloning approach, bulked segregant analysis followed by single plant analyses of over 200 homozygous individuals of a population of 476 F2 plants derived from a cross between 'DGV' (def wild-type) and 'PF' (def mutant), were used to detect markers closely linked to the def locus. The AFLP technique in combination with silver staining was used to maximize numbers of reproducible marker loci. Fifteen AFLP loci showed a genetic distance less than 5 and two of them less than 1 centiMorgans (cM) to the gene of interest. AFLPs were converted into sequence tagged sites (STSs) and into a newly refined AFLP-based single locus marker named the 'sequence specified AFLP' (ssAFLP).

  18. The effects of lead on the gaseous exchange and photosynthetic carbon metabolism of pea seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy W. Poskuta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Roots of whole 3 week-old pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. var. "Bordi" were immersed for 24 h in solutions of lead chloride at Pb copcentrations of 200, 400, 800,12000 mg dm3. Accumulation of lead in roots was independent of the Pb concentration, whereas the accumulation of Pb in shoots was an almost linear function of the concentration of this element in the root medium. This treatment caused Pb concentration-dependent inhibition of apparent photosynthesis (APS, photorespiration (PR, 14CO2 uptake, stomatal opening and transpiration of shoots and also germination of seeds. The most sensitive to Pb contamination was CO2 exchange, then transpiration and to a lesser degree germination of seeds. Lead caused a considerable alteration of photosynthetic and photorespiratory carbon metabolism, restricted the 14C-labeling of: phosphoglycerate, ribose+ribulose, sucrose, glycolate and glycine+serine. Under conditions of C02 uptake limited by lead, an enhancement of the 14C-labeling of malate+citrate, alanine and glucose was observed.

  19. Interactions between ethylene, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids in the development of rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses of pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Eloise; McAdam, Erin L; Weller, James L; Reid, James B

    2016-04-01

    The regulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal development and nodulation involves complex interactions between the plant and its microbial symbionts. In this study, we use the recently identified ethylene-insensitive ein2 mutant in pea (Pisum sativum L.) to explore the role of ethylene in the development of these symbioses. We show that ethylene acts as a strong negative regulator of nodulation, confirming reports in other legumes. Minor changes in gibberellin1 and indole-3-acetic acid levels in ein2 roots appear insufficient to explain the differences in nodulation. Double mutants produced by crosses between ein2 and the severely gibberellin-deficient na and brassinosteroid-deficient lk mutants showed increased nodule numbers and reduced nodule spacing compared with the na and lk single mutants, but nodule numbers and spacing were typical of ein2 plants, suggesting that the reduced number of nodules innaandlkplants is largely due to the elevated ethylene levels previously reported in these mutants. We show that ethylene can also negatively regulate mycorrhizae development when ethylene levels are elevated above basal levels, consistent with a role for ethylene in reducing symbiotic development under stressful conditions. In contrast to the hormone interactions in nodulation, ein2 does not override the effect of lk or na on the development of arbuscular mycorrhizae, suggesting that brassinosteroids and gibberellins influence this process largely independently of ethylene.

  20. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of seasonal photoperiodism in the pea aphid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauthier J-P

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aphid adaptation to harsh winter conditions is illustrated by an alternation of their reproductive mode. Aphids detect photoperiod shortening by sensing the length of the night and switch from viviparous parthenogenesis in spring and summer, to oviparous sexual reproduction in autumn. The photoperiodic signal is transduced from the head to the reproductive tract to change the fate of the future oocytes from mitotic diploid embryogenesis to haploid formation of gametes. This process takes place in three consecutive generations due to viviparous parthenogenesis. To understand the molecular basis of the switch in the reproductive mode, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches were used to detect significantly regulated transcripts and polypeptides in the heads of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Results The transcriptomic profiles of the heads of the first generation were slightly affected by photoperiod shortening. This suggests that trans-generation signalling between the grand-mothers and the viviparous embryos they contain is not essential. By analogy, many of the genes and some of the proteins regulated in the heads of the second generation are implicated in visual functions, photoreception and cuticle structure. The modification of the cuticle could be accompanied by a down-regulation of the N-β-alanyldopamine pathway and desclerotization. In Drosophila, modification of the insulin pathway could cause a decrease of juvenile hormones in short-day reared aphids. Conclusion This work led to the construction of hypotheses for photoperiodic regulation of the switch of the reproductive mode in aphids.

