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Sample records for field peas pisum

  1. The effect of salinity on seed germination and growth parameters of field pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dušica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field pea (Pisum sativum L. seed contains a large amount of proteins, amino acids, sugars, carbohydrates, vitamins A and C, calcium and phosphorous, and hence it is widely used for many purposes. Although field pea has moderate requirements for its growth, it is sensitive to increased salt content in soil. This research included eight varieties (Javor, Jantar, Partner, Kristal, Pionir, Junior, Trezor, Dukat developed at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Sodium chloride solutions of various concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM were added in growing media to simulate saline conditions. The following were subsequently determined: seed germination, seedling length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings and 1000-seed weight. Among the analyzed varieties, variety Jantar expressed a high level of tolerance to increased salt content in growing media under laboratory conditions.

  2. Assessment of the feeding value of South Dakota-grown field peas (Pisum sativum l.) for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H H; Benzoni, G; Bohlke, R A; Peters, D N

    2004-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the feeding value of South Dakota-grown field peas (Pisum sativum L.) for growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 96 pigs (initial BW = 22 +/- 3.35 kg) were allotted to four treatment groups (four pigs per pen, six replicate pens per treatment) and fed growing (0.95% Lys) and finishing (0.68% Lys) diets containing 0, 12, 24, or 36% field peas (as-fed basis). There were no differences among the treatment groups in ADG, ADFI, or G:F. Likewise, there were no differences in backfat thickness or lean meat percent among treatment groups, but pigs fed diets containing 12, 24, or 36% field peas had greater (P feed ingredients. Experiment 4 was an energy balance experiment conducted to measure the DE and ME concentrations in field peas and corn. Six growing pigs (initial BW = 85.5 +/- 6.5 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and fed diets based on field peas or corn and arranged in a two-period switch-back design. The DE values for field peas and corn (3,864 and 3,879 kcal/kg DM, respectively) were similar, but the ME of corn was higher (P Dakota-grown field peas are highly digestible by growing pigs. Therefore, such field peas may be included in diets for nursery pigs and growing-finishing pigs in amounts of at least 18 and 36%, respectively, without negatively affecting pig performance.

  3. Stimulation of nodulation in field peas (Pisum sativum) by low concentrations of ammonium in hydroponic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterer, J. G.; Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Although the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of mineral N (> 1.0 mM) on nodule development and function have often been studied, the effects of low, static concentrations of NH4+ (hydroponic culture on nodule establishment and nitrogenase activity in field peas [Pisum sativum L. cv. Express (Svalof AB)] for the initial 28 days after planting (DAP). Peas grown in the presence of low concentrations of NH4+ had significantly greater nodule numbers (up to 4-fold) than plants grown without NH4+. Nodule dry weight per plant was significantly higher at 14, 21 and 28 DAP in plants grown in the presence of NH4+, but individual nodule mass was lower than in plants grown without NH4+. The nodulation pattern of the plants supplied with NH4+ was similar to that often reported for supernodulating mutants, however the plants did not express other growth habits associated with supernodulation. Estimates of N2 fixation indicate that the plus-NH4+ peas fixed as much or more N2 than the plants supplied with minus-NH4+ nutrient solution. There were no significant differences in nodule numbers, nodule mass or NH4+ uptake between the plants grown at the two concentrations of NH4+. Nodulation appeared to autoregulate by 14 DAP in the minus-NH4+ treatment. Plant growth and N accumulation in the minus-NH4+ plants lagged behind those of the plus-NH4+ treatments prior to N2 fixation becoming well established in the final week of the experiment. The plus-NH4+ treatments appeared not to elicit autoregulation and plants continued to initiate nodules throughout the experiment.

  4. Effect of pre-sowing magnetic field treatment to garden pea (pisum sativum l.) seed on germination and seedling growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Muhammad, D.; Haq, Z.U.; Jamil, Y.; Ahmad, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    The seeds of garden pea ( Pisum sativum L. cv. climax) were exposed to full-wave rectified sumusoidal non-uniform magnetic fields of strength 60 mT, 120 mT and 180 mT for 5, 10 and 15 min prior to sowing. The magnetically treated seeds were sown according to the protocol of International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). Magnetically treated seed showed significant increase in germination. The emergence index, final emergence index and vigor index increased by 86.43%, 13.21% and 204.60%, respectively. It was found that exposure of 5 min for magnetic field strengths of 60 mT and 180 mT significantly enhanced the germination parameters of the pea and these treatments can be used practically to accelerate the germination in garden pea. (author)

  5. Symbiotic Activity of Pea (Pisum sativum) after Application of Nod Factors under Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy; Wielbo, Jerzy; Kidaj, Dominika; Szarlip, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides). To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10−11 M) or water (control) before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurement...

  6. Symbiotic Activity of Pea (Pisum sativum after Application of Nod Factors under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Siczek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides. To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10−11 M or water (control before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurements of nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay, nodule number and mass, and top growth by shoot mass, leaf area, and seed and protein yield. Nod factors generally improved pea yield and nitrogenase activity in the relatively dry growing season 2012, but not in the wet growing season in 2013 due to different weather conditions.

  7. Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J; Foster, Lauren M; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-08-01

    Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycaemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolysed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in coloured seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine.

  8. YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN FIELD PEA (Pisum arvense L. LINES

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    A TEKELI

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characters such as main stem length (cm, number of branches per plant, leaf length (cm, number of leaves per main stem, number of leaflets per leaf, diameter of main stem (mm, pods / main stem and seeds / pod as well as agricultural herbage yield (t ha-1, dry matter yield (t ha-1, seed yield (t ha-1, crude protein (% were investigated in Trakya, during the 1999-2002. The maximum main stem length (124.375 cm, leaf length (24.808 cm, number of pods per main stem (16.526, herbage yield (27.881 t ha-1, dry matter yield (7.319 t ha-1 and seed yield (2.590 t ha-1 were determined from the 16-K and 16-DY field pea lines. K line has given higher values than four lines for the number of branches per plant (5.567. Main stem diameter ranged from 3.077 to 4.300 mm. It’s found that the 23.025 leaves/main stem, 6.833 leaflets/leaf, 7.692 seeds/pod and 17.550% crude protein from the field pea lines.

  9. Large-scale evaluation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) germplasm for cold tolerance in the open field during winter in Qingdao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a cool season crop, pea (Pisum sativum L.) can tolerate frost at the vegetative stage but has yield loss when freezing stress occurs at reproductive stage. Cold tolerance improvement of pea varieties is important for the stable yield and the expansion of winter pea planting area. Under the natura...

  10. Chlorophyll mutation in field Pea (Pisum Sativum L.) that causes white stem in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.; Vassilevska-Ivanova, R.

    2006-01-01

    A white stem pea mutant recovered after exposing seeds of P. sativum cv Auralia to gamma-irradiation. The mutant has shown to have single-gene recessive inheritance, characterized morphologically and for seed productivity. New mutant 1/240 had similar phenotype to previously named mutants white stem and alts (albina-terminalis) but no allelism tests were performed between the new and the previously reported mutants. The mutation in line 1/240 may be useful as a genetic marker. (authors)

  11. The Pisum Genus: Getting out of Pea Soup!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) has long been a model for plant genetics and is a widely grown pulse crop producing protein-rich seeds in a sustainable manner. However, many questions remain open about (sub)species relationships in the Pisumgenus. The ongoing pea genome sequencing project and the recent geno...

  12. Discriminant Analysis of Defective and Non-Defective Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) into Broad Market Grades Based on Digital Image Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Linda S; Panozzo, Joseph F; Salisbury, Phillip A; Ford, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Field peas (Pisum sativum L.) are generally traded based on seed appearance, which subjectively defines broad market-grades. In this study, we developed an objective Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model to classify market grades of field peas based on seed colour, shape and size traits extracted from digital images. Seeds were imaged in a high-throughput system consisting of a camera and laser positioned over a conveyor belt. Six colour intensity digital images were captured (under 405, 470, 530, 590, 660 and 850nm light) for each seed, and surface height was measured at each pixel by laser. Colour, shape and size traits were compiled across all seed in each sample to determine the median trait values. Defective and non-defective seed samples were used to calibrate and validate the model. Colour components were sufficient to correctly classify all non-defective seed samples into correct market grades. Defective samples required a combination of colour, shape and size traits to achieve 87% and 77% accuracy in market grade classification of calibration and validation sample-sets respectively. Following these results, we used the same colour, shape and size traits to develop an LDA model which correctly classified over 97% of all validation samples as defective or non-defective.

  13. Phenology of pea crop (Pisum sativum L. var. Santa Isabel) in the Bogotá plateau at open field and under plastic cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo Pacheco, J.R.; Clavijo Porras, J.

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of environment effects on plant development is important to identify suitable zones and schedule crop production. In this research, plant development of pea (Pisum sativum L. var. Santa Isabel) was evaluated under Bogotá flat highland, Colombia, environmental conditions (2640 m over sea level, 14°C, 80% R.H., rainfall of 800 mm/year). Two experiments were done under plastic cover [es

  14. Pre-fractionation strategies to resolve pea (Pisum sativum sub-proteomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nicole Meisrimler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are important crop plants and pea (Pisum sativum L. has been investigated as a model with respect to several physiological aspects. The sequencing of the pea genome has not been completed. Therefore, proteomic approaches are currently limited. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of available EST-databases as well as the high homology of the pea and medicago genome (Medicago truncatula G. allow the successful identification of proteins. Due to the un-sequenced pea genome, pre-fractionation approaches have been used in pea proteomic surveys in the past. Aside from a number of selective proteome studies on crude extracts and the chloroplast, few studies have targeted other components such as the pea secretome, an important sub-proteome of interest due to its role in abiotic and biotic stress processes. The secretome itself can be further divided into different sub-proteomes (plasma membrane, apoplast, cell wall proteins. Cell fractionation in combination with different gel-electrophoresis, chromatography methods and protein identification by mass spectrometry are important partners to gain insight into pea sub-proteomes, post-translational modifications and protein functions. Overall, pea proteomics needs to link numerous existing physiological and biochemical data to gain further insight into adaptation processes, which play important roles in field applications. Future developments and directions in pea proteomics are discussed.

  15. In vitro digestibility, protein composition and techno-functional properties of Saskatchewan grown yellow field peas (Pisum sativum L.) as affected by processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Boye, Joyce I; Hu, Xinzhong

    2017-02-01

    Saskatchewan grown yellow field pea was subjected to different processing conditions including dehulling, micronization, roasting, conventional/microwave cooking, germination, and combined germination and conventional cooking/roasting. Their nutritional and antinutritional compositions, functional properties, microstructure, thermal properties, in vitro protein and starch digestibility, and protein composition were studied. Processed field peas including conventional cooked yellow peas (CCYP), microwave cooked yellow peas (MCYP), germinated-conventional cooked yellow peas (GCCYP), and germinated-roasted yellow peas (GRYP) exhibited the significantly higher in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), which was in accordance with their significantly lower trypsin inhibitor activity and tannin content. The SDS-PAGE and size exclusion HPLC profiles of untreated pea proteins and their hydrolysates also confirmed the IVPD result that these four treatments facilitated the hydrolysis of pea proteins to a greater extent. The CCYP, MCYP, GCCYP, and GRYP also exhibited significantly higher starch digestibility which was supported by their lower onset (T o ), peak (T p ), and conclusion (T c ) temperatures obtained from DSC thermogram, their lower pasting properties and starch damage results, as well as their distinguished amorphous flakes' configuration observed on the scanning electron microscopic image. LC/ESI-MS/MS analysis following in-gel digests of SDS-PAGE separated proteins allowed detailed compositional characterization of pea proteins. The present study would provide fundamental information to help to better understand the functionality of field peas as ingredients, and particularly in regards to agri-food industry to improve the process efficiency of field peas with enhanced nutritional and techno-functional qualities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pea (Pisum sativum L. in the Genomic Era

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    Robert J. Redden

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. was the original model organism used in Mendel’s discovery (1866 of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species. Although the size and repetitive nature of the pea genome has so far restricted its sequencing, comprehensive genomic and post genomic resources already exist. These include BAC libraries, several types of molecular marker sets, both transcriptome and proteome datasets and mutant populations for reverse genetics. The availability of the full genome sequences of three legume species has offered significant opportunities for genome wide comparison revealing synteny and co-linearity to pea. A combination of a candidate gene and colinearity approach has successfully led to the identification of genes underlying agronomically important traits including virus resistances and plant architecture. Some of this knowledge has already been applied to marker assisted selection (MAS programs, increasing precision and shortening the breeding cycle. Yet, complete translation of marker discovery to pea breeding is still to be achieved. Molecular analysis of pea collections has shown that although substantial variation is present within the cultivated genepool, wild material offers the possibility to incorporate novel traits that may have been inadvertently eliminated. Association mapping analysis of diverse pea germplasm promises to identify genetic variation related to desirable agronomic traits, which are historically difficult to breed for in a traditional manner. The availability of high throughput ‘omics’ methodologies offers great promise for the development of novel, highly accurate selective breeding tools for improved pea genotypes that are sustainable under current and future climates and farming systems.

  17. Characterization of pea (Pisum sativum) seed protein fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Luis A; Pérez, Alicia; Ruiz, Raquel; Guzmán, M Ángeles; Aranda-Olmedo, Isabel; Clemente, Alfonso

    2014-01-30

    Legume seed proteins have to be chemically characterized in order to properly link their nutritional effects with their chemical structure. Vicilin and albumin fractions devoid of cross-contamination, as assessed by mass peptide fingerprinting analysis, were obtained from defatted pea (Pisum sativum cv. Bilbo) meal. The extracted protein fractions contained 56.7-67.7 g non-starch polysaccharides kg⁻¹. The vicilin fraction was higher than legumins in arginine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine. The most abundant amino acids in the albumin fraction were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine and arginine, and the amounts of methionine were more than double than those in legumins and vicilins. The pea albumin fraction showed a clear enrichment of protease inhibitory activity when compared with the seed meal. In vitro digestibility values for pea proteins were 0.63 ±  0.04, 0.88 ±  0.04 and 0.41 ±  0.23 for legumins, vicilins and albumins respectively. Vicilin and albumin fractions devoid of cross-contamination with other proteins were obtained from pea seed meal. The vicilin fraction also contained low amounts of soluble non-starch polysaccharides and was enriched in isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine. In vitro digestibility values for pea proteins were similar or even numerically higher than those for control proteins. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Spatial variation of N-2-fixation in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) at the field scale determined by the N-15 natural abundance method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Holdensen, Lars; Wulfsohn, D.

    2010-01-01

    variability could be explained by the variability in selected abiotic soil properties. All measured soil variables showed substantial variability across the field and the pea dry matter production ranged between 4.9 and 13.8 Mg ha−1 at maturity. The percent of total N derived from the atmosphere (%Ndfa...... dry matter production and N2-fixation. A number of other models were tested, but the best was only able to explain less than 40% of the variance in %Ndfa using seven soil properties. Together with the use of interpolated soil data, high spatial variation of soil 15N natural abundance, a mean increase...

  19. Selenium and phosphorus interaction in pea (pisum sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahendra; Bhandari, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of selenium and phosphorus on the dry matter yield and concentration and uptake of phosphorus, sulfur and selenium was studied in pea (Pisum sativnum) var. T 163. The fertilizer was tagged with P 32 . It was observed that increased concentration of applied selenium in soil decreased the dry matter yield and increased the concentration and uptake of total P, soil P and selenium in pea plants. Increased concentration of P alone increased dry matter yield, concentration and uptake of total, soil and fertilizer P and selenium which was beyond safe limits, and decreased concentration and uptake of sulphur. Selenium and phosphorus showed strong synergetic relationship by increasing the concentration of each other in plants while both showed antagonistic effect on the concentration of sulphur. Phosphorus compensated the toxic effect of selenium and improved the growth and dry matter yield of pea plants. The highest selenium concentration of 22.4 ppm was observed in 100 ppm phosphorus with 5 ppm selenium treated pots while lowest (0.10 ppm) in control. (author)

  20. Anatomical and micromorphological characteristics of the seed coat of field pea (Pisum sativum L. genotypes in relation to cracks and damage of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Jelena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the morphological characteristics of the seed and micromorphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics of the seed coat of pea (Pisum sativum L. genotypes, Jezero, Javor and NS Junior. Our aim was to investigate whether these genotypes can be differentiated based on seed coat morphoanatomical characteristics, depending on the harvest treatment. The observations and measurements of seed coat cross-sections were performed using light microscopy. The seed coat surface was observed using SEM. A tuberculate seed coat surface characterized all examined pea genotypes, and the average diameter of the tubercle was about 12 μm. Statistical and laboratory analyses revealed that major damage was the most frequent defect type as the result of mechanized harvest in all the examined genotypes. Genotype NS Junior had the shortest seed length (6.1 mm. Micromorphological analysis revealed that the seed surface was tuberculate in all genotypes. The genotype Jezero had the highest number of tubercle ribs (11.0 and a significantly higher proportion of parenchyma tissue (50.6%, while NS Junior was characterized by the greatest share of macrosclereids (49.8%. The highest number of osteosclereids (832/mm2 was counted in genotype Javor. In addition, genotype NS Junior stands out due to the highest percentage of crude fiber (62.75 g/100g in the seed coat. There was a marked difference among the studied genotypes with regard to the seed coat morphoanatomical characteristics, which is confirmed by the results of multivariate discriminant analysis (MDA. These results suggested that the morphological, micromorphological and anatomical characteristics of the seed might have an impact on the seed coat damage level at harvest. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 31024 and Grant no. 173002

  1. Domestication of Pea (Pisum sativum L.): The Case of the Abyssinian Pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Norman F.

    2018-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the Abyssinian pea (Pisum sativum ssp. abyssinicum) to other subspecies and species in the genus were investigated to test between different hypotheses regarding its origin and domestication. An extensive sample of the Pisum sativum ssp. sativum germplasm was investigated, including groups a-1, a-2, b, c, and d as identified by Kwon et al. (2012). A broad sample of P. fulvum but relatively few P. s. ssp. elatius accessions were analyzed. Partial sequences of 18 genes were compared and these results combined with comparisons of additional genes done by others and available in the literature. In total, 54 genes or gene fragment sequences were involved in the study. The observed affinities between alleles in P. ssp. sativum, P. s. ssp. abyssinicum, P. s. ssp. elatius, and P. fulvum clearly demonstrated a close relationship among the three P. sativum subspecies and rejected the hypothesis that the Abyssinian pea was formed by hybridization between one of the P. sativum subspecies and P. fulvum. If hybridization were involved in the generation of the Abyssinian pea, it must have been between P. s. ssp. sativum and P. s. ssp. elatius, although the Abyssinian pea possesses a considerable number of highly unique alleles, implying that the actual P. s. ssp. elatius germplasm involved in such a hybridization has yet to be tested or that the hybridization occurred much longer ago than the postulated 4000 years bp. Analysis of the P. s. ssp. abyssinicum alleles in genomic regions thought to contain genes critical for domestication indicated that the indehiscent pod trait was independently developed in the Abyssinian pea, whereas the loss of seed dormancy was either derived from P. s. ssp. sativum or at least partially developed before the P. s. ssp. abyssinicum lineage diverged from that leading to P. s. ssp. sativum. PMID:29720994

  2. Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Global Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food and feed legume grown across many temperate regions of the world, especially from Asia to Europe and North America. The goal of this study was to use 30 informative pea microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in a global core from the USDA and ...

  3. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greenhouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.), and peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleeger, Thomas; Olszyk, David; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2011-02-01

    Although laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective, and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive to obtain. Toxicology tests were conducted on potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in a native soil in pots in the greenhouse and were compared to plants grown outside under natural environmental conditions to determine toxicological differences between environments, whether different plant developmental stages were more sensitive to herbicides, and whether these species were good candidates for plant reproductive tests. The reproductive and vegetative endpoints of the greenhouse plants and field-grown plants were also compared. The herbicides bromoxynil, glyphosate, MCPA ([4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy] acetic acid), and sulfometuron-methyl were applied at below field application rates to potato plants at two developmental stages. Peas and soybeans were exposed to sulfometuron-methyl at similar rates at three developmental stages. The effective herbicide concentrations producing a 25% reduction in a given measure differed between experimental conditions but were generally within a single order of magnitude within a species, even though there were differences in plant morphology. This study demonstrated that potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in pots in a greenhouse produce phytotoxicity results similar to those grown outside in pots; that reproductive endpoints in many cases were more sensitive than vegetative ones; and that potato and pea plants are reasonable candidates for asexual and sexual reproductive phytotoxicity tests, respectively. Plants grown in pots in a greenhouse and outside varied little in toxicity. However, extrapolating those toxicity results to native plant communities in the field is basically unknown and in need of research. © 2010 SETAC.

  4. Field Trial on Pea ( Pisum Sativum L.) Grown on Sand Soil and Subjected to Water Regimes and Nitrogen Forms with Aid of 15 N Stable Isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, A.E.; Abdel Aziz, H.A.; Al-Gindy, A.M.; Arafa, Y.E.

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment on sand soil was conducted to trace the effects of different water regimes on pea growth and nutritional values as fertilized with urea and ammonium sulfate fertilizers. 15 N/ 14 N isotope dilution technique was followed to distinguish between the different N proportions derived to pea plants and in the same time estimating the efficientuse of both two nitrogen forms (%NUE). Irrigation water regimes and fertilization treatments were applied under drip irrigation system. Two water regimes epresented 100% (W1) and 75% (W2) of water requirement in combination with three N fertilizer rates, i.e. N 0 , N 100 and N 75 were applied. Two nitrogen fertilizer forms represent urea and ammonium sulfate were performed. The overall means of seed yield as affected by nitrogen fertilization treatments reflected relative increase accounted for 45.8, and 38.7%; 41.7 and 36.2% over the unfertilized control for NU 100 , and NU 75 ; NAS 100 and NAS 75 , respectively. It seems that 100% water regime (W1) made nitrogen fertilizer, especially with high rate, more available for plant uptake comparing to the low water quantity regime. Pea crop had accumulated more nitrogen from urea comparing to ammonium sulfate fertilizer. Nitrogen uptake, in general, significantly correlated to application N rates. Water regime (W1) in combination with ammonium sulfate fertilizer resulted in the better percentage or absolute values of N derived from fertilizer by pea seeds. It was clear that efficient use of ammonium sulfate, to some extent, was affected by different wa - ter regimes. This holds true either at 100% (N1) or 75% (W2) application rates. On the other hand, urea added at rate of 75% was more efficiently used by seeds than those added at rate of 100% of the recommended N rate

  5. Age-dependent variation in membrane lipid synthesis in leaves of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Sandelius, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    To study membrane lipid synthesis during the lifespan of a dicotyledon leaf, the second oldest leaf of 10-40-d-old plants of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) was labelled with [1-C- 14]acetate and the distribution of radioactivity between the major membrane lipids was followed for 3 d. In the expand......To study membrane lipid synthesis during the lifespan of a dicotyledon leaf, the second oldest leaf of 10-40-d-old plants of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) was labelled with [1-C- 14]acetate and the distribution of radioactivity between the major membrane lipids was followed for 3 d...

  6. Development of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Chickpea (Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research objectives were: to evaluate the quality of a pea snack prepared using four different methods of cooking, namely, frying, baking, steaming and microwave; to determine the effect of blending dried green pea with chickpea dhal on the quality of a fried pea snack. Green pea and chickpea snacks were prepared ...

  7. Cultivar and Rhizobium Strain Effects on the Symbiotic Performance of Pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif

    1983-01-01

    The symbiotic performance of four pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars in combination with each of four strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum was studied in growth chamber experiments in order to estimate the effects of cultivars, strains and cultivar × strain interaction on the variation in dry weight, N...

  8. Pea Marker Database (PMD) - A new online database combining known pea (Pisum sativum L.) gene-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaeva, Olga A; Zhernakov, Aleksandr I; Afonin, Alexey M; Boikov, Sergei S; Sulima, Anton S; Tikhonovich, Igor A; Zhukov, Vladimir A

    2017-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is the oldest model object of plant genetics and one of the most agriculturally important legumes in the world. Since the pea genome has not been sequenced yet, identification of genes responsible for mutant phenotypes or desirable agricultural traits is usually performed via genetic mapping followed by candidate gene search. Such mapping is best carried out using gene-based molecular markers, as it opens the possibility for exploiting genome synteny between pea and its close relative Medicago truncatula Gaertn., possessing sequenced and annotated genome. In the last 5 years, a large number of pea gene-based molecular markers have been designed and mapped owing to the rapid evolution of "next-generation sequencing" technologies. However, the access to the complete set of markers designed worldwide is limited because the data are not uniformed and therefore hard to use. The Pea Marker Database was designed to combine the information about pea markers in a form of user-friendly and practical online tool. Version 1 (PMD1) comprises information about 2484 genic markers, including their locations in linkage groups, the sequences of corresponding pea transcripts and the names of related genes in M. truncatula. Version 2 (PMD2) is an updated version comprising 15944 pea markers in the same format with several advanced features. To test the performance of the PMD, fine mapping of pea symbiotic genes Sym13 and Sym27 in linkage groups VII and V, respectively, was carried out. The results of mapping allowed us to propose the Sen1 gene (a homologue of SEN1 gene of Lotus japonicus (Regel) K. Larsen) as the best candidate gene for Sym13, and to narrow the list of possible candidate genes for Sym27 to ten, thus proving PMD to be useful for pea gene mapping and cloning. All information contained in PMD1 and PMD2 is available at www.peamarker.arriam.ru.

  9. Abyssnian pea (Lathyrus schaeferi Kosterin pro Pisum abyssinicum A. Br. – a problematic taxon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Kosterin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This is an English translation of a paper published in Russian (but with proper Latin formulations at taxonomical novelties to make them validly published on March 15, 2017 in Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Vol. 22 (2: 158-169. The Abyssinian pea (Pisum abyssinicum A. Br., concerned in this review, is known from Ethiopia and Yemen, where it is cultivated along with the common pea (Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum. The continuously reproduced notion of its possible spontaneous occurrence in the wild ascends to suppositions made in the XIX century and is not based on any actual data. P. abyssinicum is of practical interest owing to its extra early ripening and resistance to bacterial blight. Morphologically it is very similar to P. sativum but its crossability with it is bad as either seed or pollen parent. Traditionally this reproductive barrier was associated with karyological differences. The Abyssinian pea karyotype is variable as 1–2 reciprocal translocations were reported. At the same time there are accessions not differing from the standard karyotype of P. sativum with respect to reciprocal translocations, yet their crossability with the latter is very low and the pollen fertility of F1 and F2 hybrids is lowered. Data were reported on influence of the region of Linkage Group III, containing a gene known to participate in the conflict of nucleus and plastids in remote crosses of peas, on the pollen fertility of hybrids with abyssinian pea. With their karyological variability, the known accessions of the Abyssinian pea are very close to each other genetically, as they diverged just about 4 000 years ago. The presence of alleles of molecular markers common with Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Smith on the one hand and with P. sativum L. subsp. elatius (Bieb. Schmalh. on the other hand evidences in favour of an old hypotheses by L.I. Govorov that the Abyssinian pea originated from their spontaneous hybrid. This spontaneous cross may

  10. Respiratory metabolism of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemipetra: Aphididae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Karel; Jedlička, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 4 (2012), s. 491-502 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP522/09/P382 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hemiptera * Aphididae * Acyrthosiphon pisum Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2012 http://www.eje.cz/scripts/viewabstract.php?abstract=1734

  11. Physiological responses of PEA (Pisum sativum cv. meteor) to irrigation salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.; Pervez, M.A.; Balal, R.M.; Azhar, N.; Shahzad, J.; Ubaidullah

    2008-01-01

    The effects of irrigation water or soil salinity on physiological aspects of pea (Pisum sativum cv.Meteor) were contrived. Ten weeks old pea plants were treated with NaCl at 0, 40, 90 and 140 mM in nutrient solution Plants were grown in controlled environment and harvested at each 3 days interval for decisiveness 0 physiological parameters. Photosynthetic rate, relative water content, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll contents reduced by increasing the NaCI concentration while CO/sub 2/ concentration and free proline content intensified. By experiment it was adumbrated that high salinity level along with prolonged accentuate duration is more drastic to pea plants physiology. Results also exhibited that pea plants could indulge 40 and 90 mM NaCl but are sensitive to 140 mM. (author)

  12. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in the Genomic Era

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smýkal, P.; Aubert, G.; Burstin, J.; Coyne, C.J.; Ellis, N.T.H.; Flavell, A.J.; Ford, R.; Hýbl, M.; Macas, Jiří; Neumann, Pavel; McPhee, K.E.; Redden, R.J.; Rubiales, D.; Weller, J.L.; Warkentin, T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2012), s. 74-115 ISSN 2073-4395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : breeding * germplasm * genetic diversity * pea Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  13. ESTIMATION OF PEA GRAIN YIELD STABILITY (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Čupić

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to determine yield and estimate pea grain yield stability of newly-created lines JSG-1 (cultivar in recognition process as well as compare with foreign origin cultivars in agroecological area of east Slavonia. The trial was set up by a randomized block design on the experimental field of Agricultural Institute Osijek in four replicates in the five-year period (1998 – 2002. Six (five foreign and one inland cultivars were included by the trial: Eiffil, Erbi, JP-5, JSG-1 (in a recognition process, Torsz and Baccara. Stability parameters were calculated by the grouping method after Francis and Kannenberg (1978 and by the model of individual stability estimation after Eberhart and Russel method (1966. According to Francis and Kannenberg, cultivars Eiffil, Erbi, JSG-1 and Baccara belonged to group I known for high yield and low trait varying coefficient, thus, represent stabile yield cultivars. According to regression coefficient and regression deviation variance the most stabile cultivar appeared to be cultivar JSG-1 (bi =1.06 and S2 di=0.010 and the lowest one was Torsz (bi =0.67 and S2 di =0.160. Cultivar Baccara (bi = 1.22 and S2 di =0.034 was comprised by the group of unstabile and adaptible for high-yielding environments.

  14. De Novo Assembly of the Pea (Pisum sativum L. Nodule Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Zhukov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large size and complexity of the garden pea (Pisum sativum L. genome hamper its sequencing and the discovery of pea gene resources. Although transcriptome sequencing provides extensive information about expressed genes, some tissue-specific transcripts can only be identified from particular organs under appropriate conditions. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of polyadenylated transcripts from young pea nodules and root tips on an Illumina GAIIx system, followed by de novo transcriptome assembly using the Trinity program. We obtained more than 58,000 and 37,000 contigs from “Nodules” and “Root Tips” assemblies, respectively. The quality of the assemblies was assessed by comparison with pea expressed sequence tags and transcriptome sequencing project data available from NCBI website. The “Nodules” assembly was compared with the “Root Tips” assembly and with pea transcriptome sequencing data from projects indicating tissue specificity. As a result, approximately 13,000 nodule-specific contigs were found and annotated by alignment to known plant protein-coding sequences and by Gene Ontology searching. Of these, 581 sequences were found to possess full CDSs and could thus be considered as novel nodule-specific transcripts of pea. The information about pea nodule-specific gene sequences can be applied for gene-based markers creation, polymorphism studies, and real-time PCR.

  15. Long-term iron deficiency: Tracing changes in the proteome of different pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Lyon, David; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Lüthje, Sabine

    2016-05-17

    Iron deficiency (-Fe) is one of the major problems in crop production. Dicots, like pea (Pisum sativum L.), are Strategy I plants, which induce a group of specific enzymes such as Fe(III)-chelate reductase (FRO), Fe responsive transporter (IRT) and H(+)-ATPase (HA) at the root plasma membrane under -Fe. Different species and cultivars have been shown to react diversely to -Fe. Furthermore, different kinds of experimental set-ups for -Fe have to be distinguished: i) short-term vs. long-term, ii) constant vs. acute alteration and iii) buffered vs. unbuffered systems. The presented work compares the effects of constant long-term -Fe in an unbuffered system on roots of four different pea cultivars in a timely manner (12, 19 and 25days). To differentiate the effects of -Fe and plant development, control plants (+Fe) were analyzed in comparison to -Fe plants. Besides physiological measurements, an integrative study was conducted using a comprehensive proteome analysis. Proteins, related to stress adaptation (e.g. HSP), reactive oxygen species related proteins and proteins of the mitochondrial electron transport were identified to be changed in their abundance. Regulations and possible functions of identified proteins are discussed. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) belongs to the legume family (Fabaceae) and is an important crop plant due to high Fe, starch and protein contents. According to FAOSTAT data (September 2015), world production of the garden pea quadrupled from 1970 to 2012. Since the initial studies by Gregor Mendel, the garden pea became the most-characterized legume and has been used in numerous investigations in plant biochemistry and physiology, but is not well represented in the "omics"-related fields. A major limitation in pea production is the Fe availability from soils. Adaption mechanisms to Fe deficiency vary between species, and even cultivars have been shown to react diversely. A label-free proteomic approach, in combination with physiological measurements

  16. Determination of mycoflora of pea (Pisum sativum) seeds and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... Mycoflora of pea seeds and the effectiveness of Rhizobium leguminosarum on important seed-borne pathogens ... seed germination and promoted the plants growth under controlled and ..... 27. Table 3. Summary of fungal inoculation test. .... and lettuce by phosphate-solubilizing Rhizobium leguminosarum.

  17. Suitability of some green pea (Pisum sativum L. varieties for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokanović Marija R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Green pea (Pisum sativum L. has a long tradition in Serbia and Montenegro as a processing crop. Short growing season, relatively simple production, pleasant taste and high nutritional value stimulate both production and consumption of peas. The objective of this paper is to present the main characteristics of two pea varieties, domestic cultivar Tamis and imported cultivar Jof and the influence of prolonged time between harvest and processing on the changes of main characteristics. Both cultivars have grains of very high quality that can be used for industrial processing as well as for garden growing (the green market. In the present paper the results of one-year study are shown: cultivar characteristics, growing season length, and physico-chemical (tenderometer value (TM, dry matter, alcohol insoluble solids (AIS, sugar and starch measurements for texture determination. According to the results, the optimal way of processing for each variety was recommended. .

  18. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greehouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.) and peas (Pisum sataivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    While laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and exp...

  19. Purification and characterization of ornithine transcarbamylase from pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R. D.; Richardson, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) was purified to homogeneity from leaf homogenates in a single-step procedure, using delta-N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-ornithine-Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. The 1581-fold purified OTC enzyme exhibited a specific activity of 139 micromoles citrulline per minute per milligram of protein at 37 degrees C, pH 8.5. Pea OTC represents approximately 0.05% of the total soluble protein in the leaf. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was approximately 108,200, as estimated by Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein ran as a single molecular weight band of 36,500 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results suggest that the pea OTC is a trimer of identical subunits. The overall amino acid composition of pea OTC is similar to that found in other eukaryotic and prokaryotic OTCs, but the number of arginine residues is approximately twofold higher. The increased number of arginine residues probably accounts for the observed isoelectric point of 7.6 for the pea enzyme, which is considerably more basic than isoelectric point values that have been reported for other OTCs.

  20. Induction of mutation in peas (Pisum sativum) in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Pando, L.; Torres Aranda, M.; Romero Loli, M.

    1984-01-01

    The production of peas, a staple food in Peru, can be increased by crop rotation with cereals in high lands (3000 m and above). Cultivation in high lands not only gives cultivar of higher proteic content but also improves the fertility of the soils. However, the low temperature (in the freezing region) in the high lands and the associated plant diseases are the major problems for this kind of cultivation. The present report describes the development of freezing and disease resistant mutants through mutagenesis with gamma radiation. Two varieties, Alderman and Amarilla, which had been adopted to high lands are selected for the present study. Two doses were used, 14 and 18 Krad, employing 4600 seeds/dose for the Alderman variety and 3600 seeds/dose for Amarilla. Preliminary results are presented

  1. Profile and functional properties of seed proteins from six pea (Pisum sativum) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Miroljub; Cabrilo, Slavica; Pesic, Mirjana; Stanojevic, Sladjana; Zilic, Sladjana; Macej, Ognjen; Ristic, Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Extractability, extractable protein compositions, technological-functional properties of pea (Pisum sativum) proteins from six genotypes grown in Serbia were investigated. Also, the relationship between these characteristics was presented. Investigated genotypes showed significant differences in storage protein content, composition and extractability. The ratio of vicilin:legumin concentrations, as well as the ratio of vicilin + convicilin: Legumin concentrations were positively correlated with extractability. Our data suggest that the higher level of vicilin and/or a lower level of legumin have a positive influence on protein extractability. The emulsion activity index (EAI) was strongly and positively correlated with the solubility, while no significant correlation was found between emulsion stability (ESI) and solubility, nor between foaming properties and solubility. No association was evident between ESI and EAI. A moderate positive correlation between emulsion stability and foam capacity was observed. Proteins from the investigated genotypes expressed significantly different emulsifying properties and foam capacity at different pH values, whereas low foam stability was detected. It appears that genotype has considerable influence on content, composition and technological-functional properties of pea bean proteins. This fact can be very useful for food scientists in efforts to improve the quality of peas and pea protein products.

  2. Studies on antioxidative enzymes induced by cadmium in pea plants (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nalini; Singh, Gaurav Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Swati) exposed to different concentration of cadmium (50,100, 200 microM Cd) under controlled glass house conditions were quantified for different physiological parameters and antioxidative enzymes. In pea plants, Cd produced a significant inhibition of growth and induced chlorosis, marginal yellowing and necrosis in young leaves, the effect being most pronounced at 200 microM Cd supply. An alteration in the activated oxygen metabolism of pea plants were also detected as evidenced by an increase in concentration of H2O2 and TBARS along with decrease in the chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration in leaves. Cadmium toxicity induced an increase in non-protein thiol, ascorbate, proline and cysteine concentration. A significant increment in the activity of SOD, APX and GR, and a decrease in CAT was observed as a result of Cd treatment. The enhanced activity of SOD and inhibition of CAT and POD produces a high build up of H2O2 which appears to be the main cause of oxidative stress due to Cd toxicity in pea plants.

  3. Extraordinary proliferation of microorganisms in aposymbiotic pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabachi, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Hajime; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2003-03-01

    Aposymbiotic pea aphids, which were deprived of their intracellular symbiotic bacterium, Buchnera, exhibit growth retardation and no fecundity. High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis revealed that these aposymbiotic aphids, when reared on broad bean plants, accumulated a large amount of histamine. To assess the possibility of extraordinary proliferation of microorganisms other than Buchnera, we enumerated eubacteria and fungi in aphids using the real-time quantitative PCR method that targets genes encoding small-subunit rRNAs. The result showed that these microorganisms were extremely abundant in the aposymbiotic aphids reared on plants. Microbial communities in aposymbiotic aphids were further profiled by phylogenetic analysis of small-subunit rDNAs. Of 172 nonchimeric sequences of fungal 18S rDNAs, 138 (80.2%) belonged to the phylum Ascomycota. Among them, 21 clustered within a monophyletic group consisting of insect-pathogenic fungi and yeast-like symbionts of homopteran insects. Thirty-one (18.0%), two (1.2%), and one (0.6%) clones were clustered within the Basidiomycota, Zygomycota, and Oomycota, respectively. Of 167 nonchimeric sequences of eubacterial 16S rDNAs, 84 (50.3%) belonged to the gamma-subdivision of Proteobacteria to which most primary endosymbionts of insects and prolific histamine producers belong. Forty (24.0%), 25 (15.0%), 10 (6.0%), and five (3.0%) clones were clustered within alpha-Proteobacteria, Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group, Actinobacteria, and beta-Proteobacteria, respectively. Three had no phylogenetic association with known taxonomic divisions. None of the sequences studied in this study coincided exactly with those deposited in GenBank.

  4. Boron, cobalt and molybdenum in the knottiness and production on pea (Pisum sativum L.) cv Bolero culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Junior, A.; Teixeira, N.T.; Maluf, C.E.; Campos, M.F. de

    1989-01-01

    The test carried out to study the effect of Boron, Cobalt and Molybdenum on the knottiness and production of the pea (Pisum sativum L.)cv Bolero culture, in controlled conditions. The results showed that Boron didn't affect the knottiness and it increased the production, while, Cobalt and Molybdenum promoted significant increase in the knottiness and productivity. (author) [pt

  5. Effects of long-term reduced tillage on weed infestation of pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Woźniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated weed infestation of pea (Pisum sativum L. cultivated under conditions of conventional (CT, reduced (RT and herbicide tillage (HT. It demonstrated the highest weed density per m2 in plots with the herbicide (HT and reduced (RT systems and significantly lower weed infestation in plots cultivated in the conventional system (CT. In addition, more weeds occurred at the third leaf stage (13/14 in BBCH scale than at the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH of pea. The highest biomass was produced by weeds in the herbicide system (HT, a lower one – in the reduced system (RT, and the lowest one – in the conventional system (CT. The air-dry weight of weeds depended also on pea development stage. At the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH, the air-dry weight of weeds was significantly higher than at the third leaf stage (13/14 BBCH. The tillage system was also observed to influence the species composition of weeds. This trait was also affected by the period of weed infestation assessment. At the third leaf stage of pea (13/14 BBCH, there occurred 26 weed species, including 24 annual ones. The most abundant species included: Chenopodium album L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L. Med., Matricaria inodora L., Thlaspi arvense L., and Fallopia convolvulus (L. A. Löve. At the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH, the pea crop was colonized by 24 weed species, including 3 perennial ones. At this stage the predominant species included: Avena fatua L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Papaver rhoeas L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P.B., Matricaria inodora L., and Galeopsis tetrahit L.

  6. Phylogenetic reconstruction at the species and intraspecies levels in the genus Pisum (L.) (peas) using a histone H1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytseva, Olga O; Bogdanova, Vera S; Kosterin, Oleg E

    2012-08-10

    A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pisum (peas), embracing diverse wild and cultivated forms, which evoke problems with species delimitation, was carried out based on a gene coding for histone H1, a protein that has a long and variable functional C-terminal domain. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed on the basis of the coding sequence of the gene His5 of H1 subtype 5 in 65 pea accessions. Early separation of a clear-cut wild species Pisum fulvum is well supported, while cultivated species Pisum abyssinicum appears as a small branch within Pisum sativum. Another robust branch within P. sativum includes some wild and almost all cultivated representatives of P. sativum. Other wild representatives form diverse but rather subtle branches. In a subset of accessions, PsbA-trnH chloroplast intergenic spacer was also analysed and found less informative than His5. A number of accessions of cultivated peas from remote regions have a His5 allele of identical sequence, encoding an electrophoretically slow protein product, which earlier attracted attention as likely positively selected in harsh climate conditions. In PsbA-trnH, a 8bp deletion was found, which marks cultivated representatives of P. sativum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Purification and properties of asparaginase from the testa of immature seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagas Eliana P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A K+-dependent asparaginase (E.C. 3.5.1.1. was purified 1328-fold from the testas of immature pea seeds (Pisum sativum L., var. Bolero and characterized. Antibodies raised against purified asparaginase cross-reacted with the putative asparaginase band in Western blot analyses of semi-purified extracts. However, for crude extracts of pea testas, a cross-reaction was obtained with at least four protein bands, one of which was asparaginase protein. Affinity-purified antibodies to the four strongest bands of crude extracts were fairly specific for the bands from which they were purified, suggesting a mixture of specific antibodies. The Mr of asparaginase was 69,000 by Sephacryl S200 chromatography and also by mobility on native PAGE relative to BSA. There was no evidence for dissociation into subunits on SDS-PAGE, suggesting a monomeric protein of Mr 69,000. Other properties include an apparent Km of 2.4 mM, pI between 4.5 and 5, and competitive inhibition by aspartate and glycine.

  8. The purification and characterization of a third storage protein (convicilin) from the seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Croy, R R; Gatehouse, J A; Tyler, M; Boulter, D

    1980-01-01

    A third storage protein, distinct from legumin and vicilin, has been purified from the seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.). This protein has been named 'convicilin' and is present in protein bodies isolated from pea seeds. Convicilin has a subunit mol.wt. of 71 000 and a mol.wt. in its native form of 290 000. Convicilin is antigenically dissimilar to legumin, but gives a reaction of identity with vicilin when tested against antibodies raised against both proteins. However, convicilin contains no ...

  9. Dickeya dadantii, a plant pathogenic bacterium producing Cyt-like entomotoxins, causes septicemia in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    OpenAIRE

    Costechareyre, Denis; Balmand, Severine; Condemine, Guy; Rahbé, Yves

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Dickeya dadantii (syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi) is a plant pathogenic bacteria that harbours a cluster of four horizontally-transferred, insect-specific toxin genes. It was recently shown to be capable of causing an acute infection in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Hemiptera). The infection route of the pathogen, and the role and in vivo expression pattern of these toxins, remain unknown. Using bacterial numeration and immunolocalization, we investigated the ...

  10. Proteomic analysis of albumin and globulin fractions of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuba, Jerzy; Szerszunowicz, Iwona; Nałęcz, Dorota; Dziuba, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Proteomic analysis is emerging as a highly useful tool in food research, including studies of food allergies. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis involving isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is the most effective method of separating hundreds or even thousands of proteins. In this study, albumin and globulin tractions of pea seeds cv. Ramrod were subjected to proteomic analysis. Selected potentially alergenic proteins were identified based on their molecular weights and isoelectric points. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) cv. Ramrod harvested over a period of two years (Plant Breeding Station in Piaski-Szelejewo) were used in the experiment. The isolated albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteomic images were analysed in the ImageMaster 2D Platinum program with the use of algorithms from the Melanie application. The relative content, isoelectric points and molecular weights were computed for all identified proteins. Electrophoregrams were analysed by matching spot positions from three independent replications. The proteomes of albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins produced up to several hundred spots (proteins). Spots most characteristic of a given fraction were identified by computer analysis and spot matching. The albumin proteome accumulated spots of relatively high intensity over a broad range of pi values of ~4.2-8.1 in 3 molecular weight (MW) ranges: I - high molecular-weight albumins with MW of ~50-110 kDa, II - average molecular-weight albumins with MW of ~20-35 kDa, and III - low molecular-weight albumins with MW of ~13-17 kDa. 2D gel electrophoregrams revealed the presence of 81 characteristic spots, including 24 characteristic of legumin and 14 - of vicilin. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proved to be a useful tool for identifying pea proteins. Patterns of spots with similar isoelectric

  11. Marker-trait association analysis of frost tolerance of 672 worldwide pea (Pisum sativum L.) collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Fang, Li; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Jinguo; Zhang, Hongyan; Han, Wenliang; Hua, Zeke; Hao, Junjie; Zong, Xuxiao

    2017-07-19

    Frost stress is one of the major abiotic stresses causing seedling death and yield reduction in winter pea. To improve the frost tolerance of pea, field evaluation of frost tolerance was conducted on 672 diverse pea accessions at three locations in Northern China in three growing seasons from 2013 to 2016 and marker-trait association analysis of frost tolerance were performed with 267 informative SSR markers in this study. Sixteen accessions were identified as the most winter-hardy for their ability to survive in all nine field experiments with a mean survival rate of 0.57, ranging from 0.41 to 0.75. Population structure analysis revealed a structured population of two sub-populations plus some admixtures in the 672 accessions. Association analysis detected seven markers that repeatedly had associations with frost tolerance in at least two different environments with two different statistical models. One of the markers is the functional marker EST1109 on LG VI which was predicted to co-localize with a gene involved in the metabolism of glycoproteins in response to chilling stress and may provide a novel mechanism of frost tolerance in pea. These winter-hardy germplasms and frost tolerance associated markers will play a vital role in marker-assisted breeding for winter-hardy pea cultivar.

  12. Barley uptake of N deposited in the rhizosphere of associated field pea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    N deposited in the rhizosphere of a legume may contribute to the N-nutrition of an intercropped non-legume. The process of deposition and subsequent uptake by a neighbouring plant is often termed N-transfer. The N-transfer from field pea (Pisum sativum L.) to associated spring barley (Hordeum...... debris. Separating the root systems reduced the barley recovery of pea-derived N to about half the amount recovered in the association where root systems grew in the same compartment. The death of pea, caused by spraying with a herbicide, increased the amount of N recovered in barley, whereas shading...... the pea plant had no effect on the amount of pea-derived N taken up in barley. The N deposited up to 45 days of growth contributed

  13. [Research progress on the cloning of Mendel's gene in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and its application in genetics teaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng-Hua; Zhu, Bi-Yan; Gao, Feng; Li, Shao-Shan; Li, Niang-Hui

    2013-07-01

    One hundred and fifty years ago, Gregor Mendel investigated the segregation of seven traits in pea (Pisum sativum) and established the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment in genetics. After the two laws of genetics were rediscovered in 1900, the seven traits have been extensively investigated in the fields of plant physiology and biochemistry as well as in the cell and molecular levels. Recently, with the development of molecular technology in genetics, four genes for seed shape (R), stem length (Le), cotyledon colour (I), and flower colour (A) have been cloned and sequenced; and another three genes for immature pod colour (Gp), fasciation (Fa) and pod form (V) have been located in the linkage groups, respectively. The identification and cloning of the four Mendel's genes will help deeply understand the basic concept of gene in many respects: like the diversity of gene function, the different origins for gene mutation in molecular level, and the molecular nature of a dominant gene or a recessive gene. In teaching of genetics, the introduction of most recent research advancements of cloning of Mendel's genes to the students and the interpretation of the Mendel's laws in molecular level will help students promote their learning interests in genetics and help students grasp the whole content from classical genetics to molecular genetics and the developmental direction of this subject.

  14. Peroxiredoxin 1 protects the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum from oxidative stress induced by Micrococcus luteus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongdong; Lu, Zhiqiang

    2015-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROSs) are generated in organisms in response to infections caused by invading microbes. However, excessive ROSs will inflict oxidative damage on the host. Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are antioxidative enzymes that may eliminate ROSs efficiently. In this study, ApPrx1 from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum was cloned, and its function was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In the presence of DTT, recombinant ApPrx1 protein from Escherichia coli showed antioxidative activity by eliminating H2O2 effectively. The H2O2 levels were significantly higher in Micrococcus luteus-infected aphids than in uninfected aphids, and ApPrx1 expression was remarkably up-regulated when the aphids were infected with M. luteus or injected with H2O2. When ApPrx1 expression was reduced by dsRNA injection, the survival of the aphids decreased significantly after M. luteus infection. Knockdown of ApPrx1 decreased M. luteus loads inside the aphids 48h post-infection. While under infection conditions, the H2O2 levels were much higher in ApPrx1 knockdown aphids than in dsGFP-injected aphids, indicating that the decreased survival of the aphids was caused by increased oxidative stress. Taken together, our results reveal that ApPrx1 plays a protective role in oxidative stress caused by bacterial infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Orally Delivered Scorpion Antimicrobial Peptides Exhibit Activity against Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and Its Bacterial Symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Ramirez, Karen; Skaljac, Marisa; Grotmann, Jens; Kirfel, Phillipp; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2017-08-24

    Aphids are severe agricultural pests that damage crops by feeding on phloem sap and vectoring plant pathogens. Chemical insecticides provide an important aphid control strategy, but alternative and sustainable control measures are required to avoid rapidly emerging resistance, environmental contamination, and the risk to humans and beneficial organisms. Aphids are dependent on bacterial symbionts, which enable them to survive on phloem sap lacking essential nutrients, as well as conferring environmental stress tolerance and resistance to parasites. The evolution of aphids has been accompanied by the loss of many immunity-related genes, such as those encoding antibacterial peptides, which are prevalent in other insects, probably because any harm to the bacterial symbionts would inevitably affect the aphids themselves. This suggests that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could replace or at least complement conventional insecticides for aphid control. We fed the pea aphids ( Acyrthosiphon pisum ) with AMPs from the venom glands of scorpions. The AMPs reduced aphid survival, delayed their reproduction, displayed in vitro activity against aphid bacterial symbionts, and reduced the number of symbionts in vivo. Remarkably, we found that some of the scorpion AMPs compromised the aphid bacteriome, a specialized organ that harbours bacterial symbionts. Our data suggest that scorpion AMPs holds the potential to be developed as bio-insecticides, and are promising candidates for the engineering of aphid-resistant crops.

  16. Orally Delivered Scorpion Antimicrobial Peptides Exhibit Activity against Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum and Its Bacterial Symbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Luna-Ramirez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are severe agricultural pests that damage crops by feeding on phloem sap and vectoring plant pathogens. Chemical insecticides provide an important aphid control strategy, but alternative and sustainable control measures are required to avoid rapidly emerging resistance, environmental contamination, and the risk to humans and beneficial organisms. Aphids are dependent on bacterial symbionts, which enable them to survive on phloem sap lacking essential nutrients, as well as conferring environmental stress tolerance and resistance to parasites. The evolution of aphids has been accompanied by the loss of many immunity-related genes, such as those encoding antibacterial peptides, which are prevalent in other insects, probably because any harm to the bacterial symbionts would inevitably affect the aphids themselves. This suggests that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs could replace or at least complement conventional insecticides for aphid control. We fed the pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum with AMPs from the venom glands of scorpions. The AMPs reduced aphid survival, delayed their reproduction, displayed in vitro activity against aphid bacterial symbionts, and reduced the number of symbionts in vivo. Remarkably, we found that some of the scorpion AMPs compromised the aphid bacteriome, a specialized organ that harbours bacterial symbionts. Our data suggest that scorpion AMPs holds the potential to be developed as bio-insecticides, and are promising candidates for the engineering of aphid-resistant crops.

  17. Genetic diversity studies in pea (Pisum sativum L.) using simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, P; Basal, N; Singh, A K; Rai, V P; Srivastava, C P; Singh, P K

    2013-03-13

    The genetic diversity among 28 pea (Pisum sativum L.) genotypes was analyzed using 32 simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 44 polymorphic bands, with an average of 2.1 bands per primer, were obtained. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.657 to 0.309 with an average of 0.493. The variation in genetic diversity among these cultivars ranged from 0.11 to 0.73. Cluster analysis based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) revealed 2 distinct clusters, I and II, comprising 6 and 22 genotypes, respectively. Cluster II was further differentiated into 2 subclusters, IIA and IIB, with 12 and 10 genotypes, respectively. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed results similar to those of UPGMA. The first, second, and third PCs contributed 21.6, 16.1, and 14.0% of the variation, respectively; cumulative variation of the first 3 PCs was 51.7%.

  18. Pisum sativum L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... To assess the genetic relations in Pisum genus and to examine putative duplicate accessions, 20 pea varieties (Pisum ..... correlation between PIC and PI in our study (r = -0.99 , P ..... GENALEX 6: genetic analysis in Excel.

  19. Integrated effect of microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide in controlling seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani) and improving yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Wasira; Bhuiyan, Mohamed Khurshed Alam; Sultana, Farjana; Hossain, Mohamed Motaher

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the comparative performance of a few microbial antagonists, organic amendments and fungicides and their integration for the management of seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) and yield improvement in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Before setting the experiment in field microplots, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective antagonistic isolate of Trichoderma harzianum, a fungitoxic organic amendment and an appropriate fungicide. A greenhouse pathogenicity test compared differences in seedling mortality in pea inoculated by four isolates of R. solani and identified the isolate RS10 as the most virulent one. Among the 20 isolates screened in dual culture assay on PDA, T. harzianum isolate T-3 was found to show the highest (77.22%) inhibition of the radial growth of R. solani. A complete inhibition (100.00%) of colony growth of R. solani was observed when fungicide Bavistin 50 WP and Provax-200 at the rate of 100 and 250 ppm, respectively, were used, while Provax-200 was found to be highly compatible with T. harzianum. Mustard oilcake gave maximum inhibition (60.28%) of the radial growth of R. solani at all ratios, followed by sesame oilcake and tea waste. Integration of soil treatment with T. harzianum isolate T-3 and mustard oilcake and seed treatment with Provax-200 appeared to be significantly superior in reducing seedling mortality and improving seed yield in pea in comparison to any single or dual application of them in the experimental field. The research results will help growers develop integrated disease management strategies for the control of Rhizoctonia disease in pea. The research results show the need for an integrating selective microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide to achieve appropriate management of seedling mortality (R. solani) and increase of seed yield in pea. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All

  20. A proteomic approach to studying plant response to crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata) in pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles Castillejo, M; Amiour, Nardjis; Dumas-Gaudot, Eliane; Rubiales, Diego; Jorrín, Jesús V

    2004-06-01

    Crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata) is a parasitic plant that threatens legume production in Mediterranean areas. Pea (Pisum sativum) is severely affected, and only moderate levels of genetic resistance have so far been identified. In the present work we selected the most resistant accession available (Ps 624) and compared it with a susceptible (Messire) cultivar. Experiments were performed by using pot and Petri dish bioassays, showing little differences in the percentage of broomrape seed germination induced by both genotypes, but a significant hamper in the number of successfully installed tubercles and their developmental stage in the Ps 624 compared to Messire. The protein profile of healthy and infected P. sativum root tissue were analysed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Approximately 500 individual protein spots could be detected on silver stained gels. At least 22 different protein spots differentiated control, non-infected, Messire and Ps 624 accessions. Some of them were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and database searching as cysteine proteinase, beta-1,3-glucanase, endochitinase, profucosidase, and ABA-responsive protein. Both qualitative and quantitative differences have been found among infected and non-infected root extracts. Thus, in the infected susceptible Messire genotype 34 spots were decreased, one increased and three newly detected, while in Ps 624, 15 spots were increased, three decreased and one newly detected. In response to the inoculation, proteins that correspond to enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism (fructokinase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase), nitrogen metabolism (ferredoxin-NADP reductase) and mitochondrial electronic chain transport (alternative oxidase 2) decreased in the susceptible check, while proteins that correspond to enzymes of the nitrogen assimilation pathway (glutamine synthetase) or typical pathogen defence, PR proteins, including beta-1,3-glucanase and peroxidases, increased in Ps 624. Results are

  1. Avaliação da composição química e da digestibilidade in vitro da mistura aveia IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb + ervilha forrageira (Pisum arvense L. em diferentes alturas sob pastejo Evaluation of chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of mixture of oat IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb cv IAPAR 61 + field pea (Pisum arvense L. under grazing in different sward heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Mascarenhas Grise

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das alturas (8,9; 10,0; 11,2; 11,8; 13,3; 13,6; 14,6; 18,2 cm de pastos consorciados de aveia IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb cv IAPAR 61 com ervilha forrageira (Pisum arvense L. sob pastejo sobre a relação folha/colmo (F/C, os teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O delineamento experimental usado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A relação F/C não foi influenciada pela altura do pasto, porém apresentou comportamento quadrático com o avanço na maturidade do pasto. Os teores de PB apresentaram comportamento quadrático ao longo do período experimental, devido à interação entre altura do pasto e o tempo. Os teores de FDN e FDA mostraram um comportamento quadrático ao longo do período experimental, ocorrendo uma diminuição dos mesmos quando as plantas se apresentavam mais baixas e, uma elevação, quando as plantas estavam mais altas, isto ocorreu em função da interação das variáveis tempo e altura. A DIVMS e a DIVMO tiveram incrementos lineares em função do aumento da altura do pasto, porém com comportamento quadrático no tempo (dias em todas as alturas, sendo mais elevadas nas alturas intermediárias do pasto.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different sward heights (8.9, 10.0, 11.2, 11.8; 13.3; 13.6; 14.6; 18.2 cm in the mixture of black oat IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb cv IAPAR 61 + field pea (Pisum arvense L., under grazing, on leaf/stem ratio (L/S, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF contents and dry matter (DMIVD and of organic matter (OMIVD in vitro digestibility. A completely randomized experimental design with two replicates was used. L/S ratio was not influenced by sward height, although it presented quadratic behavior with the progress of

  2. [Regulatory genes of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) controlling the development of nitrogen-fixing nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza: a review of basic and applied aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borisov, A Iu; Vasil'chikov, A G; Voroshilova, V A

    2007-01-01

    The review sums up the long experience of the authors and other researchers in studying the genetic system of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.), which controls sthe development of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis and arbuscular mycorrhiza. A justified phenotypic classification of pea mutants is presented....... Progress in identifying and cloning symbiotic genes is adequately reflected. The feasibility of using double inoculation as a means of increasing the plant productivity is demonstrated, in which the potential of a tripartite symbiotic system (pea plants-root nodule bacteria-arbuscular mycorrhiza...

  3. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of vegetable and grain pea (Pisum sativum L. seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating pea seed developmental process is extremely important for pea breeding. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses to examine the changes in gene expression during seed development in vegetable pea and grain pea, and compare the gene expression profiles of these two pea types. RNA-Seq generated 18.7 G of raw data, which were then de novo assembled into 77,273 unigenes with a mean length of 930 bp. Our results illustrate that transcriptional control during pea seed development is a highly coordinated process. There were 459 and 801 genes differentially expressed at early and late seed maturation stages between vegetable pea and grain pea, respectively. Soluble sugar and starch metabolism related genes were significantly activated during the development of pea seeds coinciding with the onset of accumulation of sugar and starch in the seeds. A comparative analysis of genes involved in sugar and starch biosynthesis in vegetable pea (high seed soluble sugar and low starch and grain pea (high seed starch and low soluble sugar revealed that differential expression of related genes at late development stages results in a negative correlation between soluble sugar and starch biosynthetic flux in vegetable and grain pea seeds. RNA-Seq data was validated by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 30 randomly selected genes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of seed development transcriptomics in pea. The obtained results provide a foundation to support future efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms that control the developmental biology of pea seeds, and serve as a valuable resource for improving pea breeding.

  4. A brief review on the early distribution of pea (Pisum sativum L. in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuština Marija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea was a part of the everyday diet of the European hunter-gatherers at the end of the last Ice Age. The major criteria to determine the domestication in pea are non-dehiscent pods, larger seed size and smooth seed testa. Pea seeds were found among the earliest findings of cultivated crops at the site of Tell El-Kerkh, Syria, from 10th millennium BP. Along with cereals and lentil, pea has definitely become associated with the start of the 'agricultural revolution' in the Old World. Pea entered Europe in its southeast regions and progressed into its interior via Danube. Its distribution was rapid, since the available evidence reveals its presence in remote places at similar periods. The linguistic evidence supports the fact that pea had been present in nearly all regions of Europe. Most of European peoples have their own words denoting pea, meaning that it preceded the diversification of their own proto-languages.

  5. Studies on the susceptibility of peas and field peas cultivars to Ascochyta pisi (Lib.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to find the plants resistant to Ascochyta pisi causing leaf and spot-pot of peas and field peas. Fourty five cultivars of peas and field peas and 6 breeding materials were tested in field in the period 1975-1978. Cultivars: Bartel, Birte, Borek, Cebeco, Finale and Paloma were to be less susceptible. In laboratory and greenhouse conditions peas and field peas cultivares were examined for susceptible to pathotypes 2 and 4 of Ascochyta pisi. The results obtained proved that cultivars: Borel, cebeco, Finale and Paloma were to be less susceptible to two pathotypes of Ascochyta pisi.

