WorldWideScience

Sample records for field michoacan mexico

  1. Lichens as biological monitors in the Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico; Liquenes como indicadores biologicos en el campo geotermico Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Peralta, Marlene; Chavez Carmona, Arturo [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia (Mexico)

    1995-09-01

    The results obtained in the monitoring of the atmospheric emissions of the Los Azufres geothermal field in Michoacan State, Mexico utilizing lichens as monitors of the presence of sulphur and arsenic, at the areas near geothermal sites, both under evaluation and production, are presented. The results are based on symptoms which included: chlorosis, necrosis, brown and reddish spots, loss of adherence to substrate, thalli disintegration and disappearance of sensitive species; and also on the amounts of sulphur and arsenic contained in the lichens thallus. [Espanol] Se presentan los resultados obtenidos en el monitoreo de las emisiones atmosfericas del campo geotermico Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico en el que se utilizaron liquenes como indicadores de la presencia de azufre y arsenico, en las areas cercanas a los sitios de pozos geotermicos tanto en evaluacion como en produccion. Los resultados estan basados en sintomas que incluyen clorosis, necrosis, manchas cafes y rojizas, perdida de adherencia al sustrato, desintegracion del talo y desaparicion de especies sensibles; asi como en los contenidos de azufre y arsenico en los talos liquenicos.

  2. Isotopic Evolution of Wells in the Geothermal Field of Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico; Evolucion isotopica de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Portugal Marin, Enrique; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manel; Aragon Aguilar, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); Sandoval Medina, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2002-12-01

    Isotopic ({delta}{sup 1}8 O and {delta}D) data from production and reinjection web fluids from the Los Azufres geothermal field were interpreted in order to define reservoir evolution and the occurrence of physical processes as a result of exploitation. The study included data of 30 wells, which were sampled in September, 2000. General results indicate that different phenomena seem to occur in both zones of the field. In the southern zone there are two different trends of behavior: a mixture of fluids evidenced by the {delta}D versus {delta}{sup 1}8 O trend with a positive slope, was interpreted as the result of reservoir vapor separation at a temperature above 220 Celsius degrees, since for temperatures above 220 Celsius degrees deuterium behaves as a volatile component. No well-defined {delta}{sup D} vs {delta}{sup 1}8 O trend was found for the northern zone, but some points seem to fit the same negative slope trend found in the souther zone. The study of reservoir temperatures estimated by different approaches for particular wells through time, as well as temperature results obtained with a heat and flow well simulator, suggest that reservoir boiling occurs in localized areas in both zone of the field. This process is probably due to exploitation. [Spanish] Se interpretaron datos isotopicos ({delta}{sup 1}8 O y {delta}D) de fluidos de pozos productores y de reinyeccion del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico, para definir la evolucion del yacimiento y la ocurrencia de procesos fisicos como resultado de la explotacion. En el estudio se consideran datos de treinta pozos segun el muestreo realizado en septiembre de 2000. El estudio de la evolucion en el tiempo de las estimaciones de temperatura de yacimiento mediante diferentes tecnicas, asi como la temperatura obtenida de simulacion de pozos, sugiere que ocurre ebullicion en areas localizadas en ambas zonas del campo debido a la explotacion. Los resultados generales indican la existencia de

  3. Remote sensing in the study of the perspective of enlargement of the geothermal area of Los Azufres field, Michoacan, Mexico; Utilizacion de la teledeteccion para estudiar las perspectivas de ampliacion de la zona geotermica de Los azufres, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antaramian H, Eduardo; Garduno M, Victor Hugo [UMSNH, (Mexico)

    1999-12-01

    The results are presented of a remote sensing study in Los Azufres Geothermal field. Data of a volcanological study have been used. Standing out is the importance of a resurgence phenomenon in the volcanic evolution of the caldera of Los Azufres and its observed relationships with thermal anomalies outsides the area of well known geothermal resources in the field. On the basis of these data, we suggest additional remote sensing studies in different geothermal areas to identify blind resources or large thermal anomaly outsides the well know ones in developed geothermal fields. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de un estudio de teledeteccion en la zona geotermica de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico. En el se han utilizado los datos obtenidos de un estudio volcanologico que resalta la importancia de un fenomeno de resurgencia en la evolucion volcanologica de la Caldera de los Azufres y su relacion con anomalias termicas fuera de la zona de explotacion del campo geotermico. Con base en estos resultados se propone que sean retomados los datos de diferentes campos geotermicos con la finalidad de hacer estudios de exploracion mediante teledeteccion en campos ciegos o bien en aquellos ya desarrollados que presentan anomalias termicas mayores fuera de las ya conocidas.

  4. Results of exploratory drilling at the western portion of Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico, geothermal field; Resultados de la perforacion exploratoria en la porcion occidental del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarrubias Unzueta, Zenon [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-09-01

    The geological characteristics of the western portion of the Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico geothermal field were defined on the basis of EAZ-1 and EAZ-2 exploratory wells. A maximum temperature of 187 degrees celsius at 1995 m depth, with a pressure of 188 kg/cm{sup 2} were registered at EAZ-1 well. A permeable zone was detected at 1333 m with a measured temperature of 133 degrees celsius. The presence of laumontite at 1450 m depth, corresponds to a forming temperature similar to the measured one. Well EAZ-2 is also situated in the western sector of Los Azufres. During drilling, at 2197 m depth, a temperature of 222 degrees celsius and a pressure of 188 kg/cm{sup 2} were measured. Seventeen days later, 243 degrees celsius were registered at the same depth. The presence of a thermal anomaly, initially interpreted as an interest area by the existence of a low resistivity zone, was confirmed with the results above mentioned. The mineralogical analysis from 1400 m depth to the bottom of well EAZ-2 detected the existence of epidote, epidote+chlorite, epidote+amphybole, epidote+zoisite, quartz and unidentified clay+epidote, this assemblage suggest temperatures over 230 degrees celsius with a pressure of 85 bar at this interval. The temperatures estimated by fluid inclusions confirmed this interpretation. The results suggest the continuity of the Los Azufres hydrothermal system to the west, between AZ-3 and EAZ-2 wells. However, the NW sector is not connected to permeable zones associated with producing faults. [Espanol] Los resultados de la perforacion de los pozos exploratorios EAZ-1 y EAZ-2, permitieron definir las condiciones geologicas del yacimiento geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico hacia la extension occidental del campo. En el pozo EAZ-1, localizado al NW del campo, se midio una temperatura maxima de 187 grados celsius, a una profundidad de 1995 m, con una presion de 188 kg/cm{sup 2}. Se registro una zona permeable a 1333 m, con una temperatura de 131

  5. Estimation of the Energy Content in Maritaro; Northern Sector of the Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico Geothermal Field; Estimacion de la energia contenida en Maritaro, sector norte del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Arriaga, Mario Cesar [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1997-05-01

    The methodology, the conceptual synthetic model and results obtained during the modeling and numerical simulation of Maritaro, northern sector of the Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico hydrothermal system, are reported. A Central objective of this work, was to carry out an updated evaluation of the reservoir`s energy content and to estimate, between tolerable margins of error, the longevity and approximate amount of useful energy that could be transformed in electricity. The probable initial state and the period of exploitation 1980-1996 were satisfactorily reproduced by the numerical model. The natural thermodynamic state, estimated for the reservoir before its commercial exploitation begun, corresponds to the compressed liquid region, at 92 bar of average pressure, an average temperature of 301 degrees celsius, with an enthalpy of 1 344 kj/kg. The hottest zones are located toward the center and eastern portions of the field, and the colder regions, at the western periphery. It was considered a minimum volume of exploitable reservoir equal to 49 km{sup 3}, and a maximum volume, including a possible western reserve zone, of 74 km{sup 3}. Several scenarios were numerically studied, including the installation from 75 MWe up to 400 MWe. The 280 MWe power is considered to be the maximum feasible capacity to be installed in the minimum presently known volume. The 400 MWe power characterize the upper, hypothetical limit capacity, assuming that the reserve zone is variable. This last stage having the highest risk. [Espanol] En este documento se reporta la metodologia sintetico conceptual y los resultados obtenidos mediante el modelado matematico y la simulacion numerica de Maritaro, sector norte del sistema hidrotermal de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico. El objetivo central del trabajo fue realizar una evaluacion actualizada de la capacidad energetica contenida en este reservorio y estimar, dentro de margenes tolerables de error, la longevidad y cantidad aproximada de energia

  6. Application of ethanol as a geothermal tracer: a field-test in the Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello Hinojosa, Enrique [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Pal Verma, Mahendra [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Suarez Arriaga, Mario C. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Barrera Conzalez, Victor; Sandoval Medina, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    The thermal decomposition rate of ethanol, rhodamine WT and fluoroscein was determined from laboratory data obtained under conditions of temperature and pressure that simulated a geothermal reservoir. It was found that ethylic alcohol had better thermal stability rhodamine and fluoroscein. Using data obtained from de-ionized water experiments after 168 hours and 200 degree centigrade of temperature, the rhodamine WT and fluoroscein presented a degradation of 99.4% and 99.7%, respectively, while for the ethanol the degradation percentage under the same conditions was only of 44.6%. According to this, ethylic alcohol can be used as a conservative tracer up to about 250 degree centigrade, while rhodamine WT and fluoroscein can be used only at less than 200 degree centigrade, and only where the transit return time is expected to be less than 7 days. Ethanol was used as a conservative tracer in a field test in the southern zone of the Los Azufres geothermal field. The highest concentration was detected in a monitoring well in the steam phase 15 days after the injection, and in the liquid phase, or brine, 34 days after the injection. This suggests that alcohol fractionates preferentially in the steam phase and moves or migrates twice as fast than it does in the liquid phase. The tracer speed can be calculated in 176 m/day in the steam phase and 77.5 m/day in the brine. The ethanol presents good enough characteristics to be used as a tracer in both phases in geothermal environments. [Spanish] Se determino la velocidad de descomposicion termica del etanol, la rodamina y la fluoresceina a partir de datos de laboratorio obtenidos bajo condiciones de presion y de temperatura que simulan las de un yacimiento geotermico. Se encontro que el alcohol etilico presenta una mayor estabilidad termica que la rodamina y la fluoresceina. Empleando los datos obtenidos de experimentos con agua de-ionizada despues de 168 horas y a 200 grados centigrados de temperatura, la rodamina y la

  7. Uso de fertilizantes quimicos y organicos en cebolla en Apatzingan, Michoacan, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvarez-Hernandez, J.C; Venegas-Flores, S; Soto-Ayala, C; Chavez-Vargas, A; Zavala-Sanchez, L

    2011-01-01

    ... quimicos y organicos en Apatzingan, Michoacan (Mexico). El almacigo se establecio en diciembre de 2009 y el trasplante se realizo a los 70 dias posteriores, el marco de plantacion fue a tres hileras...

  8. Response to exploitation (1982-2002) of the Los Azufres, Michoacan (Mexico) geothermal field. Part II: South Zone; Respuesta a la explotacion (1982-2003) del yacimiento geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan (Mexico). Parte II: Zona Sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano G, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico); Torres R, Marco Antonio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Barragan R, Rosa Maria [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico); Sandoval M, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2005-06-01

    The paper describes the thermodynamic evolution of fluids in the Los Azufres geothermal field's southern zone reservoir, as a response to exploitation from 1982 to 2002. Thermodynamic conditions for the reservoir fluids were estimated with production data using the WELFLO heat-and-flow well simulator. In the southern zone, initial fluid thermodynamic conditions indicated that compressed liquid, two-phase fluids and vapor occurred in the reservoir, depending on the well depths. The fist response to exploitation consisted in a pressure drop an enthalpy increase. For the long term, the following patterns have been identified: pressure and mass flow-rate drop, boiling, cooling, vapor production and in some wells affected by injection an increase in both pressure and mass flow rate. The isotopic results of well fluids in the southern zone showed the occurrence of two processes. The first, with a positive slope, indicates a mixing of reservoir and injection fluids and mainly affects wells Az-2, Az-16, Az-33, Az-36 and Az-46. The second, with a negative slope, results from the original processes of reservoir steam separation and partial condensation. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un estudio sobre la evolucion termodinamica de los fluidos de la zona sur del yacimiento de Los Azufres, como respuesta a la extraccion e inyeccion de fluidos, desde el inicio de su explotacion en 1982 hasta el ano 2002. Las condiciones termodinamicas de los fluidos del yacimiento se estimaron mediante el simulador de flujo de fluidos y calor en pozos WELFLO, a partir de datos de produccion. Las condiciones termodinamicas iniciales de los fluidos de la zona sur, indicaron la existencia de liquido comprimido, dos fases con liquido dominante y dos fases con vapor dominante, dependiendo de la profundidad de los pozos. La respuesta inicial de la zona sur a la explotacion consistio en una disminucion de la presion y un aumento en la entalpia mientras que a mas largo plazo se han observado

  9. Integral description of the geological heritage of Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    jose teodoro, S. G.; Gonzalez, C.; Estrada, F.; Moncayo, R.; Cruz, G.

    2013-12-01

    Geological heritage studies are among the most recent research areas incorporated into the geological sciences. These represent a new understanding of man's relationship with earth. Particularly, the Geosites Global Project was structured as an international initiative aimed to establish the geological heritage. Similarly, UNESCO in 1996 launched the Geoparks Program, in order to register in confined areas peculiar aspects for scientific research, uniqueness and beauty that could perpetuate the geological history and the processes that formed them. This initiative includes the global geological record, which selects the most representative and illustrative places. The analysis of the geological heritage can be approached in different ways, either through cataloging, valuation, preservation or disclosure, all of these activities, together, provide an integrated management model. In a first step, we addressed the first two approaches for the north-central portion of the state of Michoacan Mexico. The Paricutin and Jorullo volcanoes, the overlapping tectonic sequences Tzitzio-Huetamo, and the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Belt, are just some examples. We pretend to focus the inventory and valuation activities, to formulate protection schemes and management strategies as cultural resources.

  10. Michoacan: The Region and Its People. A Unit of Study for Grades 2 & 3. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1999 (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberena, Gretchen

    This curriculum unit, intended to be used with students in grades 2 and 3, focuses on the Mexican state of Michoacan. Lesson 1 first gives students an overview of Mexico. Lesson 2 provides an introduction to a Michoacan archeological dig, while lesson 3 focuses on the geography of Michoacan. Lesson 4 discusses Purepecha weaving. Lesson 5 presents…

  11. Taxonomic and floristic novelties for Echeveria (Crassulaceae) in Central Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, Ignacio; Valentín-Martínez, Dagoberto; Carrillo-Reyes, Pablo; Costea, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Echeveria coruana, is described and illustrated from the malpaís near San Andrés Corú, Michoacan, Mexico. The species belongs to series Gibbiflorae and the new taxon was compared with Echeveria purhepecha and Echeveria patriotica, with whom it shares the closest morphological affinities. Additionally, Echeveria yalmanantlaensis an endangered species from Sierra of Manantlán Biosphere Reserve, State of Colima, was also discovered near San Andrés Corú and is reported for the first time from the State of Michoacan. The conservation status of both species was (re)evaluated according to the criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

  12. Altitudinal genetic variation among Pinus oocarpa populations in Michoacan, Mexico: implications for seed zoning, conservation, tree breeding and global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; R. Ricardo Guzman-Reyna; Gerald E. Rehfeldt

    2006-01-01

    Pinus oocarpa has a large natural distribution in the sub-tropical forests of Mexico. Populations, however, are rapidly disappearing particularly in the Michoacan State as native forests are converted to avocado (Persea sp.) orchards.We investigated the patterning of genetic variation among P. oocarpa populations...

  13. Strong ground motion from the michoacan, Mexico, earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J G; Bodin, P; Brune, J N; Prince, J; Singh, S K; Quaas, R; Onate, M

    1986-09-05

    The network of strong motion accelerographs in Mexico includes instruments that were installed, under an international cooperative research program, in sites selected for the high potenial of a large earthquake. The 19 September 1985 earthquake (magnitude 8.1) occurred in a seismic gap where an earthquake was expected. As a result, there is an excellent descripton of the ground motions that caused the disaster.

  14. Study of the mechanical behavior of the fronts of exterior monuments in Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico; Estudio del comportamiento mecanico de fachadas de monumentos exteriores en Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, E.; Martinez, W. [Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, UMSNH, 58070 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Avalos, M. [CCMC-UNAM, 22800 Ensenada, Baja California Norte (Mexico); Castano, V. [UNAM, 76000 Juriquilla, Queretaro (Mexico); Martinez, L. [CCF-UNAM, 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    There are 1,130 architectural ancient monuments in the historic center in Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico built with ignimbrites from the surrounding quarry stones. In some facades is acute the damage. The walls are between 0.50 and 1.50 meters wide, it helps the structure under seismic or accidental loads. The main winds come from the S-SW and their ratio speed (4-20 m/s) does not allow mechanical corrosion (corrosion) but it is able to carry anthropogenic particles (2-25 m), form the burnt of fossil fuels, and they lay on the facades. The damage is observed specially on the facades on the dominant winds and also on the facades located on streets less than 6.0 m wide. The capillary humidity is visible until highs of 2.0 meters on the streets, and it is appreciate the efflorescence crystals and biologic patinas. We performance non destructive tests in situ with the Schmidt hammer to quantify the mechanical resistance on the ignimbrite blocks forming the buildings, in the lowest part of them we took the data because the damage is acute in that wet zone and because in this part could occur the collapse in an extraordinary earthquake. The collected data were compared with the data obtained in ignimbrites blocks taken from the 'healthy' quarry stones. (Author)

  15. The 27 May 1937 catastrophic flow failure of gold tailings at Tlalpujahua, Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, J. L.; Corona-Chavez, P.; Sanchez-Nunez, J. M.; Martinez-Medina, M.; Garduno-Monroy, V. H.; Capra, L.; Garcia-Tenorio, F.; Cisneros-Maximo, G.

    2015-05-01

    On 27 May 1937, after one week of sustained heavy rainfall, a voluminous flood caused the death of at least 300 people and the destruction of the historic El Carmen church and several neighborhoods in the mining region of Tlalpujahua, Michoacan, central Mexico. This destructive flood was triggered by the breaching of the impoundment of the Los Cedros tailings and the sudden release of circa 16 Mt of water-saturated waste materials. The muddy silty flood, moving at estimated speeds of 20-25 m s-1, was channelized along the Dos Estrellas and Tlalpujahua drainages and devastated everything along its flow path. After advancing 2.5 km downstream, the flood slammed into El Carmen church and surrounding houses at estimated speeds of ~ 7 m s-1, destroying many construction walls and covering the church floor with ~ 2 m of mud and debris. Revision of eyewitness accounts and newspaper articles, together with analysis of archived photographic materials, indicated that the flood consisted of three muddy pulses. Stratigraphic relations and granulometric data for selected proximal and distal samples show that the flood behaved as a hyperconcentrated flow along most of its trajectory. A total volume of the Lamas flood deposit was estimated as 1.5 x 106 m3. The physically based bidimensional (2-D) hydraulic model FLO-2D was implemented to reproduce the breached flow (0.5 sediment concentration) with a maximum flow discharge of 8000 m3 s-1 for a total outflow volume (sediment + water) of 2.5 x 106 m3, similar to the calculations obtained using field measurements. Even though premonitory signs of possible impoundment failure were reported days before the flood, and people living downstream were alerted, authorities ordered no evacuations or other mitigative actions. The catastrophic flood at Tlalpujahua provides a well-documented, though tragic, example of impoundment breaching of a tailings dam caused by the combined effects of intense rainfall, dam weakness, and inadequate

  16. Seroprevalence of and risk factors for brucellosis of goats in herds of Michoacan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solorio-Rivera, J L; Segura-Correa, J C; Sánchez-Gil, L G

    2007-12-14

    Our objectives were to estimate the seroprevalence of Brucella melitensis, and to identify some risk factors associated with goat seropositivity in Michoacan, Mexico. Blood samples were collected from 5114 animals from 79 herds. Sera were tested for antibodies against B. melitensis using the Rose Bengal plate test and the complement-fixation test. Information regarding the herds and each animal sampled were recorded through a personal interview at the farm. We used random-effects multivariable logistic regression to analyze our data. Fifty-six herds of the 79 tested had at least one seropositive animal. The animal-level true seroprevalence was 9.8% (CI=8.8, 10.7). Animals in large herds (>34 animals), in herds with high stock density (>3.5 animals/m(2)) or animals >24 months old had higher odds of seropositivity (2.0, 1.7 and 1.8, respectively) than those in small herds, in herds with low stock density or animals < or =24 months old.

  17. Historias del narcotrafico en el Mexico rural: territorios, drogas y carteles en Michoacan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aranda, Salvador Maldonado

    2013-01-01

    ...). Este ultimo estado tiene una larga historia de produccion y trafico de drogas (marihuana y amapola), y de campanas militares en su contra, especialmente en el area conocida como la 'Tierra Caliente', Michoacan...

  18. Fluid behavior in a hydrothermal system, actual case of the Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico; Comportamiento de fluidos en un sistema hidrotermal, actual caso de los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Partida, Eduardo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The deep fluids found in the field of Los Azufres, State of Michoacan, are of the type known as sodium chloride, with neutral pH and temperatures that vary between 300 and 350 Celsius degrees. The northern sector of Los Azufres (the Maritaro zone) is dominated by the liquid phase, thus presenting a hydrostatic profile with average temperature of 300 Celsius degrees. The southern sector (the Tejamaniles zone) presents three thermodynamic profiles: the most superficial, with steam predominating (within the first 800 m); the intermediate having a phase L+V with predominance of steam (at 1,200 m); and the deepest one being of saturated liquid with a pressure of 180 bars and temperature of 350 Celsius degrees. The gases, which are not condensable, related to the zone of dominant steam, are composed mainly of CO{sub 2}, and they represent between 70 and 90% of the total. The behaviour of certain ions and its activities are found to be balanced within the liquid of the field and they were studied considering different boiling and temperature rates. The ion activity was found to vary according to its nature. Na and K increased in the liquid phase, in a similar manner as occurs with volatiles in the steam phase. The brine, determined by means of fluid inclusions, shows an evolution from the areas of greatest depth to the surface. The deep brine shows fusion temperatures near to zero with salinity ranging from 0.1 to 1% eq. weight of NaCI; it yield similar values to the ones presently measured with homogenisation temperature ranging from 300 to 34 and pressure of 175 bars. Boiling occurs between 1,200 and 1,500 m accompanied by a fall of pressure to P=75 bars, with a temperature of 270{+-}10 Celsius degrees, associated to a change in fusion temperature that range from -0.6 to -3 Celsius degrees. This corresponds to an apparent salinity of 1 to 4% eq. weight of NaCI, as a result of a strong increase of gases towards this zone. The top of the reservoir presents positive fusion

  19. Petrographic study and preliminary conceptual model of the Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal zone, Michoacan, Mexico; Estudio petrografico y modelo conceptual preliminar de la zona geotermica de Ixtlan de los Hervores, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viggiano-Guerra, Julio C; Gutierrez-Negrin, Luis C.A [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Petrographic studies of cuttings from the shallow well Ixtlan 2, drilled in the Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal zone, State of Michoacan, Mexico, at a maximum depth of 159 meters, together with results of previous exploration studies, allow to delineate a preliminary conceptual model of the probable geothermal system. It is formed by a wide-fracture zone system, with low topographic relief and shallow water level. Its hydrothermal fluids are of sodium-chloride type, neutral pH, silica oversaturated in the discharge and with temperatures between 125 and 225 degrees Celsius, based on the geothermometry and the hydrothermal mineral assemblage encountered in the well. The assemblage of laumontite + quartz + calcite + chlorite/smectite + pyrite is typical for the zeolitic facies, beneath of which it is possible to encounter the epidote-wairakite facies, with higher temperatures. The favorable conditions of the zone allow to recommend continuation of exploration in the same. [Spanish] El estudio petrografico de muestras de canal de la perforacion del pozo somero Ixtlan 2, con una profundidad maxima de 159 metros y ubicado en la zona geotermica de Ixtlan de Los Hervores, Michoacan, Mexico, aunado a los resultados de estudios previos de exploracion superficial, han permitido la configuracion de un modelo conceptual preliminar del probable yacimiento geotermico. Se trata de un sistema zona de fractura ancha, bajo relieve y nivel freatico somero, con fluidos hidrotermales de tipo clorurado-sodico, pH neutro, sobresaturados de silice en la descarga, y con temperatura entre 125 y 225 grados Celsius, de acuerdo con la geotermometria + cuarzo + calcita + clorita/esmectita + pirita es tipica de la facies zeolitica, debajo de la cual podria hallarse la facies de epidota-wairakita, con temperaturas mas altas. Las condiciones favorables de la zona permiten recomendar la continuacion de la exploracion en la misma.

  20. Rural change and circular migration to the United States. A case of study from Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Levi Levi

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of circular migration to the United States upon the economic and social changes in the rural areas influenced by it. Factors as innovations in agricultural practices, penetration of capital, increased commercialization, expansion of infrastructure and social modifications within rural areas will be examined. These changes have increased the local importance of temporary migration to the United States. Using case studies in Michoacan, the impact of the flow of remittances associated with this form of movement is explored.

  1. Feasibility studies for the location of the exploratory borehole EN-1 at Los Negritos, Michoacan, Mexico; Antecedentes para la localizacion del pozo exploratorio EN-1 en Los Negritos, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigurra Pimentel, Emilio; Casarrubias Unzueta, Zenon [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1995-05-01

    Los Negritos geothermal zone, is located in the northwestern portion of Michoacan state, 10 Km to the eastern of the Sahuayo town, 250 Km to the NW of Morelia city, and 140 Km to the southeast of Guadalajara, Jalisco state, in Mexico. The aim of this work, is to analyse the geological, geophysical and geochemical characteristics underground, and its relation with hot springs on the surface, in the drilling site of the exploratory well EN-1. Around the drilling site, there are volcanic rocks and lacustrine sediments of Upper Miocene and Upper Pliocene age. The older rocks are compound by Miocene andesites. Over this formation three are lacustrine sediments with Medium Miocene age, basaltic flows of Lower Pleistocene age and cinder cones emplaced during the Medium Pleistocene age; over this formation was deposited the last volcanic issue formed by vitric andesites of recent age. The recent rocks were affected by structural systems NE-SW (Los Negritos fault) and NW-SE. Geophysical studies confirm the location of deep structures NE-SW and NW-SE. The drilling area has a low resistivity anomaly of 8 Ohm.m. Geochemical results show sodic-chloride waters, while the geothermometers show temperatures from 150 to 200 degrees celsius. Drilling the well EN-1 we hope to confirm the geological sequence and the geophysical results, and to measure the temperatures and pressures existing at 2000 m depth. [Espanol] La zona geotermica de Los Negritos, se encuentra en la porcion noroccidental del estado de Michoacan, 10 km al oriente de la poblacion de Sahuayo, Michoacan, y 140 Km al SE de la ciudad de Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. El objetivo de este trabajo es resumir las caracteristicas geologicas, geofisicas y geoquimicas del subsuelo y su relacion con las manifestaciones hidrotermales, en el sitio de la perforacion exploratoria EN-1. En los alrededores del sito de perforacion afloran rocas volcanicas y sedimentos lacustres, que comprenden edades desde el Mioceno Superior al

  2. Environmental protection at the Los Azufres, Michoacan geothermal field; La proteccion ambiental en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Rangel, Ernesto; Hernandez Ayala, Cuauhtemoc [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    Geothermal-electric development is a sustainable activity from an environmental viewpoint, as is proved by the operation and management of the Los Azufres geothermal field. Impacts to soil and vegetation can be prevented and adequately mitigated. Liquid residues can be returned to the reservoir avoiding contaminating surface and ground waters and aquifers; and atmospheric emissions can kept bellow allowable limits. The main environmental technical experiences of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in this field are presented in this paper. [Spanish] El desarrollo geotermoelectrico es una actividad sustentable desde el punto de vista ambiental, como lo prueba el manejo del campo geotermico de Los Azufres. Los impactos al suelo y a la vegetacion pueden prevenirse y mitigarse con las medidas adecuadas. Los desechos liquidos pueden regresarse al yacimiento sin contaminar cuerpos de agua superficiales o acuiferos someros, y las emisiones a la atmosfera pueden controlarse para mantenerlas dentro de limites permisibles. Se presentan las principales experiencias tecnicas de tipo ambiental obtenidas por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en ese campo.

  3. High blood lead levels in ceramic folk art workers in Michoacan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, G O; Martinez, R R; Fortoul, T I; Palazuelos, E

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic folk art workers are at risk for developing lead intoxication. These workers live in small settlements, which often lack sanitation services, and these individuals work with ceramics in their homes. The study population comprised individuals of all ages from three rural communities in central Michoacan (Tzintzuntzan, Tzintzunzita, and Colonia Lazaro Cardenas). A survey questionnaire, which was provided to each individual, included questions about household characteristics, presence of a clay oven in the home, and use of lead oxide ("greta") and other hazardous products. Venous blood samples were obtained from the workers. We found lead exposure to be reduced if the home floor was covered and if the house had been painted < or =1 y prior to study. Blood lead levels exceeded the maximum level permitted, but the levels were lower than those found in the 1970s, during which time study techniques for analyzing samples differed from those used in the present study. In addition, activity patterns of the populations differed during the two studies.

  4. Isotopic Behaviour of fluids from the Los Azufres, Michoacan, (Mexico) Geothermal Wells; Comportamiento isotopico de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan R, Rosa Maria; Arellano G, Victor Manuel; Portugal M, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Tello L, Mirna del Rocio; Tello H, Enrique [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1997-01-01

    Isotopics data (oxygen-18 and deuterium) from production and reinjection well fluids from the Los Azufres geothermal field were interpreted in order to define the reservoir evolution and the occurrence of physical processes as a consequence of exploitation. The study included data for 25 wells for 1994-1996. Chemical and production data were also studied in order to explain the isotopic characteristics of the fluids. General results indicated that different phenomena seem to occur for both field zones. In the southern zone (Tejamaniles), a mixture of fluids was evidenced by the deuterium vs oxygen-18 tendency which provides a positive slope. The isotopically enriched fluid is constituted by the reinjection fluid. In the northern zone, (Maritaro) there was no evidence that the reinjection fluid is appearing in well discharges. For this zone the dominant process seems to be the reservoir vapour separation at a temperature above 220 degrees Celsius. This was suggested by the deuterium vs oxygen-18 tendency for which a negative slope was found. This trend is characteristics of a vapour separation process since for temperatures above 220 degrees Celsius deuterium behaves as a volatile component. The study of the reservoir temperatures estimated by different approaches for particular wells through time and the results obtained with a heat and fluid flow well simulator, suggest that reservoir boiling occurs in localized areas for both zones of the field. This process is probably due to exploitation. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta una interpretacion de datos de composicion isotopica (oxigeno-18 y deuterio) de fluidos de pozos productores y de reinyeccion del campo geotermico de Los Azufres. Estos datos se obtuvieron entre 1994 y 1996 con el proposito de definir la evolucion del yacimiento e identificar los procesos dominantes surgidos como consecuencia de la explotacion del campo. El estudio comprendio un numero de 25 pozos productores y de reinyeccion. La

  5. Volcanic Soil and Paleosols in the Michoacan Region (Mexico). First results of biochemical and physical investigations on a present day soil and a buried paleosol, both developed on thephra; Suelos y paleosuelos volcanicos en la Region Oriente de Michoacan (Mexico). Primeros resultados de las investigaciones bioquimicas y fisicas en un suelo actual y en un paleosuelo sepultado, ambos desarrollados sobre una tefra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assi, I. [Departament of Environmental and Territorial Sciences, University of Milan, (Italy); Garduno, V. H. [Departamento de Geologia y Minerologia, Universidad Michoacana San Nicolas de Hidalgo, (Mexico); Previtali, F. [Departament of Environmental and Territorial Sciences, University of Milan, (Italy); Capra, L. [Instituto de Geofisica de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-01-01

    The chemical, biochemical, and physical properties of a young volcanic soil and a volcanic paleosol, of two contiguous geological districts of the Michoacan State, Mexico, are compared. Basic aims are to present a first survey of soils that have not been studied in detail before, and to show an attempt of finding some diagnostic ageing indexes, particularly effective on the paleoenvironmental reconstructions and the relative dating of volcanic series. [Espanol] Se comparan las propiedades quimicas y fisicas de un suelo volcanico actual y un paleosuelo volcanico de dos areas geologicas contiguas del Estado de Michoacan, los objetivos fundamentales son: mostrar un primer reconocimiento de suelos anteriormente no estudiados en detalle, y hacer un intento de investigacion de indices de envejecimiento, factor de utilidad en las reconstrucciones paleoambientales y en los fechamientos relativos de las series volcanicas.

  6. Low frequency (<1Hz) Large Magnitude Earthquake Simulations in Central Mexico: the 1985 Michoacan Earthquake and Hypothetical Rupture in the Guerrero Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Guzman, L.; Contreras Ruíz Esparza, M.; Aguirre Gonzalez, J. J.; Alcántara Noasco, L.; Quiroz Ramírez, A.

    2012-12-01

    We present the analysis of simulations at low frequency (Valley of Mexico. Mexico's destructive earthquake history bolsters the need for a better understanding regarding the seismic hazard and risk of the region. The Mw=8.0 1985 Michoacan earthquake is among the largest natural disasters that Mexico has faced in the last decades; more than 5000 people died and thousands of structures were damaged (Reinoso and Ordaz, 1999). Thus, estimates on the effects of similar or larger magnitude earthquakes on today's population and infrastructure are important. Moreover, Singh and Mortera (1991) suggest that earthquakes of magnitude 8.1 to 8.4 could take place in the so-called Guerrero Gap, an area adjacent to the region responsible for the 1985 earthquake. In order to improve previous estimations of the ground motion (e.g. Furumura and Singh, 2002) and lay the groundwork for a numerical simulation of a hypothetical Guerrero Gap scenario, we recast the 1985 Michoacan earthquake. We used the inversion by Mendoza and Hartzell (1989) and a 3D velocity model built on the basis of recent investigations in the area, which include a velocity structure of the Valley of Mexico constrained by geotechnical and reflection experiments, and noise tomography, receiver functions, and gravity-based regional models. Our synthetic seismograms were computed using the octree-based finite element tool-chain Hercules (Tu et al., 2006), and are valid up to a frequency of 1 Hz, considering realistic velocities in the Valley of Mexico ( >60 m/s in the very shallow subsurface). We evaluated the model's ability to reproduce the available records using the goodness-of-fit analysis proposed by Mayhew and Olsen (2010). Once the reliablilty of the model was established, we estimated the effects of a large magnitude earthquake in Central Mexico. We built a kinematic rupture for a Mw=8.4 earthquake with the method of Liu et al. (2006) for the Guerrero Gap and computed the ground motion. We summarized our

  7. The Northern Boundary of the Michoacan Block: As Inferred From Aeromagnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Elguera, J.; Lopez Loera, H.; Fregoso, E.; Maciel Flores, R.; Peña, L.; Alatorre-Zamora, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The western part of the Guerrero terrane is comprised of the Jalisco and Michoacan Blocks (Rosas-Elguera et al., 1996 and references therein), a fault-bounded crustal blocks at western of Mexico. The Michoacan block is bounded by the N-NE segment of the Rio Balsas in the east, and the Colima graben in the west, the Chapala-Oaxaca fault to the north, and the Middle America Trench to the south. Northern boundary is formed with the Chapala-Oaxaca fault zone (Harrison y Johnson, 1985). The Cotija half-graben is the end-tip of this fault zone. A combined radiometric and paleomagnetic analyses in the Cotija half-graben were carried out (Rosas-Elguera, et al, 2003). Radiometric dates between 31.60 and 8.39 Ma confirm both the southern extension of the Sierra Madre Occidental and the early mafic Tans-Mexican Volcanic Belt succession at the northern part of the Michoacan block. Paleomagnetic data indicate a counterclockwise rotation of ~ 24° about a vertical axis for the Michoacan block. The Michoacan-Guanajuato Volcanic Field forms an area of extensive monogenetic volcanism. This volcanic field contains more than 1000 eruptive centers distributed over an area of 40,000 Km2. The Chapala-Oaxaca fault zone separates the northern MGVF and the southern MGVF. Hasenaka and Carmichael (1987) recognized three different petrologic associations in the MGVF: calc-alkaline rocks typical arc characteristic, K2O-rich alkaline rocks with relatively high MgO contents and TiO2-rich alkaline rocks with relatively low MgO contents. We present the aeromagnetic results (after Consejo de Recursos Minerales, 1999) which suggest a clear relationship between the geologic features and the magnetic response.

  8. Photogeologic and thermal infrared reconnaissance surveys of the Los Negritos-Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal area, Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Valle R.; Friedman, J.D.; Gawarecki, S.J.; Banwell, C.J.

    1970-01-01

    New techniques, involving interpretation of panchromatic, ektachrome and ektachrome infrared aerographic photogaphs and thermographic infrared imagery recording emission from the earth's surface in middle and far infrared wavelengths (3-5??m and 8-14??m), are being introduced in geothermal investigations in Mexico to identify outstanding structural and geologic features in a rapid and economical manner. The object of this work is to evaluate the new airborne infrared techniques and equipment as a complement to the data obtained from panchromatic aerial photography. This project is part of the Mexican remote sensing program of natural resources carried out under the auspices of the Comision Nacional del Espacio Exterior and in which the Research Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones de la Industria Electrica) is actively participating. The present study was made cooperatively with the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Los Negritos-Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal fields are located east of Lake Chapala at the intersection of the Sierra Madre occidental and the west-central segment of the neovolcanic axis of Mexico. The two principal zones of hydrothermal activity occur in a tectonic trench filled with lake sediments of the Quaternary intercalated with Quaternary and Holocene volcanic rocks and characterized by an intricate system of block-fault tectonics, part of the Chapala-Acambay tectonic system, along which there has been volcanic activity in modern time. Surface manifestations of geothermal activity consist of relatively high heat flow and hot springs, small geysers and small steam vents aligned along an E-W axis at Ixtlan, possibly at the intersection of major fault trends and mud volcanoes and hot pools aligned NE-SW at Los Negritos. More than 20 exit points of thermal waters are shown on infrared imagery to be aligned along an extension of the Ixtlan fault between Ixtlan and El Salitre. A narrow zone of

  9. [Counseling for HPV detection when used to screen for cervical cancer: a qualitative study on the needs of women from Michoacan, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Maldonado, Leith; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    To explore the information and counseling needs of a group of Mexican women during use of the HPV test. In 2011, 24 semistructured interviews were done with women upon receiving HPV test results in two municipalities in the state of Michoacan. Qualitative analysis of the interviews was done using constant comparison techniques. During their use of screening services women received limited counseling; they felt anguish and confusion. Women were interested in receiving information and advice on HPV and cervical cancer, the meaning of test result, next steps to be taken in their healthcare use as well as information and emotional support related to the sexual transmission of HPV. The design and implementation of policies are needed which instigate health education and counseling in conjunction with HPV testing.

  10. Steam saving during maintenance of the 50-MW Unit 7 at Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan; Ahorro de vapor durante el mantenimiento de la Unidad 7 de 50 MW en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina Barajas, Elvia Nohemi; Ruiz Lemus, Alejandro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia de Los Azufres, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: elvia-medina@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-07-15

    Commercial-steam production in the southern area of Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico, Geothermal Field began in 1982 with the operation of Unit 2, the backpressure 5-MW unit, and continued in 1988 when the 50-MW condensing Unit 7 was commissioned. Today to supply steam to Unit 7, it is necessary to gather steam from 15 production wells, amounting 450 tons per hour (t/h) under operating conditions. During maintenance periods for Unit 7, production wells are removed from the steam-supply system but continue producing steam that is discharged to the atmosphere-a loss affecting the economic life of the geothermal reservoir. Therefore several actions have been proposed and tried to save the steam and preserve the geothermal resource. This paper presents the results of the actions and the technical and economic benefits obtained from them. [Spanish] La produccion de vapor con fines comerciales en la zona sur del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico, empezo en 1982 con la puesta en marcha de la Unidad 2 de 5 MW a contrapresion, para continuar en 1988 con la Unidad 7 de 50 MW a condensacion. Para cumplir con el suministro de vapor a la U-7, a la fecha es necesario integrar la produccion de 15 pozos productores, que producen un total de 450 toneladas por hora (t/h) a condiciones de operacion. Durante los periodos de mantenimiento de la U-7 los pozos son desintegrados del sistema de suministro, pero continuan produciendo vapor, el cual es descargado a la atmosfera sin ningun provecho, lo que representa una perdida que afecta la vida util del yacimiento geotermico. Por ello se han propuesto y aplicado diversas acciones operativas en cada uno de esos pozos con el objetivo de ahorrar vapor y preservar el recurso geotermico. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de esas acciones y los beneficios tecnicos y economicos obtenidos.

  11. Giant fields in southwest Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-20

    According to Petroleos Mexicanos southeastern Mexico's Isthmus Saline basin holds five new giant fields - Tonala-El Burro, El Plan, Cinco Presidentes, Oraggio, and Magallanes - producing oil and gas from Tertiary sandstones. Numerous normal faults resulting from salt intrusion have given rise to multiple blocks, each with its own reservoir conditions. Previously discovered basins in the area include the Macuspana, which holds three giant gas- and condensate-producing fields: Jose Colomo, Chilapilla, and Hormiquero. The 3100-mi/sup 2/ Campeche marine platform, extending offshore nearby, contains the Cantarell complex, Mexico's most productive hydrocarbon province.

  12. EL MODO DE VIDA LACUSTRE: ETNOGRAFÍA DE LAS CUENCAS LACUSTRES DE MICHOACÁN (Ethnographic Perspectives on the Aquatic Lifeway in Michoacan, Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Williams

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mesoamérica fue la única civilización en el mundo antiguo que careció de fuentes importantes de proteína animal como el ganado, los cerdos y los borregos. Por lo tanto, las abundantes especies acuáticas (peces, aves, reptiles, anfibios, insectos y plantas, entre otros tuvieron un papel estratégico en la dieta y la economía de la mayoría de las culturas mesoamericanas, incluyendo a los tarascos. Este estudio de actividades de subsistencia (pesca, caza, recolección y manufactura en los lagos de Cuitzeo y Pátzcuaro (Michoacán, México enfatiza la relevancia de la etnografía, la arqueología y la etnohistoria como herramientas para entender el modo de vida lacustre tradicional de los tarascos; que vivían en un entorno dominado por lagos, ríos, pantanos y otros paisajes acuáticos. ENGLISH: Mesoamerica was the only civilization in the ancient world that lacked major domesticated sources of animal protein, such as cattle, pigs, and sheep. Therefore, the abundant wild aquatic species (fish, birds, reptiles, amphibians, insects, and plants, among others had a strategic role in the diet and economy of most Mesoamerican cultures, including the Tarascans. This study of subsistence activities (fishing, hunting, gathering, and manufacture around the Cuitzeo and Pátzcuaro lakes (Michoacán, Mexico underscores the value of ethnography, archaeology, and ethnohistory as tools for understanding the traditional aquatic lifeway of the Tarascans; who lived in an environment dominated by lakes, rivers, marshes and other wetlands.

  13. Response to exploitation (1982-2002) of the Los Azufres, Michoacan (Mexico) geothermal field. Part I: North Zone; Respuesta a la explotacion (1982-2003) del yacimiento geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan (Mexico). Parte I: Zona Norte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano G, Victor Manuel; Barragan R, Rosa Maria [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Torres R, Marco Antonio; Sandoval M, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    This work studies the thermodynamic evolution of the Los Azufres northern zone reservoir fluids as a response of exploitation since 1982 to 2002 is presented. Thermodynamic conditions for reservoir fluids were estimated using the WELFLO heat-and flow-well simulator, using production data as the input. The initial thermodynamic conditions of the north zone wells indicated the presence of compressed liquid; also it was noticed that the first response to exploitation was a pressure drop and an enthalpy increase, while the long term response indicated a very small pressure change but a high enthalpy increment. The analysis of production, chemical and isotopic (d18O, dD) data in this zone showed interference effects of fluids reinjected in well Az-52 on well Az-5; and in well Az-15 on wells Az-13, Az-28 and Az-43. At the present time due to the low injection flow rates, this effect is minimal. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un estudio sobre la evolucion termodinamica de los fluidos de la zona norte del yacimiento de Los Azufres desde el inicio de su explotacion en 1982 hasta el ano 2002, considerando las condiciones de fondo de pozos del campo, como respuesta a la extraccion e inyeccion de fluidos. Las condiciones termodinamicas de los fluidos del yacimiento se estimaron mediante el simulador del flujo de fluidos y calor en pozos {sup W}ELFLO{sup ,} a partir de datos de produccion. Las condiciones termodinamicas iniciales de los fluidos de la zona norte de campo se encontraron en la region de liquido comprimido; la primera respuesta a la explotacion consistio en una disminucion de presion y un incremento en la entalpia. A largo plazo, se observaron cambios muy pequenos en la presion y grandes incrementos en la entalpia. El analisis de datos quimicos, isotopicos (d18O, dD) y de produccion de pozos en la zona norte evidencio la ocurrencia de interferencia de fluidos de reinyeccion del pozo Az-52 con el pozo Az-5 y del pozo Az-15 con los pozos Az-13, Az-28 y Az 43 aunque actualmente debido al bajo volumen de fluidos que reciben los pozos productores este efecto es minimo.

  14. Geothermal Field Development in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, Hector Alonso

    1983-12-15

    Mexico is a Country characterized by its diversified means of Power Gerneration. Actual installed capacity is almost 19000 MW, of which 205 MW corresponds to Geothermal Plants, that is, 180 MW in Cerro Prieto and 25 MW of Portable Plants in Los Azufres. To date, 346 area with exploitation possibilites, are known. They are mainly distributed along the Volcanic Belt where the most prominent are, Los Azufres, La Primavera, Los Humeros, Ixtlan De Los Hervores and Los Negritos, among others. Proved reserves are 920 MW, and the accessible resource base are 4600 MW identified and 6000 MW undiscovered. The long range construction studies intends to achieve a total installed capacity of 100000 MW, by the end of this century, including 2000 MW Geothermal, through conventional and Portable Plants. It is not a definite program but a development strategy. The carrying out of a definite program, will depend upon the confirmation of Hypothesis made in previous studies, and the economic decisions related to the financial sources availability, and techologies to be used in the future as well.