  1. Predation determines different selective pressure on pea aphid host races in a complex agricultural mosaic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalbert Balog

    Full Text Available Field assessments were conducted to examine the interplay between host plant and predation in complex agricultural mosaic on pea aphid clover and alfalfa races. In one experiment, we examined the relative fitness on clover race (CR and alfalfa race (AR pea aphids on broad bean, red clover and alfalfa alone. But because clover is typically grown in a more complex agricultural mosaic with alfalfa and broad bean, a second experiment was conducted to assess the fitness consequences under predation in a more complex agricultural field setting that also included potential apparent competition with AR pea aphids. In a third experiment we tested for the effect of differential host race density on the fitness of the other host race mediated by a predator effect. CR pea aphids always had fitness losses when on broad bean (had lower fitness on broad bean relative to red clover and fitness benefits when on red clover (higher fitness on red clover relative to broad bean, whether or not in apparent competition with alfalfa race aphids on bean and alfalfa. AR suffered fitness loss on both alfalfa and bean in apparent competition with CR on clover. Therefore we can conclude that the predation rate between host races was highly asymmetrical. The complexity of the agricultural mosaic thus can influence prey selection by predators on different host plants. These may have evolutionary consequences through context dependent fitness benefits on particular host plants.

  2. 21 CFR 155.170 - Canned peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned peas is the food prepared from fresh or frozen succulent seeds of... any combination of two or more of the dry or liquid forms of sugar, invert sugar sirup, dextrose... drained weight of the finished food. (b) Lemon juice or concentrated lemon juice. (c) Mint leaves....

  3. Transport processes in pea seed coats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, Joost Thomas van

    2002-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns transport processes in coats of developing pea seeds. The scope of the investigation ranges from seed coat anatomy, via transport studies to the cloning of cDNA encoding proteinaceous membrane pores, and the heterologous expression of these protei

  4. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Only...

  5. CEI-PEA Alert, Summer 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Practical Skills & High Academic Standards: Career Technical Education; (2) Parents: Help Your Children Gain "Soft Skills" for the Workforce; (3) Culinary Arts Motivate High School…

  6. CEI-PEA Alert, Fall 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Chancellor Joel I. Klein Announces New Accountability System for NYC Schools; (2) Students Achieve Record-High Scores!; (3) Use Data to Help Your Child Improve Performance; (4) Are…

  7. Photosynthesis light-independent reactions are sensitive biomarkers to monitor lead phytotoxicity in a Pb-tolerant Pisum sativum cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Eleazar; da Conceição Santos, Maria; Azevedo, Raquel; Correia, Carlos; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Ferreira de Oliveira, José Miguel Pimenta; Dias, Maria Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) environmental contamination remains prevalent. Pisum sativum L. plants have been used in ecotoxicological studies, but some cultivars showed to tolerate and accumulate some levels of Pb, opening new perspectives to their use in phytoremediation approaches. However, the putative use of pea plants in phytoremediation requires reliable toxicity endpoints. Here, we evaluated the sensitivity of a large number of photosynthesis-related biomarkers in Pb-exposed pea plants. Plants (cv. "Corne de Bélier") were exposed to Pb concentrations up to 1,000 mg kg(-1) soil during 28 days. The photosynthetic potential biomarkers that were analyzed included pigments, chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence, gas exchange, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) activity, and carbohydrates. Flow cytometry (FCM) was also used to assess the morpho-functional status of chloroplasts. Finally, Pb-induced nutrient disorders were also evaluated. Net CO2 assimilation rate (A) and RuBisCO activity decreased strongly in Pb-exposed plants. Plant dry mass (DM) accumulation, however, was only reduced in the higher Pb concentrations tested (500 and 1,000 mg kg(-1) soil). Pigment contents increased solely in plants exposed to the largest Pb concentration, and in addition, the parameters related to the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, Fv/Fm and ΦPSII, were not affected by Pb exposure. In contrast to this, carbohydrates showed an overall tendency to increase in Pb-exposed plants. The morphological status of chloroplasts was affected by Pb exposure, with a general trend of volume decrease and granularity increase. These results point the endpoints related to the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis as more sensitive predictors of Pb-toxicity than the light-dependent reactions ones. Among the endpoints related to the light-independent photosynthesis reactions, RuBisCO activity and A were found to be the most sensitive. We discuss here the advantages of using

  8. High efficient expression of Lhcb2 gene from pea in E. coli and reconstitution of its expressed product with pigment in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Lhcb2 gene from pea (Pisum sativum L.) was subcloned into bacterial expression vector pET-3d, and its protein overexpressed was obtained from E. coli (BL21) containing PetpLhcb2 by site-directed mutagenesis method. Bacteria transformed with this construct yielded up to 40 percent of total protein of E. coli. Using the modified method with three subsequent cycles of freezing (1 min, -196℃) and thawing (15 min, 25℃), Lhcb2 protein purified was highly reconstituted with pigments to yield pigment-protein complexes. The reconstituted LHCB2 monomers were very similar to native LHCII monomers from spinach in partially denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy. These results showed that Lhcb2 proteins overexpressed were reconstituted successfully with pigments and had similar organization and structure to the native LHCII monomers.