  6. Efficient production of human acidic fibroblast growth factor in pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants by agroinfection of germinated seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background For efficient and large scale production of recombinant proteins in plants transient expression by agroinfection has a number of advantages over stable transformation. Simple manipulation, rapid analysis and high expression efficiency are possible. In pea, Pisum sativum, a Virus Induced Gene Silencing System using the pea early browning virus has been converted into an efficient agroinfection system by converting the two RNA genomes of the virus into binary expression vectors for Agrobacterium transformation. Results By vacuum infiltration (0.08 Mpa, 1 min) of germinating pea seeds with 2-3 cm roots with Agrobacteria carrying the binary vectors, expression of the gene for Green Fluorescent Protein as marker and the gene for the human acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) was obtained in 80% of the infiltrated developing seedlings. Maximal production of the recombinant proteins was achieved 12-15 days after infiltration. Conclusions Compared to the leaf injection method vacuum infiltration of germinated seeds is highly efficient allowing large scale production of plants transiently expressing recombinant proteins. The production cycle of plants for harvesting the recombinant protein was shortened from 30 days for leaf injection to 15 days by applying vacuum infiltration. The synthesized aFGF was purified by heparin-affinity chromatography and its mitogenic activity on NIH 3T3 cells confirmed to be similar to a commercial product. PMID:21548923

  7. Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and pea seeds (Pisum sativum as protein sources in lactating ewes’ diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gatta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 18 Massese lactating ewes, divided into 3 homogeneous groups for parity and milk yield, were used to evaluate the replacement effects of soybean meal by Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and Pea (Pisum sativum seeds. During a 70 days trial (beginning after weaning: 30±1.5 days after lambing animals were fed three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Each diet was characterised by the presence of only one protein feed. The diets consisted of alfalfa hay (1.1 kg/head/d and a decreasing amount of mixed feed (from 1.1 to 0.7 kg/head/d to fit animals’ requirements. Milk yield, milk chemical composition, animals live weight and BCS, health state and hematochemical parameters were regularly monitored. No diets palatability problems were detected. No significant differences resulted for live weight, BCS, milk yield and milk chemical composition, except for milk protein: higher for faba bean (6.54% and soybean (6.39% respect pea (5.66% diets, P<0.05. No differences resulted for blood parameters too and no clinical signs of illness were observed. Therefore faba bean and pea seeds seem to be able to replace the soybean well.

  8. Performance of fourteen improved pea lines (Pisum sativum L. in Challapata zone, Oruro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiza Benedicto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Challapata zone, cultivated pea varieties are low yielding and long cycle. The research objective was to determine the performance of fourteen pea lines developed by “Pairumani Fitoecogenetics Investigation Center” (CIFP in Challapata zone (Oruro. The 14 pea lines with local pea variety, were planted in row and column generalized experimental design with four replications in tree location randomly selection in Challapata zone (Oruro, between October 2011 and April 2012. The results indicate, that, in general, all the improved lines were superior in green pod yield to the local pea variety (3.69 t.ha-1, between 6.13 and 16.58 t.ha-1, (65.9 and 349.3% respectively. among the improved lines, Pea5_102-1, Pea5_102-6, Pea5_102-5, Pea5_102-2, Pea5_102-3 and Pea5_102-4, with high green pod yield (13.05 and 16.58 t.ha-1, large pod (8.49 to 9.25 cm, mayor number of grains for pod (5.27 to 7.20 grains and intermediate cycle (85 days to the floración, are the superior performance. The lines Pea5_102-14, Pea5_102-10 (Pairumani 3 and Pea5_102-13, because of their characteristics of high green pod yield, the longest pod, the mayor number of grains for pod, early maturity, preference and wide adaptability, and according to the farmer’s criteria, are the most recommend for their use in Challapata zone (Oruro.

  9. Design of a ready-to-eat child food fortified with pea-based iron (Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulma Villaquirán

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent nutritional problems at the global level which mainly affects the vulnerable population as children under 5 years of age. Fortified foods of child consumption are part of the intervention strategies, which are made from the mixture of ingredients such as cereals, fruits, legumes, among others. Pea is a legume that can be used in order to take advantage of its nutritional properties. Objective: To design a ready-to-eat child food with peas (Pisum sativum, fortified with iron and sanitized by pasteurization. Materials and methods: The appropriate percentage of peas in the food was selected by sensory analysis. The selection of iron salt was made by physicochemical and sensory analysis using ferrous sulphate and chelate iron. Subsequently, the growth of mesophilic microorganisms was evaluated in order to select the pasteurization heat treatment. The useful life evaluation was carried out through sensory tests. Finally, the physico-chemical, compositional and microbiological evaluation of the sanitized food was implemented. Results: The addition of peas in percentages not greater than 6.5% within the food formulation was acceptable for parents of children under 5. On the other hand, the selected salt to generate less changes on the color and acidity of the food during storage was chelate iron. The results of heat treatment showed that for reducing the initial concentration of mesophiles and obtaining a good quality food according to the Colombian regulations in force, it was necessary to submit the food to 85 °C for 13 minutes (0.45 D, which managed to maintain the initial quality of the food for 12 days under refrigeration. Conclusions: The developed food complies with the sensory and microbiological criteria demanded in the Colombian regulations in force and is suitable for consumption. Besides, it can be catalogued as high in iron and a good source of protein, contributing with 25% and

  10. Relating physico-chemical properties of frozen green peas (Pisum sativum L.) to sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nleya, Kathleen M; Minnaar, Amanda; de Kock, Henriëtte L

    2014-03-30

    The acceptability of frozen green peas depends on their sensory quality. There is a need to relate physico-chemical parameters to sensory quality. In this research, six brands of frozen green peas representing product sold for retail and caterer's markets were purchased and subjected to descriptive sensory evaluation and physico-chemical analyses (including dry matter content, alcohol insoluble solids content, starch content, °Brix, residual peroxidase activity, size sorting, hardness using texture analysis and colour measurements) to assess and explain product quality. The sensory quality of frozen green peas, particularly texture properties, were well explained using physico-chemical methods of analysis notably alcohol insoluble solids, starch content, hardness and °Brix. Generally, retail class peas were of superior sensory quality to caterer's class peas although one caterer's brand was comparable to the retail brands. Retail class peas were sweeter, smaller, greener, more moist and more tender than the caterer's peas. Retail class peas also had higher °Brix, a(*) , hue and chroma values; lower starch, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter content and hardness measured. The sensory quality of frozen green peas can be partially predicted by measuring physico-chemical parameters particularly °Brix and to a lesser extent hardness by texture analyser, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter and starch content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Genetic Mapping of a Major Resistance Gene to Pea Aphid (Acyrthosipon pisum in the Model Legume Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars G. Kamphuis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to the Australian pea aphid (PA; Acyrthosiphon pisum biotype in cultivar Jester of the model legume Medicago truncatula is mediated by a single dominant gene and is phloem-mediated. The genetic map position for this resistance gene, APR (Acyrthosiphon pisum resistance, is provided and shows that APR maps 39 centiMorgans (cM distal of the A. kondoi resistance (AKR locus, which mediates resistance to a closely related species of the same genus bluegreen aphid (A. kondoi. The APR region on chromosome 3 is dense in classical nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeats (NLRs and overlaps with the region harbouring the RAP1 gene which confers resistance to a European PA biotype in the accession Jemalong A17. Further screening of a core collection of M. truncatula accessions identified seven lines with strong resistance to PA. Allelism experiments showed that the single dominant resistance to PA in M. truncatula accessions SA10481 and SA1516 are allelic to SA10733, the donor of the APR locus in cultivar Jester. While it remains unclear whether there are multiple PA resistance genes in an R-gene cluster or the resistance loci identified in the other M. truncatula accessions are allelic to APR, the introgression of APR into current M. truncatula cultivars will provide more durable resistance to PA.

  12. Geographical gradient of the eIF4E alleles conferring resistance to potyviruses in pea (Pisum) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečná, Eva; Šafářová, Dana; Navrátil, Milan; Hanáček, Pavel; Coyne, Clarice; Flavell, Andrew; Vishnyakova, Margarita; Ambrose, Mike; Redden, Robert; Smýkal, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E was shown to be involved in resistance against several potyviruses in plants, including pea. We combined our knowledge of pea germplasm diversity with that of the eIF4E gene to identify novel genetic diversity. Germplasm of 2803 pea accessions was screened for eIF4E intron 3 length polymorphism, resulting in the detection of four eIF4E(A-B-C-S) variants, whose distribution was geographically structured. The eIF4E(A) variant conferring resistance to the P1 PSbMV pathotype was found in 53 accessions (1.9%), of which 15 were landraces from India, Afghanistan, Nepal, and 7 were from Ethiopia. A newly discovered variant, eIF4E(B), was present in 328 accessions (11.7%) from Ethiopia (29%), Afghanistan (23%), India (20%), Israel (25%) and China (39%). The eIF4E(C) variant was detected in 91 accessions (3.2% of total) from India (20%), Afghanistan (33%), the Iberian Peninsula (22%) and the Balkans (9.3%). The eIF4E(S) variant for susceptibility predominated as the wild type. Sequencing of 73 samples, identified 34 alleles at the whole gene, 26 at cDNA and 19 protein variants, respectively. Fifteen alleles were virologically tested and 9 alleles (eIF4E(A-1-2-3-4-5-6-7), eIF4E(B-1), eIF4E(C-2)) conferred resistance to the P1 PSbMV pathotype. This work identified novel eIF4E alleles within geographically structured pea germplasm and indicated their independent evolution from the susceptible eIF4E(S1) allele. Despite high variation present in wild Pisum accessions, none of them possessed resistance alleles, supporting a hypothesis of distinct mode of evolution of resistance in wild as opposed to crop species. The Highlands of Central Asia, the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent, Eastern Africa and China were identified as important centers of pea diversity that correspond with the diversity of the pathogen. The series of alleles identified in this study provides the basis to study the co-evolution of potyviruses and the

  13. Effect of Gamma Radiation and temperature on storage quality of Pea (Pisum sativum L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Hossain, M. M.; Hossain, M. A.; Alam, M. K.; Sarder, A. H.

    2004-01-01

    Effect of radiation, storage temperature and storage period of pea was investigated. During the entire storage period of 12 months, no major changes occurred in weight loss, insect infestation, moisture content, water activity (a w ) and protein content of the pea stored at room temperature (RT) and at 4 0 C. Reconstitution properties and tenderness after cooking were affected at room temperature storage. Both reconstitution properties and tenderness gradually decreased with the increase of storage period when pea was stored at RT. The initial reconstitution properties (94%) decreased to 77% at the end of 12 months and the initial tenderness (97%) decreased to 13% when pea was stored at room temperature. On the other hand the reconstitution properties and tenderness were found 92% and 83% respectively in pea stored at 4 0 C.(author)

  14. Non-host disease resistance response in pea (Pisum sativum) pods: Biochemical function of DRR206 and phytoalexin pathway localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Herana Kamal; Dalisay, Doralyn S; Kim, Kye-Won; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Yang, Hong; Hartshorn, Christopher M; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2015-05-01

    Continually exposed to potential pathogens, vascular plants have evolved intricate defense mechanisms to recognize encroaching threats and defend themselves. They do so by inducing a set of defense responses that can help defeat and/or limit effects of invading pathogens, of which the non-host disease resistance response is the most common. In this regard, pea (Pisum sativum) pod tissue, when exposed to Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli spores, undergoes an inducible transcriptional activation of pathogenesis-related genes, and also produces (+)-pisatin, its major phytoalexin. One of the inducible pathogenesis-related genes is Disease Resistance Response-206 (DRR206), whose role in vivo was unknown. DRR206 is, however, related to the dirigent protein (DP) family. In this study, its biochemical function was investigated in planta, with the metabolite associated with its gene induction being pinoresinol monoglucoside. Interestingly, both pinoresinol monoglucoside and (+)-pisatin were co-localized in pea pod endocarp epidermal cells, as demonstrated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging. In addition, endocarp epidermal cells are also the site for both chalcone synthase and DRR206 gene expression. Taken together, these data indicate that both (+)-pisatin and pinoresinol monoglucoside function in the overall phytoalexin responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of ambient ozone on reactive oxygen species and antioxidant metabolites in leaves of pea (pisum sativum l.) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.A.; Almeelbi, T.; Basahi, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The differential response of two pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cultivars Little Marvel and Victory) to ambient O3 grown under open top chambers (OTCs) was analyzed and compared. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidant metabolites such as ascorbate/glutathione as well as a series of enzymes for scavenging ROS were analyzed, all aiming to reveal the differential behavior of two closely related plants when exposed to ambient O3.Antioxidant levels and activities of related enzymes in response to ambient were noticeably different among Little Marvel and Victory plants. However, the response was cultivar-specific. There was higher accumulation of ROS and relatively lower induction of antioxidants and more inhibition in photosynthetic rates in Victory than Little Marvel. There was a good correlation between tolerance to O3 and high endogenous levels of antioxidant metabolites such as ascorbate (As), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in pea plants. These portrays a higher sensitivity of Victory to ambient O3.To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the very few studies attempted to describe the changes in contents of antioxidants and activities of related enzymes in leaves of two closely related cultivars to further ourunderstanding on the defense mechanism and strategies under ambient O3. The results highlighted the possible roles of antioxidants in O3 detoxification through activation an adaptive survival mechanism allowing the plant to complete its life cycle even under oxidative stressful conditions. (author)

  16. Molecular basis of processing-induced changes in protein structure in relation to intestinal digestion in yellow and green type pea (Pisum sativum L.): A molecular spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gloria Qingyu; Warkentin, Tom; Niu, Zhiyuan; Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-12-05

    The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the protein inherent molecular structural features of green cotyledon (CDC Striker) and yellow cotyledon (CDC Meadow) pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds using molecular spectroscopic technique (FT/IR-ATR); (2) measure the denaturation of protein molecular makeup in the two types of pea during dry roasting (120°C for 60 min), autoclaving (120°C for 60 min) or microwaving (for 5 min); and (3) correlate the heat-induced changes in protein molecular makeup to the corresponding changes in protein digestibility determined using modified three-step in vitro procedure. Compared with yellow-type, the green-type peas had higher (Pprotein content. Compared with yellow-type, the green-type peas had lower (Pprotein secondary structure makeup. All processing applications increased α-helix:β-sheet ratio, with the largest (Pprotein within the green (r=-0. 86) and yellow (r=0.81) pea-types. However, across the pea types the correlation was not significant. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses on the entire spectral data from the amide region (ca. 1727-1480 cm(-1)) were able to visualize and discriminate the structural difference between pea varieties and processing treatments. This study shows that the molecular spectroscopy can be used as a rapid tool to screen the protein value of raw and heat-treated peas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Discovery of a Novel er1 Allele Conferring Powdery Mildew Resistance in Chinese Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Landraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Suli; Fu, Haining; Wang, Zhongyi; Duan, Canxing; Zong, Xuxiao; Zhu, Zhendong

    2016-01-01

    Pea powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease worldwide. Deployment of resistant varieties is the main way to control this disease. This study aimed to screen Chinese pea (Pisum sativum L.) landraces resistant to E. pisi, and to characterize the resistance gene(s) at the er1 locus in the resistant landraces, and to develop functional marker(s) specific to the novel er1 allele. The 322 landraces showed different resistance levels. Among them, 12 (3.73%), 4 (1.24%) and 17 (5.28%) landraces showed immunity, high resistance and resistance to E. pisi, respectively. The other landraces appeared susceptible or highly susceptible to E. pisi. Most of the immune and highly resistant landraces were collected from Yunnan province. To characterize the resistance gene at the er1 locus, cDNA sequences of PsMLO1 gene were determined in 12 immune and four highly resistant accessions. The cDNAs of PsMLO1 from the immune landrace G0005576 produced three distinct transcripts, characterized by a 129-bp deletion, and 155-bp and 220-bp insertions, which were consistent with those of er1-2 allele. The PsMLO1 cDNAs in the other 15 resistant landraces produced identical transcripts, which had a new point mutation (T→C) at position 1121 of PsMLO1, indicating a novel er1 allele, designated as er1-6. This mutation caused a leucine to proline change in the amino acid sequence. Subsequently, the resistance allele er1-6 in landrace G0001778 was confirmed by resistance inheritance analysis and genetic mapping on the region of the er1 locus using populations derived from G0001778 × Bawan 6. Finally, a functional marker specific to er1-6, SNP1121, was developed using the high-resolution melting technique, which could be used in pea breeding via marker-assisted selection. The results described here provide valuable genetic information for Chinese pea landraces and a powerful tool for pea breeders. PMID:26809053

  18. Genome-wide SNP identification, linkage map construction and QTL mapping for seed mineral concentrations and contents in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yu; Coyne, Clarice J; Grusak, Michael A; Mazourek, Michael; Cheng, Peng; Main, Dorrie; McGee, Rebecca J

    2017-01-01

    Background Marker-assisted breeding is now routinely used in major crops to facilitate more efficient cultivar improvement. This has been significantly enabled by the use of next-generation sequencing technology to identify loci and markers associated with traits of interest. While rich in a range of nutritional components, such as protein, mineral nutrients, carbohydrates and several vitamins, pea (Pisum sativum L.), one of the oldest domesticated crops in the world, remains behind many othe...

  19. faba bean and field pea seed proportion for intercropping system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    reduced with increase in the seeding rate of field pea. ... productivity of the Faba bean/field pea was obtained from intercropping system. Growing Faba bean both as a ..... Management: Proceedings of the First and ... Population, time and crop.

  20. Functional characterization of the adipokinetic hormone in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jedlička, Pavel; Steinbauerová, V.; Šimek, Petr; Zahradníčková, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 1 (2012), s. 51-58 ISSN 1095-6433 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP522/09/P382 Grant - others:European Union FP7(CZ) MOBITAG, GA 229518 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * Acyrthosiphon pisum * neuropeptide Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.167, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1095643312000256

  1. Nutritional evaluation of low-phytate peas (Pisum sativum L.) for young broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Philip; Deep, Aman; Petri, Daniel; Warkentin, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This experiment determined the effects of including normal and low-phytate peas in diets fed to young broiler chickens on performance, phosphorus availability and bone strength. A total of 180, day-old, male broilers (Ross-308 line) were assigned to six treatments. The control was based on corn and soybean meal while two additional corn-based diets were formulated containing 30% of either normal or low-phytate pea providing 0.45% available phosphorus. For each of these three diets, a similar diet was formulated by reducing the amount of dicalcium phosphate to produce a diet with 0.3% available phosphorus. The total tract apparent availability (TTAA) of phosphorus was higher (p = 0.02) for broilers fed the low-phytate pea than for birds fed the normal pea diets. Birds fed diets containing the lower level of phosphorus had a higher TTAA of phosphorus (50.64 vs. 46.68%) than broilers fed diets adequate in phosphorus. Protein source had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. Broilers fed the low phosphorus diets had lower weight gain (p = 0.04) and feed intake (p pea than for those fed diets based on normal pea or soybean meal. Increasing the availability of the phosphorus in peas could mean that less inorganic phosphorus would be required in order to meet the nutritional requirements of broilers. Since inorganic phosphorus sources tend to be expensive, a reduction in their use would lower ration costs. In addition, increased availability of phosphorus would reduce the amount of phosphorus excreted thus reducing the amount of phosphorus that can potentially pollute the environment.

  2. Cytokinin profiling of long-term in vitro pea (Pisum sativum L.) shoot cultures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plačková, Lenka; Hrdlička, Jakub; Smýkalová, I.; Cvečková, M.; Novák, Ondřej; Griga, M.; Doležal, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2015), s. 125-132 ISSN 0167-6903 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cytokinins * Pea * Quantification Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.333, year: 2015

  3. Diversity of segetal weeds in pea (Pisum sativum L. depending on crops chosen for a crop rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, lasting from 1999 to 2006, was conducted at the Research Station in Tomaszkowo, which belongs to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The experiment was set up on brown rusty soil classified as good rye complex 5 in the Polish soil valuation system. The analysis comprised weeds in fields sown with pea cultivated in two four-field crop rotation systems with a different first crop: A. potato – spring barley – pea – spring barley; B. mixture of spring barley with pea – spring barley – pea – spring barley. Every year, at the 2–3 true leaf stage of pea, the species composition and density of individual weed species were determined; in addition, before harvesting the main crop, the dry matter of weeds was weighed. The results were used to analyze the constancy of weed taxa, species diversity, and the evenness and dominance indices, to determine the relationships between all biological indicators analyzed and weather conditions, and to calculate the indices of similarity, in terms of species composition, density and biomass of weeds, between the crop rotations compared. The species richness, density and biomass of weeds in fields with field pea were not differentiated by the choice of the initial crop in a given rotation system. In the spring, the total number of identified taxa was 28 and it increased to 36 before the harvest of pea plants. Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli were the most numerous. Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus and Viola arvensis were constant in all treatments, regardless of what the first crop in rotation was or when the observations were made. The species diversity and the evenness and species dominance indices varied significantly between years and dates of observations. Species diversity calculated on the basis of the density of weed species was higher in the rotation with a mixture of cereals and legumes, while that calculated on

  4. Molecular cloning of isoflavone reductase from pea (Pisum sativum L.): evidence for a 3R-isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, N L; Sun, Y; Dixon, R A; VanEtten, H D; Hrazdina, G

    1994-08-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) reduces achiral isoflavones to chiral isoflavanones during the biosynthesis of chiral pterocarpan phytoalexins. A cDNA clone for IFR from pea (Pisum sativum) was isolated using the polymerase chain reaction and expressed in Escherichia coli. Analysis of circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the reduction product sophorol obtained using the recombinant enzyme indicated that the isoflavanone possessed the 3R stereochemistry, in contrast to previous reports indicating a 3S-isoflavanone as the product of the pea IFR. Analysis of CD spectra of sophorol produced using enzyme extracts of CuCl2-treated pea seedlings confirmed the 3R stereochemistry. Thus, the stereochemistry of the isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis in pea is the same as that in (-)-medicarpin biosynthesis in alfalfa, although the final pterocarpans have the opposite stereochemistry. At the amino acid level the pea IFR cDNA was 91.8 and 85.2% identical to the IFRs from alfalfa and chickpea, respectively. IFR appears to be encoded by a single gene in pea. Its transcripts are highly induced in CuCl2-treated seedlings, consistent with the appearance of IFR enzyme activity and pisatin accumulation.

  5. Escherichia coli K-12 pathogenicity in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, reveals reduced antibacterial defense in aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altincicek, Boran; Ter Braak, Bas; Laughton, Alice M; Udekwu, Klas I; Gerardo, Nicole M

    2011-10-01

    To better understand the molecular basis underlying aphid immune tolerance to beneficial bacteria and immune defense to pathogenic bacteria, we characterized how the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum responds to Escherichia coli K-12 infections. E. coli bacteria, usually cleared in the hemolymph of other insect species, were capable of growing exponentially and killing aphids within a few days. Red fluorescence protein expressing E. coli K-12 laboratory strain multiplied in the aphid hemolymph as well as in the digestive tract, resulting in death of infected aphids. Selected gene deletion mutants of the E. coli K-12 predicted to have reduced virulence during systemic infections showed no difference in either replication or killing rate when compared to the wild type E. coli strain. Of note, however, the XL1-Blue E. coli K-12 strain exhibited a significant lag phase before multiplying and killing aphids. This bacterial strain has recently been shown to be more sensitive to oxidative stress than other E. coli K-12 strains, revealing a potential role for reactive oxygen species-mediated defenses in the otherwise reduced aphid immune system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phenotypic characterization and inheritance of two foliar mutants in pea (Pisum Sativum L.): 'Reduced leaf size' and 'Orange leaf'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.; Vassilevska-Ivanova, R.; Tcekova, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Two foliar pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants characterized by reduced leaf size (2/978) and orange leaf (2/1409 M) were established. Both mutants were described morphologically and their productivity potential , pollen viability and inheritance of the mutant traits were evaluated. The mutant 2/978 was identified after irradiation of dry seeds from cv Borek with 15 Gy fast neutrons and was related to the leaf mutation 'rogue'. Reciprocal crosses between mutant 2/978 and cv Borel were executed, and F 1 and F 2 generations were analyzed. The altered leaf trait was presented in all F 1 plants suggesting a dominant character. F 2 segregation data indicated that the trait was controlled by a single dominant gene. The mutant 2/1409M originated from the mutant 2/978 after irradiation with 50 Gy γ-rays. The main mutant's phenotypic characteristic was the orange-yellow coloration of leaves and plants. After of series of crosses it was established that induced chlorophyll mutation is monogenic, recessive and both mutant traits are independently inherited. Two mutants could be used as appropriate plant material for genetic and biological investigations

  7. Modification of Cry4Aa toward Improved Toxin Processing in the Gut of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Rausch

    Full Text Available Aphids are sap-sucking insects (order: Hemiptera that cause extensive damage to a wide range of agricultural crops. Our goal was to optimize a naturally occurring insecticidal crystalline (Cry toxins produced by the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for use against the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. On the basis that activation of the Cry4Aa toxin is a rate-limiting factor contributing to the relatively low aphicidal activity of this toxin, we introduced cathepsin L and cathepsin B cleavage sites into Cry4Aa for rapid activation in the aphid gut environment. Incubation of modified Cry4Aa and aphid proteases in vitro demonstrated enhanced processing of the toxin into the active form for some of the modified constructs relative to non-modified Cry4Aa. Aphids fed artificial diet with toxin at a final concentration of 125 μg/ml showed enhanced mortality after two days for one of the four modified constructs. Although only modest toxin improvement was achieved by use of this strategy, such specific toxin modifications designed to overcome factors that limit aphid toxicity could be applied toward managing aphid populations via transgenic plant resistance.

  8. Genotype X Environment Interaction for Yield in Field Pea Pisum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    analysis of variance with individual stability regression co- efficient ... environmental score derived from a principal component ... Grain yield analysis was carried .... Analysis of variance for Additive Main effects and Multiple Interaction (AMMI).

  9. Genetic Diversity in Ethiopian Field Pea (Pisum sativum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    የተሇያዩ እጅቦች ወስጥ ተመድበዋል፡፡ ሃያ በአንዯኛው ምድብ ውስጥ፣ 11 በሁሇተኛው፣ 5 በሦስተኛው፣ 41. በአራተኛው፣ 17 በአምስተኛው፣ 18 ..... F: GCCGAGGTACAAAAGAAGT. R: CTGGAAACCAAGAAAAGTG. 323. PM2. 32544169-1;. 32542559. (aac)6. F: CAATGATGGGTGGAAGATG. R: AGGCAGTGATTCAGACGGT. 337. PM3.

  10. Feeding value estimation of spring forage pea (Pisum sativum L. in organic cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Nikolova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The isolated and combined action of organic products Biofa (foliar fertilizer, Polyversum (growth regulator, NeemAzal and Pyrethrum (biological insecticides on energy and protein feeding value of the dry mass of spring forage pea grown in the conditions of organic farming is studied. As a standard of comparison the synthetic products Flordimeks (plant growth regulator and Nurele E (insecticide are used alone or in combination. The field experiment is conducted in the period 2011 – 2013 at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria. Treatments are performed once in budding and twice in budding and flowering vegetative stages for control of economically important pests. It is found that treatment with organic products in the budding stage influences the energy feeding value positively, increasing it from 0.6 to 5.2% for UFL and from 0.7 to 7.1% for UFV. The highest energy feeding value distinguished combined introduction of Nimazal and Polyverzum (UFL – 0.850 and UFV – 0.768. Double use of biological preparations is associated with a pronounced increase in forage energy feeding value from 1.1 to 9.2% for UFL and from 0.9 to 11.9% for UFV. Compared to a single treatment, an average five- and four-fold increase is established for UFL and UFV, respectively. The treatment with biological regulator Polyverzum has the greatest impact (0.864 and 0.783 for the UFL and UFV, followed by Polyverzum+NeemAzal (0.856 and 0.773 for the UFL and UFV. Protein feeding value in a single treatment is decreased by 5.6% on average. Only Biofa treatment leads to an increase of 15.3% (PBD – 117.6. Double-application is associated with an increase of the forage protein feeding value from 0.2 to 14.4% for the PBD, from 0.1 to 9.8% for PDIN and from 1.8 to 6.4% for PDIE. The highest values distinguished the treatment with NeemAzal (PBD – 99.1; PDIN – 82.3; PDIE – 91.0, followed by NeemAzal+Biofa (PBD – 99.8; PDIN – 89.7; PDIE – 89.2 and

  11. Pea (Pisum sativum in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant protein in place of soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked pea appears interesting in dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked peas as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a “Control” concentrate (8.3% soybean meal was compared to a “Pea” concentrate (5% soybean meal and 15% flaked peas. Forages fed to animals included mixed grass hay and alfalfa hay in experiment 1, and hay (mixed grass and alfalfa plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Milk yield and quality, and the characteristics of grab faecal samples, examined to get some empirical indicators of digestibility, were similar between feeding groups. Compositional changes (crude protein and solubility in forages used as common base in the diets of both experiments had a slight effect on milk and plasma urea contents. There was a tendency for a higher milk urea content in the “Pea” group (32.3 vs 30.1mg/dl in experiment 1, P<0.1; 30.2 vs 28.0mg/dl in experiment 2, P<0.1. The plasma urea content was different only in experiment 2 (4.9 vs 5.6mmol/l, respectively for “Control” and “Pea” groups; P<0.05. The inclusion of the heatprocessed pea within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of soybean meal.

  12. Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution by Activated Carbon Prepared from Pea Shells (Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünal Geçgel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An activated carbon was prepared from pea shells and used for the removal of methylene blue (MB from aqueous solutions. The influence of various factors such as adsorbent concentration, initial dye concentration, temperature, contact time, pH, and surfactant was studied. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. The adsorption isotherm was found to follow the Langmuir model. The monolayer sorption capacity of activated carbon prepared from pea shell for MB was found to be 246.91 mg g−1 at 25 ∘C. Two simplified kinetic models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equation were selected to follow the adsorption processes. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Various thermodynamic parameters such as , , and were evaluated. The results in this study indicated that activated carbon prepared from pea shell could be employed as an adsorbent for the removal of MB from aqueous solutions.

  13. Use of gamma irradiation for prolonging shelf life of Garden pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, A.K.; Nair, Reena

    2008-01-01

    Garden pea pods of variety Arkel were irradiated with 5 doses of 60 Co gamma rays ranging from 0.5-3 kGy and stored at ambient temperature up to 9 days along with control to study the effect of radiation in prolonging shelf life of pea pods and stabilizing its market demand. Physiological weight loss percentage decrease as the doses of gamma radiation increased. Minimum weight loss was noted in pods treated with 3 kGy gamma radiation as compared to control. Decay loss percent showed inverse relation with dose of gamma radiation. The minimum decay loss was recorded in 3 kGy and the organisms identified for decay loss were Alternaria and Cladosporium species of fungi. With regard to sugar content, pea pods irradiated with 1 kGy gamma rays recorded maximum sugar content. Pods irradiated with 0.5 kGy and 1 kGy gamma rays retained their green colour for a long period (up to 9th day of storage). Based on 9 point's hedonic scale the overall acceptability for appearance, taste and texture was observed in 1 kGy treatment. (author)

  14. S-Nitrosylated proteins in pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaf peroxisomes: changes under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Galisteo, Ana P; Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Pazmiño, Diana M; Gupta, Dharmendra K; Sandalio, Luisa M; Romero-Puertas, María C

    2012-03-01

    Peroxisomes, single-membrane-bounded organelles with essentially oxidative metabolism, are key in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Recently, the presence of nitric oxide (NO) described in peroxisomes opened the possibility of new cellular functions, as NO regulates diverse biological processes by directly modifying proteins. However, this mechanism has not yet been analysed in peroxisomes. This study assessed the presence of S-nitrosylation in pea-leaf peroxisomes, purified S-nitrosylated peroxisome proteins by immunoprecipitation, and identified the purified proteins by two different mass-spectrometry techniques (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight and two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry). Six peroxisomal proteins were identified as putative targets of S-nitrosylation involved in photorespiration, β-oxidation, and reactive oxygen species detoxification. The activity of three of these proteins (catalase, glycolate oxidase, and malate dehydrogenase) is inhibited by NO donors. NO metabolism/S-nitrosylation and peroxisomes were analysed under two different types of abiotic stress, i.e. cadmium and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Both types of stress reduced NO production in pea plants, and an increase in S-nitrosylation was observed in pea extracts under 2,4-D treatment while no total changes were observed in peroxisomes. However, the S-nitrosylation levels of catalase and glycolate oxidase changed under cadmium and 2,4-D treatments, suggesting that this post-translational modification could be involved in the regulation of H(2)O(2) level under abiotic stress.

  15. Inheritance of the narrow leaf mutation in Pea (Pisum Sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.; Vassilevska-Ivanova, R.

    2006-01-01

    Three pea mutant lines 2/111, 2/174 and 3/106 with reduced narrow oblong leaves were produced after gamma irradiation. They were characterized morphologically and for seed productivity elements. The size and shape of the stipules and the leaflets were evaluated by L/W (length/width) indices. Reciprocal crosses between mutants and normal plants were executed, and F1, F2 generations were analysed. It was established that mutants 2/111 and 3/106 have intermediate inheritance and they are allelic with each other; mutant 2/174 revealed single-gene recessive inheritance with deficiency of mutant plants. It was concluded that 2/174 was not allelic with 2/111 and 3/106. Mutants 2/111 and 3/106 exhibited a phenotype similar to previously described mutant fom (folium oblongum). Allelic test between the new mutants and these described previously was not performed. The reported here lines are utilized to increase understanding of the control of leaf development in pea. (authors)

  16. Breeding approaches for crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) management in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, Diego; Fernández-Aparicio, Monica; Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro; Castillejo, Mari A; Prats, Elena; Sillero, Josefina C; Rispail, Nicolas; Fondevilla, Sara

    2009-05-01

    Pea cultivation is strongly hampered in Mediterranean and Middle East farming systems by the occurrence of Orobanche crenata Forsk. Strategies of control have been developed, but only marginal successes have been achieved. Most control methods are either unfeasible, uneconomical, hard to achieve or result in incomplete protection. The integration of several control measures is the most desirable strategy. [corrected] Recent developments in control are presented and re-evaluated in light of recent developments in crop breeding and molecular genetics. These developments are placed within a framework that is compatible with current agronomic practices. The current focus in applied breeding is leveraging biotechnological tools to develop more and better markers to speed up the delivery of improved cultivars to the farmer. To date, however, progress in marker development and delivery of useful markers has been slow. The application of knowledge gained from basic genomic research and genetic engineering will contribute to more rapid pea improvement for resistance against O. crenata and/or the herbicide.

  17. Effect of exogenous supply of boron on nodule development in pea (pisum sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, M.; Khan, Z.U.D.; Syed, H.R.; Mehmood, F.

    2011-01-01

    Exogenous supply of boron was evaluated on the seeds of Pisum sativum L. inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum and grown in aqua-culture. The liquid nutrition medium contained six boron concentrations (control, 1, 1.86, 2.86, 3.86, and 4.86 mg L/sup -1/ ). The results obtained from the present work showed that number of nodules, size of nodules and weight of boron treatment. Toxic effect of high concentration of boron (4.86 mg L/sup -1/ ) nodules exhibit great improvement in 2.86 mg L /sup-1/ was also recorded. There was significant reduction as compare to control in nodule weight, size and numbers. This fact becomes clear while observing the nodules growing in the boron free culture, which did not develop extensively. The comparison of the transverse sections of root-nodule area, from nutrient solutions with various boron concentrations showed that in the absence of boron, there was a considerable hypertrophy in cambial cells and a frequent disintegration of phloem and ground tissue along with xylem. The disintegration of the tissue seems to be linked with nodule bacteria. The nodular bacteria are considered to assume a parasitic habit in the absence of boron. (author)

  18. Dickeya dadantii, a plant pathogenic bacterium producing Cyt-like entomotoxins, causes septicemia in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costechareyre, Denis; Balmand, Séverine; Condemine, Guy; Rahbé, Yvan

    2012-01-01

    Dickeya dadantii (syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi) is a plant pathogenic bacteria that harbours a cluster of four horizontally-transferred, insect-specific toxin genes. It was recently shown to be capable of causing an acute infection in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Hemiptera). The infection route of the pathogen, and the role and in vivo expression pattern of these toxins, remain unknown. Using bacterial numeration and immunolocalization, we investigated the kinetics and the pattern of infection of this phytopathogenic bacterium within its insect host. We compared infection by the wild-type strain and by the Cyt toxin-deficient mutant. D. dadantii was found to form dense clusters in many luminal parts of the aphid intestinal tract, including the stomach, from which it invaded internal tissues as early as day 1 post-infection. Septicemia occurred soon after, with the fat body being the main infected tissue, together with numerous early infections of the embryonic chains showing embryonic gut and fat body as the target organs. Generalized septicemia led to insect death when the bacterial load reached about 10(8) cfu. Some individual aphids regularly escaped infection, indicating an effective partial immune response to this bacteria. Cyt-defective mutants killed insects more slowly but were capable of localisation in any type of tissue. Cyt toxin expression appeared to be restricted to the digestive tract where it probably assisted in crossing over the first cell barrier and, thus, accelerating bacterial diffusion into the aphid haemocel. Finally, the presence of bacteria on the surface of leaves hosting infected aphids indicated that the insects could be vectors of the bacteria.

  19. Dickeya dadantii, a plant pathogenic bacterium producing Cyt-like entomotoxins, causes septicemia in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Costechareyre

    Full Text Available Dickeya dadantii (syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi is a plant pathogenic bacteria that harbours a cluster of four horizontally-transferred, insect-specific toxin genes. It was recently shown to be capable of causing an acute infection in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Hemiptera. The infection route of the pathogen, and the role and in vivo expression pattern of these toxins, remain unknown. Using bacterial numeration and immunolocalization, we investigated the kinetics and the pattern of infection of this phytopathogenic bacterium within its insect host. We compared infection by the wild-type strain and by the Cyt toxin-deficient mutant. D. dadantii was found to form dense clusters in many luminal parts of the aphid intestinal tract, including the stomach, from which it invaded internal tissues as early as day 1 post-infection. Septicemia occurred soon after, with the fat body being the main infected tissue, together with numerous early infections of the embryonic chains showing embryonic gut and fat body as the target organs. Generalized septicemia led to insect death when the bacterial load reached about 10(8 cfu. Some individual aphids regularly escaped infection, indicating an effective partial immune response to this bacteria. Cyt-defective mutants killed insects more slowly but were capable of localisation in any type of tissue. Cyt toxin expression appeared to be restricted to the digestive tract where it probably assisted in crossing over the first cell barrier and, thus, accelerating bacterial diffusion into the aphid haemocel. Finally, the presence of bacteria on the surface of leaves hosting infected aphids indicated that the insects could be vectors of the bacteria.

  20. Boron Supply Enhances Aluminum Tolerance in Root Border Cells of Pea (Pisum sativum by Interacting with Cell Wall Pectins

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    Xue Wen Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop growth in acidic soils. Boron (B alleviates Al toxicity in plants, which is mainly considered to be due to the formation of Rhamnogalacturonan II-B (RGII-B complexes, which helps to stabilize the cytoskeleton. It is unclear yet whether this is due to the increasing of net negative charges and/or further mechanisms. Kinetics of Al accumulation and adsorption were investigated using entire cells, cell wall and pectin of root border cells (RBCs of pea (Pisum sativum, to reveal the mechanism of B in interacting with alkali-soluble and chelator-soluble pectin for an increased Al tolerance in RBCs. The results show that B could rescue RBCs from Al-induced cell death by accumulating more Al in the cell wall, predominately in alkali-soluble pectin. Boron also promotes Al3+ adsorption and inhibits Al3+ desorption from alkali-soluble pectin. Thus, more Al3+ is immobilized within the alkali-soluble pectin fraction and less in the chelator-soluble pectin, rendering Al3+ less mobile. Boron induces an increase of RG-II (KDO,2-keto-3-deoxyoctonic acid content for forming more borate-RGII complexes, and the decrease of pectin methyl-esterification, thus creates more negative charges to immobilize Al3+ in cell wall pectin. The study provides evidence that abundant B supply enhances the immobilization of Al in alkali-soluble pectin, thus most likely reducing the entry of Al3+ into the symplast from the surroundings.

  1. Metabolism of inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate by a soluble enzyme fraction from pea (Pisum sativum) roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobak, B.K.; Watkins, P.A.C.; Roberts, K.; Chattaway, J.A.; Dawson, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Metabolism of the putative messenger molecule D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P 3 ] in plant cells has been studied using a soluble fraction from pea (pisum sativum) roots as enzyme source and [5- 32 P]Ins(1,4,5)P 3 and [2- 3 H]Ins(1,4,5)P 3 as tracers. Ins(1,4,5)P 3 was rapidly converted into both lower and higher inositol phosphates. The major dephosphorylation product was inositol (4,5) bisphosphate [Ins(4,5)P 2 ] whereas inositol(1,4)bisphosphate [Ins(1,4)P 2 ] was only present in very small quantities throughout a 15 minute incubation period. In addition to these compounds, small amounts of nine other metabolites were produced including inositol and inositol(1,4,5,X)P 4 . Dephosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 to Ins(4,5)P 2 was dependent on Ins(1,4,5)P 3 concentration and was partially inhibited by the phosphohydrolase inhibitors 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, glucose 6-phosphate, and p-nitrophenylphosphate. Conversion of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 to Ins(4,5)P 2 and Ins(1,4,5,X)P 4 was inhibited by 55 micromolar Ca 2+ . This study demonstrates that enzymes are present in plant tissues which are capable of rapidly converting Ins(1,4,5)P 3 and that pathways of inositol phosphate metabolism exist which may prove to be unique to the plant kingdom

  2. Localization of acid phosphatase activity in the apoplast of root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum

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    Marzena Sujkowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the activity of acid phosphatase (AcPase in the apoplast of pea root nodule were investigated. The activity was determined using lead and cerium methods. The results indicated a following sequence of AcPase activity appearance during the development of the infection thread: 1 low AcPase activity appears in the outer part of cells of symbiotic bacteria; 2 bacteria show increased AcPase activity, and the enzyme activity appears in the thread walls; 3 activity exhibits also matrix of the infection thread; 4 bacteria just before their release from the infection threads show high AcPase activity; 5 AcPase activity ceases after bacteria transformation into bacteroids. The increase in bacterial AcPase activity may reflect a higher demand for inorganic phosphorus necessary for propagation of the bacteria within the infection threads and/or involved in bacteria release from the infection threads.

  3. Fatty acid composition of pea (Pisum sativum L., var. Citrina during seed growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, F.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil content and fatty acid composition of four sizes of raw and canned pea were determined. In the seed growth period, considered (from 4.7 mm to 10.2 mm of diameter, crude oil content was not modified and its level showed a mean value of 2.52% on a dry weight basis. Generally, in raw pea the following fatty acid composition was obtained C18:2 > C18:1 > C16:0 > C18:3 > C18:0; however, during seed growth C18:2 increased and C18:3 decreased. These variations are discussed in relation to environmental temperature and cotyledon/testa ratio modifications during seed growth. A low oil content, which remains constant during seed growth, and a lower linolenic acid content in fine (FN size showed that when Citrina variety is used for processing, peas should be harvested when a FN size are predominant in crop. During canning, crude oil content is not modified in any size, but some differences in fatty acid composition occur between raw and canned peas because, in general, the degree of saturation decreases during canning.Se ha determinado el contenido lipídico y la composición en ácidos grasos de cuatro tamaños de guisantes crudos y enlatados. Durante el período de crecimiento considerado (4.7-10.2 mm de diámetro, el contenido lipídico no es modificado, y el contenido medio fue de 2.52% expresado en peso seco. En general, el predominio de los ácidos grasos en el guisante crudo se ajusta a la fórmula C18:2 > C18:1 > C16:C > C18:3 > C18:0; sin embargo, durante el crecimiento de la semilla incrementa C18:2 y decrecen C18:0 y C18:3. Estas variaciones son discutidas en relación a la temperatura ambiental y a la modificación del cociente cotiledón/testa durante el crecimiento de la semilla. Un bajo contenido lipídico, que permanece constante durante el crecimiento de la semilla, y el menor contenido de C18:3 en el tamaño FN (8.3-8.8 mm, ponen de manifiesto que cuando la variedad Citrina es utilizada para la elaboración de productos

  4. SACCHARIFICATION ENZYMATIC APPLIED TO THE FRESH PEA POD VARIETY PISUM SATIVUM L. FOR OBTAIN REDUCING SUGAR.

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    Simón Andrés González González

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the process of enzymatic saccharification applied to the fresh pea pod variety Santa Isabel, a content rich vegetable material lignocellulose, which can be exploited to obtain sugars. For effects of the research they thought about to apply nine treatments keeping in mind: the solvent type (deionized water and sulfuric acid, the enzyme type (Novozymes® and Alkozym®, the so much dilution relationship of the solvent like of the enzyme, one also kept in mind the use or not of autoclave like part of the treatment applied to the samples. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the sugars was carried out for liquid chromatography of high resolution (HPLC using a team LC-2010 AHT Shimadzu®, with a detector of refraction index RID-10A Shimadzu® and a column Shodex SC1011, using deionized water as the phase mobile. Similarly it was a chemical characterization of the pea pods certain percentage of moisture, protein, fiber, fat and ash. It also performed analysis of Lignin, holocellulose, cellulose and hemicellulose. The Statistical analysis for the content of sugars was performed by analysis of variance and comparison of means by Tukey test, in order to find the best treatment; Finding that treatment 8, the works best for obtaining glucose and fructose, but considering not to use sulfuric acid, the best treatment would be 4; which applies to all three sugars identified and quantified (sucrose, glucose and fructose. For data obtained from the analysis of lignin, holocellulose, cellulose and hemicellulose was applied to analysis of variance to establish whether the samples subjected to hydrolysis treatments show a significant difference in content of lignocellulosic material

  5. Antifungal genes expressed in transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) do not affect root colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Jagroop Gill; Jacobsen, Hans-Jörg; Cahill, James F; Hall, Linda M

    2017-10-01

    Genetically modified crops have raised concerns about unintended consequences on non-target organisms including beneficial soil associates. Pea transformed with four antifungal genes 1-3 β glucanase, endochitinase, polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins, and stilbene synthase is currently under field-testing for efficacy against fungal diseases in Canada. Transgenes had lower expression in the roots than leaves in greenhouse experiment. To determine the impact of disease-tolerant pea or gene products on colonization by non-target arbuscular mycorrhizae and nodulation by rhizobium, a field trial was established. Transgene insertion, as single gene or stacked genes, did not alter root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF) or root nodulation by rhizobium inoculation in the field. We found no effect of transgenes on the plant growth and performance although, having a dual inoculant with both AMF and rhizobium yielded higher fresh weight shoot-to-root ratio in all the lines tested. This initial risk assessment of transgenic peas expressing antifungal genes showed no deleterious effect on non-target organisms.

  6. Effects of moderately enhanced levels of ozone on the acyl lipid composition and dynamical properties of plasma membranes isolated from garden pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Sellden, G.; Sandelius, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Plasma membranes were isolated from leaves of 16-day-old garden pea, Pisum sativum L., that had been grown in the absence or presence of 65 nl l(-1) ozone for 4 days prior to membrane isolation, Plasma membranes from ozone-fumigated plants contained significantly more acyl lipids per protein than....../stigmasterol and lipid/protein ratios, and suggesting that ozone-fumigated pea plants may be more susceptible to freezing injuries....... lipids, as well as in PC and PE, The amount of free sterols per protein was unaltered, but the percentage of campesterol increased, concomitant with a decrease in stigmasterol, The dynamical properties of the isolated plasma membranes were assessed using Laurdan fluorescence spectroscopy, which monitors...

  7. Organic cultivation of field pea by use of products with different action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgieva, N.; Nikolova, I.; Delchev, G.

    2015-07-01

    The possibilities for increasing the productivity and control of the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.) in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) organic cultivation by the use of following bioproducts NeemAzal T/S and Pyrethrum FS-EC (insecticides), applied individually and in combination with Polyversum (growth regulator and fungicide) and Biofa (foliar fertilizer), as well as to evaluate the stability of the used mixtures were studied. Synthetic products Nurelle D and Flordimex 420 (alone and in combination) were used as a standard. The products were applied once (at budding stage) or twice (at budding and flowering stages). The results showed that forage pea productivity was influenced positively by the application of all organic products. The plants treated with the organic combinations formed an average yield of 3190.2 kg/ha, which was only 4.7% lower than that for the synthetic combination of Flordimex+Nurelle D. The highest yield was produced under application of two mixtures: Biofa+Pyrethrum and Polyversum+Pyrethrum at budding and flowering stages (22.0 and 21.8% above untreated control, respectively). These combinations were also distinguished for their most pronounced protective effect against the attack of the pea weevil and decrease in its numbers of 37.0 and 38.5%, respectively. Pyrethrum was distinguished for a lower degree of damaged seeds and a toxic effect against the pea weevil in comparison with NeemAzal. Technologically the most valuable variant, which united high stability, productivity and protection against pea weevil, was the combination of Biofa+Pyrethrum applied twice. Further investigations are indispensible to expand the range of products (bioinsectides, biofertilizers and growth regulators), which provides good insect control and high prod. (Author)

  8. Dry fractionation for production of functional pea protein concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Vissers, A.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2013-01-01

    Dry milling in combination with air classification was evaluated as an alternative to conventional wet extraction of protein from yellow field peas (Pisum sativum). Major advantages of dry fractionation are retention of native functionality of proteins and its lower energy and water use. Peas were

  9. Some new aspects of the pea (Pisum sativum L. root nodule ultrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Borucki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unequal cell divisions were observed in the meristem of pea root nodule. Since after such divisions only the bigger cells become infected then those divisions play a significant role in the formation of the three-dimensional structure of the bacteroidal tissue. In the infected cells of the young ineffective bacteroidal tissue the first host reaction to the incompatibility of the symbiotic system is the RER membranes aggregation. In effective symbiosis RER membranes form permanent sites of contact with the peribacteroidal membranes thus connecting all the symbiosoms in the cell. Possibly that ensures the synchronisation of the differentiation processes of the bacteroids and/or their simultaneous degeneration. The presence of membraneous structures in the form of rings is a characteristic feature of effective bacteroids. It is postulated that the structures are directly connected with nitrogen assimilation. Structures X and Y which are present in the bacteroids of the effective and ineffective symbiosis may be connected with the adaptation of bacterial cells to lowered oxygen pressure in bacteroidal tissue and their transformation (structures X into bacteroids. The presence of the cytoplasm (or cytoplasmatic remnants of the infected cells was observed in the intercellular spaces. It is sugested that it is a way, so far unknown, of the gas diffusion regulation in bacteroidal tissue.

  10. Nuclear-cytoplasmic conflict in pea (Pisum sativum L. is associated with nuclear and plastidic candidate genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunits.

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    Vera S Bogdanova

    Full Text Available In crosses of wild and cultivated peas (Pisum sativum L., nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility frequently occurs manifested as decreased pollen fertility, male gametophyte lethality, sporophyte lethality. High-throughput sequencing of plastid genomes of one cultivated and four wild pea accessions differing in cross-compatibility was performed. Candidate genes for involvement in the nuclear-plastid conflict were searched in the reconstructed plastid genomes. In the annotated Medicago truncatula genome, nuclear candidate genes were searched in the portion syntenic to the pea chromosome region known to harbor a locus involved in the conflict. In the plastid genomes, a substantial variability of the accD locus represented by nucleotide substitutions and indels was found to correspond to the pattern of cross-compatibility among the accessions analyzed. Amino acid substitutions in the polypeptides encoded by the alleles of a nuclear locus, designated as Bccp3, with a complementary function to accD, fitted the compatibility pattern. The accD locus in the plastid genome encoding beta subunit of the carboxyltransferase of acetyl-coA carboxylase and the nuclear locus Bccp3 encoding biotin carboxyl carrier protein of the same multi-subunit enzyme were nominated as candidate genes for main contribution to nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility in peas. Existence of another nuclear locus involved in the accD-mediated conflict is hypothesized.

  11. Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Conflict in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Is Associated with Nuclear and Plastidic Candidate Genes Encoding Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, Vera S.; Zaytseva, Olga O.; Mglinets, Anatoliy V.; Shatskaya, Natalia V.; Kosterin, Oleg E.; Vasiliev, Gennadiy V.

    2015-01-01

    In crosses of wild and cultivated peas (Pisum sativum L.), nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility frequently occurs manifested as decreased pollen fertility, male gametophyte lethality, sporophyte lethality. High-throughput sequencing of plastid genomes of one cultivated and four wild pea accessions differing in cross-compatibility was performed. Candidate genes for involvement in the nuclear-plastid conflict were searched in the reconstructed plastid genomes. In the annotated Medicago truncatula genome, nuclear candidate genes were searched in the portion syntenic to the pea chromosome region known to harbor a locus involved in the conflict. In the plastid genomes, a substantial variability of the accD locus represented by nucleotide substitutions and indels was found to correspond to the pattern of cross-compatibility among the accessions analyzed. Amino acid substitutions in the polypeptides encoded by the alleles of a nuclear locus, designated as Bccp3, with a complementary function to accD, fitted the compatibility pattern. The accD locus in the plastid genome encoding beta subunit of the carboxyltransferase of acetyl-coA carboxylase and the nuclear locus Bccp3 encoding biotin carboxyl carrier protein of the same multi-subunit enzyme were nominated as candidate genes for main contribution to nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility in peas. Existence of another nuclear locus involved in the accD-mediated conflict is hypothesized. PMID:25789472

  12. Evaluation of the Susceptibility of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, to a Selection of Novel Biorational Insecticides using an Artificial Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Amin; Van Damme, Els J.M.; Smagghe, Guy

    2009-01-01

    An improved technique was developed to assay the toxicity of insecticides against aphids using an artificial diet. The susceptibility of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) was determined for a selection of novel biorational insecticides, each representing a novel mode of action. Flonicamid, a novel systemic insecticide with selective activity as feeding blocker against sucking insects, showed high toxicity against first-instar A. pisum nymphs with an LC50 of 20.4 μg/ml after 24 h, and of 0.24 µg/ml after 72 h. The toxicity was compared with another feeding blocker, pymetrozine, and the neonicotinoid, imidacloprid. In addition, four insect growth regulators were tested. The chitin synthesis inhibitor flufenoxuron, the juvenile hormone analogue pyriproxyfen, and the azadirachtin compound Neem Azal-T/S showed strong effects and reduced the aphid population by 50% after 3 days of treatment at a concentration of 7–9 µg/ml. The ecdysone agonist tested, halofenozide, was less potent. In conclusion, the improved aphid feeding apparatus can be useful as a miniature screening device for insecticides against different aphid pests. The present study demonstrated rapid and strong toxicity of flonicamid, and other biorational insecticides towards A. pisum. PMID:20053120

  13. Infection dynamic of symbiotic bacteria in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum gut and host immune response at the early steps in the infection process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Renoz

    Full Text Available In addition to its obligatory symbiont Buchnera aphidicola, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum can harbor several facultative bacterial symbionts which can be mutualistic in the context of various ecological interactions. Belonging to a genus where many members have been described as pathogen in invertebrates, Serratia symbiotica is one of the most common facultative partners found in aphids. The recent discovery of strains able to grow outside their host allowed us to simulate environmental acquisition of symbiotic bacteria by aphids. Here, we performed an experiment to characterize the A. pisum response to the ingestion of the free-living S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T in comparison to the ingestion of the pathogenic Serratia marcescens Db11 at the early steps in the infection process. We found that, while S. marcescens Db11 killed the aphids within a few days, S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T did not affect host survival and colonized the whole digestive tract within a few days. Gene expression analysis of immune genes suggests that S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T did not trigger an immune reaction, while S. marcescens Db11 did, and supports the hypothesis of a fine-tuning of the host immune response set-up for fighting pathogens while maintaining mutualistic partners. Our results also suggest that the lysosomal system and the JNK pathway are possibly involved in the regulation of invasive bacteria in aphids and that the activation of the JNK pathway is IMD-independent in the pea aphid.

  14. Infection dynamic of symbiotic bacteria in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum gut and host immune response at the early steps in the infection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoz, François; Noël, Christine; Errachid, Abdelmounaim; Foray, Vincent; Hance, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    In addition to its obligatory symbiont Buchnera aphidicola, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum can harbor several facultative bacterial symbionts which can be mutualistic in the context of various ecological interactions. Belonging to a genus where many members have been described as pathogen in invertebrates, Serratia symbiotica is one of the most common facultative partners found in aphids. The recent discovery of strains able to grow outside their host allowed us to simulate environmental acquisition of symbiotic bacteria by aphids. Here, we performed an experiment to characterize the A. pisum response to the ingestion of the free-living S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T in comparison to the ingestion of the pathogenic Serratia marcescens Db11 at the early steps in the infection process. We found that, while S. marcescens Db11 killed the aphids within a few days, S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T did not affect host survival and colonized the whole digestive tract within a few days. Gene expression analysis of immune genes suggests that S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T did not trigger an immune reaction, while S. marcescens Db11 did, and supports the hypothesis of a fine-tuning of the host immune response set-up for fighting pathogens while maintaining mutualistic partners. Our results also suggest that the lysosomal system and the JNK pathway are possibly involved in the regulation of invasive bacteria in aphids and that the activation of the JNK pathway is IMD-independent in the pea aphid.

  15. Genetic variation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) demonstrates the importance of root but not shoot C/N ratios in the control of plant morphology and reveals a unique relationship between shoot length and nodulation intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludidi, Ndiko N; Pellny, Till K; Kiddle, Guy; Dutilleul, Christelle; Groten, Karin; VAN Heerden, Philippus D R; Dutt, Som; Powers, Stephen J; Römer, Peter; Foyer, Christine H

    2007-10-01

    Nodule numbers are regulated through systemic auto-regulatory signals produced by shoots and roots. The relative effects of shoot and root genotype on nodule numbers together with relationships to organ biomass, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) status, and related parameters were measured in pea (Pisum sativum) exploiting natural genetic variation in maturity and apparent nodulation intensity. Reciprocal grafting experiments between the early (Athos), intermediate (Phönix) and late (S00182) maturity phenotypes were performed and Pearson's correlation coefficients for the parameters were calculated. No significant correlations were found between shoot C/N ratios and plant morphology parameters, but the root C/N ratio showed a strong correlation with root fresh and dry weights as well as with shoot fresh weight with less significant interactions with leaf number. Hence, the root C/N ratio rather than shoot C/N had a predominant influence on plant morphology when pea plants are grown under conditions of symbiotic nitrogen supply. The only phenotypic characteristic that showed a statistically significant correlation with nodulation intensity was shoot length, which accounted for 68.5% of the variation. A strong linear relationship was demonstrated between shoot length and nodule numbers. Hence, pea nodule numbers are controlled by factors related to shoot extension, but not by shoot or root biomass accumulation, total C or total N. The relationship between shoot length and nodule numbers persisted under field conditions. These results suggest that stem height could be used as a breeding marker for the selection of pea cultivars with high nodule numbers and high seed N contents.

  16. Changes in the protein patterns in pea (Pisum sativum L.) roots under the influence of long- and short-term chilling stress and post-stress recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badowiec, Anna; Swigonska, Sylwia; Weidner, Stanisław

    2013-10-01

    Amongst many factors restricting geographical distribution of plants and crop productivity, low temperature is one of the most important. To gain better understanding of the molecular response of germinating pea (Pisum sativum L.) to low temperature, we investigated the influence of long and short chilling stress as well as post-stress recovery on the alterations in the root proteomes. The impact of long stress was examined on the pea seeds germinating in the continuous chilling conditions of 10 °C for 8 days (LS). To examine the impact of short stress, pea seeds germinating for 72 h in the optimal temperature of 20 °C were subjected to 24-h chilling (SS). Additionally, both stress treatments were followed by 24 h of recovery in the optimal conditions (accordingly LSR and SR). Using the 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS protein identification, it was revealed, that most of the proteins undergoing regulation under the applied conditions were implicated in metabolism, protection against stress, cell cycle regulation, cell structure maintenance and hormone synthesis, which altogether may influence root growth and development in the early stages of plant life. The obtained results have shown that most of detected alterations in the proteome patterns of pea roots are dependent on stress duration. However, there are some analogical response pathways which are triggered regardless of stress length. The functions of proteins which accumulation has been changed by chilling stress and post-stress recovery are discussed here in relation to their impact on pea roots development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel lipid transfer protein from the pea Pisum sativum: isolation, recombinant expression, solution structure, antifungal activity, lipid binding, and allergenic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Ivan V; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Finkina, Ekaterina I; Melnikova, Daria N; Rumynskiy, Eugene I; Arseniev, Alexander S; Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V

    2016-04-30

    Plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) assemble a family of small (7-9 kDa) ubiquitous cationic proteins with an ability to bind and transport lipids as well as participate in various physiological processes including defense against phytopathogens. They also form one of the most clinically relevant classes of plant allergens. Nothing is known to date about correlation between lipid-binding and IgE-binding properties of LTPs. The garden pea Pisum sativum is widely consumed crop and important allergenic specie of the legume family. This work is aimed at isolation of a novel LTP from pea seeds and characterization of its structural, functional, and allergenic properties. Three novel lipid transfer proteins, designated as Ps-LTP1-3, were found in the garden pea Pisum sativum, their cDNA sequences were determined, and mRNA expression levels of all the three proteins were measured at different pea organs. Ps-LTP1 was isolated for the first time from the pea seeds, and its complete amino acid sequence was determined. The protein exhibits antifungal activity and is a membrane-active compound that causes a leakage from artificial liposomes. The protein binds various lipids including bioactive jasmonic acid. Spatial structure of the recombinant uniformly (13)C,(15)N-labelled Ps-LTP1 was solved by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. In solution the unliganded protein represents the mixture of two conformers (relative populations ~ 85:15) which are interconnected by exchange process with characteristic time ~ 100 ms. Hydrophobic residues of major conformer form a relatively large internal tunnel-like lipid-binding cavity (van der Waals volume comes up to ~1000 Å(3)). The minor conformer probably corresponds to the protein with the partially collapsed internal cavity. For the first time conformational heterogeneity in solution was shown for an unliganded plant lipid transfer protein. Heat denaturation profile and simulated gastrointestinal digestion assay showed that Ps

  18. Systemic Induction of the Defensin and Phytoalexin Pisatin Pathways in Pea (Pisum sativum against Aphanomyces euteiches by Acetylated and Nonacetylated Oligogalacturonides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Selim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligogalacturonides (OGs are known for their powerful ability to stimulate the plant immune system but little is known about their mode of action in pea (Pisum sativum. In the present study, we investigated the elicitor activity of two fractions of OGs, with polymerization degrees (DPs of 2–25, in pea against Aphanomyces euteiches. One fraction was nonacetylated (OGs − Ac whereas the second one was 30% acetylated (OGs + Ac. OGs were applied by injecting the upper two rachises of the plants at three- and/or four-weeks-old. Five-week-old roots were inoculated with 105 zoospores of A. euteiches. The root infection level was determined at 7, 10 and 14 days after inoculation using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Results showed significant root infection reductions namely 58, 45 and 48% in the plants treated with 80 µg OGs + Ac and 59, 56 and 65% with 200 µg of OGs − Ac. Gene expression results showed the upregulation of genes involved in the antifungal defensins, lignans and the phytoalexin pisatin pathways and a priming effect in the basal defense, SA and ROS gene markers as a response to OGs. The reduction of the efficient dose in OGs + Ac is suggesting that acetylation is necessary for some specific responses. Our work provides the first evidence for the potential of OGs in the defense induction in pea against Aphanomyces root rot.