  15. Los Humeros geothermal field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, P.S.

    1997-12-31

    Studies done to evaluate a low permeability-high enthalpy reservoir are reported in this paper. The main mechanism of well production in Los Humeros seems to be strongly related to a fracture network with a low matrix permeability. Under this condition there is a preferential steam flow to wells which is not easy to handle with a primary porosity model even though an element refinement is used. Here, the relative permeabilities are important because the subcooled non-perturbed state is close to the thermodynamic saturation line. Reservoir assessment results using a single porosity model have not been able to reproduce the average production enthalpy measured at the field and seem to be not good enough to represent the heat and transport phenomena occurring there. On the other hand, small scale problems using a double porosity model and similar initial conditions from Los Humeros apparently give a better fit to the production enthalpy. Volumetric assessment of the resource shows a generation capacity of the field of the order of the 120 MWe for an exploitation period of 20 years.

  16. Desenvolvimiento economico y migracion en Michoacan, 1980-2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia Garcia, Jose Odon; Delfin Ortega, Odette Virginia

    2012-01-01

    El desenvolvimiento economico en Michoacan, ha mostrado una clara especializacion en amplias zona del Estado, en este trabajo se intenta relacionar los indicadores de estas areas con el proceso migratorio en la entidad...

  17. An integrated geochronology and paleomagnetic study from Michoacan Block: tectonic implications for the Guadalajara triple junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Elguera, J.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Alva-Valdivia, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2002-12-01

    Three alternatives were proposed to expain the Guadalajara triple junction: (a) mantle plume beneath Guadalajara area provoking a regional uplifting, (b) relocation of the East Pacific Rise, and (c) transfer to the SE of rifting-related structure of the California Gulf. However, a different interpretation can be advanced if we consider the tectonics of the northern-Colima and western-Chapala rifts together with counterclockwise rotation of the Michoacan block. We carried out a detailed tectonic and paleomagnetic analysis along the Chapala rift and the Michoacan block. The trend of the measured mesofaults in the Chapala rift displays a dominant E-W direction. These faults represent everywhere the last tectonic event corresponding to Late Miocene to Quaternary times. Western Chapala rift is formed with three normal faults southward dipping which form a "domino-like" fault system. The most southern block of this system is a gently NW-tilted volcanic plateau of Early Pliocene basaltic rocks which belongs to the NW-part of the Michoacan block. Although some faults present a lateral component of motion, the great majority of them have pitches higher than 45° and dip ranging between 45° and 75°. Paleo-stress tensors computed from fault slip data measured at twelve sites in the Chapala rift indicate that average direction of the minimum principal stress is 160°. Paleomagnetic and geochronological sampling were carried out on the Cotija area (nothern part of the of the Michoacan block). Oldest studied rock gave an age of 9.17 +/- 0.92 Ma, whereas youngest one, located above the ancient fault zone, is 3.8 Ma old. A total of 65 oriented samples (12 sites) from the late Miocene lava flows were collected from Cotija area for paleomagnetic analyses. Typically, 5 to 6 samples per flow were subjected to alternating magnetic field treatment. Most sites are characterized by normal polarity and stable single component magnetizations. The Michoacan block yield the mean

  18. Results of an injection test of ethylic alcohol as tracer in the geothermal field Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Resultados de una prueba de inyeccion de alcohol empleado como trazador en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto; Lopez Romero, Oscar (Area de Geoquimica, Residencia Los Humeros, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico))

    1998-05-15

    Los Azufres, Michoacan was the first geothermal field in Mexico where an organic tracer test using ethylic alcohol was conducted to study the hydrologic communication between wells. A similar test was carried out in Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur, obtaining preliminary acceptable results. In Las Tres Virgenes 500 liters of ethylic alcohol were added at the surface to the water injected in the vertical well LV-3. This well is fed by 39.6 ton/h of separated water coming from the directional well LV-4, which was used as monitor. Both wells are located in the same platform. Alcohol was detected twelve hours after the injection and the highest concentration was observed 9 days later.

  19. Manejo de microembalses para el cultivo extensivo de carpa común (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 en la región de Zacapu, Michoacán, México Water basins management for extensive aquaculture of common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 in the region of Zacapu, Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bel Huipe-Ramos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio aporta, mediante pruebas experimentales, una estimación de la capacidad de carga de los microembalses de la región de Zacapu, Michoacán para ser utilizada en la acuicultura extensiva y semintensiva de carpa común (Cyprinus carpió. Un análisis factorial (3 × 3 con tres densidades (D B = 0.5 org. · m-2, D M = 1 org. · m-2 y D A = 2 orgs. · m-2 y tres regímenes de alimentación (R0= sin fertilizar o con el alimento natural, R F= con fertilización y R+= suplementada con subproductos agrícolas incluyó nueve tratamientos combinados entre densidades y regímenes alimenticios con tres réplicas en cada caso. La combinación de baja densidad y alimentación natural, análoga a una acuicultura extensiva en microembalses, alcanzó un rendimiento máximo equivalente a 5,000 orgs.· ha-1 . Pruebas empíricas realizadas a la par en siete microembalses temporales (This study provides an assessment of the carrying capacity of water bodies in the area of Zacapu, Michoacan for extensive and semintensive aquaculture with carp (Cyprinus carpió by means of experimental trials in 27 ponds. A 3 × 3 factorial analysis with three densities (D B = 0.5 org. · m-2, D M=1 org. · m-2 and D A= 2 orgs. · m-2 and three feeding regimes (R0 = without fertilization, R F = fertilization and R+ = farming by-products included nine combined treatments between densities and feeding regimes with three replicates for each case. The combination of low density and natural food, analog to an extensive aquaculture in small water reservoirs, attained a maximum yield equivalent to 5,000 orgs.· ha-1 . Empirical trials accomplished at seven temporary basins (<10 ha under conditions of different stocking densities from 1,500 to 6,000 orgs.· ha-1 lead to fairly similar yields to those obtained in the ponds. Thus, the general index used in Mexico for extensive aquaculture of 1 org. · m² overloads the regional temporary ecosystems and only the possibility

  20. Diversidad genética, patogénica y morfológica del hongo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. de Michoacán, México Genetic, pathogenic and morphological diversity of fungi Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. from Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Montero Tavera

    diversity of the population of this fungus has been studied in several parts of the world, yet in Mexico, its population structure, and especially the components of its diversity, are unknown. The genetic, pathogenic and morphological diversity was determined for 21 monoconidial strains of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Michoacán, Mexico. The genetic diversity was estimated by means of random amplified DNA polymorphism, and by determining the profiles of isoenzymes of each monoconidial strain. Pathogenic diversity was measured with the invasive capacity of avocado pulp and the growth rate in vitro was determined by comparing the characteristics of the mycelia of each monoconidial strain. Results showed a high diversity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides with a genetic variability index of 0.3031, and the most accurate estimator was the random amplified DNA polymorphism (genetic variability index= 0.344 and isoenzyme profile (genetic variability index= 0.35. The typical characteristics were white mycelia, cotton-like consistency, white colony, random mycelia growth and short hyphae on the growth border. There was no relation between the pathogenicity measured as the invasive capacity of the pulp and this growth rate in vitro. The group analyses determined that the relations between the strains are established based mainly on the origin and, in a secondary manner, on the symptom in the fruit.

  1. Diversidad y distribución del género Salvia (Lamiaceae en Michoacán, México Diversity and distribution of the genus Salvia (Lamiaceae in Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Cornejo-Tenorio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la riqueza y distribución de las especies de Salvia en los municipios del estado de Michoacán con datos florísticos y ecológicos para cada especie. Con base en trabajo de campo y revisión de ejemplares depositados en los herbarios CIMI, EBUM, ENCB, F, IEB, INIF, MEXU y MO, se registraron 64 especies nativas de Salvia en Michoacán. El 67.2% de éstas son endémicas de México y 4 (6.2% del área de estudio. Salvia iodantha Fernald y S. mexicana L. fueron las especies con más ejemplares herborizados (140 y 134, respectivamente. Los bosques que albergan el mayor número de especies (40 fueron el de Pinus-Quercus y el de Quercus, en un intervalo altitudinal de 1 500 a 3 000 m. Morelia fue el municipio con más especies registradas (34. En cuanto a las formas de crecimiento, predominan las hierbas perennes o arbustos (86%. El 76.5% de las especies tiene flores azules y/o moradas. La floración se presenta todo el año, con una actividad máxima en octubre. Se sugiere que en un futuro cercano se incremente la exploración florística del género Salvia en Michoacán, especialmente en sus áreas protegidas y en la sierra Madre del Sur.This paper presents the richness and distribution by municipality of Salvia species in the state of Michoacán, floristic and ecological data are included. Based on herbarium specimens deposited in CIMI, EBUM, ENCB, F, IEB, INIF, MEXU, and MO, as well as collecting trips, 64 native species of Salvia were recognized in the study area. Endemic species to Mexico and Michoacán reached 67.2% and 6.2%, respectively. Salvia iodantha Fernald and S. mexicana L. were species with most herbarium specimens (140 and 134, respectively. The vegetation types with most species (40 were Pinus-Quercus and Quercus forests. The highest number of species occurred between 1 500 and 3 000 m. The municipality with the most Salvia species recorded was Morelia (34 species. Perennial herbs and shrubs were the most common growth

  2. Research and technological development on heat pumps in Mexico operating with geothermal energy; Investigacion y desarrollo tecnologico sobre bombas de calor en Mexico operando con energia geotermica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso; Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) carried out in the past an extensive work of research and development (R&D) on heat pumps (HP). The systems tried on include heat pumps by mechanical compression, thermal absorption and thermal transformers. This paper briefly describes the main aspects of R&D on heat pumps and presents a more detailed description of three of the main studies: a) a Heat Pump (HP) by mechanical compression water-water type, designed for brine purification, operating with low pressure geothermal steam at the geothermal field Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico; b) a HP by absorption for cooling and refrigeration, operating with ammoniac/water and low enthalpy geothermal energy, which was tested in the geothermal fields of Los Azufres, Michoacan and Cerro Prieto, Baja California, and c) a thermal transformer by absorption, named Heat Pump by Absorption Type 2, which was tested to evaluate the behavior of diverse ternary solutions as working fluids. To date, there are plans to install and test a geothermal heat pump (connected to the subsoil), in Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) realizaron un trabajo extenso de investigacion y desarrollo (I&D) sobre bombas de calor (BC) en el pasado. Los sistemas que se probaron incluyen bombas de calor por compresion mecanica, absorcion y transformadores termicos. Este trabajo describe brevemente los principales aspectos de I&D sobre bombas de calor y se da una descripcion mas detallada de tres de los principales estudios: a) una Bomba de Calor (BC) por compresion mecanica tipo agua-agua, disenada para purificacion de salmueras, operando con vapor geotermico de baja presion en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan; b) una BC por absorcion para enfriamiento y refrigeracion, operando con amoniaco/agua y energia geotermica de baja entalpia

  3. Evolution evidence of a basic fluid to an acid based in the analysis of hydrothermal alteration of the geothermic field of the Azufres, Michoacan; Evidencias de evolucion de un fluido basico a acido a partir del analisis de la alteracion hidrotermal del campo geotermico de los Azufres, Michoacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Partida, Eduardo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Hydrothermal alteration at the Los Azufres geothermal field is mostly composed of calc-silicate minerals that define a propylitic alteration zone, which shows progressive dehydration with depth and temperature increase. A generalized zoning of the calc-silicate zone can be observed, with zeolites in the upper part and epidote-clinozoisite at the deepest levels. An argillic alteration zone overlies the calc-silicate zone and is the dominant surface manifestation of the hydrothermal alteration. In some parts, there is a mineral assemblage composed of kaolinite-alunite-native sulfur-quartz (advanced argillic zone) formed by the interaction of vapor and shallow groundwater. The proto-fluid at the Los Azufres geothermal system is related to a neutral sodium chlorine brine, which favors deep propyllitic alteration (productive zone). This zone is characterized by secondary permeability due to fracturing. At depth the geothermal field is dominated by a pressurized liquid, yielding to vapor at more shallow zone. The gradual change from a liquid to a vapor phase occurs through boiling at depths between 1,200 and 1,500 m, and is accompanied by changes in the hydrothermal alteration mineralogy. The type of alteration passes from proylitic to argillic by means of an oxidation-acidification process, which includes the participation of a gas, particularly CO{sub 2}. Considering the physicochemical characteristic of the brine and the evolution of the paragenetic sequence, the Los Azufres geothermal field could de considered a model for hydrothermal behavior at ore deposits which develop by boiling and oxidation of low sulfidation fossil hydrothermal fluids. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Los Azufres la zona de alteracion hidrotermal esta formada en su mayor parte por calcosilicatos (que definen una zona paragenetica del tipo propilitico), los cuales muestran una deshidratacion progresiva conforme se va profundizando e incrementandose la temperatura. Se puede generalizar un

  4. Results of an injection test using ethyl alcohol as tracer at Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico; Resultados de una prueba de inyeccion de alcohol empleado como trazador, en el campo geotermico de Los humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto; Lopez Romero, Oscar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    Los Humeros is the third Mexican geothermal field where ethyl alcohol was used as organic tracer to test communication between wells. The first Mexican geothermal field where this kind of test was used Los Azufres, Michoacan. The second was Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur. In both cases, connections between wells were observed. The injection well H-29 is in the north-central sector of Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico. At a depth of 1580 meters, 600 liters of ethyl alcohol was pumped through a 60.35 mm (23/8 inch) diameter tube after 2.7 m{sup 3} of geothermal fluids were displaced, allowing the alcohol to reach the formation. Then, the normal injection process continued with water and condensed steam (130 t/h). On the basis of the experience acquired with similar tests conducted at Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, and with the goal of detecting the tracer, samples of condensed steam were collected in nearby wells (H-15, H-16, H-17, H-30, H-33, H-36 and H-8) and in distant wells-named special samples (H-32, H-1, H-11, H-12, H-19, H-20, H-35, H-37, H-39, H-6 and H-9). Condensed steam samples were collected every 12 hours, the every week and finally every 15 days, making a total of 592 samples. The chemical analysis were done in two stages because of probable with the chromatograph. In the first stage, 441 samples were run and the rest were run in the second stage. No evidence of the tracer was observed in the monitoring wells. The results confirm the existence of a low-to-moderate permeability, as was previously interpreted using pressure log data. [Spanish] Los Humeros es el tercer campo geotermico de Mexico en el que se realiza una prueba de trazadores organicos empleando alcohol etilico con la finalidad principal de conocer si existe comunicacion entre pozos. El primer campo geotermico en el que se realizo esta prueba fue el de Los Azufres, Michoacan y el segundo el de Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur; en ambos casos se encontro

  5. Los beneficios de la gestión activa de carteras. Una propuesta de reforma para la Dirección de Pensiones Civiles del Estado de Michoacán, México/The benefits of active portfolio management. A reform proposal to Michoacan State's Public Pension Fund Office

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oscar V De La Torre Torres; Ma Isabel Martínez Torre-Enciso

    2015-01-01

    ..., como consecuencia, el periodo de suficiencia financiera del plan de pensiones. Abstract: The present paper studies one of the most politically relevant public pension funds in Mexico: the Michoacan State Public Pension Fund Office. As a result of this review, we propose an investment policy along with its related portfolio management struc...

  6. Stress Field and Seismicity in the Basin of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesca-Perez, E.; Quintanar, L.; Garcia-Palomo, A.

    2007-12-01

    Mexico City is located in the basin of Mexico, inside the so called Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The region in general and the basin in particular, is characterized by local low magnitude seismicity (Mc Chalco and 3)- Juchitepec - Milpa Alta outside Mexico City; the rest of the basin presents lower seismic activity. We recorded and located 336 earthquakes with digital seismograms between 1996 and 2007. From them, just 23 focal mechanisms could be evaluated because of low magnitude that creates recording problems in the seismological networks and high frequency background noise. The focal mechanisms are mainly strike-slip and dip-slip (normal) faulting. We used three different techniques (when possible) to calculate the focal mechanisms: simple and composite first motion focal mechanism, Hash's S/P amplitude rate focal mechanism and time domain moment tensor inversion using broadband three components seismograms. The final goal is to find the local and regional stress field for the whole basin.

  7. Crust and subduction zone structure of Southwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhardja, Sandy Kurniawan; Grand, Stephen P.; Wilson, David; Guzman-Speziale, Marco; Gomez-Gonzalez, Juan Martin; Dominguez-Reyes, Tonatiuh; Ni, James

    2015-02-01

    Southwestern Mexico is a region of complex active tectonics with subduction of the young Rivera and Cocos plates to the south and widespread magmatism and rifting in the continental interior. Here we use receiver function analysis on data recorded by a 50 station temporary deployment of seismometers known as the MARS (MApping the Rivera Subduction zone) array to investigate crustal structure as well as the nature of the subduction interface near the coast. The array was deployed in the Mexican states of Jalisco, Colima, and Michoacan. Crustal thickness varies from 20 km near the coast to 42 km in the continental interior. The Rivera plate has steeper dip than the Cocos plate and is also deeper along the coast than previous estimates have shown. Inland, there is not a correlation between the thickness of the crust and topography indicating that the high topography in northern Jalisco and Michoacan is likely supported by buoyant mantle. High crustal Vp/Vs ratios (greater than 1.82) are found beneath the trenchward edge of magmatism including below the Central Jalisco Volcanic Lineament and the Michoacan-Guanajuato Volcanic Field implying a new arc is forming closer to the trench than the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. Elsewhere in the region, crustal Vp/Vs ratios are normal. The subducting Rivera and Cocos plates are marked by a dipping shear wave low-velocity layer. We estimate the thickness of the low-velocity layer to be 3 to 4 km with an unusually high Vp/Vs ratio of 2.0 to 2.1 and a drop in S velocity of 25%. We postulate that the low-velocity zone is the upper oceanic crust with high pore pressures. The low-velocity zone ends from 45 to 50 km depth and likely marks the basalt to eclogite transition.

  8. [Nutritional risk factors in patients with head and neck cancer in oncology care center Michoacan state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Rojas Vázquez, L E; Trujano-Ramos, L A; Pérez-Rivera, E

    2013-01-01

    The head and neck cancer in Michoacán, Mexico, ranks as the third most common cancer and accounts for 12% of deaths. The increase in malnutrition in a patient with this disease has been associated with increased mortality. We studied prospectively 30 patients of both sexes, aged 18 years with head and neck cancer in the Cancer Care Center of Michoacan. In the evaluation period since August 2010 to August 2011. Formats were used VGS-Oncology (Subjective Global Assessment), NRS 2002 (Nutritional risk screen) and Guss (Gugging Swallowing Screen), through which nutritional risk was determined, and established the swallowing capacity of the study population. In our study, 53.3% of the population had moderate malnutrition according to the VGS Oncology, 33% weight loss record. The NRS 2002 show that 43.3% is at risk of malnutrition. The degree of dysphagia is shown more often in older patients, cancer type and stage of illness. Nutritional risk scales relate directly proportional to tumor location and stage, as well, there are other different oncological factors involved in the patient's nutritional deterioration. Therefore it is of vital importance to have a nutritionist as part of the multidisciplinary team, to detect the nutritional risk and to be able to handle it in an opportune way. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Inversion for slip distribution using teleseismic P waveforms: North Palm Springs, Borah Peak, and Michoacan earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    We have inverted the teleseismic P waveforms recorded by stations of the Global Digital Seismograph Network for the 8 July 1986 North Palm Springs, California, the 28 October 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho, and the 19 September 1985 Michoacan, Mexico, earthquakes to recover the distribution of slip on each of the faults using a point-by-point inversion method with smoothing and positivity constraints. Results of the inversion indicate that the Global digital Seismograph Network data are useful for deriving fault dislocation models for moderate to large events. However, a wide range of frequencies is necessary to infer the distribution of slip on the earthquake fault. Although the long-period waveforms define the size (dimensions and seismic moment) of the earthquake, data at shorter period provide additional constraints on the variation of slip on the fault. Dislocation models obtained for all three earthquakes are consistent with a heterogeneous rupture process where failure is controlled largely by the size and location of high-strength asperity regions. -from Authors

  10. Geothermal Fields on the Volcanic Axis of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, S.; Gonzalez, A.

    1980-12-16

    At present in Mexico, geothermal energy is receiving a great impulse due to the excellent results obtained in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, in which a geothermoelectric plant is operated. This plant has four units of 37.5 MW each, with a total capacity of 150 MW, and under program 470 MW more by 1984. The Government Institution, Comisi6n Federal de Electricidad, is in charge of the exploration and exploitation of geothermal fields as well as construction and operation of power plants in Mexico. By this time CFE has an extensive program of exploration in the central part of Mexico, in the Eje Neovolcdnico. In this area, several fields with hydrothermal alteration are under exploration, like the Michoac6n geothermal area, where Los Azufres geothermal field is being developed. Seventeen wells have been drilled and twelve of them presented excellent results, including two dry steam wells. In other areas, such as Arar6, Cuitzeo, San Agustln del Maiz,Ixtldn de Los Hervores and Los Negritos, geological, geophysical and geochemical explorations have been accomplished, including shallow well drilling with good results. Another main geothermal area is in the State of Jalisco with an extension of 5,000 m2, where La Primavera geothermal field shows a lot of volcanic domes and has an intensive hydrothermal activity. Deep wells have been drilled, one of them with a bottom temperature of 29OOC. Other fields in this area, like San Narcos, Hervores de La Vega, La Soledad, Villa Corona, etc., have a good geothermal potential. A new geothermal area has been explored recently in the eastern part of the country named Los Humeros, Puebla. In this area studies are being made and there are plans for well drilling exploration by the beginning of 1981. Like this one, there are many other areas in the country in which 300 hydrothermal alteration zones are been classified and 100 of them are considered economically exploitable.

  11. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Leslie

    The text explores Mexico's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico's economy and reasons for its current situation. Part I of this teaching unit includes: Teacher Overview, Why Study Mexico, Mexico Fact Sheet, Map of Mexico, the Land and Climate, History, Government,…

  12. Managing US-Mexico "border health": an organizational field approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Dogrul, Julie

    2006-12-01

    During World War II Mexican and US health professionals and organizations constructed a transnational organizational field to manage the border's public health problems. Despite barriers to inter-organizational cooperation, including disparate administrative structures and North-South stratification, the field's transnational approach to health on the border has continued for 60 years. Using archival data to track changes in the number and types of organizations, this article argues that the field practitioners call "border health" reconfigured during the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) decade from an era of loosely organized professionals to a specialized bureaucracies era. This change brought new vitality to border health, with transnational ties increasing and diversifying, but has not weakened entrenched cross-border inequalities. The organizational history of the US-Mexico border health field demonstrates how macro-politics and inter-organizational stratification shape transnational public health problems.

  13. Magmatic Evolution in the Los Tuxtlas Volcanic Field, Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, A.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Magma evolution within the Los Tuxtlas Volcanic Field (LTVF) is poorly understood. The LTVF is a basaltic, monogenetic field in Veracruz, Mexico, that contains approximately 400 vents and has been active for the last 7 Ma, including a sub-Plinian eruption in 1793. The field is structurally controlled, with cones forming NW-SE lines consistent with local extension. By understanding magmatic evolution through ascent, storage, and mixing, it is possible to more accurately predict future trends in the system. Samples from two alignments of cinder cones located between San Martin Tuxtlas volcano and Laguna Catemaco were analyzed petrographically and geochemically. Geochemical data were plotted in Fenner and Harker diagrams to identify trends, including fractional crystallization and magma recharge. Mineral modes were calculated via point counting in thin sections, and micro-textural variations were noted. Cone morphometry was used as a rough proxy for age along with field relationships to develop an approximate order of events along the alignments. Preliminary data suggest that the aligned vents are part of a linked magmatic plumbing system undergoing periodic recharge.

  14. Ancient Mudflows in the Tuxtla Volcanic Field, Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espindola, J.; Zamora-Camacho, A.; Godinez, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Tuxtla Volcanic Field (TVF) is a basaltic volcanic enclave in eastern Mexico at the margin of the Gulf of Mexico. Due to the high rates of precipitation floods and mudflows are common. Resulting from a systematic study of geologic hazard in the TVF we found several mudflow deposits that impacted pre-Columbian settlements. Sections of the deposits were observed in detail and sampled for granulometric studies. The deposits contained materials suitable for dating: ceramic shards and some of them charcoal fragments. Shards from the interior of the deposit were collected and placed in black bags to prevent the action of light and to be analyzed by thermoluminiscense (TL), the charcoal samples were dated using standard radiocarbon methods (C-14). The sites were dubbed La Mojarra (18°37.711', 95°18.860'), Revolución (18° 35.848', 95°11.412'), Pisatal (18°36.618', 95°10.634'), and Toro Prieto (18°38.229, 95°12.037'). These places were named after the nearby villages the first two, lake Pisatal the third and Toro Prieto creek the fourth. All the deposits occur close to the margins of riverbeds or lakes. Samples of these sites yielded ages of 1176±100 (TL), 1385±70 (C-14), 1157±105 (TL), 2050+245-235 (C-14), respectively. These locations have undergone recurrent floods in the last decades, showing that these phenomena impact the same areas over centuries. The dates mentioned are important because, no vestiges of human settlements had been reported in the area, which in the past was covered by a dense forest. The settlements must have been very small and depended of such cities as nearby Matacapan an important city with strong ties to Teotihuacán in central Mexico. The ages agree with the findings of archeologic studies in Matacapan, which indicate that the population became increasingly ruralized since the late classic period (≈ 600-800 AD).

  15. THE AGRARIAN DEMANDS INSIDE PUREPECHAS ORGANIZATIONS DISCOURSE´S FROM MICHOACAN: PROBLEMS WITHOUT SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Jacaranda Jasso Martínez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purepecha´s organizations of Michoacan have theirhistory in the peasant movement from 1970´s and 1980´s.The petitions for distribution and control of their lands werereinforced with the rejection to the improvement ofconstitutional article 27 of 1992. From that moment, theirdiscourses were enriched with demands from indigenousmovement and now presents a group of rights to berecognizes for Mexican State. Through a historical analysisof the most popular purepecha organizations discourse’sfrom Michoacan I confirm changes. Despite organizationsare etnopolitics, the demands for the control andmanagement of naturals resources no disappear, now arerights and are in the center of discussions.

  16. Space Radar Image of Pinacate Volcanic Field, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows the Pinacate Volcanic Field in the state of Sonora, Mexico, about 150 kilometers (93 miles) southeast of Yuma, Arizona. The United States/Mexico border runs across the upper right corner of the image. More than 300 volcanic vents occur in the Pinacate field, including cinder cones that experienced small eruptions as recently as 1934. The larger circular craters seen in the image are a type of volcano known as a 'maar', which erupts violently when rising magma encounters groundwater, producing highly pressurized steam that powers explosive eruptions. The highest elevations in the volcanic field, about 1200 meters (4000 feet), occur in the 'shield volcano' structure shown in bright white, occupying most of the left half of the image. Numerous cinder cones dot the flanks of the shield. The yellow patches to the right of center are newer, rough-textured lava flows that strongly reflect the long wavelength radar signals. Along the left edge of the image are sand dunes of the Gran Desierto. The dark areas are smooth sand and the brighter brown and purple areas have vegetation on the surface. Radar data provide a unique means to study the different types of lava flows and wind-blown sands. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 18, 1994. The image is 57 kilometers by 48 kilometers (35 miles by 30 miles) and is centered at 31.7 degrees north latitude, 113.4 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  17. Magnetotelluric data, Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailes, Chad E.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The population of the San Luis Basin region of northern New Mexico is growing. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's groundwater resources. An important issue in managing the groundwater resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal groundwater aquifers. The shallow unconfined aquifer and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin are the main sources of municipal water for the region. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey called magnetotellurics (MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers. This report describes a regional east-west MT sounding profile acquired in late July 2009 across the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field where drillhole data are sparse. Resistivity modeling of the MT data can be used to help map changes in electrical resistivity with depths that are related to differences in rock types. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data collected along the east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  18. Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of Mexico was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. In areal extent, Mexico is the third largest country on the continent of North America (not counting Greenland, which is a province of Denmark), comprised of almost 2 million square kilometers (756,000 square miles) of land. Home to roughly 100 million people, Mexico is second only to the United States in population, making it the world's largest Spanish-speaking nation. To the north, Mexico shares its border with the United States-a line that runs some 3,100 kilometers (1,900 miles) east to west. About half of this border is defined by the Rio Grande River, which runs southeast to the Gulf of Mexico (partially obscured by clouds in this image) and marks the dividing line between Texas and Mexico. Toward the upper left (northwest) corner of this image is the Baja California peninsula, which provides the western land boundary for the Gulf of California. Toward the northwestern side of the Mexican mainland, you can see the Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains (brownish pixels) running southeast toward Lake Chapala and the city of Guadalajara. About 400 km (250 miles) east and slightly south of Lake Chapala is the capital, Mexico City. Extending northward from Mexico City is the Sierra Madre Oriental Mountains, the irregular line of brownish pixels that seem to frame the western edges of the bright white cumulus clouds in this image. Between these two large mountain ranges is a large, relatively dry highland region. To the south, Mexico shares borders with Guatemala and Belize, both of which are located south of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. Image courtesy Reto Stockli, Brian Montgomery, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  19. Four new species of Cymatodera Gray from central and southern Mexico (Coleoptera, Cleridae, Tillinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Burke

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of Cymatodera are described from Mexico: C. tortuosa Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Hidalgo and Tamaulipas; C. ortegae Burke, sp. n. from Colima, Jalisco and Michoacan; C. gerstmeieri Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Chiapas; and C. mixteca Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Puebla and Guerrero. Male genitalia and other characters of taxonomic value are illustrated.

  20. Four new species of Cymatodera Gray from central and southern Mexico (Coleoptera, Cleridae, Tillinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Alan F.; Rifkind, Jacques; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of Cymatodera are described from Mexico: Cymatodera tortuosa Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Hidalgo and Tamaulipas; Cymatodera ortegae Burke, sp. n. from Colima, Jalisco and Michoacan; Cymatodera gerstmeieri Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Chiapas; and Cymatodera mixteca Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Puebla and Guerrero. Male genitalia and other characters of taxonomic value are illustrated. PMID:26257571

  1. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of Mexico is on the following: geography; the people; history; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Mexico. As of July 1987, the population of Mexico numbered 81.9 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.09%. 60% of the population is Indian-Spanish (mestizo), 30% American Indian, 9% white, and 1% other. Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the 2nd most populous country in Latin America. Education is decentralized and expanded. Mexico's topography ranges from low desert plains and jungle-like coastal strips to high plateaus and rugged mountains. Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico in 1919-21 and founded a Spanish colony that lasted for almost 300 years. Independence from Spain was proclaimed by Father Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, 1810; the republic was established on December 6, 1822. Mexico's constitution of 1917 provides for a federal republic with a separation of powers into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Significant political themes of the administration of President Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado, who began his 6-year term in 1982, have been restructuring the economy, liberalizing trade practices, decentralizing government services, and eliminating corruption among public servants. In 1987, estimates put the real growth of the Mexican economy at 1.5%; the gross domestic product (GDP) had shrunk by 3.5% in 1986. Yet, on the positive side, Mexico's international reserves increased to record levels in 1987 (to about $15 billion), and its current account surplus reached more than $3 billion. Mexico has made considerable progress in moving to restructure its economy. It has substantially reduced impediments to international trade and has moved to reduce the number of parastatal firms. 1987 was the 2nd consecutive year in which Mexico recorded triple-digit inflation; inflation reached 158.8%. Other problems include

  2. Hydrologic Modeling of the White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret, S. M.; Newton, B. T.; Person, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    The shallow groundwater flow system of White Sands dune field, located within the Tularosa Basin of Southern New Mexico, likely stabilizes the base of the largest gypsum dunefield in the world. Water table geometry and elevation play a critical role in controlling dune thickness, spatial extent, and migration rates. The White Sands National Monument (WHSA) is concerned that lowering the water table may lead to increased scour and migration of the dune field, which could be unfavorable to the preservation of the flora and fauna that have adapted to survive there. In response to projected increases in groundwater pumping in the regional Tularosa Basin groundwater system, changes in surface water use, and the threat of climate change, the WHSA is interested in understanding how these changes on a regional scale may impact the shallow dune aquifer. We have collected hydrological, geochemical, and geophysical data in order to identify the sources of recharge that contribute to the shallow dune aquifer and to assess interactions between this water table aquifer and the basin-scale, regional system. Vertical head gradients, temperature, and water quality data strongly suggest that local precipitation is the primary source of recharge to the dune aquifer today. This suggests that the modern dune system is relatively isolated from the deeper regional system. However, geochemical and electrical resistivity data indicates that the deeper basin groundwater system does contribute to the shallow system and suggests that hydrologic conditions have changed on geologic time scales. We have constructed a preliminary cross-sectional hydrologic model to attempt to characterize the interaction of the shallow dune aquifer with the deeper basin groundwater. The model cross-section extends about 80 km across the Tularosa Basin in a NW-SE direction parallel to the primary flow path. We represented 6 km of Precambrian crystalline basement, Paleozoic sedimentary rocks as well as Pleistocene

  3. THE AGRARIAN DEMANDS INSIDE PUREPECHAS ORGANIZATIONS DISCOURSE´S FROM MICHOACAN: PROBLEMS WITHOUT SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ivy Jacaranda Jasso Martínez

    2010-01-01

    The purepecha´s organizations of Michoacan have theirhistory in the peasant movement from 1970´s and 1980´s.The petitions for distribution and control of their lands werereinforced with the rejection to the improvement ofconstitutional article 27 of 1992. From that moment, theirdiscourses were enriched with demands from indigenousmovement and now presents a group of rights to berecognizes for Mexican State. Through a historical analysisof the most popular purepecha organizations discourse’sfr...

  4. The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX): Performance and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Aranda, J.

    2013-05-01

    Originally the Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) was proposed to integrate the Seismic Alert System of Mexico City (SAS), operating since 1991, with the Seismic Alert System of Oaxaca City (SASO), in services since 2003. And today, after the intense big earthquake activity observed in our world during 2010 and 2011, local governments of Mexico City, Oaxaca Estate, and the Mexican Ministry of the Interior have been promoting the expansion of this technological EEW development. Until 2012 SASMEX better coverage includes 48 new field seismic sensors (FS) deployed over the seismic region of Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan and Puebla, with someone enhancements over Guerrero and Oaxaca, to reach 97 FS. During 2013, 35 new FS has been proposed to SASMEX enhancements covering the Chiapas and Veracruz seismic regions. The SASMEX, with the support of the Mexico Valley Broadcasters Association (ARVM) since 1993, automatically issue Public and Preventive earthquake early warning signals in the Cities of Mexico, Toluca, Acapulco, Chilpancingo, and Oaxaca. The seismic warning range in each case is seated in accordance with local Civil Protection Authorities: Public Alert, if they expect strong earthquake effects, and Preventive Alert one, the effect could be moderated. Now the SASMEX warning time opportunity could be different to the 60 sec. average typically generated when SAS warned earthquake effects coming from Guerrero to Mexico City valley. Mexican EEW issued today reach: 16 Public and 62 Preventive Alert in Mexico City; 25 Public and 19 Preventive Alerts in Oaxaca City; also 14 Public and 4 Preventive Alerts in Acapulco; 14 Public and 5 Preventive Alerts in Chilpancingo. The earthquakes events registered by SASMEX FS until now reach 3448. With the support of private and Federal telecommunications infrastructure like, TELMEX, Federal Electric Commission, and the Mexican Security Ministry, it was developed a redundant communication system with pads to link the different

  5. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations.

  6. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Cossio, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sanchez, S. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Calligaro, T.F. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR 171, Palais du Louvre-Porte des Lions, 14, Quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Tenorio, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico)], E-mail: dolores.tenorio@inin.gob.mx; Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Los Rios, M. de [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500)

  7. Kinematics and age of Early Tertiary trench parallel volcano-tectonic lineaments in southern Mexico: Tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M.; Ferrari, L.; Lopez Martinez, M.; Cerca Martinez, M.; Serrano Duran, L.

    2007-05-01

    We present new geological, structural, and geochronological data that constrain the timing and geometry of Early Tertiary strike slip deformation in southwestern Mexico and its relation with the concurrent magmatic activity. Geologic mapping in Guerrero and Michoacan States documented two regional WNW trending volcano-tectonic lineaments sub parallel to the present trench. The southernmost lineament runs for ~140 km from San Miguel Totolapan area (NW Guerrero) to Sanchiqueo (SE Michoacan), and passes through Ciudad Altamirano. Its southeastern part is marked by the alignment of at least eleven silicic to intermediate major domes as well as by the course of the Balsas River. The northwestern part of the lineament is characterized by ductile left lateral shear zones in Early Tertiary plutonic rocks observed in the Rio Chiquito valley. Domes near Ciudad Altamirano are unaffected by ductile shearing and yielded a ~42 Ma 40Ar/39Ar age, setting a minimum age for this deformation. The northern volcano-tectonic lineament runs for ~190 km between the areas of Huitzuco in northern Guerrero and the southern part of the Tzitzio fold in eastern Michoacan. The Huautla, Tilzapotla, Taxco, La Goleta and Nanchititla silicic centers (all in the range 37-34 Ma) are emplaced along this lineament, which continues to the WNW trough a mafic dike swarm exposed north of Tiquicheo (37-35 Ma) and the Purungueo subvolcanic body (~42 Ma). These rocks, unaffected by ductile shearing, give a minimum age of deformation similar to the southern Totolapan-Sanquicheo lineament. Post ~42 Ma deformation is essentially brittle and is characterized by several left lateral and right lateral transcurrent faults with typical Riedel patterns. Other trench-parallel left lateral shear zones active in pre-Oligocene times were recently reported in western Oaxaca. The recognizing of Early Tertiary trench-parallel and left-lateral ductile shearing in internal areas of southern Mexico suggest a field of widely

  8. Final Environmental Assessment for the Boles Wells Field Perimeter Security Improvement Project Otero County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-03

    2-5 3.0 AFFECTED ENV" IRONMENT ...County, New Mexico. The majority of the existing fence is five-strand barbed wired secured on iron "T" posts or wooden posts. Access to the well field...mesquite ( Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana), prickly pear (Opuntia spp.), and opportunistic plants in disturbed areas. State-listed noxious weeds

  9. Mushroom growing project at the Los Humeros, Mexico geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, M.E.R. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1998-12-01

    There are several projects of direct (non-electrical) use of geothermal energy in Mexico. Personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have experience in various of these projects, like drying of timber and fruits, space heating, food processing, etc. Taking this in consideration, CFE built the Los Humeros mushroom plant using for heat source the geothermal steam from Well H-1. The main purpose of the project was to take advantage of residual geothermal energy in a food production operation and to develop the appropriate technology. In 1992, existing installations were renovated, preparing appropriate areas for pasteurization, inoculation and production. The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida and columbinus was used. A year later, CFE proposed the construction of improved facilities for growing edible mushrooms. New materials and equipment, as well as different operation conditions, were proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the initial project. The construction and renovation activities were completed in 1994.

  10. Fern Biology in Mexico - (A Class Field Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Rolla; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Organized field trips in the tropics proved to be an effective way to gather new information about ferns. The areas of study covered were: systematics and ecology, cytology and gametophyte structure, and morphogenesis and physiology. (PS)

  11. Historias del narcotrafico en el Mexico rural: territorios, drogas y carteles en Michoacan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aranda, Salvador Maldonado

    2013-01-01

    .... En este documento se examinan las caracteristicas socio-economicas y politicas de la zona y analiza el surgimiento del narcotrafico como parte de profundos procesos de transformacion agraria, sobre...

  12. Ungoverned Spaces in Mexico: Autodefensas, Failed States, and the War on Drugs in Michoacan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    London: London School of Economics, 2010), 6. 16 Ricardo Quintero, “La Educación, la Cultura Cívica y las Organizaciones de la Sociedad Civil en...de-resultados 39 Quintero, Ricardo. “La Educación, la Cultura Cívica y las Organizaciones de la Sociedad Civil en México [Education, Culture, and

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-30 - Hass avocados from Michoacan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... must be surveyed semiannually and found to be free from the avocado stem weevil Copturus aguacatae. (ii... Mexican NPPO discovers the stem weevil Copturus aguacatae in an orchard during an orchard survey or other... NPPO discovers the stem weevil Copturus aguacatae in fruit at a packinghouse, the Mexican NPPO must...

  14. Epidemiological investigation of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in a rural village of Michoacan state, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, E; Schantz, P M; Plancarte, A; Wilson, M; Gutierrez, O I; Aguilera, J; Roberts, J; Flisser, A

    1994-01-01

    We performed a survey for taeniasis and cysticercosis among persons living in a Mexican village where Taenia solium infection in pigs was known to be enzootic. A standardized questionnaire was administered in all 577 households to obtain medical histories and information on demographic and environmental factors and on risk factors associated with transmission of infection. Serum and/or stool specimens were obtained from 1005 volunteers and examined for cysticercosis antibodies and intestinal parasites. Faecal examination of 828 participants revealed infection by Taenia sp. in 2 (0.2%). Three additional cases of taeniasis were detected in individuals who evacuated proglottids after treatment with praziquantel. Of 1005 human serum specimens, 49 (4.9%) were positive in the cysticercosis immunoblot assay. Seropositivity increased with age and reached a peak in subjects aged 46-55 years (P taeniasis.

  15. [Taeniasis, amebiasis and other intestinal parasitosis in school age children from Michoacan State, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Aguilera, R; Aguilar-Bucio, M T; Martínez-Toledo, J L

    1990-03-01

    92.3% schoolchildren aged 6-13 years of a mexican rural village, suspected foci of Taenia solium cysticercosis were screened for intestinal parasites with the main purpose to know the infection rate by taeniasis. An stool sample was collected to schoolchildren of the village and 95.4% of a urban private school as comparative group. Laboratory examinations were performed with the most accurate technics, included microscopies with an ocular micrometer. The general parasitation rate was 4 times higher in the rural village, but the percentages of Taenia spp. infection were 0.6% both of them. Entamoeba histolytica was observed 1.8% and 7.2% in the city and rural village, respectively. All the cases with taeniasis passed T. saginata after treatment with niclosamide. Negative results were obtained with the same chemotherapy in a randomly selected group of 112 schoolchildren which previous stool examination was reported negative. Neither taeniasis were demonstrated in 94 adult persons. These data are suggestive of the great variability on the transmission rates of T. solium cysticercosis in endemic areas and illustrate the faced methodological problems to confirm the diagnosis of taeniasis. By other hand support the hypothesis that estimates of infection rates with E. histolytica have been overdiagnosed in the country. Taeniasis-cysticercosis; schoolchildren; Taenia saginata; amebiasis.

  16. Some comments on the La Primavera geothermal field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A, B.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1983-12-01

    The La Primavera geothermal field is located about 20 km west of the city of Guadalajara, Jalisco, in the western part of the Mexican Neovolcanic Axis. Initial results of five deep exploration wells (down to 2000 m depth) were very promising; measured downhole temperatures exceed 300/sup 0/C. During production, however, downhole temperatures dropped, and the chemistry of the fluids changed. The analysis of geologic, mineralogic, geochemical, and well completion data indicate that colder fluids flow down the wellbore from shallower aquifers cooling the upper zones of the geothermal reservoir. This problem is attributed to inadequate well completions. Doubts have arisen about continuing the exploration of the field because of the somewhat disappointing drilling results. However, a more thorough analysis of all available data indicates that a good geothermal prospect might exist below 3000 m, and that it could be successfully developed with appropriately located and completed wells.

  17. Seismotectonics of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollar, C. J.; Reyes, L. M.; Quintanar, L.; Arellano, J. F.

    2002-12-01

    We studied the background seismic activity in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CPGF) using a network of 21 digital stations. Earthquakes are located below the exploitation area of the CPGF, between 3 and 12 km depth, within the basement. Earthquakes follow roughly a N30°E trend perpendicular to the Cerro Prieto fault. This activity is located on a horst-like structure below the geothermal field and coincides with the zone of maximum subsidence in the CPGF. Two earthquake swarms occurred along the SE-NW strike of the Cerro Prieto fault and in the neighborhood of the Cerro Prieto volcano. Magnitudes range from -0.3 to 2.5. A Vp/Vs=1.91 ratio of the activity below the volcano suggests a water-saturated medium and/or a partial-melt medium. We calculated 76 focal mechanisms of individual events. On June 1 and September 10, 1999, two earthquakes of Mw 5.2 and 5.3 occurred in the basement at depths of 7.4 and 3.8 km below the CPGF. Maximum peak accelerations above the hypocenter ranged from 128.0 to 432.0 cm/s2. Waveform modeling results in a fault geometries given by strike=236°, dip=60°, rake=-58° (normal) and strike=10°, dip=90°, rake=159° (right lateral strike-slip) for the June and September events. Observed triangular source time function of 0.7 seconds and a double source with a total duration of 1.9 seconds for the June and September events were used to calculate the synthetics seismograms. Static stress drops and seismic moments for the June and September events are: Δ\\sigma=82.5 MPa (825 bars), Mo= 7.65x1016 Nm (7.65x1023 dyne-cm) and Δ\\sigma=31.3 MPa (313 bars) and Mo=1.27x1017 Nm (1.27x1024 dyne-cm). These stress drops are typical of continental events rather than stress drops of events originated in spreading centers. We concluded from the focal mechanisms of the background seismicity and June and September 1999 events, that a complex stress environment exits in the CPGF due to the continual thinning of the crust in the Cerro Prieto basin.