  9. High efficient expression of Lhcb2 gene from pea in E. coli and reconstitution of its expressed product with pigment in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙钦秒; 李良璧; 毛大璋; 匡廷云

    2000-01-01

    Lhcb2 gene from pea (Pisum sativum L.) was subcloned into bacterial expression vector pET-3d, and its protein overexpressed was obtained from E. coli (BL21) containing PetpLhcb2 by site-directed mutagenesis method. Bacteria transformed with this construct yielded up to 40 percent of total protein of E. coli. Using the modified method with three subsequent cycles of freezing (1 min, -196℃) and thawing (15 min, 25℃), Lhcb2 protein purified was highly reconstituted with pigments to yield pigment-protein complexes. The reconstituted LHCB2 monomers were very similar to native LHCll monomers from spinach in partially denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy. These results showed that Lhcb2 proteins overexpressed were reconstituted successfully with pigments and had similar organization and structure to the native LHCII monomers.

  10. [Secretion of Phenolic Compounds into Root Exudates of Pea Seedlings upon Inoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae or Pseudomonas siringae pv. Pisi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, L E; Dudareva, L V; Petrova, I G; Vasil'eva, G G

    2016-01-01

    The content of apigenin, naringenin, pisatin, dibutyl-ortho-phthalate, and N-phenyl-2-naphthyl-amine were assayed in root exudates of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings one day after their inoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum, bv. viceae or Pseudomonas siringae pv. pisi, which represent, respectively, mutualistic and antagonistic strategies of interaction with a host plant. After inoculation with either bacteria, the concentrations of apigenin and pisatin in the root exudates were equal, whereas the concentrations of naringenin and N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine were different and those of dibutyl-o-phthalate were unchanged. A certain role is suggested for the phenolic compounds in an accomplishment of symbiotic relations of bacteria with a host plant.

  11. Epidermal UV-A absorbance and whole-leaf flavonoid composition in pea respond more to solar blue light than to solar UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siipola, Sari M; Kotilainen, Titta; Sipari, Nina; Morales, Luis O; Lindfors, Anders V; Robson, T Matthew; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2015-05-01

    Plants synthesize phenolic compounds in response to certain environmental signals or stresses. One large group of phenolics, flavonoids, is considered particularly responsive to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, here we demonstrate that solar blue light stimulates flavonoid biosynthesis in the absence of UV-A and UV-B radiation. We grew pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Meteor) outdoors, in Finland during the summer, under five types of filters differing in their spectral transmittance. These filters were used to (1) attenuate UV-B; (2) attenuate UV-B and UV-A radiation signals that extend into the visible region of the solar spectrum. Furthermore, solar blue light instead of solar UV-B radiation can be the main regulator of phenolic compound accumulation in plants that germinate and develop outdoors.

  12. Succession of root-associated fungi in Pisum sativum during a plant growth cycle as examined by 454 pyrosequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, L.; Nicolaisen, M.; Larsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    was to examine succession patterns of root-associated fungi in pea during a full plant growth cycle. Methods Plants were grown in pots with field soil in a growth chamber under controlled conditions. Fungal communities in pea roots were analyzed at different plant growth stages including the vegetative growth......Purpose Roots are inhabited by a broad range of fungi, including pathogens and mycorrhizal fungi, with functional traits related to plant health and nutrition. Management of these fungi in agroecosystems requires profound knowledge about their ecology. The main objective of this study......, flowering and senescence, using 454 pyrosequencing. Results One hundred and twenty one non-singleton operational taxonomic units (OTUs) representing fungal species were detected. Pathogenic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi dominated during the vegetative growth stage, whereas saprotrophic fungi dominated...

  13. Field Insect Pests and Crop Damage Assessment of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Huth grown under Ratoon and in Mixture with Maize Evaluación de Campo de Insectos Pestes y Daño del cultivo de Gandul (Cajanus cajan [L.] Huth creciendo bajo Rebrotes o en Mezcla con Maíz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madang A Dasbak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The widespread adoption of cropping systems that are sustainable and environmentally friendly is vital for the macroeconomic survival of civilization. Intercropping could ensure stability of insect populations in a system. A 3-yr (2005-2007 field trial was therefore carried out in Nigeria under regular and ratoon crops to evaluate five recently developed pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Huth genotypes (ICPL 87, ICPL 161, ICPL 85063, ICP 7120, and ICPL 87119 from the International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT and one local variety for their relative performance and susceptibility to insect pests. The pigeon pea genotypes were in a mixture with two maize genotypes (Zea mays L., open-pollinated and hybrid in regular crops for 2 yr (2005-2006 followed by a ratoon crop for 1 yr (2007. Termites (Odontotermes badius, crickets (Gymnogryllus lucens, and variegated grasshoppers (Zonocerus variegatus were the crop's seedling pests and caused minimal damage. Clavigralla spp. infestations were high at the reproductive stage causing 24% and 29% seed damage in regular and ratoon pigeon pea crops, respectively. Maize slightly suppressed insect pest incidence and damage to pigeon pea pods and seeds but significantly (P La extendida adopción de sistemas de cultivo que son sustentables y benignos para el medio ambiente es vital para la supervivencia macro-económica de la civilización. El intercultivo podría asegurar la estabilidad de población de insectos en un sistema. Un ensayo de campo de 3 anos (2005-2007 fue realizado en Nigeria bajo condiciones de cultivo regular y ratoon para evaluar cinco genotipos de poroto gandul (Cajanus cajan [L.] Huth: ICPL 87, ICPL 161, ICPL 85063, ICP 7120, e ICPL 87119 desde International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT y una variedad local, por sus rendimientos y susceptibilidades relativas a insectos plaga. Los genotipos de poroto gandul estaban en mezcla con dos genotipos de