  19. Effect of various levels of nitrogen fertilizer on some vegetative growth attributes of pea ( pisum sativum L.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achakzai, A.K.K.

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted for 2 consecutive growing years on few growth characteristics of four pea cultivars viz., Arkel, Climax, Green Feast and Olympia in response to different levels of N fertilizer under the climatic conditions of district Mastung, Balochistan. Six N fertilizer levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg N ha/sup -1/) plus a constant dose of 60+40 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and K/sub 2/ O ha/sub -1/ were prepared, and designated as T/sub 1/ to T/sub 7/, respectively. These N levels were applied to each sub-plot (except T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/) in two split doses first at the time of flowering and second at the time of pod formation to quantify how much N fertiliser's required by different pea cultivars to realize the highest growth and yield. Results exhibited that in response to various levels of added N fertilizer, all mentioned growth attributes were found to be highly significant (P<0.01). However, cultivars response was found significant only for secondary branches plant/sub -1/, plant height and shoot moisture contents. A maximum number of primary branches plant/sup -1/ (6.94), secondary branches plant/sub -1/ (10.72), plant height (69.77 cm), number of leaves plant/sup -1/ (19.75), leaf length (11.81 cm) and shoot moisture contents (571.0 g kg/sup -1/) was recorded with application of 100 kg N ha/sup -1/. The interaction between fertilizer and pea cultivars was found non-significant for all mentioned attributes in the trial. Results further revealed that all growth parameters were slightly to highly significant and positively correlated among themselves as well as with their fresh pod yields. These attributes could be used a suitable selection criteria for predicting the fresh pod yield and also for breeding purposes in peas. (author)

  20. Relationship between C2H2 reduction, H2 evolution and 15N2 fixation in root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif

    1983-01-01

    for N2 reduction, is often stated as the relative efficiency (1-H2/C2H2). This factor varied significantly (P 2 and N2, expressed as the H2/N2 ratio, was independent of plant age, however. This discrepancy and the observation......The quantitative relationship between C2H2 reduction, H2 evolution and 15N2 fixation was investigated in excised root nodules from pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Bodil) grown under controlled conditions. The C2H2/N2 conversion factor varied from 3.31 to 5.12 between the 32nd and the 67th day...... after planting. After correction for H2 evolution in air, the factor (C2H2-H2)/N2 decreased to values near the theoretical value 3, or in one case to a value significantly (P 2 production but used...

  1. Rhythmical changes of a level nitric oxide (NO in roots etiolated seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L. and influence of exogenous calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Glyan’ko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studied time dynamics (during 60 mines a level oxide nitric (NO in cross cuts of roots 2 – day etiolated seedlings of pea sowing (Pisum sativum L. by use of fluorescent probe DAF-2DA and a fluorescent microscope depending on action exogenous calcium (Ca2+. During an exposition of seedlings on water, solution CaCl2 are shown fluctuation in level NO in roots – his increase and decrease that testifies to the certain rhythm in generation NO. Exogenous factors (Ca2+ change time dynamics of level NO in comparison with variant “water”. Ca2+chelate EGTA removes action exogenous calcium on rhythmical change of a level NO in roots. Results are discussed in aspect of close interference of signaling systems and molecules (Ca2+, NO, Н2О2.

  2. Influence of s-Triazines on Some Enzymes of Carbohydrates and Nitrogen Metabolism in Leaves of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. T.; Singh, B.; Salunkhe, D. K.

    1971-01-01

    Foliar applications of 2 milligrams per liter of 2-chloro-4,6-bis (ethylamino)-s-triazine, 2-methylmercapto-4-ethylamino-6-isobutylamino-s-triazine, and 2-methoxy-4-isopropylamino-6-butylamino-s-triazine caused increases in the activities of starch phosphorylase, pyruvate kinase, cytochrome oxidase, and glutamate dehydrogenase 5, 10, and 15 days after treatment in the leaves of 3-week-old seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The results indicate that sublethal concentrations of s-triazine compounds affect the physiological and biochemical events in plants which favor more utilization of carbohydrates for nitrate reduction and synthesis of amino acids and proteins. PMID:16657830

  3. Effect of Processing on the in Vitro and in Vivo Protein Quality of Yellow and Green Split Peas (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosworthy, Matthew G; Franczyk, Adam J; Medina, Gerardo; Neufeld, Jason; Appah, Paulyn; Utioh, Alphonsus; Frohlich, Peter; House, James D

    2017-09-06

    In order to determine the effect of extrusion, baking, and cooking on the protein quality of yellow and green split peas, a rodent bioassay was conducted and compared to an in vitro method of protein quality determination. The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) of green split peas (71.4%) was higher than that of yellow split peas (67.8%), on average. Similarly, the average Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) of green split peas (69%) was higher than that of yellow split peas (67%). Cooked green pea flour had lower PDCAAS and DIAAS values (69.19% and 67%) than either extruded (73.61%, 70%) or baked (75.22%, 70%). Conversely, cooked yellow split peas had the highest PDCCAS value (69.19%), while extruded yellow split peas had the highest DIAAS value (67%). Interestingly, a strong correlation was found between in vivo and in vitro analysis of protein quality (R 2 = 0.9745). This work highlights the differences between processing methods on pea protein quality and suggests that in vitro measurements of protein digestibility could be used as a surrogate for in vivo analysis.

  4. Characterization and expression of dehydrins in wild Egyptian pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization and expression of dehydrins in wild Egyptian pea ( Pisum sativum L.) ... was isolated and characterized from wild Egyptian pea (Pisum sativum L.) ... DNA sequence indicated an open reading frame which predicts a protein ...

  5. Repetitive DNA in the pea (Pisum sativum L. genome: comprehensive characterization using 454 sequencing and comparison to soybean and Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navrátilová Alice

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extraordinary size variation of higher plant nuclear genomes is in large part caused by differences in accumulation of repetitive DNA. This makes repetitive DNA of great interest for studying the molecular mechanisms shaping architecture and function of complex plant genomes. However, due to methodological constraints of conventional cloning and sequencing, a global description of repeat composition is available for only a very limited number of higher plants. In order to provide further data required for investigating evolutionary patterns of repeated DNA within and between species, we used a novel approach based on massive parallel sequencing which allowed a comprehensive repeat characterization in our model species, garden pea (Pisum sativum. Results Analysis of 33.3 Mb sequence data resulted in quantification and partial sequence reconstruction of major repeat families occurring in the pea genome with at least thousands of copies. Our results showed that the pea genome is dominated by LTR-retrotransposons, estimated at 140,000 copies/1C. Ty3/gypsy elements are less diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty1/copia. This is in part due to a large population of Ogre-like retrotransposons which alone make up over 20% of the genome. In addition to numerous types of mobile elements, we have discovered a set of novel satellite repeats and two additional variants of telomeric sequences. Comparative genome analysis revealed that there are only a few repeat sequences conserved between pea and soybean genomes. On the other hand, all major families of pea mobile elements are well represented in M. truncatula. Conclusion We have demonstrated that even in a species with a relatively large genome like pea, where a single 454-sequencing run provided only 0.77% coverage, the generated sequences were sufficient to reconstruct and analyze major repeat families corresponding to a total of 35–48% of the genome. These data

  6. Characterization of Pea Vicilin. 1. Denoting Convicilin as the α-Subunit of the Pisum Vicilin Family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Kane, F.E.; Happe, R.P.; Vereijken, J.M.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van

    2004-01-01

    Vicilin, a major globulin protein of pea that has been described as "extremely heterogeneous in terms of its polypeptide composition", was extracted from pea flour under alkaline conditions and subsequently fractionated by salt under acid conditions. This procedure induced the separation of vicilin

  7. Estudio de la adaptabilidad de cuatro genotipos de guisante (pisum setivum L. var. macrocarpon bajo dos densidades y en dos localidades Adaptabilidad study of varieties of edible pod pea Pisum sativum L. Var. macrocarpon under two densities and two locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar Miguel

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó y comparó el comportamiento agronómico de cuatro variedades de guisante Pisum satim L. var. macrocarpon bajo dos densidades y en dos localidades
    mediante cultivos a libre exposición durante dos semestres. Se midieron variables de tipo morfofisiológico y reproductivo. Las cuatro variedades se adaptaron bien al medio ambiente ya que sus rendimientos fueron bastante aceptables. La variedad Super Mel Sugar logró los mejores puntajes
    en rendimiento y calidad además de la mayor capacidad de adaptación. La variedad Oregon Sugar Pod 11 con buenos rendimientos presentó problemas en el mercado por la deformación de sus vainas. La variedad Dwarf Grey Sugar produce vainas pequeñas cuya calidad se limita a
    mercados de congelación o industrialización pero con altos rendimientos. La variedad Mammouth Melting Sugar obtuvo los rendimientos más bajos, sin embargo su calidad y popularidad la colocan en los primeros lugares del mercado actualmente.
    Four experiments were set to evaluate and to compare the agronomical behavior of four varieties of edible pod pea (Pisum satívum L. var. macrocarpon under two den sities and, two locations during two semesters of 1989. Some of the
    morphophysiologic and reproductive variables showed highly significant differences for varieties and locations. The varieties also showed good adaptation to the environments used since their yield was quite good. Super Mel Sugar varlety had the best production and quality: Oregon Sugar Pod II, with high productions, had some problems of marketing because of the deformated pods; Dwarf Grey Sugar produced small pods no good for fresh market; Mammouth Melting Sugar had the lowest production, even though its quality, and popularity in the fresh markets.

  8. Selection of reference genes for expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris (Hemiptera, Aphidiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Yang

    Full Text Available To facilitate gene expression study and obtain accurate qRT-PCR analysis, normalization relative to stable expressed housekeeping genes is required. In this study, expression profiles of 11 candidate reference genes, including actin (Actin, elongation factor 1 α (EF1A, TATA-box-binding protein (TATA, ribosomal protein L12 (RPL12, β-tubulin (Tubulin, NADH dehydrogenase (NADH, vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB, 28S ribosomal RNA (28S, 16S ribosomal RNA (16S, and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, under different developmental stages and temperature conditions, were investigated. A total of four analytical tools, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method, were used to evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls. According to RefFinder, a web-based software tool which integrates all four above-mentioned algorithms to compare and rank the reference genes, SDHB, 16S, and NADH were the three most stable house-keeping genes under different developmental stages and temperatures. This work is intended to establish a standardized qRT-PCR protocol in pea aphid and serves as a starting point for the genomics and functional genomics research in this emerging insect model.

  9. Early nodule senescence is activated in symbiotic mutants of pea (Pisum sativum L.) forming ineffective nodules blocked at different nodule developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serova, Tatiana A; Tsyganova, Anna V; Tsyganov, Viktor E

    2018-04-03

    Plant symbiotic mutants are useful tool to uncover the molecular-genetic mechanisms of nodule senescence. The pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants SGEFix - -1 (sym40), SGEFix - -3 (sym26), and SGEFix - -7 (sym27) display an early nodule senescence phenotype, whereas the mutant SGEFix - -2 (sym33) does not show premature degradation of symbiotic structures, but its nodules show an enhanced immune response. The nodules of these mutants were compared with each other and with those of the wild-type SGE line using seven marker genes that are known to be activated during nodule senescence. In wild-type SGE nodules, transcript levels of all of the senescence-associated genes were highest at 6 weeks after inoculation (WAI). The senescence-associated genes showed higher transcript abundance in mutant nodules than in wild-type nodules at 2 WAI and attained maximum levels in the mutant nodules at 4 WAI. Immunolocalization analyses showed that the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate accumulated earlier in the mutant nodules than in wild-type nodules. Together, these results showed that nodule senescence was activated in ineffective nodules blocked at different developmental stages in pea lines that harbor mutations in four symbiotic genes.

  10. Genome-wide SNP identification, linkage map construction and QTL mapping for seed mineral concentrations and contents in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu; Coyne, Clarice J; Grusak, Michael A; Mazourek, Michael; Cheng, Peng; Main, Dorrie; McGee, Rebecca J

    2017-02-13

    Marker-assisted breeding is now routinely used in major crops to facilitate more efficient cultivar improvement. This has been significantly enabled by the use of next-generation sequencing technology to identify loci and markers associated with traits of interest. While rich in a range of nutritional components, such as protein, mineral nutrients, carbohydrates and several vitamins, pea (Pisum sativum L.), one of the oldest domesticated crops in the world, remains behind many other crops in the availability of genomic and genetic resources. To further improve mineral nutrient levels in pea seeds requires the development of genome-wide tools. The objectives of this research were to develop these tools by: identifying genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using genotyping by sequencing (GBS); constructing a high-density linkage map and comparative maps with other legumes, and identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL) for levels of boron, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorous, sulfur, and zinc in the seed, as well as for seed weight. In this study, 1609 high quality SNPs were found to be polymorphic between 'Kiflica' and 'Aragorn', two parents of an F 6 -derived recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Mapping 1683 markers including 75 previously published markers and 1608 SNPs developed from the present study generated a linkage map of size 1310.1 cM. Comparative mapping with other legumes demonstrated that the highest level of synteny was observed between pea and the genome of Medicago truncatula. QTL analysis of the RIL population across two locations revealed at least one QTL for each of the mineral nutrient traits. In total, 46 seed mineral concentration QTLs, 37 seed mineral content QTLs, and 6 seed weight QTLs were discovered. The QTLs explained from 2.4% to 43.3% of the phenotypic variance. The genome-wide SNPs and the genetic linkage map developed in this study permitted QTL identification for pea seed mineral

  11. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of an enzymatic protein hydrolysate from yellow field pea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Fatou; Vuong, Tri; Duarte, Jairo; Aluko, Rotimi E; Matar, Chantal

    2012-02-01

    Enzymatic protein hydrolysates of yellow pea seed have been shown to possess high anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities. The aim of this work was to confirm the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating activities of an enzymatic protein hydrolysate of yellow field pea seeds. The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of peptides from yellow field pea proteins (Pisum sativum L.) were investigated in LPS/IFN-γ-activated RAW 264.7 NO⁻ macrophages. The immunomodulating potential of pea protein hydrolysate (PPH) was then studied in a murine model. Pea protein hydrolysate, after a 12 h pre-treatment, showed significant inhibition of NO production by activated macrophages up to 20%. Moreover, PPH significantly inhibited their secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α- and IL-6, up to 35 and 80%, respectively. Oral administration of PPH in mice enhanced the phagocytic activity of their peritoneal macrophages and stimulated the gut mucosa immune response. The number of IgA+ cells was elevated in the small intestine lamina propria, accompanied by an increase in the number of IL-4+, IL-10+ and IFN-γ+ cells. This was correlated to up-regulation of IL-6 secretion by small intestine epithelial cells (IEC), probably responsible for B-cell terminal differentiation to IgA-secreting cells. Moreover, PPH might have increased IL-6 production in IECs via the stimulation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) family, especially TLR2 and TLR4 since either anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 was able to completely abolish PPH-induced IL-6 secretion. Enzymatic protein degradation confers anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating potentials to pea proteins, and the resulted peptides could be used as an alternative therapy for the prevention of inflammatory-related diseases.

  12. The effect of Orobanche crenata infection severity in faba bean, field pea, and grass pea productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Fernandez-Aparicio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Broomrape weeds (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp. are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops i.e. faba bean, field pea and grass pea. Regression functions modelled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2 and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The proportion of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host-parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than 4 parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size

  13. The Effect of Orobanche crenata Infection Severity in Faba Bean, Field Pea, and Grass Pea Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Flores, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape weeds ( Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops, i.e., faba bean, field pea, and grass pea. Regression functions modeled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2, and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea, and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The increase of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host-parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than four parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size. In contrast

  14. Association mapping of starch chain length distribution and amylose content in pea (Pisum sativum L.) using carbohydrate metabolism candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Margaret A; Shaw, Martin; Cooper, Rebecca D; Frew, Tonya J; Butler, Ruth C; Murray, Sarah R; Moya, Leire; Coyne, Clarice J; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M

    2017-08-01

    Although starch consists of large macromolecules composed of glucose units linked by α-1,4-glycosidic linkages with α-1,6-glycosidic branchpoints, variation in starch structural and functional properties is found both within and between species. Interest in starch genetics is based on the importance of starch in food and industrial processes, with the potential of genetics to provide novel starches. The starch metabolic pathway is complex but has been characterized in diverse plant species, including pea. To understand how allelic variation in the pea starch metabolic pathway affects starch structure and percent amylose, partial sequences of 25 candidate genes were characterized for polymorphisms using a panel of 92 diverse pea lines. Variation in the percent amylose composition of extracted seed starch and (amylopectin) chain length distribution, one measure of starch structure, were characterized for these lines. Association mapping was undertaken to identify polymorphisms associated with the variation in starch chain length distribution and percent amylose, using a mixed linear model that incorporated population structure and kinship. Associations were found for polymorphisms in seven candidate genes plus Mendel's r locus (which conditions the round versus wrinkled seed phenotype). The genes with associated polymorphisms are involved in the substrate supply, chain elongation and branching stages of the pea carbohydrate and starch metabolic pathways. The association of polymorphisms in carbohydrate and starch metabolic genes with variation in amylopectin chain length distribution and percent amylose may help to guide manipulation of pea seed starch structural and functional properties through plant breeding.

  15. Gibberellin (GA3) enhances cell wall invertase activity and mRNA levels in elongating dwarf pea (Pisum sativum) shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L. L.; Mitchell, J. P.; Cohn, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1993-01-01

    The invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) purified from cell walls of dwarf pea stems to homogeneity has a molecular mass of 64 kilodaltons (kD). Poly(A)+RNA was isolated from shoots of dwarf pea plants, and a cDNA library was constructed using lambda gt11 as an expression vector. The expression cDNA library was screened with polyclonal antibodies against pea cell wall invertase. One invertase cDNA clone was characterized as a full-length cDNA with 1,863 base pairs. Compared with other known invertases, one homologous region in the amino acid sequence was found. The conserved motif, Asn-Asp-Pro-Asn-Gly, is located near the N-terminal end of invertase. Northern blot analysis showed that the amount of invertase mRNA (1.86 kb) was rapidly induced to a maximal level 4 h after GA3 treatment, then gradually decreased to the control level. The mRNA level at 4 h in GA3-treated peas was fivefold higher than that of the control group. The maximal increase in activity of pea cell wall invertase elicited by GA3 occcured at 8 h after GA3 treatment. This invertase isoform was shown immunocytochemically to be localized in the cell walls, where a 10-fold higher accumulation occurred in GA3-treated tissue compared with control tissue. This study indicates that the expression of the pea shoot cell-wall invertase gene could be regulated by GA3 at transcriptional and/or translational levels.

  16. A Combined Comparative Transcriptomic, Metabolomic, and Anatomical Analyses of Two Key Domestication Traits: Pod Dehiscence and Seed Dormancy in Pea (Pisum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Smýkal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the agriculture was one of the turning points in human history, and a central part of this was the evolution of new plant forms, domesticated crops. Seed dispersal and germination are two key traits which have been selected to facilitate cultivation and harvesting of crops. The objective of this study was to analyze anatomical structure of seed coat and pod, identify metabolic compounds associated with water-impermeable seed coat and differentially expressed genes involved in pea seed dormancy and pod dehiscence. Comparative anatomical, metabolomics, and transcriptomic analyses were carried out on wild dormant, dehiscent Pisum elatius (JI64, VIR320 and cultivated, indehiscent Pisum sativum non-dormant (JI92, Cameor and recombinant inbred lines (RILs. Considerable differences were found in texture of testa surface, length of macrosclereids, and seed coat thickness. Histochemical and biochemical analyses indicated genotype related variation in composition and heterogeneity of seed coat cell walls within macrosclereids. Liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry and Laser desorption/ionization–mass spectrometry of separated seed coats revealed significantly higher contents of proanthocyanidins (dimer and trimer of gallocatechin, quercetin, and myricetin rhamnosides and hydroxylated fatty acids in dormant compared to non-dormant genotypes. Bulk Segregant Analysis coupled to high throughput RNA sequencing resulted in identification of 770 and 148 differentially expressed genes between dormant and non-dormant seeds or dehiscent and indehiscent pods, respectively. The expression of 14 selected dormancy-related genes was studied by qRT-PCR. Of these, expression pattern of four genes: porin (MACE-S082, peroxisomal membrane PEX14-like protein (MACE-S108, 4-coumarate CoA ligase (MACE-S131, and UDP-glucosyl transferase (MACE-S139 was in agreement in all four genotypes with Massive analysis of cDNA Ends (MACE data. In

  17. EFFECT OF GAMMA RADIATION OF MACRO MUTATIONS, EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY UNDER M2 GENERATION IN PEA (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind KUMAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to study the spectrum of macro mutants, effectiveness and efficiency of different doses of gamma rays in pea variety (Arkel. The seeds were treated with gamma rays viz., 00kR (dry control, 05kR, 10kR, 15kR, 20kR, 25kR, 30kR, 35kR, 40kR (dry seeds and presoaked seeds of the same was exposed to 00kR (wet control, 05kR, 10kR, 15kR, 20kR (kilo Roentgen biological damage was calculated in M1 and M2 generation based on lethality (L and pollen sterility. The irradiated seeds were sown in the M1 field their respective controls and harvested in bulk to raise the M2 generation in Randomized Block Design (RBD with three replications. The spectrum of macro mutants i.e., plant stature (tall, dwarf, small dwarf, maturity (early, late, pod shape (bold, long, short, seed colour (brown, light white, light green and seed shape (small, bold, wrinkled were observed in M2 generation. The usefulness of any mutagen in plant breeding depends not only on its effectiveness but also upon if efficiency. Mutagenic effectiveness is a measure of the frequency of mutations induced by unit mutagen dose, whereas mutagenic efficiency is measure of proportion of mutations in relation of undesirable changes like lethality and sterility are used for gamma rays. A result of the indicated positive relationship in M2 generation with macro mutation, effectiveness and efficiency was found to be highest at lowest doses.

  18. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Moschini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for producing animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among possible alternatives, the heat-processed legume grains seem interesting for dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to evaluate flaked pea and faba beans as substitute for soybean meal in diets for Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a C concentrate (110 g/kg soybean meal, no pea and faba beans was compared to a PF concentrate (150 g/kg flaked pea, 100 g/kg flaked faba beans, no soybean meal. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa in experiment 1 and hay plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Concentrate intake, milk yield and milk quality (rennet coagulation traits included were similar between feeding groups. Parameters on the grab faecal samples, as empirical indicators of digestibility, had a smaller (Pvs 3.1 and 2.3 vs 2.8%, respectively for PF and C in experiment 1 and 2. Some blood indicators of nitrogen metabolism (protein, albumin, urea were similar between the feeding groups. The inclusion of pea and faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a total substitution of soybean meal.

  19. Characterisation by proteomics of peribacteroid space and peribacteroid membrane preparations from peaPisum sativum¤) symbiosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saalbach, G.; Erik, P.; Wienkoop, S.

    2002-01-01

    PBM preparations from pea symbiosomes always contain abundant amounts of bacteroid proteins as a contaminate. Interestingly, in addition to a few PS/PBM proteins a number of endomembrane proteins (less likely representing a contaminate), including V-ATPase, BIP, and an integral membrane protein known...

  20. The influence of water stress on biomass and N accumulation, N partitioning between above and below ground parts and on N rhizodeposition during reproductive growth of pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahieu, S.; Germont, Florent; Aveline, A.

    2009-01-01

    are estimated. Moreover, grain legume crops are largely influenced by water stress while the world area exposed to drought periods may increase in the coming years due to global warming. This work aims to quantify biomass and N accumulation, N partitioning between above and below ground parts and N...... rhizodeposition by a pea (Pisum sativum L.) when influenced by water stress. In a controlled environment, pea plants were exposed to a severe drought or not stressed, either at flowering or during pod filling. N rhizodeposition was measured using the split root method and plants were harvested at the end...... of flowering (59 days after sowing, DAS 59), at the end of the drought period applied during pod filling (DAS 74) and at maturity (DAS 101). Water stress strongly affected pea dry weight and N accumulation. In both stressed treatments, nodule biomass and N content were reduced by about 65% in the absence...

  1. Radiosensitivity study in the germination and growth of the pea Pisum sativum L, with seeds exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilguan, J.; Carrasco, J.; Marquez, V.

    2016-10-01

    Seeds of Pisum sativum L. were irradiated in a "6"0Co irradiator belonging to the Subsecretaria de Control y Aplicaciones Nucleares del Ecuador (SCAN), the dose rate at the irradiation time was 4.86 Gy/min. The seeds were grouped in packs of 100 units and exposed at doses of 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180 and 200 Gy. The number of effective germinations, the days for germination, the main stem thickness, the number of branches and the size of the plant were evaluated. To validate the experimentation, the data were analyzed statistically by tests of homogeneity of variances, way ANOVA and Scheffe analysis to each variable. The number of effective germinations was given to 100% for 20 and 40 Gy then decreases to a higher dose reaching 20% to 200 Gy, being the average of the proof near to 90%. Increased germination stimulation at treatment at 20 Gy with an average of 5.0 days was evidenced. Treatment at doses of 20, 40 and 60 Gy generate a plant size greater than the proof whose mean is 68.30 cm. The mean number of branches of the proof is 5.3 with a standard deviation of 0.675, which is greater at doses of 20 and 40 Gy. In the study, is concluded that better results are obtained when irradiating seeds Pisum sativum L, between 20 and 60 Gy. (Author)

  2. Analysis of Protein by Spectrophotometric and Computer Colour Based Intensity Method from Stem of Pea (Pisum sativum at Different Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Mushtaque Shah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study proteins were analyzed from pea plants at three different growth stages of stem by spectrophotometric i.e Lowry and Bradford quantitative methods and computer colour intensity based method. Though Spectrophotometric methods are regarded as classical methods, we report an alternate computer based method which gave comparable results. Computer software was developed the for protein analysis which is easier, time and money saving method as compared to the classical methods.

  3. Responses of Pea (Pisum sativum Growth and Yield to Residual Effects of Organic and Urea Fertilizers from Previous Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of organic manure in organic farming and long-term mineralization may lead to residual effects on the succeeding crop. So, residual effects of combined cattle manure and urea fertilizer of previous crop (black cumin on growth and yield of pea were examined in a randomized complete block design. Treatments included of  cattle manure (CM, urea (U, three ratios of CM+U full dose application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2 and three ratios of CM+U split application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2, and unfertilized control to previous crop (black cumin in 2012. Pea planted without any fertilizer in 2013. There was no significant difference between control and residual of urea treatment for some parameters including dry matter in flowering stage, plant nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, plant height, yield components, grain yield and biological yield of pea. Biological and grain yields were greater under both residual of cattle manure treatment and integrated treatments compared to residual of urea treatment. The highest grain yield (4000 kg ha-1 was observed in residual of CM:U full dosed application treatment, to the extent that grain yield in this treatment indicated a 1.5-fold increase in comparison with residual of urea treatment. The highest biological yield (8325 kg ha-1 was obtained in residual of CM treatment, though it was not significant different from that of residual of CM:U (1:2 treatments. In general, although residual of urea fertilizer did not leave a notable effect on pea production, but production of this crop relying on residual of cattle manure deems effective to lowering of fertilization cost and ameliorating environmental contaminations.

  4. Effect Of Heavy Metals Stress On Enzyme Activities And Chlorophyll Content Of Pea (Pisum Sativum) And Tomato Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.M.; El Maghrabi, G.; Hashem, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress on the chlorophyll in addition to catalase and peroxidase activities were studied in the leaves and roots of tomato and pea plants. Four groups were studied; the control group and other three groups treated with heavy metals. Group 1HM was treated with 1.0 mg CuSO 4 /l + 0.2 mg CdSO 4 /l + 0.1 mg ZnNO 3 /l every 10 days while in group 5 HM and group 10 HM, the doses were 5 and 10 folds the 1 HM, respectively. Leaves and roots of control and heavy metal-stressed plants were harvested after 10 weeks for chlorophyll determination. The chlorophyll content, especially chlo. b, was significantly decreased with the increase in heavy metals stress in both plants. In leaves of heavy metal-stressed plants, the peroxidase level in different stress levels was increased with increasing stress levels in tomato and pea while catalase was unchanged in leaves of tomato in comparison with the control. The activities of catalase and peroxidase in roots of heavy metal-stressed plants were increased in group 5 HM then decreased in case of group 10 HM. The increase in enzyme activities demonstrated that tomato is more tolerant to heavy metals than pea

  5. Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Strategic nutrient management requires that the most limiting nutrient is known in order to provide a foundation for designing effective and sustainable soil fertility management ...

  6. Extruded pea (Pisum sativum as alternative to soybean protein for dairy cows feeding in organic Alpine farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the use of extruded pea as an alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of dairy cattle raised in organic Alpine farms. The research was carried out in a commercial organic dairy farm located in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy and it considered two separate periods of cows’ lactation: early and late lactation. According to the traditional management practice of alpine dairy herds with the seasonal calving of the cows in early winter, the former period was carried out during the cold season when cows were housed indoors, while the latter period started after the transfer of the entire herd to an alpine pasture for the summer grazing. In both periods, 16 cows of Rendena breed were equally assigned to 2 experimental groups. The dietary forage (meadow hay in early lactation or pasture in late lactation was supplemented to one group of cows with a Control concentrate in which soybean expeller, sunflower expeller and wheat bran were the main protein feeds. Soybean proteins were replaced by extruded peas in the Soy-free concentrate given to the other group of cows. The daily amount of concentrate was adjusted to the individual milk yield on a weekly basis adopting ratios of 0.360 and 0.125 kg of DM per kg of milk in early and late lactation periods, respectively. Cows receiving Soy-free concentrate showed a higher milk yield than the Control cows in both lactation periods (18.7 vs 17.5 kg/d in early lactation and 9.3 vs 8.6 kg/d on pasture, respectively. Milk fat and protein were not affected by the diet at any stage of lactation, while a higher concentration of milk urea was observed in milk samples taken from Soy-free cows in both periods of the study. This result could have been promoted by the higher soluble fraction of extruded pea proteins in comparison to that of soybean expeller. Cows feeding behaviour was monitored only in the early lactation period and despite of the different amount of concentrate consumed by

  7. Importance of fruit wall in seed yield of pea (Pisum Sativum L.) and mustard (Brassica campestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna-Chopra, R.; Sinha, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    Dry weight changes in fruit wall and seed during fruit development in the pea and mustard were suggestive of the importance of fruit wall during seed development. So the relative photosynthetic potential of leaves and reproductive parts in the above crops were studied. In addition, the translocation of current photosynthates to the developing seeds was also assessed when fruits and leaves were fed 14 CO 2 independently. Considerable amount of photosynthetic carboxylase activity was observed in the fruit wall of both pea and mustard on unit fresh weight, chlorophyll and organ basis. On unit chlorophyll basis fruit wall had several times more activity than leaves. Both fruit wall as well as leaves translocated current photosynthates to the developing fruits. In the early stages, translocation from the leaves was more efficient but in the later stages, more translocation occurred from the fruit wall as compared with the leaves. Above results are discussed in relation to the importance of reproductive organs in the developing seeds. (author)

  8. Determination of cadmium and lead species and phytochelatins in pea (Pisum sativum) by HPLC-ICPMS and HPLC-ESIMSn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baralkiewicz, D.; Magorzata, K.; Piechalak, A.; Tomaszewska, B.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Trace elements play an important role in the functioning of life on our planet. Some of them can be highly toxic, whereas others can be essential. These effects are very often related to particular form in which the element is present. Often these different chemical forms of a particular element or its compounds are referred to as 'species'. Cadmium and lead are widespread heavy metal pollutants released into the environment by human activities. The presence of Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ in the environment leads to a numerous disturbances in many metabolic processes in plants. Inhibition of growth is a major symptom. Hyphenated techniques, such as HPLC-ICPMS and HPLC-ESIMSn seem to be the best analytical instruments to study metal speciation in plants. In our study, we used hyphenated techniques to identify compounds engaged in Cd and Pb metabolism and to perform analysis of metal complexes induced in Pisum sativum exposed to cadmium and lead. These identified compounds might be valuable source of information to study metal accumulation mechanism for bioremediation processes. (author)

  9. Non-photosynthetic mechanisms of growth reduction in pea (Pisum sativum L.) exposed to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.; Mepsted, R.; Wellburn, A.R.; Paul, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    Pisum sativum cv. Guido grown under controlled environment conditions was exposed to either low or high UV-B radiation (2·2 or 9·9 kJ m –2 d –1 plant-weighted UV-B, respectively). Low or high UV-B was maintained throughout growth (LL and HH treatments, respectively) or plants were transferred between treatments when 22 d old (giving LH and HL treatments). High UV-B significantly reduced plant dry weight and significantly altered plant morphology. The growth and morphology of plants transferred from low to high UV-B were little affected, when compared with those of LL plants. By contrast, plants moved from high to low UV-B showed marked increases in growth when compared with HH plants. This contrast between HL and LH appeared to be related to the effect of UV-B on plant development. Exposure to high UV-B throughout development consistently reduced leaf areas. In fully expanded leaves there was no significant UV-B effect on cell area and reduced leaf area could be attributed to reduced cell number, suggesting effects on leaf primordia. Further reductions in the leaf area of younger leaves were the result of the slower development rate of plants grown at high UV-B, which also resulted in significant reductions in leaf number. (author)

  10. Nitrogen acquisition by pea and barley and the effect of their crop residues on available nitrogen for subsequent crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen acquisition by field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on a sandy loam soil and availability of N in three subsequent sequences of a cropping system were studied in an outdoor pot experiment. The effect of crop residues on the N availability was evaluated....... The dry matter production and total N uptake of a spring barley crop following pea or barley, with a period of unplanted soil in the autumn/winter, were significantly higher after pea than after barley. The barley crop following pea and barley recovered 11% of the pea and 8% of the barley residue N...

  11. Raw and extruded pea (Pisum sativum and lupin (Lupinus albusvar. Multitalia seeds as protein sources in weaned piglets’ diets: effect on growth rate and blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 42 days trial was carried out using 140 piglets weaned at 28 days of age. The piglets were allocated according to  weight and sex to the 5 dietary treatments with 7 replicates for each treatments (4 pens x 4 castrated males and 3 pens  x 4 females. The piglets were fed according to the following experimental design: 1 control diet (CTR with soybean  meal (SBM 44% c.p. as protein source; 2 CRT diets with 200 g/kg of raw pea (Pisum sativum (RP; 3 CTR diet with  200 g/kg extruded pea (EP; 4 CRT diet with 170 g/kg raw lupin (Lupinus albusvar. Multitalia (RL; 5 CTR diet with  170 g/kg of extruded lupin (EL. During the trial, animals were weighed at 0 - 21 and 42 days from the start of the trial.  Feed intake was monitored and feed conversion ratio was calculated for the periods 0-21 d and 22-42 d. At the end of  the trial, blood samples were taken for 14 animals for each dietary treatment (2 animals per replicate and analysed for  total protein, urea and liver activity (ALT, AST and ALP parameters. Average daily weight gain and feed intake did not  differ according to dietary treatments whereas during the total experimental period (0-42 d, feed conversion ratio was  higher for EP vsCTR diet (2.35 vs2.09, respectively; P   compared with diets containing the raw ingredients did not differ. Feed conversion ratio for the RP was numerically high-  er than for the EP (2.35 vs2.16 and 2.76 vs2.32, respectively during 22-42 d and 0-42 d periods. Blood parameters  did not show significant difference among dietary treatments except for higher total protein for CTR diet vsRL diet, EL  and RP (67.3 vs62.2, 62.8 and 63.6 g/l, respectively; PvsRL  and RL (4.7 vs3.7 and 3.8 mmol/l respectively; P 

  12. Genetic study of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants with changed shape and/or dentation of leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the morphological differences between normal plants and mutants (due to irradiation) with different shape and/or dentation of leaflets and to evaluate their productivity and genetic potential. Dry seeds have been submitted to gamma irradiation with doses 100 Gy, 150 Gy and 200 Gy.The mutants studies in this research introduce an important source for further investigation of genetics of the mutant traits - dentation of leaflets, shape and especially flowering time that is controlled by genetically determined responses to photo period and temperature. Due to the clear phenotypic expression of the shape and leaves in some plants it is considered that the development of the leaves mutants is and important finding for pea genetics making tham valuable morphological markers for genetic investigations

  13. Partner, Kristal and Dukat: A new generation of the Novi Sad spring protein pea (Pisum sativum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Vojislav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 and 2008, the trials of the Department of Variety Protection and Registration of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia were carried out on four locations, including three new Novi Sad spring pea line, L-536, L-537 and L-538, and the control cultivar Javor. In average, the grain yield of all three lines was higher in comparison to the control cultivar, with the highest average yield in Partner (2732 kg ha-1. All three cultivars have shown that in favourable years may give grain yields higher than 3500 kg ha-1. The crude protein content ranged from 278.3 g kg-1, in Javor, to 307.0 g kg-1, in Dukat. .

  14. Fungi isolated from soil before the seeding and after harvest of pea (Pisum sativum L. after application of bio-control product EM 1 TM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Okorski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was performed during the years 2003- -2005. An influence of EM (Effective Microorganisms on the composition and number of fungi isolated from soil was found in the experiment. A total of 18111 fungal cultures were isolated from the roots of pea at flowering stage. The highest amount and the lowest diversity of fungi were obtained from rhizosphere of pea treated with pesticides (3257 colonies. The greatest diversity of fungi was found in the case of rhizosphere and rhizoplane, where EM was used in soil with the supplement of pesticides. The greatest amount and diversity of fungi were found from the plant roots of the control object. During the flowering stage, the fungi most frequently isolated from soil belonged to the genus Penicillium (40.78% of all isolates and Fusarium (33.37% of all isolates.

  15. Response Of Pea Pisum Sativum L. To Organic And Inorganic N-Fertilization With Or Without Benzofurantriol Using 15N Stable Isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sherbieny, A.A.E.; Dahdouh, S.M.; Soliman, S.M.; Ahmed, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on sandy soil at Inshas, Sharkia Governorate-Egypt under drip irrigation system for evaluating the response of pea crop to different combination of organic and inorganic fertilizer with or without bio-fertilizers. The results indicated that organic compost added solely or in combination with mineral fertilizer was useful as increased growth parameter (fresh weight) of pea plant this effect was more pronounced when combined with bio-fertilizers. N-uptake in hay under Rhizobium bio-fertilization caused marked increased under all condition of N-fertilization or no N-fertilization. Also, the results showed that nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff) in hay was the highest with application of 100% mineral fertilizer without using bio-fertilizer

  16. Study of Pea Accessions for Development of an Oilseed Pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khodapanahi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Global interest in stable energy resources coupled with growing demand for bio-oils in various conventional and arising industries has renewed the importance of vegetable oil production. To address this global interest, oilseed production has been increased in recent decades by different approaches, such as extending the cultivation area of oil crops, or breeding and growing genetically modified plants. In this study, pea (Pisum sativum L. accessions were screened for lipid content using a rapid extraction method. This method quantifies lipid concentration in pea seeds and was developed by assessing and comparing the results of existing extraction methods used for canola and soybean, the top two Canadian oilseeds. Seeds of 151 field pea accessions were grown to maturity in 2009 and 2010 at McGill University (Quebec, Canada. Overall, lipid concentration in pea seeds ranged from 0.9 to 5.0%. Among several seed characteristics, only seed shape (wrinkled verses round had a significant effect on the total lipid production in the seeds. Peas are a valuable source of protein and starch, but the lipid concentration in their seeds has been undervalued. This research supports the idea of developing a novel dual-purpose oilseed pea that emulates the protein and oil production in soybean seeds while being conveniently adapted to a colder climate.

  17. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants in response to ambient ozone at a rural site in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, I.M.; Basahi, J.M.; Hassan, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Egyptian pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L. cultivars Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory) grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered (FA) or non-filtered air (NF) for five consecutive years (2009–2013) at a rural site in northern Egypt. Net photosynthetic rates (P N ), stomatal conductance (g s ), intercellular CO 2 (C i ) and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Ozone (O 3 ) was found to be the most prevalent pollutant common at the rural site and is suspected to be involved in the alteration of the physiological parameters measured in the present investigation. P N of different cultivars were found to respond similarly; decreases of 23, 29 and 39% were observed in the cultivars Perfection, Little Marvel and Victory, respectively (averaged over the five years) due to ambient O 3 . The maximum impairment in P N was recorded in the cultivar Victory (46%) in 2013 when the highest O 3 levels were recorded (90 nL L −1 ). The average stomatal conductance decreased by 20 and 18% in the cultivars Little Marvel and Perfection, respectively, while the average stomatal conductance increased on average by 27% in the cultivar Victory. A significant correlation was found between P N and C i , indicating the importance of non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis, especially in the cultivar Victory. The P N vs. Ci curves were fitted to a non-rectangular hyperbolic model. The actual quantum yield (Φ PSII ) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) were significantly decreased in the leaves of plants exposed to NF air. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was increased in all cultivars. Exposure to NF air caused reductions in chlorophyll (Chl a) of 19, 16 and 30% in the Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory cultivars, respectively. - Highlights: • Ozone (O 3 ) concentrations recorded were within the ranges of phytotoxicity. • O 3 has a clear influence on the physiological parameters. • O 3 decreased Photosynthetic rates, chlorophyll

  18. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants in response to ambient ozone at a rural site in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, I.M.; Basahi, J.M. [Air Pollution Laboratory (APL), Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Hassan, I.A., E-mail: ihassan_eg@yahoo.com [Air Pollution Laboratory (APL), Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, 21526 El Shatby, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2014-11-01

    Egyptian pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L. cultivars Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory) grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered (FA) or non-filtered air (NF) for five consecutive years (2009–2013) at a rural site in northern Egypt. Net photosynthetic rates (P{sub N}), stomatal conductance (g{sub s}), intercellular CO{sub 2} (C{sub i}) and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Ozone (O{sub 3}) was found to be the most prevalent pollutant common at the rural site and is suspected to be involved in the alteration of the physiological parameters measured in the present investigation. P{sub N} of different cultivars were found to respond similarly; decreases of 23, 29 and 39% were observed in the cultivars Perfection, Little Marvel and Victory, respectively (averaged over the five years) due to ambient O{sub 3}. The maximum impairment in P{sub N} was recorded in the cultivar Victory (46%) in 2013 when the highest O{sub 3} levels were recorded (90 nL L{sup −1}). The average stomatal conductance decreased by 20 and 18% in the cultivars Little Marvel and Perfection, respectively, while the average stomatal conductance increased on average by 27% in the cultivar Victory. A significant correlation was found between P{sub N} and C{sub i}, indicating the importance of non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis, especially in the cultivar Victory. The P{sub N} vs. Ci curves were fitted to a non-rectangular hyperbolic model. The actual quantum yield (Φ{sub PSII}) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) were significantly decreased in the leaves of plants exposed to NF air. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was increased in all cultivars. Exposure to NF air caused reductions in chlorophyll (Chl a) of 19, 16 and 30% in the Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory cultivars, respectively. - Highlights: • Ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations recorded were within the ranges of phytotoxicity. • O{sub 3} has a clear influence on the physiological

  19. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  20. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum, faba beans (Vicia fabavar. minor and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as protein sources in broiler diets: effect of extrusion on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion of pea seeds (Pisum sativum (PS, faba bean (Vicia faba, variety minor (FB and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (LS on broiler performance were evaluated. Four hundred sixty two 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments (3 pens per treatment/22 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the base diet (control diet was corn (48.8%, 53.7% and 57%, solvent-extracted soy- bean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, corn oil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The amounts of PS, FB and LS used on an as fed basis were: PS and extruded PS (EPS: 353 (1-10d-old, 356 (11-28d-old and 350 (29- 42d-old g/kg; FB and extruded FB (EFB: 479 (1-10d-old, 497 (11-28d-old and 500 (29-42d old g/kg; LS and extrud- ed LS (ELS: 360 (1-10d-old and 300 (11-42d-old g/kg. High levels of pea (350 g/kg and faba bean (500 g/kg did not show negative effects on body weight gain (BWG and bird feed intake compared to control. Lupin at the 300 g/kg level reduced (P< 0.05 the BWG during the finishing period (22 to 42 d, however the effect disappeared over the whole experimental period (1-42 d compared to the control group. The ELS group had a lower (P< 0.01 feed intake com- pared to the control group and to the LS group. The feed conversion rate (FCR was similar among groups for the whole experimental period; however during the grower period the FCR was higher (P< 0.05 for the PS, FB and EFB groups com- pared to the control group. Birds consuming the PS diet had a reduced (P< 0.05 eviscerated carcass yield compared to the control group. The breast meat percent yield was higher (P< 0.01 for birds consuming the FB and EFB diets compared to the control

  1. Development and production response of edible and forage varieties of pea (Pisum sativum L. to temporary soil drought under different levels of phosphorus application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The change in weather conditions in Central Europe has led to the need to review current standards for fertilization of pulse crops. Physiologists claim that phosphorus may play a significant role in raising tolerance to a temporary lack of water in the soil. The objective of the 2-year field study (2011–2012 was to assess the effect of phosphorus application on characteristics of the aerial and underground plant parts of different varieties of pea and elements of their yield structure. The study showed that a higher phosphorus application rate led to significant intensification of photosynthesis and thus to more rapid vegetative development in the plants, manifested as a greater number of leaves and greater leaf area. The higher rate of phosphorus application significantly influenced the flowering process of pea during soil drought. The number of flowering nodes increased significantly as phosphorus application increased. The plants fertilized with the higher level of phosphorus produced a greater weight of root nodules with more Rhizobium bacterial colonies. Increased phosphorus fertilization had a significant role during the year of permanent semi-drought, 2012, resulting in a significantly greater number and weight of pods as well as a greater number and weight of seeds per plant, and thus a larger final yield.

  2. Antagonism of Trichoderma spp. strains against pea (Pisum sativum L. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Eduardo Checa Coral

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The antagonistic effectiveness of native strains of Trichoderma spp. on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi. in vitro, greenhouse and field conditions, were evaluated. in vitro conditions, the antagonistic capacity of 12 strains of Trichoderma spp., C2, C7, C12 and C21 strains, exhibited a better behavior measured by the following variables: inhibition halo and mycelial growth. In greenhouse conditions, the four strains, which showed the best in vitro antagonistic behavior, were evaluated using a DIA experimental design with factorial arrangement for three factors, which corresponded to strain, concentration and dose. The results of this evaluation, showed that C12 and C21 strains at doses of 20 mL, and at concentrations of 108 and 106 conidia.mL-1, respectively. The best antagonistic response was determined by variables as follows: plant height, fresh root weight and incidence. Under field conditions, the evaluations were carried out in the municipalities of Ipiales, Pupiales and Gualmatán, in the department of Nariño, Colombia. In each location, a BCA experimental design was used with four treatments and five replicates, treatments were as follows: C12 strains at 108 concentration, C21 at 106 concentration, chemical control and absolute control. In Gualmatan location, C12 and C21 strains, showed no antagonistic capacity, whereas in Ipiales and Pupiales locations, strain C12, presented a lower incidence of F. oxysporum than the control, but with no effect on yields. In Pupiales location, C21 strain surpassed in performance to the control treatment, even though the two treatments had similar incidence.

  3. Induction of host defences by Rhizobium during ineffective nodulation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) carrying symbiotically defective mutations sym40 (PsEFD), sym33 (PsIPD3/PsCYCLOPS) and sym42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Kira A; Tsyganova, Anna V; Brewin, Nicholas J; Tikhonovich, Igor A; Tsyganov, Viktor E

    2015-11-01

    Rhizobia are able to establish a beneficial interaction with legumes by forming a new organ, called the symbiotic root nodule, which is a unique ecological niche for rhizobial nitrogen fixation. Rhizobial infection has many similarities with pathogenic infection and induction of defence responses accompanies both interactions, but defence responses are induced to a lesser extent during rhizobial infection. However, strong defence responses may result from incompatible interactions between legumes and rhizobia due to a mutation in either macro- or microsymbiont. The aim of this research was to analyse different plant defence reactions in response to Rhizobium infection for several pea (Pisum sativum) mutants that result in ineffective symbiosis. Pea mutants were examined by histochemical and immunocytochemical analyses, light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy and quantitative real-time PCR gene expression analysis. It was observed that mutations in pea symbiotic genes sym33 (PsIPD3/PsCYCLOPS encoding a transcriptional factor) and sym40 (PsEFD encoding a putative negative regulator of the cytokinin response) led to suberin depositions in ineffective nodules, and in the sym42 there were callose depositions in infection thread (IT) and host cell walls. The increase in deposition of unesterified pectin in IT walls was observed for mutants in the sym33 and sym42; for mutant in the sym42, unesterified pectin was also found around degrading bacteroids. In mutants in the genes sym33 and sym40, an increase in the expression level of a gene encoding peroxidase was observed. In the genes sym40 and sym42, an increase in the expression levels of genes encoding a marker of hypersensitive reaction and PR10 protein was demonstrated. Thus, a range of plant defence responses like suberisation, callose and unesterified pectin deposition as well as activation of defence genes can be triggered by different pea single mutations that cause perception of an otherwise

  4. Growth performance and carcass and meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets containing micronized-dehulled peas (Pisum sativum cv. Spirale) as a substitute of soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-07-01

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of diets containing peas on productive traits, carcass yields, and fatty acid profiles (breast and drumstick meat) of broiler chickens. Hubbard strain broiler chicks, divided into 2 groups, received from 14 d to slaughtering age (49 d) a wheat middlings-based diet containing soybean (190 g/kg) or micronized-dehulled peas (400 g/kg) as the main protein source. The inclusion of peas did not significantly change the growth performance of birds. The pea level had no effect on the dressing percentage, the percentage of breast or drumstick muscles, and abdominal fat. The muscles of birds fed the pea diet had significant (P < 0.05) lower L* (lightness) and b* (yellowness, drumstick muscle) values and fat content. Instead, total collagen and water-holding capacity values were higher in the pea treatment. The polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration in breast and drumstick muscles was significantly increased with the alternative protein source inclusion, whereas the saturated fatty acid was similar among treatments. The n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of the broiler drumstick meat decreased significantly in the pea group. Dietary pea inclusion improved the saturation index of meat without altering atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. It can be concluded that the pea treatment tested had a positive effect on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens.

  5. Effect of salinization, Rbizobium inoculation, genotypic variation and P-application on drymatter yield and utilization of P by pea (Pisum sativum L.) and lentil (Lens Culinaris Medic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dravid, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Irrigation with saline water significantly reduced the drymatter production and uptake of phosphorus in both pea and lentil crops. Between the two crops pea was found relativley more tolerant to a given level of salinity. Soil application of phosphate in association with rbizobium inoculated seeds enhanced drymatter production, total P uptake, P derived from fertilizer and its utilization in both the crops. Amongst the cultivars tested, KPSD-5 of pea and PL-639 of lentil extracted native soil phosphorus more efficiently while cultivar Pusa-10 of pea and cultivar PL-406 of lentil showed more affinity towards applied phosphorus. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Repetitive DNA in the pea (Pisum sativum L.) genome: comprehensive characterization using 454 sequencing and comparison to soybean and Medicago truncatula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macas, Jiří; Neumann, Pavel; Navrátilová, Alice

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2007), s. 427 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500960702; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : DNA * Pisum sativum L. Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.180, year: 2007

  7. Individual members of the light-harvesting complex II chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene family in pea (Pisum sativum) show differential responses to ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackerness, A.H.S.; Liu, L.; Thomas, B.; Thompson, W.F.; Jordan, B.R.; White, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    In the present work, UV-B-repressible and UV-B-inducible genes were identified in the pea, Pisum sativum L., by rapid amplification of 3′ cDNA ends through use of the polymerase chain reaction. Of the UV-B-repressible clones, psUVRub and psUVDeh represent genes encoding Rubisco activase and dehydrin, respectively. A third clone, psUVZinc, did not correspond closely in overall nucleotide sequence to any gene registered in GenBank; however, a short deduced peptide shared similarity with the photosystem-II reaction center X protein of the chlorophyll a+c-containing alga, Odontella sinensis. The UV-B-inducible clones, psUVGluc, psUVAux and psUVRib, were related to genes encoding β-1, 3-glucanase, auxin-repressed protein, and a 40S ribosomal protein, respectively. The modulation of these pea genes indicates how UV-B, through its actions as a physical stressor, affects several important physiological processes in plants. (author)

  8. Effect of micronized pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) as a substitute of soybean meal on tissue fatty acid composition and quality of broiler chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiczorowska, Bożena; Samolińska, Wioletta; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of micronized pea seeds introduced into feed mixes for broilers on the slaughter yield, blood lipid parameters, content of fatty acids in selected tissues, and meat quality. The studies involved 150 1-day-old Ross 308 chicks split into three groups (for 42 days). The feed rations differed in terms of the source of proteins: in the control group (C), it was post-extraction soybean meal (SBM) 100%; in group I, SBM 50% and micronized peas 50%; and in group II, micronized peas only, 100%. Irradiated pea seeds added to the feed ration for chicks reduced the fattening grade of carcasses (P seeds in feed mixes decreased the share of saturated fatty acids in the muscles and abdominal fat and had a positive effect on the n-6/n-3 ratio, hypocholesterolemic / hypercholesterolemic ratio, as well as the atherogenic and thrombogenic indices (P < 0.05). © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Relationship between proportion and composition of albumins, and in vitro protein digestibility of raw and cooked pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sei Joon; Kim, Tae Wan; Baik, Byung-Kee

    2010-08-15

    Peas provide an excellent plant protein resource for human diets, but their proteins are less readily digestible than animal proteins. To identify the relationship between composition and in vitro digestibility of pea protein, eight pea varieties with a wide range of protein content (157.3-272.7 g kg(-1)) were determined for the proportion of albumins and globulins, their compositions using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) before and after heat treatment using a multi-enzyme (trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase) method. The proportion of albumins based on total seed protein content decreased from 229 to 147 g kg(-1) as seed protein content increased from 157.3 to 272.7 g kg(-1), while the proportion of globulins increased from 483 to 590 g kg(-1). The IVPDs of eight raw pea seeds were 79.9-83.5%, with significant varietal variations, and those were improved to 85.9-86.8% by cooking. Albumins, including (pea albumins 2) PA2, trypsin inhibitor, lectin and lipoxygenase, were identified as proteolytic resistant proteins. Globulins were mostly digested by protease treatment after heating. The quantitative ratio of albumins and globulins, and the quantitative variations of albumin protein components, including lipoxygenase, PA2, lectins and trypsin inhibitors, appear to influence the protein digestibility of both raw and cooked pea seeds. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Lodging resistant pea line derived after mutagenic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.; Vassilevska-Ivanova, R.

    2006-01-01

    Line 1/502 is a new lodging resistant pea ( Pisum sativum L.) developed for the Bulgarian field pea industry. This line is a direct chlorophyll mutant, which originates after treatment of the initial line, cultivar Auralia, with 150 Gy 60 Co γ - radiation. In regional evaluation trials conducted in Sofia over seven successive seasons 1/502 has revealed improved standing ability that most probably is a result from modification of the architecture of the plants appearing in reduction of plant height. The agronomic and morphological characteristics of the mutant line were reported. The upright plant habit and resistance to lodging is especially beneficial for production of high quality peas because pods are held above the soil surface during crop development and during maturity which aids in keeping the peas clean and free of pathogens that can cause discoloration and rotting. (authors)

  11. Radiosensitivity study in the germination and growth of the pea Pisum sativum L, with seeds exposed to gamma radiation; Estudio de radiosensibilidad en la germinacion y crecimiento de la arveja Pisum sativum L, con semillas expuestas a radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilguan, J.; Carrasco, J.; Marquez, V., E-mail: ilguanjanneth@gmail.com [Escuela Superior Politecnica de Chimborazo, Facultad de Ciencias, Panamericana Sur Km 1 1/2, ECO60155 Riobamba (Ecuador)

    2016-10-15

    Seeds of Pisum sativum L. were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co irradiator belonging to the Subsecretaria de Control y Aplicaciones Nucleares del Ecuador (SCAN), the dose rate at the irradiation time was 4.86 Gy/min. The seeds were grouped in packs of 100 units and exposed at doses of 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180 and 200 Gy. The number of effective germinations, the days for germination, the main stem thickness, the number of branches and the size of the plant were evaluated. To validate the experimentation, the data were analyzed statistically by tests of homogeneity of variances, way ANOVA and Scheffe analysis to each variable. The number of effective germinations was given to 100% for 20 and 40 Gy then decreases to a higher dose reaching 20% to 200 Gy, being the average of the proof near to 90%. Increased germination stimulation at treatment at 20 Gy with an average of 5.0 days was evidenced. Treatment at doses of 20, 40 and 60 Gy generate a plant size greater than the proof whose mean is 68.30 cm. The mean number of branches of the proof is 5.3 with a standard deviation of 0.675, which is greater at doses of 20 and 40 Gy. In the study, is concluded that better results are obtained when irradiating seeds Pisum sativum L, between 20 and 60 Gy. (Author)

  12. Accumulation of defence-related transcripts and cloning of a chitinase mRNA from pea leaves (Pisum sativum L.) inoculated with Ascochyta pisi Lib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad, Knud; de Neergaard, Eigil; Madriz-Ordeñana, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    The race specific resistance of pea to Ascochyta pisi Lib. was shown to be exhibited as a hypersensitive response associated with the production of polyphenolic substances in epidermal and mesophyll cells. The levels of transcripts representing a pathogenesis-related (PR) protein (chitinase......) and an enzyme of phytoalexin biosynthesis (chalcone synthase) were shown to accumulate more rapidly during the hypersensitive response than during lesion development in the compatible interaction. A full-length (1143 bp) cDNA sequence of a pea chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) (coding for an approx. 34 500 Da protein......) was deduced by combining the overlapping sequences of three clones obtained following PCR amplification of cDNA prepared from mRNA isolated 24 h after inoculation of pea leaves with Ascochyta pisi. The combined sequences were identified as a class I chitinase corresponding to the basic A1-chitinase enzyme...

  13. Roots of symptom-free leguminous cover crop and living mulch species harbor diverse Fusarium communities that show highly variable aggressiveness on pea (Pisum sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baćanović-Šišić, Jelena; Karlovsky, Petr; Wittwer, Raphaël; Walder, Florian; Campiglia, Enio; Radicetti, Emanuele; Friberg, Hanna; Baresel, Jörg Peter; Finckh, Maria R.

    2018-01-01

    Leguminous cover crop and living mulch species show not only great potential for providing multiple beneficial services to agro-ecosystems, but may also present pathological risks for other crops in rotations through shared pathogens, especially those of the genus Fusarium. Disease severity on roots of subterranean clover, white clover, winter and summer vetch grown as cover crop and living mulch species across five European sites as well as the frequency, distribution and aggressiveness to pea of Fusarium spp. recovered from the roots were assessed in 2013 and 2014. Disease symptoms were very low at all sites. Nevertheless, out of 1480 asymptomatic roots, 670 isolates of 14 Fusarium spp. were recovered. The most frequently isolated species in both years from all hosts were F. oxysporum and F. avenaceum accounting for 69% of total isolation percentage. They were common at the Swiss, Italian and German sites, whereas at the Swedish site F. oxysporum dominated and F. avenaceum occurred only rarely. The agressiveness and effect on pea biomass were tested in greenhouse assays for 72 isolates of six Fusarium species. Isolates of F. avenaceum caused severe root rot symptoms with mean severity index (DI) of 82 and 74% mean biomass reduction compared to the non-inoculated control. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani isolates were higly variable in agressiveness and their impact on pea biomass. DI varied between 15 and 50 and biomass changes relative to the non-inoculated control -40% to +10%. Isolates of F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum and F. equiseti were non to weakly agressive often enhancing pea biomass. This study shows that some of the major pea pathogens are characterized by high ecological plasticity and have the ability to endophytically colonize the hosts studied that thus may serve as inoculum reservoir for susceptible main legume grain crops such as pea. PMID:29444142

  14. Roots of symptom-free leguminous cover crop and living mulch species harbor diverse Fusarium communities that show highly variable aggressiveness on pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šišić, Adnan; Baćanović-Šišić, Jelena; Karlovsky, Petr; Wittwer, Raphaël; Walder, Florian; Campiglia, Enio; Radicetti, Emanuele; Friberg, Hanna; Baresel, Jörg Peter; Finckh, Maria R

    2018-01-01

    Leguminous cover crop and living mulch species show not only great potential for providing multiple beneficial services to agro-ecosystems, but may also present pathological risks for other crops in rotations through shared pathogens, especially those of the genus Fusarium. Disease severity on roots of subterranean clover, white clover, winter and summer vetch grown as cover crop and living mulch species across five European sites as well as the frequency, distribution and aggressiveness to pea of Fusarium spp. recovered from the roots were assessed in 2013 and 2014. Disease symptoms were very low at all sites. Nevertheless, out of 1480 asymptomatic roots, 670 isolates of 14 Fusarium spp. were recovered. The most frequently isolated species in both years from all hosts were F. oxysporum and F. avenaceum accounting for 69% of total isolation percentage. They were common at the Swiss, Italian and German sites, whereas at the Swedish site F. oxysporum dominated and F. avenaceum occurred only rarely. The agressiveness and effect on pea biomass were tested in greenhouse assays for 72 isolates of six Fusarium species. Isolates of F. avenaceum caused severe root rot symptoms with mean severity index (DI) of 82 and 74% mean biomass reduction compared to the non-inoculated control. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani isolates were higly variable in agressiveness and their impact on pea biomass. DI varied between 15 and 50 and biomass changes relative to the non-inoculated control -40% to +10%. Isolates of F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum and F. equiseti were non to weakly agressive often enhancing pea biomass. This study shows that some of the major pea pathogens are characterized by high ecological plasticity and have the ability to endophytically colonize the hosts studied that thus may serve as inoculum reservoir for susceptible main legume grain crops such as pea.