  18. Excitation of high-frequency surface waves with long duration in the Valley of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Masahiro

    1999-04-01

    During the 1985 Michoacan earthquake (Ms = 8.1), large-amplitude seismograms with extremely long duration were recorded in the lake bed zone of Mexico City. We interpret high-frequency seismic wave fields in the three geotechnical zones (the hill, the transition, and the lake bed zones) in the Valley of Mexico on the basis of a systematic analysis for borehole strong motion recordings. We make identification of wave types for real seismograms. First, amplitude ratios between surface and underground seismograms indicate that predominant periods of the surface seismograms are largely controlled by the wave field incident into surficial layers in the Valley of Mexico. We interpret recorded surface waves as fundamental-mode Love waves excited in the Mexican Volcanic Belt by calculating theoretical amplification for different-scale structures. Second, according to a cross-correlation analysis, the hill and transition seismograms are mostly surface waves. In the lake bed zone, while early portions are noisy body waves, late portions are mostly surface waves. Third, using two kinds of surface arrays with different station intervals, we investigate high-frequency surface-wave propagation in the lake bed zone. The wave propagation is very complicated, depending upon the time section and the frequency band. Finally, on the basis of a statistical time series model with an information criterion, we separate S- and surface-wave portions from lake bed seismograms. Surface waves are dominant and are recognized even in the early time section. Thus high-frequency surface waves with long duration in the Valley of Mexico are excited by the Mexican Volcanic Belt.

  19. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND EMIGRATION IN THE LERMA-CHAPALA REGION OF MICHOACAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Aguilar-Ortega

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is an indicator of the quality of life of a population; its counterpart is poverty and marginalization. If there is a region development process, then that region is economically stagnant and its population suffers from lack of basic goods and services. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the development in the Lerma-Chapala region of Michoacan and how it has increased the marginalization and poverty in the last ten years. The analysis is based on the official indicators of poverty and marginalization and how these have evolved in this region. The stagnation suffered by the Lerma-Chapala region has meant a gradual increase in the marginalization and poverty of its population without any productive structure that promotes growth andeconomic development.

  20. Uncertainties in SOA simulations due to meteorological uncertainties in Mexico City during MILAGRO-2006 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, N.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the uncertainties in simulating secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA) due to meteorological initial uncertainties using the WRF-CHEM model through ensemble simulations. The simulated periods (24 and 29 March 2006) represent two typical meteorological episodes ("Convection-South" and "Convection-North", respectively) in the Mexico City basin during the MILAGRO-2006 field campaign. The organic aerosols are simulated using a non-traditional SOA model including the volatility basis-set modeling method and the contributions from glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Model results demonstrate that uncertainties in meteorological initial conditions have significant impacts on SOA simulations, including the peak time concentrations, the horizontal distributions, and the temporal variations. The ensemble spread of the simulated peak SOA at T0 can reach up to 4.0 μg m-3 during the daytime, which is around 35% of the ensemble mean. Both the basin wide wind speed and the convergence area affect the magnitude and the location of the simulated SOA concentrations inside the Mexico City basin. The wind speed, especially during the previous midnight and the following early morning, influences the magnitude of the peak SOA concentration through ventilation. The surface horizontal convergence zone generally determines the area with high SOA concentrations. The magnitude of the ensemble spreads may vary with different meteorological episodes but the ratio of the ensemble spread to mean does not change significantly.

  1. Mexico City basin wind circulation during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available MCMA-2003 was a major field campaign investigating the atmospheric chemistry of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA in April of 2003. This paper describes the wind circulation patterns during the campaign both within the Mexico City basin and on the regional scale. ''Time roses'' are introduced to concisely analyze the diurnal wind patterns. Three episode types were identified that explain the conditions encountered: ''O3-South'', ''Cold Surge'' and ''O3-North''. These can be diagnosed from a combination of synoptic and basin observations based on whether the day was predominantly cloudy, or whether the O3 peak was in the north or south of the basin. O3-South days have weak synoptic forcing due to an anti-cyclone over the eastern Pacific. Strong solar heating leads to northerly flows in the basin and an evening shift due to a gap flow from the south-east. Peak ozone concentrations are in the convergence zone in the south of the city. Cold Surge days are associated with ''El Norte'' events, with strong surface northerlies bringing cold moist air and rain. Stable conditions lead to high concentrations of primary pollutants and peak ozone in the city center. O3-North days occur when the sub-tropical jet is closer to Mexico City. With strong westerlies aloft, the circulation pattern is the same as O3-South days except for a wind shift in the mid-afternoon leading to ozone peaks in the north of the city. This classification is proposed as a means of understanding pollutant transport in the Mexico City basin and as a basis for future meteorological and chemical analysis. Furthermore, model evaluation and design of policy recommendations will need to take into account the three episode types.

  2. Mexico City basin wind circulation during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available MCMA-2003 was a major field campaign investigating the atmospheric chemistry of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA in April of 2003. This paper describes the wind circulation patterns during the campaign both within the Mexico City basin and on the regional scale. ''Time roses'' are introduced to concisely analyze the diurnal wind patterns. Three episode types were identified that explain the conditions encountered: ''O3-South'', ''Cold Surge'' and ''O3-North''. These can be diagnosed from a combination of synoptic and basin observations based on whether the day was predominantly cloudy, or whether the O3 peak was in the north or south of the basin. O3-South days have weak synoptic forcing due to an anti-cyclone over the eastern Pacific. Strong solar heating leads to northerly flows in the basin and an evening shift due to a gap flow from the south-east. Peak ozone concentrations are in the convergence zone in the south of the city. Cold Surge days are associated with ''El Norte'' events, with strong surface northerlies bringing cold moist air and rain. Stable conditions lead to high concentrations of primary pollutants and peak ozone in the city center. O3-North days occur when the sub-tropical jet is closer to Mexico City. With strong westerlies aloft, the circulation pattern is the same as O3-South days except for a wind shift in the mid-afternoon leading to ozone peaks in the north of the city. This classification is proposed as a means of understanding pollutant transport in the Mexico City basin and as a basis for future meteorological and chemical analysis. Furthermore, model evaluation and design of policy recommendations will need to take into account the three episode types.

  3. Atmospheric electric field effects of cosmic rays detected in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, L. X; Valdes-Galicia, J. F [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F(Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    We studied the possible effects of atmospheric electric fields, generated in thunderstorms, on the cosmic ray intensity detected at the Earth's surface by investigating the variations of the counting rates of the cosmic-ray nucleonic component, obtained from the neutron monitor installed in Mexico City, for thunderstorms during 1996 and 1997. These were years of minimum solar activity. We compare our experimental results with the general theory of cosmic ray meteorological effects by Dorman (1995). The observed intensity variation is about 0.2%. According to Dorman (1995), the effect should be between 0.27% and 0.81% on the counting rate of the neutron monitor when the atmospheric electric field intensities are around 100 to 300 Vcm-1.Our results show that either the electric field in Mexico City had less intensity than assumed by Dorman (1995), or the electric field is not uniform in time and height during the development of the thunderstorm. [Spanish] Estudiamos los posibles efectos de los campos electricos atmosfericos, generados en las tormentas electricas, sobre la intensidad de los rayos cosmicos detectados en la superficie terrestre, analizando las variaciones de las razones de conteo de la componente nucleonica de los rayos cosmicos, obtenidas por el monitor de neutrones instalado en la ciudad de Mexico, durante tormentas electricas ocurridas entre 1996 y 1997, anos del minimo solar. Comparamos nuestros resultados experimentales con la teoria general de los efectos meteorologicos en los rayos cosmicos, desarrollada por Dorman (1995). Se observo una variacion en la intensidad de alrededor de 0.2%. De acuerdo con Dorman (1995), el efecto puede estar entre 0.27 % y 0.81% en las razones de conteo del monitor de neutrones cuando las intensidades del campo electrico atmosferico se encuentran al rededor de 100 a 300 Vcm-1. Nuestros resultados muestran que los campos electricos en la ciudad de Mexico tuvieron menos intensidad que los campos electricos asumidos

  4. Geologic and geophysical investigations of the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ander, M. E.; Heiken, G.; Eichelberger, J.; Laughlin, A. W.; Huestis, S.

    1981-05-01

    A positive, northeast-trending gravity anomaly, 90 km long and 30 km wide, extends southwest from the Zuni uplift, New Mexico. The Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, an alignment of 74 basaltic vents, is parallel to the eastern edge of the anomaly. Lavas display a bimodal distribution of tholeiitic and alkalic compositions, and were erupted over a period from 4 Myr to present. A residual gravity profile taken perpendicular to the major axis of the anomaly was analyzed using linear programming and ideal body theory to obtain bounds on the density contrast, depth, and minimum thickness of the gravity body.

  5. Petrologic and petrographic variation of youthful eruptive products in the Tuxtla Volcanic Field, Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, C. B.; Kobs Nawotniak, S. E.; Fredrick, K. C.; Espindola, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Tuxtla Volcanic Field (TVF) is located near the Gulf of Mexico in the southern part of the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Volcanism in the region began around 7 Ma and has continued until recent times with the volcano San Martín Tuxtla’s latest eruptions in AD 1664 and 1793. The TVF rocks are mainly of alkaline composition and have been divided into two separate volcanic series, an older and younger. The TVF is a structural high located between the Veracruz Basin to the southwest and the Gulf of Mexico to the northeast, characterized by relatively thin crust with the depth to the Moho around 28 to 34 km. The TVF is unique because it is isolated from the nearest volcanic fields (the Mexican Volcanic Belt, Central American Volcanic Belt and the Eastern Alkaline Province) by at least 230km and because of the on-going debate over its magmatic origin. Many models have been proposed to explain the TVF’s alkaline nature in a unique location with most linking it either to the subduction of the Cocos plate to the west of Mexico and/or to extensional faulting in the region. The purpose of our study was to determine systematic changes in the youthful volcanic deposits across the TVF. Regional and local mapping was conducted and lava and scoria samples were collected from seven sites associated with two vent clusters in the TVF. Mapping of the easternmost cluster of deposits suggests chronological emplacement of the deposits through superposition and vent location and morphology. The petrography of lava and tephra deposits may further indicate magmatic origins and other factors influencing the development of the field, including chronology and possible mixing and/or differentiation. Previous published studies analyzed samples near the San Martin Tuxtla volcanic center. Their data is used as a comparative reference for these samples, most of which were collected from another, younger cluster east of Laguna Catemaco. From this study, a better understanding of past eruptive

  6. Crustal thickness at the Tuxtla Volcanic Field (Veracruz, Mexico) from receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Camacho, A.; Espindola, V. H.; Pacheco, J. F.; Espindola, J. M.; Godinez, M. L.

    2010-09-01

    The Tuxtla Volcanic Field (TVF) is a structure of basaltic rocks on the western margin of the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican State of Veracruz. Located some 150 km from the easternmost tip of the Mexican Volcanic Belt, its tectonic relationship is still unclear. The volcanism, mostly alkaline, is younger than 7 Ma and has given origin to hundreds of cinder and scoria cones, maars and four large composite volcanoes, one of which, San Martín Tuxtla, erupted explosively in 1793. Due to its volcanological importance, it has been the subject of several geological studies, none of which focused on its crustal structure. Moreover, because the seismicity level in the area is relatively low, no broadband seismometers of Mexico's National Seismological Service are currently installed in the area. In this paper we present the results of the analyses of 24 teleseismic events occurring between 2004 and 2008 recorded in two broadband stations deployed around San Martín volcano. The aim of this study was to determine the depth to the Moho, any major intracrustal interface in the area, and a velocity model by means of receiver function analysis. The results show that the crustal thickness in the area varies between roughly 28 and 34 km. The receiver functions at one station suggest a second interface at a depth between 10 and 14 km. This interface is probably the contact between an upper sedimentary layer and the transitional crust found elsewhere in the margins of the Gulf of Mexico. The determination of the crustal thickness in the TVF is of importance to characterize the area and as a framework to pursue further studies of this volcanic field.

  7. Extending field life in offshore Gulf of Mexico using 3-D seismic survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, T.P.; Olsen, R.S. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Houston, TX (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Discovered by ARCO in 1967, the High Island 24L field (lower Miocene) is located in the Texas state waters of the Gulf of Mexico. By 1986, the field had produced 320 billion ft{sup 3} of gas and 3.0 million bbl of oil. An engineering field study completed in 1986 showed the field was declining and would be unprofitable within 3 yr. Study of reservoir maps revealed three basin problems: volumetric reserve calculations were less than reserves produced, hydrocarbon-water contacts were inconsistent between wells thought to be in communication, and ultimate recoveries could not be accurately calculated. Attempts to remap the field with the existing two-dimensional seismic data base and well data proved unsuccessful. In 1986, a three-dimensional seismic survey was acquired in an effort to evaluate the true present worth and potential of the field. Remapping of 30 reservoir horizons began in 1987. The integration of detailed well log correlations tied to the dense grid of quality three dimensional seismic data improved the reservoir maps. These maps helped resolve engineering problems by defining the configuration of the reservoirs more accurately. Reservoir maps now closely match volumetrics, fluid contacts within reservoir units are consistent, and a better definition of extension well opportunities exists. The authors study resulted in six additional wells. These wells along with engineering modifications and operations cost containment resulted in the extension of the economic life of the High Island 24-L field by at least 8 yr.

  8. Characterization of obsidian devices come from San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico by Neutron Activation Analysis; Caracterizacion de artefactos de obsidiana provenientes de San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico con Analisis por Activacion Neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almazan T, M.G.; Jimenez R, M.; Monroy G, F.; Tenorio C, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an efficient multielemental technique for determination of elements in low concentration (ppm), what has been result useful in the study of origin of archaeological material. In this work that technique was used for characterizing obsidian devices coming from the San Miguel Ixtapan site, Estado de Mexico and it was found that these come from three important beds which are: Sierra de Pachuca, Hidalgo, Zinapecuaro and Zinaparo-Varal in the Michoacan state. (Author)

  9. Chemical Variations in the Rocks of La Primavera Geothermal Field (Mexico) Related with Hydrothermal Alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prol-Ledesma, R.M.; Hernandez-Lombardini, S.I.; Lozano-Santa Cruz, R.

    1995-01-01

    The origin and fate of the components dissolved in the geothermal fluids are of great importance in the study of epithermal deposits, and in the environmental considerations for exploitation of geothermal fields. The chemical study of La Primavera geothermal field in Mexico has environmental importance due to the high arsenic concentration observed in the thermal water and the possible contamination of aquifers in the area. The variations in the chemistry of all altered samples with respect to unaltered samples indicates depletion of manganese, and the alkalis; and enrichment in iron and magnesium. Most samples show an enrichment in aluminum and titanium, and depletion in silica and calcium. Trace elements follow different trends at various depths: shallow depths are more favorable for deposition of the analyzed trace elements than the surface or the deep part of the reservoir.

  10. SELF-POTENTIAL SURVEY AT THE CERRO PRIETO GEOTHERMAL FIELD, BAJA CALIFORNIA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, R.F.; Diaz C., S.; Rodriguez B., J.

    1978-06-01

    In December 1977, two self-potential survey lines were run across the producing area of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, located about 30 km south of Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. The purpose of the survey was to determine whether significant self-potential variations were related to the known geothermal activity. Large-amplitude, long-wavelength self-potential anomalies are seen in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. The inflection points of the anomalies are roughly centered over two major faults thought to act as conduits for the thermal fluids, and the form of the anomalies indicates that they may be generated by electrical activity extending to a depth of several km along the fault zones. Thus, self-potential measurements may be helpful in tracing thermally active fault zones in the Cerro Prieto area.

  11. DIGITAL PRESERVATION OF ANCIENT MAYA CAVE ARCHITECTURE: RECENT FIELD EFFORTS IN QUINTANA ROO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rissolo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of ancient Maya shrines in caves serves as unequivocal evidence for the ritual appropriation of these subterranean spaces and their significance with respect to Maya religious practice. Detailed study of the miniature masonry temples and altar features in the caves of Quintana Roo, Mexico reveals a strong stylistic and likely functional correspondence between these structures and their terrestrial counterparts at Postclassic sites. The Proyecto Arquitectura Subterranea de Quintana Roo (coordinated by the Center of Interdisciplinary Science for Art, Architecture, and Archaeology, or CISA3, at the University of California, San Diego and in collaboration with the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia in Mexico is conducting a survey and program of digital documentation of both the pristine and impacted cave shrines of the region. Once an area is developed and populated, and access is opened to caves containing ancient architectural features, they are soon vandalized – often resulting in the complete obliteration of these rare miniature buildings and their diagnostic architectural elements. This emergent situation necessitates the use of rapid reality-capture tools; however, the physical challenges of working in caves requires researchers of adapt increasingly common architectural documentation methodologies to more adverse field conditions.

  12. Digital Preservation of Ancient Maya Cave Architecture: Recent Field Efforts in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissolo, D.; Lo, E.; Hess, M. R.; Meyer, D. E.; Amador, F. E.

    2017-08-01

    The presence of ancient Maya shrines in caves serves as unequivocal evidence for the ritual appropriation of these subterranean spaces and their significance with respect to Maya religious practice. Detailed study of the miniature masonry temples and altar features in the caves of Quintana Roo, Mexico reveals a strong stylistic and likely functional correspondence between these structures and their terrestrial counterparts at Postclassic sites. The Proyecto Arquitectura Subterranea de Quintana Roo (coordinated by the Center of Interdisciplinary Science for Art, Architecture, and Archaeology, or CISA3, at the University of California, San Diego and in collaboration with the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia in Mexico) is conducting a survey and program of digital documentation of both the pristine and impacted cave shrines of the region. Once an area is developed and populated, and access is opened to caves containing ancient architectural features, they are soon vandalized - often resulting in the complete obliteration of these rare miniature buildings and their diagnostic architectural elements. This emergent situation necessitates the use of rapid reality-capture tools; however, the physical challenges of working in caves requires researchers of adapt increasingly common architectural documentation methodologies to more adverse field conditions.

  13. Geology and K-Ar dating of the Tuxtla Volcanic Field, Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Stephen A.; Gonzalez-Caver, Erika

    1992-12-01

    The Tuxtla Volcanic Field (TVF) is located on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the southern part of the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Volcanism began about 7 my ago, in the Late Miocene, and continued to recent times with historical eruptions in ad 1664 and 1793. The oldest rocks occur as highly eroded remnants of lava flows in the area surrounding the historically active cone of San Martín Tuxtla. Between about 3 and 1 my ago, four large composite volcanoes were built in the eastern part of the area. Rocks from these structures are hydrothermally altered and covered with lateritic soils, and their northern slopes show extensive erosional dissection that has widened preexisting craters to form erosional calderas. The eastern volcanoes are composed of alkali basalts, hawaiites, mugearites, and benmoreites, with less common calc-alkaline basaltic andesites and andesites. In the western part of the area, San Martín Tuxtla Volcano and its over 250 satellite cinder cones and maars produced about 120 km3 of lava over the last 0.8 my. A ridge of flank cinder cones blocked drainage to the north to form Laguna Catemaco. Lavas erupted from San Martín and its flank vents are restricted to compositions between basanite and alkali basalt. The alignment of major volcanoes and flank vents along a N55°W trend suggests an extensional stress field in the crust with a minimum compressional stress orientation of N35° E. In total, about 800 km3 of lava has been erupted in the TVF in the last 7 my. This gives a magma output rate of about 0.1 km3/1000 year, a value smaller than most composite cones, but similar to cinder cone fields that occur in central Mexico. Individual eruptions over the last 5000 years had volumes on the order of 0.1km3, with average recurrence intervals of 600 years. The alkaline compositions of the TVF lavas contrast markedly with the calc-alkaline compositions erupted in the subduction-related Mexican Volcanic Belt to the west, leading previous workers to

  14. Multi-scale Hydrologic Modeling of the White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret, S. M.; Newton, B. T.

    2014-12-01

    The shallow groundwater flow system of White Sands dune field, located within the arid to semi-arid Tularosa Basin of Southern New Mexico, likely stabilizes the base of the largest gypsum dune field in the world. The dune is saturated throughout nearly its entire accumulation thickness, resulting in a shallow water table (adapted to survive there. In response to projected increases in groundwater pumping in the regional Tularosa Basin groundwater system, changes in surface water use, and the threat of climate change, the WHSA is interested in understanding how these changes on a regional scale may impact the shallow dune field aquifer. Mathematical modeling techniques on varying spatial and temporal scales are used to characterize the relative importance of the sources of water (local vs. regional) to the dune aquifer, and to quantify the timescales on which changes may affect the water table in the dune field. A 2-dimensional, dune-scale heat and fluid flow model uses the seasonal temperature fluctuations to estimate the vertical and horizontal flow of water from the regional system to the dune field aquifer. We have also constructed a 2-dimensional, hydrologic model to characterize the regional groundwater flow regime near to the dune aquifer system, as well as across the Tularosa Basin to a depth of 6 km. Additionally, a 3-dimensional, hydrologic model of the Tularosa Basin and the White Sands dune field quantifies hydrologic characteristics, sources and sinks of groundwater in the basin and at the dune field. Computed and observed salinity, groundwater residence times, and water level data are the primary means of model calibration. Preliminary results from the three models indicate the regional groundwater system does contribute flow to the dune aquifer, and that increased pumping may increase drawdown of the regional groundwater system near the dune field. These results indicate the dune is sensitive to regional hydrologic changes.

  15. Hydrothermal alteration and fluid inclusion geothermometry of Los Humeros geothermal field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prol-Ledesma, R.M. (Inst. de Geofisica and DEPFI, UNAM, Cd. Univ., Coyoacan 04510 (MX)); Browne, P.R.L. (Geothermal Inst. and Geology Dept., Auckland Univ., Private Bag, Auckland (NZ))

    1989-01-01

    The Los Humeros geothermal field, located in Puebla State, Mexico, occurs in a caldera; drillholes to 3000 m depth encountered a sequence of Quaternary lavas and pyroclastic rocks that range in composition from rhyolite to basalt but are dominantly andesitic. These rest upon the local basement comprising limestone and siltstone of Cretaceous age, which was encountered below 2500 m in the northern part of the field and 1000 m in its southern part. Examination of 29 cores, mostly from below 900 m depth, from 14 wells show that the hydrothermal minerals that occur in the volcanic host rocks include quarts, calcite, epidote, amphibole, sericite, smectite, illite, chlorite, biotite, pyrite and hematite. Their distribution mainly reflects the prevailing hydrological and thermal regime where temperatures locally exceed 300{degrees} C. A preliminary model for the hydrology of the field based upon the hydrothermal alteration mineralogy and fluid inclusion data suggests that dilute hot water ascends via faults in the Central Caldera collapse area of the field and moves laterally outward to elsewhere within the caldera.

  16. Geochemistry of igneous rocks from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, northern Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, C. T.

    1990-08-01

    Fractional crystallization of basaltic magma, derived from an oceanic affinity source region present beneath the Salton Trough and emplaced into a pull-apart basin of this continental rift regime, produced a tholeiitic suite of hypabyssal rocks consisting of basalt, andesite and dacite within the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, located in northern Baja California, Mexico. Higher light-rare-earth-element abundances for a basalt from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in comparison to basalts from the Gulf of California and the East Pacific Rise suggest partial assimilation of crustal materials into the parental magmas generated beneath the Salton Trough. The crustal contaminant may be present near the surface today in the form of granitoids of the Peninsular Ranges batholith, at deeper levels as hydrothermally altered materials near the base of the Salton Trough, or may be a relict feature of Tertiary subduction contained within the upper mantle beneath the Salton Trough. The Sr isotopic compositions of dacites from the nearby Cerro Prieto volcano range from 0.7029 to 0.7036, indicating an oceanic affinity source for these rocks. The suite of hypabyssal rocks of tholeiitic affinity present within the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, related by fractional crystallization, link the dacite volcano of Cerro Prieto to gabbroic plutons inferred to exist beneath the Cerro Prieto geothermal field.

  17. Numerical Studies of the Heat and Mass Transport in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, M. J.; Bodavarsson, G. S.

    1983-06-01

    Numerical simulation techniques are employed in studies of the natural flow of heat and mass through the Cerro Prieto reservoir, Mexico and of the effects of exploitation on the field's behavior. The reservoir model is a two-dimensional vertical east to west-southwest cross section, which is based on a recent hydrogeologic model of this geothermal system. The numerical code MULKOM is used in the simulation studies. The steady state pressure and temperature distributions are computed and compared against observed preproduction pressures and temperatures; a reasonable match is obtained. A natural hot water recharge rate of about 1×10-2 kg/s per meter of field length (measured in a north-south direction) is obtained. The model is then used to simulate the behavior of the field during the 1973-1978 production period. The response of the model to fluid extraction agrees to what has been observed in the field or postulated by other authors. There is a decrease in temperatures and pressures in the produced region. No extensive two-phase zone develops in the reservoir because of the strong fluid recharge. Most of the fluid recharging the system comes from colder regions located above and west of the produced reservoir.

  18. Definition and origin of the dune-field pattern at White Sands, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitis, Elke; Kocurek, Gary; Smith, Virginia; Mohrig, David; Ewing, Ryan C.; Peyret, A.-P. B.

    2014-12-01

    A LiDAR-derived digital elevation model (DEM) of a representative portion of the White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico, allows for characterization of an unprecedented range of dune-field parameters and serves as a basis for pattern analysis. Dune-field parameters were measured and statistically analyzed for populations of dunes selected at random and occurring along transects. Populations sampled by these two different methods are comparable, but highlight the sensitivity of transect placement in a dune field that has pattern heterogeneity. Based upon coefficients of variation, pattern emerges at White Sands primarily because of a strong fabric of crestline orientation, and secondarily because of the regularity of spacing between dunes of similar shape as defined by sinuosity, height and length. Linear regression of dune parameters shows that dune geometric relationships vary primarily with crestline length, but there is little correlation between other parameters, including dune spacing and height. This result highlights the sensitivity of identifying topographic heterogeneity in a LiDAR-derived DEM, given that mean ratios conform to global averages. Stripping off the dunes in Matlab shows a terraced surface, which is interpreted to represent paleo-shorelines formed during relative still stands in the overall retreat of Lake Otero. Elevated bands of higher, more closely spaced dunes occur just leeward of the paleo-shorelines. A revised model for the White Sands Dune Field consists of the basinward progradation of successive dune-field segments. Each segment is associated with a paleo-shoreline, and consists of an upwind dune ridge, represented by the elevated bands, and a leeward dune field.

  19. The School for Field Studies Centre for Coastal Studies: A Case Study of Sustainable Development Education in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, T. A.; Ollervides, F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To present the School for Field Studies-Centre for Coastal Studies (SFS-CCS) study abroad Mexico program, and consider its relative success as a sustainable development education program. Design/methodology/approach: The SFS-CCS academic model and results of its implementation are presented. Program success is discussed by applying…

  20. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of technically recoverable, conventional oil in selected oil fields in the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The mean total volume of potential additional oil resources that might be added using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 2.7 billion barrels of oil.

  1. Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerle, William; Hall, Stephen

    2005-12-30

    In 2002, Gnomon, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for a project entitled, Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming (DE-FC26-02NT15445). This project, funded through DOE’s Preferred Upstream Management Practices grant program, examined cultural resource management practices in two major oil- and gas-producing areas, southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming (Figure 1). The purpose of this project was to examine how cultural resources have been investigated and managed and to identify more effective management practices. The project also was designed to build information technology and modeling tools to meet both current and future management needs. The goals of the project were described in the original proposal as follows: Goal 1. Create seamless information systems for the project areas. Goal 2. Examine what we have learned from archaeological work in the southeastern New Mexico oil fields and whether there are better ways to gain additional knowledge more rapidly or at a lower cost. Goal 3. Provide useful sensitivity models for planning, management, and as guidelines for field investigations. Goal 4. Integrate management, investigation, and decision- making in a real-time electronic system. Gnomon, Inc., in partnership with the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office (WYSHPO) and Western GeoArch Research, carried out the Wyoming portion of the project. SRI Foundation, in partnership with the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division (NMHPD), Statistical Research, Inc., and Red Rock Geological Enterprises, completed the New Mexico component of the project. Both the New Mexico and Wyoming summaries concluded with recommendations how cultural resource management (CRM) processes might be modified based on the findings of this research.

  2. Measurements and Slope Analyses of Quaternary Cinder Cones, Camargo Volcanic Field, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, M. I.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.

    2012-12-01

    The Camargo volcanic field (CVF) covers ~3000 km2 and is located in the southeast part of the state of Chihuahua, within the Basin and Range province. The CVF represents the largest mafic alkali volcanic field in northern Mexico. Over a 300 cinder cones have been recognized in the Camargo volcanic field. Volcanic activity ranges from 4.7 to 0.09 Ma revealed by 40Ar/39Ar dating methods. Previous studies say that there is a close relationship between the cinder cone slope angle, due to mechanical weathering, and age. This technique is considered a reliable age indicator, especially in arid climates, such as occur in the CVF. Data were acquired with digital topographic maps (DRG) and digital elevation models (DEM) overlapped in the Global Mapper software. For each cone, the average radius (r) was calculated from six measurements, the height (h) is the difference between peak elevation and the altitude of the contour used to close the radius, and the slope angle was calculated using the equation Θ = tan-1(h/r). The slope angles of 30 cinder cones were calculated showing angles ranging from 4 to 15 degrees. A diffusion model, displayed by an exponential relationship between slope angle and age, places the ages of these 30 cones from 215 to 82 ka, within the range marked by radiometric methods. Future work include the analysis of more cinder cones to cover the whole CVF, and contribute to the validation of this technique.

  3. Fracture hydraulic conductivity in the Mexico City clayey aquitard: Field piezometer rising-head tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Carlos; Ortega-Guerrero, Adrián

    A regional lacustrine aquitard covers the main aquifer of the metropolitan area of Mexico City. The aquitard's hydraulic conductivity (K') is fundamental for evaluating the natural protection of the aquifer against a variety of contaminants present on the surface and its hydraulic response. This study analyzes the distribution and variation of K' in the plains of Chalco, Texcoco and Mexico City (three of the six former lakes that existed in the Basin of Mexico), on the basis of 225 field-permeability tests, in nests of existing piezometers located at depths of 2-85 m. Tests were interpreted using the Hvorslev method and some by the Bouwer-Rice method. Results indicate that the distribution of K' fits log-Gaussian regression models. Dominant frequencies for K' in the Chalco and Texcoco plains range between 1E-09 and 1E-08 m/s, with similar population means of 1.19E-09 and 1.7E-09 m/s, respectively, which are one to two orders of magnitude higher than the matrix conductivity. In the Mexico City Plain the population mean is near by one order of magnitude lower; K'=2.6E-10 m/s. The contrast between the measured K' and that of the matrix is attributed to the presence of fractures in the upper 25-40 m, which is consistent with the findings of previous studies on solute migration in the aquitard. Un imperméable régional d'origine lacustre recouvre le principal aquifère de la zone urbaine de la ville de Mexico. La conductivité hydraulique K' de cet imperméable est fondamentale pour évaluer la protection naturelle de l'aquifère, contre les différents contaminants présents en surface, et sa réponse hydraulique. Cette étude analyse et les variations de K' dans les plaines de Chalco, Texcoco et Mexico (trois des six anciens lacs qui existaient dans le Bassin de Mexico), sur la base de 225 essais de perméabilité sur le terrain, réalisés en grappes dans des piézomètres existants entre 2 et 85 m de profondeur. Les essais ont été interprétés avec la m

  4. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Robinson

    2004-07-01

    This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five subcontractors that have taken place during the first six months of 2004 (January 1, 2004-June 30, 2004) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Although Gnomon and all five subcontractors completed tasks during these six months, most of the technical experimental work was conducted by the subcontractor, SRI Foundation (SRIF). SRIF created a sensitivity model for the Azotea Mesa area of southeastern New Mexico that rates areas as having a very good chance, a good chance, or a very poor chance of containing cultural resource sites. SRIF suggested that the results of the sensitivity model might influence possible changes in cultural resource management (CRM) practices in the Azote Mesa area of southeastern New Mexico.

  5. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Robinson

    2004-01-01

    This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five subcontractors that have taken place during the second six months (July 1, 2003-December 31, 2003) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Although Gnomon and all five subcontractors completed tasks during these six months, most of the technical experimental work was conducted by the subcontractor, SRI Foundation (SRIF). SRIF created a sensitivity model for the Loco Hills area of southeastern New Mexico that rates areas as having a very good chance, a good chance, or a very poor chance of containing cultural resource sites. SRIF suggested that the results of the sensitivity model might influence possible changes in cultural resource management (CRM) practices in the Loco Hills area of southeastern New Mexico.

  6. Lacunarity of geophysical well logs in the Cantarell oil field, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arizabalo, Ruben Dario [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Oleschko, Klavdia [Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Juriquilla, Queretaro (Mexico); Korvin, Gabor [King Fahd University, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Lozada, Manuel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Castrejon, Ricardo [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ronquillo, Gerardo [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-04-15

    Lacunarity and fractal variations in geophysical well logs are associated with stratigraphic and petrophysical properties of the naturally fractured Cantarell field in the Gulf of Mexico. Neutron porosity (NPHI), density (RHOB, DRHO, PEF), resistivity (LLD, LLS, MSFL), natural radioactivity (GR, CGR, URAN, POTA, THOR) and caliper (CALI) logs are studied. The resistivity logs yielded remarkably high lacunarity values, especially in the hydrocarbon source- and reservoir rocks. Lacunarity {delta} was found to depend on the resolution and radial depth of penetration of the logging method. It systematically increased in the following order: {delta}(RHOB) < {delta}(CALI) < {delta}(PEF) < {delta}(URAN) < {delta}(GR) < {delta}(NPHI) < {delta}(POTA) < {delta}(CGR) < {delta}(THOR) < {delta}(MSFL) < {delta}(DRHO) < {delta}(LLS) < {delta}(LLD). [Spanish] En este trabajo fueron analizadas las variaciones fractales y de lagunaridad de los registros geofisicos de pozo, con el fin de asociarlos con las propiedades estratigraficas y petrofisicas del yacimiento naturalmente fracturado de Cantarell, en el Golfo de Mexico. Los registros considerados fueron: porosidad neutron (NPHI), densidad (RHOB, DRHO, PEF), resistividad (LLD, LLS, MSFL), radiactividad natural (GR, CGR, URAN, POTA, THOR) y caliper (CALI). Los registros de resistividad produjeron valores de lagunaridad notablemente altos, especialmente en las rocas generadoras y almacenadoras, a diferencia de los demas registros, cuya homogeneidad de traza implico una baja lagunaridad. Los resultados indican que la lagunaridad observada depende de la resolucion y profundidad radial de penetracion del metodo geofisico estudiado y aumenta sistematicamente en el siguiente orden: {delta}(RHOB) < {delta}(CALI) < {delta}(PEF) < {delta}(URAN) < {delta}(GR) < {delta}(NPHI) < {delta}(POTA) < {delta}(CGR) < {delta}(THOR) < {delta}(MSFL) < {delta}(DRHO) < {delta}(LLS) < {delta}(LLD).

  7. Field development planning for an offshore extra heavy oil in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Garcia, G.; Anguiano-Rojas, J. [PEMEX Exploration and Production, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented a phased development strategy for an offshore extra-heavy oil development located in the Gulf of Mexico. The Ayatsil-1 oil field is located in an upper Cretaceous brecciated formation. One of the primary concerns of the project is the infrastructure that is needed to handle low reservoir temperatures and high viscosity, low gravity API oil. A delineation well was drilled in order to confirm the areal extension of the reservoir. The field contains an estimated 3.1 billion barrels of oil-in-place. The project will involve the installation of fixed platforms and production platforms. Electric submersible pumps (ESPs) and multiphase pumps will be used to transport the oil from between 17 to 25 wells. Analyses were conducted to determine transport mechanisms as well as gathering networks in both stationary and transitory regimes. The viscosity of live and dead oil in the reservoirs must be accurately measured in relation to temperature in order to define the artificial systems that will be used to reduce viscosity. Results from several studies will be used to determine the feasibility of various chemical, thermal, and diluent applications. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  8. A 3D model of crustal magnetization at the Pinacate Volcanic Field, NW Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Abdeslem, Juan; Calmus, Thierry

    2015-08-01

    The Pinacate Volcanic Field (PVF) is located near the western border of the southern Basin and Range province, in the State of Sonora NW Mexico, and within the Gulf of California Extensional Province. This volcanic field contains the shield volcano Santa Clara, which mainly consists of basaltic to trachytic volcanic rocks, and reaches an altitude of ~ 1200 m. The PVF disrupts a series of discontinuous ranges of low topographic relief aligned in a NW direction, which consist mainly of Proterozoic metamorphic rocks and Proterozoic through Paleogene granitoids. The PVF covers an area of approximately 60 by 55 km, and includes more than 400 well-preserved cinder cones and vents and eight maar craters. It was active from about 1.7 Ma until about 13 ka. We have used the ages and magnetic polarities of the volcanic rocks, along with mapped magnetic anomalies and their inverse modeling to determine that the Pinacate Volcanic Field was formed during two volcanic episodes. The oldest one built the Santa Clara shield volcano of basaltic and trachytic composition, and occurred during the geomagnetic Matuyama Chron of reverse polarity, which also includes the normal polarity Jaramillo and Olduvai Subchrons, thus imprinting both normal and reverse magnetization in the volcanic products. The younger Pinacate series of basaltic composition represents monogenetic volcanic activity that extends all around the PVF and occurred during the subsequent geomagnetic Brunhes Chron of normal polarity. Magnetic anomalies toward the north of the Santa Clara volcano are the most intense in the PVF, and their inverse modeling indicates the presence of a large subsurface body magnetized in the present direction of the geomagnetic field. This suggests that the magma chambers at depth cooled below the Curie temperature during the Brunhes Chron.

  9. Field guide to Cretaceous-tertiary boundary sections in northeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Gerta; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Adatte, Thierry; Macleod, Norman; Lowe, Donald R.

    1994-01-01

    This guide was prepared for the field trip to the KT elastic sequence of northeastern Mexico, 5-8 February 1994, in conjunction with the Conference on New Developments Regarding the KT Event and Other Catastrophes in Earth History, held in Houston, Texas. The four-day excursion offers an invaluable opportunity to visit three key outcrops: Arroyo El Mimbral, La Lajilla, and El Pinon. These and other outcrops of this sequence have recently been interpreted as tsunami deposits produced by the meteorite impact event that produced the 200 to 300-km Chicxulub basin in Yucatan, and distributed ejecta around the world approximately 65 m.y. ago that today is recorded as a thin clay layer found at the K/T boundary. The impact tsunami interpretation for these rocks has not gone unchallenged, and others examining the outcrops arrive at quite different conclusions: not tsunami deposits but turbidites; not KT at all but 'upper Cretaceous.' Indeed, it is in hopes of resolving this debate through field discussion, outcrop evaluation, and sampling that led the organizers of the conference to sanction this field trip. This field guide provides participants with background information on the KT clastic sequence outcrops and is divided into two sections. The first section provides regional and logistical context for the outcrops and a description of the clastic sequence. The second section presents three representative interpretations of the outcrops by their advocates. There is clearly no way that these models can be reconciled and so two, if not all three, must be fundamentally wrong. Readers of this guide should keep in mind that many basic outcrop observations that these models are based upon remain unresolved. While great measures were taken to ensure that the information in the description section was as objective as possible, many observations are rooted in interpretations and the emphasis placed on certain observations depends to some degree upon the perspective of the author.

  10. Paleomagnetic evidence for an episodic eruptive history of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M. R.; Thompson, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Pliocene to Quaternary (~2.6-1.14 Ma) Cerros del Rio volcanic field of northern New Mexico forms a dissected basaltic plateau sourced by multiple eruptive centers. Paleomagnetic data compliment geologic mapping, geochronologic and geochemical data to define the spatial and temporal eruptive history of Cerros del Rio volcanic deposits. The preserved stratigraphic sequence reflects three principal phases of volcanism; 1) 2.7-2.6 Ma, 2) 2.5-2.2 Ma, and 3) 1.5-1.1 Ma. Paleomagnetic data collected from 85 sites that span the area of the volcanic field largely sample phase-1 deposits that record the Guass normal-polarity chron or phase-2 deposits that record the Matuyama reversed-polarity chron. A grand mean of individual sites (excluding transitional directions) is D = 352.8°, I = 49.7°, k= 14, a95 = 3.9. However, normal- and reversed-polarity group means are not statistically antipodal, with the normal-polarity inclination being significantly shallower than an expected (55°) dipole inclination. This failed reversal test suggests that paleosecular variation has not be fully averaged within both polarity groups, despite a basis on abundant data from multiple eruptive centers. Compared to variation recorded by the full volcanic field, site directions from individual eruptive centers have restricted dispersion, indicating that the centers formed quickly relative to paleosecular variation. Grouping data within individual eruptive centers to calculate eruptive-group means (EGM), directions of the normal- and reversed-polarity EGM remain skewed from antipodal. Modal analysis demonstrates the presence of multiple directional clusters among the normal-polarity EGM whereas the frequency distribution of reversed polarity EGM are symmetrical about their maximum. These paleomagnetic directional characteristics indicate that voluminous phase-1 deposits of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field probably erupted episodically during short time intervals and that several individual

  11. Internal architecture of the Tuxtla volcanic field, Veracruz, Mexico, inferred from gravity and magnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espindola, Juan Manuel; Lopez-Loera, Hector; Mena, Manuel; Zamora-Camacho, Araceli

    2016-09-01

    The Tuxtla Volcanic Field (TVF) is a basaltic volcanic field emerging from the plains of the western margin of the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican State of Veracruz. Separated by hundreds of kilometers from the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt to the NW and the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc to the SE, it stands detached not only in location but also in the composition of its rocks, which are predominantly alkaline. These characteristics make its origin somewhat puzzling. Furthermore, one of the large volcanoes of the field, San Martin Tuxtla, underwent an eruptive period in historical times (CE 1793). Such volcanic activity conveys particular importance to the study of the TVF from the perspective of volcanology and hazard assessment. Despite the above circumstances, few investigations about its internal structure have been reported. In this work, we present analyses of gravity and aeromagnetic data obtained from different sources. We present the complete Bouguer anomaly of the area and its separation into regional and residual components. The aeromagnetic data were processed to yield the reduction to the pole, the analytic signal, and the upward continuation to complete the interpretation of the gravity analyses. Three-dimensional density models of the regional and residual anomalies were obtained by inversion of the gravity signal adding the response of rectangular prisms at the nodes of a regular grid. We obtained a body with a somewhat flattened top at 16 km below sea level from the inversion of the regional. Three separate slender bodies with tops 6 km deep were obtained from the inversion of the residual. The gravity and magnetic anomalies, as well as the inferred source bodies that produce those geophysical anomalies, lie between the Sontecomapan and Catemaco faults, which are proposed as flower structures associated with an inferred deep-seated fault termed the Veracruz Fault. These fault systems along with magma intrusion at the lower crust are necessary features to

  12. Study of the structural control of fluid flow within the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, J.E.; Manon, M.A.; Lippmann, M.J.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1977-10-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Comision Federal de Electricidad of Mexico are conducting a joint investigation of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, located approximately 35 km south of Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico, in the Sea of Cortez-Salton Trough. Recent analyses of various geophysical/electrical logs, temperature logs, production and geochemical data and the subsequently developed preliminary model of the structure of the geothermal system and the distribution of geothermal fluids are presented. Techniques routinely applied to petroleum exploration were successfully used in the development of a preliminary model of this water-dominated system. The study indicates the upwelling of geothermal fluids along an east bounding fault from a deep, as yet unexplored source. The fluids dissipate into various sand horizons at various depths. The resulting stratigraphic and fluid flow model is of importance in planning additional developments of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field.

  13. Air Quality in Megacities: Lessons Learned from Mexico City Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    More than half of the world's population now lives in urban areas because of the opportunities for better jobs, access to city services, cultural and educational activities, and a desire for more stimulating human interaction. At the same time, many of these urban centers are expanding rapidly, giving rise to the phenomenon of megacities. In recent decades air pollution has become not only one of the most important environmental problems of megacities, but also presents serious consequences to human health and ecosystems and economic costs to society. Although the progress to date in combating air pollution problems in developed and some developing world megacities has been impressive, many challenges remain including the need to improve air quality while simultaneously mitigating climate change. This talk will present the results and the lessons learned from field measurements conducted in Mexico City Metropolitan Area - one of the world's largest megacities - over the past decade. While each city has its own unique circumstances, the need for an integrated assessment approach in addressing complex environmental problems is the same. There is no single strategy in solving air pollution problems in megacities; a mix of policy measures based on sound scientific findings will be necessary to improve air quality, protect public health, and mitigate climate change.