  14. Biological control of fusarial wilt of pigeon pea by Bacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, S; Shah, A K

    2000-02-01

    A virulent strain of pigeon pea wilt pathogen was isolated from wilted pigeon pea plants and was identified as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. udum. Many bacterial cultures showing antagonism to the pathogen were isolated from various ecological niches. When tested under pot and field conditions, development of fusarial wilt symptoms was prevented in pigeon pea seeds treated with one such antagonist, Bacillus brevis. A formulation of B. brevis with vermiculite as a carrier had a shelf life of at least 6 months. Bacillus brevis produced an extracellular antagonistic substance which induced swelling of the pathogen's hyphal tips, and cells were bulbous and swollen with shrunken and granulated cytoplasm. The antagonistic substance also inhibited germination of conidia, and was fungicidal to the vegetative mycelia of the pathogen. Comparison of the properties of our antagonistic substance with that of known antibiotics produced by B. brevis suggests that our antagonistic substance is a novel compound. The observations reported here indicate that this strain of B. brevis may have potential as a biocontrol agent against fusarial wilt in pigeon pea.

  15. Isolation and transcript analysis of gibberellin 20-oxidase genes in pea and bean in relation to fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, J L; López-Diaz, I; Sánchez-Beltrán, M J; Phillips, A L; Ward, D A; Gaskin, P; Hedden, P

    1997-04-01

    PCR was used with degenerate primers based on conserved amino acid sequences in gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidases to isolate cDNA clones for these enzymes from young seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) and developing embryos of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). One GA 20-oxidase cDNA (Ps27-12) was obtained from pea and three (Pv 15-11, Pv73-1 and Pv85-26) from bean. Their identities were confirmed by demonstrating that fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited GA 20-oxidase activity, converting [14C]GA12 to [14C]GA9. The intermediates in this three-step reaction, GA15 and GA24, were also identified as products. The expression proteins from three of the clones (Ps27-12, Pv15-11 and Pv73-1) were also shown to convert GA53 to GA20, as effectively as they did GA12. On the basis of transcript levels measured by northern blot analysis, the pea GA 20-oxidase gene is most highly expressed in young leaves, fully expanded internodes, very young seeds (until 4 days after anthesis) and expanding pods (from 3 days after anthesis at least until day 6). Expression in pods from 3-day-old unpollinated ovaries is higher than in those from pollinated ovaries. Treatment of unpollinated ovaries with GA3 to induce parthenocarpic fruit-set severely reduced the amount of GA 20-oxidase mRNA, whereas treatment with 2,4-D, although inducing fruit-set, did not reduce the levels of these transcripts. Plant decapitation above an unpollinated ovary resulted in very high levels of GA 20-oxidase mRNA in the pod. The three GA 20-oxidase genes from French bean showed very different patterns of expression: Pv 15-1 was expressed in the roots, young leaves, and developing seeds, but most highly in immature cotyledons, while Pv73-1 has a similar expression pattern to Ps27-12, with transcripts found only in young seeds and young leaves, where it was particularly abundant. Transcripts corresponding to Pv85-26 were detected in developing seeds, and just traces in the young leaves. Southern blot analysis

  16. D-chiro-inositol affects accumulation of raffinose family oligosaccharides in developing embryos of Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahuta, Lesław B; Dzik, Tomasz

    2011-03-01

    Developing garden pea embryos are able to take up exogenously applied cyclitols: myo-inositol, which naturally occurs in pea, and two cyclitols absent in pea plants: d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol. The competition in the uptake of cyclitols by pea embryo, insensitivity to glucose and sucrose, and susceptibility to inhibitor(s) of H(+)-symporters (e.g. CCCP and antimycin A) suggest that a common cyclitol transporter is involved. Both d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol can be translocated through the pea plant to developing embryos. During seed maturation drying, they are used for synthesis of mainly mono-galactosides, such as fagopyritol B1 and galactosyl pinitol A. Accumulation of d-chiro-inositol (and formation of fagopyritols), but not d-pinitol, strongly reduces accumulation of verbascose, the main raffinose oligosaccharide in pea seeds. The reasons for the observed changes are discussed.