  15. Roots of symptom-free leguminous cover crop and living mulch species harbor diverse Fusarium communities that show highly variable aggressiveness on pea (Pisum sativum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Šišić

    Full Text Available Leguminous cover crop and living mulch species show not only great potential for providing multiple beneficial services to agro-ecosystems, but may also present pathological risks for other crops in rotations through shared pathogens, especially those of the genus Fusarium. Disease severity on roots of subterranean clover, white clover, winter and summer vetch grown as cover crop and living mulch species across five European sites as well as the frequency, distribution and aggressiveness to pea of Fusarium spp. recovered from the roots were assessed in 2013 and 2014. Disease symptoms were very low at all sites. Nevertheless, out of 1480 asymptomatic roots, 670 isolates of 14 Fusarium spp. were recovered. The most frequently isolated species in both years from all hosts were F. oxysporum and F. avenaceum accounting for 69% of total isolation percentage. They were common at the Swiss, Italian and German sites, whereas at the Swedish site F. oxysporum dominated and F. avenaceum occurred only rarely. The agressiveness and effect on pea biomass were tested in greenhouse assays for 72 isolates of six Fusarium species. Isolates of F. avenaceum caused severe root rot symptoms with mean severity index (DI of 82 and 74% mean biomass reduction compared to the non-inoculated control. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani isolates were higly variable in agressiveness and their impact on pea biomass. DI varied between 15 and 50 and biomass changes relative to the non-inoculated control -40% to +10%. Isolates of F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum and F. equiseti were non to weakly agressive often enhancing pea biomass. This study shows that some of the major pea pathogens are characterized by high ecological plasticity and have the ability to endophytically colonize the hosts studied that thus may serve as inoculum reservoir for susceptible main legume grain crops such as pea.

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF VERMICOMPOST FROM KITCHEN WASTE ON THE YIELD-ENHANCING CHARACTERISTICS OF PEAS PISUM SATIVUM L. VAR. SACCHARATUM SER. BAJKA VARIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Pączka; Joanna Kostecka

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the possibility of using the vermicompost produced from kitchen waste (by Eisenia fetida earthworms) to grow sugar peas. Its influence on the dynamics of sprouting of peas and their growth to 21st day was investigated in a pot experiment. Four combinations were realised (control – standard garden soil; (50W) – its mixture with 50% of vermicompost; (25W) and (10W) – with 25% and 10% of vermicompost addition respectively (n=5)). Vermicompost from kitchen waste turned out t...

  17. Ultrastructure of pea and cress root statocytes exposed to high gradient magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyavskaya, N. A.; Chernishov, V. I.; Polishchuk, O. V.; Kondrachuk, A. V.

    As it was demonstrated by Kuznetsov & Hasenstein (1996) the high gradient magnetic field (HGMF) can produce a ponderomotive force that results in displacements of amyloplasts and causes the root response similar to the graviresponse. It was suggested that the HGMF could allow to imitate the effects of gravity in microgravity and/or change them in laboratory conditions correspondingly, as well as to study statolith-related processes in graviperception. Therefore, the correlation between the direction of the ponderomotive force resulting in statolith displacements and the direction of the HGMF-induced plant curvature can be the serious argument to support this suggestion and needs the detailed ultrastructural analysis. Seeds of dicotyledon Pisum sativum L. cv. Damir-2 and monocotyledon Lepidium sativum L. cv. P896 were soaked and grown in a vertical position on moist filter paper in chambers at room temperature. Tips of primary roots of vertical control, gravistimulated and exposed to HGMF seedlings were fixed for electron microscopy using conventional techniques. At ultrastructural level, we observed no significant changes in the volume of the individual statocytes or amyloplasts, relative volumes of cellular organelles (except vacuoles), number of amyloplasts per statocyte or surface area of endoplasmic reticulum. No consistent contacts between amyloplasts and any cellular structures, including plasma membrane, were revealed at any stage of magneto- and gravistimulation. By 5 min after onset of magnetostimulation, amyloplasts were located along cell wall distant from magnets. In HGMF, the locations of amyloplasts in columella cells were similar to those in horizontally-oriented roots up to 1 h stimulation. In the latter case, there were sometimes cytoplasmic spherical bodies with a dense vesicle-rich cytoplasm in pea statocytes, which were absent in seedlings exposed to HGMF. In cress root statocytes, both gravi- and magnetostimulation were found to cause the

  18. The comparison of nitrogen use and leaching in sole cropped versus intercropped pea and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and of crop residue management on crop yield, NO3- leaching and N balance in the cropping system was tested in a 2-year lysimeter experiment on a temperate sandy loam soil. The crop rotation...... cropping. Crops received no fertilizer in the experimental period. Natural N-15 abundance techniques were used to determine pea N-2 fixation. The pea-barley intercrop yielded 4.0 Mg grain ha(-1), which was about 0.5 Mg lower than the yields of sole cropped pea but about 1.5 Mg greater than harvested...... was pea and barley sole and intercrops followed by winter-rye and a fallow period. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER), which is defined as the relative land area under sole crops that is required to produce the yields achieved in intercropping, was used to compare intercropping performance relative to sole...

  19. Localizatlon of expansin-like protein in apoplast of pea (Pisum sativum L. root nodules during interaction with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Sujkowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During nodule development on pea roots, apoplast undergoes changes in activity of plant cell wall proteins such as expansins (EXPs. Because the accumulation of EXP protein has been correlated with the growth of various plant organs, we investigated using Western Blot and immunolocalization studies with antibody against PsEXP1, whether this protein was accumulated in the expanding cells of nodule. Immunoblot results indicated the presence of a 30-kDa band specific for pea root nodules. The EXP proteins content rose during growth of pea root nodules. Expansin(s protein was localized in nodule apoplast as well as in the infection thread walls. The enhanced amount of expansin-like proteins in meristematic part of nodule, root and shoot was shown. The localization of this protein in the meristematic cell walls can be related to the loosening of plant cell wall before cell enlargement. Both, plant cell enlargement and infection thread growth require activity of expansin(s. Possible involvement of EXPs in the process of pea root nodule development is also discussed.

  20. Modulation by phytochrome of the blue light-induced extracellular acidification by leaf epidermal cells of pea (Pisum sativum L.) : a kinetic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzenga, JTM; Staal, M; Prins, HBA

    Blue light induces extracellular acidification, a prerequisite of cell expansion, in epidermis cells of young pea leaves, by stimulation of the proton pumping-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane. A transient acidification, reaching a maximum 2.5-5 min after the start of the pulse, could be

  1. Proteomics offers insight to the mechanism behind Pisum sativum L. response to pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černá, H.; Černý, M.; Habanová, H.; Šafářová, D.; Abushamsiya, K.; Navrátil, M.; Brzobohatý, Břetislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 153, FEB2017 (2017), s. 78-88 ISSN 1874-3919 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Proteome * Pea seed-borne mosaic virus PSbMV * Potyvirus Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2016

  2. A novel er1 allele and the development and validation of its functional marker for breeding pea (Pisum sativum L.) resistance to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Suli; Deng, Dong; Wang, Zhongyi; Duan, Canxing; Wu, Xiaofei; Wang, Xiaoming; Zong, Xuxiao; Zhu, Zhendong

    2016-05-01

    A novel er1 allele, er1 -7, conferring pea powdery mildew resistance was characterized by a 10-bp deletion in PsMLO1 cDNA, and its functional marker was developed and validated in pea germplasms. Pea powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe pisi DC is a major disease worldwide. Pea cultivar 'DDR-11' is an elite germplasm resistant to E. pisi. To identify the gene conferring resistance in DDR-11, the susceptible Bawan 6 and resistant DDR-11 cultivars were crossed to produce F1, F2, and F(2:3) populations. The phenotypic segregation patterns in the F2 and F(2:3) populations fit the 3:1 (susceptible:resistant) and 1:2:1 (susceptible homozygotes:heterozygotes:resistant homozygotes) ratios, respectively, indicating that resistance was controlled by a single recessive gene. Analysis of er1-linked markers in the F2 population suggested that the recessive resistance gene in DDR-11 was an er1 allele, which was mapped between markers ScOPE16-1600 and c5DNAmet. To further characterize er1 allele, the cDNA sequences of PsMLO1 from the parents were obtained and a novel er1 allele in DDR-11 was identified and designated as er1-7, which has a 10-bp deletion in position 111-120. The er1-7 allele caused a frame-shift mutation, resulting in a premature termination of translation of PsMLO1 protein. A co-dominant functional marker specific for er1-7 was developed, InDel111-120, which co-segregated with E. pisi resistance in the mapping population. The marker was able to distinguish between pea germplasms with and without the er1-7. Of 161 pea germplasms tested by InDel111-120, seven were detected containing resistance allele er1-7, which was verified by sequencing their PsMLO1 cDNA. Here, a novel er1 allele was characterized and its an ideal functional marker was validated, providing valuable genetic information and a powerful tool for breeding pea resistance to powdery mildew.

  3. Influence of gibberellic acid on the growth and flowering initiation of two types of peas (Pisum sativum L. differing in photoperiod response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Łukasik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It was found that GA3 (0.03 mg per one plant caused significant delay of the flowering of two different genotypes of peas under conditions of an increasing natural day length (March - May. It was expressed both in a greater number of vegetative nodes and in a greater number of days to the first flower. Under conditions of a decreasing day length (August - November most of G type plants treated with GA3 reacted with complete inhibition of the flowering. In K type pea, GA3 treatment in the discussed conditions affected only the number of days from the sowing time to the appearence of the first flower. This stage was greater in treated plants in comparison with the control ones.

  4. The mycorrhizal fungus (¤Glomus intraradices¤) affects microbial activity in the rhizosphere of pea plants (¤Pisum sativum¤)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, C.; Christensen, S.; Jakobsen, I.

    2003-01-01

    Pea plants were grown in gamma-irradiated soil in pots with and without addition of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices at sufficient N and limiting P. Depending on the growth phase of the plant presence of AM had negative or positive effect on rhizosphere activity. Before flowering during nutrient...... in the rhizosphere community during plant growth also supported by changes in the bacteria (DGGE). (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF VERMICOMPOST FROM KITCHEN WASTE ON THE YIELD-ENHANCING CHARACTERISTICS OF PEAS PISUM SATIVUM L. VAR. SACCHARATUM SER. BAJKA VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Pączka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the possibility of using the vermicompost produced from kitchen waste (by Eisenia fetida earthworms to grow sugar peas. Its influence on the dynamics of sprouting of peas and their growth to 21st day was investigated in a pot experiment. Four combinations were realised (control – standard garden soil; (50W – its mixture with 50% of vermicompost; (25W and (10W – with 25% and 10% of vermicompost addition respectively (n=5. Vermicompost from kitchen waste turned out to be useful in the cultivation of peas. No significant differences in the impact of all the analysed substrates on the sprouting of this plant were found. A 10% vermicompost addition (10W was shown to be the most favourable substrate. Its positive influence was shown in the impact on the increase of total average mass (by 33%; p<0.001 and height of the plants (by 12%; p<0.05 and average mass (by 39%; p<0.001 and length (by 12%; p<0.05 of stems.

  6. The value of different vegetative indices (NDVI, GAI for the assessment of yield potential of pea (Pisum sativum L. at different growth stages and under varying management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index and GAI (green area index in order to indicate the productivity and developmental effects of Rhizobium inoculants and microelement foliar fertilizer on pea crops. Two inoculants, Nitragina (a commercial inoculant and IUNG (a noncommercial inoculant gel and a foliar fertilizer (Photrel were studied over a 4-year period, 2009–2012. The cultivars chosen for the studies were characterized by different foliage types, namely a semileafless pea ‘Tarchalska’ and one with regular foliage, ‘Klif’. Foliar fertilizer significantly increased the length of the generative shoots and the number of fruiting nodes in comparison to the control, which in turn had a negative impact on the harvest index. Pea seed yield was highly dependent on the interaction between the years of growth and the microbial inoculant, and was greater for ‘Tarchalska’ (4.33 t ha−1. Presowing inoculation of seeds and foliar fertilization resulted in a significantly higher value of GAI at the flowering (3.91 and 3.81, respectively and maturity stages (4.82 and 4.77, respectively, whereas the value of NDVI was higher for these treatments only at the maturity stage (0.67 and 0.79, respectively. A significantly greater yield (5.0–5.4 t ha−1 was obtained after inoculation with IUNG during the dry years.

  7. Effect of humic acid on the growth, yield, nutrient composition, photosynthetic pigment and total sugar contents of peas (pisum sativum l)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Khan, M.Z.; Hussain, F.; Akhtar, M.E.; Gurmani, A.R.; Khan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of humic acid (HA) applied as soil and foliar at 15, 30 and 45 ppm on the growth, biochemical content, nutrient concentrations and yield of peas. Soil as well as foliar application of HA increased the plant growth and grain yield of peas; however magnitude of increase was higher in soil application than foliar. Highest plant growth and grain yield was achieved with soil application of 15 ppm HA followed by 30 ppm and foliar application of 45 ppm HA respectively. Percentage increase in dry grain yield due to 15 ppm was 37%, with 30 ppm was 29% and foliar application of 45 ppm was 25%. Nutrient concentrations (P, K, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) were increased with soil and foliar application of HA. The concentrations of nutrients were relatively higher in shelf than grain. Maximum concentration of P, K and Fe was obtained with the soil application of HA at 15 ppm. Humic acid applied at 15, 30 as soil as well as foliar application at 45 ppm significantly increased chlorophyll, carotenoid and total sugar content. Our results indicate that soil application of HA at 15 and 30 ppm, while foliar application at 45 ppm can increase growth, nutrients concentration, chlorophyll content and yield of Peas in calcareous soil conditions. (author)

  8. Genetic diversity and population structure of Pisum sativum accessions for marker-trait association of lipid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Field pea (Pisum sativum L. is an important protein-rich pulse crop produced globally. Increasing the lipid content of Pisum seeds through conventional and contemporary molecular breeding tools may bring added value to the crop. However, knowledge about genetic diversity and lipid content in field pea is limited. An understanding of genetic diversity and population structure in diverse germplasm is important and a prerequisite for genetic dissection of complex characteristics and marker-trait associations. Fifty polymorphic microsatellite markers detecting a total of 207 alleles were used to obtain information on genetic diversity, population structure and marker-trait associations. Cluster analysis was performed using UPGMA to construct a dendrogram from a pairwise similarity matrix. Pea genotypes were divided into five major clusters. A model-based population structure analysis divided the pea accessions into four groups. Percentage lipid content in 35 diverse pea accessions was used to find potential associations with the SSR markers. Markers AD73, D21, and AA5 were significantly associated with lipid content using a mixed linear model (MLM taking population structure (Q and relative kinship (K into account. The results of this preliminary study suggested that the population could be used for marker-trait association mapping studies.

  9. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nitrate uptake by the pea crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1986-08-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nitrate uptake by pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) were studied in field and pot experiments using the 15 N isotope dilution technique and spring barley as a non-fixing reference crop. Barley, although not ideal, seemed to be a suitable reference for pea in the 15 N-technique. Maximum N 2 fixation activity of 10 kg N fixed per ha per day was reached around the flat pod growth stage, and the activity decreased rapidly during pod-filling. The pea crop fixed between 100 and 250 kg N ha -1 , corresponding to from 45 to 80 per cent of total crop N. The amount of symbiotically fixed N 2 depended on the climatic conditions in the experimental year, the level of soil mineral N and the pea cultivar. Field-grown pea took up 60 to 70 per cent of the N-fertilizer supplied. The supply of 50 kg NO 3 -N ha -1 inhibited the N 2 fixation approximately 15 per cent. Small amounts of fertilizer N, supplied at sowing (starter-N), slightly stimulated the vegetative growth of pea, but the yields of seed dry matter and protein were not significantly influenced. In the present field experiments the environmental conditions, especially the distribution of rainfall during the growth season, seemed to be more important in determining the protein and dry matter yield of the dry pea crop, than the ability of pea to fix nitrogen symbiotically. However, fertilizer N supplied to pot-grown pea plants at the flat pod growth stage or as split applications significantly increased the yield of seed dry matter and protein. (author)

  10. Characterization of a rapid, blue light-mediated change in detectable phosphorylation of a plasma membrane protein from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, T.W.; Briggs, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    When crude microsomal membranes from apical stem segments of etiolated Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska are mixed in vitro with γ-[ 32 P]ATP, a phosphorylated band of apparent molecular mass 120 kilodaltons can be detected on autoradiographs of sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis gels. If the stem sections are exposed to blue light immediately prior to membrane isolation, this band is not evident. Comparisons of the kinetics, tissue distribution, and dark recovery of the phosphorylation response with those published for blue light mediated phototropism or rapid growth inhibition indicate that the phosphorylation could be linked to one or both of the reactions described. However, the fluence-response relationships for the change in detectable phosphorylation match quite closely those reported for phototropism but not those for growth inhibition. Blue light has also been found to regulate the capacity for in vitro phosphorylation of a second protein. It has an apparent molecular mass of 84 kilodaltons and is localized primarily in basal stem sections

  11. [Content of salicylic and jasmonic acids in pea roots (Pisum sativum L.) at the initial stage of symbiotic or pathogenic interaction with bacteria of the family Rhizobiaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudikovskaya, E G; Akimova, G P; Rudikovskii, A V; Katysheva, N B; Dudareva, L V

    2017-01-01

    A change in the contents of endogenous salicylic and jasmonic acids in the roots of the host plant at the preinfectious stage of interaction with symbiotic (Rhizobium leguminosarum) and pathogenic (Agrobacterium rizogenes) bacteria belonging for to the family Rhizobiaceae was studied. It was found that the jasmonic acid content increased 1.5–2 times 5 min after inoculation with these bacterial species. It was shown that dynamics of the change in the JA and SA contents depends on the type of infection. Thus, the JA content decreased in the case of pathogenesis, while the SA content increased. At the same time, an increased JA content was observed during symbiosis. The observed regularities could indicate the presence of different strategies of hormonal regulation for interaction with symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria belonging to the family Rhizobiaceae in peas plants.

  12. Nitrogen immobilization and mineralization during initial decomposition of 15N-labelled pea and barley residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The immobilization and mineralization of N following plant residue incorporation were studied in a sandy loam soil using N-15-labelled field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw. Both crop residues caused a net immobilization of soil-derived inorganic N during...... the complete incubation period of 84 days. The maximum rate of N immobilization was found to 12 and 18 mg soil-derived N g(-1) added C after incorporation of pea and barley residues, respectively. After 7 days of incubation, 21% of the pea and 17% of the barley residue N were assimilated by the soil microbial...... the decomposition of the barley residue. The net mineralization of residue-derived N was 2% in the barley and 22% in the pea residue treatment after 84 days of incubation. The results demonstrated that even if crop residues have a relative low C/N ratio (15), transient immobilization of soil N in the microbial...

  13. A thirty percent increase in UV-B has no impact on photosynthesis in well-watered and droughted pea plants in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.J.; Nogues, S.; Morison, J.I.L.; Greenslade, P.D.; McLeod, A.R.; Baker, N.R.

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that field experiments which increase UV-B irradiation by a fixed amount irrespective of ambient light conditions (‘square-wave’), may overestimate the response of photosynthesis to UV-B irradiation. In this study, pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants were grown in the field and subjected to a modulated 30% increase in ambient UK summer UV-B radiation (weighted with an erythemal action spectrum) and a mild drought treatment. UV-A and ambient UV control treatments were also studied. There were no significant effects of the UV-B treatment on the in situ CO 2 assimilation rate throughout the day or on the light-saturated steady-state photosynthesis. This was confirmed by an absence of UV-B effects on the major components contributing to CO 2 assimilation; photosystem II electron transport, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate regeneration, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase carboxylation, and stomatal conductance. In addition to the absence of an effect on photosynthetic activities, UV-B had no significant impact on plant biomass, leaf area or partitioning. UV-B exposure increased leaf flavonoid content. The UV-A treatment had no observable effect on photosynthesis or productivity. Mild drought resulted in reduced biomass, a change in partitioning away from shoots to roots whilst maintaining leaf area, but had no observable effect on photosynthetic competence. No UV-B and drought treatment interactions were observed on photosynthesis or plant biomass. In conclusion, a 30% increase in UV-B had no effects on photosynthetic performance or productivity in well-watered or droughted pea plants in the field. (author)

  14. Effects of a concentrate of pea antinutritional factors on pea protein digestibility in piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guen, M.P. Le; Huisman, J.; Guéguen, J.; Beelen, G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1995-01-01

    Four experiments were designed to investigate the apparent ileal digestibility of raw pea (Pisum sativum) and two of its components - an isolate of its proteins and a concentrate of its proteinaceous antinutritional factors (ANFs). Three varieties of peas were used: spring varieties Finale and

  15. Generation of pea mutants for resistance to Ascochyta blight and powdery mildew and their characterization using isozyme markers [Pisum sativum L.; India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.; Kant, A.; Kaushal, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    To induce resistance in pea against Ascochyta blight and powdery mildew through mutagenesis, two locally grown cultivars Lincoln and Palam Priya were subjected to three doses each of gamma rays (10, 15 and 20 kR) and chemical mutagen ethylmethane sulfonate (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%). Reduced germination was observed in response to mutagen treatment in both cultivars. Phenotypic changes were observed in M1 and M2 generations of both the cultivars. In M2 generation twenty-seven mutants of Lincoln and sixteen of Palam Priya were found resistant to Ascochyta blight under natural epiphytotic conditions. High level of resistance in M2 generation against powdery mildew could not be achieved. Plant progenies in the M3 generation were also evaluated for resistance to Ascochyta pinodes as well as Erysiphe pisi through detached leaf technique. Six mutants of Lincoln and only one of Palam Priya were found resistant to A. pinodes. One mutant of Palam Priya (P15-3) showed resistance to both the pathogens. Increased phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity was observed in all the resistant mutants. New isoforms of peroxidase could be detected in the mutant P15-3 (Palam Priya) and also in L0.2-1 (Lincoln). However, not much variation for esterase could be observed [it

  16. Evaluation of yielding of mixtures of Pisum sativum L. with Triticum aestivum L. grown in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Księżak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the productivity and quality of feed obtained from the mixtures of field pea (Pisum sativum L. with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., depending on the pea cultivar and its percentage in the weight of sown seeds under the conditions of organic farming. A field experiment was carried out in the years 2011–2013 in a randomized split-plot design with four replications. The first factor was a pea ‘Wiato’ or ‘Tarchalska’. The secondary factor was density of a pea mixture sown: 40, 60, and 80%. The yield of mixture seeds as well as the yield and structure of individual components were evaluated. The contents of crude protein and crude fiber, fat, ash, phosphorus, and potassium were determined in cereal grain and pea seeds. The examined factors and weather conditions during the growing season had a significant impact on the growth and yield of pea–spring wheat mixtures. The seed yields of the mixtures with the semi-leafless ‘Tarchalska’ were lower than with ‘Wiato’ (with bipinnate leaves. Increasing the pea percentage in seed material resulted in lower mixture yields. The percentage of pea seeds (regardless of foliage type in the mixture yields was significantly lower than the weight of sown seeds. Increasing the pea percentage in the mixture yield positively influenced the contents of protein, fat, and ash but it caused a decrease in the content of fiber. The pea percentage at sowing had little influence on the content of phosphorus in the mixture seed yields, but it slightly increased the content of potassium, regardless of the pea cultivar. The mixtures with the ‘Wiato’ and ‘Tarchalska’ cultivars contained a similar amount of protein, fiber, and fat, while the mixtures with ‘Tarchalska’ accumulated more ash.

  17. Physicochemical, thermal and functional characterisation of protein isolates from Kabuli and Desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): a comparative study with soy (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withana-Gamage, Thushan S; Wanasundara, Janitha P D; Pietrasik, Zeb; Shand, Phyllis J

    2011-04-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds are a good source of protein that has potential applications in new product formulation and fortification. The main objectives of this study were to analyse the physicochemical, thermal and functional properties of chickpea protein isolates (CPIs) and compare them with those of soy (SPI) and pea (PPI) protein isolates. Extracted CPIs had mean protein contents of 728-853 g kg(-1) (dry weight basis). Analysis of their deconvoluted Fourier transform infrared spectra gave secondary structure estimates of 25.6-32.7% α-helices, 32.5-40.4% β-sheets, 13.8-18.9% turns and 16.3-19.2% disordered structures. CPIs from CDC Xena, among Kabuli varieties, and Myles, among Desi varieties, as well as SPI had the highest water-holding and oil absorption capacities. The emulsifying properties of Kabuli CPIs were superior to those of PPI and Desi CPIs and as good as those of SPI. The heat-induced gelation properties of CPIs showed a minimum protein concentration required to form a gel structure ranging from 100 to 140 g L(-1) . Denaturation temperatures and enthalpies of CPIs ranged from 89.0 to 92.0 °C and from 2.4 to 4.0 J g(-1) respectively. The results suggest that most physicochemical, thermal and functional properties of CPIs compare favourably with those of SPI and are better than those of PPI. Hence CPI may be suitable as a high-quality substitute for SPI in food applications. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Effect of Rhizobium inoculation of seeds and foliar fertilization on productivity of Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is the second most important grain legume crop in the world which has a wide array of uses for human food and fodder. One of the major factors that determines the use of field pea is the yield potential of cultivars. Presently, pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds and foliar application of microelement fertilizers are prospective solutions and may be reasonable agrotechnical options. This research was undertaken because of the potentially high productivity of the 'afila' morphotype in good wheat complex soils. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of vaccination with Rhizobium and foliar micronutrient fertilization on yield of the afila pea variety. The research was based on a two-year (2009–2010 controlled field experiment, conducted in four replicates and carried out on the experimental field of the Bayer company located in Modzurów, Silesian region. experimental field soil was Umbrisol – slightly degraded chernozem, formed from loess. Nitragina inoculant, as a source of symbiotic bacteria, was applied before sowing seeds. Green area index (GAI of the canopy, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI were determined at characteristic growth stages. The presented results of this study on symbiotic nitrogen fixation by leguminous plants show that the combined application of Nitragina and Photrel was the best combination for productivity. Remote measurements of the pea canopy indexes indicated the formation of the optimum leaf area which effectively used photosynthetically active radiation. The use of Nitragina as a donor of effective Rhizobium for pea plants resulted in slightly higher GAI values and the optimization of PAR and NDVI. It is not recommended to use foliar fertilizers or Nitragina separately due to the slowing of pea productivity.

  19. Feeding value of field pea as a protein source in forage-based diets fed to beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Navarro, S A; Encinias, A M; Bauer, M L; Lardy, G P; Caton, J S

    2012-02-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of field peas as a protein source in diets for beef cattle. In the first study, 4 cultivars of field pea were incubated in situ to determine rate and extent of CP disappearance. Results indicate that field pea cultivars vary in CP content (22.6, 26.1, 22.6, and 19.4%, DM basis for Profi, Arvika, Carneval, and Trapper, respectively). Soluble protein fraction ranged from 34.9% for Trapper to 54.9% for Profi. Degradable CP fraction was greater (P = 0.01) for Trapper compared with the other cultivars, and no differences (P ≥ 0.25) were observed among Profi, Arvika, and Carneval. Rate of CP degradation differed (P ≤ 0.03) for all cultivars, with Profi being the greatest and Trapper the smallest (10.8, 10.0, 8.1, and 6.3 ± 1.4%/h for Profi, Carneval, Arvika, and Trapper, respectively). Estimated RDP was not different (P = 0.21) for all 4 cultivars. In the second study, 30 crossbred beef steers (301 ± 15 kg) were individually fed and used to evaluate effects of field pea processing (whole, rolled, or ground) on steer performance. Diets contained 40% field pea grain. Growing steers consuming whole field pea had greater ADG (P = 0.08) than those consuming processed field pea (1.69, 1.52, and 1.63 ± 0.05 kg/d, for whole, rolled, and ground, respectively). However, DMI (kg/d and as % of BW) and G:F were not different (P ≥ 0.24). In the third study, 35 individually fed gestating beef cows (694 ± 17 kg) were used to evaluate the use of field pea as a protein supplement for medium quality grass hay (9.3% CP). Treatments consisted of whole field peas at 1) 0 g (CON), 2) 680 g (FP680), 3) 1,360 g (FP1360), and 4) 2,040 g (FP2040), and 5) 1,360 g of 74% barley and 26% canola meal (BCM). Total intake (forage + supplement) of gestating beef cows increased with increasing field pea level (linear, P = 0.01; supplemented vs. nonsupplemented, P = 0.01). In summary, protein quantity and rate of ruminal protein degradation

  20. Chromosomal aberrations in Pisum sativum by magnetic field, x-rays and urea and their restitution in sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, H.K.; Dave, Neelima

    1975-01-01

    Several workers (D' Amato 1948, Bowen and Wilson 1954, Von Rosen 1957) have induced chromosomal aberrations in roots of Pisum sativum L. Present paper embodies after effect of three independent treatments and their restitution in sucrose. (auth.)

  1. Genetic diversity and trait genomic prediction in a pea diversity panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstin, Judith; Salloignon, Pauline; Chabert-Martinello, Marianne; Magnin-Robert, Jean-Bernard; Siol, Mathieu; Jacquin, Françoise; Chauveau, Aurélie; Pont, Caroline; Aubert, Grégoire; Delaitre, Catherine; Truntzer, Caroline; Duc, Gérard

    2015-02-21

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.), a major pulse crop grown for its protein-rich seeds, is an important component of agroecological cropping systems in diverse regions of the world. New breeding challenges imposed by global climate change and new regulations urge pea breeders to undertake more efficient methods of selection and better take advantage of the large genetic diversity present in the Pisum sativum genepool. Diversity studies conducted so far in pea used Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Retrotransposon Based Insertion Polymorphism (RBIP) markers. Recently, SNP marker panels have been developed that will be useful for genetic diversity assessment and marker-assisted selection. A collection of diverse pea accessions, including landraces and cultivars of garden, field or fodder peas as well as wild peas was characterised at the molecular level using newly developed SNP markers, as well as SSR markers and RBIP markers. The three types of markers were used to describe the structure of the collection and revealed different pictures of the genetic diversity among the collection. SSR showed the fastest rate of evolution and RBIP the slowest rate of evolution, pointing to their contrasted mode of evolution. SNP markers were then used to predict phenotypes -the date of flowering (BegFlo), the number of seeds per plant (Nseed) and thousand seed weight (TSW)- that were recorded for the collection. Different statistical methods were tested including the LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage ans Selection Operator), PLS (Partial Least Squares), SPLS (Sparse Partial Least Squares), Bayes A, Bayes B and GBLUP (Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction) methods and the structure of the collection was taken into account in the prediction. Despite a limited number of 331 markers used for prediction, TSW was reliably predicted. The development of marker assisted selection has not reached its full potential in pea until now. This paper shows that the high-throughput SNP arrays that are being

  2. KASP assays for powdery mildew resistance breeding in pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew of pea, caused by Erysiphe pisi DC, is a serious production constraint to pea (Pisum sativum L.) production in the U.S. and elsewhere. Utilization of genetic resistance to powdery mildew using er1 has been an effective strategy to manage this disease. This gene, er1, conferring powde...

  3. Ultraviolet-B radiation causes tendril coiling in Pisum sativum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosché, M.; Strid, A.

    2000-01-01

    Low dose UV-B radiation (UV-B BE,300 = 0.1 W m -2 ), but neither UV-A radiation, ozone and NaCl stress, nor wounding, caused tendril coiling in Pisum sativum. This coiling occurred with both attached and detached tendrils and can be used as a specific UV-B stress marker in pea

  4. Intercropping of wheat and pea as influenced by nitrogen fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, B.B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2005-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on crop yield, fertilizer and soil nitrogen (N) use was tested on a sandy loam soil at three levels of urea fertilizer N (0, 4 and 8 g N m−2) applied at sowing. The 15N enrichment and natu...... with lower soil N levels, and vice versa for wheat, paving way for future option to reduce N inputs and negative environmental impacts of agricultural crop production......., grain N concentration, the proportion of N derived from symbiotic N2 fixation, and soil N accumulation. With increasing fertilizer N supply, intercropped and sole cropped wheat responded with increased yield, grain N yield and soil N accumulation, whereas the opposite was the case for pea. Fertilizer N...

  5. Rhizodeposition of N by pea and barley and its effect on soil N dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Rhizodeposition of N during plant growth influences the microbial activity in the rhizosphere and constitutes a source of labile organic N, but has not been quantified to the same degree as the rhizodeposition of C. The rhizodeposition of N, defined as root-derived N present in the soil after...... removal of visible roots and root fragments, was determined during field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) growth in a sandy soil at a low concentration of mineral N using a continuous split-root N-15-labelling technique. The N rhizodeposition constituted 15 and 48......% of the below-ground N in pea when determined 7 and 14 (maturity) wk after planting (WAP), respectively. In barley 32 and 71% of the below-ground N were present in rhizodeposits at the two samplings. At maturity the rhizodeposition of N amounted to 19 mg N plant(-1) (7% of total plant N) for pea and 17 mg N...

  6. Food Functionality of Pisum sαtivum L.(pea)and the Development Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    谷口 (山田), 亜樹子

    2017-01-01

    The author measured the main ingredients of Pisum sativum L.(pea), including the antioxidant. The water, protein, lipids, carbohydrate, and ash contents were approximately 13.6%, 21.5%, 2.2%, 60.2%, and 2.5%, respectively. Pea had abundant minerals and high nutritive value. Pea is also known for its antioxidants and high food functionality. The author describes simple dishes containing pea.

  7. Importance of new winter pea genotyp in production of the milk on family farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Županac

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Forage pea (Pisum sativum L. is becoming more represented gorage leguminoza on the fields Republic of Croatia. Three year field trials (2003-2005 were carried out to determine the effect of seed winter pea inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on productivity of new winter pea genotype G3 in production of milk on family farms. Just before sowing the inoculation of pea seed was performed by the variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1001 which is part of the microbiological collection of the Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The results of the research showed that the highest total nodule number on pea root (39.7 nodule/plant as well as nodule dry matter weight (0.203 g/plant was determined on the inoculated variant. Average highest yield of winter pea dry matter was, once more, determined on the inoculated variant (4.33 t ha-1. Total dry matter yield of winter pea and wheat mixture were ranging from 8.92 t ha-1 (control up to 10.64 t ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Average highest yield of winter pea crude protein was, once more, determined on the inoculated variant (266 kg ha-1 in 2003, (672 kg ha-1 in 2004 and (853 kg ha-1 in 2005. The conclusion of this research is that the highest dry matter yield (4.33 t ha-1 and crude protein yield was obtained with the inoculation of new genotype winter pea G3.

  8. Fungicide application and phosphorus uptake by hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi into field-grown peas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiger, P.F.; Spliid, N.H.; Jakobsen, I.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of two commercial fungicide formulations on phosphorus (P) uptake into peas via hyphae of a native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal community was examined in the field. The fungicides contained carbendazim or a mixture of propiconazole and fenpropimorph as their active ingredients...... from overall P uptake, Fungicides were added to the soil inside the HCs at concentrations assumed to reflect their concentration in the surrounding soil. At two harvests, plant growth, total P and P-32 uptake as well as root length density and AM root colonisation were measured. Length of hyphae inside...

  9. Protein and starch concentrates of air-classified field pea and zero-tannin faba bean for weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, C K; Zijlstra, R T; Goonewardene, L A; Beltranena, E

    2010-08-01

    Air-classified pulse (non-oilseed legume) protein and starch may replace specialty protein and starch feedstuffs in diets for weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, three specialty protein sources (5% soy protein concentrate, 5% corn gluten meal, and 5% menhaden meal in the control diet) were replaced with 16% zero-tannin hulled or dehulled faba bean, or 17.5% field pea protein concentrate. In total, 192 group-housed pigs (2 gilts and 2 barrows per pen; BW = 7.5 +/- 1.4 kg) were fed wheat-based diets (3.60 Mcal/kg of DE and 3.3 g of standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal DE) over 28 d for 12 pen observations per each of 4 diets. Overall, protein source did not affect ADFI, ADG, or G:F. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, GE, and P was greater (P bean and field pea protein concentrate diets than the diet with 3 specialty protein sources. In Exp. 2, faba bean and field pea starch concentrates were compared with corn, wheat, tapioca, and potato starch as dietary energy sources. In total, 36 individually housed barrows (BW = 8.0 +/- 1.5 kg) were fed 1 of 6 diets for 15 d. Feces and urine were collected from d 8 to 14, and jugular blood was sampled after overnight fast and refeeding on d 15. Starch source did not affect N retention as a percentage of N intake. For d 0 to 14, ADFI of pigs fed field pea starch was greater (P bean starch. Pigs fed tapioca, field pea, wheat, or corn starch grew faster (P bean or potato starch. For d 0 to 14, pigs fed corn or wheat starch had a 0.1 greater (P bean, field pea, or potato starch. The ATTD of DM, GE, CP, and starch and the DE value of potato starch were much less (P bean, wheat, and potato starch, respectively. However, postprandial plasma insulin tended to be 844 and 577 pmol/L greater (P bean and corn starch, respectively, than for pigs fed potato starch. The high insulin response of pigs fed faba starch could not be explained. In conclusion, air-classified pulse protein concentrates can replace specialty protein feedstuffs in

  10. Microsynteny between pea and Medicago truncatula in the SYM2 region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gualtieri, G.; Kulikova, O.; Limpens, E.; Kim, D.J.; Cook, D.R.; Bisseling, T.; Geurts, R.

    2002-01-01

    The crop legume pea (Pisum sativum) is genetically well characterized. However, due to its large genome it is not amenable to efficient positional cloning strategies. The purpose of this study was to determine if the model legume Medicago truncatula, which is a close relative of pea, could be used

  11. Exploring variation in pea protein composition by natural selection and genetic transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzitzikas, E.

    2005-01-01

    Pea (Pisumsativum L.) seeds are a rich and valuable source of proteins, which can have potential for food industrial applications. Pea storage proteins are classified into two major classes: the salt-soluble globulins, and the water-soluble

  12. Effect of canning on color, protein and phenolic profile of grains from kidney bean, field pea and chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Naincy; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Thakur, Sheetal

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of canning on color, protein and phenolic profile of grains of kidney bean, field pea and chickpea varieties/accession. Color of grains of different pulses was enhanced after canning. Grains L* (lightness) decreased while a* (redness to yellowness) and b* (greenness to blueness) increased after canning in all the pulses. Protein profiling of grains of different pulses after canning revealed that kidney bean and chickpea, respectively, had the least and the most thermally susceptible polypeptides. Kidney bean and chickpea showed higher Percentage washed drained weight (PWDW) than field pea. Pulse with more grain hardness and PWDW showed higher degree of grain splitting during canning. Grain splitting was also higher in dark colored accessions/varieties as compared to the light colored. Ferulic acid was the most predominant compound present in raw grains of different pulses. Raw kidney bean grains showed higher accumulation of catechin, chlorogenic, protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid than those of chickpea and field pea. Canning caused reduction in all the phenolic compounds except gallic acid and most prominent effect of canning on protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic and ferulic acid was observed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. In vitro digestibility of field pea as influenced by processing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Astorri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field pea meals exposed to different treatments (flaking, extrusion, expansion, dry heating at 150°C/15’ or 30’, dry heating at 150°C/30’ after addition of 1% of xylose, 4% NaOH addition, microwave irradiation at 800 W for 6’ or 9’ were controlled for their 6 and 24 hours in vitro fermentability by the gas production (GP technique. Flaking and extrusion accelerated initial fermentation but tended to reduce 24h GP, whereas dry heating and microwaves mainly improved final gas volume, but NaOH had the opposite effect. Apparent dry matter digestion at 6h was lowered by dry heating, NaOH addition and the shorter microwave irradiation. Xylose addition did not substantially change the effects of dry heating, but lowered the initial disappearance. Ammonia concentration was in general lowered by the treatments, suggesting a reduction in protein degradability but also a possible higher microbial uptake for protein synthesis. Microwave irradiation had limited effects on all the parameters. Dry heating, with or without xylose addition, seems interesting to increase rumen escaping protein fraction without accelerating starch fermentation that could expose to higher risks of rumen acidosis.

  14. Influences of pea morphology and interacting factors on pea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, N; Cuddington, K

    2009-08-01

    It has been claimed that plant architecture can alter aphid reproductive rates, but the mechanism driving this effect has not been identified. We studied interactions between plant architecture, aphid density, environmental conditions, and nutrient availability on the reproduction of pea aphids [Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)] using four near-isogenic peas (Pisum sativum L.) that differ in morphology. Manipulations of aphid density (1, 5, and 10 adults per plant) allowed us to examine any effects of plant morphology on crowding and consequently reproduction. Pea morphology per se did not alter pea aphid crowding, as measured by mean nearest neighbor distance, and there was no effect on reproduction. In addition, reproduction increased with increasing adult density, indicating positive density dependence. In a separate experiment, peas were fertilized to determine whether differences between nutrient availability of the four different morphologies might drive any observed differences in aphid reproduction. Although plant nitrogen content was altered by fertilization treatments, this did not have an impact on aphid reproduction. Greenhouse experiments, however, suggested that pea morphology can interact with environmental conditions to reduce aphid reproduction under some conditions. We conclude that plant morphology only influences aphid reproduction when environmental conditions are less than optimal.

  15. Organic fertilization alters the community composition of root associated fungi in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, L.; Nicolaisen, M.; Ravnskov, S.

    2013-01-01

    Organic fertilization is well known to affect individual functional groups of root associated fungi such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and root pathogens, but limited information is available on the effect of organic fertilization at the fungal community composition level. The main objective...... of the present study was to examine the response of communities of root associated fungi in Pisum sativum to Protamylasse, an organic fertilizer used in pea production. Plants were grown in pots with field soil amended with four different levels of Protamylasse. 454 pyrosequencing was employed to examine......, the organic fertilizer Protamylasse clearly affects communities of root associated fungi, which seems to be linked to the life strategy of the different functional groups of root associated fungi. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------...

  16. Concentrations of long-chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins during fatty acid synthesis by chloroplasts isolated from pea (Pisum sativum), safflower (Carthamus tinctoris), and amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus) leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roughan, G.; Nishida, I.

    1990-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis from [1-14C]acetate by chloroplasts isolated from peas and amaranthus was linear for at least 15 min, whereas incorporation of the tracer into long-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) did not increase after 2-3 min. When reactions were transferred to the dark after 3-5 min, long-chain acyl-ACPs lost about 90% of their radioactivity and total fatty acids retained all of theirs. Half-lives of the long-chain acyl-ACPs were estimated to be 10-15 s. Concentrations of palmitoyl-, stearoyl-, and oleoyl-ACP as indicated by equilibrium labeling during steady-state fatty acid synthesis, ranged from 0.6-1.1, 0.2-0.7, and 0.4-1.6 microM, respectively, for peas and from 1.6-1.9, 1.3-2.6, and 0.6-1.4 microM, respectively, for amaranthus. These values are based on a chloroplast volume of 47 microliters/mg chlorophyll and varied according to the mode of the incubation. A slow increase in activity of the fatty acid synthetase in safflower chloroplasts resulted in long-chain acyl-ACPs continuing to incorporate labeled acetate for 10 min. Upon re-illumination following a dark break, however, both fatty acid synthetase activity and acyl-ACP concentrations increased very rapidly. Palmitoyl-ACP was present at concentrations up to 2.5 microM in safflower chloroplasts, whereas those of stearoyl- and oleoyl-ACPs were in the lower ranges measured for peas. Acyl-ACPs were routinely separated from extracts of chloroplasts that had been synthesising long-chain fatty acids from labeled acetate by a minor modification of the method of Mancha et al. The results compared favorably with those obtained using alternative analytical methods such as adsorption to filter paper and partition chromatography on silicic acid columns

  17. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds as protein sources in growing-finishing heavy pig diets: effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics and on fresh and seasoned Parma ham quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Prandini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pea and faba bean inclusion in growing-finishing heavy pig diets was evaluated. The following iso-lysinic and iso-energetic diets offered to the pigs in three phases (40-80; 80-120; 120-160 kg were compared: CTR, control diet with soybean meal (SBM as protein source; RP, CTR diet where pea replaced SBM; RF, CTR diet where faba bean replaced SBM. 126 animals were randomly distributed in 3 homogeneous groups with 42 animals each (7 pens with 6 animals each per treatment. The RP and RF diets did not negatively affect the carcass characteristics both of the pigs slaughtered at the conventional weight (127.5 kg and heavy pigs (158.5 kg. The pigs fed the RP and RF diets ate similarly to the pigs fed the CTR overall the trial but RF pigs grew better than CTR animals. The subcutaneous fat of the fresh hams destined for Parma ham production and obtained from pigs fed RP diet had a higher omega 3 fatty acid percentage. Moreover, the RP and RF diets resulted in fat with better omega 3/omega 6 ratio compared with CTR. All the fat samples had iodine numbers within the limit value (70 reported by the Production Disciplinary of Parma ham. No treatment effect was found on the analytical and sensorial characteristics of the Parma hams, except for the aged taste which was more intense in the hams obtained from pigs fed the RF diet. These results indicate that pea and faba bean may be used as an alternative to imported SBM.

  18. Effect of phosphate and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on disease severity of root rot of peas ( Pisum sativum ) caused by Aphanomyces euteiches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Lars; Kjøller, Rasmus; Rosendahl, Søren

    1998-01-01

    The effects of inorganic phosphate levels and the presence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on disease severity of Aphanomyces euteiches in pea roots were studied. Disease severity on roots and epicotyl as well as the oospore number within infected root tissue were correlated with the phosphorus (P) level...... to measure the activity of the pathogen in roots. The enzyme activity increased with disease severity and disease incidence, except in plants supplemented with P at the highest level, where a peak in activity was seen 12 days after inoculation with the pathogen, followed by a decrease in activity...

  19. Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in Field-Grown Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Iver

    1986-01-01

    The importance of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) and P fertilizer for P nutrition and dry matter production in field peas (Pisum sativum L.) was studied in moderately P-deficient soil. Half of the experimental plots were fumigated to reduce the level of VAM infection. Shoots and 0 to 30 cm...... in fumigated plots, although both it and P uptake were increased by adding P fertilizer. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. A supplementary survey on infection development at five other field sites showed that peas are extensively colonized by VAM fungi, even in soils where a standard...

  20. The rhizobium-pea symbiosis as affected by high temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frings, J.F.J.

    1976-01-01

    A study has been made concerning the effect of high temperatures on the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum and pea plants (Pisum sativum). At 30°C, no nodules were found on the roots of plants growing in nutrient solution after inoculation with

  1. Symbiotic effectiveness of pea-rhizobia associations and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected strains were isolated from the root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum L.), broad bean (Vicia faba L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris L.) plants in the Loess Plateau of China. Analyses focused on the nodule number, nodule dry weight, plant dry weight, nitrogenase activity, total N accumulation of per plant and seed yield.

  2. Short Communication: Occurrence of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae), on wild annual and perennial leguminous plants was studied at two locations (Adet and Wondata) in West Gojam, Ethiopia in 1999/2000 seasons. Annual and perennial leguminous wild or volunteer plants encountered in the study areas ...

  3. Pea mutant risnod27 as reference line for field assessment of impact of symbiotic nitrogen fixation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biedermannová, E.; Novák, Karel; Vondrys, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 9 (2002), s. 2051-2066 ISSN 0190-4167 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/00/0937 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : pea mutant * symbiotic nodules Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.593, year: 2002

  4. Characterization of the nutritional value of air-classified protein and starch fractions of field pea and zero-tannin faba bean in grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, C K; Zijlstra, R T; Beltranena, E

    2010-02-01

    Most pulse (nonoilseed legume) seed flours can be fractionated rapidly and economically by air classification into protein and starch concentrates. The nutritional value of air-classified field pea and faba bean concentrates requires characterization to assess the feeding opportunity for pigs. Thus, the objectives were to characterize the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, OM, energy, starch, CP, fat, and ash; apparent ileal digestibility of CP and starch; standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA; and the SID AA, DE, and NE content of air-classified zero-tannin faba bean and field pea protein and starch concentrates in grower pigs. Pulse protein and starch concentrates were compared with soy protein concentrate and corn starch, respectively, as corresponding standards. The corn starch diet served as an N-free diet to correct for basal endogenous AA losses. In a Youden square design, 8 ileal-cannulated barrows (24.9 +/- 2.3 kg of BW) were fed 6 diets over 7 periods at 3 times the maintenance DE requirement. Periods encompassed a 5-d diet acclimation, 3-d feces collection, and 3-d ileal digesta collection. The ATTD of GE was 2% greater (P bean than soy and was intermediate for field pea protein (95.6, 93.7, and 94.9%, respectively). The ATTD of GE was 3.6% greater (P bean starch (96.2, 95.1, and 92.3%, respectively). The DE content of faba bean was 5.0% greater (P soy protein (4.47, 4.23, and 4.26 Mcal/kg, respectively). The DE content of faba bean and field pea was 1.7% greater (P bean than field pea and soy protein (3.08, 2.94, and 2.92 Mcal/kg, respectively). The NE content for field pea starch was 2.0% greater (P bean starch (2.68, 2.63, and 2.61 Mcal/kg, respectively). Protein concentrates had a 14 and 11% greater (P bean and field pea protein than soy protein (95.5, 92.6, and 88.7%, respectively). The SID of Lys was 6.0% greater (P bean than field pea starch. Nutrient digestibility and digestible nutrient profiles indicated that air

  5. Pea powdery mildew er1 resistance is associated to loss-of-function mutations at a MLO homologous locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavan, S.N.C.; Schiavulli, A.; Appiano, M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Bai, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The powdery mildew disease affects several crop species and is also one of the major threats for pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivation all over the world. The recessive gene er1, first described over 60 years ago, is well known in pea breeding, as it still maintains its efficiency as a powdery mildew

  6. Effect of field pea-based creep feed on intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and performance by nursing calves grazing native range in western North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelvin, A A; Lardy, G P; Soto-Navarro, S A; Landblom, D G; Caton, J S

    2004-12-01

    Two experiments evaluated digestive and performance effects of field pea-based creep feed in nursing calf diets. In Exp.1, eight nursing steer calves (145 +/- 27 kg initial BW) with ruminal cannulas were used to evaluate effects of supplementation and advancing season on dietary composition, intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Treatments were unsupplemented control (CON) and field pea-based creep (SUP; 19.1% CP, DM basis) fed at 0.45% BW (DM basis) daily. Calves grazed native range with their dams from early July through early November. Periods were 24 d long and occurred in July (JUL), August (AUG), September (SEP), and October (OCT). Experiment 2 used 80 crossbred nursing calves, 48 calves in yr 1 and 32 calves in yr 2 (yr 1 = 144 +/- 24 kg; yr 2 = 121 +/- 20 kg initial BW), to evaluate effects of field pea-based creep on calf performance. Treatments included unsupplemented control (CON); field pea-based creep feeds containing either 8% (LS); or 16% (HS) salt; and soybean meal/field pea-based creep containing (as-fed basis) 16% salt (HIPRO). Masticate samples from SUP calves in Exp.1 had greater CP (P = 0.05) than those from CON calves. Forage CP and ADIN decreased linearly with advancing season (P = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). In vitro OM digestibility of diet masticate decreased from JUL to OCT (P feed to increase calf weight gain without negatively affecting ruminal fermentation and digestion.

  7. Cyanide as a copper and quinone-directed inhibitor of amine oxidases from pea seedlings ( Pisum sativum) and Arthrobacter globiformis: evidence for both copper coordination and cyanohydrin derivatization of the quinone cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Eric M; Juda, Gregory A; Ling, Ke-Qing; Sayre, Lawrence M; Dooley, David M

    2004-04-01

    The interactions of cyanide with two copper-containing amine oxidases (CuAOs) from pea seedlings (PSAO) and the soil bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis (AGAO) have been investigated by spectroscopic and kinetic techniques. Previously, we rationalized the effects of azide and cyanide for several CuAOs in terms of copper coordination by these exogenous ligands and their effects on the internal redox equilibrium TPQ(amr)-Cu(II) right harpoon over left harpoon TPQ(sq)-Cu(I). The mechanism of cyanide inhibition was proposed to occur through complexation to Cu(I), thereby directly competing with O(2) for reoxidation of TPQ. Although cyanide readily and reversibly reacts with quinones, no direct spectroscopic evidence for cyanohydrin derivatization of TPQ has been previously documented for CuAOs. This work describes the first direct spectroscopic evidence, using both model and enzyme systems, for cyanohydrin derivatization of TPQ. K(d) values for Cu(II)-CN(-) and Cu(I)-CN(-), as well as the K(i) for cyanide inhibition versus substrate amine, are reported for PSAO and AGAO. In spite of cyanohydrin derivatization of the TPQ cofactor in these enzymes, the uncompetitive inhibition of amine oxidation is determined to arise almost exclusively through CN(-) complexation of Cu(I).

  8. Pisum sativum L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dr ashraf

    Pea genotypes exhibited significant genetic variation in drought tolerance. Polymerase .... dehydrin gene, forward (dhn +ve) and reverse (dhn -ve) primers were designed ... Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute (AGERI) was.

  9. Inter- and intra-guild interactions related to aphids in nettle (Urtica dioica L.) strips closed to field crops.

    OpenAIRE

    Alhmedi, A.; Haubruge, Eric; Bodson, Bernard; Francis, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment designed to assess the biodiversity related to nettle strips closed to crops, and more particularly the aphid and related beneficial populations, was established in experimental farm located in Gembloux (Belgium). Margin strips of nettle (Urtica dioica) closed to wheat (Triticum aestivum), green pea (Pisum sativum) and rape (Brassicae napus) fields were investigated. The diversity, abundance of aphids and related predators were analysed according to the plant crop species a...

  10. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiecicki, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are

  11. Compared cycling in a soil-plant system of pea and barley residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out on a temperate soil to determine the decline rate, the stabilization in soil organic matter and the plant uptake of N from N-15-labelled crop residues. The fate of N from field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) residues was followed...... mineralization of N was highly correlated to the concentrations of soluble C and N and the lignin:N ratio of residues. The contribution of residue-derived N to the inorganic N pool was at its maximum 30 DAI (10-55%) and declined to on average 5% after 3 years of decomposition. Residual organic labelled N...... in the top 10 cm soil declined rapidly during the initial 86 DAI for all residue types. Leaching of soluble organic materials may have contributed to this decline. At 216 DAI 72, 59 and 45% of the barley, mature pea and green pea residue N, respectively, were present in organic N-forms in the topsoil. During...

  12. Genomic Tools in Pea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeh, Nadim; Aubert, Grégoire; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Warkentin, Thomas D.; Burstin, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22–25% protein, complex starch and fiber constituents, and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tons produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel's experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress toward deciphering the pea genome. PMID:26640470

  13. Genomic tools in pea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim eTAYEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22-25 percent protein, complex starch and fibre constituents and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tonnes produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel’s experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress towards deciphering the pea genome.

  14. Induced mutants in beans and peas resistant to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and peas (Pisum sativum) are important leguminous vegetable crops in Egypt. The area planted with beans is about 40,000 acres and peas 22,000 acres. These crops suffer from several diseases, particularly rusts, (Uromyces phaseoli/Uromyces pisi), which are mainly spread in northern Egypt. In our mutation induction programme we used 60 Co gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for two hours before exposure to 8, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical treatments, bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for eight hours and then treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. The M 1 was cultivated in 1978

  15. Primary and secondary abscission in Pisum sativum and Euphorbia pulcherrima –how do they compare and how do they differ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kathrine (Trine eHvoslef-Eide

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAbscission is a highly regulated and coordinated developmental process in plants. It is important to understand the processes leading up to the event, in order to better control abscission in crop plants. This has the potential to reduce yield losses in the field and increase the ornamental value of flowers and potted plants. A reliable method of abscission induction in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima flowers has been established to study the process in a comprehensive manner. By correctly decapitating buds of the third order, abscission can be induced in one week. AFLP differential display (DD was used to search for genes regulating abscission. Through validation using qRT-PCR, more information of the genes involved during induced secondary abscission have been obtained. A study using two mutants of pea (Pisum sativum in the def (Developmental funiculus gene have been performed and compared these with wild type peas (tall and dwarf in both cases. The def mutant results in a deformed, abscission-less zone instead of normal primary abscission at the funiculus. RNA in situ hybridization studies using gene sequences from the poinsettia differential display, resulted in six genes differentially expressed for abscission specific genes in both poinsettia and pea. Two of these genes are associated with gene up- or down-regulation during the first two days after decapitation in poinsettia. Present and previous results in poinsettia (biochemically and gene expressions, enables a more detailed division of the secondary abscission phases in poinsettia than what has previously been described from primary abscission in Arabidopsis.This study compares the inducible secondary abscission in poinsettia and the non-abscising mutants/wild types in pea demonstrating primary abscission zones. The results may have wide implications on the understanding of abscission, since pea and poinsettia have been separated for 94-98 million years in evolution, hence

  16. Phytotoxicity of glyphosate in the germination of Pisum sativum and its effect on germinated seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Mondal, Subinoy; Kumar, Mousumi; Haque, Smaranya; Kundu, Debajyoti

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of glyphosate on Pisum sativum germination as well as its effect on the physiology and biochemistry of germinated seedlings. Different physico-chemical biomarkers, viz., chlorophyll, root and shoot length, total protein and soluble sugar, along with sodium and potassium concentration, were investigated in germinated seedlings at different glyphosate concentrations. This study reports the influence of different concentrations of glyphosate on pea seeds a...

  17. Optimization of Neutral Comet Assay for studying DNA double-strand breaks in pea and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an adaptation of the Comet assay under neutral conditions for mono- and dicotyledonous plants pea (Pisum sativum L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Modifications concern lysis and electrophoresis steps, respectively. Electrophoresis was carried out varying the intensity of the electric field. A linear relationship between the percentages of DNA in the tail from control background with alteration of intensity was found. Trypan blue dye exclusion test was used in order to determine the intactness of nuclear membrane of the isolated nuclei from both plant model systems. Assessment was conducted on non-irradiated and irradiated nuclei on a monolayer with three doses of UVC. It was found that the share of intact nuclei (trypan blue negative ones is about 95% in controls. Gradual dose-related increase of damaged nuclei was observed in both species, reaching statistical significance only at the higher dose applied.

  18. Molecular aspects of the nitrogen fixing system in pea root nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisseling, T.

    1980-01-01

    The author considers symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Pisum sativum and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Some general aspects of nodule formation and the regulation of the proteins nitrogenase and leghemoglobin (Lb) have been studied. Synthesis of these proteins was studied by 35 SO 4 labelling of intact pea plants. The sequence of appearance of the proteins was determined with specific radioimmunoassays for each protein. (Auth.)

  19. Study of the boron distribution in pea and alfalfa plants using SSNTD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianming; Inst. for Application of Atomic Energy)" data-affiliation=" (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China)> Inst. for Application of Atomic Energy)" >Deng Hongmin

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of boron in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was determined by using SSNTD. The results show that boron concentrations in leaves are highest, furthermore boron concentrations of the base leaves are higher than those of the top leaves. Among flower tissues, calyx has the highest boron concentration

  20. Identification of Ononitol and O-methyl-scyllo-inositol in Pea Root Nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif; Egsgaard, Helge

    1984-01-01

    Ononitol (4-O-methyl-myo-inositol) and O-methyl-scyllo-inositol were identified in pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules formed by twoRhizobium leguminosarum strains. Ononitol was the major soluble carbohydrate in nodules formed by strain 1045 while O-methyl-scyllo-inositol and two unidentified com...

  1. Production and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows fed ground field peas with or without ruminally protected lysine and methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Whitehouse, N L; Aragona, K M; Schwab, C S; Reis, S F; Brito, A F

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has shown that cows fed ≥24% of the diet dry matter (DM) as field peas decreased milk yield as well as concentration and yield of milk protein, possibly due to reduced DM intake and limited supply of Lys and Met. Twelve multiparous and 4 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The diets contained (DM basis) 34.8% corn silage, 15.2% grass-legume silage, 5.9% roasted soybean, 2.4% mineral-vitamin premix, 2.0% alfalfa pellets, and either (1) 36% ground corn, 2.4% soybean meal, and 1.3% urea (UR), (2) 29.7% ground corn, 9.8% soybean meal, 0.13% ruminally protected (RP) Lys, and 0.07% RP-Met (CSBAA), (3) 25% ground field peas, 12.3% ground corn, and 2.4% soybean meal (FP), or (4) FP supplemented with 0.15% RP-Lys and 0.05% RP-Met (FPAA). Our objective was to test the effects of FP versus UR, FPAA versus CSBAA, and FPAA versus FP on milk yield and composition, N utilization, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation profile, and plasma concentration of AA. Milk yield did not differ across diets. Compared with cows fed UR, those fed FP had greater DM intake, concentration and yield of milk true protein, apparent total-tract digestibility of fiber, urinary excretion of purine derivatives, and concentrations of total volatile fatty acids in the rumen and Lys in plasma, and less milk urea N and ruminal NH 3 -N. The concentration of milk urea N, as well as the concentration and yield of milk fat increased in cows fed FPAA versus CSBAA. Moreover, cows fed FPAA had greater ruminal concentration of total volatile fatty acids, increased proportions of acetate and isobutyrate, and decreased proportions of propionate and valerate than those fed CSBAA. The plasma concentrations of His, Leu, and Phe decreased, whereas plasma Met increased and plasma Lys tended to increase in cows fed FPAA versus CSBAA. Concentration of milk true protein, but not yield, was increased in cows fed FPAA

  2. Development of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Chickpea (Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    UNIVERSITY OF MAURITIUS RESEARCH JOURNAL – Volume 20 – 2014. University of Mauritius ... values of the snack surface showed that the fried snacks were darker than the non-fried ...... Fractal colour: A new approach for the evaluation.

  3. Photosynthetic responses of pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Little ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... (O3) have fundamental effects on CO2 exchange by plants. ... produce responses such as reduced photosynthetic rates and earlier senescence .... quality localities treatments and two soil regimes in Riyadh city, KSA. Pn rates.

  4. Transient expression of acidic fibroblast growth factor in pea (Pisum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... a 100 W, long-wave UV lamp (Black Ray model B-100 AP; Ultra- ... frequency) was used to estimate the treatment efficiency during 15 days post .... Crystal structure of fibroblast growth factor receptor ectodomain bound to.

  5. Determination of mycoflora of pea (Pisum sativum) seeds and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... The most common isolated fungi were Fusarium spp., Alternaria spp., Macrophomina ... known to affect the plant growth directly by producing ..... Evaluation of bacterial epiphytes isolated from avocado leaf and fruit surfaces ...

  6. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    .05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P pea to be a high-digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T...

  7. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on crop yields in a field pea-spring wheat-potato rotation system with calcareous soil in semi-arid environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-An Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of the present study was to investigate the yield-affecting mechanisms influenced by N and P applications in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. The experimental treatments were as follows: NF (no fertilizer, N (nitrogen, P (phosphorus, and NP (nitrogen plus phosphorus in a field pea-spring wheat-potato cropping system. This study was conducted over six years (2003-2008 on China’s semi-arid Loess Plateau. The fertilizer treatments were found to decrease the soil water content more than the NF treatment in each of the growing seasons. The annual average yields of the field pea crops during the entire experimental period were 635, 677, 858, and 1117 kg/ha for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. The annual average yields were 673, 547, 966, and 1056 kg/ha for the spring wheat crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. Also, the annual average yields were 1476, 2120, 1480, and 2424 kg/ha for the potato crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. In the second cycle of the three-year rotation, the pea and spring wheat yields in the P treatment were 1.2 and 2.8 times higher than that in the N treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, the potato crop yield in the N treatment was 3.1 times higher than that in the P treatment. In conclusion, the P fertilizer was found to increase the yields of the field pea and wheat crops, and the N fertilizer increased the potato crop yield in rainfed areas with calcareous soil.