  14. A geostatistical method applied to the geochemical study of the Chichinautzin Volcanic Field in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robidoux, P.; Roberge, J.; Urbina Oviedo, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    The origin of magmatism and the role of the subducted Coco's Plate in the Chichinautzin volcanic field (CVF), Mexico is still a subject of debate. It has been established that mafic magmas of alkali type (subduction) and calc-alkali type (OIB) are produced in the CVF and both groups cannot be related by simple fractional crystallization. Therefore, many geochemical studies have been done, and many models have been proposed. The main goal of the work present here is to provide a new tool for the visualization and interpretation of geochemical data using geostatistics and geospatial analysis techniques. It contains a complete geodatabase built from referred samples over the 2500 km2 area of CVF and its neighbour stratovolcanoes (Popocatepetl, Iztaccihuatl and Nevado de Toluca). From this database, map of different geochemical markers were done to visualise geochemical signature in a geographical manner, to test the statistic distribution with a cartographic technique and highlight any spatial correlations. The distribution and regionalization of the geochemical signatures can be viewed in a two-dimensional space using a specific spatial analysis tools from a Geographic Information System (GIS). The model of spatial distribution is tested with Linear Decrease (LD) and Inverse Distance Weight (IDW) interpolation technique because they best represent the geostatistical characteristics of the geodatabase. We found that ratio of Ba/Nb, Nb/Ta, Th/Nb show first order tendency, which means visible spatial variation over a large scale area. Monogenetic volcanoes in the center of the CVF have distinct values compare to those of the Popocatepetl-Iztaccihuatl polygenetic complex which are spatially well defined. Inside the Valley of Mexico, a large quantity of monogenetic cone in the eastern portion of CVF has ratios similar to the Iztaccihuatl and Popocatepetl complex. Other ratios like alkalis vs SiO2, V/Ti, La/Yb, Zr/Y show different spatial tendencies. In that case, second

  15. Using Acceleration Records as Diffuse Fields for Tomography of the Valley of Mexico City: Synthetic Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, M.; Perton, M.; Molina-Villegas, J. C.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    In order to improve the understanding of the seismic response of Mexico City Valley, we have proposed to perform a tomography study of the seismic wave velocities. For that purpose, we used a collection of acceleration seismograms (corresponding to earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 4.5 to 8.1 and various epicentral distances to the City) recorded since 1985 in 83 stations distributed across the Valley. The H/V spectral ratios (obtained from average autocorrelations) strongly suggest these movements belong to a 3D generalized diffuse field. Thus, we interpret that cross-correlations between the signals of station pairs are proportional to the imaginary part of the corresponding Green function. Finally, the dispersion curves are constructed from the Green function which lead to the tomography. Other tomographies have already been made around the world using either the seismic coda or seismic noise. We used instead the ensemble of many earthquakes from distant sources that have undergone multiple scattering by the heterogeneities of the Earth and assume the wave fields are equipartitioned. The purpose of the present study is to describe the different steps of the data processing by using synthetic models. The wave propagation within an alluvial basin is simulated using the Indirect Boundary Element Method (IBEM) in 2D configuration for the propagation of P and SV waves. The theoretical Green function for a station pair is obtained by placing a unit force at one station and a receiver at the other. The valley illumination is composed by incoming waves which are simulated using distant independent sources and several diffractors. Data process is validated by the correct retrieval the theoretical Green function. We present here the in-plane Green function for the P-SV case and show the dispersion curves constructed from the cross-correlations compared with analytic results for a layer over a half-space. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. This study is partially supported by AXA

  16. Eruptive Productivity of the Ceboruco-San Pedro Volcanic Field, Nayarit, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H. M.; Lange, R. A.; Hall, C. M.; Delgado-Granados, H.

    2002-12-01

    High-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology coupled with GIS spatial analysis provides constraints on magma eruption rates over the past 1 Myr of the Ceboruco-San Pedro volcanic field (1870 km2), located in the Tepic-Zacoalco rift in western Mexico. The volcanic field is part of the Trans Mexican Volcanic arc and is dominated by the andesitic-dacitic stratocone of Volcan Ceboruco and includes peripheral fissure-fed flows, domes, and monogenetic cinder cones. The ages of these volcanic features were determined using 40Ar/39Ar laser step-heating techniques on groundmass or mineral separates, with 78% of the 52 analyses yielding plateau ages with a 2 sigma error < 50 kyrs. The volumes were determined using high resolution (1:50,000) digital elevation models, orthophotos, and GIS software, which allowed for the delineation of individual volcanic features, reconstruction of the pre-eruptive topography, and volume calculations by linear interpolation. The relative proportions of the 80 km3 erupted over the past 1 Myr are 14.5% basaltic andesite, 64.5% andesite, 20% dacite, and 1% rhyolite, demonstrating the dominance of intermediate magma types (in terms of silica content). Overall, there appears to be no systematic progression in the eruption of different magma types (e.g., basalt, andesite, dacite, etc.) with time. However, more than 75% of the total volume of lava within the Ceboruco-San Pedro volcanic field erupted in the last 100 kyrs. This reflects the youthfulness of Volcan Ceboruco, which was constructed during the last 50 kyrs and has a present day volume of 50 +/- 2.5 km3, accounting for 81% of the andesite and 50% of the dacite within the volcanic field. Eleven cinder cones, ranging from the Holocene to 0.37 Ma, display a narrow compositional range, with 52-58 wt% SiO2, 3-5.5 wt% MgO, and relatively high TiO2 concentrations (0.9-1.8 wt%). The total volume of the cinder cones is 0.83 km3. No lavas with < 51 wt% SiO2 have erupted in the past 1 Myr. Peripheral

  17. Integration of mud gas isotope logging (MGIL) with field appraisal at Horn Mountain Field, deepwater Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Leroy [Isotope Logging, Inc., 2435 N. Central Expy, Ste. 1200, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Berkman, Tom [Anadarko Petroleum Corp., 1099 18th St Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Uchytil, Steve [Hess Corp., One Allen Center, 500 Dallas St, Houston, TX 77002 (United States); Dzou, Leon [BP America Inc., GoM Deepwater Exploration, 501 Westlake Park Blvd., Houston, TX 77079 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Prior applications of gas isotopic data to reservoir studies have often suggested that measured differences of a few per mil in gases sampled between wells indicated hydrocarbon compartmentalization concomitant with poor reservoir communication. These conclusions were generally invoked without adequate consultation and integration of geological and engineering well data, and only revealed to be true in the simplest of circumstances where pressure data clearly suggested the same. Not surprisingly, gas isotope data has yet to find widespread production engineering applications as a convincing tool for reservoir formation evaluation. This situation is unlikely to change due to the prohibitive drilling economics of acquiring adequate quantities of physical gas samples from down-hole tools in every zone of interest across multiple wells in a field. Recent application of a new technique, mud gas isotope logging (MGIL), has shown comparable isotopic data to traditional gas samples collected from down-hole tools while providing the petroleum systems analyst with the necessary large datasets needed to make accurate and confident reservoir evaluations. Many additional benefits of MGIL to formation evaluation have also been recognized, and it is envisaged MGIL possesses the potential to develop as a standard protocol on drilling wells. This paper documents the first published application of MGIL in the context of complete field-scale reservoir integration and production appraisal encompassing 18 well penetrations over a 3-yr drilling program. Case data from the Horn Mountain Field (Gulf of Mexico) are used to demonstrate this technology and its impact to field assessment and appraisal. Initial well data and two 3-D seismic surveys were used to assess reservoir continuity and compartmentalization across the field. Subtle pressure and gas-to-oil ratio (GOR) differences from eight appraisal wells suggested that the main economic M-Sand may be divided into at least two

  18. Environmental Assessment of the Buccaneer Oil Field in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico 1978-1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains analytical data from samples acquired from the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico area under contract to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)...

  19. Chemical and isotopic characterization of rainwater in Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico and its surroundings. Caracterizacion quimica e isotopica de las precipitaciones pluviales en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico y en zonas de referencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Mahendra Pal (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)); Barrera Gonzalez, Victor; Sandoval Medina, Fernando; Tapia Salazar, Ruth; Casimiro Espinoza, Emigdio (Residencia de Los Azufres, Morelia (Mexico)); Fernandez Solorzano, Ma Elena (Departamento de Exploracion, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)); Rye, Robert; Gent, Carol; Johnson, Craig (USGS, Denver, CO. (United States))

    1998-01-15

    The results obtained from the chemical and isotopic monitoring of rainwater in Los Azufres and its surroundings in the period May to September, 1995 are presented. Eight sampling sites were selected to collect rainwater: six in the Los Azufres and its surroundings and two in the offices of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in Morelia and Guadalajara. The anions Cl-, SO[sub 4] [sup 2]- and NO[sub 3]- were analyzed in about 350 samples. The rainwater has very low content of carbonic species (i.e. total dissolved CO[sub 2]). Due to it, it is not possible to analyze alkalinity with traditional titration method. The Gran Titration method was implemented to determine alkalinity (or acidity) and carbonic speciation in the samples. The values of acidity (negative of alkalinity) are in the range of 10[sup -4] to 10[sup -6] eq/l and are positive only for the sites Vivero and Guadalajara. The space and time distribution of the chemical and isotopic species in the rainwater could provide the information about the source of acidity. The species S0[sub 4][sup 2]- and NO[sub 3]- contribute to the acidity. To study the isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate, a system is designed to collect 100 1 of rainwater. The dissolved sulfate ions were extracted in the form of barium sulfate to analyze sulfur-34 and oxygen-18. The values of (d34S are around -1.5% in Los Azufres and its surroundings and in the CFE office in Morelia whereas they are very different in the CFE office in Guadalajara (-0.3%). The same values of d34S in Los Azufres and Morelia indicates a regional source of sulfate and is not related to the Los Azufres geothermal system.

  20. Correlating field and laboratory rates of particle abrasion, Rio Medio, Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, P. J.; Sklar, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    River bed sediments commonly fine downstream due to a combination of particle abrasion, selective transport of finer grains, and fining of the local sediment supply from hillslopes and tributaries. Particle abrasion rates can be directly measured in the laboratory using tumbling barrels and annular flumes, however, scaling experimental particle abrasion rates to the field has proven difficult due to the confounding effects of selective transport and local supply variations. Here we attempt to correlate laboratory and field rates of particle abrasion in a field setting where these confounding effects can be controlled. The Rio Medio, which flows westward from the crest of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in north central New Mexico, is one of several streams studied by John P. Miller in the early 1960's. Several kilometers downstream of its headwaters, the river crosses the Picuris-Pecos fault. Upstream of the fault the river receives quartzite, sandstone and shale clasts from the Ortega Formation, while downstream sediments are supplied by the Embudo Granite. Because the upstream lithologies are not resupplied downstream of the fault, any observed fining of these clasts should be due only to abrasion and selective transport. We hypothesize that we can account for the effects of selective transport by comparing relative fining rates for the different upstream lithologies from both the field and a laboratory tumbler. By correlating laboratory abrasion rates with rock strength, we can predict the relative fining rates due solely to abrasion expected in the field; differences between the predicted and observed fining rates could then be attributed to selective transport. We used point counts to measure bed surface sediment grain size distributions at 15 locations along a 25 kilometer reach of the Rio Medio, beginning just downstream of the fault and ending upstream of a developed area with disturbed channel conditions. We recorded intermediate particle diameter as well

  1. Seismic activity at the Las Tres Virgenes, B. C. S, Mexico, geothermal field. Actividad sismica del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero Guadarrama, Jose Luis (Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico))

    1998-05-15

    A study of the seismic activity at Las Tres Virgenes Geothermal field in Baja California Sur (Baja California Sur), Mexico is presented. Four monitoring periods are comprised: 28 January to 12 May 1993; 5 January to 24 April 1994; 25 May to 19 August 1995 and 30 August to 02 November 1995. The influence of the geological structure on the seismic activity of the field was considered by means of: a velocities model based on field geology, borehole data, a reflection seismic profile, considerations on the thermal gradient in the zone, and local and regional geophysical models. Site corrections that were considered necessary to improve the velocities model were determined trough simulation runs of seismic events at 4 km depth with reference to sea level and to a mean topographic height of 400 m. Main interpretation consists in the correlation of epicenters with the volcanic edifices and tectonics, identifying the maximum activity zones related with geothermal interest areas. Registered seismic information constitutes a framework for the study of the future seismic activity during reservoir exploitation.

  2. The Use of Geographic Information Technologies in Environmental Decision-Making in the State of Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Silva García José; Gustavo, Cruz Cárdenas; Salvador, Ochoa Estrada; Franciso, Estrada Godoy; Fabian, Villalpando Barragán

    2008-05-01

    One of the most urgent issues facing the human environment, a result of current human evolution is the increase in the production of Urban Solid Waste (USW). The State of Michoacán is no exception; the presence of waste facilities in the area is a very big problem and one with a strong geographical content (Mena et al., 2006). SIGs are one tool for addressing this kind of need. A model which has been commonly used for selecting areas for the final deposit of USW, and which has obtained good results, is so-called multicriterion decision-making. It has been applied in the context of integral USW management, and has generated both a methodology for the determination of safe places for final waste deposit and an Environmental Risk Index (ERI), which fulfills the requirements indicated by the Official Mexican Norm (NOM-083-SEMARNAT-2003). The methodology consists of a quadrant analysis of 25 ha of five factors. A rank was assigned to each of the factors, and this rank was standardized according to a scale from 0 to 10 and subsequently multiplied by a weight (W) which numerically represents the degree of importance and influence of each factor in the environment. Five represented the largest impact, and two represented the smallest impact. The ERI is the sum of the five factors considered and it is represented by means of the following equation: ERI = VVw+UsUsw+FrFrw+ln lnw+Zi Ziw, where ERI is the Environmental Risk Index, V Vw is the aquifer vulnerability, Us Usw represents the use of the soil, Fr Frw refers to the fracturing density, ln lnw represents the domain of the urban and industrial infrastructure, and Zi Ziw refers to flood zones. This was shown to be successful in different regions of Michoacán State, such as the Bajío area, the Paísde la Mariposa Monarca and Tierra Caliente. Another example is its application in the hydrogeologic context, which generated the Aquifer Veda index (a restriction diagram for the opening of new exploitations), and which is intended to regulate and give advice about the design of wells, their depth and optimum slot interval, their appropriate location and caudal, in those cases in which well-drilling is permitted. The above-mentioned approach is fundamental to the sustainable operating schemes for the handling of the underground water in the Ciénega de Chapala. This approach is intended to influence the scientific handling of the hydro resource, promoting sustainable politics and rules of operation.

  3. Interdisciplinary approach to depict landscape change drivers; a case study of the Ticuiz agrarian community in Michoacan, Mexico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos, M.; Velazquez, A.; Priego, A.; Skutsch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Landscape changes are driven by a combination of physical, ecological and socio-cultural factors. Hence, a large amount of information is necessary to monitor these changes and to develop effective strategies for management and conservation. For this, novel strategies for combining social and enviro

  4. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Robinson

    2005-07-01

    This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last six (6) months (January 2005-June 2005) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the United States: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico. Gnomon as project lead, worked in both areas.

  5. Some isotopic and geochemical anomalies observed in Mexico prior to large scale earthquakes and volcanic eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz R, S. de la; Armienta, M.A.; Segovia A, N

    1992-05-15

    A brief account of some experiences obtained in Mexico, related with the identification of geochemical precursors of volcanic eruptions and isotopic precursors of earthquakes and volcanic activity is given. The cases of three recent events of volcanic activity and one large earthquake are discussed in the context of an active geological environment. The positive results in the identification of some geochemical precursors that helped to evaluate the eruptive potential during two volcanic crises (Tacana 1986 and Colima 1991), and the significant radon-in-soil anomalies observed during a volcanic catastrophic eruption (El Chichon, 1982) and prior to a major earthquake (Michoacan, 1985) are critically analysed. (Author)

  6. Gas geochemistry of Los Humeros geothermal field, Mexico; Geoquimica de gases del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan R, Rosa Maria; Arellano G, Victor M; Nieva G, David; Portugal M, Enrique; Garcia G, Alfonso; Aragon A, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Torres A, Ignasio S [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Tovar A, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    1999-12-01

    Gas data of Los Humeros geothermal field were analyzed. A new method, which is based on the Fischer-Tropch reactions and on the combined pyrite-magnetite mineral equilibrium, was used. Reservoir temperature and reservoir excess steam were estimated for the starting stage of the field by using early data taken from producing wells at controlled conditions. The same parameters were also obtained for the present stage by using 1997 gas data. Reservoir temperatures ranged from 275 and 337 Celsius degrees and positive values for reservoir excess steam fractions were obtained for the starting stage. For well H-1 no excess steam was found since this well was fed by the shallower liquid-dominated reservoir. Results for 1997 showed lower scattering compared to early data and the possible occurrence of a heating process in the shallower stratum which could due to exploitation. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta un analisis de datos de la fase gaseosa producida por pozos productores del campo geotermico de Los Humeros mediante un metodo que considera el equilibrio de la reaccion de Fischer-Tropsh y el equilibrio de minerales pirita-hematia y pirita-magnetita. Este metodo provee la temperatura del yacimiento y el exceso de vapor presente en la descarga total de los pozos. Los resultados se discuten tanto para el estado inicial del yacimiento utilizando los primeros datos de produccion en los que el flujo del pozo estuvo controlado y los obtenidos en 1997 que representan el estado actual del yacimiento. En el estado inicial se estimaron temperaturas de yacimiento de entre 275 y 337 grados Celsius y excesos de vapor positivos, con excepcion del pozo H-1 que se alimenta del estrato somero dominado por liquido. Los resultados obtenidos para 1997 muestran una dispersion menor y la probable ocurrencia de un proceso de calentamiento del estrato somero propiciado por la explotacion.

  7. The ~ 2000 yr BP Jumento volcano, one of the youngest edifices of the Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Muñoz-Salinas, E.; Castillo, M.; Salinas, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Chichinautzin Volcanic Field is situated at the southern limit of the Basin of Mexico and the Metropolitan area of Mexico City, the third most populated city around the world. The Chichinautzin Volcanic field holds more than 220 monogenetic volcanoes. Xitle is the youngest of these with an estimated age of 1.6 ky BP. Xitle's eruptive activity took place during the Mesoamerican Mexican Pre-classic period and is related to the destruction of Cuicuilco Archaeological Site, the oldest civilization known in Central Mexico. However, there are still several regional cones that have not been dated. Based on 14C ages, stratigraphic and geomorphologic criteria, we conclude that the Jumento volcano, located to the west of Xitle, is one of the youngest cones of the Chichinautzin Volcanic Field. The Jumento volcano has a basaltic andesite composition, and its eruptive activity was initially hydromagmatic, followed by Strombolian and finally effusive events occurred recorded through: (1) a sequence of hydromagmatic pyroclastic surges and ashfall layers emplaced at a radius of > 5 km from the crater with charcoal fragments at its base; this activity built the Jumento's cone with slopes of 32°; and (2) lava flows that breached the southern part of the cone and flowed for up to 2.5 km from the vent. The resulting 14C ages for this volcano yielded a maximum age of ~ 2 ky BP. Morphometric analysis indicates that the state of degradation of Jumento cone is similar to the Xitle, suggesting that the Jumento could be in the state of degradation of a volcanic structure of similar age or younger adding credence to the probable radiocarbon age of ~ 2 ky BP for the Jumento edifice.

  8. Field Courses for Volcanic Hazards Mapping at Parícutinand Jorullo Volcanoes (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria Morales, A.; Delgado Granados, H.; Roberge, J.; Farraz Montes, I. A.; Linares López, C.

    2007-05-01

    During the last decades, Mexico has suffered several geologic phenomena-related disasters. The eruption of El Chichón volcano in 1982 killed >2000 people and left a large number of homeless populations and severe economic damages. The best way to avoid and mitigate disasters and their effects is by making geologic hazards maps. In volcanic areas these maps should show in a simplified fashion, but based on the largest geologic background possible, the probable (or likely) distribution in time and space of the products related to a variety of volcanic processes and events, according to likely magnitude scenarios documented on actual events at a particular volcano or a different one with similar features to the volcano used for calibration and weighing geologic background. Construction of hazards maps requires compilation and acquisition of a large amount of geological data in order to obtain the physical parameters needed to calibrate and perform controlled simulation of volcanic events under different magnitude-scenarios in order to establish forecasts. These forecasts are needed by the authorities to plan human settlements, infrastructure, and economic development. The problem is that needs are overwhelmingly faster than the adjustments of university programs to include courses. At the Earth Science División of the Faculty of Engineering at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, the students have a good background that permits to learn the methodologies for hazards map construction but no courses on hazards evaluations. Therefore, under the support of the university's Program to Support Innovation and Improvement of Teaching (PAPIME, Programa de Apoyo para la Innovación y Mejoramiento de la Enseñanza) a series of field-based intensive courses allow the Earth science students to learn what kind of data to acquire, how to record, and process in order to carry out hazards evaluations. This training ends with hazards maps that can be used immediately by the

  9. Understanding High Temperature Gradients in the Buckman Well Field, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, M.; Gulvin, C. J.; Tamakloe, F. M.; Yauk, K.; Kelley, S.; Frost, J.; Jiracek, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a conceptual model to explain elevated thermal gradients, localized laterally over a few 100 m, discovered during the SAGE program in 2013 and confirmed in 2014 at the Buckman water well field in the Española Basin of north central New Mexico. The anomalous gradients of temperature with depth, dT/dz, exceed 70 ºC/km and are found in three shallow (< 100 m-deep) USGS monitoring wells close to the Rio Grande. A temperature increase of only 3 - 4 ºC at ~100 m depth would elevate the regional temperature value enough to yield the anomalous dT/dz values in the upper ~100 m. The coincidence of a 25 km2 region of InSAR-confirmed subsidence with the locally anomalous dT/dz region suggests a way to achieve a higher temperature at ~ 100 m depth. The mechanism is an isothermal release of warmer water from ~ 200 m depth along a fissure or reactivated fault. A fourth well, 290 m away, has a temperature gradient of only 33ºC/km in the upper 100 m and a distinctly different geochemical profile, suggesting aquifer compartmentalization and possible faulting close to the anomaly. In 2001 a 800 m-long surface scarp with up to 0.2 m offset appeared 2 km to the east in response to over-pumping that depressed the groundwater table by over 100 m. Such drawdown is expected to have 2 - 5 m of compaction with attendant movement along faults or fissures. This could allow groundwater to be released upward isothermally until encountering an unbreached aquitard where it would establish an elevated thermal boundary. Besides the local thermal anomaly, we have temperature-logged deeper water wells in the area. These and other measurements have been used to construct cross-sections of isotherms across the Española Basin along the groundwater flow units (GFUs). This allows comparison of the local thermal anomaly with classic, regional, basin hydrological models. For example, the fully-screened Skillet well, 2.3 km from the anomaly, shows a classic concave down dT/dz form indicating

  10. Mexico's New Braceros: How NAFTA Promotes Child Labor and Truancy in the Onion Fields of Mexicali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, David

    1997-01-01

    Although NAFTA has proven profitable for U.S. growers who have relocated agricultural production to Mexico, it has helped create an economic crisis that has forced thousands of Mexican children to leave school in order to work and supplement their parents' shrinking income. In Mexicali Valley (Baja California), approximately a fourth of the…

  11. Field studies to assess the workable range of soils in the tropical zone of Veracruz, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadena Zapata, M.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Perdok, U.D.

    2002-01-01

    In the tropical area of Veracruz (Mexico) the decision of when and how to carry out tillage operations is based on qualitative criteria. It often results in excessive and unnecessary work, energy waste, operational delay, soil exposure to water erosion and soil structural damage. Objective criteria

  12. Anomalously High Geothermal Gradients in the Buckman Well Field, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, A.; Munda, R.; Farrell, T. F.; Kelley, S. A.; Frost, J.; Jiracek, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature as a function of depth was measured in ten wells in the Santa Fe, NM area as part of the Summer of Applied Geophysics Experience (SAGE) program. Eight of the wells are within 5.5 km of the city's Buckman municipal well field and two wells are at La Tierra, 16.5 km to the SE. Geothermal gradients increase from east to west towards the Buckman area, from 20°C/km at La Tierra to 76°C/km at Buckman. Within the Buckman well field, two wells on its eastern side were determined to have temperature gradients of 32°C/km and 42°C/km. Only 300 m west, the geothermal gradient sharply increases, and measured gradients reach 76 °C/km (well number SF4A), 62°C/km (SF4B), and 68°C/km (SF3A) in three shallow (<100 m) monitoring drill holes. Both local and regional causes may explain the geothermal anomaly. The short spatial wavelength of the horizontal gradient increase argues for a localized source. The unusually high gradients in three of the wells may be associated with fault-controlled, effective shallow-source, warm water upflow or with lateral flow in a shallow aquifer. On the regional level, the east to west increase in temperature gradients can be explained by deep circulating groundwater flow in the Espanola Basin and upwelling near the Rio Grande. Another possible explanation comes from gravity data gathered by SAGE over several years that shows a local NW-striking structural high in the area that could force localized convective upflow. Regional aeromag maps indicate magnetic lows exactly underneath the anomalous wells. These may be interpreted as buried volcanic plugs beneath the Buckman well field, acting as conduits for upwelling warmer waters. They may also indicate hydrothermally altered rock beneath the surface. A more nontraditional cause of the sharp thermal anomaly is also possible. The geothermal gradient anomaly coincides with the dramatic discovery by InSAR in 1993-2000 of localized ground subsidence due to excessive water well pumping

  13. Long-term BVRI light curves of 5 pre-main sequence stars in the field of "Gulf of Mexico"

    OpenAIRE

    Ibryamov, Sunay I.; Semkov, Evgeni H.; Peneva, Stoyanka P.

    2014-01-01

    We present new data from BVRI photometric observations of five PMS stars during the period from April 2013 to July 2014. The stars are located in the field of NGC 7000/IC 5070 ("Gulf of Mexico") - a region with active star formation. The presented paper is a continuation of our long-term photometric investigations of the young stellar objects in this region. The long-term multicolor photometric observations of PMS stars are very important for their exact classification. Our results show that ...

  14. Subsurface geology of Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico; Geologia del subsuelo del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedillo Rodriguez, Fidel [Comision federal de Electricidad, Perote, Veracruz, Mexico(Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    In the 1980s, most geologists correlated subsurface geology at Los Humeros geothermal field using penetrated by faults, as interpreted by photogeology. These were structural objectives for geothermal drilling programs. Recent petrology reinterpretation of data from well cutting lets us identify nine lithologic units, with the Toba Vitrea Humeros as the index horizon. The study of the subsurface geology allows us to demonstrate- based on the distribution, depth, and thickness of the lithologic units- that the augite andesites, the Toba Vitrea Humeros, the hornblende andesites, the basalt, and the metamorphosed limestone are affected by system of hidden faults (with no surface evidence) replaced by major fracture zones able to contain steam. Thus these hidden faults are the structural objectives controlling design and sitting of new wells. We conclude that the lithologic unit of augite andesites forms the upper geothermal reservoir, and the hornblende andesites and basalt comprise the lower reservoir- separated from each other by the Toba Vitrea Humeros lithologic unit. Based on the subsurface geologic model, we propose drilling 40 new wells, a long and parallel the north-south faults system. [Spanish] En la decada de los 80s se agrupo la geologia del subsuelo de Los Humeros en cuatro unidades litologicas afectadas por fallas interpretadas por fotogeologia. Estas fallas eran el objetivo estructural para programar la perforacion de pozos geotermicos. La reinterpretacion de los datos de petrologia de las muestras de canal permite identificar nueve unidades litologicas, de las cuales la unidad Toba Vietrea Humeros se comporta como horizonte indice. El estudio de la geologia del subsuelo permite demostrar, con base en la distribucion, profundidades y espesores de las unidades litologicas, que las andesitas de augita, la Toba Vitrea Humeros, las andesitas de hornblenda, los basaltos, y las calizasmetamorfizadas estan afectadas por sistemas de fallas ocultas (sin

  15. Real Time View of the Functions and Services of the Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Aranda, J.; Ibarrola Alvarez, G.; Cuellar Martinez, A.; Inostroza Puk, M.

    2013-05-01

    The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) is integrated since March 2012 by the Seismic Alert System of Mexico City (SAS), in continuous operation since 1991, and the Seismic Alert System of Oaxaca City (SASO) that started its services in 2003. SASMEX consists of 97 field seismic sensor station (FS) type triaxial accelerometer, mostly sponsored by the government of Mexico City and secondly by Oaxaca. The SASMEX covers the Pacific seismic hazard among the coast of Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan, Guerrero and Oaxaca; and the seismic region of Puebla and northern Oaxaca and Guerrero states. This integration lets to warn with better opportunity to the population of Mexico City, Oaxaca Oax., Acapulco Gro., Chilpancingo Gro. and recently Morelia Mich.; cities with a system called EASAS where receives seismic data from FS and emits earthquake early warning signals to the population. The recent sponsorship of Federal Government through the General Coordination of Civil Protection and the National Center for Disaster Prevention, reinforced integration SAS and SASO, and auspiced the development of a Real-Time Monitoring System of functions and services of SASMEX. This work show how is displayed the functions of services of SASMEX through this monitoring system and its possible application by Civil Protection authorities. This monitoring system can indicate the status of FS, the communications system and cities with EASAS. Additionally, when an earthquake occurs and is detected by the SASMEX, the monitoring system shows the messages of FS, whose consist in the characteristics of detection and seismic danger forecasted; in the case of a strong earthquake estimated by more than one FS, the EASAS of each city could automatically issue an Alert Public to its population. The monitoring system allows observing cities with EASAS that activate their alerts, displays a basic earthquake propagation model and how it reaches to other FS. Additionally, the monitoring system shows the

  16. Notes from the Field: Community-Based Prevention of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever - Sonora, Mexico, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straily, Anne; Drexler, Naomi; Cruz-Loustaunau, Denica; Paddock, Christopher D; Alvarez-Hernandez, Gerardo

    2016-11-25

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a life-threatening tickborne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is a reemerging disease in Mexico (1,2). R. rickettsii is an intracellular bacterium that infects vascular endothelium and can cause multisystem organ failure and death in the absence of timely administration of a tetracycline-class antibiotic, typically doxycycline. Epidemic RMSF, as described in parts of Arizona and Mexico, is associated with massive local infestations of the brown dog tick (Rhiphicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on domestic dogs and in peridomestic settings that result in high rates of human exposure; for example, during 2003-2012, in Arizona the incidence of RMSF in the three most highly affected communities was 150 times the U.S. national average (3,4). In 2015, the Mexico Ministry of Health (MOH) declared an epidemiologic emergency because of high and sustained rates of RMSF in several states in northern Mexico, including the state of Sonora. During 2004-2015, a total of 1,129 cases and 188 RMSF deaths were reported from Sonora (Sonora MOH, unpublished data, 2016). During 2009-2015, one impoverished community (community A) in Sonora reported 56 cases of RMSF involving children and adolescents, with a case-fatality rate of 40% (Sonora MOH, unpublished data, 2016). Poverty and lack of timely access to health services are risk factors for severe RMSF. Children are especially vulnerable to infection, because they might have increased contact with dogs and spend more time playing around spaces where ticks survive (5). In Sonora, case fatality rates for children aged <10 years can be as high as 30%, which is almost four times the aggregate case-fatality rate reported for the general population of the state (8%) (2), and 10-13 times higher than the case-fatality rate described for this age group in the United States (2.4%) (6).

  17. Mexican Seismic Alert System's SAS-I algorithm review considering strong earthquakes felt in Mexico City since 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar Martinez, A.; Espinosa Aranda, J.; Suarez, G.; Ibarrola Alvarez, G.; Ramos Perez, S.; Camarillo Barranco, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) uses three algorithms for alert activation that involve the distance between the seismic sensing field station (FS) and the city to be alerted; and the forecast for earthquake early warning activation in the cities integrated to the system, for example in Mexico City, the earthquakes occurred with the highest accelerations, were originated in the Pacific Ocean coast, whose distance this seismic region and the city, favors the use of algorithm called Algorithm SAS-I. This algorithm, without significant changes since its beginning in 1991, employs the data that generate one or more FS during P wave detection until S wave detection plus a period equal to the time employed to detect these phases; that is the double S-P time, called 2*(S-P). In this interval, the algorithm performs an integration process of quadratic samples from FS which uses a triaxial accelerometer to get two parameters: amplitude and growth rate measured until 2*(S-P) time. The parameters in SAS-I are used in a Magnitude classifier model, which was made from Guerrero Coast earthquakes time series, with reference to Mb magnitude mainly. This algorithm activates a Public or Preventive Alert if the model predicts whether Strong or Moderate earthquake. The SAS-I algorithm has been operating for over 23 years in the subduction zone of the Pacific Coast of Mexico, initially in Guerrero and followed by Oaxaca; and since March 2012 in the seismic region of Pacific covering the coasts among Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan, Guerrero and Oaxaca, where this algorithm has issued 16 Public Alert and 62 Preventive Alerts to the Mexico City where its soil conditions increase damages by earthquake such as the occurred in September 1985. This work shows the review of the SAS-I algorithm and possible alerts that it could generate from major earthquakes recordings detected by FS or seismometers near the earthquakes, coming from Pacific Ocean Coast whose have been felt in Mexico

  18. Groundwater recharge and nutrient transport in a tile drained field: The Las Nutrias Groundwater Project, Las Nutrias, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, T.L.; Bowman, R.S. [New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Geoscience

    1995-12-31

    With the rapid growth of the Albuquerque region, groundwater contamination from nonpoint sources has become an increasing concern. Agriculture, one major land usage of the basin area, can abe responsible for the leaching of nutrients and chemicals to shallow groundwater via irrigation return flows. Even so, there is almost no available information regarding agricultural impacts on groundwater quality in New Mexico. The major objective of this project has been to develop a data base pertaining to this issue. The main goals of this project are: to adapt the tile drainage system to allow for the collection of irrigation return flows on an actual, operating farm; to utilize the tile drain sampling system to quantify nutrient and pesticide levels in the irrigation return flow; to determine the local hydrology in an around the field site; and to use the collected field data to test the two-dimensional water flow and chemical transport model (CHAIN 2-D).

  19. Surface Water and Groundwater Interactions in Traditionally Irrigated Fields in Northern New Mexico, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Y. Gutiérrez-Jurado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Better understanding of surface water (SW and groundwater (GW interactions and water balances has become indispensable for water management decisions. This study sought to characterize SW-GW interactions in three crop fields located in three different irrigated valleys in northern New Mexico by (1 estimating deep percolation (DP below the root zone in flood-irrigated crop fields; and (2 characterizing shallow aquifer response to inputs from DP associated with irrigation. Detailed measurements of irrigation water application, soil water content fluctuations, crop field runoff, and weather data were used in the water budget calculations for each field. Shallow wells were used to monitor groundwater level response to DP inputs. The amount of DP was positively and significantly related to the total amount of irrigation water applied for the Rio Hondo and Alcalde sites, but not for the El Rito site. The average irrigation event DP using data for the complete irrigation season at each of the three sites was 77.0 mm at El Rito, 54.5 mm at Alcalde and 53.1 mm at Rio Hondo. Groundwater level rise compared to pre-irrigation event water levels ranged from 3 to 1870 mm, and was influenced by differences in irrigation practices between sites. Crop evapotranspiration estimates averaged across irrigation events were highest in Rio Hondo (22.9 mm, followed by El Rito (14.4 mm and Alcalde (10.4 mm. Results from this study indicate there are strong surface water-groundwater connections in traditionally irrigated systems of northern New Mexico, connections that may be employed to better manage groundwater recharge and river flow.

  20. Recent SO2 camera and OP-FTIR field measurements in Mexico and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Spina, Alessandro; Salerno, Giuseppe; Burton, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Between 22 and 30 November 2012 a field campaign was carried out at Mexico and Guatemala with the objectives of state the volcanic gas composition and flux fingerprints of Popocatepetl, Santiaguito, Fuego and Pacaya by exploiting simultaneously UV-camera and FTIR measurements. Gases were measured remotely using instruments sensitive to ultraviolet and infrared radiation (UV spectrometer, SO2-camera and OP-FTIR). Data collection depended on the requirements of the methodology, weather condition and eruptive stage of the volcanoes. OP-FTIR measurements were carried out using the MIDAC interferometer with 0.5 cm-1 resolution. Spectra were collected in solar occultation mode in which the Sun acts as an infrared source and the volcanic plume is interposed between the Sun and the spectrometer. At Santiaguito spectra were also collected in passive mode using the lava flow as a radiation source. The SO2-camera used for this study was a dual camera system consisting of two QS Imaging 640s cameras. Each of the two cameras was outfitted with two quartz 25mm lens, coupled with two band-pass filters centred at 310nm and at 330nm. The imaging system was managed by a custom-made software developed in LabView. The UV-camera system was coupled with a USB2000+ spectrometer connected to a QP1000-2-SR 1000 micron optical fiber with a 74-UV collimating lens. For calibration of plume imagery, images of five quartz cells containing known concentration path-lengths of SO2 were taken at the end of each sampling. Between 22 and 23 November 2012 UV-camera and FTIR observations were carried out at Popocatepetl. During the time of our observation, the volcano was characterised by pulsing degassing from the summit crater forming a whitish plume that dispersed rapidly in the atmosphere according to wind direction and speed. Data were collected from the Observatorio Atmosférico Altzomoni (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México) at 4000 metre a.s.l. and at a distance of ~12 km from the volcano

  1. Vertical profiles of ozone, VOCs and meteorological parameters in within and outside of Mexico City during the MILAGRO field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, C.; Greenberg, J.; Bueno, E.; Bernabe, R.; Aguilar, J.; Blanco, S.; Wöhrnschimmel, H.; Guenther, A.; Cardenas, B.; Turnipseed, A.

    2007-05-01

    High ozone levels with maxima over 250 ppb have been an air quality problem in Mexico City for more than a decade. This ozone is produced in the daytime by photochemical reactions, initiated by its precursors, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of solar ultraviolet radiation. The objective of this work is to contribute to the understanding of the evolution of these air pollutants at different heights of the boundary layer by means of vertical profile measurements. Ozone, VOCs and meteorological vertical profiles were determined in Northern Mexico City (T0 site) using a tethered balloon for 10 days during the MILAGRO field Campaign 2006, between 4 AM and 4 PM. Measurements were done up to 1000 meter above ground (ozone and meteorological parameters) and up to 200 m above ground for VOCs. VOCs samples were collected during 4 minutes in canisters and analyzed with GC-FID to identify 13 species (ethane, propane, propylene, butane, acetylene, pentane, hexane, heptane, benzene, octane, toluene, nonane and o-xylene). For 4 of the days, VOC integrated samples were also taken using personal pumps and absorbent cartridges at height between 200 and 1000 m. Sample cartridges were analyzed by GC-MS for volatile organic compounds (n-butane, i-pentane, n- pentane, benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, o-xylene, m&p-xylene, 1,2,4-tri-methyl-benzene and C3-benzenes). Ozone vertical profiles, frequently presented high concentrations above 400 m in the early morning. During the daytime, more homogeneous profiles indicate an increased vertical mixing. VOCs profiles show similar concentrations for all heights at dawn. In the morning, highest concentrations were determined at a height of about 100 meter, whereas at noon and in the afternoon concentrations decreased with height. Comparing VOC concentrations during the course of a day, highest values are measured in the morning. The highest VOC concentrations were propane, butane, and toluene. For some

  2. Analysis of long-term land subsidence near Mexico City: Field investigations and predictive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Guerrero, Adrian; Rudolph, David L.; Cherry, John A.

    1999-11-01

    The Mexico City region has several flat plains formed on exceptionally porous (60-90%) lacustrine deposits overlying a highly productive regional aquifer. Severe land subsidence due to consolidation of the lacustrine aquitard caused by aquifer exploitation has resulted in restrictions on pumping in the core of Mexico City. This has led to large increases in aquifer pumping in the outlying lacustrine plains where satellite communities are rapidly expanding. The Chalco Basin is one of these lacustrine areas where pumping began in the 1950s and greatly increased in the 1980s. The lacustrine sequence in the Chalco area is significantly thicker than anywhere else in the Basin of Mexico averaging 100 m and reaching a maximum thickness of 300 m. Consequently, this area is susceptible to the highest potential land subsidence effects as a result of groundwater extraction of anywhere in the basin. Land subsidence in the central part of the Chalco Basin has increased to 0.4 m/yr since 1984 and by 1991 total subsidence had reached 8 m. The rapid land subsidence in this area is causing the accumulation of meteoric waters during the rainy season resulting in extensive flooding of farmland. This study first demonstrates a methodology for combining hydraulic data from a network of monitoring wells, geotechnical data from core samples, and a compilation of historical information on land surface elevation to quantify groundwater flow and land subsidence phenomena within the rapidly subsiding Chalco Basin. Then a one-dimensional mathematical model is employed to develop predictions of future land subsidence under a range of pumping conditions. The model permits the hydraulic properties of the aquitard to vary as transient functions of hydraulic head and porosity. Simulations suggest that under current pumping rates, total land subsidence in the area of thickest lacustrine sediment will reach 15 m by the year 2010. If pumping is reduced to the extent that further decline in the

  3. Long-term BVRI light curves of 5 pre-main sequence stars in the field of "Gulf of Mexico"

    CERN Document Server

    Ibryamov, Sunay I; Peneva, Stoyanka P

    2014-01-01

    We present new data from BVRI photometric observations of five PMS stars during the period from April 2013 to July 2014. The stars are located in the field of NGC 7000/IC 5070 ("Gulf of Mexico") - a region with active star formation. The presented paper is a continuation of our long-term photometric investigations of the young stellar objects in this region. The long-term multicolor photometric observations of PMS stars are very important for their exact classification. Our results show that the studied stars exhibit different types of photometric variability in all bands. We tried to classify them using our data from the long-term photometry and data published by other authors.

  4. Statistical properties of the surface velocity field in the northern Gulf of Mexico sampled by GLAD drifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, A. J.; Ryan, E. H.; Huntley, H. S.; Laurindo, L. C.; Coelho, E.; Griffa, A.; Özgökmen, T. M.; Berta, M.; Bogucki, D.; Chen, S. S.; Curcic, M.; Drouin, K. L.; Gough, M.; Haus, B. K.; Haza, A. C.; Hogan, P.; Iskandarani, M.; Jacobs, G.; Kirwan, A. D.; Laxague, N.; Lipphardt, B.; Magaldi, M. G.; Novelli, G.; Reniers, A.; Restrepo, J. M.; Smith, C.; Valle-Levinson, A.; Wei, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Grand LAgrangian Deployment (GLAD) used multiscale sampling and GPS technology to observe time series of drifter positions with initial drifter separation of O(100 m) to O(10 km), and nominal 5 min sampling, during the summer and fall of 2012 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Histograms of the velocity field and its statistical parameters are non-Gaussian; most are multimodal. The dominant periods for the surface velocity field are 1-2 days due to inertial oscillations, tides, and the sea breeze; 5-6 days due to wind forcing and submesoscale eddies; 9-10 days and two weeks or longer periods due to wind forcing and mesoscale variability, including the period of eddy rotation. The temporal e-folding scales of a fitted drifter velocity autocorrelation function are bimodal with time scales, 0.25-0.50 days and 0.9-1.4 days, and are the same order as the temporal e-folding scales of observed winds from nearby moored National Data Buoy Center stations. The Lagrangian integral time scales increase from coastal values of 8 h to offshore values of approximately 2 days with peak values of 3-4 days. The velocity variance is large, O>(1>) m2/s2, the surface velocity statistics are more anisotropic, and increased dispersion is observed at flow bifurcations. Horizontal diffusivity estimates are O>(103>) m2/s in coastal regions with weaker flow to O>(105>) m2/s in flow bifurcations, a strong jet, and during the passage of Hurricane Isaac. The Gulf of Mexico surface velocity statistics sampled by the GLAD drifters are a strong function of the feature sampled, topography, and wind forcing.

  5. Geophysical data for field activity 69002 (K-0-69-GM) in Bay of Campeche, Gulf of Mexico from 01/17/1969 to 01/29/1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with transit satellite navigation data was collected as part of field activity 69002 (K-0-69-GM) in Gulf of Mexico from 01/17/1969...

  6. Geophysical data for field activity 69002 (K-0-69-GM) in Bay of Campeche, Gulf of Mexico from 01/17/1969 to 01/29/1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with transit satellite navigation data was collected as part of field activity 69002 (K-0-69-GM) in Gulf of Mexico from 01/17/1969...

  7. Morphometric characterization of monogenetic volcanic cones of the Chichinautzin and Michoacán-Guanajuato monogenetic volcanic fields in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarazua-Carbajal, Maria Cristina; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Mendoza-Rosas, Ana Teresa

    2014-05-01

    Morphometric characterization of volcanic edifices is one of the main approaches providing information about a volcano eruptive history, whether it has one or more eruptive vents or if it had any sector collapses. It also provides essential information about the physical processes that modify their shapes during periods of quietness, and quite significantly, about the volcanoes' ages. In the case of monogenetic activity, a volcanic field can be characterized by the size and slope distributions, and other cone's morphometric parameter distributions that may provide valuable information about the temporal evolution of the volcanic field. The increasingly available high-resolution digital elevation models and the continuously developing computer tools have allowed a faster development and more detailed morphometric characterization techniques. We present here a methodology to readily obtain diverse volcanic cone shape parameters from the contour curves such as mean slope, slope distribution, dimensions of the cone and crater, crater location within the cone, orientation of the cone's principal axis, eccentricity, and other morphological features using an analysis algorithm that we developed, programmed in Python and ArcPy. Preliminary results from the implementation of this methodology to the Chichinautzin and Michoacán-Guanajuato monogenetic volcanic fields in Mexico have permitted a preliminary estimation of the age distribution of some of the cones with an acceptable correlation with the available radiometric ages. A large part of the Chichinautzin region DEM was obtained from a LIDAR survey by the Mexican National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI).

  8. Successional trends in Sonoran Desert abandoned agricultural fields in northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, A.E.; Martinez, M.J.; Llano, J.M.; Halvorson, W.L.; Espiricueta, M.; Espejel, I.

    2005-01-01

    Excessive ground-water use and saline intrusion to the aquifer led, in less than three decades, to an increase in abandoned agricultural fields at La Costa de Hermosillo, within the Sonoran Desert. Using a chronosequence from years since abandonment, patterns of field succession were developed. Contrary to most desert literature, species replacement was found, both in fields with and without saline intrusion. Seasonal photosynthetic capacity as well as water and nitrogen use efficiencies were different in dominant early and late successional plant species. These ecological findings provided a framework for a general explanation of species dominance and replacement within abandoned agricultural fields in the Sonoran Desert. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of a 21-Story Reinforced Building in the Valley of Mexico Using MEMS Accelerometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husker, A. L.; Dominguez, L. A.; Becerril, A.; Espejo, L.; Cochran, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Low cost MEMS accelerometers are becoming increasingly higher resolution making them useful in strong motion studies. Here we present a building response analysis in the lakebed zone of the Valley of Mexico. The Valley of Mexico represents one of the highest seismic risk locations in the world and incorporates Mexico City and part of Mexico State. More than 20 million people live there and it is the political and economic center of Mexico. In addition the valley has very high site effects with amplifications 100 - 500 times that of sites outside of the basin (Singh et al., 1988; Singh et al., 1995). We instrumented a 21-story building with MEMS accelerometers as part of the Quake Catcher Network or Red Atrapa Sismos as it is called in Mexico. The building known as the Centro Cultural de Tlateloco is located in an important historical and political area as well as a zone with some of the highest amplifications in the Valley of Mexico that had some of the worst destruction after the 1985 M8.1 Michoacan earthquake. During the earthquake most of the buildings that failed were between 7 - 18 stories tall. The peak accelerations near Tlateloco were at periods of 2 seconds. Since the earthquake the building has been retrofitted with N-S crossing supports to help withstand another earthquake. We present the measurements of frequencies and amplifications between floors for the length of the building.