  17. Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wullschleger, S.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Oosterhuis, D.M. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

  18. FOLIAR OR CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS FOR GARDEN PEAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion BOZGA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was the research and controlled study of the main physiological processes of the garden pea, the type Redondo, with the purpose of knowing adaptability the natural conditions in the area. In this purpose, was observed the special behavior of the garden pea Redondo, at the meteorological conditions that exist in this study (temperature, moist, light intensity determining physiological that took place: photosynthesis, chlorophyll, perspiration, absorption and index of the foliar surface. During the vegetation have been realized observations regarding: moment of arising, apparition of the first real leaves, dynamics of formation leaves and their dimensions, the number of plant leaves, formation of ramification of the roots, apparition of the floral buds, opening flowers, formation of fruits and reaching full maturity.

  19. Towards the re-introduction of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) in the West Balkan Countries: the case of Serbia and Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikić, A; Mihailović, V; Ćupina, B; Durić, B; Krstić, D; Vasić, M; Vasiljević, S; Karagić, D; Dorđević, V

    2011-03-01

    Vetchlings (Lathyrus spp.) are widely distributed in both Serbia and Srpska, and represent a valuable component of local floras all over the Balkan Peninsula. Despite this and the existence of a traditional Serbian name for grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), sastrica, and a pan-Slavic name for all vetchlings, grahor, today they are almost forgotten crops. The joint action of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops and the Faculty of Agriculture is aimed at re-introducing grass pea and other vetchlings as multifunctional crops. Within the legume collection in the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, a small Lathyrus spp. collection, including about 100 accessions of 16 species, most of them being grass pea, was established in 2002. The landraces of grass pea were collected in several regions of Serbia and Srpska, where they are used for human consumption. Grass pea is commonly used boiled and along with other pulses, with no reports on lathyrism among the local people. The first Serbian breeding programme in Novi Sad produced already two grass pea lines that were registered in November 2009 under the names of Studenica and Sitnica, developed from the crosses of Polish cultivars and local Serbian landraces.

  20. Bacillus simplex—A Little Known PGPB with Anti-Fungal Activity—Alters Pea Legume Root Architecture and Nodule Morphology When Coinoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Hirsch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two strains, 30N-5 and 30VD-1, identified as Bacillus simplex and B. subtilis, were isolated from the rhizospheres of two different plants, a Podocarpus and a palm, respectively, growing in the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden. B. subtilis is a well-known plant-growth promoting bacterial species, but B. simplex is not. B. simplex 30N-5 was initially isolated on a nitrogen-free medium, but no evidence for nitrogen fixation was found. Nevertheless, pea plants inoculated with B. simplex showed a change in root architecture due to the emergence of more lateral roots. When Pisum sativum carrying a DR5::GUSA construct, an indicator for auxin response, was inoculated with either B. simplex 30N-5 or its symbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53, GUS expression in the roots was increased over the uninoculated controls. Moreover, when pea roots were coinoculated with either B. simplex 30N-5 or B. subtilis 30VD-1 and R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53, the nodules were larger, clustered, and developed more highly branched vascular bundles. Besides producing siderophores and solubilizing phosphate, the two Bacillus spp., especially strain 30VD-1, exhibited anti-fungal activity towards Fusarium. Our data show that combining nodulating, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia with growth-promoting bacteria enhances plant development and strongly supports a coinoculation strategy to improve nitrogen fixation, increase biomass, and establish greater resistance to fungal disease.

  1. Burdock fructooligosaccharide induces stomatal closure in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanling; Guo, Moran; Zhao, Wenlu; Chen, Kaoshan; Zhang, Pengying

    2013-09-12

    Burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) isolated from the root tissue of Arctium lappa is a reserve carbohydrate that can induce resistance against a number of plant diseases. Stomatal closure is a part of plant innate immune response to restrict bacterial invasion. In this study, the effects of BFO on stomata movement in Pisum sativum and the possible mechanisms were studied with abscisic acid (ABA) as a positive control. The results showed that BFO could induce stomatal closure accompanied by ROS and NO production, as is the case with ABA. BFO-induced stomatal closure was inhibited by pre-treatment with L-NAME (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, hydrochloride; nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) and catalase (hydrogen peroxide scavenger). Exogenous catalase completely restricted BFO-induced production of ROS and NO in guard cells. In contrast, L-NAME prevented the rise in NO levels but only partially restricted the ROS production. These results indicate that BFO-induced stomatal closure is mediated by ROS and ROS-dependent NO production.