  8. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on crop yields in a field pea-spring wheat-potato rotation system with calcareous soil in semi-arid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.A.; Zhang, S.; Hua, S.; Rao, X.

    2016-11-01

    The object of the present study was to investigate the yield-affecting mechanisms influenced by N and P applications in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. The experimental treatments were as follows: NF (no fertilizer), N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), and NP (nitrogen plus phosphorus) in a field pea-spring wheat-potato cropping system. This study was conducted over six years (2003-2008) on China’s semi-arid Loess Plateau. The fertilizer treatments were found to decrease the soil water content more than the NF treatment in each of the growing seasons. The annual average yields of the field pea crops during the entire experimental period were 635, 677, 858, and 1117 kg/ha for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. The annual average yields were 673, 547, 966, and 1056 kg/ha for the spring wheat crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. Also, the annual average yields were 1476, 2120, 1480, and 2424 kg/ha for the potato crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. In the second cycle of the three-year rotation, the pea and spring wheat yields in the P treatment were 1.2 and 2.8 times higher than that in the N treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, the potato crop yield in the N treatment was 3.1 times higher than that in the P treatment. In conclusion, the P fertilizer was found to increase the yields of the field pea and wheat crops, and the N fertilizer increased the potato crop yield in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. (Author)

  9. Kinetics of Ca2+- and ATP-dependent, voltage-controlled anion conductance in the plasma membrane of mesophyll cells of Pisum sativum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzenga, J.T.M.; van Volkenburgh, E.

    Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to measure anion currents through the plasma membrane of protoplasts of mesophyll cells of expanding pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves. Voltage-induced changes of the currents could be modelled with single exponential activation and deactivation kinetics. The

  10. The Influence of Lead on Generation of Signalling Molecules and Accumulation of Flavonoids in Pea Seedlings in Response to Pea Aphid Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Woźniak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an abiotic factor, i.e., lead at various concentrations (low causing a hormesis effect and causing high toxicity effects, on the generation of signalling molecules in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Cysterski seedlings and then during infestation by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris. The second objective was to verify whether the presence of lead in pea seedling organs and induction of signalling pathways dependent on the concentration of this metal trigger defense responses to A. pisum. Therefore, the profile of flavonoids and expression levels of genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway (phenylalanine ammonialyase and chalcone synthase were determined. A significant accumulation of total salicylic acid (TSA and abscisic acid (ABA was recorded in the roots and leaves of pea seedlings growing on lead-supplemented medium and next during infestation by aphids. Increased generation of these phytohormones strongly enhanced the biosynthesis of flavonoids, including a phytoalexin, pisatin. This research provides insights into the cross-talk between the abiotic (lead and biotic factor (aphid infestation on the level of the generation of signalling molecules and their role in the induction of flavonoid biosynthesis.

  11. Rhizobium Impacts on Seed Productivity, Quality, and Protection of Pisum sativum upon Disease Stress Caused by Didymella pinodes: Phenotypic, Proteomic, and Metabolomic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Ranjbar Sistani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In field peas, ascochyta blight is one of the most common fungal diseases caused by Didymella pinodes. Despite the high diversity of pea cultivars, only little resistance has been developed until to date, still leading to significant losses in grain yield. Rhizobia as plant growth promoting endosymbionts are the main partners for establishment of symbiosis with pea plants. The key role of Rhizobium as an effective nitrogen source for legumes seed quality and quantity improvement is in line with sustainable agriculture and food security programs. Besides these growth promoting effects, Rhizobium symbiosis has been shown to have a priming impact on the plants immune system that enhances resistance against environmental perturbations. This is the first integrative study that investigates the effect of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae (Rlv on phenotypic seed quality, quantity and fungal disease in pot grown pea (Pisum sativum cultivars with two different resistance levels against D. pinodes through metabolomics and proteomics analyses. In addition, the pathogen effects on seed quantity components and quality are assessed at morphological and molecular level. Rhizobium inoculation decreased disease severity by significant reduction of seed infection level. Rhizobium symbiont enhanced yield through increased seed fresh and dry weights based on better seed filling. Rhizobium inoculation also induced changes in seed proteome and metabolome involved in enhanced P. sativum resistance level against D. pinodes. Besides increased redox and cell wall adjustments light is shed on the role of late embryogenesis abundant proteins and metabolites such as the seed triterpenoid Soyasapogenol. The results of this study open new insights into the significance of symbiotic Rhizobium interactions for crop yield, health and seed quality enhancement and reveal new metabolite candidates involved in pathogen resistance.

  12. Development and Characterization of 37 Novel EST-SSR Markers in Pisum sativum (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Zhuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Simple sequence repeat markers were developed based on expressed sequence tags (EST-SSR and screened for polymorphism among 23 Pisum sativum individuals to assist development and refinement of pea linkage maps. In particular, the SSR markers were developed to assist in mapping of white mold disease resistance quantitative trait loci. Methods and Results: Primer pairs were designed for 46 SSRs identified in EST contiguous sequences assembled from a 454 pyrosequenced transcriptome of the pea cultivar, ‘LIFTER’. Thirty-seven SSR markers amplified PCR products, of which 11 (30% SSR markers produced polymorphism in 23 individuals, including parents of recombinant inbred lines, with two to four alleles. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.43 and from 0.31 to 0.83, respectively. Conclusions: These EST-SSR markers for pea will be useful for refinement of pea linkage maps, and will likely be useful for comparative mapping of pea and as tools for marker-based pea breeding.

  13. Number and Effectiveness of Pea Rhizobia in Danish Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    Most of 44 Danish soils tested contain between 1000 and 10 000 pea rhizobia (Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viceae) per gram. Pea rhizobia were not detected in acid moor and forest soils. Only one case of failed nodulation in peas in the field has been noted, in spots in a reclaimed sandy heath m...

  14. Characterization of a light-controlled anion channel in the plasma membrane of mesophyll cells of pea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzenga, J.T.M.; Volkenburgh Van, E

    In leaf mesophyll cells of pea (Pisum sativum) light induces a transient depolarization that is at least partly due to an increased plasma membrane conductance for anions. Several channel types were identified in the plasma membrane of protoplasts from mesophyll cells using the patch-clamp

  15. Phytotoxicity of thallium (Tl) in culture solution. Pt. 1. Effects of Tl(I) on the growth and heavy metal contents of pea and field bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poetsch, U; Austenfeld, F A

    1985-01-01

    The effects of TlNO/sub 3/ and Tl(I)EDTA on growth and heavy metal contents of pea plants and field bean plants were compared in hydroponic culture experiments. In the presence of TlNO/sub 3/, the essential heavy metals were available to the plants in their ionic forms. When Tl(I)EDTA was present the essential heavy metals were available as chelated complexes. With increasing concentration of TlNO/sub 3/ dry matter production of pea plants was lowered and the Tl content of each organ was increased. The highest Tl content was found within the stems. The increased Tl contents were accompanied by depressed Mn, Zn, and Cu contents of the roots and depressed Mn contents of the stems, but increased Fe contents of the stems. Substitution of TlNO/sub 3/ by Tl(I)EDTA resulted in a stronger growth inhibition of the pea plants, and higher Tl contents of each organ. The highest Tl content was found within the stems. Tl(I)EDTA depressed Mn in the roots, but increased Fe and Mn in the stems, and Fe, Zn and Cu in the leaves. The increases may due to concentration by growth inhibition. The growth of the field bean was not effected by TlNO/sub 3/ nor by Tl(I)EDTA. The field bean contained most of the Tl within the roots and translocated only relatively small amounts to the shoots. This pattern was independent of the Tl compound. Increasing concentrations of TlNO/sub 3/ resulted in depressed Mn and Zn contents of the roots, and Mn contents of the stems. Chelation of Tl(I) resulted in a decrease of the Tl content of each organ. Tl(I)EDTA depressed only the Mn content of the roots.

  16. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) reduces the inhibitory effect of soil nitrate on N2 fixation of Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterly, Clayton R; Armstrong, Roger; Chen, Deli; Tang, Caixian

    2016-01-01

    Additional carbohydrate supply resulting from enhanced photosynthesis under predicted future elevated CO2 is likely to increase symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation in legumes. This study examined the interactive effects of atmospheric CO2 and nitrate (NO3(-)) concentration on the growth, nodulation and N fixation of field pea (Pisum sativum) in a semi-arid cropping system. Field pea was grown for 15 weeks in a Vertosol containing 5, 25, 50 or 90 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) under either ambient CO2 (aCO2; 390 ppm) or elevated CO2 (eCO2; 550 ppm) using free-air CO2 enrichment (SoilFACE). Under aCO2, field pea biomass was significantly lower at 5 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) than at 90 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) soil. However, increasing the soil N level significantly reduced nodulation of lateral roots but not the primary root, and nodules were significantly smaller, with 85% less nodule mass in the 90 NO3(-)-N kg(-1) than in the 5 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) treatment, highlighting the inhibitory effects of NO3(-). Field pea grown under eCO2 had greater biomass (approx. 30%) than those grown under aCO2, and was not affected by N level. Overall, the inhibitory effects of NO3(-) on nodulation and nodule mass appeared to be reduced under eCO2 compared with aCO2, although the effects of CO2 on root growth were not significant. Elevated CO2 alleviated the inhibitory effect of soil NO3(-) on nodulation and N2 fixation and is likely to lead to greater total N content of field pea growing under future elevated CO2 environments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in Field-Grown Crops. I. Mycorrhizal Infection in Cereals and Peas at Various Times and Soil Depths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Iver; Nielsen, N.E.

    1983-01-01

    Development of infection by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) was studied in some field-grown crops. An infection plateau was reached within the first month after seedling emergence of spring barley, oats and peas. During the rest of the growth period the proportion of root length infected by...... in relation to final phosphorus uptake and dry-matter production, and it is proposed that a relatively low soil-phosphorus availability was counterbalanced, to some extent, by a well-developed VAM infection....

  18. Temporal and spatial distribution of roots and competition for nitrogen in pea-barley intercrops - a field study employing P-32 technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2001-01-01

    was the dominant component of the pea-barley intercrop, obtaining 90% of its sole crop yield, while pea produced only 15% of the grains of a sole crop pea. Intercropping of pea and barley improved the utilization of plant growth resources (LER > 1) as compared to sole crops. Root system distribution in time...... and space can partly explain interspecific competition. The P-32 methodology proved to be a valuable tool for determining root dynamics in intercropping systems....

  19. The occurrence of gibberellin-binding protein(s) in pea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.H.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro gibberellin (GA) binding properties of a cytosol fraction from epicotyls of dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Progress No. 9) and tall pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were investigated using ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} in a DEAE filter paper assay at 0-3 C. The binding obtained is saturable, reversible, and temperature labile in dwarf pea, and has a half-life of dissociation of 5-6 min. By varying the concentration of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} in the incubation medium the Kd was estimated to be 120-140 nM in dwarf pea and 70 nM in tall pea. The number of binding sites (n) was estimated to be 0.66 and 0.43 pmole mg{sup {minus}1} soluble protein in dwarf pea and in tall pea, respectively. In competition binding assays, biologically active GAs, such as GA{sub 3} and GA{sub 4} could reduce the level of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} binding much more than the biologically inactive GA{sub 4} methyl ester and epi-GA{sub 4}. Changes in gibberellin-binding protein(s) were studied during seed germination. While the Kd of the binding protein(s) for ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} remained the same, there was a marked increase in the number of binding sites from 24 h soaked seed to 8-day old seedlings. Also, the Kd and the number of binding sites in the GA-responsive apical part and in the nonresponsive basal part in the epicotyl were similar. The effect of light on gibberellin-binding protein in dwarf pea was also studied. The GA-binding protein in dwarf pea was partially purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography.

  20. The effect of gamma radiation on seeds and plants of different genotypes of Pisum arvense (L.s.s.) in the M1 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaranowski, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents results concerning radiosensitivity of seeds of field pea (Pisum arvense L.s.s.) and the analysis of the M 1 generation plants. For the present studies seeds of seven established (homozygous) lines, derived from crosses between forms and varieties of different agriculturo-geographical regions of Europe, were chosen. These lines differed by a number of morphological and physiological characters. The seeds were exposed to gamma radiation at the doses of: 1 kR/5 hrs, 6 kR/25 hrs, 12 kR/100 hrs, 25 kR/100 hrs and 50 kR/100 hrs. While analysing after the irradiation such phenomena as germinating and emergence capacity, survival of plants after emergence, morphological changes of plants, fertility and chromosome aberrations, it has been found that the radiosensitivity of various lines is convincingly different. Attempts to find certain correlations between the presence of definite genes in the lines, the size and structure of chromosomes, the structure of seeds (size, shape, coloration) gave negative results. Results obtained by the author and those of the literature indicate that radiosensitivity of pea seeds and characters of the M 1 generation plants are very complicated phenomena and it is difficult to establish definite regularities. (author)

  1. Pea yield and its components in different crop rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Seibutis, Vytautas; Deveikytė, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the crop rotations (2-4 course) differing in duration on the formation of pea productivity elements and the yield were investigated in stationary field experiments in Dotnuva during 1997-2004. Averaged experimental data showed that the highest pea yield (3.70 t ha-1) was recorded in the three-course crop rotation (sugar beet-spring barley-pea), in the four-course (pea-winter wheat-sugar beet-spring barley) and two-course (pea-winter wheat) crop rotations the grain yield consist...

  2. Protein methylation in pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.J.; Adler, J.; Selman, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    The methylation of chloroplast proteins has been investigated by incubating intact pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts with [ 3 H-methyl]-S-adenosylmethionine. Incubation in the light increases the amount of methylation in both the thylakoid and stromal fractions. Numerous thylakoid proteins serve as substrates for the methyltransfer reactions. Three of these thylakoid proteins are methylated to a significantly greater extent in the light than in the dark. The primary stromal polypeptide methylated is the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. One other stromal polypeptide is also methylated much more in the light than in the dark. Two distinct types of protein methylation occur. One methylinkage is stable to basic conditions whereas a second type is base labile. The base-stable linkage is indicative of N-methylation of amino acid residues while base-lability is suggestive of carboxymethylation of amino acid residues. Labeling in the light increases the percentage of methylation that is base labile in the thylakoid fraction while no difference is observed in the amount of base-labile methylations in light-labeled and dark-labeled stromal proteins. Also suggestive of carboxymethylation is the detection of volatile [ 3 H]methyl radioactivity which increases during the labeling period and is greater in chloroplasts labeled in the light as opposed to being labeled in the dark; this implies in vivo turnover of the [ 3 H]methyl group

  3. Protein methylation reactions in intact pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Post-translational protein methylation was investigated in Pisum sativum chloroplasts. Intact pea chloroplasts were incubated with ( 3 H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine under various conditions. The chloroplasts were then separated into stromal and thylakoid fractions and analyzed for radioactivity transferred to protein. Light enhanced the magnitude of labeling in both fractions. One thylakoid polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa was labeled only in the light. Several other thylakoid and stromal proteins were labeled in both light and dark-labeling conditions. Both base-labile methylation, carboxy-methylesters and base-stable groups, N-methylations were found. Further characterization of the methyl-transfer reactions will be presented

  4. The ultrastructure of protein bodies isolated from Pisum sativum and Iris pseudoacorus L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Gabara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein bodies of Pisum sativum and Iris pseudoacorus seeds have been isolated in sucrose gradient with addition of 50mM citrate buffer, pH 5. Their ultrastructure due to isolation procedure has been described. Two types of protein bodies are present in pea and iris seeds: simple and compex ones - with many inclusions. The method of isolation, used in this paper extracts partly proteins - probably albumins, and also substances present in globoids i.e. phytin and acid phosphatase.

  5. Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the aleurone grains of Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Konopska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aleurone grains from Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons were isolated partly according to Tombs's method (1967. Nitrogen compounds content was determined in them by Kjeldahl's micromethod, and in the particular fractions after Thiman and Laloraya (1960. Mainly protein N was detected in the aleurone grains, constituting 14.8 and 15.2 per cent of the dry mass of pea and Iris seeds, respectively. Moreover, phosphorus compounds were fractionated according to Holden and Pirie (1955. Analyses demonstrated the presence in aleurone grains of inorganic P, acid-soluble organophosphorus compounds, phospholipids and RNA.

  6. Mutation studies in gamma-ray treated peas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narsinghani, V G; Kumar, S [Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (India). Dept. of Plant Breeding

    1976-01-01

    Pea Seeds (Pisum Sativum L. 2n=14) irradiated with four doses of gamma rays viz, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kR revealed a reduction in seedling height, survival percentage, pods and seed yield and pollen fertility during X/sub 1/ and X/sub 2/ generations. Chlorophyll and leaf mutations were noted. The mitotic cells indicated chromosomal aberrations which were dose dependent. In meiosis, translocated rings and chains of 4,6 and 8 chromosomes; paracentric and pericentric inversions, fragments, laggards and unequal distribution of chromosomes were observed. Besides, the frequency of aberrations were lower during X/sub 2/ as compared to X/sub 1/.

  7. Determination of the optimum irradiation dose for shelf-life of peas and cherry tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, M. B.; Hayumbu, P.; Siwale, J.; Mutale, C.; Kabwe, L.

    1991-01-01

    Green peas (Pisum Sativum), cultivar (mangetout) and yellow cherry tomatoes (lycoperscum esculantum), cultivar (cerasiforme) were irradiated for different absorbed doses, and their physical characteristics observed under cold storage conditions, in order to extend their shelf lives. Results suggest that 580 Gy is the maximum optimum dose. At this dose the shelf life of cherry tomatoes is shown to be extended. No beneficial effect was recorded on the storage life of green peas. A good correlation was found between the degradation of chlorophill and the spread of spotting disease for this product. (author)., 19 refs., 2 tab

  8. Isolation and expression of a pea vicilin cDNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, M D; Lambert, N; Delauney, A; Yarwood, J N; Croy, R R; Gatehouse, J A; Wright, D J; Boulter, D

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA clone containing the complete coding sequence for vicilin from pea (Pisum sativum L.) was isolated. It specifies a 50,000-Mr protein that in pea is neither post-translationally processed nor glycosylated. The cDNA clone was expressed in yeast from a 2 micron plasmid by using the yeast phosphoglycerate kinase promoter and initiator codon. The resultant fusion protein, which contains the first 16 amino acid residues of phosphoglycerate kinase in addition to the vicilin sequence, was puri...

  9. The Phytopathogen Dickeya dadantii (Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937) Is a Pathogen of the Pea Aphid†

    OpenAIRE

    Grenier, Anne-Marie; Duport, Gabrielle; Pagès, Sylvie; Condemine, Guy; Rahbé, Yvan

    2006-01-01

    Dickeya dadantii (Erwinia chrysanthemi) is a phytopathogenic bacterium causing soft rot diseases on many crops. The sequencing of its genome identified four genes encoding homologues of the Cyt family of insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, which are not present in the close relative Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum. The pathogenicity of D. dadantii was tested on the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the bacterium was shown to be highly virulent for this insect, eit...

  10. Physical and Chemical Barriers in Root Tissues Contribute to Quantitative Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi in Pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Bani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (Fop is one of the most destructive diseases of pea worldwide. Control of this disease is difficult and it is mainly based on the use of resistant cultivars. While monogenic resistance has been successfully used in the field, it is at risk of breakdown by the constant evolution of the pathogen. New sources of quantitative resistance have been recently identified from a wild relative Pisum spp. collection. Here, we characterize histologically the resistance mechanisms occurring in these sources of quantitative resistance. Detailed comparison, of the reaction at cellular level, of eight pea accessions with differential responses to Fop race 2, showed that resistant accessions established several barriers at the epidermis, exodermis, cortex, endodermis and vascular stele efficiently impeding fungal progression. The main components of these different barriers were carbohydrates and phenolic compounds including lignin. We found that these barriers were mainly based on three defense mechanisms including cell wall strengthening, formation of papilla-like structures at penetration sites and accumulation of different substances within and between cells. These defense reactions varied in intensity and localization between resistant accessions. Our results also clarify some steps of the infection process of F. oxysporum in plant and support the important role of cell wall-degrading enzymes in F. oxysporum pathogenicity.

  11. Phytotoxicity of thallium (Tl) in culture solution. Pt. 2. Effects of Tl(III) on the growth and heavy metal contents of pea and field bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, B; Austenfeld, F A

    1985-01-01

    The effects of Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ and Tl(III)EDTA on growth and heavy metal contents of pea plants and field bean plants were compared in hydroponic culture experiments. In the presence of Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, the essential heavy metals were available to the plants in their ionic forms. When Tl(III)EDTA was present the essential heavy metals were available as chelated complexes. Dry matter production of the pea plants was inhibited to a greater extent by Tl(III)EDTA than by Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/. The distribution of Tl within the plant was unaffected by the accompanying anion, however an increase of the Tl content of the stems and the leaves was observed in the presence of Tl(III)EDTA. The micronutrients exhibited different interactions with Tl(III). In the presence of increasing concentrations of Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ the Mn content of each organ and the Zn content of the roots were lowered, but the Zn content of the stems was increased. Increasing concentrations of Tl(III)EDTA resulted only in a decrease of the Mn content of the roots, but in an increase of the contents of Fe and Mn within the stems, and Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu within the leaves. The increases may be due to concentration by growth inhibition. In contrast to pea plants, growth of field bean plants was inhibited only by Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/. The field bean plants retained most of the Tl within the roots independent of the Tl compound in the solution. Chelation of Tl(III) resulted in higher Tl contents of both the roots and the stems, but equal or reduced Tl contents of the leaves. Whereas increasing concentrations of Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ reduced the Mn content of each organ as well as the Zn content of the roots and the leaves, Tl(III)EDTA only reduced the Mn content of the roots.

  12. A 200 bp region of the pea ENOD12 promoter is sufficient for nodule-specific and nod factor induced expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijn, I; Christiansen, H; Lauridsen, P

    1995-01-01

    ENOD12 is one of the first nodulin genes expressed upon inoculation with Rhizobium and also purified Nod factors are able to induce ENOD12 expression. The ENOD12 gene family in pea (Pisum sativum) has two members. A cDNA clone representing PsENOD12A [26] and a PsENOD12B genomic clone [7] have been...

  13. Durable broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance in pea er1 plants is conferred by natural loss-of-function mutations in PsMLO1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humphry, M.; Reinstädler, A.; Ivanov, S.; Bisseling, T.; Panstruga, R.

    2011-01-01

    Loss-of-function alleles of plant-specific MLO (Mildew Resistance Locus O) genes confer broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance in monocot (barley) and dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato) plants. Recessively inherited powdery mildew resistance in pea (Pisum sativum) er1 plants is, in many aspects,

  14. Molecular characterization of a distinct monopartite begomovirus associated with betasatellites and alphasatellites infecting Pisum sativum in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M S; Pudashini, B J; Khatri-Chhetri, G B; Briddon, R W; Natsuaki, K T

    2017-04-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) plants exhibiting leaf distortion, yellowing, stunted growth and reduction in leaf size from Rampur, Nepal were shown to be infected by a begomovirus in association with betasatellites and alphasatellites. The begomovirus associated with the disease showed only low levels of nucleotide sequence identity (characterized begomoviruses. This finding indicates that the pea samples were infected with an as yet undescribed begomovirus for which the name Pea leaf distortion virus (PLDV) is proposed. Two species of betasatellite were identified in association with PLDV. One group of sequences had high (>78%) nucleotide sequence identity to isolates of Ludwigia leaf distortion betasatellite (LuLDB), and the second group had less than 78% to all other betasatellite sequences. This showed PLDV to be associated with either LuLDB or a previously undescribed betasatellite for which the name Pea leaf distortion betasatellite is proposed. Two types of alphasatellites were identified in the PLDV-infected pea plants. The first type showed high levels of sequence identity to Ageratum yellow vein alphasatellite, and the second type showed high levels of identity to isolates of Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite. These are the first begomovirus, betasatellites and alphasatellites isolated from pea.

  15. Morphological characterization of fungi associated with the ascochyta blight complex and pathogenic variability of Mycosphaerella pinodes on field pea crops in central Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Field pea crops in central Alberta were surveyed for ascochyta blight from 2011 to 2012 and fungal isolates were recovered from foliar lesions on selected plants. Cultural and microscopic characterization of the 275 isolates obtained revealed that 272 were of Mycosphaerella pinodes and three were of Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Ascochyta pisi or Phoma koolunga were not identified. Isolates of M. pinodes were divided into two groups, GI and GII, based on visual assessment of culture characteristics. GI isolates (light to dark, mostly gray colony color; pycnidial distribution radial and concentric; conidia 10.5–14.5 × 4.2–6.2 μm most with one septum, occasionally two, constricted at the septum; spore mass light buff to flesh color were predominant (83%, while GII isolates (dark to gray colony color; pycnidia abundant; conidia 8–16 × 3.5–6.2 μm most with 1 septum, constricted at the septum; spore mass light buff to flesh color were less common (17%. The cultures of GII isolates were similar to recent descriptions of A. pisi, but they differed in spore color. In a host differential study, 13 pathotypes of M. pinodes were identified from 110 single-spore isolates. Pathotype I was predominant (88 isolates and virulent on all nine differential genotypes. The other pathotypes (pathotypes II–XIII were rare (1–6 isolates of each. Comparison of the present results with earlier studies suggests that pathotype I has been prevalent for many years, and that its aggressiveness on the host differentials has increased over time. Emphasis should be placed on breeding for resistance to M. pinodes in field pea cultivars intended for deployment in central Alberta.

  16. Hypolipidemic effect of dietary pea proteins: Impact on genes regulating hepatic lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, Elena; Parolini, Cinzia; Marchesi, Marta; Diani, Erika; Brambilla, Stefano; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia

    2010-05-01

    Controversial data on the lipid-lowering effect of dietary pea proteins have been provided and the mechanisms behind this effect are not completely understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate a possible hypolipidemic activity of a pea protein isolate and to determine whether pea proteins could affect the hepatic lipid metabolism through regulation of genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis. Rats were fed Nath's hypercholesterolemic diets for 28 days, the protein sources being casein or a pea protein isolate from Pisum sativum. After 14 and 28 days of dietary treatment, rats fed pea proteins had markedly lower plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels than rats fed casein (pPea protein-fed rats displayed higher hepatic mRNA levels of LDL receptor versus those fed casein (ppea protein-fed rats than in rats fed casein (ppea proteins in rats. Moreover, pea proteins appear to affect cellular lipid homeostasis by upregulating genes involved in hepatic cholesterol uptake and by downregulating fatty acid synthesis genes.

  17. Biomass production and nitrogen accumulation in pea, oat, and vetch green manure mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannink, J.L.; Liebman, M.; Merrick, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    Interest in the use of green manures has revived because of their role in improving soil quality and their beneficial N and non-N rotation effects. This study evaluated biomass production, N content, radiation interception (RI), and radiation use efficiency (RUE) of pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) mixtures. Treatments were a three-way factorial of pea genotype ('Century' vs 'Tipu'), pea planting density (90 vs 224 kg ha -1 ), and cropping mixture (solecropped pea vs pea planted with a mixture of oat and hairy vetch). A mixture of oat and vetch without pea was also planted. Treatments were planted in early June on a Caribou gravelly loam (coarse-loamy, mixed, frigid Typic Haplorthods) in Presque Isle, ME, in 1993 and 1994. Biomass production and radiation interception were measured by repeated sampling. Mixture biomass was affected by a year x pea density interaction: respective yields for mixtures containing low-density and high-density pea were 770 and 880 g m -2 in 1993 vs 820 and 730 g m -2 in 1994. Mixture N content paralleled biomass production and averaged 209 g m -2 across all treatments. While pea sole crops did not consistently produce biomass or N equal to three-species mixtures the two-species mixture of oat and vetch did, yielding 820 g m -2 of biomass and 21.7 g m -2 of N, averaged over the 2 yr. Multiple regression showed that 61% of the variability in mixture biomass production was accounted for by a combination of early-season pea RI and midseason total mixture RUE. Economic analyses showed that rotation including these green manures may be economically competitive with a conventional rotation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) undersown with clover (Trifolium spp.) in a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production system

  18. Role of Pea Enation Mosaic Virus Coat Protein in the Host Plant and Aphid Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Doumayrou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in plant virus–vector interactions is essential for the development of effective control measures for aphid-vectored epidemic plant diseases. The coat proteins (CP are the main component of the viral capsids, and they are implicated in practically every stage of the viral infection cycle. Pea enation mosaic virus 1 (PEMV1, Enamovirus, Luteoviridae and Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2, Umbravirus, Tombusviridae are two RNA viruses in an obligate symbiosis causing the pea enation mosaic disease. Sixteen mutant viruses were generated with mutations in different domains of the CP to evaluate the role of specific amino acids in viral replication, virion assembly, long-distance movement in Pisum sativum, and aphid transmission. Twelve mutant viruses were unable to assemble but were able to replicate in inoculated leaves, move long-distance, and express the CP in newly infected leaves. Four mutant viruses produced virions, but three were not transmissible by the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Three-dimensional modeling of the PEMV CP, combined with biological assays for virion assembly and aphid transmission, allowed for a model of the assembly of PEMV coat protein subunits.

  19. Role of Pea Enation Mosaic Virus Coat Protein in the Host Plant and Aphid Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumayrou, Juliette; Sheber, Melissa; Bonning, Bryony C; Miller, W Allen

    2016-11-18

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in plant virus-vector interactions is essential for the development of effective control measures for aphid-vectored epidemic plant diseases. The coat proteins (CP) are the main component of the viral capsids, and they are implicated in practically every stage of the viral infection cycle. Pea enation mosaic virus 1 (PEMV1, Enamovirus , Luteoviridae ) and Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2, Umbravirus , Tombusviridae ) are two RNA viruses in an obligate symbiosis causing the pea enation mosaic disease. Sixteen mutant viruses were generated with mutations in different domains of the CP to evaluate the role of specific amino acids in viral replication, virion assembly, long-distance movement in Pisum sativum , and aphid transmission. Twelve mutant viruses were unable to assemble but were able to replicate in inoculated leaves, move long-distance, and express the CP in newly infected leaves. Four mutant viruses produced virions, but three were not transmissible by the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum . Three-dimensional modeling of the PEMV CP, combined with biological assays for virion assembly and aphid transmission, allowed for a model of the assembly of PEMV coat protein subunits.

  20. Conversion of Isatin to Isatate as Related to Growth Promotion in Avena Coleoptile and Pisum Stem Sections 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.-R.; Galston, A. W.; Milstone, L.

    1966-01-01

    Isatin, (indole 2,3-dione), which promotes elongation of Pisum stem sections at concentrations exceeding 0.1 mm, promotes elongation of Avena coleoptile sections only at higher concentrations, exceeding 1 mm. Aged isatin solutions are more active than fresh solutions, due to the slow, spontaneous conversion to isatate (o-aminophenylglyoxylate). A concentration of 0.1 mm aged isatin is as active in Avena coleoptile sections as in peas. Isatate has been independently synthesized and its auxin activity in both Avena coleoptile and Pisum stem sections confirmed. The synthetic isatate is more effective than isatin in both systems. This suggests that the auxin activity of isatin is due to its conversion to isatate. PMID:16656429

  1. Effect of genotype and environment on the concentrations of starch and protein in, and the physicochemical properties of starch from, field pea and fababean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood-Niefer, Shannon D; Warkentin, Thomas D; Chibbar, Ravindra N; Vandenberg, Albert; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-01-15

    The effects of genotype and environment and their interaction on the concentrations of starch and protein in, and the amylose content and thermal and pasting properties of starch from, pea and fababean are not well known. Differences due to genotype were observed in the concentrations of starch and protein in pea and fababean, in the onset temperature (To) and peak temperature (Tp) of gelatinization of fababean starch, and in the pasting, trough, cooling and final viscosities of pea starch and fababean starch. Significant two-way interactions (location × genotype) were observed for the concentration of starch in fababean and the amylose content, To, endothermic enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) and trough viscosity of fababean starch. Significant three-way interactions (location × year × genotype) were observed for the concentration of starch in pea and the pasting, trough, cooling and final viscosities of pea starch. Differences observed in the concentrations of starch and protein in pea and fababean were sufficient to be of practical significance to end-users, but the relatively small differences in amylose content and physicochemical properties of starch from pea and fababean were not. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The effects of fermentation and enzymatic treatment of pea on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Senz, M; Kozłowski, K; Boros, D; Wisniewska, M; Rose, D; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2017-10-01

    The present study examined the impacts of native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas (Pisum sativum L.) inclusion in broiler diets, on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. For the fermentation process, Madonna pea was mixed with water (1/1) containing 2.57×108 Bacillus subtilis (GalliPro®) spores/kg pea and then, incubated for 48 h at 30 °C. For the enzymatic treatment process, the used water for dough production contained three enzymes, AlphaGalTM (α-galactosidase), RONOZYME® ProAct and VP (protease and pectinases respectively - DSM, Switzerland) and the pea dough incubated for 24 h at 30°C. Nine corn-wheat-soybean diets were formulated by supplying 10%, 20% and 30% of the required CP with either native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas. Performance was recorded weekly and at the end of the experiment (day 35), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP, amino acids (AA), crude fat, starch, Ca, P and K were determined. Data were subjected to ANOVA using GLM procedure with a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Both processes reduced α-galactosides, phytate, trypsin inhibitor activity and resistant starch in peas. Increasing levels of pea products up to 300 g/kg diet, reduced BW gain and feed intake (P⩽0.05). Broilers fed diets containing enzymatically treated pea had the best feed conversion ratio at day 35. Different types of pea product and their inclusion levels had no effect on AID of all nutrients. The interaction between type of the pea products and inclusion levels was significant for AID of starch. For native pea diets, 10% group showed similar AID of starch to 20% native pea but it had higher AID than 30% native pea. For fermented and enzymatically treated groups, all three levels displayed similar AID of starch. In conclusion, enzymatic treatment and fermentation could improve the nutritional quality of pea. Inclusion of enzymatically treated pea in broiler diets could improve broiler performance compared with other pea

  3. Potential of high isostatic pressure and pulsed electric fields for the processing of potato and pea proteins:structural and techno-functional characterization in model solutions and plant tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Baier, Anne Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the potential of high isostatic pressure and pulsed electric fields for the production of high quality plant proteins. Induced changes in protein solutions and plant tissue of potato and pea were analyzed by means of structural and techno-functional characterization as well as by investigation of diffusion and extractions procedures. The application of high isostatic pressure provides a gentle alternative to conventional heat preservation. Especially ...

  4. Mutation breeding in peas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaranowski, J [Institute of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Academy of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland); Micke, A [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1985-02-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  5. Mutation breeding in peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaranowski, J.; Micke, A.

    1985-01-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and variability in nutritional value of varieties and breeding lines of dry field beans and peas for chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with day-old broiler type chicks to study the effect of a cobalt-60 source of gamma irradiation and autoclaving on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The variability in nutritional value of varieties and breeding lines of dry field beans and peas was also studied. Total protein (N x 6.25) was not changed appreciably by gamma irradiation (21 Mrad cobalt-60) and autoclaving but solubility in water was decreased. In vitro enzymic digestibility of irradiated bean protein was increased by pepsin alone and with a mixture of trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase. The nutritional value of all varieties of beans, based on chick growth, was significantly improved by gamma irradiation. The irradiated treatment of beans increased nitrogen retention by chicks and decreased uric acid nitrogen excretion in relation to nitrogen intake

  7. A High-Density Integrated DArTseq SNP-Based Genetic Map of Pisum fulvum and Identification of QTLs Controlling Rust Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Barilli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pisum fulvum, a wild relative of pea is an important source of allelic diversity to improve the genetic resistance of cultivated species against fungal diseases of economic importance like the pea rust caused by Uromyces pisi. To unravel the genetic control underlying resistance to this fungal disease, a recombinant inbred line (RIL population was generated from a cross between two P. fulvum accessions, IFPI3260 and IFPI3251, and genotyped using Diversity Arrays Technology. A total of 9,569 high-quality DArT-Seq and 8,514 SNPs markers were generated. Finally, a total of 12,058 markers were assembled into seven linkage groups, equivalent to the number of haploid chromosomes of P. fulvum and P. sativum. The newly constructed integrated genetic linkage map of P. fulvum covered an accumulated distance of 1,877.45 cM, an average density of 1.19 markers cM−1 and an average distance between adjacent markers of 1.85 cM. The composite interval mapping revealed three QTLs distributed over two linkage groups that were associated with the percentage of rust disease severity (DS%. QTLs UpDSII and UpDSIV were located in the LGs II and IV respectively and were consistently identified both in adult plants over 3 years at the field (Córdoba, Spain and in seedling plants under controlled conditions. Whenever they were detected, their contribution to the total phenotypic variance varied between 19.8 and 29.2. A third QTL (UpDSIV.2 was also located in the LGIVand was environmentally specific as was only detected for DS % in seedlings under controlled conditions. It accounted more than 14% of the phenotypic variation studied. Taking together the data obtained in the study, it could be concluded that the expression of resistance to fungal diseases in P. fulvum originates from the resistant parent IFPI3260.

  8. Performance of Garden Pea Genotypes in Eastern Hills of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Poudel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Garden pea (Pisum sativum L is an important winter legume used as fresh vegetables and other drier food products. Despite of its importance as cash crop in many parts of Nepal, much study on various aspects for enhancing production and productivity has yet to be done. Therefore, to evaluate the production performance different genotypes of garden pea in eastern hills agro-ecological conditions present experiments were carried out consecutively for two years (2015 and 2016 at Agricultural Research Station, Pakhribas. The experiment comprised of 11 different genotypes of garden pea including a check variety Arkel. The production performance was evaluated in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The seeds were sown at 50 × 10 cm spacing during first week of October for two years. The result showed that DGP-05 genotype had earliest 104 days after sowing. The DGP-08 genotype showed 13 which were the maximum numbers of pods per plant (13, while DGP-01 showed 8 numbers of seeds as the maximum per pod. The DGP-03 genotype had the longest pod of 9.78 cm among others. The highest fresh pod yield of 18.14 t/ha was achieved from genotype DGP-09 followed by Arkel with (16.32 t/ha.

  9. Callose deposition during gravitropism of Zea mays and Pisum sativum and its inhibition by 2-deoxy-D-glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, M. J.; Leopold, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    In etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) and etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings, a gravitropic stimulation induces the deposition of callose. In the corn coleoptiles this occurs within 5 min of gravity stimulation, and prior to the beginning of curvature. Both gravitropic curvature and callose deposition reach their maxima by 12 h. Within the first 2 h more callose is deposited on the upper (concave) side, but after 2-3 h, this deposition pattern is reversed. An inhibitor of protein glycosylation, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DDG), inhibits callose production and considerably retards gravitropic bending in both species of plants. Mannose can relieve the inhibition of gravitropic bending by DDG. The pea mutant "Ageotropum", which does not respond to gravity when etiolated, also fails to produce callose in response to a gravitic stimulus. These correlations indicate that callose deposition may be a biochemical component of gravitropism in plant shoots.

  10. A peptide that binds the pea aphid gut impedes entry of Pea enation mosaic virus into the aphid hemocoel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sijun; Sivakumar, S.; Sparks, Wendy O.; Miller, W. Allen; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2010-01-01

    Development of ways to block virus transmission by aphids could lead to novel and broad-spectrum means of controlling plant viruses. Viruses in the Luteoviridae enhanced are obligately transmitted by aphids in a persistent manner that requires virion accumulation in the aphid hemocoel. To enter the hemocoel, the virion must bind and traverse the aphid gut epithelium. By screening a phage display library, we identified a 12-residue gut binding peptide (GBP3.1) that binds to the midgut and hindgut of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Binding was confirmed by labeling the aphid gut with a GBP3.1-green fluorescent protein fusion. GBP3.1 reduced uptake of Pea enation mosaic virus (Luteoviridae) from the pea aphid gut into the hemocoel. GBP3.1 also bound to the gut epithelia of the green peach aphid and the soybean aphid. These results suggest a novel strategy for inhibiting plant virus transmission by at least three major aphid pest species.

  11. Winter Pea: Promising New Crop for Washington's Dryland Wheat-Fallow Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Schillinger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year tillage-based winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.-summer fallow (WW-SF rotation has been practiced by the vast majority of farmers in the low-precipitation (<300 mm annual rainfed cropping region of east-central Washington and north-central Oregon for 140 years. Until recently, alternative crops (i.e., those other than WW so far tested have not been as economically viable or stable as WW-SF. A 6-year field study was conducted near Ritzville, WA (292 mm avg. annual precipitation to determine the yield and rotation benefits of winter pea (Pisum sativum L. (WP. Two 3-year rotations were evaluated: WP-spring wheat (SW-SF vs. WW-SW-SF. Winter pea yields averaged 2,443 vs. 4,878 kg/ha for WW. No fertilizer was applied to WP whereas 56 kg N and 11 kg S/ha were applied to WW. Winter pea used significantly less soil water than WW. Over the winter months, a lesser percentage of precipitation was stored in the soil following WP compared to WW because: (i very little WP residue remained on the soil surface after harvest compared to WW, and (ii the drier the soil, the more precipitation is stored in the soil over winter. However, soil water content in the spring was still greater following WP vs. WW. Soil residual N in the spring (7 months after the harvest of WP and WW was greater in WP plots despite not applying fertilizer to produce WP. Spring wheat grown after both WP and WW received the identical quantity of N, P, and S fertilizer each year. Average yield of SW was 2,298 and 2,011 kg/ha following WP and WW, respectively (P < 0.01. Adjusted gross economic returns for these two rotation systems were similar. Based partially on the results of this study, numerous farmers in the dry WW-SF region have shown keen interest in WP and acreage planted WP in east-central Washington has grown exponentially since 2013. This paper provides the first report of the potential for WP in the typical WW-SF region of the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW.

  12. Breeding of a protein pea ideotype for Finnish conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Hovinen

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of protein pea (Pisum sativum L. adapted to cultivation in Finnish conditions were specified. Ideotypes for pure and mixed stands were defined separately. Factors affecting seed yield, protein yield and protein content were determined. Efficiency of biological nitrogen fixation in the varieties was evaluated at two nitrogen application levels, 16 and 80 kg/ha. Selection methods for increasing protein content were discussed. The commercial varieties bred during the programme were presented. The effect of the gene af on different characteristics of the pea was the central object of the studies. The ideotype of peas for cultivation in Finland has to be of the afila-type. This concerns cultivation in both pure and mixed stands. Afila-peas gave seed yields and protein yields as high as the leafed ones. The lodging of afila-peas throughout the generative growth phase was less than that of the conventional leaf types. In mixed cropping the most suitable afila-peas generally formed almost completely unlodged stands together with cereals. The best seed yields were given by the varieties with a stem height of 61 to 94 cm. Due to competition, the corresponding height in mixed stands ranged from 80 to 100 cm. For the same reason, varieties to be used in mixed stands must possess a fairly large seed size and fast growth rate after emergence. The optimum flowering period lasted from 19 to 28 days. The varieties must be early, with a growing time from 91 to 101 days. Late varieties are not adapted to northern conditions, giving low yields and poor quality. The mean yield of the varieties was 4500 kg/ha in pure stands. The high nitrogen application level of 80 kg/ha did not increase pea yield in comparison with the 16 kg/ha level. In contrast, it enhanced the protein content by 1 % and the protein yield slightly. In mixed stands the mean total yield was 4700kg/ha. The hectare yields of crude protein reached levels of 990 and 900 kg

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E from Pisum sativum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, Jamie A.; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Maule, Andrew J.; Lawson, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Crystals of N-terminally truncated eIF4E from pea were obtained and X-ray data were recorded in-house to a resolution of 2.2 Å. Crystals of an N-terminally truncated 20 kDa fragment of Pisum sativum eIF4E (ΔN-eIF4E) were grown by vapour diffusion. X-ray data were recorded to a resolution of 2.2 Å from a single crystal in-house. Indexing was consistent with primitive monoclinic symmetry and solvent-content estimations suggested that between four and nine copies of the eIF4E fragment were possible per crystallographic asymmetric unit. eIF4E is an essential component of the eukaryotic translation machinery and recent studies have shown that point mutations of plant eIF4Es can confer resistance to potyvirus infection

  14. Effect of Pigeon Pea Hedgerow Alley Management on the Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year (2010 and 2011 cropping seasons) field investigation conducted at the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, South Eastern Nigeria. Treatments comprised three pigeon pea hedgerow alley populations of 20,000, 33,333 and ...

  15. Coupling of solute transport and cell expansion in pea stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalstig, J. G.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    As cells expand and are displaced through the elongation zone of the epicotyl of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. var Alaska) seedlings, there is little net dilution of the cell sap, implying a coordination between cell expansion and solute uptake from the phloem. Using [14C] sucrose as a phloem tracer (applied to the hypogeous cotyledons), the pattern of label accumulation along the stem closely matched the growth rate pattern: high accumulation in the growing zone, little accumulation in nongrowing regions. Several results suggest that a major portion of phloem contents enters elongating cells through the symplast. We propose that the coordination between phloem transport and cell expansion is accomplished via regulatory pathways affecting both plasmodesmata conductivity and cell expansion.

  16. Effect of sodium fluoride and sodium nitroprouside on Cicer arietinum and Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the individual and combine effect of sodium fluoride (NaF and sodium nitroprouside (SNP on germination and biochemical parameters (pigments, sugar, protein, amino acid, and phenol of Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum and peas (Pisum sativum has been studied. After three days of NaF treatment, reductions were observed in percentage of seed germination, root and shoot length, and pigment content with increasing concentration of NaF (1 to 4 mg L-1. Seedlings treated with SNP, both alone and in combination of NaF, showed enhancement in seed germination as well as other growth parameters. NaF-treated seedlings were found to accumulate more soluble sugars and phenols, which were further increased by SNP treatment thereby indicating a synergistic effect of the possible reasons for the ameliorative effects of SNP in seedlings of Pisum sativum growing under NaF stress. Results also demonstrated that SNP application did not show any improvement in both morpho-physiologically and biochemically under sodium fluoride stress condition.

  17. Eliminating anti-nutritional plant food proteins: the case of seed protease inhibitors in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Alfonso; Arques, Maria C; Dalmais, Marion; Le Signor, Christine; Chinoy, Catherine; Olias, Raquel; Rayner, Tracey; Isaac, Peter G; Lawson, David M; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Domoney, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Several classes of seed proteins limit the utilisation of plant proteins in human and farm animal diets, while plant foods have much to offer to the sustainable intensification of food/feed production and to human health. Reduction or removal of these proteins could greatly enhance seed protein quality and various strategies have been used to try to achieve this with limited success. We investigated whether seed protease inhibitor mutations could be exploited to enhance seed quality, availing of induced mutant and natural Pisum germplasm collections to identify mutants, whilst acquiring an understanding of the impact of mutations on activity. A mutant (TILLING) resource developed in Pisum sativum L. (pea) and a large germplasm collection representing Pisum diversity were investigated as sources of mutations that reduce or abolish the activity of the major protease inhibitor (Bowman-Birk) class of seed protein. Of three missense mutations, predicted to affect activity of the mature trypsin / chymotrypsin inhibitor TI1 protein, a C77Y substitution in the mature mutant inhibitor abolished inhibitor activity, consistent with an absolute requirement for the disulphide bond C77-C92 for function in the native inhibitor. Two further classes of mutation (S85F, E109K) resulted in less dramatic changes to isoform or overall inhibitory activity. The alternative strategy to reduce anti-nutrients, by targeted screening of Pisum germplasm, successfully identified a single accession (Pisum elatius) as a double null mutant for the two closely linked genes encoding the TI1 and TI2 seed protease inhibitors. The P. elatius mutant has extremely low seed protease inhibitory activity and introgression of the mutation into cultivated germplasm has been achieved. The study provides new insights into structure-function relationships for protease inhibitors which impact on pea seed quality. The induced and natural germplasm variants identified provide immediate potential for either halving

  18. Batch Scale Removal of an Organic Pollutant Amaranth Dye from Aqueous Solution using Pisum sativum Peels and Arachis hypogaea Shells as Adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, R.; Afzal, A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to utilize low cost and environmentally friendly adsorbents for batch scale removal of Amaranth dye from aqueous medium. Peels of Pisum sativum (Pea) and Arachis hypogaea (Peanut) were utilized to investigate their dye removing capacity. The optimized adsorption conditions for Pisum sativum (P.S.P) and Arachis hypogaea (A.H.S) were: adsorbent dose; 0.6 and 0.4 g, contact time; 45 and 10 minutes, pH; 2.0 for both, agitation speed; 150 and 100 rpm and temperature; 60 and 50 degree C for P.S.P and A.H.S respectively. The adsorption data well suited to Langmuir isotherm. Maximum adsorption capacities were found to be 144.93 and 10.53 mg/g for P.S.P and A.H.S respectively. Feasibility of the process was indicated by negative values of thermodynamic parameters delta G/sup 0/ for both adsorbents. Kinetic studies indicated that adsorption of Amaranth dye from aqueous medium by Pisum sativum peels and Arachis hypogaea shells followed pseudo-seconder order kinetics. It was concluded that Pisum sativum peels are more effective adsorbent for removal of Amaranth from aqueous solution as compared to Arachis hypogaea shells. (author)

  19. Diversity of Pea-Associated F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides Populations Revealed by FUM1 Sequence Analysis and Fumonisin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz; Wilman, Karolina; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum and F. verticillioides are considered as minor pathogens of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Both species can survive in seed material without visible disease symptoms, but still contaminating it with fumonisins. Two populations of pea-derived F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides strains were subjected to FUM1 sequence divergence analysis, forming a distinct group when compared to the collection strains originating from different host species. Furthermore, the mycotoxigenic abilities of those strains were evaluated on the basis of in planta and in vitro fumonisin biosynthesis. No differences were observed in fumonisin B (FB) levels measured in pea seeds (maximum level reached 1.5 μg g−1); however, in rice cultures, the majority of F. proliferatum genotypes produced higher amounts of FB1–FB3 than F. verticillioides strains. PMID:23470545

  20. Effect of replacing a soy diet with Vicia faba and Pisum sativum on performance, meat and fat traits of Cinta Senese pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Sirtori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets containing genetically modified organism-free legumes as a replacement of soybean on the basis of performance, carcass composition and quality of local pig meat (Cinta Senese. Twenty-four Cinta Senese barrows were divided into 3 dietary groups and were each fed with a diet containing different protein sources: soybean meal (SOY, Vicia faba (FABA and Pisum sativum (PEA (8 pigs for each group. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric and contained approximately 14.5% crude protein and 14.8 MJ/kg of digestible energy (on dry matter. Each group was reared outdoors in a paddock of 3500 m2. In vivo performances were not different among groups. At slaughter, differences in subcutaneous fat thickness appeared only in the outer layer, at the last thoracic vertebra level, which was lowest in the PEA group. No differences were found in the sample joint composition. With regard to the chemico-physical traits of meat and fat, the FABA group had the highest values of redness in lean and backfat, while the PEA group showed higher moisture and lower fat content in meat compared to the SOY group. Differences in the fatty acid profile of backfat were found only for the C16:1 percentage that was higher in FABA than SOY pigs. In conclusion, Vicia faba and Pisum sativum could be a good alternative to soybean in the growing-fattening of Cinta Senese pigs.

  1. Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max used as botanical insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on sorghum grains.

  2. Improvement of pea biomass and seed productivity by simultaneous increase of phloem and embryo loading with amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lizhi; Garneau, Matthew G; Majumdar, Rajtilak; Grant, Jan; Tegeder, Mechthild

    2015-01-01

    The development of sink organs such as fruits and seeds strongly depends on the amount of nitrogen that is moved within the phloem from photosynthetic-active source leaves to the reproductive sinks. In many plant species nitrogen is transported as amino acids. In pea (Pisum sativum L.), source to sink partitioning of amino acids requires at least two active transport events mediated by plasma membrane-localized proteins, and these are: (i) amino acid phloem loading; and (ii) import of amino acids into the seed cotyledons via epidermal transfer cells. As each of these transport steps might potentially be limiting to efficient nitrogen delivery to the pea embryo, we manipulated both simultaneously. Additional copies of the pea amino acid permease PsAAP1 were introduced into the pea genome and expression of the transporter was targeted to the sieve element-companion cell complexes of the leaf phloem and to the epidermis of the seed cotyledons. The transgenic pea plants showed increased phloem loading and embryo loading of amino acids resulting in improved long distance transport of nitrogen, sink development and seed protein accumulation. Analyses of root and leaf tissues further revealed that genetic manipulation positively affected root nitrogen uptake, as well as primary source and sink metabolism. Overall, the results suggest that amino acid phloem loading exerts regulatory control over pea biomass production and seed yield, and that import of amino acids into the cotyledons limits seed protein levels. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Nitrogen transfer in the interface between the symbionts in pea root nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, L.; Mouritzen, P.; Rudbeck, A.

    2001-01-01

    Transport mechanisms for transfer of nitrogen from the bacteroid side across the symbiosome membrane of pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules were identified by the use of energised bacteroid side-out symbiosome membrane vesicles. Such membrane vesicles were used to study a mechanism with high...... was not observed. The ammonium transporter has been identified as a voltage-driven channel whereas the symbiosome membrane aspartate transporter appears to be a H+/aspartate symport. The results suggest that nitrogen transfer between the symbionts in pea root nodules involves transfer of amino acids as well...... capacity for transport of ammonium and another mechanism capable of transporting aspartate. Both transport mechanisms are voltage driven and the rate of transport relates positively to the magnitude of the imposed membrane potentials. Competition for transport between ammonium and aspartate...

  4. Utilization of exogenous ethanol by pea seedlings in an oxygen-free environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, B.F.; Zemlyanukhin, A.A.; Salam, A.M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigated the metabolism of exogenous [2- 14 C]-ethanol in pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.) exposed to different gaseous media, viz.,air, helium, or CO 2 . The 14 C label from ethanol most actively entered amino acids (glutamic and aspartic acids, alanine, glycine, and serine) and organic acids (citrate, malate, succinate, and malonate). Conversion of ethanol to organic acids and separate amino acids (gamma-aminobutyric acid and valine) was intensified under conditions of oxygen stress. A high concentration of CO 2 stimulated transformations of ethanol into these two amino acids, but sharply inhibited overall entry of the label from exogenous ethanol into metabolites of the seedlings. Lengthening the time of exposure lowered this inhibition. Exogenous ethanol did not take part in stress accumulation of alanine in seedlings deprived of oxygen. It is concluded that ethanol participates actively in the metabolic response of pea plants to oxygen stress, and that CO 2 exerts strong modifying action on this response

  5. [Non-thermal effect of GSM electromagnetic radiation on quality of pea seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselova, T V; Veselovskiĭ, V A; Deev, L I; Baĭzhumanov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The seeds with low level of room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) were selected from a lot of air-dry peas (Pisum sativum) with 62% germination. These strong seeds (95-97% germination percentage) in air-dry, imbibed or emerged states were exposed to 905 MHz GSM-band electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The following effects of EMR were observed. Fraction II with higher RTP level appeared in the air-dry seeds. The germination rate decreased 2-3 fold in the air-dry, swollen and sprouting seeds due to an increase in the ratio of the seedlings with morphological defects (from 3 to 38%) and suffocated seeds (from 1 to 15%). We suggest tentative mechanisms to account for the decreased fitness of peas under GSM-band EMR (905 MHz); also discussed is the role of non-enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates and amino-carbonyl reaction in this process.

  6. Effects of substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran on digestion and growth performance in rabbits in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lounaouci-Ouyed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the trial was to study the effects of replacement of a soybean meal-alfalfa-maize based diet by a mixture of field bean (g/kg as fed: 257 crude protein [CP], 139 neutral detergent fibre [NDF] or pea (g/kg as fed: 203 CP, 122 NDF combined with hard wheat bran (g/kg as fed: 140 CP, 396 NDF and without supplementation of synthetic DL-methionine, on diet digestibility, growth and slaughter traits of growing rabbits. Three diets were formulated: a control diet mainly consisting of 15% of soybean meal, alfalfa and maize (SBM15 diet; g/kg as fed: 161 CP and 267 NDF and 2 experimental diets based on 26% of field bean (FB26 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 250 NDF or 30% of pea (P30 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 255 NDF as main protein source, and completed with hard wheat bran (34 and 40%, respectively for FB26 and P30 diets partly replacing alfalfa and maize. Diets were distributed ad libitum to 3 groups of 40 mixed-sex growing rabbits of Algerian white population, placed in collective cages (4 rabbits/cage from weaning (28 d, mean weight: 614±112 g until 77 d of age (slaughter. Faecal digestibility was measured between 42 and 46 d of age in 7 rabbits/group. Gross energy and crude protein digestibility coefficients were similar for SBM15 and FB26 diets (78.6 and 86.4%, respectively and lower for P30 diet (75.1 and 83.6%, respectively; P≤0.03. Treatments had no effect (P=0.12 on mortality rate, which was on av. 9.2%. Treatments did not affect growth performance from 28 to 77 d of age (30.8 g/d or feed intake (mean 94.6 g/d, but feed conversion ratio was higher for rabbits fed FB26 and P30 diets compared to those fed SBM15 diet (3.13 vs. 2.94; P=0.006. The dressing out percentages (mean 66.6% and the muscle/bone ratio (6.8 were similar for the 3 groups of rabbits. In conclusion, the substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran, without methionine supplementation, does not seem to affect

  7. Modulation of legume defense signaling pathways by native and non-native pea aphid clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sanchez-Arcos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum is a complex of at least 15 genetically different host races that are native to specific legume plants, but can all develop on the universal host plant Vicia faba. Despite much research it is still unclear why pea aphid host races (biotypes are able to colonize their native hosts while other host races are not. All aphids penetrate the plant and salivate into plant cells when they test plant suitability. Thus plants might react differently to the various pea aphid host races. To find out whether legume species vary in their defense responses to different pea aphid host races, we measured the amounts of salicylic acid (SA, the jasmonic acid-isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile, other jasmonate precursors and derivatives, and abscisic acid (ABA in four different species (Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratense, Pisum sativum, V. faba after infestation by native and non-native pea aphid clones of various host races. Additionally, we assessed the performance of the clones on the four plant species. On M. sativa and T. pratense, non-native clones that were barely able to survive or reproduce, triggered a strong SA and JA-Ile response, whereas infestation with native clones led to lower levels of both phytohormones. On P. sativum, non-native clones, which survived or reproduced to a certain extent, induced fluctuating SA and JA-Ile levels, whereas the native clone triggered only a weak SA and JA-Ile response. On the universal host V. faba all aphid clones triggered only low SA levels initially, but induced clone-specific patterns of SA and JA-Ile later on. The levels of the active JA-Ile conjugate and of the other JA-pathway metabolites measured showed in many cases similar patterns, suggesting that the reduction in JA signaling was due to an effect upstream of OPDA. ABA levels were downregulated in all aphid clone-plant combinations and were therefore probably not decisive factors for aphid-plant compatibility. Our results

  8. Fluidity of pea root plasma membranes under altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymchuk, D. O.; Baranenko, V. V.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Dubovoy, V. D.

    This investigation aims to determine whether clinorotation 2 rev min of pea Pisum sativum L seedlings induces the alterations in the physical-chemical properties of cellular membranes including the plasma membrane fluidity The last is an important regulator of functional activity of membrane enzymes The plasma membranes were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning from roots of 6-day old pea seedlings The membrane fluidity was examined by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene probe The plasma membrane vesicles with known protein concentration were added to the incubation buffer to a final concentration of 50 mu g of protein per ml A small amount by 1 mu l of pyrene solution in 2-propanol was added to the incubation mixture to a final probe concentration 5 mu M at constant mixing Fluorescence spectra were measured using a Perkin-Elmer LS-50 spectrofluorometer Perkin-Elmer England Pyrene was excited at 337 nm and fluorescence intensity of monomers I M and excimers I E were measured at 393 and 470 nm respectively The I E I M ratios were 0 081 pm 0 003 and 0 072 pm 0 004 in preparations obtained from clinorotated and the control seedlings respectively This fact indicates that rotation on the clinostat increases the membrane fluidity Compared with controls clinorotated seedlings have also showed a reduced growth and a higher level of total unsaturated fatty acids determined by gas chromatography The factors that influence on the fluidity of membrane lipids in bilayer appear to be the

  9. Methionine metabolism and ethylene formation in etiolated pea stem sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, N.; Kende, H.

    1979-01-01

    Stem sections of etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were incubated overnight on tracer amounts of L-[U- 14 C]methionine and, on the following morning, on 0.1 millimolar indoleacetic acid to induce ethylene formation. Following the overnight incubation, over 70% of the radioactivity in the soluble fraction was shown to be associated with S-methylmethionine (SMM). The specific radioactivity of the ethylene evolved closely paralleled that of carbon atoms 3 and 4 of methionine extracted from the tissue and was always higher than that determined for carbon atoms 3 and 4 of extracted SMM. Overnight incubation of pea stem sections on 1 millimolar methionine enhanced indoleacetic acid-induced ethylene formation by 5 to 10%. Under the same conditions, 1 millimolar homocysteine thiolactone increased ethylene synthesis by 20 to 25%, while SMM within a concentration range of 0.1 to 10 millimolar did not influence ethylene production. When unlabeled methionine or homocysteine thiolactone was applied to stem sections which had been incubated overnight in L-[U- 14 C]methionine, the specific radioactivity of the ethylene evolved was considerably lowered. Application of unlabeled SMM reduced the specific radioactivity of ethylene only slightly

  10. Mutations induced by the action of metal ions in Pisum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Rosen, G

    1957-01-01

    Simple metal ions may induce both radiomimetic effects and genuine gene mutations of the same type which occurs from ionizing radiation and from treatment with some chemical agencies as e.g., mustard gas. The main material during the experiments has been species of Pisum. The biochemical principle which lies behind these reactions is the complex-forming ability among those reactive bivalent metal elements. The author assumes that interruptions of the chelate formation in the cell synthesis form the real background to the observed activity of the metal ions. The possible role in the evolution of the plant- and animal kingdom and the probable value for plant-breeding of the mutation activity observed are suggested. A new field for mutation experiments may here be opened and the results must hitherto be judged as interesting and promising. 13 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  11. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  12. Pea DNA topoisomerase I is phosphorylated and stimulated by casein kinase 2 and protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Narendra; Reddy, Malireddy Kodandarami; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Yadav, Badam Singh; Chandok, Meena Rani; Sopory, Sudhir Kumar

    2003-08-01

    DNA topoisomerase I catalyzes the relaxation of superhelical DNA tension and is vital for DNA metabolism; therefore, it is essential for growth and development of plants. Here, we have studied the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of topoisomerase I from pea (Pisum sativum). The purified enzyme did not show autophosphorylation but was phosphorylated in an Mg(2+)-dependent manner by endogenous protein kinases present in pea nuclear extracts. This phosphorylation was abolished with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase and lambda phosphatase. It was also phosphorylated by exogenous casein kinase 2 (CK2), protein kinase C (PKC; from animal sources), and an endogenous pea protein, which was purified using a novel phorbol myristate acetate affinity chromatography method. All of these phosphorylations were inhibited by heparin (inhibitor of CK2) and calphostin (inhibitor of PKC), suggesting that pea topoisomerase I is a bona fide substrate for these kinases. Spermine and spermidine had no effect on the CK2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting that it is polyamine independent. Phospho-amino acid analysis showed that only serine residues were phosphorylated, which was further confirmed using antiphosphoserine antibody. The topoisomerase I activity increased after phosphorylation with exogenous CK2 and PKC. This study shows that these kinases may contribute to the physiological regulation of DNA topoisomerase I activity and overall DNA metabolism in plants.