  10. Paleomagnetism in the Determination of the Emplacement Temperature of Cerro Colorado Tuff Cone, El Pinacate Volcanic Field, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Trejo, A.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Vidal Solano, J. R.; Garcia Amador, B.; Gonzalez-Rangel, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Cerro Colorado Maar is located at the World Heritage Site, biosphere reserve El Pinacate and Gran Desierto del Altar, at the NNW region of Sonora, Mexico (in El Pinacate Volcanic Field). It is a tuff cone, about 1 km diameter, result of several phreatomagmatic episodes during the late Quaternary. We report paleomagnetic and rock magnetic properties from fusiform volcanic bombs obtained from the borders of Cerro Colorado. This study is based in the thermoremanent magnetization TRM normally acquired by volcanic rocks, which can be used to estimate the emplacement temperature range. We performed the experiments on 20 lithic fragments (10 cm to 20 cm approximately), taking 6-8 paleomagnetic cores from each. Rock magnetic experiments (magnetic susceptibility vs. temperature (k-T), hysteresis curves and FORC analysis, shows that the main magnetic mineral carriers of magnetization are titanomagnetite and titanohematite in different levels of intergrowth. The k-T curves suggest in many cases, only one magnetic phase, but also in other cases a second magnetic phase. Thermal demagnetization was used to demagnetize the specimens in detailed short steps and make a well-defined emplacement temperature determination ranges. We found that temperature emplacement determination range for these two magnetic phases is between 350-450 °C, and 550-580 °C, respectively. These results are consistent with those expected in an eruption of Surtsey type, showing a distinct volcanic activity compared to the other craters from El Pinacate volcanic field.

  11. AVO analysis and modeling applied to fracture detection in coalbed methane reservoirs, Cedar Hill Field, San Juan basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, A.C.B. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Davis, T.L.; Anderson, J.E.; Benson, R.D. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Cedar Hill Field in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, produces methane from fractured coalbed of the Fruitland Formation. The presence of fracturing is critical to methane production due to the absence of matrix permeability in the coals. To help characterize this coalbed reservoir a three-dimensional, multicomponent seismic survey was acquired in this field. Prestack P-wave amplitude data are used to delineate zones of larger Poisson`s ratio contrasts (or higher crack densities) in coalbed methane reservoir, while source-receiver azimuth sorting is used to detect preferential directions of azimuthal anisotropy. Two modeling techniques (using ray tracing and reflectivity methods) predict the effects of fractured coal-seam zones on non-normal P-wave reflectivity. Synthetic CMP gathers are generated for a horizontally layered earth model, which uses elastic parameters derived from sonic and density log measurements. Fracture density variations in the coalbeds are simulated by anisotropic modeling. The large acoustic impedance contrasts associated with the sandstone/coal interfaces dominate the P-wave reflectivity response. They far outweigh the effects of contrasts in anisotropy parameters, for the computed models. Seismic AVO analysis of nine macrobins obtained from the 3-D volume confirms model predictions. Areas with large AVO productions identify coal zones with large Poisson`s ratio contrast, therefore high fracture density.

  12. THE COMMUNITY WATER MANAGEMENT IN MEXICO AND ECUADOR: OTHER APPROACHES TO SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sandoval-Moreno

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to analyze on community water management in two cases in Latin America, Mexico and Ecuador, face the great sustainability challenges of water resources in the world. The central questions that guide the study are: How does community water management contributes to solve the water crisis locally? and How community responses are sustainable responses to the problem of water supply? The paper presents the main aspects of the problem of water in Latin America, discusses the relevance of addressing the problem of water by the dominant management models and alternative. Finally, it offers the analysis of the community management of water for human consumption in the Cienega de Chapala, Michoacan, Mexico and Imbabura, Ecuador, highlighting their contributions in terms of sustainability.

  13. Fluid circulation and reservoir conditions of the Los Humeros Geothermal Field (LHGF), Mexico, as revealed by a noble gas survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinti, Daniele L.; Castro, M. Clara; Lopez-Hernandez, Aida; Han, Guolei; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Hall, Chris M.; Ramírez-Montes, Miguel

    2017-03-01

    Los Humeros Geothermal Field (LHGF) is one of four geothermal fields currently operating in Mexico, in exploitation since 1990. Located in a caldera complex filled with very low-permeability rhyolitic ignimbrites that are the reservoir cap-rock, recharge of the geothermal field is both limited and localized. Because of this, planning of any future geothermal exploitation must be based on a clear understanding of the fluid circulation. To this end, a first noble gas survey was carried out in which twenty-two production wells were sampled for He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe isotope analysis. Air-corrected 3He/4He ratios (Rc) measured in the fluid, normalized to the helium atmospheric ratio (Ra; 1.384 × 10- 6), are consistently high across the field, with an average value of 7.03 ± 0.40 Ra. This value is close to that of the sub-continental upper mantle, indicating that LHGF mines heat from an active magmatic system. Freshwater recharge does not significantly affect He isotopic ratios, contributing 1-10% of the total fluid amount. The presence of radiogenic 40Ar* in the fluid suggests a fossil fluid component that might have circulated within the metacarbonate basement with radiogenic argon produced from detrital dispersed illite. Solubility-driven elemental fractionation of Ne/Ar, Kr/Ar, and Xe/Ar confirm extreme boiling in the reservoir. However, a combined analysis of these ratios with 40Ar/36Ar reveals mixing with an air component, possibly introduced by re-injected geothermal fluids.

  14. Radon studies for extending Los Azufres geothermal energy field in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Tavera, L; Camacho, M E; Chavez, A; Pérez, H; Gómez, J

    1999-01-01

    Los Azufres is a 98 MW producing geothermal energy field situated in the Mexican volcanic belt at the west part of the country. Recently, hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis of geothermal fluids from the north part of the geothermal field gave indications of a possible geothermal-production area, similar to the already producing field. In order to investigate the activity of geological structures, which are considered the means of geothermal fluids transporters, radon mapping was carried out using sets of 240 LR-115 detectors in the area of interest. Radon values higher than 10 kBq m sup - sup 3 were considered anomalous and indicative of geothermal anomalies.

  15. Evolution of long-term land subsidence near Mexico City: Review, field investigations, and predictive simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Zamora, Dalia; Ortega-Guerrero, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Aquitard consolidation in the Chalco Plain is the most recent of a series of major land subsidence problems near Mexico City caused by leaky-aquifer pumping and involving a complex distribution of basalt flows within a lacustrine sequence. This study first conducted a ground magnetic survey combined with lithologic logs to map the extension of basalts. Then it assessed the evolution of ground surface elevations and updated hydraulic heads in the aquifer and aquitard in order to verify the accuracy of previous simulations and develop new predictions on land subsidence employing a one-dimensional, nonlinear, groundwater flow-consolidation model. Results show the presence of shallow basalts that extend from Sierra Santa Catarina into the Chalco Plain, causing a differential consolidation that controls both the distribution of large-scale fractures in the aquitard and the shape of a new lake. Cumulative land subsidence in the center of the Chalco Plain reached 13 m in 2006, thus closely matching previous numerical estimations. Since 1985, the ground surface decline has continued at a rate of ˜0.40 m/yr, while the potentiometric surface decline in the aquifer proceeds at an average rate of ˜1.5 m/yr, indicating that the flow system has not yet reached steady-state conditions. Numerical predictions show that under current pumping rates, where the aquitard is 300 m, total land subsidence will reach ˜19 m by the year 2020; while where the aquitard is 140 m thick, total land subsidence will reach ˜12 m, and increase the risk of flooding and aquitard fracturing for nearby urban centers.

  16. A field study of reproductive performance and productivity of Pelibuey ewes in Southeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña-Monforte, Juan Gabriel; Huchin-Cab, Miguel; Ake-López, Ricardo Jesus; Segura-Correa, Jose Candelario

    2013-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate the reproductive performance and productivity of Pelibuey ewes in two flocks in Southeastern Mexico. Animals grazed on irrigated star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus). In flock 1, lambs grazed with their mothers from 7 to 70 days of age (weaning age), whereas in flock 2, they were confined and offered chopped grass, a commercial concentrated and managed under restricted suckling until weaning at 60 days of age.. The statistical model included the fixed effects of flock, year and season of lambing, parity number, litter size at weaning, first order interactions and the random effects of ewe and the error term. The means ± SD for age at first lambing, prolificacy, lambing interval (LI), weaning weight, and productivity were 477 ± 85.5 days, 1.41 ± 0.51 lambs, 255.9 ± 51.8 days, 16.5 ± 4 kg, and 18.1 ± 4.42 kg of lamb weaned, respectively. Repeatability estimates for the latter four traits were 0.09, 0.07, 0.11, and 0.13, respectively. All main effects in the models were significant (P season. Ewes with two or three lambs produced 8 and 14 kg of lamb more at weaning than single lamb ewes. In conclusion, reproductive performance and productivity could be improved, and the low repeatability estimates suggest that management should be used in a short term rather than genetic approaches.

  17. Perspectives on Safety and Health among Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in the United States and Mexico: A Qualitative Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallones, Lorann; Acosta, Martha S. Vela; Sample, Pat; Bigelow, Philip; Rosales, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Context: A large number of hired farmworkers in the United States come from Mexico. Understanding safety and health concerns among the workers is essential to improving prevention programs. Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to obtain detailed information about safety and health concerns of hired farmworkers in Colorado and in Mexico.…

  18. New Mexico Forest Inventory and Analysis: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Project, Field Report: 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Stuever; John Capuano

    2014-01-01

    For a 3-year period, from 2010-2012, the New Mexico Forestry Division utilized contractors to collect Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data in New Mexico. Funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, the State partnered with the Interior West FIA Program. Together, both agencies collected data on approximately 6,450 plots. This effort represents the...

  19. Mexico: Venturing abroad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.B. [Occupational Health & Safety, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-09-01

    In a recent survey, the Environmental Technologies Export Council asked its members what they saw as the most promising market for business development in the environmental field over the next five to 10 years. The hands-down winner was Mexico. This paper discusses environmental problems and technology opportunities in Mexico.

  20. Pre- and post-exploitation variations in hydrothermal activity in Los Humeros geothermal field, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prol-Ledesma, R. M.

    1998-08-01

    Los Humeros geothermal field is a remarkable example of the lack of water-rock equilibrium. Significant variations of hydrothermal activity have occurred before and after exploitation started. Presently, discharged water is not in equilibrium with the alteration suite observed in the reservoir rocks. Hydrothermal minerals identified in core and cuttings define the occurrence of several stages of hydrothermal activity. Cooling at depth is inferred from fluid inclusion and alteration mineralogy data from the wells located nearby Los Humeros fault. Most wells produce a two-phase fluid with excess enthalpy, this accounts for the high CO 2 content observed in the discharged fluid. Sulfur and carbon isotopic data indicate that volatile species in the geothermal fluid have magmatic as well as sedimentary components, while strontium isotopic composition shows that calcium is provided by the andesitic rocks that form the reservoir. As exploitation of the field started, concentration of HCl increased in the discharged fluids. This shows that recharge of the reservoir is not enough to balance the output for production, and drying out of the field may be taking place at depth. The lack of chemical equilibrium and the presence of gases of magmatic origin suggest that Los Humeros is a relatively young geothermal field related to a recent magmatic intrusion.

  1. Origin of rainwater acidity near the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.P.; Quijano, J.L.; Johnson, Chad; Gerardo, J.Y.; Arellano, V.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of rainwater were monitored at Los Azufres geothermal field (88 MWe) and its surroundings during May - September 1995, which is the rainy season. Samples were collected from eight sites: three within the field, three in its surroundings and two sufficiently far from the field such that they have no geothermal input. The concentrations of Cl-, SO42- and NO3- were measured in about 350 samples and found to be generally geothermal wells are in the range -3.4 to 0.0???. The ??34S ranges for the natural and anthropogenic sources for environmental sulfur overlap, making it difficult to differentiate between the contribution of different sources. However, a similarity of values of ??34S at Los Azufres and Morelia (85 km distant) suggest a regional source of sulfate that is not associated with geothermal emissions from Los Azufres. (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of CNR.The chemical compositions of rainwater were analyzed at Los Azufres geothermal field in Spain from May-September 1995. The concentrations of Cl-, SO42- and NO3- were measured and found to be generally <5 ppm. Chloride concentrations remained constant with time, but sulfate and nitrate concentrations decreased, suggesting a nearby industrial source. A mixing model for Cl-, SO42-, and ??34S also suggested an industrial source for the rainwater sulfur.

  2. An Early Researcher in the Field of Education: Bernardino de Sahagun in Sixteenth-Century Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Bernardino de Sahagun (1499/1500-1590), a Franciscan missionary in the colony of New Spain, can be seen as an early researcher in the field of education. Through his ethnographic work "General History of the Things of New Spain" he has been most influential in the historiography of Meso-American pre-Hispanic cultures. This paper focuses on the…

  3. An Early Researcher in the Field of Education: Bernardino de Sahagun in Sixteenth-Century Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Bernardino de Sahagun (1499/1500-1590), a Franciscan missionary in the colony of New Spain, can be seen as an early researcher in the field of education. Through his ethnographic work "General History of the Things of New Spain" he has been most influential in the historiography of Meso-American pre-Hispanic cultures. This paper focuses…

  4. Subsidence and Stress Change in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, B. C., Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.; Nava, F. A.

    2005-11-01

    Previous works have shown that ground deformation and seismicity in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CPGF) are due to both tectonics and field exploitation. Here, we use information about current tectonics and data from precision leveling surveys, to model tectonic and anthropogenic subsidence. Our results show that tectonic subsidence constitutes only ˜4% of the measured subsidence. Anthropogenic subsidence was evaluated using a model of rectangular tensional cracks, based on the hydrological model of the field, together with the Coulomb 2.0 program. From the resulting values of the fissure parameters and from extraction and injection data, we calculate that the volume changes caused by closure of the geothermal and cold water reservoirs account for only ˜3% and ˜7%, respectively, of the volume change which should occur due to extraction. Since 18% of the extracted fluids are reinjected, external recharge must compensate for about 72% of the expected volume reduction. An analysis of the changes in Coulomb stress caused by exploitation of the geothermal field suggest that even though the anthropogenic stresses account for only a fraction of tectonic stresses, they are large enough to trigger seismicity.

  5. On-Road Measurement of Vehichle VOC Emission Measurements During the 2003 Mexico City Metropolitan Area Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T.; Grimsrud, E.; Herndon, S.; Allwine, E.; Lamb, B.; Velasco, E.; Westberg, H.

    2004-12-01

    In the spring of 2003 (April 1-May 5), a multinational team of experts conducted an intensive, five-week field campaign in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The overall goal of this effort was to contribute to the understanding of the air quality problem in megacities. As part of the campaign the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instruments and deployed for measuring a variety of vehicle emissions in real time including CO2, NO2, NH3, HCHO, VOC's and volatile (at 600 °C) aerosol. The on-road measurement of vehicle VOC emissions were performed using a commercial version of the IONICON PTR-MS modified to operate onboard the mobile lab platform. A summary of the PTR-MS results from these and supporting laboratory experiments will be presented and discussed. In particular, selected chase events will be presented to illustrate the utility of the PTR-MS technique for characterizing vehicle VOC emission profiles in real time. VOC emission profiles for different vehicle engine types which include gasoline, diesel and compressed natural gas will be discussed and compared to the measurements from other high time response instruments deployed on the Aerodyne mobile van.

  6. Bipole-dipole interpretation with three-dimensional models (including a field study of Las Alturas, New Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohmann, G.W.; Jiracek, G.R.

    1979-09-01

    The bipole-dipole responses of three-dimensional (3D) prisms were studied using an integral equation numerical solution. Although response patterns are quite complex, the bipole-dipole method appears to be a useful, efficient means of mapping the areal distribution of resistivity. However, 3D modeling is required for quantitative interpretation. Computer time for our solution varies from negligible for small bodies to 6 minutes on a UNIVAC 1108 for the largest possible body (85 cubes). Bipole-dipole response varies significantly with bipole orientation and position, but simply changing the distance between the bipole and the body does not greatly affect the response. However, the response is complex and interpretation ambiguous if both transmitter electrodes are located directly over a body. Boundaries of shallow bodies are much better resolved than those of deep bodies. Conductive bodies produce false polarization highs that can confuse interpretation. It is difficult to distinguish the effects of depth and resistivity contrast, and, as with all electrical methods, depth extent is difficult to resolve. Interactive interpretation of bipole-dipole field results from a geothermal prospect in New Mexico illustrates the value of the 3D modeling technique.

  7. Microanalysis of the aerosol collected over south-central New Mexico during the alive field experiment, May-December 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Patrick J.; Schnell, Russel C.; Kahl, Jonathan D.; Boatman, Joe F.; Garvey, Dennis M.

    Thirty-eight size-segregated aerosol samples were collected in the lower troposphere over the high desert of south-central New Mexico, using cascade impactors mounted onboard two research aircraft. Four of these samples were collected in early May, sixteen in mid-July, and the remaining ones in December 1989, during three segments of the ALIVE field initiative. Analytical electron microscope analyses of aerosol deposits and individual particles from these samples were performed to physically and chemically characterize the major particulate species present in the aerosol. Air-mass trajectories arriving at the sampling area in the May program were quite different from those calculated for the July period. In general, the May trajectories showed strong westerly winds, while the July winds were weaker and southerly, consistently passing over or very near the border cities of El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Aerosol samples collected during the May period were predominantly fine (0.1-0.5 μm dia.), liquid H 2SO 4 droplets. Samples from the July experiment were comprised mostly of fine, solid (NH 4) 2SO 4 or mostly neutralized sulfate particles. In both sampling periods, numerous other particle classes were observed, including many types with probable terrestrial or anthropogenic sources. The numbers of these particles, however, were small when compared with the sulfates. Composite particle types, including sulfate/crustal and sulfate/carbonaceous, were also found to be present. The major differences in aerosol composition between the May and July samples (i.e. the extensive neutralization of sulfates in the July samples) can be explained by considering the different aerosol transport pathways and the proximity of the July aerosol to the El Paso/Juarez urban plume. Winds during the December experiment were quite variable, and may have contributed to the widely varying aerosol compositions observed in these samples. When the aircraft sampled the El Paso

  8. Simulation of Mexico City plumes during the MIRAGE-Mex field campaign using the WRF-Chem model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tie

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of tropospheric O3 production in the downwind of the Mexico City plume is a major objective of the MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. We used a regional chemistry-transport model (WRF-Chem to predict the distribution of O3 and its precursors in Mexico City and the surrounding region during March 2006, and compared the model with in-situ aircraft measurements of O3, CO, VOCs, NOx, and NOy concentrations. The comparison shows that the model is capable of capturing the timing and location of the measured city plumes, and the calculated variability along the flights is generally consistent with the measured results, showing a rapid increase in O3 and its precursors when city plumes are detected. However, there are some notable differences between the calculated and measured values, suggesting that, during transport from the surface of the city to the outflow plume, ozone mixing ratios are underestimated by about 0–25% during different flights. The calculated O3-NOx, O3-CO, and O3-NOz correlations generally agree with the measured values, and the analyses of these correlations suggest that photochemical O3 production continues in the plume downwind of the city (aged plume, adding to the O3 already produced in the city and exported with the plume. The model is also used to quantify the contributions to OH reactivity from various compounds in the aged plume. This analysis suggests that oxygenated organics (OVOCs have the highest OH reactivity and play important roles for the O3 production in the aging plume. Furthermore, O3 production per NOx molecule consumed (O3 production efficiency is more efficient in the aged plume than in the young plume near the city. The major contributor to the high O3 production efficiency in the aged plume is the

  9. Simulation of Mexico City plumes during the MIRAGE-Mex field campaign using the WRF-Chem model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tie

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of tropospheric O3 production in the Mexico City outflow is a major objective of the MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. We used a regional chemistry-transport model (WRF-Chem to predict the distribution of O3 and its precursors in Mexico City and the surrounding region during March 2006, and compared with in-situ aircraft measurement of O3, CO, VOCs, NOx, and NOy concentrations. The comparison shows that the model is capable of capturing the timing/location of the measured city plumes, and the calculated variability along the flights is generally consistent with the measured results, showing a rapid enhancement of O3 and its precursors when city plumes are detected. However, there are some notable differences between the calculated and measured values, suggesting that, during transport from the surface of the city to the outflow plume, pollution levels are underestimated by about 0–25% during different flights. The calculated O3-NOx, O3-CO, and O3-NOz correlations generally agree with the measured values, and the analysis of these correlations suggest that photochemical O3 production continues in the plume downwind of the city (aged plume, adding to the O3 already produced in the city and exported with the plume. The model is also used to quantify the contributions to OH reactivity from various compounds in the aged plume. This analysis suggests that oxygenated organics (OVOCs have the highest OH reactivity and play important roles for the O3 production in the aging plume. Furthermore, O3 production per NOx molecule consumed (O3 production efficiency is more efficient in the aged plume than in the young plume near the city. The major contributor to the high O3 production efficiency in the aged plume is the reaction RO2+NO. By

  10. Field Investigations of the July 2015 Pyroclastic Density Current Deposits of Volcán de Colima, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Z. D.; Macorps, E.; Charbonnier, S. J.; Varley, N. R.

    2016-12-01

    Small-volume pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) occur relatively frequently and pose severe threats to surrounding populations and infrastructures at active explosive volcanoes. They are characterized by short duration and complex multiphase flow dynamics due to time and space variability in their properties, which include amongst others, particle concentration, granulometry, componentry, bulk rheology and velocity. Field investigations of the deposits emplaced by small-volume concentrated PDCs aim to improve our understanding of the transport and depositional processes of these flows: time and space variations in flow dynamics within a PDC moving downslope will reflect on the distribution, grainsize and component characteristics of its deposits. Our study focuses on the recent events of July 10th and 11th, 2015 at Volcán de Colima (Mexico) where the collapse of the recent lava dome complex and a portion of the southern crater rim led to the emplacement of successive pulses of small-volume concentrated PDCs on the southern flank, along the Montegrande and San Antonio ravines. A 3-dimensional field analysis of the PDCs' deposit architecture, total grain size distribution and component properties together with a geomorphic analysis of the affected ravines provide new insights on the lateral and vertical variations of flow dynamics for some of these small-volume concentrated PDCs. Preliminary results reveal three stratigraphic units with massive block, lapilli, ash facies within the valley confined and concentrated overbank deposits with increasing content in fines with distance from the summit, suggesting an increase in fragmentation processes within the PDCs. The middle unit is characterized by a finer grainsize, a higher accidental lithic content and a lower free crystal content. Moreover, direct correlations are found between rapid changes in channel morphology and generation of overbank (unconfined) flows that escaped valley confines, which could provide the

  11. Gas equilibria in Cerro Prieto geothermal field, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portugal, E.; Barragan, R.M.; Izquierdo, G. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Morelos (Mexico); Leon, J. de [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali B.C. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Gas equlibria methods involving fischer-tropsch-pyrite-magnetite; and fischer-tropsch-pyrite-hematite-pyrite-magnetite reactions were used to evaluate reservoir temperature and a mass steam fraction in Cerro Prieto geothermal field. These approaches have been applied in some selected producing wells from four areas under exploitation. The results show good correlation for both equilibria methods; however fischer-tropsch; pyrite-magnetite reactions provide the best estimation of the physical reservoir parameters. The main processes found for Cerro Prieto IV area are lateral vapor contribution and the inflow of hotter and deeper fluid with high liquid saturation. (orig.)

  12. Temperature field distribution from cooling of a magma chamber in La Primavera Caldera, Jalisco, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, S.P. [Laboratorio de Energia Solar, Temixco, UNAM (Mexico); Rodriguez-Gonzalez, U. [Facultad de Ciencias de la Tierra, Linares, UANL (Mexico)

    1997-02-01

    The temperature field distribution in La Primavera geothermal area, Jalisco, located in the western part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB), has been simulated from cooling of a shallow magma chamber (assumed as the primary heat source) during the entire volcanic history of the caldera. Similar to the other two geothermal fields of the MVB (Los Humeros and Los Azufres), it is considered that the evolution of the magma chamber is controlled by the processes of fractional crystallization as well as magma recharge. Besides these processes, heat contribution is also taken into account from decay of natural radioactive elements, U, Th, and K, present in all geological materials. In some models presented in this work, convection in the geothermal reservoir is simulated by assigning higher values of thermal conductivities (up to 20 times the rock conductivities) to respective geologic units. The heat transfer equation has been solved by a finite element implicit method. The results of temperature simulations from the magma chamber are compared with undisturbed formation temperatures in three drill wells. (author)

  13. Carbon isotope geochemistry of hydrocarbons in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California Norte, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, D J; Stallard, M L; Nehring, N L; Truesdell, A H

    1988-01-01

    Hydrocarbon abundances and stable-isotopic compositions were measured in wells M5, M26, M35 and M102, which represent a range of depths (1270-2000 m) and temperatures (275-330 degrees C) in the field. In order to simulate the production of the geothermal hydrocarbons, gases were collected from the pyrolysis of lignite in the laboratory. This lignite was obtained from a well which sampled rock strata which are identical to those occurring in the field, but which have experienced much lower subsurface temperatures. In both the well and the laboratory observations, high-temperature environments favored higher relative concentrations of methane, ethane and benzene and generally higher delta 13C-values in the individual hydrocarbons. The best correlation between the laboratory and well data is obtained when laboratory-produced gases from experiments conducted at lower (400 degrees C) and higher (600 degrees C) temperatures are mixed. This improved correlation suggests that the wells are sampling hydrocarbons produced from a spectrum of depths and temperatures in the sediments.

  14. Gas chemistry and thermometry of the Cerro Prieto, Mexico, geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, N.L.; D'Amore, F.

    1984-01-01

    Gas compositions of Cerro Prieto wells in 1977 reflected strong boiling in the reservoir around wells M-20 and M-25. This boiling zone appeared to be collapsing in 1982 when a number of wells in this area of the field were shut-in. In 1977 and 1982, gas compositions also showed boiling zones corresponding to faults H and L postulated by Halfman et al. (1982). Four gas geothermometers were applied, based on reservoir equilibria and calculated fugacities. The Fisher - Tropsch reaction predicted high temperatures and appeared to re-equilibrate slowly, whereas the H2S reaction predicted low temperatures and appeared to re-equilibrate rapidly. Hydrogen and NH3 reactions were intermediate. Like gas compositions, the geothermometers reflected reservoir processes, such as boiling. Surface gas compositions are related to well compositions, but contain large concentrations of N2 originating from air dissolved in groundwater. The groundwater appears to originate in the east and flow over the production field before mixing with reservoir gases near the surface. ?? 1984.

  15. Carbon isotope geochemistry of hydrocarbons in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California Norte, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, D. J.; Stallard, M. L.; Nehring, N. L.; Truesdell, A. H.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrocarbon abundances and stable-isotopic compositions were measured in wells M5, M26, M35 and M102, which represent a range of depths (1270-2000 m) and temperatures (275-330 degrees C) in the field. In order to simulate the production of the geothermal hydrocarbons, gases were collected from the pyrolysis of lignite in the laboratory. This lignite was obtained from a well which sampled rock strata which are identical to those occurring in the field, but which have experienced much lower subsurface temperatures. In both the well and the laboratory observations, high-temperature environments favored higher relative concentrations of methane, ethane and benzene and generally higher delta 13C-values in the individual hydrocarbons. The best correlation between the laboratory and well data is obtained when laboratory-produced gases from experiments conducted at lower (400 degrees C) and higher (600 degrees C) temperatures are mixed. This improved correlation suggests that the wells are sampling hydrocarbons produced from a spectrum of depths and temperatures in the sediments.

  16. The Mantle and Basalt-Crust Interaction Below the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Christian M.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Schmidt, Marick E.

    2010-01-01

    The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF) lies on the Jemez Lineament on the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau. The field is centered on the Mt. Taylor composite volcano and includes Mesa Chivato to the NE and Grants Ridge to the WSW. MTVF magmatism spans approximately 3.8-1.5 Ma (K-Ar). Magmas are dominantly alkaline with mafic compositions ranging from basanite to hy-basalt and felsic compositions ranging from ne-trachyte to rhyolite. We are investigating the state of the mantle and the spatial and temporal variation in basalt-crustal interaction below the MTVF by examining mantle xenoliths and basalts in the context of new mapping and future Ar-Ar dating. The earliest dated magmatism in the field is a basanite flow south of Mt. Taylor. Mantle xenolith-bearing alkali basalts and basanites occur on Mesa Chivato and in the region of Mt. Taylor, though most basalts are peripheral to the main cone. Xenolith-bearing magmatism persists at least into the early stages of conebuilding. Preliminary examination of the mantle xenolith suite suggests it is dominantly lherzolitic but contains likely examples of both melt-depleted (harzburgitic) and melt-enriched (clinopyroxenitic) mantle. There are aphyric and crystal-poor hawaiites, some of which are hy-normative, on and near Mt. Taylor, but many of the more evolved MTVF basalts show evidence of complex histories. Mt. Taylor basalts higher in the cone-building sequence contain >40% zoned plagioclase pheno- and megacrysts. Other basalts peripheral to Mt. Taylor and at Grants Ridge contain clinopyroxene and plagioclase megacrysts and cumulate-textured xenoliths, suggesting they interacted with lower crustal cumulates. Among the questions we are addressing: What was the chemical and thermal state of the mantle recorded by the basaltic suites and xenoliths and how did it change with time? Are multiple parental basalts (Si-saturated vs. undersaturated) represented and, if so, what changes in the mantle or in the tectonic

  17. Adjustment and prediction of primary behavior of some reservoirs in the Cinco Presidentes field (Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, F.C.P.; Mendoza, J.S.

    1974-03-01

    The primary behavior of some reservoirs of the Cinco Presidentes field is analyzed. These are reservoirs in the final stage of exploitation, in which a great decline of pressure and of production has been observed. The principal aspect of the study consists in having carried out, in spite of the scarcity of information, an adjustment that permitted a prediction of behavior. Because of the small amount of bottom-hole pressure information available, the adjustment is basically made as a function of the production data, especially studying the variation of cumulative production of gas with respect to that of oil. This article shows that many times, because of the insufficiency of data, reservoir behavior is evaluated within a very small probability range, and sets out a foundation for insisting on obtaining information, short-and long-term, in reservoir engineering.

  18. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic community structure in field and cultured microbialites from the alkaline Lake Alchichica (Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Couradeau

    Full Text Available The geomicrobiology of crater lake microbialites remains largely unknown despite their evolutionary interest due to their resemblance to some Archaean analogs in the dominance of in situ carbonate precipitation over accretion. Here, we studied the diversity of archaea, bacteria and protists in microbialites of the alkaline Lake Alchichica from both field samples collected along a depth gradient (0-14 m depth and long-term-maintained laboratory aquaria. Using small subunit (SSU rRNA gene libraries and fingerprinting methods, we detected a wide diversity of bacteria and protists contrasting with a minor fraction of archaea. Oxygenic photosynthesizers were dominated by cyanobacteria, green algae and diatoms. Cyanobacterial diversity varied with depth, Oscillatoriales dominating shallow and intermediate microbialites and Pleurocapsales the deepest samples. The early-branching Gloeobacterales represented significant proportions in aquaria microbialites. Anoxygenic photosynthesizers were also diverse, comprising members of Alphaproteobacteria and Chloroflexi. Although photosynthetic microorganisms dominated in biomass, heterotrophic lineages were more diverse. We detected members of up to 21 bacterial phyla or candidate divisions, including lineages possibly involved in microbialite formation, such as sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria but also Firmicutes and very diverse taxa likely able to degrade complex polymeric substances, such as Planctomycetales, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia. Heterotrophic eukaryotes were dominated by Fungi (including members of the basal Rozellida or Cryptomycota, Choanoflagellida, Nucleariida, Amoebozoa, Alveolata and Stramenopiles. The diversity and relative abundance of many eukaryotic lineages suggest an unforeseen role for protists in microbialite ecology. Many lineages from lake microbialites were successfully maintained in aquaria. Interestingly, the diversity detected in aquarium microbialites was higher than

  19. Shatter Complex Formation in the Twin Craters Lava Flow, Zuni-Bandera Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Meerscheidt, H. C.; Bleacher, J. E.; Brand, B. D.; deWet, A.; Samuels, R.; Hamilton, C.; Garry, W. B.; Bandfield, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Lava channels, tubes and sheets are transport structures that deliver flowing lava to a flow front. The type of structure can vary within a flow field and evolve throughout an eruption. The 18.0 × 1.0 ka Twin Craters lava flow in the Zuni-Bandera lava field provides a unique opportunity to study morphological changes of a lava flow partly attributable to interaction with a topographic obstacle. Facies mapping and airborne image analysis were performed on an area of the Twin Craters flow that includes a network of channels, lava tubes, shatter features, and disrupted pahoehoe flows surrounding a 45 m tall limestone bluff. The bluff is 1000 m long (oriented perpendicular to flow.) The general flow characteristics upstream from the bluff include smooth, lobate pahoehoe flows and a >2.5 km long lava tube (see Samuels et al., this meeting.) Emplacement characteristics change abruptly where the flow encountered the bluff, to include many localized areas of disrupted pahoehoe and several pahoehoe-floored depressions. Each depression is fully or partly surrounded by a raised rim of blocky material up to 4 m higher than the surrounding terrain. The rim is composed of 0.05 - 4 m diameter blocks, some of which form a breccia that is welded by lava, and some of which exhibit original flow textures. The rim-depression features are interpreted as shatter rings based on morphological similarity to those described by Orr (2011.Bul Volcanol.73.335-346) in Hawai';i. Orr suggests that shatter rings develop when fluctuations in the lava supply rate over-pressurize the tube, causing the tube roof to repeatedly uplift and subside. A rim of shattered blocks and breccias remains surrounding the sunken tube roof after the final lava withdraws from the system. One of these depressions in the Twin Craters flow is 240 m wide and includes six mounds of shattered material equal in height to the surrounding undisturbed terrain. Several mounds have depressed centers floored with rubbly pahoehoe

  20. Temperature-depth relationships based on log data from the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Estrada, G.; Lopez-Hernandez, A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico); Prol-Ledesma, R.M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Equilibrium temperatures based on log data acquired during drilling stops in the Los Azufres geothermal field were used to study the relationship between temperature, depth and conductive heat flow that differentiate production from non-production areas. Temperature and thermal conductivity data from 62 geothermal wells were analyzed, displaying temperature-depth, gradient-depth, and ternary temperature-gradient-depth plots. In the ternary plot, the production wells of Los Azufres are located near the temperature vertex, where normalized temperatures are over 0.50 units, or where the temperature gradient is over 165{sup o}C/ km. In addition, the temperature data were used to estimate the depth at which 600{sup o}C could be reached (5-9 km) and the regional background conductive heat flow ({approx_equal}106 mW/m{sup 2}). Estimates are also given for the conductive heat flow associated with the conductive cooling of an intrusive body ({approx_equal}295 mW/m{sup 2}), and the conductive heat flow component in low-permeability blocks inside the reservoir associated with convection in limiting open faults (from 69 to 667 mW/m{sup 2}). The method applied in this study may be useful to interpret data from new geothermal areas still under exploration by comparing with the results obtained from Los Azufres. (author)

  1. Phytophthora capsici Epidemic Dispersion on Commercial Pepper Fields in Aguascalientes, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Zapata-Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper blight observed on pepper farms from north Aguascalientes was monitored for the presence of Phytophthora capsici during 2008–2010. Initially, ELISA tests were directed to plant samples from greenhouses and rustic nurseries, showing an 86% of positive samples. Later, samples of wilted plants from the farms during the first survey were tested with ELISA. The subsequent survey on soil samples included mycelia isolation and PCR amplification of a 560 bp fragment of ITS-specific DNA sequence of P. capsici. Data was analyzed according to four geographical areas defined by coordinates to ease the dispersal assessment. In general, one-third of the samples from surveyed fields contained P. capsici, inferring that this may be the pathogen responsible of the observed wilt. Nevertheless, only five sites from a total of 92 were consistently negative to P. capsici. The presence of this pathogen was detected through ELISA and confirmed through PCR. The other two-thirds of the negative samples may be attributable to Fusarium and Rhizoctonia, both isolated instead of Phytophthora in these areas. Due to these striking results, this information would be of interest for local plant protection committees and farmers to avoid further dispersal of pathogens to new lands.

  2. Phytophthora capsici epidemic dispersion on commercial pepper fields in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Vázquez, Adrián; Sánchez-Sánchez, Mario; del-Río-Robledo, Alicia; Silos-Espino, Héctor; Perales-Segovia, Catarino; Flores-Benítez, Silvia; González-Chavira, Mario Martín; Valera-Montero, Luis Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper blight observed on pepper farms from north Aguascalientes was monitored for the presence of Phytophthora capsici during 2008-2010. Initially, ELISA tests were directed to plant samples from greenhouses and rustic nurseries, showing an 86% of positive samples. Later, samples of wilted plants from the farms during the first survey were tested with ELISA. The subsequent survey on soil samples included mycelia isolation and PCR amplification of a 560 bp fragment of ITS-specific DNA sequence of P. capsici. Data was analyzed according to four geographical areas defined by coordinates to ease the dispersal assessment. In general, one-third of the samples from surveyed fields contained P. capsici, inferring that this may be the pathogen responsible of the observed wilt. Nevertheless, only five sites from a total of 92 were consistently negative to P. capsici. The presence of this pathogen was detected through ELISA and confirmed through PCR. The other two-thirds of the negative samples may be attributable to Fusarium and Rhizoctonia, both isolated instead of Phytophthora in these areas. Due to these striking results, this information would be of interest for local plant protection committees and farmers to avoid further dispersal of pathogens to new lands.

  3. Paleosecular variation of directions from lava flows of the Xalapa Volcanic Field, Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva-Valdivia, Luis; Gonzalez-Rangel, Antonio; Caballero-Miranda, Cecilia; Rodriguez, Sergio; Morales, Wendy

    2010-05-01

    We collected 21 monogenetic type lava flows (316 specimens) in the Xalapa Volcanic Field, eastern part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. Geochronological results of twelve Ar-Ar determinations range from late Pleistocene to Holocene. The ages fall into three groups, those older than 2.0 Ma, those between 0.25-0.40 Ma and those less than approximately 0.1 Ma. All the samples were demagnetized by thermal and AF treatment, showing mostly a single stable component of magnetization with unblocking temperature above 530°C and/or 40-60 mT. We calculate the mean direction (D= 359.70°, I=27.4°, k=24, 95=7.7°) and the VGP to compare and integrate with previous paleosecular variation analyses. The paleosecular variation parameter, upper and lower limit are: SF=14.6, SU=17.5 and SL=11.2, respectively. So, the VGP dispersion is consistent with the expected value of latitude-dependent variation of McFadden for the last 5My.

  4. Climatology of landfalling hurricanes and tropical storms in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauregui, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-10-01

    The potential for damage from hurricanes landfalling in Mexico is assessed. During the 1951-2000 period, Pacific hurricane hits were more frequent on coastal areas of the northwest of country (e.g., Sinaloa and the southern half of Baja California Peninsula) as well as in southern Mexico (Michoacan). On the Atlantic side, the Yucatan Peninsula and the northern state of Tamaulipas were most exposed to these storms. The hurricane season reaches maximum activity in September for both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the country. During the 50 year period, five intense hurricanes (category 5) made landfall on the Gulf/Caribbean coasts, while only one such intense hurricane made a land hit on the Pacific side. While hurricanes affecting Pacific coasts show a marked increase during the last decade, those of the Atlantic side exhibit a marked decrease since the 1970s. However, when considering the frequency of landfalling tropical storms and hurricanes impacting on both littorals of the country, their numbers have considerably increased during the 1990s. [Spanish] Se determino el potencial de dano de los huracanes que entran a tierra en Mexico. Durante el periodo 1951-2000 los impactos de los huracanes del Pacifico fueron mas frecuentes en las areas costeras del noroeste del pais, como Sinaloa y la mitad sur de la peninsula de Baja California, asi como en el sur de Mexico (Michoacan). En el lado del Atlantico la peninsula de Yucatan y el estado norteno de Tamaulipas fueron los mas expuestos a estas tormentas. Para las dos costas del pais, del Pacifico y del Atlantico, la temporada de huracanes alcanza su maxima actividad en septiembre. Durante los 50 anos del periodo de estudio cinco huracanes intensos (categoria 5) tocaron tierra en el lado del Atlantico y uno en el Pacifico. Mientras que los huracanes que afectan las costas del Pacifico muestran un incremento en numero durante la ultima decada, los del Atlantico exhiben una disminucion notable desde la decada de los

  5. EVALUATION OF THE FLOOD POTENTIAL OF THE SOUTH HOUSE (BLINEBRY) FIELD, LEA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Stephen Melzer

    2000-12-01

    /11 respectively. Production of oil and gas has been established with several months of production now available to make a reserve analysis. Production histories and reserves estimation are provided. An assessment of the flood potential for the South House project area has been completed with work concentrated on South House rock property and pay thickness characterization and analog studies. For the analogs, the North Robertson area, located twenty miles to the northeast, and the Teague Field, located 20 miles to the south, have been utilized due to their readily available database and previous waterflood studies. The South House area does appear to merit further examination as the rock quality compares favorably with both analog Fields; however, current well spacings of 40-acres will provide only marginal economics based upon $23.00/barrel oil prices. Permeability and porosity relationships are provided as a conditional demonstration that rock quality may be sufficient for successful waterflooding of the project area. Further rock property work and pay continuity studies are recommended.

  6. Predicting thermal conductivity of rocks from the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mexico, from easily measurable properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Alfonso; Contreras, Enrique; Dominquez, Bernardo A.

    1988-01-01

    A correlation is developed to predict thermal conductivity of drill cores from the Los Azufres geothermal field. Only andesites are included as they are predominant. Thermal conductivity of geothermal rocks is in general scarce and its determination is not simple. Almost all published correlations were developed for sedimentary rocks. Typically, for igneous rocks, chemical or mineral analyses are used for estimating conductivity by using some type of additive rule. This requires specialized analytical techniques and the procedure may not be sufficiently accurate if, for instance, a chemical analysis is to be changed into a mineral analysis. Thus a simple and accurate estimation method would be useful for engineering purposes. The present correlation predicts thermal conductivity from a knowledge of bulk density and total porosity, properties which provide basic rock characterization and are easy to measure. They may be determined from drill cores or cuttings, and the procedures represent a real advantage given the cost and low availability of cores. The multivariate correlation proposed is a quadratic polynomial and represents a useful tool to estimate thermal conductivity of igneous rocks since data on this property is very limited. For porosities between 0% and 25%, thermal conductivity is estimated with a maximum deviation of 22% and a residual mean square deviation of 4.62E-3 n terms of the log{sub 10}(k{rho}{sub b}) variable. The data were determined as part of a project which includes physical, thermal and mechanical properties of drill cores from Los Azufres. For the correlation, sixteen determinations of thermal conductivity, bulk density and total porosity are included. The conductivity data represent the first determinations ever made on these rocks.

  7. Linking hydropedology and ecosystem services: differential controls of surface field saturated hydraulic conductivity in a volcanic setting in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gómez-Tagle

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the variation of field saturated soil hydraulic conductivity (Kfs as key control variable and descriptor of infiltration was examined by means of a constant head single ring infiltrometer. The study took place in five coverage types and land uses in a volcanic setting in central Mexico. The tested hypothesis was that there exist a positive relationship between plant cover and surface Kfs for the study area. The examined coverage types included; Second growth pine-oak forest, pasture land, fallow land, gully and Cupresus afforestation. Results indicate that Kfs did not depend exclusively of plant cover; it was related to surface horizontal expression of the unburied soil horizons and linked to land use history. Therefore the Kfs measured at a certain location did not depend exclusively of the actual land use, it was also influenced by soil bioturbation linked to plant succession patterns and land use management practices history. The hypothesis accounts partially the variation between sites. Kfs under dense plant cover at the Cupresus afforestation was statistically equal to that measured at the fallow land or the gully sites, while second growth pine-oak forest Kfs figures were over an order of magnitude higher than the rest of the coverage types. The results suggest the relevance of unburied soil horizons in the soil hydrologic response when present at the surface. Under these conditions loosing surface soil horizons due to erosion, not only fertility is lost, but environmental services generation potential. A conceptual model within the hydropedological approach is proposed. It explains the possible controls of Kfs, for this volcanic setting. Land use history driven erosion plays a decisive role in subsurface horizon presence at the surface and soil matrix characteristic determination, while plant succession patterns seem to be strongly linked to soil bioturbation and

  8. Geological determination of the limits, area and volume of the geothermal reservoir of the Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico; Determinacion geologica de los limites, area y volumen del yacimiento geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Hernandez, Daniel [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    A geologic analysis to determine the limits, area and volume of the exploitable reservoir of the Los Humeros Geothermal Field, in Puebla, Mexico was carried out. We defined the structural boundaries, both at surface and at deep that seem to control the distribution of the fluids of high enthalpy and favor or limit the production of steam. With 40 wells drilled to date, an average thickness of the lithological producer Unit of 1 163 m has been estimated. A surface of 12.54 km{sup 2} was calculated, that with the estimated thickness, gives a volume of the reservoir of 14.6 km{sup 3}. We consider that there are two main production sectors in the Geothermal Field: The Central Collapse and The Mastaloya Corridor. [Spanish] Se realizo un analisis geologico para determinar los limites, area y volumen del yacimiento explotable del campo geotermico de Los Humeros en Puebla, Mexico. Se definen las barreras estructurales, tanto superficiales como del subsuelo, que controlan la distribucon de los fluidos de alta entalpia que favorecen o limitan la produccion de vapor. Con los 40 pozos perforados hasta la fecha, se estima un espesor promedio de la unidad productora de 1 163 m. Se calculo una superficie de 12.54 km{sup 2}, la que con el espesor mencionado, da un volumen del yacimiento de 14.6 km{sup 3}. Se plantea que dentro del campo existen dos sectores principales de produccion. El Colapso Central y el Corredor de Mastaloya.