  2. Proteome Reference Maps of Vegetative Tissues in Pea. An Investigation of Nitrogen Mobilization from Leaves during Seed Filling1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, Séverine; Gallardo, Karine; Huart, Myriam; Negroni, Luc; Sommerer, Nicolas; Burstin, Judith

    2004-01-01

    A proteomic approach was used to analyze protein changes during nitrogen mobilization (N mobilization) from leaves to filling seeds in pea (Pisum sativum). First, proteome reference maps were established for mature leaves and stems. They displayed around 190 Coomassie Blue-stained spots with pIs from 4 to 7. A total of 130 spots were identified by mass spectrometry as corresponding to 80 different proteins implicated in a variety of cellular functions. Although the leaf proteome map contained more abundant spots, corresponding to proteins involved in energy/carbon metabolism, than the stem map, their comparison revealed a highly similar protein profile. Second, the leaf proteome map was used to analyze quantitative variations in leaf proteins during N mobilization. Forty percent of the spots showed significant changes in their relative abundance in the total protein extract. The results confirmed the importance of Rubisco as a source of mobilizable nitrogen, and suggested that in pea leaves the rate of degradation of Rubisco may vary throughout N mobilization. Correlated with the loss of Rubisco was an increase in relative abundance of chloroplastic protease regulatory subunits. Concomitantly, the relative abundance of some proteins related to the photosynthetic apparatus (Rubisco activase, Rubisco-binding proteins) and of several chaperones increased. A role for these proteins in the maintenance of a Rubisco activation state and in the PSII repair during the intense proteolytic activity within the chloroplasts was proposed. Finally, two 14-3-3-like proteins, with a potential regulatory role, displayed differential expression patterns during the massive remobilization of nitrogen. PMID:15299134

  3. Light differentially regulates cell division and the mRNA abundance of pea nucleolin during de-etiolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichler, S. A.; Balk, J.; Brown, M. E.; Woodruff, K.; Clark, G. B.; Roux, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    The abundance of plant nucleolin mRNA is regulated during de-etiolation by phytochrome. A close correlation between the mRNA abundance of nucleolin and mitosis has also been previously reported. These results raised the question of whether the effects of light on nucleolin mRNA expression were a consequence of light effects on mitosis. To test this we compared the kinetics of light-mediated increases in cell proliferation with that of light-mediated changes in the abundance of nucleolin mRNA using plumules of dark-grown pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings. These experiments show that S-phase increases 9 h after a red light pulse, followed by M-phase increases in the plumule leaves at 12 h post-irradiation, a time course consistent with separately measured kinetics of red light-induced increases in the expression of cell cycle-regulated genes. These increases in cell cycle-regulated genes are photoreversible, implying that the light-induced increases in cell proliferation are, like nucleolin mRNA expression, regulated via phytochrome. Red light stimulates increases in the mRNA for nucleolin at 6 h post-irradiation, prior to any cell proliferation changes and concurrent with the reported timing of phytochrome-mediated increases of rRNA abundance. After a green light pulse, nucleolin mRNA levels increase without increasing S-phase or M-phase. Studies in animals and yeast indicate that nucleolin plays a significant role in ribosome biosynthesis. Consistent with this function, pea nucleolin can rescue nucleolin deletion mutants of yeast that are defective in rRNA synthesis. Our data show that during de-etiolation, the increased expression of nucleolin mRNA is more directly regulated by light than by mitosis.

  4. A comparative study of water distribution, free radical production and activation of antioxidative metabolism in germinating pea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtyla, Łukasz; Garnczarska, Małgorzata; Zalewski, Tomasz; Bednarski, Waldemar; Ratajczak, Lech; Jurga, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between hydration of the embryo axes and cotyledons and the resumption of the oxidative metabolism in both organs of germinating seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Piast). Nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy and imaging were used to study temporal and spatial water uptake and distribution in pea seeds. The observations revealed that water penetrates into the seed through the hilum, micropyle and embryo axes, and cotyledons hydrate to different extents. Thus, inhomogeneous water distribution may influence the resumption of oxidative metabolism. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements showed that seed germination was accompanied by the generation of free radicals with g(1) and g(2) values of 2.0032 and 2.0052, respectively. The values of spectroscopic splitting coefficients suggest that they are quinone radicals. The highest content of free radicals was observed in embryo axes immediately after emergence of the radicle. Glutathione content decreased during the entire germination period in both embryo axes and cotyledons. A different profile was observed for ascorbate, with significant increases in embryo axes, coinciding with radicle protrusion. Electrophoretic analysis showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) were present in dry seeds and were activated later during germination, especially in embryo axes. The presence of all antioxidative enzymes as well as low molecular antioxidants in dry seeds allowed the antioxidative machinery to be active as soon as the enzymes were reactivated by seed imbibition. The observed changes in free radical levels, antioxidant contents and enzymatic activities in embryo axes and cotyledons appear to be more closely related to metabolic and developmental processes

  5. Expression of the Minor Isoform Pea Ferredoxin in Tobacco Alters Photosynthetic Electron Partitioning and Enhances Cyclic Electron Flow1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Nicolás E.; Ceccoli, Romina D.; Vía, María V. Dalla; Voss, Ingo; Segretin, María E.; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando F.; Melzer, Michael; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Scheibe, Renate; Hanke, Guy T.