  13. A highly infective plant-associated bacterium influences reproductive rates in pea aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Tory A; Clark, Kelley J; Baltrus, David A

    2016-02-01

    Pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, have the potential to increase reproduction as a defence against pathogens, though how frequently this occurs or how infection with live pathogens influences this response is not well understood. Here we determine the minimum infective dose of an environmentally common bacterium and possible aphid pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, to determine the likelihood of pathogenic effects to pea aphids. Additionally, we used P. syringae infection to investigate how live pathogens may alter reproductive rates. We found that oral bacterial exposure decreased subsequent survival of aphids in a dose-dependent manner and we estimate that ingestion of less than 10 bacterial cells is sufficient to increase aphid mortality. Pathogen dose was positively related to aphid reproduction. Aphids exposed to low bacterial doses showed decreased, although statistically indistinguishable, fecundity compared to controls. Aphids exposed to high doses reproduced significantly more than low dose treatments and also more, but not significantly so, than controls. These results are consistent with previous studies suggesting that pea aphids may use fecundity compensation as a response to pathogens. Consequently, even low levels of exposure to a common plant-associated bacterium may therefore have significant effects on pea aphid survival and reproduction.

  14. Pea VEGETATIVE2 Is an FD Homolog That Is Essential for Flowering and Compound Inflorescence Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmilch, Frances C; Berbel, Ana; Hecht, Valérie; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Madueño, Francisco; Weller, James L

    2015-04-01

    As knowledge of the gene networks regulating inflorescence development in Arabidopsis thaliana improves, the current challenge is to characterize this system in different groups of crop species with different inflorescence architecture. Pea (Pisum sativum) has served as a model for development of the compound raceme, characteristic of many legume species, and in this study, we characterize the pea VEGETATIVE2 (VEG2) locus, showing that it is critical for regulation of flowering and inflorescence development and identifying it as a homolog of the bZIP transcription factor FD. Through detailed phenotypic characterizations of veg2 mutants, expression analyses, and the use of protein-protein interaction assays, we find that VEG2 has important roles during each stage of development of the pea compound inflorescence. Our results suggest that VEG2 acts in conjunction with multiple FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) proteins to regulate expression of downstream target genes, including TERMINAL FLOWER1, LEAFY, and MADS box homologs, and to facilitate cross-regulation within the FT gene family. These findings further extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying compound inflorescence development in pea and may have wider implications for future manipulation of inflorescence architecture in related legume crop species. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of the state of posttranslational calmodulin methylation in developing pea plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sukheung; Roberts, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    A specific calmodulin-N-methyltransferase was used in a radiometric assay to analyze the degree of methylation of lysine-115 in pea (Pisum sativum) plants. Calmodulin was isolated from dissected segments of developing roots of young etiolated and green pea plants and was tested for its ability to be methylated by incubation with the calmodulin methyltransferase in the presence of [ 3 H]methyl-S-adenosylmethionine. By this approach, the presence of unmethylated calmodulins were demonstrated in pea tissues, and the levels of methylation varied depending on the developmental state of the tissue tested. Calmodulin methylation levels were lower in apical root segments of both etiolated and green plants, and in the young lateral roots compared with the mature, differentiated root tissues. The incorporation of methyl groups into these calmodulin samples appears to be specific for position 115 since site-directed mutants of calmodulin with substitutions at this position competitively inhibited methyl group incorporation. The present findings, combined with previous data showing differences in the ability of methylated and unmethylated calmodulins to activate pea NAD kinase raise the possibility that posttranslational methylation of calmodulin could be another mechanism for regulating calmodulin activity

  16. A highly infective plant-associated bacterium influences reproductive rates in pea aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Tory A.; Clark, Kelley J.; Baltrus, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, have the potential to increase reproduction as a defence against pathogens, though how frequently this occurs or how infection with live pathogens influences this response is not well understood. Here we determine the minimum infective dose of an environmentally common bacterium and possible aphid pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, to determine the likelihood of pathogenic effects to pea aphids. Additionally, we used P. syringae infection to investigate how live pathogens may alter reproductive rates. We found that oral bacterial exposure decreased subsequent survival of aphids in a dose-dependent manner and we estimate that ingestion of less than 10 bacterial cells is sufficient to increase aphid mortality. Pathogen dose was positively related to aphid reproduction. Aphids exposed to low bacterial doses showed decreased, although statistically indistinguishable, fecundity compared to controls. Aphids exposed to high doses reproduced significantly more than low dose treatments and also more, but not significantly so, than controls. These results are consistent with previous studies suggesting that pea aphids may use fecundity compensation as a response to pathogens. Consequently, even low levels of exposure to a common plant-associated bacterium may therefore have significant effects on pea aphid survival and reproduction. PMID:26998321

  17. Inheritance patterns of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of pea aphid biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccoud, Jean; Bonhomme, Joël; Mahéo, Frédérique; de la Huerta, Manon; Cosson, Olivier; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    Herbivorous insects frequently harbor bacterial symbionts that affect their ecology and evolution. Aphids host the obligatory endosymbiont Buchnera, which is required for reproduction, together with facultative symbionts whose frequencies vary across aphid populations. These maternally transmitted secondary symbionts have been particularly studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, which harbors at least 8 distinct bacterial species (not counting Buchnera) having environmentally dependent effects on host fitness. In particular, these symbiont species are associated with pea aphid populations feeding on specific plants. Although they are maternally inherited, these bacteria are occasionally transferred across insect lineages. One mechanism of such nonmaternal transfer is paternal transmission to the progeny during sexual reproduction. To date, transmission of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of aphids has been investigated in only a handful of aphid lineages and 3 symbiont species. To better characterize this process, we investigated inheritance patterns of 7 symbiont species during sexual reproduction of pea aphids through a crossing experiment involving 49 clones belonging to 9 host-specialized biotypes, and 117 crosses. Symbiont species in the progeny were detected with diagnostic qualitative PCR at the fundatrix stage hatching from eggs and in later parthenogenetic generations. We found no confirmed case of paternal transmission of symbionts to the progeny, and we observed that maternal transmission of a particular symbiont species (Serratia symbiotica) was quite inefficient. We discuss these observations in respect to the ecology of the pea aphid. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Auxin Does Not Alter the Permeability of Pea Segments to Tritium-labeled Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowler, M J; Rayle, D L

    1974-02-01

    The possibility of an auxin effect on the permeability of pea (Pisum sativum L. ev. Alaska) segments to tritium-labeled water has been investigated by three separate laboratories, and the combined results are presented. We were unable to obtain any indication of a rapid effect of indoleacetic acid on the efflux of (3)HHO when pea segments previously "loaded" for 90 minutes with (3)HHO were transferred to unlabeled aqueous medium with indoleacetic acid. We were able to confirm that segments pretreated with (3)HHO plus indoleacetic acid for 60 to 90 minutes can show an enhanced (3)HHO release as compared with minus indoleacetic acid controls. However, this phenomenon appears to be due to an increased uptake of (3)HHO during the prolonged indoleacetic acid pretreatment, and therefore we conclude that auxin does not alter the permeability of pea segments to (3)HHO in either short term or long term tests. We confirm previous reports that the uptake of (3)HHO in pea segments proceeds largely through the cut surfaces, and that the cuticle is a potent barrier to (3)HHO flux.

  19. ( Voandze subterranean ) and pigeon pea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation and evaluation of complementary food based on bambara nut ( Voandze subterranean ) and pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... Objectives: The study formulated and evaluated complementary food made from composites of maize, bambara nut and pigeon pea. Materials ...

  20. Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae) infestation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant height, plant density per 0.25 m2, number of pea aphids and parasitoids per plant, ladybird beetles per plot, and finally grain yield per plot were recorded. Based on the results of the ANOVA, plant height was significantly different between treated and untreated plots especially after the vegetative stage. The density of ...

  1. Extraction, purification, kinetic and thermodynamic properties of urease from germinating Pisum Sativum L. seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Urease, one of the highly efficient known enzymes, catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. The present study aimed to extract urease from pea seeds (Pisum Sativum L). The enzyme was then purified in three consequence steps: acetone precipitation, DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S-200 column). Results The purification fold was 12.85 with a yield of 40%. The molecular weight of the isolated urease was estimated by chromatography to be 269,000 Daltons. Maximum urease activity (190 U/g) was achieved at the optimum conditions of 40°C and pH of 7.5 after 5 min of incubation. The kinetic parameters, K m and V max , were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk fits and found to be 500 mM and 333.3 U/g, respectively. The thermodynamic constants of activation, ΔH, E a , and ΔS, were determined using Arrhenius plot and found to be 21.20 kJ/mol, 23.7 kJ/mol, and 1.18 kJ/mol/K, respectively. Conclusions Urease was purified from germinating Pisum Sativum L. seeds. The purification fold, yield, and molecular weight were determined. The effects of pH, concentration of enzyme, temperature, concentration of substrate, and storage period on urease activity were examined. This may provide an insight on the various aspects of the property of the enzyme. The significance of extracting urease from different sources could play a good role in understanding the metabolism of urea in plants. PMID:25065975

  2. Line X tester analysis in pea (Pisum sativum L.): Identification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... parents together with the information regarding nature and magnitude of gene effects controlling quantitative traits (Basbag et al., 2007). GCA and SCA which identify the hybrids with high yield are the most important criteria in breeding programs (Ceyhan, 2003). High GCA and. SCA for seed yield and yield ...

  3. The Effects of Light and Temperature on Biotin Synthesis in Pea Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Shin; Ohnuki, Risa; Moriki, Aoi; Abe, Megumi; Ishiguro, Mariko; Sone, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is an essential micronutrient, and is a cofactor for several carboxylases that are involved in the metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids. Because plant cells can synthesize their own biotin, a wide variety of plant-based foods contains significant amounts of biotin; however, the influence of environmental conditions on the biotin content in plants remains largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different cultivation conditions on the biotin content and biotin synthesis in pea sprouts (Pisum sativum). In the experiment, the pea sprouts were removed from their cotyledons and cultivated by hydroponics under five different lighting and temperature conditions (control [25ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], low light [25ºC, 4-h light/20-h dark cycle], dark [25ºC, 24 h dark], low temperature [12ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], and cold [6ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle]) for 10 d. Compared to the biotin content of pea sprouts under the control conditions, the biotin contents of pea sprouts under the low-light, dark, and cold conditions had significantly decreased. The dark group showed the lowest biotin content among the groups. Expression of the biotin synthase gene (bio2) was also significantly decreased under the dark and cold conditions compared to the control condition, in a manner similar to that observed for the biotin content. No significant differences in the adenosine triphosphate content were observed among the groups. These results indicate that environmental conditions such as light and temperature modulate the biotin content of pea plant tissues by regulating the expression of biotin synthase.

  4. 40 CFR 180.1 - Definitions and interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... culinaris (lentil); Pisum spp. (includes dwarf pea, garden pea, green pea, English pea, field pea, and... residue on the roots nor the pesticide residue on the tops shall exceed the tolerance level, except that... section 201(q)(2), as amended, except as provided in § 180.4. (o) The term food commodity means: (1) Any...

  5. Inter- and intra-guild interactions related to aphids in nettle (Urtica dioica L.) strips closed to field crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhmedi, A; Haubruge, E; Bodson, B; Francis, F

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment designed to assess the biodiversity related to nettle strips closed to crops, and more particularly the aphid and related beneficial populations, was established in experimental farm located in Gembloux (Belgium). Margin strips of nettle (Urtica dioica) closed to wheat (Triticum aestivum), green pea (Pisum sativum) and rape (Brassicae napus) fields were investigated. The diversity, abundance of aphids and related predators were analysed according to the plant crop species and the differential pesticide application (treated plot and control). Insects were visually observed every week during all the cultivation season. Two main families of aphidophagous predators were found in all field crops and nettle, the Coccinellidae and Syrphidae. The diversity of the aphidophagous predators was shown to be higher on nettle than in field crops, particularly the Chrysopidae, the Anthocoridae and the Miridae. However, a striking difference of ladybird abundance was observed according to the aphid host plant. In one side, Coccinella septempunctata was much more abundant on Acyrthosiphon pisum infested green pea than on the other host plant species. At the opposite, higher occurrence of Harmonia axyridis was observed on the aphid infested nettle plants than on the crop plants. In particular, none of H. axyridis was found in wheat crop. Also, more than only a significant positive correlation between predator and aphid abundance, specialised relations between particular aphid species and some so-called generalist predators was determined in the fields. Finally, intraguild interactions between the aphidophagous predators was assessed and shown that only a significant negative correlation between Episyrphus balteatus and H. axyridis related to the nettle aphid, Micrlophium carnosum, was observed. The relative distribution of the ladybirds, namely C. septempunctata and H. axyridis according to the host plant, nettle strips and crop plots was discussed in relation to

  6. The pea SAD short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase: quinone reduction, tissue distribution, and heterologous expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbak, Nikolai; Ala-Häivälä, Anneli; Brosché, Mikael; Böwer, Nathalie; Strid, Hilja; Gittins, John R; Grahn, Elin; Eriksson, Leif A; Strid, Åke

    2011-04-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum) tetrameric short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase-like protein (SAD) family consists of at least three highly similar members (SAD-A, -B, and -C). According to mRNA data, environmental stimuli induce SAD expression. The aim of this study was to characterize the SAD proteins by examining their catalytic function, distribution in pea, and induction in different tissues. In enzyme activity assays using a range of potential substrates, the SAD-C enzyme was shown to reduce one- or two-ring-membered quinones lacking long hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails. Immunological assays using a specific antiserum against the protein demonstrated that different tissues and cell types contain small amounts of SAD protein that was predominantly located within epidermal or subepidermal cells and around vascular tissue. Particularly high local concentrations were observed in the protoderm of the seed cotyledonary axis. Two bow-shaped rows of cells in the ovary and the placental surface facing the ovule also exhibited considerable SAD staining. Ultraviolet-B irradiation led to increased staining in epidermal and subepidermal cells of leaves and stems. The different localization patterns of SAD suggest functions both in development and in responses to environmental stimuli. Finally, the pea SAD-C promoter was shown to confer heterologous wound-induced expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which confirmed that the inducibility of its expression is regulated at the transcriptional level.

  7. Bioassay-guided fractionation of a hepatoprotective and antioxidant extract of pea by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seida, Ahmed A; El Tanbouly, Nebal D; Islam, Wafaa T; Eid, Hanaa H; El Maraghy, Shohda A; El Senousy, Amira S

    2015-01-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the hydroalcoholic extract (PE) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) by-product were evaluated, using CCl4-induced oxidative stress and hepatic damage in rats. These activities were assessed via measuring alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein and albumin, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), protein thiols (PSH), nitrite/nitrate levels, glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, as well as, histopathological evaluation. PE revealed significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities mostly found in n-butanol fraction. Chromatographic fractionation of this active fraction led to the isolation of five flavonoid glycosides namely, quercetin-3-O-sophorotrioside (1), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (2), quercetin-3-O-(6″″-O-E sinapoyl)-sophorotrioside (3), quercetin-3-O-(6″″-O-E feruloyl)-sophorotrioside (4) and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5). The isolated compounds were quantified in PE, using a validated HPLC method and the nutritional composition of pea by-product was also investigated. Our results suggest that pea by-product contained biologically active constituents which can be utilised to obtain high value added products for nutraceutical use.

  8. [Enhanced Resistance of Pea Plants to Oxidative: Stress Caused by Paraquat during Colonization by Aerobic Methylobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonova, N V; Doronina, N Y; Trotsenko, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    The influence of colonization of the pea (Pisum sativum L.) by aerobic methylobacteria of five different species (Methylophilus flavus Ship, Methylobacterium extorquens G10, Methylobacillus arboreus Iva, Methylopila musalis MUSA, Methylopila turkiensis Sidel) on plant resistance to paraquat-induced stresses has been studied. The normal conditions of pea colonization by methylobacteria were characterized by a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidases) and in the concentrations of endogenous H2O2, proline, and malonic dialdehyde, which is a product of lipid peroxidation and indicator of damage to plant cell membranes, and an increase in the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus (the content of chlorophylls a, b and carotenoids). In the presence of paraquat, the colonized plants had higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, stable photosynthetic indices, and a less intensive accumulation of the products of lipid peroxidation as compared to noncolonized plants. Thus, colonization by methylobacteria considerably increased the adaptive protection of pea plants to the paraquat-induced oxidative stress.

  9. Evidence against the involvement of ionically bound cell wall proteins in pea epicotyl growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melan, M. A.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    Ionically bound cell wall proteins were extracted from 7 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska) epicotyls with 3 molar LiCl. Polyclonal antiserum was raised in rabbits against the cell wall proteins. Growth assays showed that treatment of growing region segments (5-7 millimeters) of peas with either dialyzed serum, serum globulin fraction, affinity purified immunoglobulin, or papain-cleaved antibody fragments had no effect on growth. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed antibody binding to cell walls and penetration of the antibodies into the tissues. Western blot analysis, immunoassay results, and affinity chromatography utilizing Sepharose-bound antibodies confirmed recognition of the protein preparation by the antibodies. Experiments employing in vitro extension as a screening measure indicated no effect upon extension by antibodies, by 50 millimolar LiCl perfusion of the apoplast or by 3 molar LiCl extraction. Addition of cell wall protein to protease pretreated segments did not restore extension nor did addition of cell wall protein to untreated segments increase extension. It is concluded that, although evidence suggests that protein is responsible for the process of extension, the class(es) of proteins which are extracted from pea cell walls with 3 molar LiCl are probably not involved in this process.

  10. Effect of Fluoride and Bentonite on Biochemical Aspects of Oxidative Stress in Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Śnioszek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is regarded as one of the strongest oxidants, which causes oxidative changes in cells of living organisms. It may both increase the content of reactive oxygen species and inhibit the activity of antioxidative enzyme. In recent years, many researchers successfully used the properties of clay minerals in the sorption of fluoride ion from water. This raises the question of the possibility of limiting the effect of fluorine on the negative changes in plants by adding bentonite to soil. A two-year pot experiment was carried out in the Greenhouse of West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, on loamy sand and sandy loam. Each sample of soil was mixed with three different concentrations of bentonite – 1, 5, 10% of dry weight (DW of the soil and then treated with 30 mmol of F- per 1 kg of dry weight of the soil in a form of NaF solution. A control series was prepared for each soil, to which no additives were added. The medium prepared in such way was transferred to plastic pots (3 kg each and seeded with 16 pea seeds of Pisum sativum. In three phases of pea development (4 leaves unfolded, flowering and development of fruit, fresh leaf samples were collected and the concentrations of ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, total flavonoids and total polyphenols were measured. Sodium fluoride introduced to the soil changed the level of antioxidant parameters in the plant, which may suggest that fluoride is involved in the formation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in oxidative stress. Bentonite in a dosage of 10% reduced the toxic effects of fluoride on the oxidative balance and morphological changes in the plant, which was observed especially for loamy sand, naturally poor in clay minerals.

  11. Xyloglucan galactosyl- and fucosyltransferase activity from pea epicotyl microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faik, A.; Chileshe, C.; Sterling, J.; Maclachlan, G.

    1997-01-01

    Microsomal membranes from growing tissue of pea (Pisum sativum L.) epicotyls were incubated with the substrate UDP-[14C]galactose (Gal) with or without tamarind seed xyloglucan (XG) as a potential galactosyl acceptor. Added tamarind seed XG enhanced incorporation of [14C]Gal into high-molecular-weight products (eluted from columns of Sepharose CL-6B in the void volume) that were trichloroacetic acid-soluble but insoluble in 67% ethanol. These products were hydrolyzed by cellulase to fragments comparable in size to XG subunit oligosaccharides. XG-dependent galactosyltransferase activity could be solubilized, along with XG fucosyltransferase, by the detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1 propanesulfonate. When this enzyme was incubated with tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed XG or nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) seed XG that had been partially degalactosylated with an XG-specific beta-galactosidase, the rates of Gal transfer increased and fucose transfer decreased compared with controls with native XG. The reaction products were hydrolyzed by cellulase to 14C fragments that were analyzed by gel-filtration and high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation with pulsed amperometric detection. The major components were XG subunits, namely one of the two possible monogalactosyl octasaccharides (-XXLG-) and digalactosyl nonasaccharide (-XLLG-), whether the predominant octasaccharide in the acceptor was XXLG (as in tamarind seed XG) or XLXG (as in nasturtium seed XG). It is concluded that the first xylosylglucose from the reducing end of the subunits was the Gal acceptor locus preferred by the solubilized pea transferase. These observations are incorporated into a model for the biosynthesis of cell wall XGs

  12. Variability within a pea core collection of LEAM and HSP22, two mitochondrial seed proteins involved in stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelange-Macherel, Marie-Hélène; Payet, Nicole; Lalanne, David; Neveu, Martine; Tolleter, Dimitri; Burstin, Judith; Macherel, David

    2015-07-01

    LEAM, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, and HSP22, a small heat shock protein, were shown to accumulate in the mitochondria during pea (Pisum sativum L.) seed development, where they are expected to contribute to desiccation tolerance. Here, their expression was examined in seeds of 89 pea genotypes by Western blot analysis. All genotypes expressed LEAM and HSP22 in similar amounts. In contrast with HSP22, LEAM displayed different isoforms according to apparent molecular mass. Each of the 89 genotypes harboured a single LEAM isoform. Genomic and RT-PCR analysis revealed four LEAM genes differing by a small variable indel in the coding region. These variations were consistent with the apparent molecular mass of each isoform. Indels, which occurred in repeated domains, did not alter the main properties of LEAM. Structural modelling indicated that the class A α-helix structure, which allows interactions with the mitochondrial inner membrane in the dry state, was preserved in all isoforms, suggesting functionality is maintained. The overall results point out the essential character of LEAM and HSP22 in pea seeds. LEAM variability is discussed in terms of pea breeding history as well as LEA gene evolution mechanisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effect of arabinogalactan proteins from the root caps of pea and Brassica napus on Aphanomyces euteiches zoospore chemotaxis and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannesan, Marc Antoine; Durand, Caroline; Burel, Carole; Gangneux, Christophe; Lerouge, Patrice; Ishii, Tadashi; Laval, Karine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Driouich, Azeddine; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2012-08-01

    Root tips of many plant species release a number of border, or border-like, cells that are thought to play a major role in the protection of root meristem. However, little is currently known on the structure and function of the cell wall components of such root cells. Here, we investigate the sugar composition of the cell wall of the root cap in two species: pea (Pisum sativum), which makes border cells, and Brassica napus, which makes border-like cells. We find that the cell walls are highly enriched in arabinose and galactose, two major residues of arabinogalactan proteins. We confirm the presence of arabinogalactan protein epitopes on root cap cell walls using immunofluorescence microscopy. We then focused on these proteoglycans by analyzing their carbohydrate moieties, linkages, and electrophoretic characteristics. The data reveal (1) significant structural differences between B. napus and pea root cap arabinogalactan proteins and (2) a cross-link between these proteoglycans and pectic polysaccharides. Finally, we assessed the impact of root cap arabinogalactan proteins on the behavior of zoospores of Aphanomyces euteiches, an oomycetous pathogen of pea roots. We find that although the arabinogalactan proteins of both species induce encystment and prevent germination, the effects of both species are similar. However, the arabinogalactan protein fraction from pea attracts zoospores far more effectively than that from B. napus. This suggests that root arabinogalactan proteins are involved in the control of early infection of roots and highlights a novel role for these proteoglycans in root-microbe interactions.

  14. Symbiont effect of Rhizobium bacteria and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on Pisum sativum in recultivated mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, B.; Voros, I.; Kovespechy, K.; Szegi, J. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Research Institute)

    The frequency (F%) of spontaneous endomycorrhizal fungal infection (AMF) and the root modulation of Pisum sativum L, was studied after 8 and 15 years of recultivation in 4 soils (andesitic tuff yellow sand, yellow clay, and grey clay) disturbed by mining activities. The effects of Rhizobium inoculation and the interaction of both microsymbionts with plant production were also examined along with humus content and the humus stability coefficient, in the following variations: control, NPK fertilizer, NPK+lignite, NPK+straw and sewage sludge. Dump spoils originating from deep geological layers were poor in organic materials. After 12 years of recultivation, the humus content increased significantly. No such increase was noted in grey clay and the natural, brown forest soil used as an undisturbed (control) sample. The degradation of soils by mining brings about a decrease in the rhizobial and mycorrhizal population, so the number of spontaneous Rhizobium nodules is relatively low and does not influence the yield of peas. Inoculation with a selected effective strain of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae, however, enhanced dry matter production in these microbiologically degraded soils. Although the frequency of AMF infection was also higher after rhizobial inoculation, no positive correlation was found between dry matter production of peas and the F% of AMF. Spoils treated with lignite, straw, and sewage sludge had an especially high level of spontaneous mycorrhizal populations, indicating that organic materials had a favorable effect on the recultivation processes and fertility of mine spoils.

  15. Strigolactones suppress adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis and pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Mason, Michael Glenn; De Cuyper, Carolien; Brewer, Philip B; Herold, Silvia; Agusti, Javier; Geelen, Danny; Greb, Thomas; Goormachtig, Sofie; Beeckman, Tom; Beveridge, Christine Anne

    2012-04-01

    Adventitious root formation is essential for the propagation of many commercially important plant species and involves the formation of roots from nonroot tissues such as stems or leaves. Here, we demonstrate that the plant hormone strigolactone suppresses adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and pea (Pisum sativum). Strigolactone-deficient and response mutants of both species have enhanced adventitious rooting. CYCLIN B1 expression, an early marker for the initiation of adventitious root primordia in Arabidopsis, is enhanced in more axillary growth2 (max2), a strigolactone response mutant, suggesting that strigolactones restrain the number of adventitious roots by inhibiting the very first formative divisions of the founder cells. Strigolactones and cytokinins appear to act independently to suppress adventitious rooting, as cytokinin mutants are strigolactone responsive and strigolactone mutants are cytokinin responsive. In contrast, the interaction between the strigolactone and auxin signaling pathways in regulating adventitious rooting appears to be more complex. Strigolactone can at least partially revert the stimulatory effect of auxin on adventitious rooting, and auxin can further increase the number of adventitious roots in max mutants. We present a model depicting the interaction of strigolactones, cytokinins, and auxin in regulating adventitious root formation.

  16. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, M.; Gissel-Nielsen, G.

    1989-11-01

    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137 Cs and 134 Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137 Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134 Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  17. Virus-induced plasma membrane aquaporin PsPIP2;1 silencing inhibits plant water transport of Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juanjuan; Ye, Guoliang; Qian, Zhengjiang; Ye, Qing

    2016-12-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are known to facilitate water transport across cell membranes, but the role of a single AQP in regulating plant water transport, particularly in plants other than Arabidopsis remains largely unexplored. In the present study, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique was employed to suppress the expression of a specific plasma membrane aquaporin PsPIP2;1 of Pea plants (Pisum sativum), and subsequent effects of the gene suppression on root hydraulic conductivity (Lp r ), leaf hydraulic conductivity (K leaf ), root cell hydraulic conductivity (Lp rc ), and leaf cell hydraulic conductivity (Lp lc ) were investigated, using hydroponically grown Pea plants. Compared with control plants, VIGS-PsPIP2;1 plants displayed a significant suppression of PsPIP2;1 in both roots and leaves, while the expression of other four PIP isoforms (PsPIP1;1, PsPIP1;2, PsPIP2;2, and PsPIP2;3) that were simultaneously monitored were not altered. As a consequence, significant declines in water transport of VIGS-PsPIP2;1 plants were observed at both organ and cell levels, i.e., as compared to control plants, Lp r and K leaf were reduced by 29 %, and Lp rc and Lp lc were reduced by 20 and 29 %, respectively. Our results demonstrate that PsPIP2;1 alone contributes substantially to root and leaf water transport in Pea plants, and highlight VIGS a useful tool for investigating the role of a single AQP in regulating plant water transport.

  18. Effect of abscisic acid and blue radiation on photosynthesis and growth of pea plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siedlecka, M.; Romanowska, E.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the net photosynthetic rate (PN), the ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activities, the chlorophyll (Chl) content and growth of pea plants (Pisum sativum) grown under ''white'' (WR) or blue radiation (BR), were investigated. BR as compared to WR enhanced PN, the activities of examined enzymes, and Chl content. In spite of higher PN of the plants grown under BR, dry matter of their shoots was lower in comparison with WR. ABA-treated plants grown under both WR and BR showed reduction in PN. ABA had no effect on the activities of both RuBPC and PEPC and the Chl content. Independent on the radiation quality, ABA reduced stem elongation, but did not affect the biomass of whole shoots

  19. Expression of small heat shock proteins from pea seedlings under gravity altered conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaev, Alexandr S.

    2005-08-01

    A goal of our study was to evaluate the stress gene expression in Pisum sativum seedlings exposed to altered gravity and temperature elevation. We investigate message for the two inducible forms of the cytosolic small heat shock proteins (sHsp), sHsp 17.7 and sHsp 18.1. Both proteins are able to enhance the refolding of chemically denatured proteins in an ATP- independent manner, in other words they can function as molecular chaperones. We studied sHsps expression in pea seedlings cells by Western blotting. Temperature elevation, as the positive control, significantly increased PsHsp 17.7 and PsHsp 18.1 expression. Expression of the housekeeping protein, actin was constant and comparable to unstressed controls for all treatments. We concluded that gravitational perturbations incurred by clinorotation did not change sHsp genes expression.

  20. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry evidence for several endogenous auxins in pea seedling organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E A; Kazakoff, C W; Wightman, F

    1985-08-01

    Qualitative analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the auxins present in the root, cotyledons and epicotyl of 3-dold etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska) seedlings has shown that all three organs contain phenylacetic acid (PAA), 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA) and 4-chloro-3-indoleacetic acid (4Cl-IAA). In addition, 3-indolepropionic acid (IPA) was present in the root and 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA) was detected in both root and epicotyl. Phenylacetic acid, IAA and IPA were measured quantitatively in the three organs by GC-MS-single ion monitoring, using deuterated internal standards. Levels of IAA were found to range from 13 to 115 pmol g(-1) FW, while amounts of PAA were considerably higher (347-451 pmol g(-1) FW) and the level of IPA was quite low (5 pmol g(-1) FW). On a molar basis the PAA:IAA ratio in the whole seedling was approx. 15:1.

  1. Pea border cell maturation and release involve complex cell wall structural dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef; Guo, Xiaoyuan; Hansen, Aleksander Riise

    2017-01-01

    The adhesion of plant cells is vital for support and protection of the plant body and is maintained by a variety of molecular associations between cell wall components. In some specialized cases though, plant cells are programmed to detach and root cap-derived border cells are examples of this....... Border cells (in some species known as border-like cells) provide an expendable barrier between roots and the environment. Their maturation and release is an important but poorly characterized cell separation event. To gain a deeper insight into the complex cellular dynamics underlying this process, we...... undertook a systematic, detailed analysis of pea (Pisum sativum) root tip cell walls. Our study included immuno-carbohydrate microarray profiling, monosaccharide composition determination, Fourier-transformed infrared microspectroscopy (FT-IR), quantitative RT-PCR of cell wall biosynthetic genes, analysis...

  2. Uses Of Gamma Rays In Peas Breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghunim, A.; Mobakher, H.; Salman, S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of peas varieties grown in Syria are introduced and they have variable characteristics and unstable in the productivity. Therefore this study aims to utilize physical mutagens as the developed technology in plant breeding to obtain high, stable productivity and suitable for human consumption and processing. Two green peas vars (onward, local homsi) were used in this study, and their dry seeds were subjected to different doses of Gamma rays (5.0,7.5,10.0) KR and planted conventional used methods at AL Taibba searching station (20 Km from Damascus) in 1985/1986 season. Individual selection from M2 was practiced based on yield traits. Starting from 1991/1992 season the best selected mutants were used in yield trials to be compared with the best common cultivars. After/3/years of yield trials, the advanced lines were incorporated into field test trials. Some morphological and phonological scores, i.e. green pods yield, dry seeds yield per area were achieved in addition to lab tests. Some strains have advanced in yield of green pods and dry seeds per area compared with the local check. Some other strains. Showed an increase in earliness, length of pods, number of seeds per pod, and number of pods per plant than the local check. Therefore these can be called promising strains and as nucleus for new vars. will be used into verifiable fields, and in large-scale cultivation in order to be released. (Authors)

  3. Faba beans and peas in poultry feed: economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskina, Liga; Cerina, Sallija

    2017-10-01

    Broiler diets mainly consist of cereals and protein-rich feed sources; in the EU-27, poultry farming consumes 24% of the total amount of protein-rich feedstuffs. Since the EU produces only 30% of the total quantity of protein crops used for feed, it is necessary to promote the use of traditional European protein crops (beans, peas) for feed in livestock farming. The research aim is to identify economic gains from the production of broiler chicken meat, replacing soybean meal with domestic faba beans and field peas in broiler chicken diets. Adding field peas and faba beans to the broiler feed ration resulted in a significant live weight increase (5.74-11.95%) at the selling age, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio by 0.61-6.06%, and decrease in the product unit cost (15.34-37.06%) as well as an increase in the production efficiency factor (8.70-48.54), compared with the control group. The optimum kind of legume species used in the broiler diet was peas, which were added in the amount of 200 g kg -1 , resulting in live weight gain, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio and an increase in the production efficiency factor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Pea p68, a DEAD-box helicase, provides salinity stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by reducing oxidative stress and improving photosynthesis machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Narendra; Banu, Mst Sufara Akhter; Huda, Kazi Md Kamrul; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Jain, Parul; Pham, Xuan Hoi; Tuteja, Renu

    2014-01-01

    The DEAD-box helicases are required mostly in all aspects of RNA and DNA metabolism and they play a significant role in various abiotic stresses, including salinity. The p68 is an important member of the DEAD-box proteins family and, in animal system, it is involved in RNA metabolism including pre-RNA processing and splicing. In plant system, it has not been well characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of p68 from pea (Pisum sativum) and its novel function in salinity stress tolerance in plant. The pea p68 protein self-interacts and is localized in the cytosol as well as the surrounding of cell nucleus. The transcript of pea p68 is upregulated in response to high salinity stress in pea. Overexpression of p68 driven by constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco transgenic plants confers enhanced tolerances to salinity stress by improving the growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery. Under stress treatment, pea p68 overexpressing tobacco accumulated higher K+ and lower Na+ level than the wild-type plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was remarkably regulated by the overexpression of pea p68 under salinity stress conditions, as shown from TBARS content, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and 8-OHdG content and antioxidant enzyme activities. To the best of our knowledge this is the first direct report, which provides the novel function of pea p68 helicase in salinity stress tolerance. The results suggest that p68 can also be exploited for engineering abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants of economic importance.

  5. Pea p68, a DEAD-box helicase, provides salinity stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by reducing oxidative stress and improving photosynthesis machinery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Tuteja

    Full Text Available The DEAD-box helicases are required mostly in all aspects of RNA and DNA metabolism and they play a significant role in various abiotic stresses, including salinity. The p68 is an important member of the DEAD-box proteins family and, in animal system, it is involved in RNA metabolism including pre-RNA processing and splicing. In plant system, it has not been well characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of p68 from pea (Pisum sativum and its novel function in salinity stress tolerance in plant.The pea p68 protein self-interacts and is localized in the cytosol as well as the surrounding of cell nucleus. The transcript of pea p68 is upregulated in response to high salinity stress in pea. Overexpression of p68 driven by constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco transgenic plants confers enhanced tolerances to salinity stress by improving the growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery. Under stress treatment, pea p68 overexpressing tobacco accumulated higher K+ and lower Na+ level than the wild-type plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation was remarkably regulated by the overexpression of pea p68 under salinity stress conditions, as shown from TBARS content, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and 8-OHdG content and antioxidant enzyme activities.To the best of our knowledge this is the first direct report, which provides the novel function of pea p68 helicase in salinity stress tolerance. The results suggest that p68 can also be exploited for engineering abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants of economic importance.

  6. Exploring symbiotic nitrogen fixation and assimilation in pea root nodules by in vivo 15N nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharff, A.M.; Egsgaard, H.; Hansen, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fixation and assimilation in pea (Pisum sativum) root nodules were studied by in vivo N-15 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) by exposing detached nodules to N-15, via a perfusion medium, while recording a time course of spectra. In vivo P-31 NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor...... the physiological state of the metabolically active nodules. The nodules were extracted after the NMR studies and analyzed for total soluble amino acid pools and N-15 labeling of individual amino acids by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A substantial pool of free ammonium was observed by N-15 NMR...... labeling of Asn was observed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which is consistent with the generally accepted role of Asn as the end product of primary N assimilation in pea nodules. However, the Asn N-15 amino signal was absent in in vivo N-15 NMR spectra, which could be because...

  7. The conformational stability and biophysical properties of the eukaryotic thioredoxins of Pisum sativum are not family-conserved.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aguado-Llera

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxins (TRXs are ubiquitous proteins involved in redox processes. About forty genes encode TRX or TRX-related proteins in plants, grouped in different families according to their subcellular localization. For instance, the h-type TRXs are located in cytoplasm or mitochondria, whereas f-type TRXs have a plastidial origin, although both types of proteins have an eukaryotic origin as opposed to other TRXs. Herein, we study the conformational and the biophysical features of TRXh1, TRXh2 and TRXf from Pisum sativum. The modelled structures of the three proteins show the well-known TRX fold. While sharing similar pH-denaturations features, the chemical and thermal stabilities are different, being PsTRXh1 (Pisum sativum thioredoxin h1 the most stable isoform; moreover, the three proteins follow a three-state denaturation model, during the chemical-denaturations. These differences in the thermal- and chemical-denaturations result from changes, in a broad sense, of the several ASAs (accessible surface areas of the proteins. Thus, although a strong relationship can be found between the primary amino acid sequence and the structure among TRXs, that between the residue sequence and the conformational stability and biophysical properties is not. We discuss how these differences in the biophysical properties of TRXs determine their unique functions in pea, and we show how residues involved in the biophysical features described (pH-titrations, dimerizations and chemical-denaturations belong to regions involved in interaction with other proteins. Our results suggest that the sequence demands of protein-protein function are relatively rigid, with different protein-binding pockets (some in common for each of the three proteins, but the demands of structure and conformational stability per se (as long as there is a maintained core, are less so.

  8. Transfer of Nickel from Polluted Soil to Pisum sativum L. and Raphanus sativus L. under Composted Green Amendment and Native Soil Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafady Nivien Allam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compost, inoculation with native soil microbes and their residual effects on bioavailability of nickel by peas (Pisum sativum L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L. grown on polluted soil were investigated in pot experiments. Plants were amendment with different compost levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6% of soil dry weight and inoculated with different native soil microbes (4 fungal species, one bacterial species, 4 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from the polluted soil under study. Significant increases in the biomass of pea and radish plants were observed as a result of amendment application and their residual effects. The mycorrhizal dependency (MD of pea plants was lower than of radish plants. The highest reductions of Ni levels in both plants were observed by the simultaneous applications of compost with microbes or mycorrhizal fungi to polluted soils. Soil pH increased significantly (p < 0.05 as a result of applying native microbes especially with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF alone or combined with compost. The DTPA extractability of soil Ni was significantly decreased with increasing soil pH (p < 0.05. The minimum transfer factor of Ni from polluted soil were 0.067 and 0.089 for pea and radish plants, respectively which were attained as a result of applying compost (0.6% of soil weight inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi. From the results, we can conclude that the use of compost and native soil microbes as a soil remediate could be an effective strategy for soil remediation.

  9. The Pea SAD Short-Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase: Quinone Reduction, Tissue Distribution, and Heterologous Expression1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbak, Nikolai; Ala-Häivälä, Anneli; Brosché, Mikael; Böwer, Nathalie; Strid, Hilja; Gittins, John R.; Grahn, Elin; Eriksson, Leif A.; Strid, Åke

    2011-01-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum) tetrameric short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase-like protein (SAD) family consists of at least three highly similar members (SAD-A, -B, and -C). According to mRNA data, environmental stimuli induce SAD expression. The aim of this study was to characterize the SAD proteins by examining their catalytic function, distribution in pea, and induction in different tissues. In enzyme activity assays using a range of potential substrates, the SAD-C enzyme was shown to reduce one- or two-ring-membered quinones lacking long hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails. Immunological assays using a specific antiserum against the protein demonstrated that different tissues and cell types contain small amounts of SAD protein that was predominantly located within epidermal or subepidermal cells and around vascular tissue. Particularly high local concentrations were observed in the protoderm of the seed cotyledonary axis. Two bow-shaped rows of cells in the ovary and the placental surface facing the ovule also exhibited considerable SAD staining. Ultraviolet-B irradiation led to increased staining in epidermal and subepidermal cells of leaves and stems. The different localization patterns of SAD suggest functions both in development and in responses to environmental stimuli. Finally, the pea SAD-C promoter was shown to confer heterologous wound-induced expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which confirmed that the inducibility of its expression is regulated at the transcriptional level. PMID:21343423

  10. Further identification of endogenous gibberellins in the shoots of pea, line G2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halinska, A.; Davies, P.J.; Lee, J.W.; Zhu, Yuxian

    1989-01-01

    To interpret the metabolism of radiolabeled gibberellins A 12 -aldehyde and A 12 in shoots of pea (Pisum sativum L.), the identity of the radiolabeled peaks has to be determined and the endogenous presence of the gibberellins demonstrated. High specific activity [ 14 C]GA 12 and [ 14 C]GA 12 -aldehyde were synthesized using a pumpkin endosperm enzyme preparation, and purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). [ 14 C]GA 12 was supplied to upper shoots of pea, line G2, to produce radiolabeled metabolites on the 13-OH pathway. Endogenous compounds copurifying with the [ 14 C]GAs on HPLC were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The endogenous presence of GA 53 , GA 44 , GA 19 and GA 20 was demonstrated and their HPLC peak identity ascertained. The 14 C was progressively diluted in GAs further down the pathway, proportional to the levels found in the tissue and inversely proportional to the speed of metabolism, ranging from 63% in GA 53 to 4% in GA 20 . Calculated levels of GA 20 , GA 19 , GA 44 , and GA 53 were 42, 8, 10, and 0.5 nanograms/gram, respectively

  11. Partial purification and characterization of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase from pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Almost all the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase activity in nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum, L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.3 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified 80,000-fold by salt fractionation and high performance liquid chromatography, after which it has a high specific activity of about 100 picomoles per minute per microgram in the presence of Ca2+ and reaches half-maximal activation at about 3 x 10(-7) molar free Ca2+, without calmodulin. It is a monomer with a molecular weight near 90,000. It can efficiently use histone III-S, ribosomal S6 protein, and casein as artificial substrates, but it phosphorylates phosvitin only weakly. Its Ca(2+)-dependent kinase activity is half-maximally inhibited by 0.1 millimolar chlorpromazine, by 35 nanomolar K-252a and by 7 nanomolar staurosporine. It is insensitive to sphingosine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, and to basic polypeptides that block other Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases. It is not stimulated by exogenous phospholipids or fatty acids. In intact isolated pea nuclei it preferentially phosphorylates several chromatin-associated proteins, with the most phosphorylated protein band being near the same molecular weight (43,000) as a nuclear protein substrate whose phosphorylation has been reported to be stimulated by phytochrome in a calcium-dependent fashion.

  12. Purification and immunolocalization of an annexin-like protein in pea seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G. B.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    As part of a study to identify potential targets of calcium action in plant cells, a 35-kDa, annexin-like protein was purified from pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules by a method used to purify animal annexins. This protein, called p35, binds to a phosphatidylserine affinity column in a calcium-dependent manner and binds 45Ca2+ in a dot-blot assay. Preliminary sequence data confirm a relationship for p35 with the annexin family of proteins. Polyclonal antibodies have been raised which recognize p35 in Western and dot blots. Immunofluorescence and immunogold techniques were used to study the distribution and subcellular localization of p35 in pea plumules and roots. The highest levels of immunostain were found in young developing vascular cells producing wall thickenings and in peripheral root-cap cells releasing slime. This localization in cells which are actively involved in secretion is of interest because one function suggested for the animal annexins is involvement in the mediation of exocytosis.

  13. Expression of ribosomal genes in pea cotyledons at the initial stages of germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumilevskaya, N.A.; Chumikhina, L.V.; Akhmatova, A.T.; Kretovich, V.L.

    1986-01-01

    The time of appearance of newly synthesized rRNAs and ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) in the ribosomes of pea cotyledons (Pisum sativum L.) during germination was investigated. The ribosomal fraction was isolated and analyzed according to the method of germination of the embryo in the presence of labeled precursors or after pulse labeling of the embryos at different stages of germination. For the identification of newly synthesized rRNAs in the ribosomes we estimated the relative stability of labeled RNAs to the action of RNase, the sedimentation rate, the ability to be methylated in vivo in the presence of [ 14 C]CH 3 -methionine, and the localization in the subunits of dissociated ribosomes. The presence of newly synthesized r-proteins in the ribosomes was judged on the basis of the electrophoretic similarity in SDS-disc electrophoresis of labeled polypeptides of purified ribosome preparations and of genuine r-proteins, as well as according to the localization of labeled proteins in the subunits of the dissociated ribosomes. It was shown that the expression of the ribosomal genes in highly specialized cells of pea cotyledons that have completed their growth occurs at very early stages of germination

  14. Properties of Plasma Membrane from Pea Root Seedlings under Altered Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymchuk, D.; Baranenko, V.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Kurylenko, I.; Chyzhykova, O.; Dubovoy, V.

    In this study, the properties of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plasma membrane were examined to determine how the membrane structure and functions are regulated in response to clinorotation (2 rev/min) conditions. Membrane preparations enriched by plasma membrane vesicles were obtained by aqueous two-phase partitioning from 6-day seedling roots. The specific characteristics of H^+-ATPase, lípid composition and peroxidation intensity as well as fluidity of lipid bilayer were analysed. ATP hydrolytic activity was inhibited by ortovanadate and was insensitive to aside and nitrate in sealed plasma membrane vesicles isolated from both clinorotated and control seedlings. Plasma membrane vesicles from clinorotated seedlings in comparison to controls were characterised by increase in the total lipid/protein ratio, ATP hydrolytic activity and intensifying of lipid peroxidation. Sitosterol and campesterol were the predominant free sterol species. Clinorotated seedlings contained a slightly higher level of unsaturated fatty acid than controls. Plasma membrane vesicles were labelled with pyrene and fluorescence originating from monomeric (I_M) molecules and excimeric (I_E) aggregates were measured. The calculated I_E/I_M values were higher in clinorotated seedlings compared with controls reflecting the reduction in membrane microviscosity. The involvement of the changes in plasma membrane lipid content and composition, fluidity and H^+-ATPase activity in response of pea seedlings to altered gravity is discussed.

  15. Changes in root gravitropism, ultrastructure, and calcium balance of pea root statocytes induced by A23187

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyavskaya, N.

    The role for calcium in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular events in plants is well known. Calcium signaling has been implicated in plant gravitropism. A carboxylic acid antibiotic A23187 (calcimycin) has been widely used in biological studies since it can translocate calcium across membranes. Seedlings of Pisum sativum L. cv. Uladovsky germinated in a vertically oriented cylinder of moist filter paper soaked in water during 4.5 day had been treated with 10-5 M A23187 for 12 hr. Tips of primary roots of control and A23187-treated pea seedlings were fixed for electron microscopy and electron cytochemistry. Experiments with Pisum sativum 5- day seedlings placed horizontally for 4 h after treatment with 10 μM A23187 during 12 h found that the graviresponsiveness of their primary roots was lost completely (91 % of roots) or inhibited (24 +/- 6° in comparison with 88 +/- 8° in control). At ultrastructural level, there were observed distribution of amyloplasts around the nucleus, remarkable lengthening of statocytes, advanced vacuolization, changes in dictyosome structure, ER fragmentation, cell wall thinning in A23187-treated statocytes. Cytochemical study has indicated that statocytes exposed to calcimycin have contained a number of Ca-pyroantimonate granules detected Ca 2 + ions in organelles and hyaloplasm (unlike the control ones). The deposits were mainly associated with the plasma membrane. Among organelles, mitochondria were notable for their ability to accumulate Ca 2 +. In amyloplasts, a fine precipitate was predominately located in their stroma and envelope lumens. In cell walls, deposits of the reaction product were observed along the periphery and in the median zone. Localization of electron-dense granules of lead phosphate, which indicated Ca 2 +- ATPase activities in pea statocytes exposed to A23187, was generally consistent with that in untreated roots. Apart from plasma membrane, chromatin, and nucleolus components, the cytochemical reaction

  16. Neonicotinoid binding, toxicity and expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliane Taillebois

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and are particularly effective against sucking pests. They are widely used in crops protection to fight against aphids, which cause severe damage. In the present study we evaluated the susceptibility of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum to the commonly used neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid (IMI, thiamethoxam (TMX and clothianidin (CLT. Binding studies on aphid membrane preparations revealed the existence of high and low-affinity binding sites for [3H]-IMI (Kd of 0.16 ± 0.04 nM and 41.7 ± 5.9 nM and for the nicotinic antagonist [125I]-α-bungarotoxin (Kd of 0.008 ± 0.002 nM and 1.135 ± 0.213 nM. Competitive binding experiments demonstrated that TMX displayed a higher affinity than IMI for [125I]-α-bungarotoxin binding sites while CLT affinity was similar for both [125I]-α-bungarotoxin and [3H]-IMI binding sites. Interestingly, toxicological studies revealed that at 48 h, IMI (LC50 = 0.038 µg/ml and TMX (LC50 = 0.034 µg/ml were more toxic than CLT (LC50 = 0.118 µg/ml. The effect of TMX could be associated to its metabolite CLT as demonstrated by HPLC/MS analysis. In addition, we found that aphid larvae treated either with IMI, TMX or CLT showed a strong variation of nAChR subunit expression. Using semi-quantitative PCR experiments, we detected for all insecticides an increase of Apisumα10 and Apisumβ1 expressions levels, whereas Apisumβ2 expression decreased. Moreover, some other receptor subunits seemed to be differently regulated according to the insecticide used. Finally, we also demonstrated that nAChR subunit expression differed during pea aphid development. Altogether these results highlight species specificity that should be taken into account in pest management strategies.

  17. Neonicotinoid Binding, Toxicity and Expression of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunits in the Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillebois, Emiliane; Beloula, Abdelhamid; Quinchard, Sophie; Jaubert-Possamai, Stéphanie; Daguin, Antoine; Servent, Denis; Tagu, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and are particularly effective against sucking pests. They are widely used in crops protection to fight against aphids, which cause severe damage. In the present study we evaluated the susceptibility of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum to the commonly used neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid (IMI), thiamethoxam (TMX) and clothianidin (CLT). Binding studies on aphid membrane preparations revealed the existence of high and low-affinity binding sites for [3H]-IMI (Kd of 0.16±0.04 nM and 41.7±5.9 nM) and for the nicotinic antagonist [125I]-α-bungarotoxin (Kd of 0.008±0.002 nM and 1.135±0.213 nM). Competitive binding experiments demonstrated that TMX displayed a higher affinity than IMI for [125I]-α-bungarotoxin binding sites while CLT affinity was similar for both [125I]-α-bungarotoxin and [3H]-IMI binding sites. Interestingly, toxicological studies revealed that at 48 h, IMI (LC50 = 0.038 µg/ml) and TMX (LC50 = 0.034 µg/ml) were more toxic than CLT (LC50 = 0.118 µg/ml). The effect of TMX could be associated to its metabolite CLT as demonstrated by HPLC/MS analysis. In addition, we found that aphid larvae treated either with IMI, TMX or CLT showed a strong variation of nAChR subunit expression. Using semi-quantitative PCR experiments, we detected for all insecticides an increase of Apisumα10 and Apisumβ1 expressions levels, whereas Apisumβ2 expression decreased. Moreover, some other receptor subunits seemed to be differently regulated according to the insecticide used. Finally, we also demonstrated that nAChR subunit expression differed during pea aphid development. Altogether these results highlight species specificity that should be taken into account in pest management strategies. PMID:24801634

  18. Effect of Arabinogalactan Proteins from the Root Caps of Pea and Brassica napus on Aphanomyces euteiches Zoospore Chemotaxis and Germination12[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannesan, Marc Antoine; Durand, Caroline; Burel, Carole; Gangneux, Christophe; Lerouge, Patrice; Ishii, Tadashi; Laval, Karine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Driouich, Azeddine; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2012-01-01

    Root tips of many plant species release a number of border, or border-like, cells that are thought to play a major role in the protection of root meristem. However, little is currently known on the structure and function of the cell wall components of such root cells. Here, we investigate the sugar composition of the cell wall of the root cap in two species: pea (Pisum sativum), which makes border cells, and Brassica napus, which makes border-like cells. We find that the cell walls are highly enriched in arabinose and galactose, two major residues of arabinogalactan proteins. We confirm the presence of arabinogalactan protein epitopes on root cap cell walls using immunofluorescence microscopy. We then focused on these proteoglycans by analyzing their carbohydrate moieties, linkages, and electrophoretic characteristics. The data reveal (1) significant structural differences between B. napus and pea root cap arabinogalactan proteins and (2) a cross-link between these proteoglycans and pectic polysaccharides. Finally, we assessed the impact of root cap arabinogalactan proteins on the behavior of zoospores of Aphanomyces euteiches, an oomycetous pathogen of pea roots. We find that although the arabinogalactan proteins of both species induce encystment and prevent germination, the effects of both species are similar. However, the arabinogalactan protein fraction from pea attracts zoospores far more effectively than that from B. napus. This suggests that root arabinogalactan proteins are involved in the control of early infection of roots and highlights a novel role for these proteoglycans in root-microbe interactions. PMID:22645070

  19. The CRC orthologue from Pisum sativum shows conserved functions in carpel morphogenesis and vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourquin, Chloé; Primo, Amparo; Martínez-Fernández, Irene; Huet-Trujillo, Estefanía; Ferrándiz, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    CRABS CLAW (CRC) is a member of the YABBY family of transcription factors involved in carpel morphogenesis, floral determinacy and nectary specification in arabidopsis. CRC orthologues have been functionally characterized across angiosperms, revealing additional roles in leaf vascular development and carpel identity specification in Poaceae. These studies support an ancestral role of CRC orthologues in carpel development, while roles in vascular development and nectary specification appear to be derived. This study aimed to expand research on CRC functional conservation to the legume family in order to better understand the evolutionary history of CRC orthologues in angiosperms. CRC orthologues from Pisum sativum and Medicago truncatula were identified. RNA in situ hybridization experiments determined the corresponding expression patterns throughout flower development. The phenotypic effects of reduced CRC activity were investigated in P. sativum using virus-induced gene silencing. CRC orthologues from P. sativum and M. truncatula showed similar expression patterns, mainly restricted to carpels and nectaries. However, these expression patterns differed from those of other core eudicots, most importantly in a lack of abaxial expression in the carpel and in atypical expression associated with the medial vein of the ovary. CRC downregulation in pea caused defects in carpel fusion and style/stigma development, both typically associated with CRC function in eudicots, but also affected vascular development in the carpel. The data support the conserved roles of CRC orthologues in carpel fusion, style/stigma development and nectary development. In addition, an intriguing new aspect of CRC function in legumes was the unexpected role in vascular development, which could be shared by other species from widely diverged clades within the angiosperms, suggesting that this role could be ancestral rather than derived, as so far generally accepted. © The Author 2014. Published by

  20. Understanding pea resistance mechanisms in response to Fusarium oxysporum through proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillejo, María Ángeles; Bani, Moustafa; Rubiales, Diego

    2015-07-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (Fop) is an important and destructive pathogen affecting pea crop (Pisum sativum) throughout the world. Control of this disease is achieved mainly by integration of different disease management procedures. However, the constant evolution of the pathogen drives the necessity to broaden the molecular basis of resistance to Fop. Our proteomic study was performed on pea with the aim of identifying proteins involved in different resistance mechanisms operating during F. oxysporum infection. For such purpose, we used a two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled to mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analysis to study the root proteome of three pea genotypes showing different resistance response to Fop race 2. Multivariate statistical analysis identified 132 differential protein spots under the experimental conditions (genotypes/treatments). All of these protein spots were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis to deduce their possible functions. A total of 53 proteins were identified using a combination of peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and MSMS fragmentation. The following main functional categories were assigned to the identified proteins: carbohydrate and energy metabolism, nucleotides and aminoacid metabolism, signal transduction and cellular process, folding and degradation, redox and homeostasis, defense, biosynthetic process and transcription/translation. Results obtained in this work suggest that the most susceptible genotypes have increased levels of enzymes involved in the production of reducing power which could then be used as cofactor for enzymes of the redox reactions. This is in concordance with the fact that a ROS burst occurred in the same genotypes, as well as an increase of PR proteins. Conversely, in the resistant genotype proteins responsible to induce changes in the membrane and cell wall composition related to reinforcement were identified. Results are discussed in terms of the differential response to Fop

  1. Cytokinins and polar transport of auxin in axillary pea buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kalousek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cytokinin on auxin transport during release of axillary buds from apical dominance was studied. Expression of auxin-carrier coding genes PsAUX1 (AUXIN RESISTANT 1 and PsPIN1 (PIN-FORMED 1 was explored in axillary buds of the 2nd node of 7-day pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Vladan after decapitation or after exogenous application of benzyladenine (6-benzylaminopurine onto axillary buds of intact plants. Localization of the PsPIN1 protein, the key factor for polar transport of auxin in axillary buds, was visualised by immunohistochemistry. After exogenous application of cytokinin the expression of PsAUX1 and PsPIN1 rapidly increased with a simultaneous rapid decrease in PsDRM1 and PsAD1 expression – genes related to bud dormancy. The same changes in expression were observed after decapitation, however they were markedly slower. The PsPIN1 auxin efflux carrier in the inhibited axillary buds of intact plants was localised in a non-polar manner. After exogenous application of cytokinin gradual polarisation of the PsPIN1 protein occurred on the basal pole of polar auxin transport competent cells. Despite the fact that direct auxin application to buds of intact plants led to an increase in PsAUX1 and PsPIN1 expression, the buds remained dormant (non-growing what was accompanied by persistent expression of the dormancy markers PsDRM1 and PsAD1. The results indicate a possible effect of cytokinins on biosynthesis, and/or transport of auxin in axillary buds and they highlight the importance of auxin-cytokinin crosstalk in the regulation of bud outgrowth after breaking of apical dominance.

  2. Social aggregation in pea aphids: experiment and random walk modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Nilsen

    Full Text Available From bird flocks to fish schools and ungulate herds to insect swarms, social biological aggregations are found across the natural world. An ongoing challenge in the mathematical modeling of aggregations is to strengthen the connection between models and biological data by quantifying the rules that individuals follow. We model aggregation of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Specifically, we conduct experiments to track the motion of aphids walking in a featureless circular arena in order to deduce individual-level rules. We observe that each aphid transitions stochastically between a moving and a stationary state. Moving aphids follow a correlated random walk. The probabilities of motion state transitions, as well as the random walk parameters, depend strongly on distance to an aphid's nearest neighbor. For large nearest neighbor distances, when an aphid is essentially isolated, its motion is ballistic with aphids moving faster, turning less, and being less likely to stop. In contrast, for short nearest neighbor distances, aphids move more slowly, turn more, and are more likely to become stationary; this behavior constitutes an aggregation mechanism. From the experimental data, we estimate the state transition probabilities and correlated random walk parameters as a function of nearest neighbor distance. With the individual-level model established, we assess whether it reproduces the macroscopic patterns of movement at the group level. To do so, we consider three distributions, namely distance to nearest neighbor, angle to nearest neighbor, and percentage of population moving at any given time. For each of these three distributions, we compare our experimental data to the output of numerical simulations of our nearest neighbor model, and of a control model in which aphids do not interact socially. Our stochastic, social nearest neighbor model reproduces salient features of the experimental data that are not captured by the control.

  3. Unintended changes in protein expression revealed by proteomic analysis of seeds from transgenic pea expressing a bean alpha-amylase inhibitor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hancai; Bodulovic, Greg; Hall, Prudence J; Moore, Andy; Higgins, Thomas J V; Djordjevic, Michael A; Rolfe, Barry G

    2009-09-01

    Seeds of genetically modified (GM) peas (Pisum sativum L.) expressing the gene for alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alphaAI1) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Tendergreen) exhibit resistance to the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum). A proteomic analysis was carried out to compare seeds from GM pea lines expressing the bean alphaAI1 protein and the corresponding alphaAI1-free segregating lines and non-GM parental line to identify unintended alterations to the proteome of GM peas due to the introduction of the gene for alphaAI1. Proteomic analysis showed that in addition to the presence of alphaAI1, 33 other proteins were differentially accumulated in the alphaAI1-expressing GM lines compared with their non-GM parental line and these were grouped into five expression classes. Among these 33 proteins, only three were found to be associated with the expression of alphaAI1 in the GM pea lines. The accumulation of the remaining 30 proteins appears to be associated with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation events. Sixteen proteins were identified after MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis. About 56% of the identified proteins with altered accumulation in the GM pea were storage proteins including legumin, vicilin or convicilin, phaseolin, cupin and valosin-containing protein. Two proteins were uniquely expressed in the alphaAI1-expressing GM lines and one new protein was present in both the alphaAI1-expressing GM lines and their alphaAI1-free segregating lines, suggesting that both transgenesis and transformation events led to demonstrable changes in the proteomes of the GM lines tested.

  4. Importance of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi in production of the milk on family farms in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two year field trials (1999-2001 were carried out to determine the effect of seed winter pea inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on number and nodule dry weight g/plant of pea root and also on the yield of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi and triticale cv. Clercal mixture. Just before sowing the inoculation of pea seeds was performed by the variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae which is part of the microbial collection of the Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The highest total nodule number on pea root (28 nodule/plant was determined on the inoculated variant 2 as well as nodule dry weight (0,175 g/plant. Average pea seed yield were ranging from 1327 kg ha-1 (control up to 1825 kg ha-1 (inoculation. Average triticale grain yield were ranging from 2375 kg ha-1 (control up to 3345 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Average total grain yield of winter peas in mixture triticale were ranging from 3702 kg ha-1 (control up to 5045 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. This paper and given results are a humble contribution to the research of pea growth in the Republic of Croatia.