  9. Enhancing Diversity In The Geosciences; Intensive Field Experience In USA And Mexico For Middle And High School Teachers Serving Large Hispanic Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Bautista, R. M.; Kitts, K. B.; Velazquez Oliman, G.; Perry, E. C.

    2008-12-01

    To encourage Hispanic participation and enrolment in the geosciences and ultimately enhance diversity within the discipline, we recruited ten middle and high school science teachers serving large Hispanic populations (60-97%) for a paid three-week field experience supported by an NSF Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences grant. In 2006, the field experiences focused on volcanic events and the water problems of the Central part of Mexico. In 2008, the field experiences focused on karstic and hydrogeological conditions of the Yucatan Peninsula. In addition to the geological aspects of the fieldwork experience, the trip to Mexico exposed the teachers to a social environment outside of their community where they interacted with a diverse group of scientists from the Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Centro de Investigacion Cientifica de Yucatan (CICY) and Centro Nacional de Desastres (CENAPRED). A key part of this project was the encounter between American and Mexican teachers that included a day of presentations, panel discussion and some class-room activities. Direct interaction between the cooperating teachers and the American and Mexican geoscientists provided actual scientific research experiences to educate and to help dispel misconceptions the teachers themselves may have had about who geoscientists really are and what they do. Teachers of the 2006 group produced educational materials from their field experiences and presented these materials at professional conferences. We measured the efficacy of these activities quantitatively via pre- and post-tests assessing confidence levels, preconceptions and biases, NIU staff observations of participants in their home institutions, and evaluations of participants' field books and pedagogical materials. We present these data here and identify specific activities that are both effective and efficient in changing teacher behaviours and attitudes enabling them to better connect with their

  10. Eruptive History of the Rhyolitic Guangoche Volcano, Los Azufres Volcanic Field, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel Granados, E.; Arce, J. L.; Macias, J. L.; Layer, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Guangoche is a rhyolitic and polygenetic volcano with a maximum elevation of 2,760 meters above sea level. It is situated to the southwest of the Los Azufres Volcanic Field (LAVF), in the central sector of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Guangoche volcano is the youngest volcano described within the LAVF. It shows a horseshoe shaped crater open to the south, with a central lava dome. Its eruptive history during late Pleistocene has been intense with six explosive eruptions that consists of: 1) A southwards sector collapse of the volcano that generated a debris avalanche deposit with megablocks of heterogenous composition; 2) A plinian-type eruption that generated a pumice fall deposit and pyroclastic density currents by column collapse at 30.6 ka; 3) A plinian-type eruption "White Pumice Sequence" (29 ka) that developed a 22-km-high eruptive column, with a MDR of 7.0 x 107 kg/s (vol. = 0.53 km3); 4) A dome-destruction event, "Agua Blanca Pyroclastic Sequence" at 26.7 ka, that deposited a block-and-ash flow deposit; 5) A subplinian-plinian type eruption "Ochre Pyroclastic Sequence" (<26 ka) with an important initial phreatomagmatic phase, that generated pyroclastic density currents and pumice fallouts. The subplinian-plinian event generated a 16-km-high eruptive column, with a MDR of 1.9 x 107 kg/s, and magma volume of 0.38 km3; 6) The eruptive history ended with a subplinian eruption (<<26 ka), that generated a multilayered fall deposit, that developed a 11-km-high eruptive column, with a MDR of 2.9 x 106 kg/s and a magma volume of 0.26 km3. Volcanic activity at Guangoche volcano has been intense and future activity should not be discarded. Unfortunately, the last two events have not been dated yet. Guangoche rhyolitic magma is characterized by low-Ba contents suggesting crystal mush extraction for their genesis.

  11. The Significance of Acid Alteration in the Los Humeros High-Temperature Geothermal Field, Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Izquierdo, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Los Humeros geothermal field is a high-enthalpy hydrothermal system with more than 40 drilled deep wells, mostly producing high steam fractions at > 300oC. However, although it has a large resource potential, low permeability and corrosive acid fluids have hampered development so that it currently has an installed electrical generating capacity of only 40 MWe. The widespread production of low pH fluids from the reservoir is inconsistent with the marked absence in the reservoir rocks of hydrothermal minerals typical of acid alteration. Instead the hydrothermal alteration observed is typical of that due to neutral to alkaline pH waters reacting with the volcanic rocks of the production zones. Thus it appears that since the reservoir has recently suffered a marked drop in fluid pressure and is in process of transitioning from being water-dominated to being vapor-dominated. However sparse examples of acid leaching are observed locally at depths of about 2 km in the form of bleached, intensely silicified zones, in low permeability and very hot (>350oC) parts of reservoir. Although these leached rocks retain their primary volcanic and pyroclastic textures, they are altered almost entirely to microcrystalline quartz, with some relict pseudomorphs of plagioclase phenocrysts and traces of earlier-formed hydrothermal chlorite and pyrite. These acid-altered zones are usually only some tens of meters thick and deeper rocks lack such silicification. The acid fluids responsible for their formation could either be magmatic volatiles, or could be formed during production (e.g. reaction of water and salts forming hydrogen chloride by hydrolysis at high temperatures). The very high boron content of the fluids produced by the Los Humeros wells suggests that their ultimate source is most likely magmatic gases. However, these acid gases did not react widely with the rocks. We suggest that the silicified zones are forming locally where colder descending waters are encountering

  12. Seismologic study of Los Hum eros geothermal field, Pueblo, Mexico. Part I: Seismicity, source mechanisms and stress distribution; Estudio sismologico del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico. Parte I: Sismicidad, mecanismos de fuente y distribucion de esfuerzos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lermo, Javier; Antayhua, Yanet [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F (Mexico)]. E-Mail: jles@pumas.iingen.unam.mx; Quintanar, Luis [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Lorenzo, Cecilia [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    The distribution of earthquakes at the surface and at depth in the Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla (Mexico), is analyzed from 1997-2004. Data for 95 earthquakes were registered at more than five permanent and temporary stations installed by the Comision Federal de Electricidad and the Instituto de Ingenieria of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. The duration magnitudes of the quakes are equal to or lower than 3.6 Md and the focal depths do not exceed 4.0 km. Simple focal mechanisms and moment tensor inversions were made, and the number of earthquakes registered by two stations of the permanent network (numbers S05, S06) was compared with water-injection and steam-production volumes over a certain period. The results at the surface and at depth show seismic activity occurring in the northern zone of the field around injection wells I29 (well H-29) and I38 (well H-38); whereas, the simple focal mechanisms and moment tensors demonstrate stresses of heterogeneous origin, suggesting that part of the seismic activity in Los Humeros is probably induced, mainly by injecting water. [Spanish] Se analiza la distribucion en superficie y en profundidad de los sismos ocurridos en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico), durante el periodo 1997-2004. Los datos corresponden a 95 sismos registrados por mas de cinco estaciones permanentes y temporales instaladas por la Comision Federal de Electricidad y el Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, cuyas magnitudes de duracion son menores o iguales a 3.6 Md y profundidades focales que no sobrepasan los 4.0 km. Asimismo, se realizaron mecanismos focales simples y de inversion de tensor de momento, y se comparo el numero de sismos registrados por dos estaciones de la red permanente (numeros S05, S06) con la inyeccion de agua y la produccion de vapor durante cierto tiempo. Los resultados en superficie y en profundidad muestran actividad sismica en la zona norte del campo, alrededor

  13. The structural architecture of the Los Humeros volcanic complex and geothermal field, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norini, Gianluca; Groppelli, Gianluca; Sulpizio, Roberto; Carrasco Núñez, Gerardo; Davila Harris, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The development of geothermal energy in Mexico is a very important goal, given the presence of a large heat anomaly, associated with the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, the renewability of the resource and the low environmental impact. The Quaternary Los Humeros volcanic complex is an important geothermal target, whose evolution involved at least two caldera events, that alternated with other explosive and effusive activity. The first caldera forming event was the 460 ka eruption that produced the Xaltipan ignimbrite and formed a 15-20 km wide caldera. The second collapse event occurred 100 ka with the formation of the Zaragoza ignimbrite and a nested 8-10 km wide caldera. The whole volcano structure, the style of the collapses and the exact location of the calderas scarps and ring faults are still a matter of debate. The Los Humeros volcano hosts the productive Los Humeros Geothermal Field, with an installed capacity of 40 MW and additional 75 MW power plants under construction. Recent models of the geothermal reservoir predict the existence of at least two reservoirs in the geothermal system, separated by impermeable rock units. Hydraulic connectivity and hydrothermal fluids circulation occurs through faults and fractures, allowing deep steam to ascend while condensate flows descend. As a consequence, the plans for the exploration and exploitation of the geothermal reservoir have been based on the identification of the main channels for the circulation of hydrothermal fluids, constituted by faults, so that the full comprehension of the structural architecture of the caldera is crucial to improve the efficiency and minimize the costs of the geothermal field operation. In this study, we present an analysis of the Los Humeros volcanic complex focused on the Quaternary tectonic and volcanotectonics features, like fault scarps and aligned/elongated monogenetic volcanic centres. Morphostructural analysis and field mapping reveal the geometry, kinematics and dynamics of

  14. An application of neural network in geophysical prospecting. Electrical resistivity at Las Virgenes geothermal field, Baja California Sur, Mexico; Una aplicacion de las redes neuronales a la prospeccion geofisica. Resistividad electrica en las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma Guzman, Sergio Hugo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    The technology of the neural network is presented with geophysical focus in the Las Virgenes geothermal field, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The results obtained when extrapolating the associative data of the prospecting magnetoteluria and Vertical Electric Sounding, on the area of the geothermal wells to the rest of the area, allows to classify zones of interest for the geothermal exploitation. Also, the use of these associative parameters with the information of the stabilized temperature of the wells, they allow to predict temperatures for the rest of the area. [Spanish] Se presenta una aplicacion de la tecnologia de las redes neuronales con enfoque geofisico en el campo geotermico de Las Virgenes, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Los resultados obtenidos al extrapolar los datos asociativos de las prospecciones geoelectricas de magnetoteluria y sondeos electricos verticales, en la zona de los pozos geotermicos al resto del area, permiten clasificar zonas de interes para la explotacion geotermica. Tambien, la utilizacion de estos parametros asociativos con la informacion de la temperatura estabilizada de los pozos, permiten predecir temperaturas para la misma area.

  15. Petrogenesis and metal budget of Pelagatos volcano in the Chichinautzin monogenetic field, Mexico: A Melt Inclusion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, J.; Mercer, C. N.; Kent, A. J.; Guilbaud, M.

    2013-12-01

    Melt inclusions are now widely used to quantify pre-eruptive volatile contents and to track the compositional evolution of magma. In recent years, the use of melt inclusions has also increased markedly for research in economic geology. Melt inclusions are becoming a powerful tool to track metal contents in ore-forming magmatic reservoirs and metals like Ag, Cu, Li, Mo, Sn, Pb, W, Zn are now commonly included in trace element analyses. Investigating metal reservoirs in currently active volcanic systems provides insight into the conditions that favor mineralization in ore-forming deposits compared to barren systems. In this work, we present volatiles (H2O, CO2, S, Cl) and major and trace element contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusion from 4 samples spanning the entire eruption of Pelagatos scoria cone. Pelagatos is a small and young (less than 14 000 years B.P.) monogenetic volcano within the Sierra Chichinautzin volcanic field located in the central portion of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt (south-east of Mexico City). The melt inclusions are basaltic andesite to andesite in composition, with 1.84 - 6.02 wt% MgO, 51.95 - 59.21 wt% SiO2 and 0.64 - 1.55 wt% K2O. The H2O varies from 0.5 to 4.3 wt% whereas CO2 varies from below detection up to 976 ppm. Sulfur contents vary from 35 to 1451 ppm, showing a decrease with increasing MgO content suggesting that S is being lost with progressive differentiation, but since S concentrations do not correlate with any other gas phase (H2O, CO2, Cl) we hypothesize that it partitioned into an immiscible fluid or mineral phase. On the other hand, Cl contents are broadly constant (900 to 1267 ppm), and shows no correlation with MgO or K2O. All analyzed metals (Ag, Cu, Li, Mo, Sn, Pb, W, Zn ) behave incompatibly showing a positive correlation with La. Cu (18 to 82 ppm), Pb (2 to 8 ppm) Zn (30 to 107 ppm) and Mo correlate positively together indicating that fractional crystallization concentrates these elements. These results provide

  16. Aflatoxin-producing fungi in maize fields of Sonora Mexico at varying elevations: a three year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin contamination of maize, a critical staple of billions, by Aspergillus flavus is a recurrent problem in the tropics and subtropics. Maize is produced across a broad range of elevations in the state of Sonora, Mexico. The current study evaluated the influence of elevation on the composition ...

  17. 40Ar/39Ar dating, geochemistry, and isotopic analyses of the quaternary Chichinautzin volcanic field, south of Mexico City: implications for timing, eruption rate, and distribution of volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Layer, P. W.; Lassiter, J. C.; Benowitz, J. A.; Macías, J. L.; Ramírez-Espinosa, J.

    2013-12-01

    Monogenetic structures located at the southern and western ends of the Chichinautzin volcanic field (Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Central Mexico) yield 40Ar/39Ar ages ranging from 1.2 Ma in the western portion of the field to 1.0-0.09 Ma in the southern portion, all of which are older than the volcanic field. These new ages indicate: (1) an eruption rate of 0.47 km3/kyr, which is much lower than the 11.7 km3/kyr previously estimated; (2) that the Chichinautzin magmatism coexisted with the Zempoala (0.7 Ma) and La Corona (1.0 Ma) polygenetic volcanoes on the southern edge of Las Cruces Volcanic Range (Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt); and confirm (3) that the drainage system between the Mexico and Cuernavaca basins was closed during early Pleistocene forming the Texcoco Lake. Whole-rock chemistry and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic data indicate heterogeneous magmatism throughout the history of Chichinautzin activity that likely reflects variable degrees of slab and sediment contributions to the mantle wedge, fractional crystallization, and crustal assimilation. Even with the revised duration of volcanism within the Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, its eruption rate is higher than most other volcanic fields of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and is comparable only to the Tacámbaro-Puruaran area in the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field to the west. These variations in eruption rates among different volcanic fields may reflect a combination of variable subduction rates of the Rivera and Cocos plates along the Middle America Trench, as well as different distances from the trench, variations in the depth with respect to the subducted slab, or the upper plate characteristics.

  18. Successful application of MPD (managed pressure drilling) for prevention, control, and detection of borehole ballooning in tight gas reservoir in Cuervito Field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa, A.; Acevedo, O.; Nieto, L. [Petrobras (United States); Lambarria, J.E. [PEMEX Exploration and Production (Mexico); Perez, H. [Weatherford (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Cuervito field is an oil play located in the Burgos Basin in northeastern Mexico. In order to reach the highest yielding sands, wells in the Cuervito field are usually set up with 3 casings. However, the ballooning effect, an elastoplastic behavior of a well's walls, occurs during drilling operations, leading to loss of circulation. Two methods, based on geological and geopressure data, were found to minimize this effect: either putting in an extra casing, or using an unconventional drilling technique. As the managed pressure drilling (MPD) technique is less complex and more elegant, a pilot project was implemented using this method on a well. Results showed that MPD minimized lost time and enhanced drilling efficiency. This paper demonstrated that the use of MPD in the Cuervito field is a good solution for identifying and controlling the ballooning effect and this technique was successfully applied to the next 3 wells drilled subsequently.

  19. Finite-fault analysis of the 1979 March 14 Petatlan, Mexico, earthquake using teleseismic P waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, C.

    1995-01-01

    Vertical, teleseismic P waves recorded for the 1979 March 14 Petatlan, Mexico, earthquake were used to derive the distribution of coseismic slip using a linear finite-fault inversion scheme that solves for the amount of slip in each of a series of consecutive time windows. The coseismic slip inferred from the P waves shows a small 70 cm peak near the earthquake hypocentre and a large zone of dislocation (1.2 m maximum) further south-east. The slip pattern covers depths from 3 to 25 km and is located south-east of other recent large interplate ruptures on the Michoacan segment of the Mexican subduction zone. This result indicates that the 1979 Petatlan earthquake broke an independent, adjacent portion of the Cocos-North America plate boundary. -from Author

  20. Initial Pressure Distribution in the Geothermal Field of Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico; Distribucion de presion inicial en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, Victor M.; Izquierdo, Georgina; Aragon, Alfonso; Barragan, Rosa Maria; Garcia, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); Pizano, Arturo [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2001-09-01

    To obtain the undisturbed distribution of pressures of a field flow, a significant amount of data concerning geological, geochemical, geophysical, and field drilling and engineering aspects, from 42 wells located at the geothermal field of Los Humeros, was analysed. Based on the studied data, models of the field pressure distribution in its initial state were developed. The models reveal the existence of at least two deposits. One of them, the most superficial, is located between 1025 and 1600 meters over the sea level, and from its excellent congruence with the pressure profile of a boiling water column, it may be considered as a predominantly liquid field. The pressure profile of this field is that of a boiling water column, at a temperature of about 300-330 Celsius degrees. The second field is below 850 meters over the sea level and from the known data it reaches at least 100 meters over the sea level. It is considered a low-liquid saturated field. The temperatures of the wells supplied by this field were estimated to be about 300-40 Celsius degrees. [Spanish] Para inferir las distribuciones de presion no perturbadas del fluido del yacimiento, se analizo una considerable cantidad de informacion relacionada con los aspectos geologicos, geoquimicos, geofisicos, de perforacion e ingenieria de yacimientos, correspondiente a 42 pozos del camo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla. Sobre la base de los datos analizados se desarrollaron modelos de distribucion de la presion del yacimiento en su estado inicial. Dichos modelos revelan la existencia de, cuando menos, dos yacimientos. El primero y mas superficial se encuentra localizado entre 1,600 y 1,025 metros sobre el nivel del mar (msnm), y dada su excelente concordancia con el perfil de presion correspondiente a una columna de agua en ebullicion, puede afirmarse que se trata de un yacimiento de liquido dominante. El perfil de presion de este yacimiento corresponde a una columna de agua en ebullicion de 300 a 330

  1. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  2. 1985 Mexico City, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 square km area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter....

  3. Subsidence monitoring in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, B.C., Mexico; Monitoreo de la subsidencia en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lira Herrera, Hector [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Cerro Prieto, B.C. (Mexico)

    1999-04-01

    Since 1977, precise leveling surveys have been carried out to determine whether there have been vertical terrain displacements and the subsidence speed rate in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal field area. The elevation contours for each leveling show since 1962 that there was a basin that involves the geothermal field. The differences in the last three levelings show a generalized subsidence between Cerro Prieto (BN 10049) and Imperial faults (BN CD-14). [Spanish] A partir de 1977 se realizan trabajos de nivelacion de precision, con el fin de conocer si existen desplazamientos verticales del terreno y cual es la velocidad de subsidencia que existe en el area del Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto. Las configuraciones de cotas para cada uno de los anos nivelados, muestran que desde 1962 existe una cuenca que incluye al campo geotermico; la diferencia de cotas obtenidas en las tres ultimas nivelaciones, indican una subsidencia generalizada entre la Falla Cerro Prieto (BN 10049) y la Falla Imperial (BN CD-14).

  4. Surface Deformation Associated with Geothermal Fluids Extraction at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja California, Mexico Revealed by DInSAR Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarychikhina, O.; Glowacka, E.; Mojarro, J.

    2016-08-01

    The Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) is widely used for surface deformation detection and monitoring.In this paper, ERS-1/2, ENVISAT and RADARSAT-2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired between 1993 and 2014 were processed to investigate the evolution of surface deformation at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California, Mexico. The conventional DInSAR together with the interferogram stacking method was applied. Average LOS (line of sight) displacement velocity maps were generated for different periods: 1993 - 1997, 1998 - 2000, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2012 - 2014, revealing that the area corresponding to Cerro Prieto basin presented the important surface deformation (mainly subsidence) during the entire time of investigation. The changes in the surface deformation pattern and rate were identified. These changes have a good correlation in time with the changes of production in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field.

  5. Distribution, magnitudes, reactivities, ratios and diurnal patterns of volatile organic compounds in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA 2002 & 2003 field campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Velasco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide array of volatile organic compound (VOC measurements was conducted in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA-2002 and 2003 field campaigns. Study sites included locations in the urban core, in a heavily industrial area and at boundary sites in rural landscapes. In addition, a novel mobile-laboratory-based conditional sampling method was used to collect samples dominated by fresh on-road vehicle exhaust to identify those VOCs whose ambient concentrations were primarily due to vehicle emissions. Four distinct analytical techniques were used: whole air canister samples with Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID, on-line chemical ionization using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS, continuous real-time detection of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS, and long path measurements using UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS. The simultaneous use of these techniques provided a wide range of individual VOC measurements with different spatial and temporal scales. The VOC data were analyzed to understand concentration and spatial distributions, diurnal patterns, origin and reactivity in the atmosphere of Mexico City. The VOC burden (in ppbC was dominated by alkanes (60%, followed by aromatics (15% and olefins (5%. The remaining 20% was a mix of alkynes, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygenated species (esters, ethers, etc. and other unidentified VOCs. However, in terms of ozone production, olefins were the most relevant hydrocarbons. Elevated levels of toxic hydrocarbons, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes, were also observed. Results from these various analytical techniques showed that vehicle exhaust is the main source of VOCs in Mexico City and that diurnal patterns depend on vehicular traffic in addition to meteorological processes. Finally, examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped modeling VOC classes and its comparison to the VOC lumped emissions reported in other

  6. Distribution, Magnitudes, Reactivities, Ratios and Diurnal Patterns of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Valley of Mexico During the MCMA 2002 & 2003 Field Campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Westberg, Halvor; Allwine, Eugene J.; Sosa, G.; Arriaga-Colina, J. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Prazeller, Peter; Knighton, Walter B.; Rogers, T.; Grutter, M.; Herndon, S.; Kolb, C. E.; Zavala, Mary A.; de Foy, B.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Molina, Luisa; Molina, Mario J.

    2007-01-23

    A wide array of volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements was conducted in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA-2002 and 2003 field campaigns. Study sites included locations in the urban core, in a heavily industrial area and at boundary sites in rural landscapes. In addition, a novel mobile-laboratory-based conditional sampling method was used to collect samples dominated by fresh on-road vehicle exhaust to identify those VOCs whose ambient concentrations were primarily due to vehicle emissions. Four distinct analytical techniques were used: whole air canister samples with Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID), on-line chemical ionization using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), continuous real-time detection of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS), and long path measurements using UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS). The simultaneous use of these techniques provided a wide range of individual VOC measurements with different spatial and temporal scales. The VOC data were analyzed to understand concentration and spatial distributions, diurnal patterns, origin and reactivity in the atmosphere of Mexico City. The VOC burden (in ppbC) was dominated by alkanes (60%), followed by aromatics (15%) and olefins (5%). The remaining 20% was a mix of alkynes, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygenated species (esters, ethers, etc.) and other unidentified VOCs. However, in terms of ozone production, olefins were the most relevant hydrocarbons. Elevated levels of toxic hydrocarbons, such as 1, 3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes, were also observed. Results from these various analytical techniques showed that vehicle exhaust is the main source of VOCs in Mexico City and that diurnal patterns depend on vehicular traffic in addition to meteorological processes. Finally, examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped modeling VOC classes and its comparison to the VOC lumped emissions reported in other photochemical air

  7. Distribution, magnitudes, reactivities, ratios and diurnal patterns of volatile organic compounds in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA 2002 and 2003 field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Lamb, B.; Westberg, H.; Allwine, E.; Sosa, G.; Arriaga-Colina, J. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Alexander, M.; Prazeller, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Grutter, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Zavala, M.; de Foy, B.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-08-01

    A wide array of volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements was conducted in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA-2002 and 2003 field campaigns. Study sites included locations in the urban core, in a heavily industrial area and at boundary sites in rural landscapes. In addition, a novel mobile-laboratory-based conditional sampling method was used to collect samples dominated by fresh on-road vehicle exhaust to identify those VOCs whose ambient concentrations were primarily due to vehicle emissions. Five distinct analytical techniques were used: whole air canister samples with Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID), on-line chemical ionization using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), continuous real-time detection of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS), and long path measurements using UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS). The simultaneous use of these techniques provided a wide range of individual VOC measurements with different spatial and temporal scales. The VOC data were analyzed to understand concentration and spatial distributions, diurnal patterns, origin and reactivity in the atmosphere of Mexico City. The VOC burden (in ppbC) was dominated by alkanes (60%), followed by aromatics (15%) and olefins (5%). The remaining 20% was a mix of alkynes, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygenated species (esters, ethers, etc.) and other unidentified VOCs. However, in terms of ozone production, olefins were the most relevant hydrocarbons. Elevated levels of toxic hydrocarbons, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes were also observed. Results from these various analytical techniques showed that vehicle exhaust is the main source of VOCs in Mexico City and that diurnal patterns depend on vehicular traffic. Finally, examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped modeling VOC classes and its comparison to the VOC lumped emissions reported in other photochemical air quality modeling studies suggests that

  8. Distribution, magnitudes, reactivities, ratios and diurnal patterns of volatile organic compounds in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA 2002 & 2003 field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Lamb, B.; Westberg, H.; Allwine, E.; Sosa, G.; Arriaga-Colina, J. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Alexander, M. L.; Prazeller, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Grutter, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Zavala, M.; de Foy, B.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    A wide array of volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements was conducted in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA-2002 and 2003 field campaigns. Study sites included locations in the urban core, in a heavily industrial area and at boundary sites in rural landscapes. In addition, a novel mobile-laboratory-based conditional sampling method was used to collect samples dominated by fresh on-road vehicle exhaust to identify those VOCs whose ambient concentrations were primarily due to vehicle emissions. Four distinct analytical techniques were used: whole air canister samples with Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID), on-line chemical ionization using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), continuous real-time detection of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS), and long path measurements using UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS). The simultaneous use of these techniques provided a wide range of individual VOC measurements with different spatial and temporal scales. The VOC data were analyzed to understand concentration and spatial distributions, diurnal patterns, origin and reactivity in the atmosphere of Mexico City. The VOC burden (in ppbC) was dominated by alkanes (60%), followed by aromatics (15%) and olefins (5%). The remaining 20% was a mix of alkynes, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygenated species (esters, ethers, etc.) and other unidentified VOCs. However, in terms of ozone production, olefins were the most relevant hydrocarbons. Elevated levels of toxic hydrocarbons, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes, were also observed. Results from these various analytical techniques showed that vehicle exhaust is the main source of VOCs in Mexico City and that diurnal patterns depend on vehicular traffic in addition to meteorological processes. Finally, examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped modeling VOC classes and its comparison to the VOC lumped emissions reported in other photochemical air

  9. Evolution of the Latir volcanic field, Northern New Mexico, and its relation to the Rio Grande Rift, as indicated by potassium-argon and fission track dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.; Mehnert, Harald H.; Naeser, Charles W.

    1986-05-01

    Remnants of the Latir volcanic field and cogenetic plutonic rocks are exceptionally exposed along the east margin of the present-day Rio Grande rift by topographic and structural relief in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of northern New Mexico. Evolution of the magmatic system associated with the Latir field, which culminated in eruption of a regional ash flow sheet (the Amalia Tuff) and collapse of the Questa caldera 26 m.y. ago, has been documented by 74 new potassium-argon (K-Ar) and fission track (F-T) ages. The bulk of the precaldera volcanism, ash flow eruptions and caldera formation, and initial crystallization of the associated shallow granitic batholith took place between 28 and 25 Ma; economically important molybdenum mineralization is related to smaller granitic intrusions along the south margin of the Questa caldera at about 23 Ma. Interpretation of the radiogenic ages within this relatively restricted time span is complicated by widespread thermal resetting of earlier parts of the igneous sequence by later intrusions. Many samples yielded discordant ages for different mineral phases. Thermal blocking temperatures decrease in the order: K-Ar sanidine > K-Ar biotite > F-T zircon ≫ F-T apatite. The F-T results are especially useful indicators of cooling and uplift rates. Upper portions of the subvolcanic batholith, that underlay the Questa caldera, cooled to about 100°C within about a million years of emplacement; uplift of the batholith increases to the south along this segment of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Activity in the Latir volcanic field was concurrent with southwest directed extension along the early Rio Grande rift zone in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. The geometry of this early rifting is compatible with interpretation as back arc extension related to a subduction system dipping gently beneath the cordilleran region of the American plate. The Latir field lies at the southern end of a southward migrating Tertiary magmatic

  10. Deep water invasions in oil fields of the gulf of Mexico: a challenge for the application of environmental isotopes; Invasiones de aguas profundas en yacimientos petroleros del golfo de Mexico: un reto para la aplicacion de isotopos ambientales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkle, Peter [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    It was verified the use of environmental isotopes as a useful method to improve the efficiency of the present exploitation in oil fields of the Gulf of Mexico. In general, the stable isotopes like deuterium, 18 O, 13 C, 37 Cl, 87 Sr and 34 S, support in questions on the origin of waters, its quality, the geochemistry evolution, recharge processes, interaction water-rock, origin of the salinity and contamination processes, whereas the radioactive isotopes (Tritium, 14 C, 36 I and 129 I) provide information on the time of circulation, the origin and the age of underground waters. Since year 1998, the Gerencia de Geotermia of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas is making investigation projects in the oil fields of the Actives of Production Luna, Pol-Chuc, Chilpilla-Colomo (all of them in the state of Tabasco) and Cactus-Sitio Grande (Chiapas) in the South Region of PEMEX Exploration and Production (PEP). As primary target of these studies hidrogeological models were developed on the migration and circulation of the fluids in the oil fields with the purpose of limiting the water invasion in producing wells and to increase the crude oil production. [Spanish] Se comprobo el uso de los isotopos ambientales como un metodo util para mejorar la eficiencia de la explotacion actual en yacimientos petroleros del golfo de Mexico. En general, los isotopos estables como deuterio, 18 O, 13 C, 37 Cl, 87 Sr y 34 S, apoyan en cuestiones sobre el origen de las aguas, su calidad, la evolucion geoquimica, procesos de recarga, interaccion agua-roca, origen de la salinidad y procesos de contaminacion, mientras que los isotopos radiactivos (Tritio, 14 C, 36 l Y 129 I) proporcionan informacion sobre el tiempo de circulacion, el origen y la edad de las aguas subterraneas. Desde el ano 1998, la Gerencia de Geotermia del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas esta realizando proyectos de investigacion en los campos petroleros de los activos de Produccion Luna, Pol-Chuc, Chilpilla

  11. Initial thermal state of the Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico, geothermal field; Estado termico inicial del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: aggarcia@iie.org.mx

    2009-01-15

    The initial temperatures field is presented for 40 wells in the Los Humeros geothermal reservoir, along with an elevation curve based on the formation temperature or the most probable reservoir temperature. Stabilized temperatures were estimated using the Radial Spherical Heat Flow method, chosen over the Horner method based on the numerical simulation of the circulation and stop processes of well H-26. In this well, the last temperature log series was reproduced, considering circulation losses. The temperatures were used to produce isothermal curves over three geological sections of the field, which represent the initial distribution of temperatures in the reservoir and show the thermal characteristics and the relationships among thermal anomalies and faults in the reservoir. The elevation curve plotted against the initial temperature of the formation was generated based on detection of the main feed zones at each well, which in turn was developed using detailed analyses of diverse information, such as temperature logs, circulation losses, lithology, well completion, and heat velocities. Based on the results, two groups of wells may be distinguished: one between 1000 and 1600 masl with temperatures from 290 to 330 degrees Celsius, and one between 900 and 0 masl with temperatures from 300 to 400 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el campo de temperatura inicial del yacimiento geotermico de Los Humeros y una curva de elevacion contra la temperatura de formacion o temperatura mas probable del yacimiento, obtenida para 40 pozos del campo. Las temperaturas estabilizadas se estimaron mediante el metodo de Flujo de Calor Esferico Radial, y su eleccion sobre las temperaturas del metodo de Horner se soporta con simulacion numerica de los procesos de circulacion y paro del pozo H-26, en la cual la ultima serie de registros se reprodujo considerando perdidas de circulacion. Con estas temperaturas se generaron curvas isotermicas para tres secciones

  12. Conservation and improvement of native pseudo cereals of Mexico; Conservacion y mejoramiento de pseudocereales nativos de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia A, J.M.; Cruz T, E. [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Mapes S, C. [Instituto de Biologia, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Laguna C, A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    With the purpose of preserving the genetic resources of the local races of pseudo cereals 'red Chia' (Chenopodium berlandieri subspecies nuttalliae), Chia blanca or alegria and Chia negra (belonging to Amaranths hypochondriacus), its were carried out exploration, characterization in situ, collects and conservation activities in the Opopeo and Santa Maria Huiramangaro communities, Michoacan. Field journeys were made and collections were carried out. The morphological typification and of physical and bromatologic characters of the seed were carried out. Parcels for the In situ conservation and the collections have also settled down in two towns of the Toluca Valley for multiplication and ex situ characterization. Seed has been redistributed among the in study area producers to foment the interest of the cultivation. (Author)

  13. Impact of climatic change in forests and natural protected areas of Mexico; Impacto del cambio climatico en los bosques y areas naturales protegidas de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villers-Ruiz, L.; Trejo-Vazquez, I. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Geografia

    1998-01-01

    The vulnerability of Mexico`s forest ecosystems to climate change was assessed according to the results of two General Circulating Models (GCMs): CCCM and GFDL-R30. Holdridge`s life zones classification was used for the analysis. The paper shows the climatic differences for each model and for different region of Mexico. Climate scenarios were compared to current climate so as to recognise climate change regions for each model. Of the 18 life zones reported for the country, the most affected ones would be the temperate cold and warm forests, tending to disappear. On the contrary, tropical dry, very dry and thorn forests with warm affinities tend to widen their current surfaces, according to the CCCMN model. The GFDL-R30 model foresees increases in the distribution of tropical, humid and wet forests, which would be favored by the increase in rainfall, giving place to tropical rain forests, currently non-existent in the country. Of the 33 natural protected areas used for this study, 24 show changes in their life zones, the most affected ones are those found in the northern and occidental regions of the country. The most affected forest industries would be those located in the Sierra Madre Occidental, in the states of Durango and Chihuahua, and to the occidental part of the country, the industries found in Michoacan and Jalisco. 36 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Isotopic behaviour of fluids from the Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico) geothermal field; Comportamiento isotopico de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan R, Rosa Maria; Portugal M, Enrique; Arellano G, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Tello L, Mirna del Rocio; Tello H, Enrique [gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1997-05-01

    Isotopic data from well fluids from the Los Humeros geothermal field were interpreted. Twenty wells were monitored during 1994-1996 in order to study the reservoir behavior as a result of exploitation. The isotopic composition of the total discharge and also that for the reservoir liquid phase were calculated considering the reservoir excess steam at reservoir temperature. This temperature was estimated to be between 280 degrees celsius and 325 degrees celsius through the CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} geothermometer. The isotopic values for reservoir fluids were found in the ranges: between -8 and -1% for d{sup 18}O and -75 and -55% for dD. Isotopic patterns suggested the occurrence of a mixing process between reservoir and reinjection fluids since a linear trend (dD vs d{sup 18}O) with positive slope was found. The reservoir fluid for well H-7 (sampled June 1996) was found to be the isotopically lightest extreme of the relationship, while the reinjection fluid constituted the isotopically heaviest component. [Espanol] Con el fin de conocer la respuesta del yacimiento geotermico de Los Humeros a la extraccion y reinyeccion de fluidos, se llevo a cabo el monitoreo de especies isotopicas d{sup 18}O y dD en fluidos de 20 pozos del campo durante 1994-1996. Se calculo la composicion isotopica del fluido de la descarga total y de la fase liquida del yacimiento, corrigiendose los valores obtenidos para la descarga total considerando el parametro exceso de vapor a la temperatura estimada de yacimiento. La temperatura del yacimiento se estimo entre 280 grados celsius y 325 grados celsius mediante el geotermometro basado en la relacion CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}. La composicion isotopica de los fluidos del yacimiento se encuentra en un amplio rango de valores: entre -8 y -1% para d{sup 18}O y entre -75 -55% para dD. Los resultados sugieren la ocurrencia de interferencia de fluidos de reinyeccion, ya que al correlacionar el contenido de deuterio contra el de oxigeno-18, los datos se alinean en

  15. Determination of the water quality and radon content in wells located at the Cuitzeo basin, Michoacan; Determinacion de la calidad del agua y contenido de radon en pozos localizados en la Cuenca de Cuitzeo, Michoacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro, R.; Segovia, N.; Pena, P.; Lopez, M.B.E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, V. [CIRA-UAEM, Cerro de Coatepec s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Armienta, M.A. [IGFUNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rangel, J. [CNA Av. Acueducto 3626 Col. Ocolusen, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Seidel, J.L. [ISTEEM, M.S.E. Montpellier (France)

    2001-07-01

    Major elements, trace elements, presence of microorganisms and, radon content in wells located in urban and rural zones around the Cuitzeo lake at the Lerma River basin in Mexico were determined. The techniques to determine the parameters were the liquid scintillation method for {sup 222} Rn, Icp-Ms for trace elements, conventional chemical analysis for major components and the counting in slide for the bacteriological determination. The average concentration of radon oscillated between 0.88 and 4.75 Bq/lt which, indicated a fast transit from the reload toward the spring exit. The major components and trace elements are analysed considering the geological characteristics of the sites in study. Faecal coliforms were not found. (Author)

  16. 76 FR 15278 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Hass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Hass Avocados From Michoacan, Mexico AGENCY: Animal... information collection associated with regulations for the importation of Hass avocados from Michoacan, Mexico... information on regulations for the importation of Hass avocados from Michoacan, Mexico, contact Mr. David...

  17. Chemical Equilibrium and Mineral Saturation in Waters from Oil Wells of the Activo Luna Field, Tabasco, Mexico; Equilibrio quimico y grado de saturacion de minerales en aguas de pozos petroleros de Activo Luna, Tabasco, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan R, Rosa Maria; Arellano G, Victor M.; Portugal M, Enrique; Torres R, Vicente [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); Torres Alvarado, Ignacio [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Ascencio C, Fernando; Martinez A; Ana E [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2001-09-01

    Chemical equilibrium of formation waters from seven oil wells of the Activo Luna field (Tabasco, Mexico) was modelled. Saturation indices of characteristic hydrothermal minerals were calculated at ambient and reservoir conditions in order to predict scaling potential of deep and surface installations. The salinity of waters was found to be in the range from 43,000 (well Escuintle 2) to 250,000 (well Lune 3B) mg/kg as total dissolved solids. The water samples were classified as sodium-chioride type. Ionic strength for the solutions was found to be between 0.75 and 6.5. Activity coefficients were estimated by virial (Pitzer equations) methods using the GEOCHEMIST WORKENCH (GWB) software. Minerals such as anhydrite, halite, alunite, fluorite and barite were found to be supersaturated at reservoir conditions. A solid scale sample obtained from well Luna-3B was analysed. Analysis indicate the presence of calcite, anhydrite, fluorite and sphalerite which suggest the occurrence of temperatures of at least 180 Celcius degrees with acidic conditions and high chemical corrosion potential. [Spanish] Se modelo el equilibrio quimico de aguas de formacion producidas por siete pozos petroleros pertenecientes al Activo Luna, en el estado de Tabasco, Mexico, se calcularon los indices de saturacion de minerales caracteristicos tanto en las condiciones ambiente como en las de yacimiento, con el proposito de apoyar el control de incrustaciones en las instalaciones superficiales y profundas. La salinidad de las salmueras se encontro en el rango de 43,000 (pozos Escuintle 2) a 250,000 (pozos Luna 3B) mg/kg de solidos disueltos totales y las muestras se clasificaron como del tipo clorurado-sodico. La fuerza ionica de las soluciones varia entre 0.75 y 6.5 molar, por lo que los coeficientes de actividad de la modelacion de equilibrio quimico se estimaron por metodos viriales empleando las ecuaciones de Pitzer mediante el programa GEOCHEMIST WORKBENCH (GWB). Minerales como anhidrita, halita

  18. Another Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Carlin

    2009-01-01

    A Mexican saying holds that "Como Mexico no hay dos"--There is only one Mexico. American media these days interpret that notion with a vengeance. Story after story depicts a country overrun by out-of-control drug wars and murder, where corrupt police officers trip over beheaded victims more often than they nab perpetrators. South of the…

  19. Another Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Carlin

    2009-01-01

    A Mexican saying holds that "Como Mexico no hay dos"--There is only one Mexico. American media these days interpret that notion with a vengeance. Story after story depicts a country overrun by out-of-control drug wars and murder, where corrupt police officers trip over beheaded victims more often than they nab perpetrators. South of the…

  20. Seed production and quality of maize in High Valleys of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Virgen-Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to increase the productivity of maize in High Valleys of Mexico, at the Valley of México and Bajio Experimental Stations of the National Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research (INIFAP. The following activities were carried out: production of registered seed to strengthen seed micro- enterprises of national capital, quality evaluation of certified seed, and generation of production technology. Between 2005 and 2013, 46.71 tons of registered seed of the hybrids parents: H-40, H-48, H-50, H-52, H-66, H-70 and H-161, and the varieties: VS-22, V-54A and V-55A were produced and sold to 31 seed producers in the Estado de Mexico, Tlaxcala, Puebla, Hidalgo, Morelos, Guanajuato, Michoacan, and Jalisco; that satisfied 60 % of demand per year (8.68 t. In 2013 and 2014, agreements were signed between INIFAP and four micro-enterprises to produce registered seeds. The certified seed produced by companies reached certification standards, germination percentage ≥ 85, 98% pure seed and less than 2% inert matter; test weight between 72 and 78 kg/hl, thousand seed weight between 288 and 361 g and genetic quality between 96 and 98 % of the true type plants. The study identified information about locations, potential yields, population density, and planting dates for the production of parents, lines and single crosses, in the Estado de Mexico and Tlaxcala.

  1. [Nesting habitat characterization for Amazona oratrix (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) in the Central Pacific, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrubio-Rico, Tiberio C; Álvarez-Jara, Margarito; Tellez-Garcia, Loreno; Tena-Morelos, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    The nesting requirements of the Yellow-headed Parrot (Amazona oratrix) are poorly understood, despite their broad historical distribution, high demand for pet trade and current endangered status. Information concerning their nesting requirements is required in order to design specific restoration and conser- vation actions. To assess this, we studied their nesting ecology in the Central Pacific, Michoacan, Mexico during a ten year period. The analyzed variables ranged from local scale nest site characteristics such as nesting tree species, dimensions, geographic positions, diet and nesting forest patches structure, to large scale features such as vegetation use and climatic variables associated to the nesting tree distributions by an ecological niche model using Maxent. We also evaluated the parrot tolerance to land management regimes, and compared the Pacific nest trees with 18 nest trees recorded in an intensively managed private ranch in Tamaulipas, Gulf of Mexico. Parrots nested in tall trees with canopy level cavities in 92 nest-trees recorded from 11 tree species. The 72.8% of nesting occurred in trees of Astronium graveolens, and Enterolobium cyclocarpum which qualified as key- stone trees. The forests where the parrots nested, presented a maximum of 54 tree species, 50% of which were identified as food source; besides, these areas also had a high abundance of trees used as food supply. The lowest number of tree species and trees to forage occurred in an active cattle ranch, whereas the highest species rich- ness was observed in areas with natural recovery. The nesting cavity entrance height from above ground of the Pacific nesting trees resulted higher than those found in the Gulf of Mexico. We hypothesize that the differences may be attributed to Parrot behavioral differences adapting to differential poaching pressure and cavity avail- ability. Nesting trees were found in six vegetation types; however the parrots preferred conserved and riparian semi

  2. Field and experimental evidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus as the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease of cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Northwestern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Rodriguez, Sonia A; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Lozano-Olvera, Rodolfo; Betancourt-Lozano, Miguel; Morales-Covarrubias, Maria Soledad

    2015-03-01

    Moribund shrimp affected by acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) from farms in northwestern Mexico were sampled for bacteriological and histological analysis. Bacterial isolates were molecularly identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus by the presence of the tlh gene. The tdh-negative, trh-negative, and tlh-positive V. parahaemolyticus strains were further characterized by repetitive extragenic palindromic element-PCR (rep-PCR), and primers AP1, AP2, AP3, and AP and an ems2 IQ2000 detection kit (GeneReach, Taiwan) were used in the diagnostic tests for AHPND. The V. parahaemolyticus strains were used in immersion challenges with shrimp, and farmed and challenged shrimp presented the same clinical and pathological symptoms: lethargy, empty gut, pale and aqueous hepatopancreas, and expanded chromatophores. Using histological analysis and bacterial density count, three stages of AHNPD (initial, acute, and terminal) were identified in the affected shrimp. The pathognomonic lesions indicating severe desquamation of tubular epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas were observed in both challenged and pond-infected shrimp. The results showed that different V. parahaemolyticus strains have different virulences; some of the less virulent strains do not induce 100% mortality, and mortality rates also rise more slowly than they do for the more virulent strains. The virulence of V. parahaemolyticus strains was dose dependent, where the threshold infective density was 10(4) CFU ml(-1); below that density, no mortality was observed. The AP3 primer set had the best sensitivity and specificity. Field and experimental results showed that the V. parahaemolyticus strain that causes AHPND acts as a primary pathogen for shrimp in Mexico compared with the V. parahaemolyticus strains reported to date.