    2013-01-01

    Ferredoxins (Fds) are ferrosulfoproteins that function as low-potential electron carriers in plants. The Fd family is composed of several isoforms that share high sequence homology but differ in functional characteristics. In leaves, at least two isoforms conduct linear and cyclic photosynthetic electron transport around photosystem I, and mounting evidence suggests the existence of at least partial division of duties between these isoforms. To evaluate the contribution of different kinds of Fds to the control of electron fluxes along the photosynthetic electron transport chain, we overexpressed a minor pea (Pisum sativum) Fd isoform (PsFd1) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. The transplastomic OeFd1 plants exhibited variegated leaves and retarded growth and developmental rates. Photosynthetic studies of these plants indicated a reduction in carbon dioxide assimilation rates, photosystem II photochemistry, and linear electron flow. However, the plants showed an increase in nonphotochemical quenching, better control of excitation pressure at photosystem II, and no evidence of photoinhibition, implying a better dynamic regulation to remove excess energy from the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Finally, analysis of P700 redox status during illumination confirmed that the minor pea Fd isoform promotes enhanced cyclic flow around photosystem I. The two novel features of this work are: (1) that Fd levels achieved in transplastomic plants promote an alternative electron partitioning even under greenhouse light growth conditions, a situation that is exacerbated at higher light intensity measurements; and (2) that an alternative, minor Fd isoform has been overexpressed in plants, giving new evidence of labor division among Fd isoforms. PMID:23370717

  6. Magnetotropism of roots and structure of their statocytes exposed to high gradient magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyavskaya, N. A.; Polishchuk, O. V.; Kondrachuk, A. V.

    In most living organisms gravity perception is based on the response of the gravisensing system to displacement of specific mass induced by a gravitational force The amyloplasts in higher plants are known to play the important role as the specific mass in gravisensing cells As was shown by Kuznetsov Hasenstein 1996 the high-gradient magnetic field HGMF exerts a directional ponderomotive force on such diamagnetic structures as amyloplasts This effect of the HGMF results in root curvature similar to that produced by gravity It was suggested that the HGMF could allow to imitate the effects of gravity in microgravity and or to change them in laboratory conditions correspondingly as well as to study statolith-related processes in graviperception Therefore the correlation between the direction of the ponderomotive force resulting in statolith displacements and the direction of the HGMF-induced plant curvature can be the serious argument to support this suggestion and needs the detailed structural analysis We have designed the HGMF facility that allows for generating the HGMF and analyzing its effects on higher plants roots The parameters of kinetics of Lepidium sativum L and Pisum sativum L root curvatures under both the HGMF action and gravistimulation were recorded by video system and measured by means of image analysis software The main results of the study are followings 1 the magnetotropic effect of the HGMF on root growth was found for pea and cress roots 2 the critical value of ponderomotive force that

  7. Fibril Formation from Pea Protein and Sesequent Gel Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munialo, C.D.; Martin, A.H.; Linden, van der E.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20

  8. Fibril Formation from Pea Protein and Subsequent Gel Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munialo, XC.D.; Martin, A.H.; Linden, E. van der; Jongh, H.H.J de

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20

  9. Yield advantage and water saving in maize/pea intercrop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, L.; Zhang, L.; Li, W.; Werf, van der W.; Sun, J.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Li, L.

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is a well-established strategy for maximization of yield from limited land, but mixed results have been obtained as to its performance in terms of water use efficiency. Here, two maize/pea intercrop layouts were studied in comparison to sole maize and sole pea with and without plastic

  10. Functional analysis of mildly refined fractions from yellow pea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Dry fractionation offers an attractive route to sustainably produce protein-enriched plant-based ingredients. For example, fine milling of peas followed by air classification separates starch granules from the protein matrix. Unlike conventional wet isolates, dry-enriched pea fractions consist of a

  11. Fibril formation from pea protein and subsequent gel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munialo, Claire Darizu; Martin, Anneke H; van der Linden, Erik; de Jongh, Harmen H J

    2014-03-19

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20 h at pH 2.0. Following heating of pea proteins, it was observed that all of the proteins were hydrolyzed into peptides and that 50% of these peptides were assembled into fibrils. Changes on a structural level in pea proteins were studied using circular dichroism, transmission electron microscopy, and particle size analysis. During the fibril assembly process, an increase in aggregate size was observed, which coincided with an increase in thioflavin T binding, indicating the presence of β-sheet aggregates. Fibrils made using pea proteins were more branched and curly. Gel formation of preformed fibrils was induced by slow acidification from pH 7.0 to a final pH of around pH 5.0. The ability of pea protein-based fibrillar gels to fracture during an amplitude sweep was comparable to those of soy protein and whey protein-based fibrillar gels, although gels prepared from fibrils made using pea protein and soy protein were weaker than those of whey protein. The findings show that fibrils can be prepared from pea protein, which can be incorporated into protein-based fibrillar gels.