  5. Effect of 2 MHz ultrasound irradiation on Pisum sativum roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.W.; Voorhees, S.M.; Carstensen, E.L.; Kaufman, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of 2 MHz ultrasound at intensity levels from 2.5 to 22 W/cm 2 on the growth rate and mitotic index of Pisum sativum roots was studied. The ultrasound produced an immediate reduction in the growth rate on the first postexposure day, followed by a gradual recovery to the control value. Ultrasound reduced the root meristem mitotic index. Intensity- and time-dependent relations were found for the growth rate and mitotic index reductions

  6. Relationships between yield and some yield components in Pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... canned food. Sugar rate of pea grains is high. Dry pea grains are broken and used to make soup. On the other hand, the pea grains are used in animal feed. Some pea varieties are used for the purpose of green forage production, dry forage and green manure produc- tion. These varieties are called 'feed ...

  7. Aqueous pathways dominate permeation of solutes across Pisum sativum seed coats and mediate solute transport via diffusion and bulk flow of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Sylvia; Burghardt, Markus; Popp, Christian; Riederer, Markus

    2013-05-01

    The permeability of seed coats to solutes either of biological or anthropogenic origin plays a major role in germination, seedling growth and seed treatment by pesticides. An experimental set-up was designed for investigating the mechanisms of seed coat permeation, which allows steady-state experiments with isolated seed coats of Pisum sativum. Permeances were measured for a set of organic model compounds with different physicochemical properties and sizes. The results show that narrow aqueous pathways dominate the diffusion of solutes across pea seed coats, as indicated by a correlation of permeances with the molecular sizes of the compounds instead of their lipophilicity. Further indicators for an aqueous pathway are small size selectivity and a small effect of temperature on permeation. The application of an osmotic water potential gradient across isolated seed coats leads to an increase in solute transfer, indicating that the aqueous pathways form a water-filled continuum across the seed coat allowing the bulk flow of water. Thus, the uptake of organic solutes across pea testae has two components: (1) by diffusion and (2) by bulk water inflow, which, however, is relevant only during imbibition. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Efeito do Meloidogyne javanica no crescimento da ervilha Effect of Meloidogyne javanica on the growth of pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Datt Sharma

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O nematóide-das-galhas radiculares, Meloidogyne javanica, comumente causa redução em produtividade de ervilha, Pisum sativum L., no Distrito Federal. O efeito de Meloidogyne javanica no crescimento da ervilha cv. Triofin foi avaliado em cinco níveis de inóculos: 0, 10, 100, 1.000 e 10.000 ovos/kg de solo, em casa de vegetação. Houve redução progressiva no crescimento da planta com o aumento do inóculos. O fator de multiplicação foi negativamente proporcional ao inóculo inicial. A nodulação bacteriana também foi seriamente afetada em todos os níveis de inóculo, exceto no de 10 ovos/kg do solo, que apresentou 61,63% de aumento no de número de nódulos/planta.The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica commonly causes yield reduction of pea (Pisum sativum L. in the Federal District of Brazil. The effect of M. javanica on the growth of pea cv. Triofin was studied with five inoculum levels namely 0, 10, 100, 1,000, and 10,000 eggs/kg of soil under greenhouse conditions. There was a progressive decrease in plant growth as the inoculum levels of nematode increased. The rate of nematode multiplication was inversely proportional to the inoculum level. Rhizobial nodulation was adversely affected at all the inoculum levels except for the inoculum level of 10 eggs/kg of soil which showed a 61.63% increase in number of bacterial nodules.

  9. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. The phytopathogen Dickeya dadantii (Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937) is a pathogen of the pea aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Anne-Marie; Duport, Gabrielle; Pagès, Sylvie; Condemine, Guy; Rahbé, Yvan

    2006-03-01

    Dickeya dadantii (Erwinia chrysanthemi) is a phytopathogenic bacterium causing soft rot diseases on many crops. The sequencing of its genome identified four genes encoding homologues of the Cyt family of insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, which are not present in the close relative Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum. The pathogenicity of D. dadantii was tested on the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the bacterium was shown to be highly virulent for this insect, either by septic injury or by oral infection. The lethal inoculum dose was calculated to be as low as 10 ingested bacterial cells. A D. dadantii mutant with the four cytotoxin genes deleted showed a reduced per os virulence for A. pisum, highlighting the potential role of at least one of these genes in pathogenicity. Since only one bacterial pathogen of aphids has been previously described (Erwinia aphidicola), other species from the same bacterial group were tested. The pathogenic trait for aphids was shown to be widespread, albeit variable, within the phytopathogens, with no link to phylogenetic positioning in the Enterobacteriaceae. Previously characterized gut symbionts from thrips (Erwinia/Pantoea group) were also highly pathogenic to the aphid, whereas the potent entomopathogen Photorhabdus luminescens was not. D. dadantii is not a generalist insect pathogen, since it has low pathogenicity for three other insect species (Drosophila melanogaster, Sitophilus oryzae, and Spodoptera littoralis). D. dadantii was one of the most virulent aphid pathogens in our screening, and it was active on most aphid instars, except for the first one, probably due to anatomical filtering. The observed difference in virulence toward apterous and winged aphids may have an ecological impact, and this deserves specific attention in future research.

  11. Aphid wing induction and ecological costs of alarm pheromone emission under field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Hatano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, (Homoptera: Aphididae releases the volatile sesquiterpene (E-beta-farnesene (EBF when attacked by a predator, triggering escape responses in the aphid colony. Recently, it was shown that this alarm pheromone also mediates the production of the winged dispersal morph under laboratory conditions. The present work tested the wing-inducing effect of EBF under field conditions. Aphid colonies were exposed to two treatments (control and EBF and tested in two different environmental conditions (field and laboratory. As in previous experiments aphids produced higher proportion of winged morphs among their offspring when exposed to EBF in the laboratory but even under field conditions the proportion of winged offspring was higher after EBF application (6.84+/-0.98% compared to the hexane control (1.54+/-0.25%. In the field, the proportion of adult aphids found on the plant at the end of the experiment was lower in the EBF treatment (58.1+/-5.5% than in the control (66.9+/-4.6%, in contrast to the climate chamber test where the numbers of adult aphids found on the plant at the end of the experiment were, in both treatments, similar to the numbers put on the plant initially. Our results show that the role of EBF in aphid wing induction is also apparent under field conditions and they may indicate a potential cost of EBF emission. They also emphasize the importance of investigating the ecological role of induced defences under field conditions.

  12. MOLECULAR MARKERS FOR VEGETABLE PEA SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Anokhina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the presence in genomes of pea hybrid materials of the DNA regions complementary to the primers that are associated with the biochemical characteristics and resistance to powdery mildew.

  13. Genotoxicological Evaluation of NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Aouatif, Chentouf; Looten, Ph.; Parvathi, M. V. S.; Raja Ganesh, S.; Paranthaman, V.

    2013-01-01

    NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate, a protein supplement, is a high-quality source of protein which is primarily emulsifying functional protein. We evaluated the genotoxic potential of NUTRALYS isolated from dry yellow pea, using three established genotoxicity tests (AMES test in vitro chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test) employing OECD guidelines under GLP conditions. In the bacterial reverse mutation test, NUTRALYS did not show positive responses in strains detecting point ...

  14. The influence of rate and time of nitrate supply on nitrogen fixation and yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen

    1986-01-01

    contributed with 82, 13 and 5% of total plant N, respectively. The supply of low rates of nitrate fertilizer at sowing (“starter N”) increased the vegetative dry matter production, but not the seed yield significantly. Nitrogen fixation was not significantly decreased by the lower rates of nitrate but higher...

  15. 78 FR 63160 - United States Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils under the Agriculture Marketing Act (AMA) of 1946. To... meeting the needs in today's marketing environment. DATES: GIPSA will consider comments received by..., DC, 20250-3604. Email comments to: [email protected] Fax: (202) 690-2173. Internet: Go to http...

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis in pea treated with microbial consortia of beneficial microbes reveals changes in the protein network to enhance resistance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Akansha; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Surendra; Singh, Vinay; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2015-06-15

    Microbial consortia may provide protection against pathogenic ingress via enhancing plant defense responses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PJHU15, Trichoderma harzianum TNHU27 and Bacillus subtilis BHHU100 were used either singly or in consortia in the pea rhizosphere to observe proteome level changes upon Sclerotinia sclerotiorum challenge. Thirty proteins were found to increase or decrease differentially in 2-DE gels of pea leaves, out of which 25 were identified by MALDI-TOF MS or MS/MS. These proteins were classified into several functional categories including photosynthesis, respiration, phenylpropanoid metabolism, protein synthesis, stress regulation, carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism and disease/defense-related processes. The respective homologue of each protein identified was trapped in Pisum sativum and a phylogenetic tree was constructed to check the ancestry. The proteomic view of the defense response to S. sclerotiorum in pea, in the presence of beneficial microbes, highlights the enhanced protection that can be provided by these microbes in challenged plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Insulin-related peptide 5 is involved in regulating embryo development and biochemical composition in pea aphid with wing polyphenism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan eGuo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In aphids there is a fecundity-dispersal trade-off between wingless and winged morphs. Recent research on the molecular mechanism of wing morphs associated with dispersal reveals that insulin receptors in the insulin signaling (IS pathway regulate alteration of wing morphs in planthoppers. However, little is known about whether genes in the IS pathway are involved in developmental regulation in aphid nymphs with different wing morphs. In this study, we show that expression of the insulin-related peptide 5 gene (Apirp5 affects biochemical composition and embryo development of wingless pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum. After comparing expression levels of major genes in the IS pathway between third instar winged and wingless nymphs, we found that Apirp5 showed higher expression in head and thorax of the wingless nymphs than in the winged nymphs. Although microinjection treatment affects physical performance in aphids, nymphs with RNA interference of Apirp5 had less weight, smaller embryo size and higher carbohydrate and protein contents compared to control group. Comparison between winged and wingless nymphs showed a similar trend. These results indicate that Apirp5 is involved in embryo development and metabolic regulation in wing dimorphic pea aphid.

  18. Effect of Pigeon pea and Cow pea on the performance and gut immunity of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagoub, Yagoub Magboul

    1998-03-01

    two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of pigeon pea and cow pea on the performance and gut immunity of broiler chicks. In experiment 1, 3 experimental diets were formulated containing graded levels of cow pea were maintained. Diets were prepared containing 18.21, 18.25 and 18.25% crude protein and 3076.41, 3062 Kel/Kg metabolizable energy for experiment 1, while diets of experiment 11 were prepared containing 18.21, 18.22, and 18.22% crude protein and 3076.41, 3080.5 and 3055.89 KEl/Kg metabolized energy. 120 Loghmann broiler chicks were equally allocated into 15 pens (8 chicks/pen). Then the experimental diets were randomly assigned to the pens. feed and water were provided ad libitum in both experiments. In experiment 1, the results showed no significant difference were found in chick performance at day 45. The feed conversation ratio increased with the level of pigeon pea used. The pancreas mass was increased as the level of pigeon pea increase. In experiment 2 the results showed significant decrease in the body weight and feed intake at day 45, while the pancreas mass tend to increase with increasing level of cow pea in the diet. Histological examination of small intestine slides showed no histopathological differences between the control and chicks fed cow pea and/or pigeon pea. Immunological test of the serum and mucous samples using ELISA techniques revealed no significant difference between the control and chicks given cow pea and / or pigeon pea

  19. Purification and characterization of a casein kinase 2-type protein kinase from pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Almost all the polyamine-stimulated protein kinase activity associated with the chromatin fraction of nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.35 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified over 2000-fold by salt fractionation and anion-exchange and casein-agarose column chromatography, after which it is more than 90% pure. The purified kinase has a specific activity of about 650 nanomoles per minute per milligram protein in the absence of polyamines, with either ATP or GTP as phosphoryl donor. Spermidine can stimulate its activity fourfold, with half-maximal activation at about 2 millimolar. Spermine and putrescine also stimulate activity, although somewhat less effectively. This kinase has a tetrameric alpha 2 beta 2 structure with a native molecular weight of 130,000, and subunit molecular weights of 36,000 for the catalytic subunit (alpha) and 29,000 for the regulatory subunit (beta). In western blot analyses, only the alpha subunit reacts strongly with polyclonal antibodies to a Drosophila casein kinase II. The pea kinase can use casein and phosvitin as artificial substrates, phosphorylating both the serine and threonine residues of casein. It has a pH optimum near 8.0, a Vmax of 1.5 micromoles per minute per milligram protein, and a Km for ATP of approximately 75 micromolar. Its activity can be almost completely inhibited by heparin at 5 micrograms per milliliter, but is relatively insensitive to concentrations of staurosporine, K252a, and chlorpromazine that strongly antagonize Ca(2+) -regulated protein kinases. These results are discussed in relation to recent findings that casein kinase 2-type kinases may phosphorylate trans-acting factors that bind to light-regulated promoters in plants.

  20. Tyrosine pathway regulation is host-mediated in the pea aphid symbiosis during late embryonic and early larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabatel, Andréane; Febvay, Gérard; Gaget, Karen; Duport, Gabrielle; Baa-Puyoulet, Patrice; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Bendridi, Nadia; Rey, Marjolaine; Rahbé, Yvan; Charles, Hubert; Calevro, Federica; Colella, Stefano

    2013-04-10

    Nutritional symbioses play a central role in insects' adaptation to specialized diets and in their evolutionary success. The obligatory symbiosis between the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the bacterium, Buchnera aphidicola, is no exception as it enables this important agricultural pest insect to develop on a diet exclusively based on plant phloem sap. The symbiotic bacteria provide the host with essential amino acids lacking in its diet but necessary for the rapid embryonic growth seen in the parthenogenetic viviparous reproduction of aphids. The aphid furnishes, in exchange, non-essential amino acids and other important metabolites. Understanding the regulations acting on this integrated metabolic system during the development of this insect is essential in elucidating aphid biology. We used a microarray-based approach to analyse gene expression in the late embryonic and the early larval stages of the pea aphid, characterizing, for the first time, the transcriptional profiles in these developmental phases. Our analyses allowed us to identify key genes in the phenylalanine, tyrosine and dopamine pathways and we identified ACYPI004243, one of the four genes encoding for the aspartate transaminase (E.C. 2.6.1.1), as specifically regulated during development. Indeed, the tyrosine biosynthetic pathway is crucial for the symbiotic metabolism as it is shared between the two partners, all the precursors being produced by B. aphidicola. Our microarray data are supported by HPLC amino acid analyses demonstrating an accumulation of tyrosine at the same developmental stages, with an up-regulation of the tyrosine biosynthetic genes. Tyrosine is also essential for the synthesis of cuticular proteins and it is an important precursor for cuticle maturation: together with the up-regulation of tyrosine biosynthesis, we observed an up-regulation of cuticular genes expression. We were also able to identify some amino acid transporter genes which are essential for the switch

  1. Physicochemical traits of Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemane, Asgedom; Skjelvåg, Arne O

    2003-01-01

    Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) has high appreciation for its taste and obtains a premium price in local markets compared to Ater (Pisum sativum var. sativum). However, data on the physicochemical traits of Dekoko seeds were lacking. This paper reports on the physicochemical features of Dekoko and compares the results with that of Ater. Seed weight and seed volume were 36 and 30%, respectively, higher in Ater, while water absorption, percent seed swelling, and percent husk were higher in Dekoko. Cooking time was shorter for Dekoko than Ater seeds. Decortication reduced cooking time on average by 39 and 45 min in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Cotyledon flour of Dekoko contained 251 g crude protein, 19 g fat, 31.7 g total sugars, 370 g starch, and 130 g neutral detergent fiber per kilogram DM. These traits were significantly higher in Dekoko than in Ater, except for starch, which was higher in the latter. Arginine, asparagine, and glutamine occurred in larger proportions, and collectively contributed about 39% to the total amino acids in both varieties. Lysine contributed about 7%, while sulfur containing amino acids constituted about 3.0 and 2.3% of the total amino acids in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Ca and Mg were higher in Ater, while P was higher in Dekoko. Based on the observations it was concluded that Dekoko is a suitable supplementary protein source for a cereal-based diet.

  2. Immunofluorescence detection of pea protein in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrášová, Michaela; Pospiech, Matej; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Javůrková, Zdeňka

    2016-08-01

    In this study we developed an immunofluorescence method to detect pea protein in meat products. Pea protein has a high nutritional value but in sensitive individuals it may be responsible for causing allergic reactions. We produced model meat products with various additions of pea protein and flour; the detection limit (LOD) of the method for pea flour was 0.5% addition, and for pea protein it was 0.001% addition. The repeatabilities and reproducibilities for samples both positive and negative for pea protein were all 100%. In a blind test with model products and commercial samples, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between the declared concentrations of pea protein and flour and the immunofluorescence method results. Sensitivity was 1.06 and specificity was 1.00. These results show that the immunofluorescence method is suitable for the detection of pea protein in meat products.

  3. Pea-barley intercropping for efficient symbiotic N-2-fixation, soil N acquisition and use of other nutrients in European organic cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gooding, M.; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    Complementarity in acquisition of nitrogen (N) from soil and N-2-fixation within pea and barley intercrops was studied in organic field experiments across Western Europe (Denmark, United Kingdom, France, Germany and Italy). Spring pea and barley were sown either as sole crops, at the recommended...... recovery was greater in the pea-barley intercrops than in the sole Crops Suggesting a high degree of complementarity over a wide range of growing conditions. Complementarity was partly attributed to greater soil mineral N acquisition by barley, forcing pea to rely more on N-2-fixation. At all sites......) in Danish and German experiments was 20% higher in the intercrop (P50B50) than in the respective sole crops, possibly influencing general crop yields and thereby competitive ability for other resources. Comparing all sites and seasons, the benefits of organic pea-barley intercropping for N acquisition were...

  4. Analysis of apical hook formation in Alaska pea with a 3-D clinostat and agravitropic mutant ageotropum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke eMiyamoto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the apical hook in dicotyledonous seedlings is believed to be effected by gravity in the dark. However, this notion is mostly based on experiments with the hook formed on the hypocotyl, and no detailed studies are available with the developmental manners of the hook, particularly of the epicotyl hook. The present study aims at clarifying the dynamics of hook formation including the possible involvement of gravity. Time-course studies with normal Alaska pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska and an agravitropic pea mutant, ageotropum, under the 1-g conditions and on a 3-D clinostat revealed that 1 the apical hook of the epicotyl forms by the development of the arc-shaped plumule of the embryo existing in the non-germinated seed. The process of formation consists of two stages: development and partial opening, which are controlled by some intrinsic property of the plumule, but not gravity. Approximately when the epicotyl emerges from the seed coat, the hook is established in both pea varieties. In Alaska the established hook is sustained or enhanced by gravity, resulting in a delay of hook opening compared with on a clinostat, which might give an incorrect idea that gravity causes hook formation. 2 During the hook development and opening processes the original plumular arc holds its orientation unchanged to be an established hook, which, therefore, is at the same side of the epicotyl axis as the cotyledons. This is true for both Alaska and ageotropum under 1-g conditions as well as on the clinostat, supporting finding (1. 3 Application of auxin polar transport inhibitors, hydroxyfluorenecarboxylic acid, naphthylphthalamic acid, and triiodobenzoic acid, suppressed the curvature of hook by equal extents in Alaska as well as ageotropum, suggesting that the hook development involves auxin polar transport probably asymmetrically distributed across the plumular axis by some intrinsic property of the plumule not directly related with gravity

  5. Effect of seasonal abiotic conditions and field margin habitat on the activity of Pandora neoaphidis inoculum on soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baverstock, J; Clark, S J; Pell, J K

    2008-03-01

    The ability of the aphid pathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis to remain active in the absence of a resting stage through a combination of continuous infection and as conidia deposited on soil was assessed alongside the potential for planted field margins to act as a refuge for the fungus. P. neoaphidis was able to infect the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, when maintained under controlled conditions that simulated those that occur seasonally in the UK. Although there was a significant inverse relationship between temperature and time-to-kill, with death occurring after 4.2, 6.9 and 13.6 days when maintained under fluctuating summer, autumn and winter temperatures, respectively, there were no additional statistically significant effects of photoperiod. The activity of inoculum on soil was indirectly assessed by baiting with A. pisum. Under controlled conditions P. neoaphidis remained active on soil and was able to infect aphids for up to 80 days. However, the percentage of aphids that became infected decreased from 76% on day 1 to 11% on day 80. Whereas there was little difference in the activity of conidia that had been maintained at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C, activity at 18 degrees C was considerably reduced. Under field conditions the activity of inoculum was strongly influenced by season. On day 49 there was little or no activity during spring, summer or winter. However, during autumn a mean proportion of 0.08 aphids still became infected with P. neoaphidis. Margin type did not affect the activity of conidia nor was there a difference in activity between blocks that had regenerated naturally and those that had been planted. These results suggest that P. neoaphidis can infect aphids and remain active on soil under the abiotic conditions that occur seasonally in the UK and that this fungus may be able to persist annually without a resting stage.

  6. Gravistimulation changes expression of genes encoding putative carrier proteins of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, T.; Hitotsubashi, R.; Miyamoto, K.; Tanimoto, E.; Ueda, J.

    STS-95 space experiment has showed that auxin polar transport in etiolated epicotyls of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings is controlled by gravistimulation. In Arabidopsis thaliana auxin polar transport has considered to be regulated by efflux and influx carrier proteins in plasma membranes, AtPIN1 and AtAUX1, respectively. In order to know how gravistimuli control auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls at molecular levels, strenuous efforts have been made, resulting in successful isolation of full-length cDNAs of a putative auxin efflux and influx carriers, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (accession no. AY222857, Chawla and DeMason, 2003) and AtPINs, and also among PsAUX1, AtAUX1 and their related genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 relating to lateral transport of auxin, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1 relating to auxin polar transport. In the present study, we examined the effects of gravistimuli on the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 in etiolated pea seedlings by northern blot analysis. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in hook region of 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat increased as compared with that of the seedlings grown under 1 g conditions. On the other hand, that of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the 1st internode region under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat also increased, while that of PsPIN2 was affected little. These results suggest that expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 regulating polar/lateral transport of auxin is substantially under the control of gravity. A possible role of PsPINs and PsAUX1 of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea seedlings will also be discussed.

  7. Selection Signatures in the First Exon of Paralogous Receptor Kinase Genes from the Sym2 Region of the Pisum sativum L. Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton S. Sulima

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available During the initial step of the symbiosis between legumes (Fabaceae and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia, the bacterial signal molecule known as the Nod factor (nodulation factor is recognized by plant LysM motif-containing receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs. The fifth chromosome of barrel medic (Medicago truncatula Gaertn. contains a cluster of paralogous LysM-RLK genes, one of which is known to participate in symbiosis. In the syntenic region of the pea (Pisum sativum L. genome, three genes have been identified: PsK1 and PsSym37, two symbiosis-related LysM-RLK genes with known sequences, and the unsequenced PsSym2 gene which presumably encodes a LysM-RLK and is associated with increased selectivity to certain Nod factors. In this work, we identified a new gene encoding a LysM-RLK, designated as PsLykX, within the Sym2 genomic region. We sequenced the first exons (corresponding to the protein receptor domain of PsSym37, PsK1, and PsLykX from a large set of pea genotypes of diverse origin. The nucleotide diversity of these fragments was estimated and groups of haplotypes for each gene were revealed. Footprints of selection pressure were detected via comparative analyses of SNP distribution across the first exons of these genes and their homologs MtLYK2, MtLYK3, and MtLYK4 from M. truncatula retrieved from the Medicago Hapmap project. Despite the remarkable similarity among all the studied genes, they exhibited contrasting selection signatures, possibly pointing to diversification of their functions. Signatures of balancing selection were found in LysM1-encoding parts of PsSym37 and PsK1, suggesting that the diversity of these parts may be important for pea LysM-RLKs. The first exons of PsSym37 and PsK1 displayed signatures of purifying selection, as well as MtLYK2 of M. truncatula. Evidence of positive selection affecting primarily LysM domains was found in all three investigated M. truncatula genes, as well as in the pea gene PsLykX. The data

  8. Pea weevil damage and chemical characteristics of pea cultivars determining their resistance to Bruchus pisorum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, I

    2016-04-01

    Bruchus pisorum (L.) is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea in Europe. Development of resistant cultivars is very important to environmental protection and would solve this problem to a great extent. Therefore, the resistance of five spring pea cultivars was studied to B. pisorum: Glyans, Modus; Kamerton and Svit and Pleven 4 based on the weevil damage and chemical composition of seeds. The seeds were classified as three types: healthy seeds (type one), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (type two) and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes (type three). From visibly damaged pea seeds by pea weevil B. pisorum was isolated the parasitoid Triaspis thoracica Curtis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Modus, followed by Glyans was outlined as resistant cultivars against the pea weevil. They had the lowest total damaged seed degree, loss in weight of damaged seeds (type two and type three) and values of susceptibility coefficients. A strong negative relationship (r = -0.838) between the weight of type one seeds and the proportion of type three seeds was found. Cultivars with lower protein and phosphorus (P) content had a lower level of damage. The crude protein, crude fiber and P content in damaged seeds significantly or no significantly were increased as compared with the healthy seeds due to weevil damage. The P content had the highest significant influence on pea weevil infestation. Use of chemical markers for resistance to the creation of new pea cultivars can be effective method for defense and control against B. pisorum.

  9. Possible causes of dry pea synergy to corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry pea improves corn yield and tolerance to weed interference compared with soybean, spring wheat, or canola as preceding crops. To understand this synergy between dry pea and corn, we examined growth and nutrient concentration of corn following dry pea or soybean in sequence. Each corn plot was ...

  10. 14C2H4: distribution of 14C-labeled tissue metabolites in pea seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaquinta, R.; Beyer, E. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The 14 C-metabolite distribution pattern following 14 C 2 H 4 metabolism in intact pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.) was determined under various conditions. After a 24 hr exposure to 14 C 2 H 4 , the majority of 14 C-metabolites were water-soluble (60-70%) with lesser amounts in the protein (10-15%), lipid (1%), and insoluble (1-2%) fractions. Ion exchange chromatography of the water-soluble components into basic, neutral, and acidic fractions revealed a 50:40:10 distribution, respectively. Chromatography of the neutral fraction revealed two regions of radioactivity (Rf=0.38) and 0.63 which did not cochromatograph with twenty-two known sugars or neutral metabolites. Chromatograms of the basic fraction contained 3 regions of radioactivity. Similar distribution patterns were noted when 14 C 2 H 4 exposure was followed by a 6 hr air chase or when 5% CO 2 , an antagonist of ethylene action, was present during the exposure. Marked differences in the 14 C-metabolite distribution patterns were obtained when 14 CO 2 was substituted for 14 C 2 H 4 . These results indicate that the metabolic pathway involved in ethylene metabolism is different from that involved in intermediately carbon metabolism. (auth.)

  11. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of seasonal photoperiodism in the pea aphid

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    Gauthier J-P

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aphid adaptation to harsh winter conditions is illustrated by an alternation of their reproductive mode. Aphids detect photoperiod shortening by sensing the length of the night and switch from viviparous parthenogenesis in spring and summer, to oviparous sexual reproduction in autumn. The photoperiodic signal is transduced from the head to the reproductive tract to change the fate of the future oocytes from mitotic diploid embryogenesis to haploid formation of gametes. This process takes place in three consecutive generations due to viviparous parthenogenesis. To understand the molecular basis of the switch in the reproductive mode, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches were used to detect significantly regulated transcripts and polypeptides in the heads of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Results The transcriptomic profiles of the heads of the first generation were slightly affected by photoperiod shortening. This suggests that trans-generation signalling between the grand-mothers and the viviparous embryos they contain is not essential. By analogy, many of the genes and some of the proteins regulated in the heads of the second generation are implicated in visual functions, photoreception and cuticle structure. The modification of the cuticle could be accompanied by a down-regulation of the N-β-alanyldopamine pathway and desclerotization. In Drosophila, modification of the insulin pathway could cause a decrease of juvenile hormones in short-day reared aphids. Conclusion This work led to the construction of hypotheses for photoperiodic regulation of the switch of the reproductive mode in aphids.

  12. Lead induced changes in phosphorylation of PSII proteins in low light grown pea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wioleta, Wasilewska; Anna, Drożak; Ilona, Bacławska; Kamila, Kąkol; Elżbieta, Romanowska

    2015-02-01

    Light-intensity and redox-state induced thylakoid proteins phosphorylation involved in structural changes and in regulation of protein turnover. The presence of heavy metal ions triggers a wide range of cellular responses including changes in plant growth and photosynthesis. Plants have evolved a number of mechanisms to protect photosynthetic apparatus. We have characterized the effect of lead on PSII protein phosphorylation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants grown in low light conditions. Pb ions affected only slightly photochemical efficiency of PSII and had no effect on organization of thylakoid complexes. Lead activated strongly phosphorylation of PSII core D1 protein and dephosphorylation of this protein did not proceed in far red light. D1 protein was also not degraded in this conditions. However, phosphorylation of LHCII proteins was not affected by lead. These results indicate that Pb(2+) stimulate the phosphorylation of PSII core proteins and by disturbing the disassembly of supercomplexes play a role in PSII repair mechanism. LHCII phosphorylation could control the distribution of energy between the photosystems in low light conditions. This demonstrates that plants may respond to heavy metals by induction different pathways responsible for protein protection under stress conditions.

  13. Small heat shock protein message in etiolated Pea seedlings under altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaiev, O.

    Plants are subjected to various environmental changes during their life cycle To protect themselves against unfavorable influences plant cells synthesize several classes of small heat shock proteins sHsp ranging in size from 15 to 30 kDa This proteins are able to enhance the refolding of chemically denatured proteins in an ATP-independent manner in other words they can function as molecular chaperones The potential contribution of effects of space flight at the plant cellular and gene regulation level has not been characterized yet The object of our study is sHsp gene expression in etiolated Pisum sativum seedlings exposed to altered gravity and environmental conditions We designed primers to detect message for two inducible forms of the cytosolic small heat shock proteins sHsp 17 7 and sHsp 18 1 Applying the RT- PCR we explore sHsps mRNA in pea seedling cells subjected to two types of altered gravity achieved by centrifugation from 3 to 8g by clinorotation 2 rpm and temperature elevation 42oC Temperature elevation as the positive control significantly increased PsHspl7 7 PsHspl8 1 expression We investigate the expression of actin it was constant and comparable for unstressed controls for all variants Results are under discussion

  14. Accumulation and localization of extensin protein in apoplast of pea root nodule under aluminum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujkowska-Rybkowska, Marzena; Borucki, Wojciech

    2014-12-01

    Cell wall components such as hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs, extensins) have been proposed to be involved in aluminum (Al) resistance mechanisms in plants. We have characterized the distribution of extensin in pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules apoplast under short (for 2 and 24h) Al stress. Monoclonal antibodie LM1 have been used to locate extensin protein epitope by immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling. The nodules were shown to respond to Al stress by thickening of plant and infection thread (IT) walls and disturbances in threads growth and bacteria endocytosis. Immunoblot results indicated the presence of a 17-kDa band specific for LM1. Irrespective of the time of Al stress, extensin content increased in root nodules. Further observation utilizing fluorescence and transmission electron microscope showed that LM1 epitope was localized in walls and intercellular spaces of nodule cortex tissues and in the infection threads matrix. Al stress in nodules appears to be associated with higher extensin accumulation in matrix of enlarged thick-walled ITs. In addition to ITs, thickened walls and intercellular spaces of nodule cortex were also associated with intense extensin accumulation. These data suggest that Al-induced extensin accumulation in plant cell walls and ITs matrix may have influence on the process of IT growth and tissue and cell colonization by Rhizobium bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interactions between ethylene, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids in the development of rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses of pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Eloise; McAdam, Erin L; Weller, James L; Reid, James B

    2016-04-01

    The regulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal development and nodulation involves complex interactions between the plant and its microbial symbionts. In this study, we use the recently identified ethylene-insensitive ein2 mutant in pea (Pisum sativum L.) to explore the role of ethylene in the development of these symbioses. We show that ethylene acts as a strong negative regulator of nodulation, confirming reports in other legumes. Minor changes in gibberellin1 and indole-3-acetic acid levels in ein2 roots appear insufficient to explain the differences in nodulation. Double mutants produced by crosses between ein2 and the severely gibberellin-deficient na and brassinosteroid-deficient lk mutants showed increased nodule numbers and reduced nodule spacing compared with the na and lk single mutants, but nodule numbers and spacing were typical of ein2 plants, suggesting that the reduced number of nodules innaandlkplants is largely due to the elevated ethylene levels previously reported in these mutants. We show that ethylene can also negatively regulate mycorrhizae development when ethylene levels are elevated above basal levels, consistent with a role for ethylene in reducing symbiotic development under stressful conditions. In contrast to the hormone interactions in nodulation, ein2 does not override the effect of lk or na on the development of arbuscular mycorrhizae, suggesting that brassinosteroids and gibberellins influence this process largely independently of ethylene. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Strigolactones Suppress Adventitious Rooting in Arabidopsis and Pea1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Mason, Michael Glenn; De Cuyper, Carolien; Brewer, Philip B.; Herold, Silvia; Agusti, Javier; Geelen, Danny; Greb, Thomas; Goormachtig, Sofie; Beeckman, Tom; Beveridge, Christine Anne

    2012-01-01

    Adventitious root formation is essential for the propagation of many commercially important plant species and involves the formation of roots from nonroot tissues such as stems or leaves. Here, we demonstrate that the plant hormone strigolactone suppresses adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and pea (Pisum sativum). Strigolactone-deficient and response mutants of both species have enhanced adventitious rooting. CYCLIN B1 expression, an early marker for the initiation of adventitious root primordia in Arabidopsis, is enhanced in more axillary growth2 (max2), a strigolactone response mutant, suggesting that strigolactones restrain the number of adventitious roots by inhibiting the very first formative divisions of the founder cells. Strigolactones and cytokinins appear to act independently to suppress adventitious rooting, as cytokinin mutants are strigolactone responsive and strigolactone mutants are cytokinin responsive. In contrast, the interaction between the strigolactone and auxin signaling pathways in regulating adventitious rooting appears to be more complex. Strigolactone can at least partially revert the stimulatory effect of auxin on adventitious rooting, and auxin can further increase the number of adventitious roots in max mutants. We present a model depicting the interaction of strigolactones, cytokinins, and auxin in regulating adventitious root formation. PMID:22323776

  17. Pea Border Cell Maturation and Release Involve Complex Cell Wall Structural Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravec, Jozef; Guo, Xiaoyuan; Hansen, Aleksander Riise; Schückel, Julia; Kračun, Stjepan Krešimir; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Mouille, Grégory; Johansen, Ida Elisabeth; Ulvskov, Peter; Domozych, David S; Willats, William George Tycho

    2017-06-01

    The adhesion of plant cells is vital for support and protection of the plant body and is maintained by a variety of molecular associations between cell wall components. In some specialized cases, though, plant cells are programmed to detach, and root cap-derived border cells are examples of this. Border cells (in some species known as border-like cells) provide an expendable barrier between roots and the environment. Their maturation and release is an important but poorly characterized cell separation event. To gain a deeper insight into the complex cellular dynamics underlying this process, we undertook a systematic, detailed analysis of pea ( Pisum sativum ) root tip cell walls. Our study included immunocarbohydrate microarray profiling, monosaccharide composition determination, Fourier-transformed infrared microspectroscopy, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR of cell wall biosynthetic genes, analysis of hydrolytic activities, transmission electron microscopy, and immunolocalization of cell wall components. Using this integrated glycobiology approach, we identified multiple novel modes of cell wall structural and compositional rearrangement during root cap growth and the release of border cells. Our findings provide a new level of detail about border cell maturation and enable us to develop a model of the separation process. We propose that loss of adhesion by the dissolution of homogalacturonan in the middle lamellae is augmented by an active biophysical process of cell curvature driven by the polarized distribution of xyloglucan and extensin epitopes. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Pea Border Cell Maturation and Release Involve Complex Cell Wall Structural Dynamics1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The adhesion of plant cells is vital for support and protection of the plant body and is maintained by a variety of molecular associations between cell wall components. In some specialized cases, though, plant cells are programmed to detach, and root cap-derived border cells are examples of this. Border cells (in some species known as border-like cells) provide an expendable barrier between roots and the environment. Their maturation and release is an important but poorly characterized cell separation event. To gain a deeper insight into the complex cellular dynamics underlying this process, we undertook a systematic, detailed analysis of pea (Pisum sativum) root tip cell walls. Our study included immunocarbohydrate microarray profiling, monosaccharide composition determination, Fourier-transformed infrared microspectroscopy, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR of cell wall biosynthetic genes, analysis of hydrolytic activities, transmission electron microscopy, and immunolocalization of cell wall components. Using this integrated glycobiology approach, we identified multiple novel modes of cell wall structural and compositional rearrangement during root cap growth and the release of border cells. Our findings provide a new level of detail about border cell maturation and enable us to develop a model of the separation process. We propose that loss of adhesion by the dissolution of homogalacturonan in the middle lamellae is augmented by an active biophysical process of cell curvature driven by the polarized distribution of xyloglucan and extensin epitopes. PMID:28400496

  19. The effects of lead on the gaseous exchange and photosynthetic carbon metabolism of pea seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy W. Poskuta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Roots of whole 3 week-old pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. var. "Bordi" were immersed for 24 h in solutions of lead chloride at Pb copcentrations of 200, 400, 800,12000 mg dm3. Accumulation of lead in roots was independent of the Pb concentration, whereas the accumulation of Pb in shoots was an almost linear function of the concentration of this element in the root medium. This treatment caused Pb concentration-dependent inhibition of apparent photosynthesis (APS, photorespiration (PR, 14CO2 uptake, stomatal opening and transpiration of shoots and also germination of seeds. The most sensitive to Pb contamination was CO2 exchange, then transpiration and to a lesser degree germination of seeds. Lead caused a considerable alteration of photosynthetic and photorespiratory carbon metabolism, restricted the 14C-labeling of: phosphoglycerate, ribose+ribulose, sucrose, glycolate and glycine+serine. Under conditions of C02 uptake limited by lead, an enhancement of the 14C-labeling of malate+citrate, alanine and glucose was observed.

  20. Developmental changes in aspartate-family amino acid biosynthesis in pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.R.; Cato, L.W.; Stephens, B.W.; Reeves, M.

    1990-01-01

    Isolated chloroplasts are known to synthesize the asp-derived amino acids (ile, hse, lys and thr) from [ 14 C]asp (Mills et al, 1980, Plant Physiol. 65, 1166). Now, we have studied the influence of tissue age on essential amino acid biosynthesis in pea (Pisum sativum) plastids. Chloroplasts from the younger (third and fourth) leaves of 12 day old plants, were 2-3 times more active in synthesizing lys and thr from [ 14 C]asp than those from older (first or second) leaves. We also examined two key pathway enzymes (aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase); with each enzyme,a activity in younger leaves was about 2 times that in plastids from older tissue. Both lys- and thr-sensitive forms of aspartate kinase are known in plants; in agreement with earlier work, we found that lys-sensitive activity was about 4 times higher in the younger tissues, while the thr-sensitive activity changed little during development (Davies and Miflin, 1977, Plant Sci. Lett. 9, 323). Recently the role of aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase in controlling asp-family amino acid synthesis has been questioned (Giovanelli et al, 1989, Plant Physiol. 90, 1584); we hope that measurements of amino acid levels in chloroplasts as well as further enzyme studies will help us to better understand the regulation of asp-family amino acid synthesis

  1. London's historic ''pea-soupers''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbinato, D.

    1994-01-01

    Americans may think smog was invented in Los Angeles. Not so. In fact, a Londoner coined the term ''smog'' in 1905 to describe the city's insidious combination of natural fog and coal smoke. By then, the phenomenon was part of London history, and dirty, acrid smoke-filled ''pea-soupers'' were as familiar to Londoners as Big Ben and Westminster Abby. Smog in London predates Shakespeare by four centuries. Until the 12th century, most Londoners burned wood for fuel. But as the city grew and the forests shrank, wood became scarce and increasingly expensive. Large deposits of ''sea-coal'' off the northeast coast provided a cheap alternative. Soon, Londoners were burning the soft, bituminous coal to heat their homes and fuel their factories. Sea-coal was plentiful, but it didn't burn efficiently. A lot of its energy was spent making smoke, not heat. Coal smoke drifting through thousands of London chimneys combined with clean natural fog to make smog. If the weather conditions were right, it would last for days. Early on, no one had the scientific tools to correlate smog with adverse health effects, but complaints about the smoky air as an annoyance date back to at least 1272, when King Edward I, on the urging of important noblemen and clerics, banned the burning of sea-coal. Anyone caught burning or selling the stuff was to be tortured or executed. The first offender caught was summarily put to death. This deterred nobody. Of necessity, citizens continued to burn sea-coal in violation of the law, which required the burning of wood few could afford

  2. Symbiotic N2 fixation activity in relation to C economy of Pisum sativum L. as a function of plant phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, A S; Salon, C; Jeudy, C; Warembourg, F R

    2003-12-01

    The relationships between symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) activity and C fluxes were investigated in pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Baccara) using simultaneous 13C and 15N labelling. Analysis of the dynamics of labelled CO2 efflux from the nodulated roots allowed the different components associated with SNF activity to be calculated, together with root and nodule synthetic and maintenance processes. The carbon costs for the synthesis of roots and nodules were similar and decreased with time. Carbon lost by turnover, associated with maintenance processes, decreased with time for nodules while it increased in the roots. Nodule turnover remained higher than root turnover until flowering. The effect of the N source on SNF was investigated using plants supplied with nitrate or plants only fixing N2. SNF per unit nodule biomass (nodule specific activity) was linearly related to the amount of carbon allocated to the nodulated roots regardless of the N source, with regression slopes decreasing across the growth cycle. These regression slopes permitted potential values of SNF specific activity to be defined. SNF activity decreased as the plants aged, presumably because of the combined effects of both increasing C costs of SNF (from 4.0 to 6.7 g C g-1 N) and the limitation of C supply to the nodules. SNF activity competed for C against synthesis and maintenance processes within the nodulated roots. Synthesis was the main limiting factor of SNF, but its importance decreased as the plant aged. At seed-filling, SNF was probably more limited by nodule age than by C supply to the nodulated roots.

  3. Radiation capture and use as affected by morphologicallycontrasting maize/pea in sole and intercropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanton, R.A.L.; Dennett, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Field Unit of the School of Plant Sciences in Reading, UK, during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to compare the radiation capture and use efficiency of morphologically and physiologically contrasting maize/pea intercrops with sole crops. The maize cultivars comprised Nancis with erect and Sophy with floppy leaves whilst the peas consisted of Maro, a conventional leaved, and Princess, a semi-leafless cultivar. Radiation capture by the sole and intercrops was measured using a Sunflek Ceptometer (Delta T Devices), with a sensor length of 80 cm. Measurements were taken at four equidistant positions in each plot, 1 m away from the edges of the plot. Before the maize grew above the peas, measurements were taken at the top of the canopy and below. When the canopies were distinct, three measurements were taken, above the canopy, above peas and below the canopy from 9.30 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. at weekly intervals. In both seasons the intercrops and sole pea crops intercepted more radiation compared to the sole maize crops. Towards the end of the season the intercrops and sole maize had similar interception. Intercropping both maize cultivars in 2000 with the conventional pea had the greatest interception in 2001. Radiation use efficiency (RUE) was measured by taking the respective changes in above ground dry weight and dividing by the respective changes in cumulative absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). The RUE were highest at mid-season for both intercrops and sole crops in both seasons. Comparisons were also made using cumulative radiation use efficiencies (CRUE), representing the RUE from emergence to any time. Sole pea had the lowest RUE in both seasons. The sole maize in 2000 had highest CRUE. However, in 2001 intercrops had similar RUE to sole maize, suggesting an increase in RUE of peas in intercrops. Nancis had consistently higher RUE in both seasons compared to Sophy. The results emphasize that radiation capture and

  4. Radiation capture and use as affected by morphologically contrasting maize/pea in sole and intercropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanton, R. A. L.; Dennett, M. D.

    2008-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Field Unit of the School of Plant Sciences in Reading, UK, during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to compare the radiation capture and use efficiency of morphologically and physiologically contrasting maize/pea intercrops with sole crops. The maize cultivars comprised Nancis with erect and Sophy with floppy leaves whilst the peas consisted of Maro, a conventional leaved, and Princess, a semi-leafless cultivar. Radiation capture by the sole and intercrops was measured using a Sunflek Ceptometer (Delta T Devices), with a sensor length of 80 cm. Measurements were taken at four equidistant positions in each plot, 1 m away from the edges of the plot. Before the maize grew above the peas, measurements were taken at the top of the canopy and below. When the canopies were distinct, three measurements were taken, above the canopy, above peas and below the canopy from 9.30 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. at weekly intervals. In both seasons the intercrops and sole pea crops intercepted more radiation compared to the sole maize crops. Towards the end of the season the intercrops and sole maize had similar interception. Intercropping both maize cultivars in 2000 with the conventional pea had the greatest interception in 2001. Radiation use efficiency (RUE) was measured by taking the respective changes in above ground dry weight and dividing by the respective changes in cumulative absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). The RUE were highest at mid-season for both intercrops and sole crops in both seasons. Comparisons were also made using cumulative radiation use efficiencies (CRUE), representing the RUE from emergence to any time. Sole pea had the lowest CRUE in both seasons. The sole maize in 2000 had highest CRUE. However, in 2001 intercrops had similar CRUE to sole maize, suggesting an increase in RUE of peas in intercrops. Nancis had consistently higher CRUE in both seasons compared to Sophy. The results emphasize that radiation capture

  5. Epidermal UV-A absorbance and whole-leaf flavonoid composition in pea respond more to solar blue light than to solar UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siipola, Sari M; Kotilainen, Titta; Sipari, Nina; Morales, Luis O; Lindfors, Anders V; Robson, T Matthew; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2015-05-01

    Plants synthesize phenolic compounds in response to certain environmental signals or stresses. One large group of phenolics, flavonoids, is considered particularly responsive to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, here we demonstrate that solar blue light stimulates flavonoid biosynthesis in the absence of UV-A and UV-B radiation. We grew pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Meteor) outdoors, in Finland during the summer, under five types of filters differing in their spectral transmittance. These filters were used to (1) attenuate UV-B; (2) attenuate UV-B and UV-A radiation signals that extend into the visible region of the solar spectrum. Furthermore, solar blue light instead of solar UV-B radiation can be the main regulator of phenolic compound accumulation in plants that germinate and develop outdoors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Pea and Broad Bean Pods as a Natural Source of Dietary Fiber: The Impact on Texture and Sensory Properties of Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith-Fendri, Lilia; Chaari, Fatma; Kallel, Fatma; Zouari-Ellouzi, Soumaya; Ghorbel, Raoudha; Besbes, Souhail; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2016-10-01

    Attention has focused on bakery products such as cake which is one of the most common bakery products consumed by people in the world. Legume by-products, pea pods (PPs) (Pisum sativum L.) and broad bean pods (BBPs) (Vicia faba L.) mediterranean (Tunisian), has been studied for its high dietary fiber content (PP: 43.87 g/100 g; BBP: 53.01 g/100 g). Protein content was also a considerable component for both by-products. We investigated the effect of substituted of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% of PP and BBP flours on the sensory and technological properties in cake. Cakes hardness increased whereas L * and a * color values decreased. The overall acceptability rate showed that a maximum of 15% of PP and BBP flours can be added to prepare acceptable quality cakes. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Pea and pea-grain mixtures as whole crop protein silage for dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Rondahl, Tomas

    2004-01-01

    In this review the use of pea and pea/grain mixtures as whole crop protein silage for dairy cows is discussed. An introductory discussion concerns the ensilage process and protein degradation and effects of different silage additives. To minimise protein loss, prewilting time should be kept short. An acid additive will reduce respiration and thereby reduce protein degradation. The main part of the review discusses nutritional and botanical changes during development as well as results from bo...

  8. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Onl...

  9. Pea Streak Virus Recorded in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sarkisova, Tatiana; Bečková, M.; Fránová, Jana; Petrzik, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2016), s. 164-166 ISSN 1212-2580 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71145 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Pea streak virus * alfalfa * carlavirus * partial sequence Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016

  10. Pea disease diagnostic series - Powdery Mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew is a serious disease of pea worldwide, and it could be caused by two fungal species Erysiphe pisi and E. trifolii. White powdery patches on leaves, stems and pods are characteristics of the disease. The pathogen may form black fruiting bodies called chasmothecia near the end of the gr...

  11. Transport processes in pea seed coats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, Joost Thomas van

    2001-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns transport processes in coats of developing pea seeds. The scope of the investigation ranges from seed coat anatomy, via transport studies to the cloning of cDNA encoding proteinaceous membrane pores, and the heterologous expression of these

  12. CEI-PEA Alert, Summer 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Practical Skills & High Academic Standards: Career Technical Education; (2) Parents: Help Your Children Gain "Soft Skills" for the Workforce; (3) Culinary Arts…

  13. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen peas... two or more, of the following safe and suitable optional ingredients: (i) Natural and artificial... “early June” shall precede or follow the name in the case of smooth-skin or substantially smooth-skin...

  14. Predation determines different selective pressure on pea aphid host races in a complex agricultural mosaic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalbert Balog

    Full Text Available Field assessments were conducted to examine the interplay between host plant and predation in complex agricultural mosaic on pea aphid clover and alfalfa races. In one experiment, we examined the relative fitness on clover race (CR and alfalfa race (AR pea aphids on broad bean, red clover and alfalfa alone. But because clover is typically grown in a more complex agricultural mosaic with alfalfa and broad bean, a second experiment was conducted to assess the fitness consequences under predation in a more complex agricultural field setting that also included potential apparent competition with AR pea aphids. In a third experiment we tested for the effect of differential host race density on the fitness of the other host race mediated by a predator effect. CR pea aphids always had fitness losses when on broad bean (had lower fitness on broad bean relative to red clover and fitness benefits when on red clover (higher fitness on red clover relative to broad bean, whether or not in apparent competition with alfalfa race aphids on bean and alfalfa. AR suffered fitness loss on both alfalfa and bean in apparent competition with CR on clover. Therefore we can conclude that the predation rate between host races was highly asymmetrical. The complexity of the agricultural mosaic thus can influence prey selection by predators on different host plants. These may have evolutionary consequences through context dependent fitness benefits on particular host plants.

  15. Field Insect Pests and Crop Damage Assessment of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Huth grown under Ratoon and in Mixture with Maize Evaluación de Campo de Insectos Pestes y Daño del cultivo de Gandul (Cajanus cajan [L.] Huth creciendo bajo Rebrotes o en Mezcla con Maíz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madang A Dasbak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The widespread adoption of cropping systems that are sustainable and environmentally friendly is vital for the macroeconomic survival of civilization. Intercropping could ensure stability of insect populations in a system. A 3-yr (2005-2007 field trial was therefore carried out in Nigeria under regular and ratoon crops to evaluate five recently developed pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Huth genotypes (ICPL 87, ICPL 161, ICPL 85063, ICP 7120, and ICPL 87119 from the International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT and one local variety for their relative performance and susceptibility to insect pests. The pigeon pea genotypes were in a mixture with two maize genotypes (Zea mays L., open-pollinated and hybrid in regular crops for 2 yr (2005-2006 followed by a ratoon crop for 1 yr (2007. Termites (Odontotermes badius, crickets (Gymnogryllus lucens, and variegated grasshoppers (Zonocerus variegatus were the crop's seedling pests and caused minimal damage. Clavigralla spp. infestations were high at the reproductive stage causing 24% and 29% seed damage in regular and ratoon pigeon pea crops, respectively. Maize slightly suppressed insect pest incidence and damage to pigeon pea pods and seeds but significantly (P La extendida adopción de sistemas de cultivo que son sustentables y benignos para el medio ambiente es vital para la supervivencia macro-económica de la civilización. El intercultivo podría asegurar la estabilidad de población de insectos en un sistema. Un ensayo de campo de 3 anos (2005-2007 fue realizado en Nigeria bajo condiciones de cultivo regular y ratoon para evaluar cinco genotipos de poroto gandul (Cajanus cajan [L.] Huth: ICPL 87, ICPL 161, ICPL 85063, ICP 7120, e ICPL 87119 desde International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT y una variedad local, por sus rendimientos y susceptibilidades relativas a insectos plaga. Los genotipos de poroto gandul estaban en mezcla con dos genotipos de

  16. HARDNESS PHENOMENON IN BEACH PEA (Lethyrus maritimus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    U.D. Chavan; R. Amarowicz; F. Shahidi

    2013-01-01

    Beach pea is mostly grown on seashores and it contains higher amount of protein than other legumes. However, the pea has several undesirable  attributes, such as long cooking time and hard to germinate (imbibitions) that limited its use as food. The present investigation aimed to study the physico-chemical properties, cooking characteristics and hull crude fibre structure of beach pea as compare to other similar legumes. Standard methods of processing pulses were used for present study. Beach...

  17. Protein import into isolated pea root leucoplasts

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chiung-Chih; Li, Hsou-min

    2015-01-01

    Leucoplasts are important organelles for the synthesis and storage of starch, lipids and proteins. However, molecular mechanism of protein import into leucoplasts and how it differs from that of import into chloroplasts remain unknown. We used pea seedlings for both chloroplast and leucoplast isolations to compare within the same species. We further optimized the isolation and import conditions to improve import efficiency and to permit a quantitative comparison between the two plastid types....

  18. Evaluation of the role of damage to photosystem II in the inhibition of CO2 assimilation in pea leaves on exposure to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogues, S.; Baker, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    Mature pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Meteor) leaves were exposed to two levels of UV-B radiation, with and without supplementary UV-C radiation, during 15 h photoperiods. Simultaneous measurements of CO 2 assimilation and modulated chlorophyll fluorescence parameters demonstrated that irradiation with UV-B resulted in decreases in CO 2 assimilation that are not accompanied by decreases in the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) primary photochemistry. Increased exposure to UV-B resulted in a further loss of CO 2 assimilation and decreases in the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII primary photochemistry, which were accompanied by a loss of the capacity of thylakoids isolated from the leaves to bind atrazine, thus demonstrating that photodamage to PSII reaction centres had occurred. Addition of UV-C to the UV-B treatments increased markedly the rate of inhibition of photosynthesis, but the relationships between CO 2 assimilation and PSII characteristics remained the same, indicating that UV-B and UV-C inhibit leaf photosynthesis by a similar mechanism. It is concluded that PSII is not the primary target site involved in the onset of the inhibition of photosynthesis in pea leaves induced by irradiation with UV-B. (author)

  19. Adequação do teste de condutividade elétrica para sementes de Pisum sativum subsp. Arvense Suitability of electrical conductivity test for seeds of Pisum sativum subsp. Arvense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gomes Machado

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da semente na produção agrícola é um dos principais fatores a ser considerado na implantação da cultura, de forma que se torna importante a obtenção de informações sobre a germinação e o vigor das sementes, além da necessidade de avaliá-los. Dentro desse contexto, este trabalho teve como objetivo adequar a metodologia do teste de condutividade elétrica para a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de Pisum sativum subsp. arvense. Para tanto, foram utilizados dez lotes de sementes da cultivar IAPAR 83, empregando-se períodos de condicionamento de 8, 16, 20, 24 e 28 horas, combinados às temperaturas de 20 e 25°C e volumes de 75 e 250mL de água. Além destes, foram conduzidos os testes de germinação, primeira contagem de germinação e emergência de plântulas. Para ambas as avaliações, foram utilizadas quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Os testes de vigor, assim como o teste de germinação foram sensíveis para avaliar a qualidade das sementes dos diferentes lotes estudados, porém houve variações na ordenação deles quanto ao vigor. O volume de água, o tempo e a temperatura de embebição influenciaram os valores de condutividade elétrica. Concluiu-se que o teste de condutividade elétrica utilizando 250mL de água, na temperatura de 25°C por 24 horas é promissor para a diferenciação de lotes de sementes de P. sativum subsp. arvense.Seed quality in agricultural production is a major factor to be considered in the deployment of a crop, so it becomes important to obtain information about seed vigor and germination and. This study had the objective to adjust the methodology of the electrical conductivity test to evaluate the physiological quality of Pisum sativum subsp. arvense seeds. Ten lots of the cultivar 'IAPAR 83' were studied to establish the methodology for the electrical conductivity test. It was studied germination, first count of germination and seedling emergence in greenhouse

  20. Wide range of interacting partners of pea Gβ subunit of G-proteins suggests its multiple functions in cell signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Deepak; Lakhanpaul, Suman; Tuteja, Narendra

    2012-09-01

    Climate change is a major concern especially in view of the increasing global population and food security. Plant scientists need to look for genetic tools whose appropriate usage can contribute to sustainable food availability. G-proteins have been identified as some of the potential genetic tools that could be useful for protecting plants from various stresses. Heterotrimeric G-proteins consisting of three subunits Gα, Gβ and Gγ are important components of a number of signalling pathways. Their structure and functions are already well studied in animals but their potential in plants is now gaining attention for their role in stress tolerance. Earlier we have reported that over expressing pea Gβ conferred heat tolerance in tobacco plants. Here we report the interacting partners (proteins) of Gβ subunit of Pisum sativum and their putative role in stress and development. Out of 90 transformants isolated from the yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) screening, seven were chosen for further investigation due to their recurrence in multiple experiments. These interacting partners were confirmed using β-galactosidase colony filter lift and ONPG (O-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside) assays. These partners include thioredoxin H, histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein 5-like, pathogenesis-related protein, glucan endo-beta-1, 3-glucosidase (acidic isoform), glycine rich RNA binding protein, cold and drought-regulated protein (corA gene) and soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase 1. This study suggests the role of pea Gβ subunit in stress signal transduction and development pathways owing to its capability to interact with a wide range of proteins of multiple functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. CELL POPULATION KINETICS OF EXCISED ROOTS OF PISUM SATIVUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Hof, Jack

    1965-01-01

    The cell population kinetics of excised, cultured pea roots was studied with the use of tritiated thymidine and colchicine to determine (1) the influence of excision, (2) the influence of sucrose concentration, (3) the average mitotic cycle duration, and (4) the duration of mitosis and the G 1, S, and G 2 periods of interphase.1 The results indicate that the process of excision causes a drop in the frequency of mitotic figures when performed either at the beginning of the culture period or after 100 hours in culture. This initial decrease in frequency of cell division is independent of sucrose concentration, but the subsequent rise in frequency of division, after 12 hours in culture, is dependent upon sucrose concentration. Two per cent sucrose maintains the shortest mitotic cycle duration. The use of colchicine indicated an average cycle duration of 20 hours, whereas the use of tritiated thymidine produced an average cycle duration of 17 hours. PMID:5857253

  2. Nucleotide sequence of a chickpea chlorotic stunt virus relative that infects pea and faba bean in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cui-Ji; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Zhuo, Tao; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2012-07-01

    We determined the genome sequence of a new polerovirus that infects field pea and faba bean in China. Its entire nucleotide sequence (6021 nt) was most closely related (83.3% identity) to that of an Ethiopian isolate of chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV-Eth). With the exception of the coat protein (encoded by ORF3), amino acid sequence identities of all gene products of this virus to those of CpCSV-Eth and other poleroviruses were Polerovirus, and the name pea mild chlorosis virus is proposed.

  3. The role of strigolactones in photomorphogenesis of pea is limited to adventitious rooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Shelley; Foo, Eloise; Reid, James B

    2015-03-01

    The recently discovered group of plant hormones, the strigolactones, have been implicated in regulating photomorphogenesis. We examined this extensively in our strigolactone synthesis and response mutants and could find no evidence to support a major role for strigolactone signaling in classic seedling photomorphogenesis (e.g. elongation and leaf expansion) in pea (Pisum sativum), consistent with two recent independent reports in Arabidopsis. However, we did find a novel effect of strigolactones on adventitious rooting in darkness. Strigolactone-deficient mutants, Psccd8 and Psccd7, produced significantly fewer adventitious roots than comparable wild-type seedlings when grown in the dark, but not when grown in the light. This observation in dark-grown plants did not appear to be due to indirect effects of other factors (e.g. humidity) as the constitutively de-etiolated mutant, lip1, also displayed reduced rooting in the dark. This role for strigolactones did not involve the MAX2 F-Box strigolactone response pathway as Psmax2 f-box mutants did not show a reduction in adventitious rooting in the dark compared with wild-type plants. The auxin-deficient mutant bushy also reduced adventitious rooting in the dark, as did decapitation of wild-type plants. Rooting was restored by the application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to decapitated plants, suggesting a role for auxin in the rooting response. However, auxin measurements showed no accumulation of IAA in the epicotyls of wild-type plants compared with the strigolactone synthesis mutant Psccd8, suggesting that changes in the gross auxin level in the epicotyl are not mediating this response to strigolactone deficiency. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Functional properties of processed pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Germination increased water absorption capacity, bulk density, oil absorption capacity, foaming capacity, foaming stability, emulsion activity, nitrogen solubility and decreased gelatin and wetability of the pigeon pea flour. Germinated pigeon pea flour has great potentials in food prperations that require hydration to improve ...

  5. Substitution Value of toasted Pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and eighty 7-day old broilers were used in a 28-day feeding trial to determine the substitution value of toasted pigeon pea seeds meal (TPSM) for soybean meal and maize in boiler starter diet. The brown coat coloured pigeon pea seeds were toasted at 100oC for 15minutes and milled. The inclusion levels of ...

  6. Functional analysis of mildly refined fractions from yellow pea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Dry fractionation offers an attractive route to sustainably produce protein-enriched plant-based ingredients. For example, fine milling of peas followed by air classification separates starch granules from the protein matrix. Unlike conventional wet isolates, dry-enriched pea fractions consist of a

  7. Fibril Formation from Pea Protein and Sesequent Gel Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munialo, C.D.; Martin, A.H.; Linden, van der E.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20

  8. Fibril formation from pea protein and subsequent gel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munialo, Claire Darizu; Martin, Anneke H; van der Linden, Erik; de Jongh, Harmen H J

    2014-03-19

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20 h at pH 2.0. Following heating of pea proteins, it was observed that all of the proteins were hydrolyzed into peptides and that 50% of these peptides were assembled into fibrils. Changes on a structural level in pea proteins were studied using circular dichroism, transmission electron microscopy, and particle size analysis. During the fibril assembly process, an increase in aggregate size was observed, which coincided with an increase in thioflavin T binding, indicating the presence of β-sheet aggregates. Fibrils made using pea proteins were more branched and curly. Gel formation of preformed fibrils was induced by slow acidification from pH 7.0 to a final pH of around pH 5.0. The ability of pea protein-based fibrillar gels to fracture during an amplitude sweep was comparable to those of soy protein and whey protein-based fibrillar gels, although gels prepared from fibrils made using pea protein and soy protein were weaker than those of whey protein. The findings show that fibrils can be prepared from pea protein, which can be incorporated into protein-based fibrillar gels.