  3. Interaction between Coffee (Coffea arabica L. and Intercropped Herbs under Field Conditions in the Sierra Norte of Puebla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pacheco Bustos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine released from decaying seeds and leaves accumulates in a soluble form in the soil. The compound is known to inhibit mitosis, reduce the access of nutrients and water to surrounding plants which is one of limiting problems in intercropped coffee plantations. The allelopathic interactions between coffee (Coffea arabica L. and mint (Mentha piperita L., basil (Ocimum basilicum L., oregano (Origanum vulgare L. and sage (Salvia officinalis L. could be a diversification alternative and extra income activity for coffee growers outside the harvest period that could cope with high levels of caffeine in the soil. We tested the interaction of the proposed system (2004 – 2005 in rural area of Puebla State, Mexico. The results demonstrate that intercropping sage, spearmint, basil and oregano stimulate the plagiotropic growth of Coffea arabica plants most effectively in young production systems, through volatile essential oils. Intercropping basil, sage, spearmint and oregano in coffee plantations seems to be a promising approach for higher income and increasing yield and quality production in coffee farms.

  4. A Conceptual Model to Link Anomalously High Temperature Gradients in the Cerros del Rio Volcanic Field to Regional Flow in the Espanola Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingham, E. J.; Keller, S. N.; McCullough, K. R.; Watters, J.; Weitering, B.; Wilce, A. M.; Folsom, M.; Kelley, S.; Pellerin, L.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature-depth well data along with electromagnetic (EM) data were collected by students of the Summer of Applied Geophysics Experience (SAGE) 2015 field season in the Espanola Basin, New Mexico. The data from this year, in addition to data acquired since 2013, were used to construct a conceptual east-west cross-section of the Espanola Basin and the adjacent highlands in order to evaluate the regional flow system. Vertical geothermal gradients from several monitoring wells were measured using a thermistor. Anomalously warm geothermal gradients were mapped in the Cerros del Rio volcanic field in the basin just east of the Rio Grande. Temperature gradients are up to 70℃/km, while the background geothermal gradients in the Rio Grande rift zone generally show 28℃-35℃/km. This anomaly extends to the Buckman well field, which supplies water to the city of Santa Fe. Overpumping of this well field has led to subsidence in the past. However, discharge temperature plots indicate that the temperature gradients of the Buckman field may be rebounding as pumping is reduced. Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) data were acquired in the vicinity of three monitoring wells. TEM and AMT methods complement each other with the former having depths of investigation of less than ten to hundreds of meters and AMT having depths of investigation comparable to the wells deeper than 500m. These datasets were used collectively to image the subsurface stratigraphy and, more specifically, the hydrogeology related to shallow aquifers. The EM data collected at these wells showed a trend indicating a shallow aquifer with a shallower resistive layer of approximately 100 ohm-m at 70-100 meters depth. Beneath this resistive layer we resolved a more conductive, clay-rich layer of 10 ohm-m. These resistivity profiles compliment the electrical logs provided by Jet West, which indicate shallower sandstone interbedded with silt on top of more silt-dominant layers. Our

  5. Sequence stratigraphic setting of turbidite-related petroleum fields, Green Canyon and Ewing Bank lease areas, northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, P.; Pulham, A.J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The Green Canyon (GC) and Ewing Bank (EW) OCS lease areas have 17 discoveries/fields, primarily from bathyal turbidite systems. Salt has played a significant role in the formation of the intraslope basins that the turbidite systems were deposited in, by influencing the flows of turbidities throughout the basin, in the subsequent trap formation, and, in some cases, as a seal. Nearly every field/discovery is associated with a seismic amplitude anomaly. Fields generally have multiple pay zones, with up to 22 in GC 184 (Jolliet). To date, eight of the fields are producing: EB 826, EB 873 (Lobster), GC 6 (Kodiak), GC 18, GC 53/54 (Marquette), GC 65/110 (Bullwinkle), GC 184 (Jolliet), and GC 205 (Vancouver). Other fields expected to be developed are GC 72/116 (Popeye), GC 254 (Allegheny), GC 200/244 (Olivella), GC and GC 166 (Bison). Other discoveries that were produced and then abandoned include GC 19, and GC29. Producing reservoir facies are highly variable across the area. Turbidite reservoir geometries in Pliocene sands (>1.6 Ma) consist of sheets and amalgamated sheet sands. Pleistocene sands are characterized primarily from channel-levee systems and related deposits. These sands tend to more compartmentalized with separate oil/water or gas/water contacts. Most reservoir sands occur within 100 ft overlying a sequence boundary, indicating the eustatic control on the timing of reservoir sand deposition.

  6. Genetic diversity demonstrated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis of Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from diverse sources in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the genetic diversity of Salmonella isolates recovered from a variety of sources using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to assess their possible relatedness. Salmonella was isolated from ca. 52% of samples from a pepper var. Bell production system. A to...

  7. CBM in 3-D: coalbed methane multicomponent 3-D reservoir characterisation study, Cedar Hill Field, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, T.; Shuck, E.; Benson, R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Geophysics

    1995-10-01

    The article explains how 3-D multicomponent seismic surveys could substantially improve the production and development of fractured coalbed methane reservoirs. The technique has been used by Northern Geophysical for the detection of geological faults and zones of enhanced fracture permeability proximal to the fault in the western side of the Cedar Hill field in San Juan Basin, NM, USA. 3 figs.

  8. Quantifying wind blown landscapes using time-series airborne LiDAR at White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Wind blown landscapes are a default geomorphic and sedimentary environment in our solar system. Wind sand dunes are ubiquitous features on the surfaces of Earth, Mars and Titan and prevalent within the aeolian rock records of Earth and Mars. Dunes are sensitive to environmental and climatic changes and a complete understanding of this system promises a unique, robust and quantitative record of paleoclimate extending to the early histories of these worlds. However, our understanding of how aeolian dune landscapes evolve and how the details of the wind are recorded in cross-strata is limited by our lack of understanding of three-dimensional dune morphodynamics related to changing boundary conditions such as wind direction and magnitude and sediment source area. We use airborne LiDAR datasets over 40 km2 of White Sands Dune Field collected from June 2007, June 2008, January 2009, September 2009 and June 2010 to quantify 1) three-dimensional dune geometries, 2) annual and seasonal patterns of erosion and deposition across dune topography, 3) spatial changes in sediment flux related to position within the field, 4) spatial changes in sediment flux across sinuous crestlines and 5) morphologic changes through dune-dune interactions. In addition to measurements, we use the LiDAR data along with wind data from two near-by weather stations to develop a simple model that predicts depositional and stratigraphic patterns on dune lee slopes. Several challenges emerged using time series LiDAR data sets at White Sands Dune Field. The topography upon which the dunes sit is variable and rises by 16 meters over the length of the dune field. In order to compare individual dune geometries across the field and between data sets a base surface was interpolated from local minima and subtracted from the dune topography. Co-registration and error calculation between datasets was done manually using permanent vegetated features within the active dune field and structures built by the

  9. The anatomy of a cinder cone: preliminary paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, structural, and petrologic data from the La Cienega volcano, Cerros del Rio volcanic field, northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronis, M. S.; Foucher, M.; Lineline, J.; Van Wyk de Vries, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Cerros del Rio volcanic field is one of several middle Pliocene to Pleistocene basaltic volcanic fields of the axial Rio Grande Rift in central and northern New Mexico. It is a monogenetic volcanic field that comprises about 60 cinder-spatter cones, occupies ~ 700 km2, and ranges in age from 2.7 Ma to 1.1 Ma. Eruptive centers are typically central vent volcanoes, ranging from low-relief shields to steep-sided, breached cinder and spatter cone remnants. They represent short eruptive events that likely were derived from rapidly evolving reservoir-conduit systems. Mining activity has exposed the volcanic plumbing system of the Cienega Mine cinder cone, just west of Santa Fe, NM. Here, geologists from France and USA have been investigating the exposed roots of this eviscerated Pliocene volcano to investigate magma conduit geometry, magma flow structures, and eruption patterns. We are testing models for magma transport and volcano construction using a variety of field and laboratory tools. Common models of volcanic construction envision the magma feeder as a dike or pipe-like conduit transporting molten rock from a deep reservoir to the eruptive vent. We posit that small volcanic pluming systems are inherently more complex and actually involve numerous feeder geometries throughout the volcano lifespan. Our preliminary work suggests that the simple exteriors of some cinder cones hide a long life and complex history, both of which would change the appreciation of the related volcanic hazards in active systems. The Cienega Mine cinder cone consists of several meter- to decimeter-wide intrusions that connect to eruptive centers. These intrusions show a continuity of brittle to ductile structures from their margins to interiors. We have collected samples across each intrusion as well as along strike for anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and petrographic analysis in order to establish magma flow patterns. AMS results yield a remarkably consistent dataset that

  10. Comparative Field Evaluation of Different Traps for Collecting Adult Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Jorge J; Arque-Chunga, Wilfredo; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A

    2016-06-01

    Phlebotominae are the vectors of Leishmania parasites. It is important to have available surveillance and collection methods for the sand fly vectors. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and compare traps for the collection of sand fly species and to analyze trap catches along months and transects. Field evaluations over a year were conducted in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. A randomized-block design was implemented in study area with tropical rainforest vegetation. The study design utilized 4 transects with 11 trap types: 1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap with incandescent bulb (CDC-I), 2) CDC light trap with blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (CDC-B), 3) CDC light trap with white LEDs (CDC-W), 4) CDC light trap with red LEDs (CDC-R), 5) CDC light trap with green LEDs (CDC-G), 6) Disney trap, 7) Disney trap with white LEDs, 8) sticky panels, 9) sticky panels with white LEDs, 10) delta-like trap, and 11) delta-like trap with white LEDs. A total of 1,014 specimens of 13 species and 2 genera (Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia) were collected. There were significant differences in the mean number of sand flies caught with the 11 traps; CDC-I was (P  =  0.0000) more effective than the other traps. Other traps exhibited the following results: CDC-W (17.46%), CDC-B (15.68%), CDC-G (14.89%), and CDC-R (14.30%). The relative abundance of different species varied according to trap types used, and the CDC-I trap attracted more specimens of the known vectors of Leishmania spp., such as like Lutzomyia cruciata, Lu. shannoni, and Lu. ovallesi. Disney trap captured more specimens of Lu. olmeca olmeca. Based on abundance and number of species, CDC light traps and Disney traps appeared to be good candidates for use in vector surveillance programs in this endemic area of Mexico.

  11. 2007 Rocky Mountain Section Friends of the Pleistocene Field Trip - Quaternary Geology of the San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, September 7-9, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machette, Michael N.; Coates, Mary-Margaret; Johnson, Margo L.

    2007-01-01

    Prologue Welcome to the 2007 Rocky Mountain Cell Friends of the Pleistocene Field Trip, which will concentrate on the Quaternary geology of the San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico. To our best knowledge, Friends of the Pleistocene (FOP) has never run a trip through the San Luis Basin, although former trips in the region reviewed the 'Northern Rio Grande rift' in 1987 and the 'Landscape History and Processes on the Pajarito Plateau' in 1996. After nearly a decade, the FOP has returned to the Rio Grande rift, but to an area that has rarely hosted a trip with a Quaternary focus. The objective of FOP trips is to review - in the field - new and exciting research on Quaternary geoscience, typically research being conducted by graduate students. In our case, the research is more topically oriented around three areas of the San Luis Basin, and it is being conducted by a wide range of Federal, State, academic, and consulting geologists. This year's trip is ambitious?we will spend our first day mainly on the Holocene record around Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, the second day on the Quaternary stratigraphy around the San Luis Hills, including evidence for Lake Alamosa and the 1.0 Ma Mesita volcano, and wrap up the trip's third day in the Costilla Plain and Sunshine Valley reviewing alluvial stratigraphy, the history of the Rio Grande, and evidence for young movement on the Sangre de Cristo fault zone. In the tradition of FOP trips, we will be camping along the field trip route for this meeting. On the night before our trip, we will be at the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve's Pinyon Flats Campground, a group facility located about 2 miles north of the Visitors Center. After the first day's trip, we will dine and camp in the Bachus pit, about 3 miles southwest of Alamosa. For the final night (after day 2), we will bed down at La Junta Campground at the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Wild and Scenic Rivers State Recreation Area, west of Questa

  12. [Prevalence of non-fatal road traffic injuries in Mexico: results from ENSANUT 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Medina-Solís, Carlo E; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Híjar-Medina, Martha; Aracena-Genao, Belkis; Hidalgo-Solórzano, Elisa; Palma-Coca, Oswaldo

    2008-01-01

    To determine non-fatal road traffic injuries (NFRTI) prevalence and its distribution in Mexico. Data from ENSANUT Survey 2006 were used. Using simple random sampling, one adult, one adolescent and one child were selected in each household, constituting a final sample of 94,197 representing an N of 102,886,482 people. The dependent variable was the prevalence of road traffic injuries (RTI) during the 12 months prior to the survey. The general accident prevalence was 6.0%; 16.7% corresponded to NFRTI. Men in the 20 to 44 age group living in urban areas and with high socioeconomic status had a higher RTI prevalence (pAguascalientes and Sonora were states with the highest prevalence of RTI, while Guerrero, Michoacan and Oaxaca were those with the lowest. NFRTI are frequent in Mexico and they are concentrated among men in productive ages in urban areas; they are associated with socioeconomic status at the individual level and with the state's development at the population level.

  13. Monitoring and modeling land subsidence at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja California, Mexico, using SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnec, Claudie; Fabriol, Hubert

    Images derived from repeat-pass spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) systems offer the possibility of mapping surface deformation of small spatial extent and monitoring its spatio-temporal evolution. A slow local subsidence has been detected at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field from images acquired by the European Space Agency remote sensing satellites ERS-1/2 between 1993 and 1997. Although agricultural activity in the area limited the investigation, interferometric monitoring revealed that the ground deformation is associated with the withdrawal of geothermal fluid and agreed with the leveling data. Modeling of the subsidence was carried out assuming elastic deformation in a half-space from simple point sources, of which five were necessary to reproduce the fringe patterns observed on the interferograms. The depths and locations of three of the sources are compatible with the location of the known reservoir. The study improves prior knowledge of the displacement field and of the mecanisms involved in the subsidence phenomenon.

  14. Mapping the edge of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field, New Mexico: a piece of the puzzle to understanding a potential geothermal resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, L.; Gallegos, M.; Goebel, M.; Murphy, B. S.; Smith, J.; Soto, D.; Swiatlowski, J.; Volk, C.; Welch, M.; Feucht, D. W.; Hollingshaus, B.; Bedrosian, P. A.; McPhee, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Cerros del Rio volcanic field located west of Santa Fe, New Mexico spans the southwestern part of the Espanola Basin with the Rio Grande to the west. Underlying the volcanics are the Santa Fe Group sediments, which contain the Ancha Formation, an important aquifer in the region. High temperature gradients in water wells reveal a potential geothermal prospect. In 2012 the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) program acquired transient electromagnetic (TEM), audiomagnetotelluric (AMT), gravity and ground magnetic data to determine the buried eastern margin of the volcanic field and the connectivity related to the underlying sediments. The roughly EW 5-km long transect was sited from USGS aeromagnetic data to cross the boundary of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field. TEM data collected at ten stations, at 200-400 m spacing, along the transect employed an in-loop configuration with a square 100 m x 100 m transmitter loop and both a Zonge receiver coil and a 5 m square receiver loop. The 5 m loop allowed for the recovery of early-time data that was saturated when using the Zonge coil. AMT data were acquired at eight stations, at 400-500 m spacing, using the Geometric Stratagem system recording from 92 kHz to 10 Hz; a horizontal magnetic dipole transmitter was used to augment low signal strength at around 1 kHz. Gravity data along the profile were acquired using CG-3 and CG-5 Scintrex gravimeters with a station interval >250 m. Magnetic data were acquired with a Geometrics Cesium vapor G-858 magnetometer for about 3500 m along the profile at a 0.5 second sampling rate. Two volcanic flows interbedded with Ancha Formation and overlying Santa Fe Group sediments were identified in both the TEM and AMT modeling. High surface resistivity zones (>300 ohm-m) with depths ranging from ~100 to 300 m define the volcanic flows and correspond to high densities (2.3 to 2.55 g/cm3), while low resistivity zones (<30 ohm-m) correspond to lower densities (~2.1 g/cm3). High

  15. Magnetotelluric Investigation of Structures Related to a Geothermal Anomaly in the Buckman Well field in the Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D.; Chu, S.; McCormack, K.; Barghouty, L. K.; Mostafanejad, A.; Lasscock, B.; Bedrosian, P.; Pellerin, L.

    2013-12-01

    High borehole temperature gradients have been measured over short spatial scales in the Buckman Well Field located within the Espanola Basin of the Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico. The proximity of the well field to the young Caja del Rio volcanic plateau prompted a study undertaken by the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) program to uncover structure related to this geothermal anomaly. The localized nature of this geothermal anomaly is suggested to be indicative of a local controlling structure as opposed to a more regional structure. Two-dimensional (2-D) models were constructed using magnetotelluric (MT) and audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data acquired during 2011-13 seasons of the SAGE field program. Geoelectric strike, being important in determining whether an optimal survey design was employed for 2-D MT inverse modeling, was determined from Swift';s formula, which is subject to galvanic distortion. The geoelectric strike direction obtained from a phase tensor analysis, unaffected by such distortion, generally agreed with the established geological strike of the region. The phase tensor analysis shows predominantly 2-D behavior, although some three-dimensional (3-D) character is observed in the low-frequency MT data. An independent statistical metric developed at SAGE confirms these findings. This observation could be reflected as a conductive anomaly found in the 2-D MT inverse model. Synthetic data were generated to test the sensitivity of the 2-D inversion method to different layer resistivity values and faulted structures in the AMT range. Using these synthetic results to understand the inversion of field data we identify conductive horizons at 100 m and 250-300 m depth. The MT models estimate basin depth at 3-4 km in accordance with independent constraints from geologic mapping, gravity models and seismic imaging. Variations in basement topography correlate to some degree with previously proposed structural features elsewhere beneath the Caja del

  16. Antigenic differentiation of classical swine fever vaccinal strain PAV-250 from other strains, including field strains from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Susana; Correa-Giron, Pablo; Aguilera, Edgar; Colmenares, Germán; Torres, Oscar; Cruz, Tonatiuh; Romero, Andres; Hernandez-Baumgarten, Eliseo; Ciprián, Abel

    2007-10-10

    Twenty-nine classical swine fever virus (CSFv) strains were grown in the PK15 or SK6 cell lines. Antigenic differentiation studies were performed using monoclonal antibodies (McAbs), produced at Lelystad (CDI-DLO), The Netherlands. The monoclonals which were classified numerically as monoclonals 2-13. Epitope map patterns that resulted from the reactivity with McAbs were found to be unrelated to the pathogenicity of the viruses studied. Antigenic determinants were recognized by McAbs 5 and 8, were not detected in some Mexican strains; however, sites for McAb 6 were absent in all strains. The PAV-250 vaccine strain was recognized by all MAbs, except by MAb 6. Furthermore, the Chinese C-S vaccine strain was found to be very similar to the GPE(-) vaccine. None of the studied Mexican vaccines or field strains was found to be similar to the PAV-250 vaccine strain.

  17. Paleomagnetic Study of a Miocene Deformation in a Region Close to the Camargo Volcanic Field, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogau-Chong, K.; Bohnel, H.; Aranda Gomez, J.

    2009-05-01

    The Sierra the Aguachile is a Miocene volcanic sequence located in the SE of Chihuahua State NW of the Camargo volcanic field and belongs to the Agua Mayo Group, which unconformably overlays Mesozoic calcareous units. The Sierra de Aguachile sequence defines a structure that may be interpreted as a plunging fold, which could be the result of a reactivation of the San Marcos Fault. This major fault is well known more to the east but may extend into the study area where it would be covered by the younger volcanic sequences; its main activity has been reported to be during the the Neocomian with reactivation phases in the Paleogene and Miocene. To test if the observed structure is the result of a tectonic deformation that happened after the emplacement of the volcanic sequence, a paleomagnetic study was carried out. A total of 14 sites were sampled from different parts of the structure, all in the capping ignimbrite layers. Site mean directions were determined using AF demagnetization. The fold test was applied to analyze if the remanence was acquired in situ or before the proposed folding. Precision parameters k before and after application of the tectonic corrections are 25.38 and 31.43, respectively. This indicates that the Sierra de Aguachile indeed was folded after emplacement of the ignimbrites, which restricts the age of the corresponding tectonic event to be younger than 31.3 +/- 0.7 Ma. Due to the gentle folding though, the difference in precision parameters is not significant at the 95% probability level.

  18. Using laboratory flow experiments and reactive chemical transport modeling for designing waterflooding of the Agua Fria Reservoir, Poza Rica-Altamira Field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkle, P.; Pruess, K.; Xu, T.; Figueroa, R.A. Hernandez; Lopez, M. Diaz; Lopez, E. Contreras

    2008-10-01

    Waterflooding for enhanced oil recovery requires that injected waters must be chemically compatible with connate reservoir waters, in order to avoid mineral dissolution-and-precipitation cycles that could seriously degrade formation permeability and injectivity. Formation plugging is a concern especially in reservoirs with a large content of carbonates, such as calcite and dolomite, as such minerals typically react rapidly with an aqueous phase, and have strongly temperature-dependent solubility. Clay swelling can also pose problems. During a preliminary waterflooding pilot project, the Poza Rica-Altamira oil field, bordering the Gulf coast in the eastern part of Mexico, experienced injectivity loss after five months of reinjection of formation waters into well AF-847 in 1999. Acidizing with HCl restored injectivity. We report on laboratory experiments and reactive chemistry modeling studies that were undertaken in preparation for long-term waterflooding at Agua Frma. Using analogous core plugs obtained from the same reservoir interval, laboratory coreflood experiments were conducted to examine sensitivity of mineral dissolution and precipitation effects to water composition. Native reservoir water, chemically altered waters, and distilled water were used, and temporal changes in core permeability, mineral abundances and aqueous concentrations of solutes were monitored. The experiments were simulated with the multi-phase, nonisothermal reactive transport code TOUGHREACT, and reasonable to good agreement was obtained for changes in solute concentrations. Clay swelling caused an additional impact on permeability behavior during coreflood experiments, whereas the modeled permeability depends exclusively on chemical processes. TOUGHREACT was then used for reservoir-scale simulation of injecting ambient-temperature water (30 C, 86 F) into a reservoir with initial temperature of 80 C (176 F). Untreated native reservoir water was found to cause serious porosity and

  19. A preliminary interpretation of gas composition in the CP IV sector wells, Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor M; Portugal Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Perez Hernandez, Alfredo; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco Helio; Leon Vivar, Jesus de [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General Cerro Prieto, B.C. (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    To increase the electrical generation capacity of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field from 620 MW to 720 MW, the Cerro Prieto IV (CP IV) sector of the field was developed in the NE portion of the exploited field. Fourteen new wells have been drilled there since 2000. The wells in CP IV zone produce two-phase fluids at wellhead with heterogeneous steam fraction characteristics: at the central zone and towards the NW, the wells are liquid-dominated while those towards the E and S produce a relatively high steam fraction. This work studies the gas compositions of produced fluids to obtain reservoir parameters such as temperature and steam fraction and identify different sources of fluids in the wells. A method was used based on the Fischer Tropsch reaction and H{sub 2}S equilibria with pyrite-pyrrhotite as a mineral buffer (FT-HSH3). The results for the natural state showed the presence of fluids with reservoir temperatures from 275 to 310 degrees Celsius and excess steam values from -1 to 50%. Data are aligned in a FT-HSH3 trend, suggesting that the well discharges consist of a mixture in different proportions of the two end members. One seems to be a liquid with a temperature of over 300 degrees Celsius with negative or negligible excess steam. The other seems to be a two-phase fluid with a temperature of about 275 degrees Celsius and an excess steam fraction of about 0.5. According to the data for single wells and depending on the production conditions of the wells, reservoir fluid mixtures could occur in different proportions of liquid and steam. Data for 2005 that included wells drilled after 2000 suggest the presence of a steam phase in the reservoir. The steam could be generated with the boiling of deep reservoir fluid from a pressure drop. The mixing trend obtained for the natural state was also seen for 2005 data but lower temperatures (from 265 to 295 degrees Celsius) were obtained compared with those for natural conditions. The entry of lower

  20. Geochemistry and isotopic characterization of rain in the zones of Los Azufres, Michoacan and Los Humeros, Puebla and its relation with geothermal fluids; Caracterizacion geoquimica e isotopica de lluvia en las zonas de Los Azufres, Michoacan y Los Humeros, Puebla y su relacion con fluidos geotermicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Mahendra P; Santoyo, Socrates; Aragon, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Fernandez, Ma. Elena [Comision Federal de Electricidad Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Tovar, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Azufres (Mexico); Casimiro, Emigdio; Sandoval, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico); Johnson, Craig [USGS, Denver, Colorado, (United States); Gerardo-Abaya, Jane [IAEA, Viena (Austria)

    1999-12-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of chemical and isotopic monitoring of rainwater in Los Humeros and Los Azufres geothermal fields and their surrounding during 1995-1998. The rainwater samples were collected in seven and eight sites in Los Humeros and Los Azufres, respectively. The alkalinity values of rainwater were positive in all Los Humeros sites, which indicates that there is no acid rain in the region. There were some samples with negative alkalinity at two sites in case of Los Azufres, Vivero and Guadalajara, but the values were very small. This means that there is some acidity in the rain. In case of Los Humeros a good correlation was observed between alkalinity and the concentration of calcium, which indicates that the samples were probably affected by dust. The concentration of anions Cl, SO{sub 4} {sup 2} and NO{sub 3} was very low in the rainwater samples in both fields, but there is a clearly defined trend. The concentration of NO{sub 3} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2} at Los Azufres dicreased with advance in the rainy season. There is no NO{sub 3} in the rain at Los Humeros. The values of NO{sub 3} in the rain of Mexico City were higher than 10 ppm. This indicates that NO{sub 3} in rainwater is related with the industrial contamination. This evidence suggests that the clouds formed in the Gulf of Mexico bring rain to the Central part of Mexico. Los Humeros is located east of any big industrial site, therefore the rainwater has less anthropogenic SO{sub 4} {sup 2} and NO{sub 3}. Rainwater at Los Azufres contains contaminants from industrial sites located to the east. It can be concluded that there is no discernible influence of geothermal emissions on rainwater acidity. The concentration of Cl{sup -} was very low and constant for all the rainy seson. The origin of Cl{sup -} is considered as marine. A mixing model for Cl{sup -}/SO{sub 4} {sup 2-} versus {delta}{sup 3}4S suggests that there is 10-25% sulfate from sea spray in rainwater at Los Humeros

  1. Diverse mantle and crustal components in lavas of the NW Cerros del Rio volcanic field, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, K. E.; Wolff, J. A.; Harmon, R. S.; Leat, P. T.; Dickin, A. P.; Thompson, R. N.

    1991-09-01

    Products of Pliocene (2 4 Ma) mafic to intermediate volcanism in the northwestern Cerros del Rio, a dominantly mafic volcanic field in the Española Basin of the Rio Grande Rift (RGR), range from 49% to 63% SiO2 and exhibit diversity in silica saturation, trace-element patterns, and isotopic compositions. Tholeiites, which are largely confined to west of the Rio Grande, have trace-element abundances that resemble those of oceanic basalts, but with mild depletions in Nb and Ta, and high 87Sr/86Sr, low 143Nd/144Nd, and high δ18O compared to typical OIB. They are regarded as asthenospherically-derived magmas contaminated with continental crust. Alkali basalts and hawaiites erupted from vents east of the Rio Grande are geochemically distinct, having generally higher overall incompatible-element abundances, but with pronounced depletions in K, Rb, Nb and Ta with respect to Th and LREE. Spatially-associated benmoreites, mugearites and latites (collectively termed “evolved” lavas) have similar trace-element characteristics to the mafic mildly-alkaline compositions, but are typically not as depleted in K. Hawaiites and evolved lavas exhibit a good negative correlation of 143Nd/144Nd with SiO2, due to interaction with lower continental crust. The most silicic “evolved” lavas carry the highest proportions of crustal material, and consequently have higher K/Th than the related hawaiites. Several (mostly mafic) lavas contain abundant crustally-derived resorbed quartz xenocrysts in O-isotope disequilibrium with the host magma. The δ18O values of xenocrystic quartz range over 4‰, indicating a variety of quartz-bearing crustal contaminants beneath the Española Basin. The hawaiites, with their unusual combination of trace-element enrichments and depletions, cannot be generated by any process of fractionation or crustal contamination superposed on a common mantle source type (oceanic or arc-source). It is a regional mantle source type, inasmuch as it was also present

  2. Aflatoxin-producing fungi in maize field soils from sea level to over 2000 masl: a three year study in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Jaime, Ramon; Cotty, Peter J

    2015-04-01

    Aflatoxins, highly toxic carcinogens produced by several members of Aspergillus section Flavi, contaminate crops in temperate zones. In the state of Sonora, Mexico, maize is cultivated from 0 to 2100 masl with diverse cultivation practices. This is typical of the nation. In order to design better sampling strategies across Mexico, aflatoxin-producing fungal communities associated with maize production during 2006, 2007, and 2008 in Sonora were investigated in four agro-ecological zones (AEZ) at varying elevation. Fungal communities were dominated by the Aspergillus flavus L strain morphotype (46%), but variation occurred between years and among AEZ. Several atoxigenic isolates with potential to be used as biocontrol agents for aflatoxin mitigation were detected in all AEZ. The characteristics of each AEZ had minimal influences on fungal community structure and should not be a major consideration for future sampling designs for Mexico. Insights into the dynamics and stability of aflatoxin-producing fungal communities across AEZ are discussed.

  3. Flux Emissions of SO2 and NO2 Measured at the Tula Industrial Complex (Mexico) during MCMA 2006 Field Campaign using a Mini-DOAS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, G.; Rivera, C.; Wöhrnschimmel, H.; de Foy, B.; Johansson, M.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-05-01

    The Tula industrial zone is located 60 km northeast from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), in the Hidalgo State in México. This region is known as the Tula-Vito-Apasco industrial corridor, where a number of industries are located. According to the latest information from the environmental authority, about 313,000 ton/year of SO2 and 40,000 ton/year of NOx are released in this region. The Miguel Hidalgo refinery (MHR) and the Francisco Pérez Ríos power plant (FPRPP) are the main emitters, contributing almost 90% of SO2 and 80% of NOx from the total emission inside the Hidalgo State. Other industries such as cement plants, open-sky mines and agricultural activities are also responsible for important emissions of particulat matter (PM) into the atmosphere and soil erosion. This highly industrialized region is thought to influence the air quality in the MCMA, where in some occasions SO2 concentrations in the north part of the city have exceeded the Mexican air quality standard (130 ppb as a 24 hour average), which could not be attributed to irregular operations of industries located in the surrounding area. To address the question of emissions from the refinery and the power plant, the total fluxes of SO2 and NO2 were determined by measurements of their respective integrated vertical column in the neighborhood of the Tula industrial zone, using a Mini-DOAS system. These measurements were carried out as part of the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO Field Campaign, from March 24th to April 18th 2006. Meteorological measurements at the height of the plume dispersion were also determined using pilot balloons and radiosondes techniques. The experimental data were complemented by model simulations. Forward Lagrangian stochastic trajectories were calculated to simulate the plume using FLEXPART in combination with meso-scale meteorological simulations with MM5. The experimental data set was used to evaluate model performance. The simulations were used as an additional estimate of

  4. Evaluation of the solute geothermometry of thermal springs and drilled wells of La Primavera (Cerritos Colorados) geothermal field, Mexico: A geochemometrics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandarinath, Kailasa; Domínguez-Domínguez, Humberto

    2015-10-01

    A detailed study on the solute geothermometry of thermal water (18 springs and 8 drilled wells) of La Primavera geothermal field (LPGF) in Mexico has been carried out by employing a geochemical database compiled from the literature and by applying all the available solute geothermometers. The performance of these geothermometers in predicting the reservoir temperatures has been evaluated by applying a geochemometrics (geochemical and statistical) method. The springs of the LPGF are of bicarbonate type and the majority have attained partial-equilibrium chemical conditions and the remaining have shown non-equilibrium conditions. In the case of geothermal wells, water is dominantly of chloride-type and, among the studied eight geothermal wells, four have shown full-equilibrium chemical conditions and another four have indicated partial-equilibrium conditions. All springs of HCO3-​ type water have provided unreliable reservoir temperatures, whereas the only one available spring of SO42- type water has provided the reservoir temperature nearer to the average BHT of the wells. Contrary to the general expected behavior, spring water of non-equilibrium and geothermal well water of partial-equilibrium chemical conditions have indicated more reliable reservoir temperatures than those of partially-equilibrated and fully-equilibrated water, respectively. Among the chemical concentration data, Li and SiO2 of two springs, SO42- and Mg of four springs, and HCO3 and Na concentrations of two geothermal wells were identified as outliers and this has been reflected in very low reservoir temperatures predicted by the geothermometers associated with them (Li-Mg, Na-Li, Na-K-Mg, SiO2 etc.). Identification of the outlier data points may be useful in differentiating the chemical characteristics, lithology and the physico-chemical and geological processes at the sample locations of the study area. In general, the solute geothermometry of the spring waters of LPGF indicated a dominantly

  5. Land Subsidence and Groundwater Resources Investigations with the Use of D-InSAR, Numerical Modeling, and Field Data in the Toluca Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderhead, A. I.; Martel, R.; Rivera, A.; Garfias, J.; Therrien, R.

    2008-12-01

    In the Toluca Valley, Mexico, urban and industrial growth have resulted in groundwater pumping exceeding recharge. Currently, there is a significant water budget deficit within the basin primarily due to groundwater pumping, and the loss is increasing with time. The stresses on the aquifer have caused significant changes on the water flow patterns, a reversal in the direction of hydraulic gradients, the disappearance of artesian springs and wetlands and noticeable land subsidence within the basin. The focus of this study is the investigation of water resources and land subsidence with the use of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (D-InSAR), numerical modeling, and field data. The study is divided into two parts: 1) investigation of groundwater depletion in the Toluca Valley; and 2) assessment of land subsidence in the Toluca Valley. A spatially variable recharge model based on the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) numerical model examines the recharge; pumping estimates are based on a recent census and differences in piezometric surfaces. Currently there is a net loss (recharge - pumping) of over 150 million cubic meters per year of groundwater within the Toluca Basin aquifers. We examine various changes in regional flow patterns, and groundwater levels decline throughout the valley. At the current rate of consumption, groundwater resources are not sustainable for the population of the valley. Directly related to the decrease in groundwater levels is the occurrence of land subsidence. Regional land subsidence of the Toluca Valley is observed with the use of SAR images obtained from the European Space agency's ERS-1, ERS-2 and ENVISAT Satellites and the Canadian Space Agency's RADARSAT-1 satellite. Data from years 1996 to 2008 are used to locate and quantify the subsidence; with subsidence rates reaching more than 15 cm/year. Results from the different sensors are also compared. The findings are verified with in

  6. PREFACE: XIV Mexican School on Particles and Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Adnan; Contreras, Guillermo; Raya, Alfredo; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2011-03-01

    The XIV Mexican School on Particles and Fields took place from 8-12 November, 2010, in the colonial city of Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico. The format of the school was such that the morning sessions were devoted to theoretical and experimental reviews, whereas parallel thematic sessions were held in the afternoons. All the reviews and seminars were delivered by experts of international prestige on subjects which are of current interest to the global scientific community and are also actively pursued within Mexico. In order to equip the attending graduate students and post docs with the necessary introductory tools to allow them to benefit substantially from the specialized seminars, a series of mini-courses were offered prior to the event from 4-7 November 2010, in the Auditorium of the Faculty of Science of the University of Michoacan (UMSNH). The length of each course was about 5 hours, English being the language of instruction. An informal and friendly atmosphere was encouraged during the courses so that the students could overcome their inhibitions and actively participate in the discussions. A novel feature of this event was a colloquium aimed at the general public and younger students of pre-undergraduate level, which allowed the expert scientists to reach out to a wider community and raise their awareness and interest in one of the most fascinating and vital fields of knowledge. The XIV-MSPF was organized by the Division of Particles and Fields of the Mexican Physical Society. It was generously sponsored by several institutions: Consejo Estatal de Ciencia y Tecnológico (COECyT) del Estado de Michoacán, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Universidad de Sonora, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad de Guanajuato, Universidad de Sinaloa, Centro de Investigaciones de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT), la Academia Mexicana de Ciencias and, most importantly, the Red Nacional

  7. Paleomagnetic, Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility, and 40AR/39AR Data from the Cienega Volcano, Cerros del Rio Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucher, M. S.; Petronis, M. S.; Lindline, J.; Van Wyk de Vries, B.

    2012-12-01

    Cinder cone eruptions are typically interpreted to have formed by the ascension of magma through a simple conduit. Recent field work and laboratory studies on different excavated volcanoes around the world suggest that magma transport within cinder cones can involve a complex system of feeder geometries. We studied the Cienega volcano, a cinder cone in the Cerros del Rio volcanic field, northern New Mexico, in order to better understand the complexity and the evolution of volcanic plumbing systems in the development of cinder cone volcanoes. We hypothesized that cinder cone plumbing systems are inherently complex and involve numerous feeder geometries (e.g. dikes, sills) and flow patterns both towards and away from the central vent complex. The Cienega volcano comprises tephra fall deposits as well as several vents, multiple intrusions, and numerous lava flow sequences. We inspected the magmatic plumbing system using different laboratory methods including paleomagnetic, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), rock magnetic and thin section studies. We collected samples across each outcrop of the feeder system. The dikes are olivine porphyritic basalts with major clinopyroxene, calcic plagioclase feldspar, magnetite, and xenocrystic quartz. Most samples display a trachytic texture with plagioclase crystals showing a preferred orientation parallel to the dike margins. The magnetic information is held predominantly by a cubic phase magnetite with a low- to moderate-Ti composition of Single or Pseudo-Single Domain grains. The AMS results show various flow directions. Three of six dikes yielded magma flow directions away from the vent. The other dikes showed both a subvertical flow, which corresponds to the typical movement of magma in a dike originating from a deeper crustal level, and a downward flow direction. We concluded that magma initially flowed upward from the magma chamber until it encountered flow resistance. At this structural level (the current

  8. Potential field studies of the central San Luis Basin and San Juan Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico, and southern and western Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, Benjamin John

    This dissertation includes three separate chapters, each demonstrating the interpretive utility of potential field (gravity and magnetic) geophysical datasets at various scales and in various geologic environments. The locations of these studies are the central San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, and southern and western Afghanistan. The San Luis Basin is the northernmost of the major basins that make up the Rio Grande rift, and interpretation of gravity and aeromagnetic data reveals patterns of rifting, rift-sediment thicknesses, distribution of pre-rift volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and distribution of syn-rift volcanic rocks. Syn-rift Santa Fe Group sediments have a maximum thickness of ˜2 km in the Sanchez graben near the eastern margin of the basin along the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone. Under the Costilla Plains, thickness of these sediments is estimated to reach ˜1.3 km. The Santa Fe Group sediments also reach a thickness of nearly 1 km within the Monte Vista graben near the western basin margin along the San Juan Mountains. A narrow, north-south-trending structural high beneath San Pedro Mesa separates the graben from the structural depression beneath the Costilla Plains. Aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to mainly reflect variations of remanent magnetic polarity and burial depth of the 5.3-3.7 Ma Servilleta basalt of the Taos Plateau volcanic field. Magnetic-source depth estimates indicate patterns of subsidence following eruption of the basalt and show that the Sanchez graben has been the site of maximum subsidence. One of the largest and most pronounced gravity lows in North America lies over the rugged San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. A buried, low-density silicic batholith related to an Oligocene volcanic field coincident with the San Juan Mountains has been the accepted interpretation of the source of the gravity low since the 1970s. However, this interpretation was

  9. The Future of Mexico’s Drug War - Balancing Security and Rule of Law Against Cartel Freedom of Maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    Targeted Targeted Effect (Size of Force) Op Michoacan Dec 06 Michoacan La Familia Cartel ops & violence, (4K Mil forces) Op Baja...Cartels such as La Familia have pursued a win-win scenario whereby they co-opt support and effectively out administer the government in providing

  10. Sustainable potato production in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.; Wiersema, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Memorandum of Understanding between the ministries of agriculture of Mexico and the Netherlands is aimed at strengthening cooperation in the field of research and development between the two countries. Within this framework CONPAPA, Sabritas, INIFAP and Wageningen University established contacts

  11. Tectonic control of the damaged areas by land subsidence: Ameca, Jalisco Mexico, a study case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Elguera, J.; Malagon, A.; Maciel, R.; Alatorre, M. A.; Perez, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Miocene to Quaternary Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB), one of the largest mexican volcanic arcs built on the North America plate, covers about 1000 km along central Mexico from the Pacific ocean to the Gulf of Mexico. The structure of west-central Mexico is dominated by a complex assemblage of crustal blocks bounded by major tectonic structures of the TMVB. These are the NW-SE Tepic-Zacoalco, the N-S Colima, and the E-W Chapala grabens, which separate the Jalisco and Michoacan blocks from the stable North American plate. The three grabens join south of Guadalajara to form what has been long interpreted as an active triple junction. The Tepic-Zacoalco rift is composed of the eastern part of the Plan de Barrancas-Santa Rosa graben and by the Ameca and Zacoalco half-grabens. The Ameca city is located in the Ameca half-graben. From 80´s several houses and buildings (more than 300) have been affected by land subsidence for more than two decades. The damage area follows a specific pattern with NW trend which is similar to the regional faults. The land subsidence is associated with the water extraction. We suggest that the distribution of the damage area is controlled by the fault system in combination with the water extraction. Because of the Ameca half-graben has been affected by historical and present day earthquakes and considering the subsurface geology (sandstones, siltstone intercalated with conglomerates) sudden collapses can be expected.

  12. HAWC @ Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carramiñana, Alberto; González, María Magdalena; Salazar, Humberto; Alfaro, Ruben; Medina Tanco, Gustavo; Valdés Galicia, José; Delepine, David; Zepeda, Arnulfo; Villaseñor, Luis; Mendoza, Eduardo; Nava, Janina; Vázquez, Lilí; Tenorio Tagle, Guillermo; Carrasco, Luis; Silich, Sergey; Rogríguez Liñán, Gustavo; de la Fuente, Eduardo; Page, Dany; Lee, William; Dultzin, Deborah; Benitez, Erika; Ávila Reese, Vladimir; Mendoza, Sergio; Martos, Marco; Hernández Toledo, Héctor; Valenzuela, Octavio; Martínez, Oscar; Fernández, Arturo; Álvarez Ochoa, Cesar; Díaz, Lorenzo; Rosado, Alfonso; Ramírez, Cupatitzio; Menchaca, Arturo; Belmont, Ernesto; Sandoval, Andrés; Martínez, Arnulfo; Grabski, Varlen; Nellen, Lukas; D'Olivo, Juan Carlos; Lara, Alejandro; Caballero, Rogelio; Moreno, Gerardo; Napsuciale, Mauro; Ureña, Luis; Reyes, Marco; Migénes, Victor; Herrera, Gerardo; Saavedra, Oscar; Carrillo, Alejandro; Carrasco Nuñez, Gerardo; Vargas, Carlos

    The High Altitude Water Cerenkov detector HAWC will be a powefull instrument to survey the TeV sky. Mexico has proposed to locate this experiment in the Parque Nacional Pico de Orizaba, between Citlaltepetl and Tliltepetl, host of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT). The region has a sizeable technical infrastructure related to the LMT and we recently studied a 4100m location in terms of its feasibility to host HAWC. We present the proposed site location and extension, its water acquisition, experimental and complementary infrastructures.

  13. Health technology assessment in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Frenk, Julio

    2009-07-01

    The history of health technology assessment (HTA) in Mexico is examined, starting with the efforts to incorporate this topic into the policy agenda and culminating with the recent creation of a specialized public agency. Information was gathered through a bibliographic search and interviews with actors involved in HTA in Mexico. HTA efforts were developed in Mexico since the mid-1980s with the participation both of academics and of policy makers, a relationship that eventually led to the creation of the Center for Technological Excellence within the Ministry of Health. Institutionalization of HTA in resource-constrained settings requires the development of a critical mass of researchers involved in this field, the implementation of information efforts, and the establishment of strong relationships between HTA experts and policy makers.

  14. Numerical simulations of temperature, dehydration, and flow fields associated with subduction of the Cocos plate, and its relation to the occurrence of interplate seismic events in southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suenaga, N.; Ji, Y.; Yoshioka, S.; Manea, M.; Manea, V. C.

    2016-12-01

    In southern Mexico, tectonic tremors mainly occur in the "flat slab region, and the last three SSEs in southern Mexico occurred in the shallower region. Besides, there are two seismic gaps of megathrust earthquakes in Guerrero and Oaxaca. To investigate generation mechanisms of megathrust earthquakes, tectonic tremors, and slow slip events (SSEs) in southern Mexico, we performed three-dimensional numerical simulations of temperature and mantle flow associated with subduction of the Cocos plate, and estimated dehydrated water content from the subducting plate. Here we considered retreat of the Middle American trench initiating about 16 Ma as one of the generation mechanisms of the slab flattening. In our model, we introduced the trench retreat effect during only a certain period between 16 Ma and present in order to best fit the observed heat flow data (from Global Heat Flow Database) as well as Curie point depths defined by the 580 ° isotherm. Our preliminary results show that trench rollback has a strong influence on temperature distribution. Models with trench rollback induce a weaker mantle wedge convection cell compared with models with stationary trench. Other parameter that is currently investigated in this study is the rate of trench retreat.