  12. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Volcanic eruption; or (8) Failure of the irrigation water supply, if due to a cause of loss contained in... the county. Green peas. Shell type and pod type peas that are grown under a processor contract to be... with section 12, all production from any basic unit in excess of the amount under contract will...

  13. Pea-derived vaccines demonstrate high immunogenicity and protection in rabbits against rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikschofsky, Heike; Schirrmeier, Horst; Keil, Günther M; Lange, Bodo; Polowick, Patricia L; Keller, Wilf; Broer, Inge

    2009-08-01

    Vaccines against rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) are commercially produced in experimentally infected rabbits. A genetically engineered and manufactured version of the major structural protein of RHDV (VP60) is considered to be an alternative approach for vaccine production. Plants have the potential to become an excellent recombinant production system, but the low expression level and insufficient immunogenic potency of plant-derived VP60 still hamper its practical use. In this study, we analysed the expression of a novel multimeric VP60-based antigen in four different plant species, including Nicotiana tabacum L., Solanum tuberosum L., Brassica napus L. and Pisum sativum L. Significant differences were detected in the expression patterns of the novel fusion antigen cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)::VP60 (ctbvp60(SEKDEL)) at the mRNA and protein levels. Pentameric CTB::VP60 molecules were only detected in N. tabacum and P. sativum, and displayed equal levels of CTB, at approximately 0.01% of total soluble protein (TSP), and traces of detectable VP60. However, strong enhancement of the CTB protein content via self-fertilization was only observed in P. sativum, where it reached up to 0.7% of TSP. In rabbits, a strong decrease in the protective vaccine dose required from 48-400 microg potato-derived VP60 [Castanon, S., Marin, M.S., Martin-Alonso, J.M., Boga, J.A., Casais, R., Humara, J.M., Ordas, R.J. and Parra, F. (1999) Immunization with potato plants expressing VP60 protein protects against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus. J. Virol. 73, 4452-4455; Castanon, S., Martin-Alonso, J.M., Marin, M.S., Boga, J.A., Alonso, P., Parra, F. and Ordas, R.J. (2002) The effect of the promoter on expression of VP60 gene from rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in potato plants. Plant Sci. 162, 87-95] to 0.56-0.28 microg antigenic VP60 (measured with VP60 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) of crude CTB::VP60 pea extracts was demonstrated. Rabbits immunized with pea-derived CTB

  14. Protocol: using virus-induced gene silencing to study the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette; Olsen, Anne; Johansen, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an alternative reverse genetics tool for silencing of genes in some plants, which are difficult to transform. The pea early-browning virus (PEBV) has been developed as a VIGS vector and used in pea for functional analysis of several genes. However, the avail......Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an alternative reverse genetics tool for silencing of genes in some plants, which are difficult to transform. The pea early-browning virus (PEBV) has been developed as a VIGS vector and used in pea for functional analysis of several genes. However......, the available PEBV-VIGS protocols are inadequate for studying genes involved in the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Here we describe a PEBV-VIGS protocol suitable for reverse genetics studies in pea of genes involved in the symbiosis with AMF and show its effectiveness in silencing genes...... involved in the early and late stages of AMF symbiosis....

  15. Effect of inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on yields and fodder value of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi in triticale cv. Clercal mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Two year field trials (1999-2001 were aimed to determine the inoculation seed winter pea and nitrogen top-dressing effect on number and active nodules of pea root and also on the green mass and dry matter yield of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi and triticale cv. Clercal mixture. Immediately before sowing the inoculation of pea seeds was done by the indigenous variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae which belongs to the collection of Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The highest total nodule number on pea root (134 was determined on the inoculated variant as well as active nodule (120. Average mixture green mass yields were ranging from 20.9 t ha-1 (control up to 30.1 t ha-1 (inoculation + nitrogen top-dressing. Total dry matter yields were ranging from 3.71 t ha-1 (control up to 5.36 t ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Pea crude protein yields in 2001 were ranging from 500 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing up to 642 kg ha-1 (inoculation and for triticale, those values were from 322 kg ha-1 (control up to 498 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Total mixture crude proteins yields were from 845 kg ha-1 (control up to 998 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing.

  16. Pectins esterification in the apoplast of aluminum-treated pea root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujkowska-Rybkowska, Marzena; Borucki, Wojciech

    2015-07-20

    Aiming to elucidate the possible involvement of pectins in aluminum-mediated growth inhibition the distribution of pectins in the apoplast of root nodules was investigated. Experiments were performed on the pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules treated with aluminum (50 μM AlCl3, for 2 or 24h). For histochemical acidic pectin localization we used ruthenium red staining. Immunolabeling techniques with monoclonal antibodies specific to high methyl-esterified pectin (JIM7), low methyl-esterified pectin (JIM5) and calcium cross-linked pecti