  9. Fibril Formation from Pea Protein and Subsequent Gel Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munialo, XC.D.; Martin, A.H.; Linden, E. van der; Jongh, H.H.J de

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20

  10. Revoluntionary Faith and Religious Disillusionment in Enrico Pea's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questa tragedia segna anche un momento cruciale di transizione nella produzione letteraria di Pea e, pur mostrando chiaramente l'influenza delle sue precedenti affinità con il Marxismo e con il movimento anarchico, guarda già in avanti con il profondo interesse e rispetto di Pea per le proprie radici cattoliche che si ...

  11. 78 FR 68410 - United States Standards for Whole Dry Peas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... available for public inspection in the above office during regular business hours (7 CFR 1.27(b)). Please... the fundamental starting point to define commodity quality in the domestic and global marketplace... for whole dry peas, split peas, and lentils in today's marketing environment. According to information...

  12. Yield advantage and water saving in maize/pea intercrop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, L.; Zhang, L.; Li, W.; Werf, van der W.; Sun, J.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Li, L.

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is a well-established strategy for maximization of yield from limited land, but mixed results have been obtained as to its performance in terms of water use efficiency. Here, two maize/pea intercrop layouts were studied in comparison to sole maize and sole pea with and without plastic

  13. Effective management of pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) in a crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective management of pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) in a crop/livestock integrated farming system in northern Ghana. ... Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... Pigeon pea plots with row lengths averaging 11 m and a planting geometry of 80 cm W 50 cm, were either pruned at 60 or 100 cm above ground level or not ...

  14. Influence of different natural physical fields on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashinsky, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    In space flight conditions gravity, magnetic, and electrical fields as well as ionizing radiation change both in size, and in direction. This causes disruptions in the conduct of some physical processes, chemical reactions, and metabolism in living organisms. In these conditions organisms of different phylogenetic level change their metabolic reactions undergo changes such as disturbances in ionic exchange both in lower and in higher plants, changes in cell morphology for example, gyrosity in Proteus ( Proteus vulgaris), spatial disorientation in coleoptiles of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and Pea ( Pisum sativum) seedlings, mutational changes in Crepis ( Crepis capillaris) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) seedling. It has been found that even in the absence of gravity, gravireceptors determining spatial orientation in higher plants under terrestrial conditions are formed in the course of ontogenesis. Under weightlessness this system does not function and spatial orientation is determined by the light flux gradient or by the action of some other factors. Peculiarities of the formation of the gravireceptor apparatus in higher plants, amphibians, fish, and birds under space flight conditions have been observed. It has been found that the system in which responses were accompanied by phase transition have proven to be gravity-sensitive under microgravity conditions. Such reactions include also the process of photosynthesis which is the main energy production process in plants. In view of the established effects of microgravity and different natural physical fields on biological processes, it has been shown that these processes change due to the absence of initially rigid determination. The established biological effect of physical fields influence on biological processes in organisms is the starting point for elucidating the role of gravity and evolutionary development of various organisms on Earth.

  15. Mapping the signal peptide binding and oligomer contact sites of the core subunit of the pea twin arginine protein translocase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianyue; Cline, Kenneth

    2013-03-01

    Twin arginine translocation (Tat) systems of thylakoid and bacterial membranes transport folded proteins using the proton gradient as the sole energy source. Tat substrates have hydrophobic signal peptides with an essential twin arginine (RR) recognition motif. The multispanning cpTatC plays a central role in Tat operation: It binds the signal peptide, directs translocase assembly, and may facilitate translocation. An in vitro assay with pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts was developed to conduct mutagenesis and analysis of cpTatC functions. Ala scanning mutagenesis identified mutants defective in substrate binding and receptor complex assembly. Mutations in the N terminus (S1) and first stromal loop (S2) caused specific defects in signal peptide recognition. Cys matching between substrate and imported cpTatC confirmed that S1 and S2 directly and specifically bind the RR proximal region of the signal peptide. Mutations in four lumen-proximal regions of cpTatC were defective in receptor complex assembly. Copurification and Cys matching analyses suggest that several of the lumen proximal regions may be important for cpTatC-cpTatC interactions. Surprisingly, RR binding domains of adjacent cpTatCs directed strong cpTatC-cpTatC cross-linking. This suggests clustering of binding sites on the multivalent receptor complex and explains the ability of Tat to transport cross-linked multimers. Transport of substrate proteins cross-linked to the signal peptide binding site tentatively identified mutants impaired in the translocation step.

  16. Phosphate fertilizer and weed control effects on growth and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil acidity and the associated low phosphorus availability and poor crop management practices are among the major factors constraining field pea productivity in the highlands of Ethiopia. The effect of phosphate fertilizer and weed control on yield and yield components of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) were studied on ...

  17. Effect of inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on yields and fodder value of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi in triticale cv. Clercal mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Two year field trials (1999-2001 were aimed to determine the inoculation seed winter pea and nitrogen top-dressing effect on number and active nodules of pea root and also on the green mass and dry matter yield of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi and triticale cv. Clercal mixture. Immediately before sowing the inoculation of pea seeds was done by the indigenous variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae which belongs to the collection of Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The highest total nodule number on pea root (134 was determined on the inoculated variant as well as active nodule (120. Average mixture green mass yields were ranging from 20.9 t ha-1 (control up to 30.1 t ha-1 (inoculation + nitrogen top-dressing. Total dry matter yields were ranging from 3.71 t ha-1 (control up to 5.36 t ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Pea crude protein yields in 2001 were ranging from 500 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing up to 642 kg ha-1 (inoculation and for triticale, those values were from 322 kg ha-1 (control up to 498 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Total mixture crude proteins yields were from 845 kg ha-1 (control up to 998 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing.

  18. Effect of inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on yields and fodder value of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi in wheat cv. Sana mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Two year field trials (1999 - 2001 were performed to determine theinoculation seed winter pea and nitrogen top-dressing effect on number and active nodules of pea root and also on the green mass and dry matter yield of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi and wheat cv. Sana mixture. Immediately before sowing the inoculation of pea seeds was accomplished by the indigenous variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae which belongs to the collection of Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The highest total nodule number on pea root (159 was determined on the inoculated variant as well as active nodule 144. Average mixture green mass yield were ranging from 24,65 t ha-1 (control up to 35,50 t ha-1 (inoculation. Total dry matter yields were ranging from 3,93 t ha-1 (control up to 5,66 t ha-1 (inoculation. Yields crude proteins pea in 2001 were ranging from 692 kg ha-1 (control up to 1058 kg ha-1 (inoculation and for wheat, those values ranged from 199 kg ha-1 (control up to 454 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Total crude proteins mixture yields were in range from 891 kg ha-1 (control up to 1360 kg ha-1 (inoculation.

  19. Histo-chemical and biochemical analysis reveals association of er1 mediated powdery mildew resistance and redox balance in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Chand, Ramesh; Navathe, Sudhir; Sharma, Sandeep

    2016-09-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe pisi is one of the important diseases responsible for heavy yield losses in pea crop worldwide. The most effective method of controlling the disease is the use of resistant varieties. The resistance to powdery mildew in pea is recessive and governed by a single gene er1. The objective of present study is to investigate if er1 mediated powdery mildew resistance is associated with changes in the redox status of the pea plant. 16 pea genotypes were screened for powdery mildew resistance in field condition for two years and, also, analyzed for the presence/absence of er1 gene. Histochemical analysis with DAB and NBT staining indicates accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in surrounding area of powdery mildew infection which was higher in susceptible genotypes as compared to resistant genotypes. A biochemical study revealed that the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, enzymes involved in scavenging ROS, was increased in, both, resistant and susceptible genotypes after powdery mildew infection. However, both enzymes level was always higher in resistant than susceptible genotypes throughout time course of infection. Moreover, irrespective of any treatment, the total phenol (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly high and low in resistant genotypes, respectively. The powdery mildew infection elevated the MDA content but decreased the total phenol in pea genotypes. Statistical analysis showed a strong positive correlation between AUDPC and MDA; however, a negative correlation was observed between AUDPC and SOD, CAT and TP. Heritability of antioxidant was also high. The study identified few novel genotypes resistant to powdery mildew infection that carried the er1 gene and provided further clue that er1 mediated defense response utilizes antioxidant machinery to confer powdery mildew resistance in pea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Rheological and qualitative characteristics of pea flour incorporated cracker biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of pea flour for cracker biscuits production was investigated in this study. Pea flour was characterised by high protein (21.46 % and ash (3.11 % content and exhibited relatively high emulsifying (37.50 ml/100 ml and foaming (53.50 ml/100 ml capacity. The effect of pea flour incorporation to wheat dough (substitution levels 0, 10, 20 and 30 % on the rheological properties, physical characteristics and sensory parameters of cracker biscuits were also evaluated. Farinographic measurements showed that pea flour addition resulted in increasing of water absorption (from 58.90 to 61.80 % and dough development time (from 3.55 to 4.50 min, whereas dough stability was decreased (from 6.69 to 3.50 min. It was also found that incorporation of pea flour to cracker biscuits modified physical properties of final products by different ways (decreasing of volume index, width and spread ratio, increasing of thickness. From the sensory evaluation revealed that cracker biscuits prepared from blend flour contained 10 % pea flour showed no significant differences from wheat cracker biscuits. Higher levels of pea flour in the products adversely affected the odour, taste, firmness, colour and overall acceptance of final products.

  1. INFLUENCE OF NOSTOC VAUCHER EX BORNET ET FLAHAULT STRAINS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PISUM SATIVUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Ye. I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the positive impact of cultures cyanobacteria genus Nostoc Vaucher ex Bornet et Flahault on growth and development of higher plants as an example Pisum sativum L. All the Nostoc species have a positive effect on the viability, germination energy, and biometric characteristics of Pisum sativum. The greatest positive influence was registered for N. entophytum Born. et. Flah. and N. linckia (Roth Bornetet Flahault f. linckia.

  2. Identification of distinct quantitative trait loci associated with defence against the closely related aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum and A. kondoi in Medicago truncatula

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Su-Min

    2012-03-21

    Aphids are a major family of plant insect pests. Medicago truncatula and Acyrthosiphon pisum (pea aphid, PA) are model species with a suite of resources available to help dissect the mechanism underlying plant-aphid interactions. A previous study focused on monogenic and relatively strong resistance in M. truncatula to PA and other aphid species. In this study a moderate resistance to PA was characterized in detail in the M. truncatula line A17 and compared with the highly susceptible line A20 and the more resistant line Jester. The results show that PA resistance in A17 involves both antibiosis and tolerance, and that resistance is phloem based. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (n=114) from a cross between A17 and A20 revealed that one locus, which co-segregated with AIN (Acyrthosiphon-induced necrosis) on chromosome 3, is responsible for the reduction of aphid biomass (indicator of antibiosis) for both PA and bluegreen aphid (BGA, A. kondoi), albeit to a lesser degree for PA than BGA. Interestingly, two independent loci on chromosomes 5 and 3 were identified for the plant biomass reduction (indicator of plant tolerance) by PA and BGA, respectively, demonstrating that the plant\\'s tolerance response to these two closely related aphid species is distinct. Together with previously identified major resistant (R) genes, the QTLs identified in this study are powerful tools to understand fully the spectrum of plant defence against sap-sucking insects and provide opportunities for breeders to generate effective and sustainable strategies for aphid control. 2012 The Author.

  3. Yield of Peas Treated with Compost and Chemical Fertilizer Using 15N Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Degwy, S.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the yield of peas treated with organic compost and mineral N fertilizer under sandy soil conditions. The obtained results showed that all the tested vegetative growth parameters, i.e. fresh and dry weight of leaves, root and pods of pea plants, were significantly increased with increasing the levels of mineral N fertilizer from 20 up to 50 kg N ha-1 either solely or in combination with compost. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake by pea plants were ranked as follow: chemical N fertilize > compost + chemical N fertilize > compost. Organic additives either alone or in combination with chemical fertilizer had enhanced Ndff uptake by pods over aerial parts and roots while reversible trend was noticed with sole application of chemical fertilizer. Nitrogen derived from compost (Ndfc) and uptake by aerial parts followed by pods were enhanced by addition of organic plus chemical fertilizers comparable to sole addition of organic compost. In other term, chemical fertilizer had enhanced the portion of N derived from organic compost

  4. QTL analysis of frost damage in pea suggests different mechanisms involved in frost tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Anthony; Houtin, Hervé; Rond, Céline; Marget, Pascal; Jacquin, Françoise; Boucherot, Karen; Huart, Myriam; Rivière, Nathalie; Boutet, Gilles; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Burstin, Judith

    2014-06-01

    Avoidance mechanisms and intrinsic resistance are complementary strategies to improve winter frost tolerance and yield potential in field pea. The development of the winter pea crop represents a major challenge to expand plant protein production in temperate areas. Breeding winter cultivars requires the combination of freezing tolerance as well as high seed productivity and quality. In this context, we investigated the genetic determinism of winter frost tolerance and assessed its genetic relationship with yield and developmental traits. Using a newly identified source of frost resistance, we developed a population of recombinant inbred lines and evaluated it in six environments in Dijon and Clermont-Ferrand between 2005 and 2010. We developed a genetic map comprising 679 markers distributed over seven linkage groups and covering 947.1 cM. One hundred sixty-one quantitative trait loci (QTL) explaining 9-71 % of the phenotypic variation were detected across the six environments for all traits measured. Two clusters of QTL mapped on the linkage groups III and one cluster on LGVI reveal the genetic links between phenology, morphology, yield-related traits and frost tolerance in winter pea. QTL clusters on LGIII highlighted major developmental gene loci (Hr and Le) and the QTL cluster on LGVI explained up to 71 % of the winter frost damage variation. This suggests that a specific architecture and flowering ideotype defines frost tolerance in winter pea. However, two consistent frost tolerance QTL on LGV were independent of phenology and morphology traits, showing that different protective mechanisms are involved in frost tolerance. Finally, these results suggest that frost tolerance can be bred independently to seed productivity and quality.

  5. Assessment of beneficial role of an insectivorous bird, jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus predation, on Helicoverpa armigera infesting pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharucha Bhavna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus, a widely spread sub-tropical insectivorous passerine is considered beneficial to agro-ecosystem, as they devour voraciously on insect matter especially Helicoverpa armigera, the gram pod borer, a notorious pest infesting and causing heavy loses to crops like pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan which is a vital crop of semi-arid tropical and subtropical farming system, providing high quality vegetable protein. Helicoverpa is known to feed on flowers, pods, and seeds and is the most important biotic constraint affecting pigeon pea yields. Jungle babblers have a peculiar foraging style which helps expose the Helicoverpa larvae as well as pupae through various phenological stages of pigeon pea. For comparative assessment of their beneficial role and as a possible bio control agent, in Baroda city (State of Gaujarat, India, was studied, two crops of pigeon pea (insecticide treated and untreated (control were selected. In both treated and control crops, the number of jungle babblers were maximum in pigeon pea fields during october and november in both small pod stage and large pod stage which had heavy infestation of Helicoverpa. Least number of birds was seen during the flowering stage in September. Later in treatment crop three applications of Dunnate and Monocrotophos insecticide spray was done after which the pest population decreased which is reflected in number of birds in the field, while the bird number in control crops grew since insecticide spray was not done and number of larvae increased with the stage of the crop. Along with the main crop pigeon pea, comparative study was also done to see the food preference by these birds in crops like sorghum, maize, cow pea and ploughed and unploughed fields. Maximum number of birds was seen in unploughed field and least in sorghum suggesting that Helicoverpa is preferred food over sorghum grains thus pigeon pea

  6. Immunoanalysis of isoflavonoids in pea .I.Pisum sativum./I. and mung bean .I.Vigna radiata./I.: Evidence of 7-methoxy-isoflavonoids in .I.Pisum sativum./I..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapčík, O.; Hill, M.; Černý, Ivan; Lachman, J.; Al-Maharik, N.; Wähälä, K.; Adlercreutz, H.; Hampl, R.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 11 (1998), s. 963 ISSN 0009-2770. [Pokroky v organické, bioorganické a farmaceutické chemii. 16.11.1998-18.11.1998, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA311/97/468 Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  7. Ly α and UV Sizes of Green Pea Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan; Wang, Junxian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China (China); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Jiang, Tianxing [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration (United States); Leitherer, Claus [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wofford, Aida, E-mail: huan.y@asu.edu [National Autonomous University of Mexico, Institute of Astronomy (Mexico)

    2017-03-20

    Green Peas are nearby analogs of high-redshift Ly α -emitting galaxies (LAEs). To probe their Ly α escape, we study the spatial profiles of Ly α and UV continuum emission of 24 Green Pea galaxies using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope . We extract the spatial profiles of Ly α emission from their 2D COS spectra, and of the UV continuum from both 2D spectra and NUV images. The Ly α emission shows more extended spatial profiles than the UV continuum, in most Green Peas. The deconvolved full width at half maximum of the Ly α spatial profile is about 2–4 times that of the UV continuum, in most cases. Because Green Peas are analogs of high z LAEs, our results suggest that most high- z LAEs probably have larger Ly α sizes than UV sizes. We also compare the spatial profiles of Ly α photons at blueshifted and redshifted velocities in eight Green Peas with sufficient data quality, and find that the blue wing of the Ly α line has a larger spatial extent than the red wing in four Green Peas with comparatively weak blue Ly α line wings. We show that Green Peas and MUSE z = 3–6 LAEs have similar Ly α and UV continuum sizes, which probably suggests that starbursts in both low- z and high- z LAEs drive similar gas outflows illuminated by Ly α light. Five Lyman continuum (LyC) leakers in this sample have similar Ly α to UV continuum size ratios (∼1.4–4.3) to the other Green Peas, indicating that their LyC emissions escape through ionized holes in the interstellar medium.

  8. PEA: an integrated R toolkit for plant epitranscriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jingjing; Song, Jie; Cheng, Qian; Tang, Yunjia; Ma, Chuang

    2018-05-29

    The epitranscriptome, also known as chemical modifications of RNA (CMRs), is a newly discovered layer of gene regulation, the biological importance of which emerged through analysis of only a small fraction of CMRs detected by high-throughput sequencing technologies. Understanding of the epitranscriptome is hampered by the absence of computational tools for the systematic analysis of epitranscriptome sequencing data. In addition, no tools have yet been designed for accurate prediction of CMRs in plants, or to extend epitranscriptome analysis from a fraction of the transcriptome to its entirety. Here, we introduce PEA, an integrated R toolkit to facilitate the analysis of plant epitranscriptome data. The PEA toolkit contains a comprehensive collection of functions required for read mapping, CMR calling, motif scanning and discovery, and gene functional enrichment analysis. PEA also takes advantage of machine learning technologies for transcriptome-scale CMR prediction, with high prediction accuracy, using the Positive Samples Only Learning algorithm, which addresses the two-class classification problem by using only positive samples (CMRs), in the absence of negative samples (non-CMRs). Hence PEA is a versatile epitranscriptome analysis pipeline covering CMR calling, prediction, and annotation, and we describe its application to predict N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modifications in Arabidopsis thaliana. Experimental results demonstrate that the toolkit achieved 71.6% sensitivity and 73.7% specificity, which is superior to existing m6A predictors. PEA is potentially broadly applicable to the in-depth study of epitranscriptomics. PEA Docker image is available at https://hub.docker.com/r/malab/pea, source codes and user manual are available at https://github.com/cma2015/PEA. chuangma2006@gmail.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Induced mutations in beans and peas for resistance to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) were applied in a mutation-induction programme for rust resistance in bean and pea. Bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked 2 hours before irradiation with 9, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical mutagen treatments bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked for 8 hours and treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. M 2 seeds of beans and peas were planted in 1979. Resistant M 2 plants were selected for their rust resistance and other morphological characters. M 3 seeds of selected plants were planted in 1980. In 1980 more seeds of the same varieties of beans and peas were treated with 0.1 and 0.3% EMS with the aim to produce rust-resistant mutants. Seed germination was reduced by gamma rays or EMS. Dwarf, malformed and abnormal plants were noticed. Some resistant M 2 plants selected gave high grain yields. Some were different in morphological characters. In the M 3 of selected plants various other mutant characters appeared, such as different height of plants, early and late flowering, resistance to powdery mildew in peas, altered grain yield, thickness of stem, pod shape and flower colour. (author)

  10. Determinate growth in Pisum: 'det' a new mutant gene on chromosome 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiecicki, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: A characteristic feature of the growth of legume plants is the absence of a clear border between vegetative and generative phase. By contrast in cereals, the growth of the vegetative mass ceases with flowering and assimilates are destined for filling grains. With regard to this feature in breeding of legume crops the ideotype of 'the self-completion variety' has been conceived. In the broad sense, this term means a plant with a clear end of vegetative growth, after which assimilates should be transported to seeds resulting in more uniform maturity and higher seed yield. Such self-completion can be achieved in different ways, even in the same species. In white lupin, e.g. the cultivar 'Wat' drops its leaves in the stage of pod filling. Moreover, in white lupin as well as in yellow and narrow-leaved lupins unbranched genotypes have been selected in which only one, the main stem develops with the inflorescence on top. Additional nodes with a single flower appear instead of branches. The field bean Vicia faba similar to the pea produces inflorescence on nodes and consecutive nodes develop continuously from the apical meristem. But in the mutation type 'determinate growth', controlled by a single gene, the stem is ended by the inflorescence. A comparable gene was found in pea in 1980 as an effect of seed treatment of the line Wt 3527 by the combined dose 200r Nf+0.014% NEU. Plants are characterized by inflorescence on the top of the stem and smaller number of flowering nodes. Sometimes apical flowers are abnormal, open, but fertile. The mutant was included in the gene bank under number Wt 16100. A phenotypically similar line was found at the John Innes Institute, Norwich (UK). According to the locus allelism test (Wt 16100 x Jl 1358) both mutants are controlled by the same gene. The suggested symbol for this monogenic inherited character is det determinated growth. For the linkage test, the tester line Wl 1238 was crossed with the mutant Wt 16100. The

  11. Determinate growth in Pisum: 'det' a new mutant gene on chromosome 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiecicki, W K [Plant Breeding Station, Wiatrowo (Poland)

    1988-07-01

    Full text: A characteristic feature of the growth of legume plants is the absence of a clear border between vegetative and generative phase. By contrast in cereals, the growth of the vegetative mass ceases with flowering and assimilates are destined for filling grains. With regard to this feature in breeding of legume crops the ideotype of 'the self-completion variety' has been conceived. In the broad sense, this term means a plant with a clear end of vegetative growth, after which assimilates should be transported to seeds resulting in more uniform maturity and higher seed yield. Such self-completion can be achieved in different ways, even in the same species. In white lupin, e.g. the cultivar 'Wat' drops its leaves in the stage of pod filling. Moreover, in white lupin as well as in yellow and narrow-leaved lupins unbranched genotypes have been selected in which only one, the main stem develops with the inflorescence on top. Additional nodes with a single flower appear instead of branches. The field bean Vicia faba similar to the pea produces inflorescence on nodes and consecutive nodes develop continuously from the apical meristem. But in the mutation type 'determinate growth', controlled by a single gene, the stem is ended by the inflorescence. A comparable gene was found in pea in 1980 as an effect of seed treatment of the line Wt 3527 by the combined dose 200r Nf+0.014% NEU. Plants are characterized by inflorescence on the top of the stem and smaller number of flowering nodes. Sometimes apical flowers are abnormal, open, but fertile. The mutant was included in the gene bank under number Wt 16100. A phenotypically similar line was found at the John Innes Institute, Norwich (UK). According to the locus allelism test (Wt 16100 x Jl 1358) both mutants are controlled by the same gene. The suggested symbol for this monogenic inherited character is det determinated growth. For the linkage test, the tester line Wl 1238 was crossed with the mutant Wt 16100. The

  12. Application of fast neutrons in the mutagenesis of peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huczkowski, J.; Kubajak, A.

    1976-01-01

    Air dry seeds of two varieties of peas were irradiated with fast neutrons of average energy of 5,6 MeV obtained in the U-120 cyclotron at the Cracow Institute of Nuclear Physics. The doses varied from 60 to 1600 rads. It was found that even very low doses (less than 100 rads) cause a conspicuous delay of germination; a significant decrease of seedling height was only observed at doses higher than 200 rads. In the 170-620 rad range seedling height diminished lineraly with increase of dose. On the basis of the greenhouse experiment five doses were chosen for field experiments: 200, 300, 500, 800 and 1000 rads. It was found that a dose of about 500 rads was the maximum that could be applied for breeding purposes: the survival and fertility rate at that dose was about 40% of the control, doses of 800 to 900 rads caused full mortality. The M2 seeds were sown in the greenhouse and the frequency of chlorophyl mutations was examined in generation M2. It was found to be very high: for doses of 200 t0 300 rads the mutations ocurred in about 4% of M2 seedlings. (author)

  13. Different patterns of rDNA distribution in Pisum sativum nucleoli correlate with different levels of nucleolar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highett, M.I.; Rawlins, D.J.; Shaw, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    We have used in situ hybridization with probes to rDNA, labelled either with digoxygenin or directly with fluorescein, to determine the arrangement of these genes within the nucleoli of Pisum sativum L. root cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to image the three-dimensional structures revealed, but we have also compared this technique with deconvolution of conventional (wide-field) fluorescence images measured with a cooled CCD camera, and have shown that the results are remarkably similar. When the deconvolution technique was applied to the confocal data it gave clearer images than could be achieved by confocal microscopy alone. We have analysed the distribution of rDNA in the different cell types observable in root tips: the quiescent centre; active meristematic cells; and relatively differentiated root cap, epidermal and cortical cells. In addition to four perinucleolar knobs of condensed, inactive rDNA genes, corresponding to the four nucleolar organizers in P. sativum, which were the most brightly labelled structures, several characteristic patterns of intranucleolar labelling were apparent, including bright foci, large central chromatin masses, and fine, decondensed interconnecting fibres. The larger and more active the nucleolus, the smaller the proportion of condensed perinucleolar rDNA. In some large and active meristematic nucleoli, all the internal rDNA is decondensed, showing that transcription cannot be restricted to the bright foci, and is most likely to occur on the decondensed fibres. (author)

  14. Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

  15. Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species and Hormone Signalling in Systemic Infection of Pea by Pea enation mosaic virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyseláková, H.; Sedlářová, M.; Kubala, M.; Nožková, V.; Piterková, J.; Luhová, L.; Novák, Ondřej; Ilík, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2013), s. 105-119 ISSN 1212-2580 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD522/08/H003 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : PEMV * Pisum sativum * heat shock proteins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/94541.pdf

  16. Unexpected effects of pigeon-peas (Cajanus cajan in the restoration of rupestrian fields Efeito inesperado do feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan na restauração de campos rupestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R Hilário

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several degraded areas can be found along the Highway MG-010 that crosses the Espinhaço Mountain Biosphere Reserve in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Restoration by planting the legume Cajanus cajan was implemented in some of these areas. The present study compares plant species richness, diversity, abundance, equitability, similarity, and soil composition between restored and non-restored areas, in an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of C. cajan in the restoration process in the mountain environment. Each treatment (restored and non-restored had four sampling areas, each with three 300 m² plots. We counted and identified every individual plant found within these plots. We also collected soil from the superficial layer (0-10 cm of each sampling area in both treatments. The areas where C. cajan was planted revealed lower species richness, diversity, and plant abundance. The soil of these areas also contained higher levels of Phosphorus and Magnesium. Plant equitability and similarity between plots and other soil components (pH, Nitrogen, Aluminum, Calcium, Potassium, H+Al, sum of bases - SB, cation exchange capacity - CTC, base saturation - V%, aluminum saturation - M% did not differ between the two treatments. Contrary to the expectations, soil enhancement in the quartzitic soil poor in nutrients in the rupestrian fields can facilitate the invasion by exotic plants, which are not adapted to the lack of nutrients. As it appears, the use of C. cajan in restoration projects represents a mistake and future restoration plans should avoid the use of exotic species, given that they may cause negative effects on the native plant community, as demonstrated here in the rupestrian fields.Várias áreas degradadas podem ser encontradas ao longo da rodovia MG-010, que corta a Reserva da Biosfera da Cadeia do Espinhaço, em Minas Gerais, Brasil. Algumas dessas áreas foram restauradas através do plantio da leguminosa Cajanus cajan. O

  17. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from [1- 14 C]acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 μM acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl 2 , 1 mM each of the MnCl 2 and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO 3 , and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 μg/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO 3 , divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg 2+ and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor

  18. Protein import into isolated pea root leucoplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Chih eChu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Leucoplasts are important organelles for the synthesis and storage of starch, lipids and proteins. However, molecular mechanism of protein import into leucoplasts and how it differs from that of import into chloroplasts remain unknown. We used pea seedlings for both chloroplast and leucoplast isolations to compare within the same species. We further optimized the isolation and import conditions to improve import efficiency and to permit a quantitative comparison between the two plastid types. The authenticity of the import was verified using a mitochondrial precursor protein. Our results show that, when normalized to Toc75, most translocon proteins are less abundant in leucoplasts than in chloroplasts. A precursor shown to prefer the receptor Toc132 indeed had relatively more similar import efficiencies between chloroplasts and leucoplasts compared to precursors that preferred Toc159. Furthermore we found two precursors that exhibited very high import efficiency into leucoplasts. Their transit peptides may be candidates for delivering transgenic proteins into leucoplasts and for analyzing motifs important for leucoplast import.

  19. Products of Dark CO2 Fixation in Pea Root Nodules Support Bacteroid Metabolism 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, Lis; Vance, Carroll P.; Pedersen, Walther B.

    1990-01-01

    Products of the nodule cytosol in vivo dark [14C]CO2 fixation were detected in the plant cytosol as well as in the bacteroids of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv “Bodil”) nodules. The distribution of the metabolites of the dark CO2 fixation products was compared in effective (fix+) nodules infected by a wild-type Rhizobium leguminosarum (MNF 300), and ineffective (fix−) nodules of the R. leguminosarum mutant MNF 3080. The latter has a defect in the dicarboxylic acid transport system of the bacterial membrane. The 14C incorporation from [14C]CO2 was about threefold greater in the wild-type nodules than in the mutant nodules. Similarly, in wild-type nodules the in vitro phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity was substantially greater than that of the mutant. Almost 90% of the 14C label in the cytosol was found in organic acids in both symbioses. Malate comprised about half of the total cytosol organic acid content on a molar basis, and more than 70% of the cytosol radioactivity in the organic acid fraction was detected in malate in both symbioses. Most of the remaining 14C was contained in the amino acid fraction of the cytosol in both symbioses. More than 70% of the 14C label found in the amino acids of the cytosol was incorporated in aspartate, which on a molar basis comprised only about 1% of the total amino acid pool in the cytosol. The extensive 14C labeling of malate and aspartate from nodule dark [14C]CO2 fixation is consistent with the role of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxlase in nodule dark CO2 fixation. Bacteroids from the effective wild-type symbiosis accumulated sevenfold more 14C than did the dicarboxylic acid transport defective bacteroids. The bacteroids of the effective MNF 300 symbiosis contained the largest proportion of the incorporated 14C in the organic acids, whereas ineffective MNF 3080 bacteroids mainly contained 14C in the amino acid fraction. In both symbioses a larger proportion of the bacteroid 14C label was detected in malate and aspartate

  20. The involvement of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase and zeatin reductase in regulation of cytokinin levels in pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaudinová, Alena; Dobrev, Petre; Šolcová, Blanka; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Friedecký, D.; Motyka, Václav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 24, - (2005), s. 188-200 ISSN 0721-7595 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0313 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Aromatic cytokinin * cis-zeatin * Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.695, year: 2005

  1. Effect of Low-Temperature Plasma on the Structure of Seeds, Growth and Metabolism of Endogenous Phytohormones in Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stolárik, T.; Henselová, M.; Martinka, M.; Novák, Ondřej; Záhoranová, A.; Černák, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 4 (2015), s. 659-676 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Endogenous hormones * Germination * Growth parameters Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.811, year: 2015

  2. Changes in the levels of major sulfur metabolites and free amino acids in pea cotyledons recovering from sulfur deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macnicol, P.K.; Randall, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in levels of sulfur metabolites and free amino acids were followed in cotyledons of sulfur-deficient, developing pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) for 24 hours after resupply of sulfate, during which time the legumin mRNA levels returned almost to normal. Two recovery situations were studied: cultured seeds, with sulfate added to the medium, and seeds attached to the intact plant, with sulfate added to the roots. In both situations the levels of cysteine, glutathione, and methionine rose rapidly, glutathione exhibiting an initial lag. In attached but not cultured seeds methionine markedly overshot the level normally found in sulfur-sufficient seeds. In the cultured seed S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), but not S-methylmethionine, showed a sustained rise; in the attached seed the changes were slight. The composition of the free amino acid pool did not change substantially in either recovery situation. In the cultured seed the large rise in AdoMet level occurred equally in nonrecovering seeds. It was accompanied by 6-fold and 10-fold increases in γ-aminobutyrate and alanine, respectively. These effects are attributed to wounding resulting from excision of the seed. 35 S-labeling experiments showed that there was no significant accumulation of label in unidentified sulfur-containing amino compounds in either recovery situation. It was concluded from these results and those of other workers that, at the present level of knowledge, the most probable candidate for a signal compound, eliciting recovery of legumin mRNA level in response to sulfur-feeding, is cysteine

  3. Evidence for carbon flux shortage and strong carbon/nitrogen interactions in pea nodules at early stages of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Loli; González, Esther M; Arrese-Igor, Cesar

    2005-09-01

    Symbiotic N2 fixation in legume nodules declines under a wide range of environmental stresses. A high correlation between N2 fixation decline and sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13) activity down-regulation has been reported, although it has still to be elucidated whether a causal relationship between SS activity down-regulation and N2 fixation decline can be established. In order to study the likely C/N interactions within nodules and the effects on N2 fixation, pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Sugar snap) were subjected to progressive water stress by withholding irrigation. Under these conditions, nodule SS activity declined concomitantly with apparent nitrogenase activity. The levels of UDP-glucose, glucose-1-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, and fructose-6-phosphate decreased in water-stressed nodules compared with unstressed nodules. Drought also had a marked effect on nodule concentrations of malate, succinate, and alpha-ketoglutarate. Moreover, a general decline in nodule adenylate content was detected. NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH; EC 1.1.1.42) was the only enzyme whose activity increased as a result of water deficit, compensating for a possible C/N imbalance and/or supplying NADPH in circumstances that the pentose phosphate pathway was impaired, as suggested by the decline in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH; EC 1.1.1.49) activity. The overall results show the occurrence of strong C/N interactions in nodules subjected to water stress and support a likely limitation of carbon flux that might be involved in the decline of N2 fixation under drought.

  4. Response of Ca2+-ATPase to clinorotaion of pea seedlings. O. M. Nedukha and E. L. Kordyum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedukha, Olena

    2016-07-01

    The present study was aimed to reveal of response of Ca2+-ATPase activity of cortex cells in distal elongation zone of Pisum sativum root to slow clinorotation. Pea seedlings were grown on a horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in the stationary control for 6 days. The electron-cytochemical method was used to examine the effects of imitated microgravity on the distribution of Ca2+-ATPase in outer layers of root cortex. The quantitative analysis of the density of cytochemical reaction products was measured using the Image J program. Electron microscopy showed the presence of electron-dense lead phosphate precipitated grains, the enzymatic activity reaction products on the plasma membrane, membranes of vesicular structures, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and on organelles envelope in both of samples of the stationary control and clinorotated seedlings. We revealed the sensitivity of Ca2+-ATPase to clinorotation. The quantitative analysis of the area and density of enzymatic activity reaction products revealed that clinorotation led to the decrease of 3.4 times the density of reaction products on the plasma membrane and the increase of reaction products density on endomembranes and organelles membranes, in particular: in 2.2 times on mitochondria membranes; in 1.3 times - on membranes of ER; in 2.5 times - on tonoplast; by an order of magnitude greater - on contacting membranes of organelles with plasma membrane in comparison with such in cells of control samples. The data analysis can indicate an intensification of calcium pump on endomembranes, on envelopes of cytoplasmic organelles and nucleus. The obtained data suggest that the redistribution of Ca2+-ATPase activity in cells can be mediated by the activation of certain isoforms of enzyme or/and by an activation of Ca2+/H+ antiporter in plasma membrane that helps to maintain optimal calcium balance in plant cells under imitated microgravity.

  5. Interactive effects of temperature and UVB radiation on methane emissions from different organs of pea plants grown in hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmajeed, Awatif M; Derby, Samantha R; Strickland, Samantha K; Qaderi, Mirwais M

    2017-01-01

    There is no information on variation of methane (CH 4 ) emissions from plant organs exposed to multiple environmental factors. We investigated the interactive effects of temperature and ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation on CH 4 emissions from different organs of pea (Pisum sativum L. var. UT234 Lincoln). Plants were grown hydroponically under two temperatures (22/18°C and 28/24°C; 16h day/8h night) and two levels of UVB radiation [0 and 5kJm -2 d -1 ] in controlled-environment growth chambers for ten days, after two weeks of initial growth under ambient temperatures. Methane emission, dry mass, growth index, electrical conductivity (EC), pectin, total chlorophyll content, gas exchange and flavonoids were measured in the appropriate plant organs - leaf, stem and root. Higher temperatures increased CH 4 emissions, leaf mass ratio, and shoot: root mass ratio. Neither temperature nor UVB had significant effects on leaf, stem, root and total dry mass, EC, pectin, total chlorophyll, as well as specific leaf mass. Among plant organs, there were differences in CH 4 , EC, pectin and total chlorophyll. Methane and EC were highest for the stem and lowest for the leaf; leaf had highest, but stem had lowest, pectin content; total chlorophyll was highest in the leaf but lowest in the root. Higher temperatures decreased leaf flavonoids, net carbon dioxide assimilation, and water use efficiency. Overall, environmental stressors increased aerobic CH 4 emission rates, which varied with plant organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation effects on some physico-biochemical changes in pisum sativum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, M.; Mohammad, N.; Durrani, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of irradiation treatment (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kGy) on fresh pea cultivars was investigated. Results indicated that significant decrease in colour (% transmittance) and ascorbic acid occurred due to storage period. Visual observation indicated no sprouting until 6th days after which sprouting started in both the unirradiated cultivars . At higher irradiation dose (4.00 kGy) sprouts died soon after emergence. Peas irradiated at 2.0-4.0 kGy doses showed rottage after 9-12 days of storage in both the varieties. Higher irradiation doses enhanced the rate of rot compared with lower doses. p-8 was more resistant to Rottage than Moon cultivar of pea

  7. PEA3activates CXCL12transcription in MCF-7breast cancer cells%PEA3 activates CXCL12 transcription in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li; CHEN Bo-bin; LI Jun-jie; JIN Wei; SHAO Zhi-min

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the activity of PEA3 ( polyomavirus enhancer activator 3 ) on CXCL12 (Chemokine CXC motif ligand 12) transcription and to reveal the role of PEA3 involved in CXCL12-mediated metastasis and angiogenesis in breast cancer. Methods Methods such as cell transfection, ChIP assay (chromatin immunoprecipitation ), and siRNA (small interfering RNA) were applied to demonstrate and confirm the interaction between PEA3 and CXCL12. Results Over-expression of PEA3 could increase the CXCL12 mRNA level and the CXCL12 promoter activity in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ChIP assay demonstrated that PEA3 could bind to the CXCL12 promoter in the cells transfected with PEA3 expression vector. PEA3 siRNA decreased CXCL12 promoter activity and the binding of PEA3 to the CXCL12 promoter in MCF-7 cells. Conclusions PEA3 could activate CXCL12 promoter transcription. It may be a potential mechanism of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis regarding of PEA3 and CXCL12.

  8. Protein nativity explains emulsifying properties of aqueous extracted protein components from yellow pea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Marlies E.J.; Nikiforidis, Constantinos V.; Goot, van der Atze Jan; Padt, van der Albert

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the emulsifying properties of a protein-enriched fraction from pea are unravelled. The emulsifying properties of mildly fractionated protein fractions from yellow pea and compared to those of commercial pea protein isolate. The emulsion stability of an oil-in-water emulsions were

  9. Discrete forms of amylose are synthesized by isoforms of GBSSI in pea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, A.; Vincken, J.P.; Suurs, L.C.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Zeeman, S.; Smith, A.; Martin, C.

    2002-01-01

    Amyloses with distinct molecular masses are found in the starch of pea embryos compared with the starch of pea leaves. In pea embryos, a granule-bound starch synthase protein (GBSSIa) is required for the synthesis of a significant portion of the amylose. However, this protein seems to be

  10. Expansion of genes encoding piRNA-associated argonaute proteins in the pea aphid: diversification of expression profiles in different plastic morphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ling Lu

    Full Text Available Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs are known to regulate transposon activity in germ cells of several animal models that propagate sexually. However, the role of piRNAs during asexual reproduction remains almost unknown. Aphids that can alternate sexual and asexual reproduction cycles in response to seasonal changes of photoperiod provide a unique opportunity to study piRNAs and the piRNA pathway in both reproductive modes. Taking advantage of the recently sequenced genome of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, we found an unusually large lineage-specific expansion of genes encoding the Piwi sub-clade of Argonaute proteins. In situ hybridisation showed differential expressions between the duplicated piwi copies: while Api-piwi2 and Api-piwi6 are "specialised" in germ cells their most closely related copy, respectively Api-piwi5 and Api-piwi3, are expressed in the somatic cells. The differential expression was also identified in duplicated ago3: Api-ago3a in germ cells and Api-ago3b in somatic cells. Moreover, analyses of expression profiles of the expanded piwi and ago3 genes by semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that expressions varied according to the reproductive types. These specific expression patterns suggest that expanded aphid piwi and ago3 genes have distinct roles in asexual and sexual reproduction.

  11. Identification of a transport mechanism for NH4+ in the symbiosome membrane of pea root nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritzen, P.; Rosendahl, L.

    1997-01-01

    Symbiosome membrane vesicles, facing bacteroid-side-out, were purified from pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules and used to study NH4+ transport across the membrane by recording vesicle uptake of the NH4+ analog [C-14]methylamine (MA). Membrane potentials (Delta psi) were imposed on the vesicles...... of the pH gradient indicated that uptake of MA was not related to the presence of a pH gradient. The MA-uptake mechanism appeared to have a large capacity for transport, and saturation was not observed at MA concentrations in the range of 25 mu M to 150 mM. MA uptake could be inhibited by NH4+, which...... indicates that NH4+ and MA compete for the same uptake mechanism. The observed fluxes suggest that voltage-driven channels are operating in the wsymbiosome membrane and that these are capable of transporting NH4+ at high rates from the bacteroid side of the membrane to the plant cytosol. The p...

  12. Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 6 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Physiological Studies on Pea Tendrils. IV. Flavonoids and Contact Coiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, M. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1967-01-01

    Pea tendrils contain high concentrations of flavonoids, mainly quercetin-triglucosyl-p-coumarate (QGC). QGC is most abundant near the highly responsive apex of the tendril, and least abundant at the base. After mechanical stimulation, and during coiling of the tendril, the QGC titer drops to about 30% of its original value. The kinetics of flavonoid disappearance are significantly correlated with the kinetics of coiling. Aqueous extracts of unstimulated pea tendrils or 10 μm QGC inhibit contact coiling of excised tendrils. Extracts of coiled tendrils do not. The evidence indicates a possible regulatory role for flavonoids in contact coiling. PMID:16656581

  14. Spatial and temporal changes in endogenous cytokinins in developing pea roots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stirk, W.A.; Novák, Ondřej; Václavíková, Kateřina; Tarkowski, Petr; Strnad, Miroslav; van Staden, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 227, č. 6 (2008), s. 1279-1289 ISSN 0032-0935 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytokinins * germination * Pisum Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.088, year: 2008

  15. Transcriptome of Dickeya dadantii infecting Acyrthosiphon pisum reveals a strong defense against antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costechareyre, Denis; Chich, Jean-François; Strub, Jean-Marc; Rahbé, Yvan; Condemine, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The plant pathogenic bacterium Dickeya dadantii has recently been shown to be able to kill the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. While the factors required to cause plant disease are now well characterized, those required for insect pathogeny remain mostly unknown. To identify these factors, we analyzed the transcriptome of the bacteria isolated from infected aphids. More than 150 genes were upregulated and 300 downregulated more than 5-fold at 3 days post infection. No homologue to known toxin genes could be identified in the upregulated genes. The upregulated genes reflect the response of the bacteria to the conditions encountered inside aphids. While only a few genes involved in the response to oxidative stress were induced, a strong defense against antimicrobial peptides (AMP) was induced. Expression of a great number of efflux proteins and transporters was increased. Besides the genes involved in LPS modification by addition of 4-aminoarabinose (the arnBCADTEF operon) and phosphoethanolamine (pmrC, eptB) usually induced in Gram negative bacteria in response to AMPs, dltBAC and pbpG genes, which confer Gram positive bacteria resistance to AMPs by adding alanine to teichoic acids, were also induced. Both types of modification confer D. dadantii resistance to the AMP polymyxin. A. pisum harbors symbiotic bacteria and it is thought that it has a very limited immune system to maintain these populations and do not synthesize AMPs. The arnB mutant was less pathogenic to A. pisum, which suggests that, in contrast to what has been supposed, aphids do synthesize AMP.

  16. Transcriptome of Dickeya dadantii infecting Acyrthosiphon pisum reveals a strong defense against antimicrobial peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Costechareyre

    Full Text Available The plant pathogenic bacterium Dickeya dadantii has recently been shown to be able to kill the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. While the factors required to cause plant disease are now well characterized, those required for insect pathogeny remain mostly unknown. To identify these factors, we analyzed the transcriptome of the bacteria isolated from infected aphids. More than 150 genes were upregulated and 300 downregulated more than 5-fold at 3 days post infection. No homologue to known toxin genes could be identified in the upregulated genes. The upregulated genes reflect the response of the bacteria to the conditions encountered inside aphids. While only a few genes involved in the response to oxidative stress were induced, a strong defense against antimicrobial peptides (AMP was induced. Expression of a great number of efflux proteins and transporters was increased. Besides the genes involved in LPS modification by addition of 4-aminoarabinose (the arnBCADTEF operon and phosphoethanolamine (pmrC, eptB usually induced in Gram negative bacteria in response to AMPs, dltBAC and pbpG genes, which confer Gram positive bacteria resistance to AMPs by adding alanine to teichoic acids, were also induced. Both types of modification confer D. dadantii resistance to the AMP polymyxin. A. pisum harbors symbiotic bacteria and it is thought that it has a very limited immune system to maintain these populations and do not synthesize AMPs. The arnB mutant was less pathogenic to A. pisum, which suggests that, in contrast to what has been supposed, aphids do synthesize AMP.

  17. Relations between protein production, protein quality and environmental factors in Pisum mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, W.; Mueller, H.P.; Wolff, G.

    1975-01-01

    The seed protein content of 138 radiation-induced Pisum mutants was determined. The variability of this genetically well-defined material agrees approximately with that of the world collection of Pisum sativum. Some environmental factors to a great extent influence the protein production of the mutants and the initial line. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the relations between the genetically controlled protein production and its dependence upon the environmental factors. This is especially evident if the protein situation of the same genotypes cultivated under the moderate climatic conditions of middle Europe is compared with the subtropical conditions of India. A generally firm correlation between seed size and protein content could not be found in material regarding 148 different mutants of our assortment. Therefore, the selection of small-grained mutants does not result in a selection of protein-rich genotypes in Pisum sativum. Considering all the criteria positively and negatively influencing the protein production, a positive situation could be found in some mutants, especially in the fasciated ones. Furthermore, an improvement of the protein quality could be reached by a genetically conditioned alteration of the globulin-albumin ratio leading to an increase of some essential amino acids such as methionine and lysine. The combined action of mutant genes results in unexpected changes of the protein quantity as well as the quality of the recombinants in relation to their parental mutants. The comparison of some essential amino acids of our useful mutants with those of the varieties of other genera of the Leguminosae shows certain trends of biochemical alterations realized during evolutionary development of the family. (author)

  18. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soy sauce substituted with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (Linn.))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnaningsih, C.; Sumardi; Meiliana; Surya, A.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study wasto investigate the physicochemical and sensory properties of the soy sauce substituted with pigeon pea. Soybean was substituted by 20%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of pigeon pea. The observation included viscosity, total solids, protein levels, antioxidant activity, and sensory characteristics. The results showed that the more substitution of pigeon pea, the less the protein content of soy sauce and the more the antioxidant activity as well as total solids. The most favored group was 25% pigeon pea substitution. It is suggested that soy sauce could be prepared using 25% to 75% pigeon pea substitution.

  19. Protein Kinase B/Akt Binds and Phosphorylates PED/PEA-15, Stabilizing Its Antiapoptotic Action

    OpenAIRE

    Trencia, Alessandra; Perfetti, Anna; Cassese, Angela; Vigliotta, Giovanni; Miele, Claudia; Oriente, Francesco; Santopietro, Stefania; Giacco, Ferdinando; Condorelli, Gerolama; Formisano, Pietro; Beguinot, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    The antiapoptotic protein PED/PEA-15 features an Akt phosphorylation motif upstream from Ser116. In vitro, recombinant PED/PEA-15 was phosphorylated by Akt with a stoichiometry close to 1. Based on Western blotting with specific phospho-Ser116 PED/PEA-15 antibodies, Akt phosphorylation of PED/PEA-15 occurred mainly at Ser116. In addition, a mutant of PED/PEA-15 featuring the substitution of Ser116→Gly (PEDS116→G) showed 10-fold-decreased phosphorylation by Akt. In intact 293 cells, Akt also i...

  20. Effect of sodium fluoride on phytase activity during germination of Pisum sativum L. seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauskrecht, I

    1972-01-01

    The effects of fluoride ion, in concentrations varying from 0 to 4 mM F/sup -/, on phytase activity in the course of germination of Pisum sativum L. seeds and in the course of incubation in vitro are reported. The fluoride ion in 1 mM concentration cause a significant 80% decrease of the phytase activity in the incubation medium and a 24% decrease in the course of germination. The inhibition of phytase, as well as its synthesis, by fluoride ion during germination may influence the metabolism of phosphorus at the initial stage of ontogenesis.

  1. Protocol: using virus-induced gene silencing to study the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette; Olsen, Anne; Johansen, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    , the available PEBV-VIGS protocols are inadequate for studying genes involved in the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Here we describe a PEBV-VIGS protocol suitable for reverse genetics studies in pea of genes involved in the symbiosis with AMF and show its effectiveness in silencing genes...... involved in the early and late stages of AMF symbiosis....

  2. Abscisic Acid Stimulates Elongation of Excised Pea Root Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Douglas H.; Lutz, Donald H.; Forrence, Leonard E.

    1975-01-01

    Excised Pisum sativum L. root tips were incubated in a pH 5.2 sucrose medium containing abscisic acid. Elongation growth was inhibited by 100 μm abscisic acid. However, decreasing the abscisic acid concentration caused stimulation of elongation, the maximum response (25% to 30%) occurring at 1 μm abscisic acid. Prior to two hours, stimulation of elongation by 1 μm abscisic acid was not detectable. Increased elongation did not occur in abscisic acid-treated root tips of Lens culinaris L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., or Zea mays L. PMID:16659198

  3. Modeling growth of Clostridium perfringens in pea soup during cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.E.I.; Beumer, R.R.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a pathogen that mainly causes food poisoning outbreaks when large quantities of food are prepared. Therefore, a model was developed to predict the effect of different cooling procedures on the growth of this pathogen during cooling of food: Dutch pea soup. First, a growth

  4. Effect of cooling on Clostridium perfringens in pea soup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.E.I.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beumer, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    Foods associated with Clostridium perfringens outbreaks are usually abused after cooking. Because of their short generation times, C. perfringens spores and cells can grow out to high levels during improper cooling. Therefore, the potential of C. perfringens to multiply in Dutch pea soup during

  5. Bitterness of saponins and their content in dry peas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, L.; Vincken, J.P.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Legger, A.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Roozen, J.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The bitterness of a saponin mixture (containing saponin B and DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one) saponin in a ratio of 1:4) and saponin B obtained from dry peas were established by a trained panel using line scaling. Both saponins were found to be bitter. However, the saponin

  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF CHAIN OF PEA VARIETIES FOR VEGQ ETABLE CANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Samarin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of seven pea varieties of different groups of ripening are described. These cultivars provide the sustainable row material input in canning factories of Krasnodar region. In bogharic agriculture it takes 24,26 days. When using the irrigation system and different time of sowing it takes 35,40 days.

  7. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables § 155.172 Canned dry...

  8. Effect of pea, pea hulls, faba beans and faba bean hulls on the ileal microbial composition in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Panneman, H.; Jansman, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Grain legumes produced in Europe such as pea, faba beans and lupins are alternative vegetable protein sources for imported soy protein in animal feeds. These legume seeds contain constituents that are not digested and may act as a substrate for microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract,

  9. EFFECT OF SOME PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS WITH RETARDING ACTIVITY ON SPRING PEA FOR GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsenka ZHELYAZKOVA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at Trakia University - Stara Zagora to establish the effect of some growth retardants on morphological and productive parameters in spring pea for grain variety Bogatir. Three combined preparations: Trisalvit (phenylphthalamic acid + chlorocholine chloride + chlorophenoxyacetic acid +salicylic acid at doses of 300 and 400 сmз*ha-1; SM-21 (phenylphthalamic acid + chlorocholine chloride at doses of 300 and 400 сmз*ha-1 and PNSA-44 (phenylphthalamic acid + naphthaleneacetic acid + chlorophenoxyacetic acid at doses of 200 and 300 сmз*ha-1 were applied in the early growth phase of the plant up to a height of 15-20 cm. The study showed that the greatest reduction in the stem height (by 12.8% compared to untreated plants was achieved by applying SM-21 (400 сmз*ha-1. The application of growth regulators Trisalvit and SM-21 had no appreciable effect on the production of spring pea grain. Maximum values of yield structure components (number of pods and grain per plant, grain mass per plant and mass of 1000 grain and the yield were obtained after application of PNSA-44 (300 сmз*ha-1 - up to 5.6% (117.2 kg*ha-1 more grain than the control. The investigation of the influence of tested factors (retardant, dose and year demonstrated that the conditions of the year as a factor had the strongest effect on plant height and grain yield.

  10. Effect of pea intercropping on biological efficiencies and economics of some non-legume winter vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, S.A.; Anjum, M.A.; Hussain, S.; Ahmad, S.

    2013-01-01

    Intercropping with legumes makes effective use of land and other resources and results in reduced cost of production. Increased agricultural production through intercropping with minimal cost is need of time to feed increasing population. The reported work evaluates the biological efficiencies and economics of pea, garlic, turnip and cauliflower grown as sole crops and when pea intercropped in garlic, turnip and cauliflower during 2010-12. All the vegetables generally yielded more when grown as single crop compared with when pea was intercropped in these vegetables. In peas in garlic intercropping, pea yield was not significantly affected; however, garlic yield was significantly reduced (65.8%). Pea intercropping in turnip or cauliflower resulted in significantly lower yields of both crops (29.1 and 28.0%, respectively) as compared with their sole cropping. All other characteristics (plant growth and yield components) of all the four crops which indicate biological efficiency generally were greater when grown as single crops and decreased in intercropping combinations. Analysis of intercropping treatments revealed that pea intercropping in turnip resulted in the highest marginal rate of return (8,875%), followed by pea intercropping in cauliflower (6,977%), due to lower input costs incurred per hectare. However, net benefit to the growers was higher (Rs. 327,925) in case of pea intercropping in cauliflower, followed by pea intercropping in garlic (Rs. 213,425). (author)

  11. A Multiple Mobility Support Approach (MMSA Based on PEAS for NCW in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Joo Koo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs can be implemented as one of sensor systems in Network Centric Warfare (NCW. Mobility support and energy efficiency are key concerns for this application, due to multiple mobile users and stimuli in real combat field. However, mobility support approaches that can be adopted in this circumstance are rare. This paper proposes Multiple Mobility Support Approach (MMSA based on Probing Environment and Adaptive Sleeping (PEAS to support the simultaneous mobility of both multiple users and stimuli by sharing the information of stimuli in WSNs. Simulations using Qualnet are conducted, showing that MMSA can support multiple mobile users and stimuli with good energy efficiency. It is expected that the proposed MMSA can be applied to real combat field.

  12. Effect of hot aqueous ethanol treatment on anti-nutritional factors, protein denaturation and functional properties in raw pea and pea protein isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolman, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of hot aqueous ethanol treatment on several nutritionally relevant mainly protein-related parameters in raw peas (var. Solara) and ultra-filtrated pea protein isolate was examined. Of all test samples, water absorptive capacity (WAC), weight loss and protein loss owing to the processing

  13. Photosynthetic alterations of pea leaves infected systemically by pea enation mosaic virus: A coordinated decrease in efficiencies of CO(2) assimilation and photosystem II photochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyseláková, H.; Prokopová, J.; Nauš, J.; Novák, Ondřej; Navrátil, M.; Šafářová, D.; Špundová, M.; Ilík, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 11 (2011), s. 1279-1289 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/08/1649; GA MŠk ED0007/01/01 Keywords : Chlorophyll fluorescence * Pea enation mosaic virus * Pea * Photosynthesis * Photosystem II * Senescence Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2011

  14. Evaluation of Pigeon Pea Lines for Biological Soil Decompaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Godoy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil decompaction is generally achieved through mechanical cultivation practices; however biological processes can significantly add to this process through root growth, development, and later senescence. This study was carried out in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil and had the purpose of selecting, among forty one pure pigeon pea lines, the most efficient genotypes that promote soil decompaction by roots penetrating compacted soil layers. Utilizing artificially compacted 30 mm high soil blocks, in a series of experiments, these lines were compared to the cultivar Fava Larga taken as a standard. Three lines were preliminarily selected out of the initial group, and afterwards, in more detailed screenings by monitoring soil resistance to penetration and also evaluating the behavior of Tanzania grass plants seeded after pigeon pea, two of them, g5-94 and g8-95, were selected as possessing the most fit root system to penetrate compacted soil layers.

  15. PIGEON PEA (Cajanus cajan AN ALTERNATIVE IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucia Navarro V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current situation of inadequate nutrition in the population of many countries, including Colombia. Search sources rich in proteins and low-cost alternatives. The pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan is an important legume that contain a mo derate amount of protein, calories, vitamins and minerals, its use in foods is limited by the presence of anti-nutritional factors, which can be reduced or eliminated through the use of treatments. The proteins have functional properties that can be take advantage in meat, dairy and bakery products. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of the skills nutritional and functional properties of pigeon pea application opportunities in various applications in the food industry.

  16. Achievements of nuclear applications in chick-pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharwal, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Due to narrow and limited genetic variability available in chick-pea, this crop is ideally suited for genetic improvement through mutation breeding. Thus, the use of nuclear tools for regenerating some of the lost useful variability in this crop particularly for an improved plant type of increased yield and disease resistance appears to offer greater scope and promise. Practical results already achieved through the use of nuclear tools which fulfill these expectations to a large extent are confirmed by the extensive studies on mutation breeding in chick-pea crop carried out at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi; at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan and at the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, Bangladesh

  17. Developmental differences in posttranslational calmodulin methylation in pea plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sukheung; Roberts, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    A calmodulin-N-methyltransferase was used to analyze the degree of lysine-115 methylation of pea calmodulin. Calmodulin was isolated from segments of developing roots of young etiolated and green pea plants and was tested for its ability to be methylated by the calmodulin methyltransferase in the presence of 3 H-methyl-S-adenosylmethionine. Calmodulin methylation levels were lower in apical root segments and in the young lateral roots compared with the mature, differentiated root tissues. The methylation of these calmodulin samples occurs specifically at lysine 115 since site-directed mutants of calmodulin with substitutions at this position were not methylated and competitively inhibited methylation. The present findings, combined with previous data showing differences in NAD kinase activation by methylated and unmethylated calmodulins, raise the possibility that posttranslational methylation could affect calmodulin action

  18. Uptake and distribution of 232U in peas and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Cline, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of 232 U from soil and its distribution in peas and barley were examined under conditions which isolated root uptake from deposition on aboveground plant parts. Aboveground plant parts were harvested at maturity and analyzed for 232 U content by alpha-energy-analysis. The ratio of concentration (CR) of 232 U in the dry barley seeds to dry soil was 1.6 x 10 -4 while the CR values of the stem/leaf to dry soil fraction was 3.6 x 10 -3 . The Cr values for the pea seed, stem/pod and leaf components were 5.4 x 10 -4 , 3.3 x 10 -3 and 1.7 x 10 -2 , respectively. This indicates that the CR values used in certain radiological dose-assessment models may be high by about a factor of 100 when evaluating the consumption of seeds of legumes or cereal grains by man. (author)

  19. The influence of feeding GMO-peas on growth of animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Mares

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of genetically modified (GM food or feed into the commercial sale represents a very complicated process. One of the most important steps in approval process is the evaluation of all risks on the health status of people and animal models. Within our project the genetically modified peas was breeded that showed significant resistance against Pea seed-borne mosaic virus and Pea enation mosaic virus. Preclinical studies have been conducted to found out the effect of GMO peas on animals - rats of outbreeding line Wistar. In a total, 24 male, specific pathogen free Wistar rats were used in the experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, the animals were 28 days old. The three experimental groups with 8 individuals were created. The first group of rats was fed with GMO peas, the second group of rats consumed mix of pea cultivar Raman and the third group was control without pea addition (wheat and soya were used instead of pea. In the present study we focused our attention on health, growth and utility features of rats fed with GM pea. All characteristic were observed during the experiment lasting 35 days. Consumed feed was weighted daily and the weight of the animals was measured every seven days. The average values were compared within the groups. The aim of the experiment was to verify if resistant lines of pea influence the weight growth of animal models. The results of our experiment showed that even a high concentration (30% of GM pea did not influence growth rate of rats to compare with both rats fed with pea of Raman cultivar and control group. We did not observe any health problems of animal models during the experiment.

  20. Effect of isolation techniques on the characteristics of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) protein isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Adenekan, Monilola K.; Fadimu, Gbemisola J.; Odunmbaku, Lukumon A.; Oke, Emmanuel K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the effect of different isolation techniques on the isolated proteins from pigeon pea was investigated. Water, methanol, ammonium sulfate, and acetone were used for the precipitation of proteins from pigeon pea. Proximate composition, and antinutritional and functional properties of the pigeon pea flour and the isolated proteins were measured. Data generated were statistically analyzed. The proximate composition of the water‐extracted protein isolate was moisture 8.30%...