  15. [Update on the epidemiology of mycetoma in Mexico. A review of 3933 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Rubén; Méndez-Tovar, Luis J; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Arenas, Roberto; Mayorga, Jorge; Welsh, Oliverio; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Padilla-Desgarennes, María Carmen; Contreras Pérez, Cudberto; Chávez, Guadalupe; Estrada, Roberto; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Mycetoma is one of the most frequent chronic subcutaneous infections in many tropical and subtropical regions. To update the epidemiological data of mycetoma cases in Mexico. A survey in the main mycological diagnosis centers in this country was performed. Each mycologist was requested for number of diagnosed mycetoma cases, age, sex, occupation, geographic origin, type of mycetoma, and etiological agents. Until 2012, we have registered 3,933 cases in the last 54 years. Sex distribution corresponds to 75.6% for men and 24.4% for women. In 75.72% is present in adults between 16-50 years old. The predominant work group of patients is farmers (58.41%) followed by housewives (21.79%). Most of patients come from Jalisco, Morelos, Nuevo Leon, Guerrero, Veracruz and Michoacan states. The most affected body areas are limbs (60.29%) and trunk (19.76%). Actinomycetoma has a frequency of 96.52%, and the commonest etiological agent is Nocardia brasiliensis (65.58%). Eumycetoma (3.48%) is mainly caused by Madurella grisea (28.47%) and M. mycetomatis (26.28%). Mycetoma is an under-diagnosed pathology representing a health problem in rural regions and must be attended with more interest by the health institutions.

  16. Jatropha in Mexico: Environmental and Social Impacts of an Incipient Biofuel Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Gao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Three case studies from Mexico are presented in which the impacts of the recent introduction of jatropha cultivation for biodiesel production are examined. In Chiapas and Michoacan, local social and environmental impacts were assessed using interviews with key informants and questionnaires directed at three groups of stakeholders: jatropha cultivators, farmers in the same areas who are not cultivating jatropha, and laborers on jatropha farms. Results show that the farmers are primarily motivated to participate by the subsidies offered in a government program in the first 2 years, rather than any proven economic benefit. Our farm budget study indicated that profits would be marginal for these farmers. However, no cases of land alienation were involved, and impacts on food security and deforestation are currently not significant. Employment opportunities for landless laborers have increased in areas where jatropha is now grown. The program is only in its third year currently, so these outcomes would need to be reexamined as it develops. In Yucatan, production is mainly in the hands of commercial companies, using estates formerly under low-intensity grazing and secondary forest. A carbon balance analysis indicated that there may be a significant loss of carbon stocks associated with jatropha plantation establishment on these estates. Depending on the maturity of the forest regrowth and the intensity of jatropha production, the carbon payback period varies from 2 to 14 years, although, in some scenarios, the carbon debt may never be recovered.

  17. Extreme Subduction Earthquake Scenarios and their Economical Consequences for Mexico City and Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, M.; Cabrera, E.; Perea, N.

    2007-05-01

    The destructive effects of large magnitude, thrust subduction superficial (TSS) earthquakes on Mexico City (MC) and Guadalajara (G) has been shown in the recent centuries. For example, the 7/04/1845 a TSS earthquake with Ms 7+ and epicentral distance of about 250 km from MC occurred on the coast of the state of Guerrero, a Maximum Mercalli Modified Intensity (MMI) of IX-X was reported in MC. Furthermore, the 19/09/1985 a Ms 8.1, Mw 8.01, TSS earthquake with epicentral distance of about 340 km from MC occurred on the coast of the state of Michoacan, a maximum MMI of IX-X was reported in MC. Also, the largest, Ms 8.2, instrumentally observed TSS earthquake in Mexico, occurred in the Colima-Jalisco region the 3/06/1932, with epicentral distance of the order of 200 km from G in northwestern Mexico. The 9/10/1995 another similar event, Ms 7.4, Mw 8, with an epicentral distance of about 240 km from G, occurred in the same region and produced MMI IX in the epicentral zone and MMI up to VI in G. The frequency of occurrence of large TSS earthquakes in Mexico is poorly known, but it might vary from decades to centuries [1]. On the other hand, the first recordings of strong ground motions in MC dates from the early 1960´s and most of them were recorded after the 19/09/1985 earthquake. In G there is only one recording of the later event, and 13 for the one occurred the 9/10/1995 [2]. In order to fulfill the lack of strong ground motions records for large damaging TSS earthquakes, which could have an important economical impact on MC [3] and G, in this work we have modeled broadband synthetics (obtained with a hybrid model that has already been satisfactorily compared with observations of the 9/10/1995 Colima-Jalisco Mw 8 earthquake, [4]) expected in MC and G, associated to extreme magnitude Mw 8.5, TSS scenario earthquakes with epicenters in the so-called Guerrero gap and in the Colima-Jalisco zone, respectively. The proposed scenarios are based on the seismic history and up

  18. Melt inclusions are not reliable proxies for magmatic liquid composition: evidence from crystal-poor andesites and dacites in the Tequila volcanic field, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H. M.; Lange, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    A compositional study of >200 melt inclusions in plagioclase and orthopyroxene phenocrysts from six crystal-poor (2-5 vol%) andesite and dacite lavas (60-68 wt% SiO2) from the Tequila volcanic field in the Mexico arc is used to evaluate whether melt inclusions in phenocrysts accurately record magmatic liquid compositions. The crystal-poor andesites and dacites were erupted contemporaneously with crystal-poor rhyolites, and there is a continuum in the SiO2 concentration of the erupted magmas. The liquid line of descent defined by the whole-rock compositions ranges from andesite to rhyolite (60-77 wt% SiO2), as illustrated on Harker diagrams. The crystal-poor andesites and dacites are multiply saturated with five to seven mineral phases (plagioclase + orthopyroxene + titanomagnetite + ilmenite + apatite ± augite ± hornblende), most of which crystallized via degassing during magma ascent (Frey and Lange, 2009). By comparison with phase equilibrium experiments from the literature, it is shown that the vast majority of crystals are phenocrysts and not xenocrysts. Textural evidence of rapid crystal growth includes skeletal, hopper, and swallow-tail morphologies and abundant melt inclusions. The inclusions range in size from a few microns to > 50 μm and occur as isolated pockets and extensive channels that mimic the crystal morphology. Inclusions are typically brown glass, with occasional microphenocrysts of titanomagnetite and/or apatite within or adjacent to the melt inclusions. The compositions of the melt inclusions in the plagioclase and orthopyroxene phenocrysts, when plotted on Harker diagrams, vary systematically from one another and from the liquid line of descent defined by the whole rock compositions of erupted magmas. For example, melt inclusions in plagioclase are systematically depleted in Al2O3 relative to the whole rock samples, whereas those in coexisting orthopyroxenes are systematically enriched in Al2O3. The opposite trend is found for FeO, where it

  19. Mexico; Mexique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  20. Measurements of aerosol absorption and scattering in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO field campaign: a comparison of results from the T0 and T1 sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Marley

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In March 2006, a multiagency field campaign was undertaken in Mexico City called the Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO. Two of the five field components of the MILAGRO study focused a major part of their efforts on atmospheric particulate emissions from the Mexico City basin and their effects on radiative balance as a function of time, location and processing conditions. As part of these two MILAGRO components, measurements of aerosol optical properties were obtained at a site located in the northern part of Mexico City (T0 and also at a site located 29 km northwest (T1 to estimate the regional effects of aerosol emissions from the basin.

    Measurements of aerosol absorption and scattering for fine mode aerosols were obtained at both sites. Aerosol absorption at 550 nm was similar at both sites, ranging from 7–107 Mm−1 at T0 and from 3–147 Mm−1 at T1. Aerosol scattering measured at 550 nm at T0 ranged from 16–344 Mm−1 while the aerosol scattering values at T1 were much lower than at T0 ranging from 2–136 Mm−1. Aerosol single scattering albedos (SSAs were calculated at 550 nm for the fine mode aerosols at both sites using these data. The SSAs at T0 ranged from 0.47–0.92 while SSAs at T1 ranged from 0.35–0.86. The presence of these highly absorbing fine aerosols in the lower atmosphere of the Mexico City area will result in a positive climate forcing and a local warming of the boundary layer in the region.

    Broadband UVB intensity was found to be higher at site T0, with an average of 64 μW/cm2 at solar noon, than at site T1, which had an average of 54 μW/cm2 at solar noon. Comparisons of clear-sky modeled UVB intensities with the simultaneous UVB measurements obtained at sites T0 and T1 for cloudless days indicate a larger diffuse radiation field at site T0 than at site T1. The determination of aerosol

  1. United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Sandia Field Office NESHAP Annual Report CY2014 for Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    evelo, stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Mark L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report provides a summary of the radionuclide releases from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration facilities at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during Calendar Year (CY) 2014, including the data, calculations, and supporting documentation for demonstrating compliance with 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 61, Subpart H--NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR EMISSIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OTHER THAN RADON FROM DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FACILITIES. A description is given of the sources and their contributions to the overall dose assessment. In addition, the maximally exposed individual (MEI) radiological dose calculation and the population dose to local and regional residents are discussed.

  2. New Mexico Ghost Towns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data provides locations and non-spatial attributes of many ghost towns in the State of New Mexico, compiled from various sources. Locations provided with...

  3. New Mexico National Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The United States Department of Veterans Affairs National Cemetery Administration maintains 2 national cemeteries in the state of New Mexico; the Fort Bayard...

  4. New Mexico State Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  5. New Mexico Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of parks in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from a...

  6. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  7. English Teaching in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses teaching English in Mexico, a country with important social, cultural, and economic ties to the United States. Looks at the various English teaching situations as well as teacher education for teachers in Mexico. Concludes that the English teaching situation in Mexico reflects great diversity and growth, and that the knowledge of English…

  8. Religious Syncretism in Mexico. Project Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, David

    This document is an outline for a three-week unit of study focusing on religious syncretism in Mexico as part of a community college course in comparative religions or philosophy of religion. While this outline is intended to give information and direction to the instructor wishing to use Mexico as an example of religious syncretism, unit goals…

  9. Simulating pumping-induced regional land subsidence with the use of InSAR and field data in the Toluca Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderhead, A. I.; Therrien, R.; Rivera, A.; Martel, R.; Garfias, J.

    2011-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach is presented here for quantifying land subsidence in a heavily pumped aquifer system with complex stratigraphy. The methodology consists in incorporating Terzaghi's 1D instantaneous compaction principle into a 3D groundwater flow model that is then applied and calibrated to reproduce observed hydraulic heads and compaction for the Toluca Valley, Mexico. Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR), a generated 3D-geological model, extensometers, monitoring wells, and available literature are used to constrain the model. The D-InSAR measured subsidence, extensometers, and numerical simulations of subsidence agree relatively well. Simulations show that since regional subsidence began in the mid 1960s there has been up to 2 m of subsidence in the industrial corridor, where heavy pumping and thick clay layers are found. This study shows that an approach using various sources of data is useful in estimating and constraining the vertical component of the inelastic skeletal specific storage.

  10. One Year Performance Results for the Prism Solar Installation at the New Mexico Regional Test Center: Field Data from February 15 2016 - February 14 2017.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burnham, Laurie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-01

    A 9.6 kW test array of Prism bifacial modules and reference monofacial modules installed in February 2016 at the New Mexico Regional Test Center has produced one year of performance data. The data reveal that the Prism modules are out-performing the monofacial modules, with bifacial gains in energy over the twelve-month period ranging from 17% to 132%, depending on the orientation and ground albedo. These measured bifacial gains were found to be in good agreement with modeled bifacial gains using equations previously published by Prism Solar. The most dramatic increase in performance was seen among the vertically mounted, west-facing modules, where the bifacial modules produced more than double the energy of monofacial modules in the same orientation. Because peak energy generation (mid- morning and mid-afternoon) for these bifacial modules may best match load on the electric grid, the west-facing orientation may be more economically desirable than traditional south-facing module orientations (which peak at solar noon).

  11. USGS field activities 11BHM03 and 11BHM04 on the west Florida shelf, Gulf of Mexico, September and November 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Knorr, Paul O.; Daly, Kendra L.; Barrera, Kira E.

    2014-01-01

    During September and November 2011 the (USGS), in cooperation with (USF), conducted geochemical surveys on the west Florida Shelf to investigate the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the northern Gulf of Mexico, specifically, the effect of ocean acidification on marine organisms and habitats. The first cruise was conducted from September 20 to 28 (11BHM03) and the second was from November 2 to 4 (11BHM04). To view each cruise's survey lines, please see the Trackline page. Each cruise took place aboard the Research Vessel (R/V) Weatherbird II, a ship of opportunity led by Dr. Kendra Daly (USF), which departed from and returned to Saint Petersburg, Florida. Data collection included sampling of the surface and water column with lab analysis of pH, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) or total carbon dioxide (TCO2), and total alkalinity (TA). lLb analysis was augmented with a continuous flow-through system (referred to as sonde data) with a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor, which also recorded salinity and pH. Corroborating the USGS data are the vertical CTD profiles (referred to as station samples) collected by USF. The CTD casts measured continuous vertical profiles of oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence and optical backscatter. Discrete samples for nutrients, chlorophyll, and particulate organic carbon/nitrogen were also collected during the CTD casts. Two autonomous flow-through (AFT) instruments recorded pH and CO2 every 3-5 minutes on each cruise (referred to as AFT data).

  12. USGS field activities 11BHM01 and 11BHM02 on the west Florida shelf, Gulf of Mexico, May and June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Knorr, Paul O.; Daly, Kendra L.; Taylor, Carl A.; Barrera, Kira E.

    2014-01-01

    During May and June 2011 the (USGS), in cooperation with (USF), conducted geochemical surveys on the west Florida Shelf to investigate the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the northern Gulf of Mexico, specifically, the effect of ocean acidification on marine organisms and habitats. The first cruise was conducted from May 3 to 9 (11BHM01) and the second was from June 25 to 30 (11BHM02). To view each cruise's survey lines, please see the Trackline page. Each cruise took place aboard the Research Vessel (R/V) Weatherbird II, a ship of opportunity led by Dr. Kendra Daly (USF), which departed from and returned to Saint Petersburg, Florida. Data collection included sampling of the surface and water column with lab analysis of pH, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) or total carbon dioxide (TCO2), and total alkalinity (TA). lLb analysis was augmented with a continuous flow-through system (referred to as sonde data) with a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor, which also recorded salinity and pH. Corroborating the USGS data are the vertical CTD profiles (referred to as station samples) collected by USF. The CTD casts measured continuous vertical profiles of oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence and optical backscatter. Discrete samples for nutrients, chlorophyll, and particulate organic carbon/nitrogen were also collected during the CTD casts. Two autonomous flow-through (AFT) instruments recorded pH and CO2 every 3-5 minutes on each cruise (referred to as AFT data).

  13. Diversidad genética, patogénica y morfológica del hongo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) de Michoacán, México Genetic, pathogenic and morphological diversity of fungi Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) from Michoacan, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Víctor Montero Tavera; José Luciano Morales García; Mario Martín González Chavira; José Luis Anaya López; Tarsicio Corona Torres; Amanda Gálvez Mariscal

    El hongo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, es el agente causal de antracnosis y representa la principal limitante para la cosecha de frutos con calidad comercial de aguacate Hass (Persea americana). La diversidad...

  14. Modelo de tratamiento en ingeniería ortoconductual para la resocialización penitenciaria: Propuesta para Michoacán, México/Treatment model in ortoconductual engineering for prison resocialization: Proposal for Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Salgado García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of offenders requires a multidisciplinary intervention because it is a multifactorial phenomenon; resulting logical offender treatment resulting from a variety of analysis by the ortoconductual Engineering, which in its application Ortoconducta strategies, involving various sciences and scientific disciplines in charge of the study of behavior (from different areas, criminology, psychology, psychiatry, andragogy, pedagogy, sociology, philosophy, neurophysiology and endocrinology, to name just a few, which are complement to the same end: The social reintegration. Our prison system is aimed at crime prevention (secondary prevention, which must be achieved rehabilitate the offender, later to reintegrate into the community.

  15. Criteria to determine the depth of the production interval in wells of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico; Criterios para determinar la profundidad del intervalo productor en pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Vivar, Jesus Saul de [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jesus.deleon@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    Ways to select the depth of the production interval or to complete wells in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field have changed during the development of the field. From 1961 when drilling began to the middle of 2005, a total of 325 wells were drilled. The paper compares the approaches used in the past with those of the last ten years. The Cerro Prieto system has been classified as being of liquid-dominated and high-temperature. Today, after 33 years of commercial exploitation, it has experienced a series of thermal and geochemical fluid changes making it necessary to modify the ways to select the depth of the well production intervals, according to the observed behavior of the reservoir. The new criteria include the thermal approach, the geological approach, the geochemical approach and a comparative approach with neighboring wells. If most of these criteria are interpreted correctly, the success of a well is ensured. [Spanish] Los criterios para seleccionar la profundidad del intervalo productor o la terminacion de los pozos en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto han cambiado durante el desarrollo del mismo. De 1961, cuando se perforaron los primeros pozos, hasta mediados del 2005 se han perforado un total de 325 pozos. En el presente articulo se hara una breve revision de cuales han sido los criterios usados en el pasado y los que se han venido empleando en los ultimos diez anos. El yacimiento de Cerro Prieto ha sido clasificado como de liquido dominante, de alta temperatura, pero actualmente, despues de 33 anos de explotacion comercial, ha sufrido una serie de cambios termicos y geoquimicos en sus fluidos, por lo que ha sido necesario modificar los criterios para seleccionar la profundidad del intervalo productor de los pozos de acuerdo al comportamiento observado en el yacimiento. Los criterios actuales se dividen en cuatro: 1. Criterio termico, 2. Criterio geologico, 3. Criterio geoquimico y 4. Criterio comparativo de los pozos vecinos. Cuando la mayoria de estos

  16. Interpretation of an E-W seismic cross section in Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico; Interpretacion geofisica de una seccion sismica de reflexion con direccion E-W en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo Fragoso, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    On the basis of reflection seismic studies conducted at Los Humeros, Puebla, geothermal field. There were identified several reflection horizons correlated with the following lithology features: the basis of theignimbrites, the Teziutlan andesites, and the top of the calcareous basement and the faults affecting them at depth in the well H-27 sector. It was observed that Los Humeros fault ends at the buried fault F-II that affects the calcareous basement in the well H-8 area. The presence of steaming grounds at the surface suggests that there are fluid transports between them. In the sector corresponding to the location of faults F-II to F-V, at the top of the basement depth, there are bending of the faults traces related to recent magnetic intrusive that metamorphosed the sedimentary basement to produce skarn. These intrusive act as the heat source of the hydrothermal system. It is considered that the best sites to drill the wells to develop the field are those in which the faults bends were observed, because near the fault traces, the best conditions for the flow of fluids are expected. [Spanish] Por medio de estudio de sismica de reflexion realizados en Los Humeros, Puebla, se determinaron reflectores que se correlacionaron con la base de las ignimbritas, el espesor de las andesitas Teziutlan, la cima del basamento calcareo y estructuras que lo desplazan a mayor profundidad en la zona del pozo H-27. Se observo que la falla de los Humeros termina sobre la falla sepultada F-11, la cual desplaza al basamento a mayor profundidad en la zona del pozo H-8. La presencia de manifestaciones de vapor en la superficie sugiere que existe transporte de fluidos entre ellas. En la zona donde se ubican las fallas de la F-11 a la F-V, a la profundidad de la cima del basamento sedimentario, se presentan arqueamientos sobre las trazas de las fallas relacionados con intrusiones magmaticas recientes que metamorfizaron al basamento sedimentario (skarn) y que sirven actualmente de

  17. Geochemical and isotopic behavior of fluids from wells in Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico; Comportamiento geoquimico e isotopico del fluido de los pozos del campo geotermico Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto; Lopez Romero, Oscar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    1999-12-01

    In general the wells in Los Humeros geothermal fields produce sodium bicarbonate water with a low salinity because the fluids are produced from the shallow part of the reservoir. The fluids in wells H-33 and H-6 are sodium chloride: the first influenced by fluids from deep levels in the reservoir and the second by fluids coming only from the deeps part of the reservoir. Fluid mixture for other wells depends on operating conditions. To date, it has been difficult with the geothermetric temperatures to establish the underground flow directions and whether or not an infiltration of shallow low-temperature fluids occurs. Well H-16 has the lowest-temperature fluid in the liquid phase, which suggests infiltration of shallow local fluids-a result corroborated by an isotopic study. Using the methodology of Giggenbach and Goguel, we found that the gases are in equilibrium with the liquid phase at temperatures between 275 and 325 Celsius degrees. The maximum temperature is measured in wells H-12 and H-9, where good agreement exists between this temperature and those calculated with a geothermometer of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} . Isotopic results show, in general, that the wells with the highest levels of oxygen-18 are those with the highest geothermetric temperatures (CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2})- both in the north (H-35 and H-9) and in the south (H-6 and H-12)-results that agree with the temperatures measured in the field. The initial thermodynamic conditions of the wells show that they produce fluids from the liquid region. This fact, together with the low salinity, permit the application of the D' Amore methodology, with which the estimations of vapor fractions in the reservoir are relatively low. [Spanish] En general, los pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros producen agua del tipo bicarbonato sodico con baja salinidad. Esto se debe a que extraen fluidos de la parte somera del yacimiento. Los pozos H-33 y H-6 son clorurados sodicos; el primero por cierta influencia de la zona

  18. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of rainwater at Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico and surrounding areas; Caracteristicas quimicas e isotopicas del agua de lluvia en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico y zonas aledanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto; Cruz Grajales, Irma [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    A study of chemical and isotopic characteristics of rainwater at Los Humeros geothermal field was undertaken for the second consecutive year. Samples were collected in seven stations-two inside the field and five on the periphery. In 1996, a total of 99 samples were collected and 104 were collected in 1997. Of these, 19-18.26% of the total-had a negative alkalinity. The Atempan (No.5) and Campamento (No.1) stations showed the highest number of anomalous samples (31.25 and 27.8%, respectively). Anomalous samples in Perote station were not observed a result that we attribute to the predominant wind direction. The results for the Campamento station are attributed to the thermal inversion phenomena occurring when the samples with negative alkalinity were obtained. Concentrations of cations in some samples were relatively high, with the maximum concentration of calcium in the Los Humeros station (79.7 ppm) . Other significantly high values were found in the Texcal station (34.8 ppm) and Perote (33.8 ppm) due to the presence of dust particles scattered in the air and because of the lack of pavement where the sampling stations are located. Another factor affecting these figures could be the presence of block and lime factories in the neighborhood. Although measured concentrations may seem high, reports exist with similar concentrations in nongeothermal areas. Oxygen-18 and deuterium contents were determined for each stations, mixing anomalous samples. The results show that the most enriched samples correspond to the San Juan Xiutetelco, Puebla (No. 6) station and the minimum to the Perote Veracruz (No. 7) station. The concentration of SO{sub 4} has marine and industrial origins, with a contribution of the first source ranging between 10 and 25 percent. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla se realizo, por segundo ano consecutivo, la caracterizacion quimica e isotopica de agua de lluvia en muestras colectadas en siete estaciones, dos localizadas dentro

  19. Productive fluid intervals in wells H-35 and H-39, Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla (Mexico); Intervalos productores de fluidos en los pozos H-35 y H-39 del campo geotermico Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina Martinez, Moises [Comision Federal de Electridad, Perote, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents the results of log interpretations using the percentage method to define the productive fluid intervals in wells H-35 and H-39. These were identified with pressure, temperature and flow rate (PTS) electronic logs, used for the first time in this field. The test were carried out with the well integrated to the electrical generation units. Well H-35 fed steam to Units 1, 4, 5 and 7 through a plate with a restriction orifice diameter of 50.8 mm (2 inches), a well head pressure of 45 bars and a mass flow rate of 40 t/h. Well H-39 fed steam to Unit 3 through plate with a restriction orifice diameter of 50.8 mm (2 inches), a well head pressure of 27 bars and a mass flow rate of 30 t/h. [Spanish] Se presenta la intervencion realizada por el metodo de porcentajes para definir los intervalos productores de fluidos en los pozos H-35 y H-39. El estudio se hizo a partir de datos obtenidos con una sonda electronica de presion, temperatura y velocidad de flujo (PTS), utilizada por primera vez en este campo. En ambos casos se realizaron las pruebas con el pozo integrado a las unidades de generacion electrica, el primero suministra vapor para las Unidades 1, 4, 5 y 7 a traves de una placa de orificio de restriccion de 50.8 mm (2 pulgadas) de diametro, con presion de cabezal de 45 bar manometricos y un gasto de mezcla de 40 t/h. El segundo alimenta a la Unidad 3, fluye por orificio de 50.8 mm (2 pulgadas) de diametro y produce 30 t/h de mezcla con una presion en la cabeza de 27 bar.

  20. Study and thermodynamic characterization of the northwest area of Los Humeros, Puebla, geothermal field, Mexico; Estudio y caracterizacion termodinamica del sector noreste del campo geotermico Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machorro Jimenez, Manuel; Pizano Herrera, Arturo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Perote, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    According to the project for the study and characterization of the geothermal field Los Humeros, Puebla, drilling and production information of wells of the Northwest sector was analyzed, in order to evaluate the potential of this area. Data analysis of wells H-3, H-9, H-22, H-35 and H-37 let us determine the characteristics of this zone. We conclude that there is a producer interval with an average elevation between 1000 and 1500 most in the Andesitas of Augita, with an average temperature of 279 Celsius degree.The mechanics of productions are related to the presence of the Melpais and Antigua Faults. Wells H-3, H-37 had mechanic drilling problems, this could be the cause of low production in well H-3 as these drilling problems occurred at the producer interval. In this zone was carried out a calculation of the electric potential by means of volumetric analysis which gave a favorable estimated potential of 33 Mw for this zone during a period of time of 20 years, which indicates that it is possible to continue exploiting this area. So the future wells to drill will search objectives and be terminated to total depth of 1800 m in the zone of the wells H-35, H-37 and a depth of 2500 m in the zone of H-9. [Spanish] Como parte del proyecto para el estudio y caracterizacion del campo geotermico Los Humeros, Puebla, se analizo la informacion de la perforacion de los pozos del sector Noreste, con el proposito de evaluar el potencial de esta area. Los pozos analizados para determinar las caracteristicas de esta zona son: H-3, H-9, H-22, H-35 y H-37 de los cuales se obtuvo un intervalo productor promedio entre 1000 y 1500 msnm en las Andesitas de Augita con una temperatura promedio de 279 grados Celsius. Los mecanismos de produccion se relacionan con la presencia de las fallas Malpais y Antigua. En los pozos H-3 y H-37 se tuvieron problemas mecanicos durante la perforacion, esto puede ser la causa de que el pozo H-3 no tenga una buena produccion, ya que los problemas se

  1. Gaseous equilibrium in sector CP IV of the Cerro Prieto, B.C. Mexico geothermal field; Equilibrio gaseoso en el sector CP IV del campo geotermico Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel; Portugal Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); De Leon Vivar, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Campo Geotermico Cerro Prieto, Cerro Prieto, B. C. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Sector CP IV is located in the NE portion of the Cerrro Prieto geothermal field. The wells of this zone produce two-phase fluids, with different characteristics as far as their steam fraction content; in the central part and towards the NW the fluids are of dominant liquid type whereas towards the E and the S, the fluid contains a relatively higher steam fraction. The results of gaseous equilibrium FT- HSH3 showed that the fluids in the deposit are at temperatures between 275 Celsius degrees and 310 Celsius degrees and contain steam fractions between 0.01 and 0.5. The data found for the natural state are aligned in a tendency defined in the diagram FT- HSH3, that suggest the wells receive different proportions from preexisting steam in the deposit, which are mixed with the liquid phase to produce the observed discharges. The present data, besides showing the presence of deposit steam, also indicates the entrance of lower temperature fluid in the central part of sector CP IV. [Spanish] El sector CP IV se localiza en la porcion NE del campo geotermico Cerro Prieto. Los pozos de esta zona producen fluidos bifasicos, con diferentes caracteristicas en cuanto a su contenido de fraccion de vapor: en la parte central y hacia el NW los fluidos son de tipo liquido dominante mientras que hacia el E y hacia el S, el fluido contiene una fraccion relativamente alta de vapor. Los resultados de equilibrio gaseoso FT-HSH3 mostraron que los fluidos en el yacimiento se encuentran a temperaturas de entre 275 grados Celsius y 310 grados Celsius y contienen fracciones de vapor de entre -.01 y .5. Los datos hallados para el estado natural se alinean en una tendencia definida en el diagrama FT-HSH3, que sugiere que los pozos reciben diferentes proporciones de vapor pre-existente en el yacimiento, que se mezclan con fase liquida para producir las descargas que se observan. Los datos actuales, ademas de mostrar la presencia de vapor de yacimiento, tambien indican la entrada de fluidos de

  2. Update of the basement model of the Cerro Prieto, B. C., geothermal field, Mexico; Actualizacion del modelo del basamento en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Lopez, Macario [Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)

    1999-04-01

    With the aim to actualize the basement model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, a gravity interpretation has been held. We modeled in 2.5 D, nine profiles traced over the Bouguer anomaly map. Well data concerning lithology and density changes were used to fit the gravity models. Results of this work confirm that the geometry of the basement of Cerro Prieto, corresponds to a structural sequence. From west to east it starts as a big depression, continues with a strong uplift of the basement in the middle sector and finally deepens eastward in steps. The basement model proposed in the present work, defines a similar trend to that established by Fonseca y Razo (1980), but there are differences in basement depth in some areas. In the present model we interpret basement depths between 200 and 400 m deeper than in previous models to the south and northwest of the actual exploitation zone. [Spanish] Con el fin de actualizar el modelo del basamento en el Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto, se realizo una reinterpretacion gravimetrica, modelando en 2.5 D, 9 perfiles trazados sobre el mapa de anomalia de Bouguer. Utilizando la informacion litologica obtenida a traves de numerosas perforaciones profundas, se hicieron coincidir, dentro de los mofelos gravimetricos, las principales variaciones litologicas con cambios en la densidad. Los resultados de este trabajo reiteran que la geometria del basamento del Campo de Cerro Prieto, vista de W a E, corresponde con una secuencia estructural que se inicia con una gran depresion en el W, continua con un fuerte levantamiento y finalmente se extiende con una tendencia a profundizarse hacia el E de forma escalonada. El modelo de basamento derivado del presente trabajo, define una tendencia muy similar al modelo de basamento establecido (Fonseca y Razo, 1980), pero difiere en cuanto a la profundidad en algunos sectores del campo. En el actual trabajo se interpreta una profundidad entre 200 y 400 m mayor hacia el sur y noroeste de la

  3. Study and thermodynamic characterization of the central area of the geothermal field Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico; Estudio y caracterizacion termodinamica del sector centro del campo geotermico Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizano Herrera, Arturo; Machorro Jimenez, Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Perote, Veracruz (Mexico)

    1999-12-01

    Wells H-1, H-7, H-8, H-13 and H-40 are in the Central Sector of Los Humeros geothermal field. On the basis of production data analysis, two productive intervals were observed: the first between 1000 and 1500 masl, in the Augite Andesites with an average temperature of 250 Celsius degree; and the second between 650 and 1000 masl, observed in wells H-7, H-8 and H-40, with average temperatures of 280 Celsius degrees. The production mechanics are related to the presence of the Humeros-Maztaloya and Antigua faults. Wells H-13 and H-40 do not sustain production probably because although the drilling objectives were to penetrate geologic faults, this did not occur, resulting in a poor supply of geothermal fluids. In this zone, a calculation was made of the energy potential using volumetric analysis. This resulted in an estimated of 21 megawatts for the zone over a 20-years period, indicating that is possible to continuum exploiting the area. In the future, development wells must be drilled towards structural objectives and completed at depth of 2500 m. [Spanish] En el Sector Centro del Campo Geotermico de Los humeros se encuentran los pozos H-1, H-7, H-8, H-13 y H-40. La informacion analizada permite observar dos intervalos productores: el primero entre 1000 y 1500 msnm en las Andesitas de Augita, con una temperatura promedio de 250 grados Celsius y el segundo entre 650 y 1000 msnm, observado en los pozos H-7, H-8 y H-40, con 280 grados Celsius. La produccion de fluidos esta relacionada con las fallas Humeros-Maztaloya y Antigua. Los pozos H-13 y H-40 no sostienen su produccion, probablemente debido a que, pese a que su objetivo durante la perforacion fue intersectar fallas geologicas, al parecer estas quedaron alejadas de los mismos, ocasionando un aporte pobre de fluidos geotermicos. En esta zona se realizo un calculo del potencial energetico por medio de un analisis volumetrico; como resultado se estimo un potencial de generacion electrica de 21 MW durante un periodo

  4. Origin and evolution of formation water at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil reservoir, Gulf of Mexico. Part 2: Isotopic and field-production evidence for fluid connectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkle, Peter, E-mail: birkle@iie.org.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca 62490, Morelos (Mexico); Garcia, Bernardo Martinez; Milland Padron, Carlos M. [PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur, Activo Integral Bellota-Jujo, Diseno de Explotacion, Cardenas, Tabasco (Mexico); Eglington, Bruce M. [Saskatchewan Isotope Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada SK S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    The chemical and isotopic characterization of formation water from 18 oil production wells, extracted from 5200 to 6100 m b.s.l. at the Jujo-Tecominoacan carbonate reservoir in SE-Mexico, and interpretations of historical production records, were undertaken to determine the origin and hydraulic behavior of deep groundwater systems. The infiltration of surface water during Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene time is suggested by {sup 14}C-concentrations from 2.15 to 31.86 pmC, and by {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr-ratios for high-salinity formation water (0.70923-0.70927) that are close to the composition of Holocene to modern seawater. Prior to infiltration, the super-evaporation of seawater reached maximum TDS concentrations of 385 g/L, with lowest {delta}{sup 18}O values characterizing the most hypersaline samples. Minor deviations of formation water and dolomite host rocks from modern and Jurassic {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr-seawater composition, respectively, suggest ongoing water-rock interaction, and partial isotopic equilibration between both phases. The abundance of {sup 14}C in all sampled formation water, {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr-ratios for high-salinity water close to Holocene - present seawater composition, a water salinity distribution that is independent of historic water-cut, and a total water extraction volume of 2.037 MMm{sup 3} (1/83-4/07) excludes a connate, oil-leg origin for the produced water of the Jurassic-Cretaceous mudstone-dolomite sequence. Temporal fluctuations of water chemistry in production intervals, the accelerated migration of water fronts from the reservoir flanks, and isotopic mixing trends between sampled wells confirms the existence of free aquifer water below oil horizons. Vertical and lateral hydraulic mobility has probably been accelerated by petroleum extraction. The combination of interpreting historical fluctuations of salinity and water percentage in production wells with chemical-isotopic analysis of formation water resulted in a

  5. Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0123320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology is a set of objectively analyzed climatological fields of temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, and nitrate at...

  6. Land subsidence in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, 1 Baja California, Mexico, from 1994 to 2005. An integrated analysis of DInSAR, levelingand geological data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarychikhina, O; Glowacka, E; Mellors, R; Vidal, F S

    2011-03-03

    Cerro Prieto is the oldest and largest Mexican geothermal field in operation and has been producing electricity since 1973. The large amount of geothermal fluids extracted to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in considerable deformation in and around the field. The deformation includes land subsidence and related ground fissuring and faulting. These phenomena have produced severe damages to infrastructure such as roads, irrigation canals and other facilities. In this paper, the technique of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) is applied using C-band ENVISAR ASAR data acquired between 2003 and 2006 to determine the extent and amount of land subsidence in the Mexicali Valley near Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field. The DInSAR results were compared with published data from precise leveling surveys (1994- 1997 and 1997-2006) and detailed geological information in order to improve the understanding of temporal and spatial distributions of anthropogenic subsidence in the Mexicali Valley. The leveling and DInSAR data were modeled to characterize the observed deformation in terms of fluid extraction. The results confirm that the tectonic faults control the spatial extent of the observed subsidence. These faults likely act as groundwater flow barriers for aquifers and reservoirs. The shape of the subsiding area coincides with the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin. In addition, the spatial pattern of the subsidence as well as changes in rate are highly correlated with the development of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field.

  7. Land subsidence in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja California, Mexico, from 1994 to 2005: An integrated analysis of DInSAR, leveling and geological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarychikhina, Olga; Glowacka, Ewa; Mellors, Robert; Vidal, Francisco Suárez

    2011-07-01

    Cerro Prieto is the oldest and largest Mexican geothermal field in operation and has been producing electricity since 1973. The large amount of geothermal fluids extracted to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in considerable deformation in and around the field. The deformation includes land subsidence and related ground fissuring and faulting. These phenomena have produced severe damages to the local infrastructure such as roads, irrigation canals and other facilities. In this paper, the technique of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) is applied using C-band ENVISAR ASAR data acquired between 2003 and 2006 to determine the extent and amount of land subsidence in the Mexicali Valley near Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field. The DInSAR results were compared with published data from precise leveling surveys (1994-1997 and 1997-2006) and detailed geological information in order to improve understanding of the temporal and spatial distributions of anthropogenic subsidence in the Mexicali Valley. The leveling and DInSAR data were modeled to characterize the observed deformation in terms of fluid extraction. The results confirm that the tectonic faults control the spatial extent of the observed subsidence. These faults likely act as groundwater flow barriers for aquifers and reservoirs. The shape of the subsiding area coincides with the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin. In addition, the changes in spatial pattern and rate of the subsidence are correlated with the development of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field.

  8. English Teaching Profile: Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Mexico examines the role of English in society and in the educational system. It is noted that the extent to which English is used in Mexico is affected by the country's proximity to the United States. The educational system is described, with emphasis on English instruction which begins…

  9. Economic geology, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Guillermo P

    1991-01-01

    .... The various elements of Mexico's economic geology are discussed in the chapters of this volume by outstanding Mexican geologists, whose expertise vouches for the high quality of this presentation. Their efforts are a valuable contribution to the knowledge of Mexico's nonrenewable resources.

  10. Recent Vertical Deformation in Mexicali Valley and its Relationship with Tectonics, Seismicity, and the Exploitation of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, E.; González, J.; Fabriol, H.

    The interpretation of the results of regional and local leveling which began in 1977 in the Mexicali Valley and the local short profile precision leveling which started in 1994 are discussed. The relation of vertical deformations around the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF) and along the Imperial fault, with local tectonics and seismicity in the Mexicali Valley, is reviewed. Also the relation between vertical deformation and fluid operation in the CPGF is analyzed. The subsidence observed in the field seems to be induced by fluid extraction. The way in which fluid production influences surface changes along the Imperial fault is not clear. The possibility that seismicity is triggering subsidence in the area and vertical movement on the Imperial fault is discussed.

  11. Steam regulation for 5 MW back-pressure units when a failure occurs in the Los Humeros, Pue., field, Mexico; Regulacion del vapor en caso de falla a unidades a contrapresion de 5 MW en el campo de Los Humeros, Pue., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Lopez, Cesar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Puebla (Mexico)]. E-mail: cesar.rosales@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    Four out of the seven back-pressure power units of 5 MW operating in the Los Humeros geothermal field, State of Puebla, Mexico, are fed by one steam pipe gathering the steam produced by nine wells. When a failure occurred in any of the units and the excedence valve had to be open to deviate the steam, a decrease in the steam flow for the remaining units was noted, along with lower electrical generation. The cause for that is analyzed and explained in this paper by comparing the interconnected steam supply system to an electric circuit. A way to maintain a uniform and continuous supply of steam in the Los Humeros field has been found. It was implemented several months ago and the problem has not reoccurred. [Spanish] Cuatro de las siete unidades de 5 MW a contrapresion que operan en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, son alimentadas por un solo vaporducto que reune el vapor de nueve pozos productores. Cuando ocurria una falla en alguna de estas unidades y se abria por completo la valvula de excedencia para desviar el vapor, se observaba una reduccion en el flujo de vapor que llegaba a las otras tres unidades, lo que a su vez ocasionaba que la generacion de electricidad se redujera notoriamente. En este trabajo se analiza y explica la causa de ello, mediante la comparacion de este sistema interconectado de suministro de vapor con un circuito electrico, y se explica la solucion que se encontro e implemento en el campo de Los Humeros para regular el suministro continuo y uniforme de vapor, con resultados satisfactorios a varios meses de su implementacion en las cuatro unidades interconectadas.

  12. Update of Geothermics in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Negrin, Luis C.A.; Quijano Leon, Jose Luis [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    Four geothermal fields are currently operating in Mexico (Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, Los Humeros and Las Tres Virgenes), with a total installed geothermal-electric capacity of 953 megawatts (MW). This means the country is located in third place, worldwide, just behind the USA and Philippines. Thirty-six power plants of several types (condensing, back pressure and binary cycle), between 1.5 and 110 MW, operate in the fields, fed by 197 wells with a combined production of 7,700 metric tons of steam per hour (t/h). These production wells have depths between 600 and 4,400 meters. Steam comes with 8,750 t/h of brine that is injected through 19 injection wells or treated in a solar evaporation pond of 14 km2 in Cerro Prieto. During 2003, steam produced in those fields equaled 67.5 million metric tons, and the power plants generated 6,282 gigawatt-hours (GWh), which represented 3.1% of the electric energy produced in Mexico. All the power plants and the geothermal fields are operated bye the public utility, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE)). [Spanish] Actualmente se operan en Mexico cuatro campos geotermicos (Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, Los Humeros y Las Tres Virgenes), con una capacidad geotermoelectrica total de 953 megawatts (MW). Esto coloca al pais en el tercer lugar mundial, detras de Estados Unidos y Filipinas. En esos campos operan treinta y seis unidades de tipos diversos (a condensacion, a contrapresion y de ciclo binario), entre 1.5 y 110 MW, alimentadas por 197 pozos con una produccion combinada de 7,700 toneladas de vapor por hora (t/h). Estos pozos productores tienen profundidades entre 600 y 4,400 metros. El vapor sale acompanado por 8,750 t/h de salmuera, que se inyecta en 19 pozos inyectores o se trata en una laguna de evaporacion solar de 14 km2 en Cerro Prieto. Durante 2003 el vapor producido en los campos sumo 67.5 millones de toneladas y las unidades generaron 6,282 gigawatts-hora (GWh), lo que represento el

  13. Source parameters of the Pinotepa Nacional, Mexico, earthquake of 27 March, 1996 (Mw = 5.4) estimated from near-field recordings of a single station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S.K.; Pacheco, J.; Courboulex, F.; Novelo, D.A.

    We use near-field accelerograms recorded by the very broadband seismographic station of PNIG to locate the Pinotepa Nacional earthquake of 27 March, 1996 (Mw = 5.4) and to determine its source parameters. The data from PNIG on P and S arrival times, the azimuth of the arrival of P wave, and the angle of incidence of the P wave at the free surface permit the determination of the location (16.365° N, 98.303° W, depth = 18 km) and the origin time (12:34;48.35) of the earthquake.The displacement seismograms of the earthquake clearly shows contribution from the near-field terms. We compute a suite of synthetic seismograms for local mechanisms in the vicinity of the mechanism reported by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and compare them with the observed seismograms at PNIG. The point whose synthetics fit the observed records well has the following parameters: seismic moment, M0 = 1.2 × 1024 dyne-cm; source time function: a triangular pulse of 0.9 sec duration; fault plane: strike = 291°, dip = 10°, and rake = 80°. The location and the source parameters obtained from the analysis of PNIG records differ significantly from those reported by the USGS. This demonstrates again, what has been shown by some previous researchers, that high-quality recordings from a single near-field station can considerably improve the estimation of the source parameters of an earthquake.

  14. Star Formation in the Gulf of Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Armond, Tina; Bally, John; Aspin, Colin

    2011-01-01

    We present an optical/infrared study of the dense molecular cloud, L935, dubbed "The Gulf of Mexico", which separates the North America and the Pelican nebulae, and we demonstrate that this area is a very active star forming region. A wide-field imaging study with interference filters has revealed 35 new Herbig-Haro objects in the Gulf of Mexico. A grism survey has identified 41 Halpha emission-line stars, 30 of them new. A small cluster of partly embedded pre-main sequence stars is located around the known LkHalpha 185-189 group of stars, which includes the recently erupting FUor HBC 722.

  15. Star Formation in the Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Armond, Tina; Reipurth, Bo; Bally, John; Aspin, Colin

    2011-01-01

    We present an optical/infrared study of the dense molecular cloud, L935, dubbed "The Gulf of Mexico", which separates the North America and the Pelican nebulae, and we demonstrate that this area is a very active star forming region. A wide-field imaging study with interference filters has revealed 35 new Herbig-Haro objects in the Gulf of Mexico. A grism survey has identified 41 Halpha emission-line stars, 30 of them new. A small cluster of partly embedded pre-main sequence stars is located a...

  16. 39Ar/40Ar Chronology and Volumes of Eruptive Products Over the Last 1 Myr in the Tequila Volcanic Field, Jalisco, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Kenedi, C. B.; Lange, R. A.; Hall, C. M.; Delgado-Granados, H.

    2002-12-01

    The Tequila volcanic field, located within the western Trans-Mexican arc, covers an area of 1036 km2 and includes a central, andesitic stratocone, Volc\\­_{a}n Tequila, as well as cinder cones, domes, and fissure-fed flows. Sixty-nine high precision 39Ar-40Ar dates reveal that major activity in the Tequila volcanic field began at approximately 1 Ma. From 1 Ma to 200 ka, rhyolite (> 73 wt. % SiO2) and alkali basalt (­š 51 wt. % SiO2) were the only compositions erupted in significant volumes (29 +/- 5.7 km3 and 12 +/- 1.2 km3, respectively). At approximately 200 ka, the andesite comprising Volc\\­_{a}n Tequila erupted within 30-40 kyr, producing a volume of 30 +/- 2.0 km3. Additional andesitic flows (11 +/- 1.4 km3) erupted to the northwest and southeast of the stratocone between 140 and 20 ka. The total volume of dacite that erupted at the Tequila volcanic field is small (1.3 +/- 0.03 km3) and occurred largely (88%) within the last 70 kyrs. Unlike the andesites and dacites, the basalts and rhyolites did not erupt within narrow time intervals, but extruded over the entire last 1 Myr, producing a total volume of 12.6 +/- 1.2 km3 and 32 +/- 6.1 km3, respectively. This detailed eruptive history, combined with the observed phenocryst assemblages (0-10 vol. %) in the small-volume andesite, dacite, and alkali basalt flows, suggest that they were erupted directly from the lower (or middle) crust, without prior storage in an upper crustal chamber. In contrast, the voluminous burst of andesitic volcanism that produced the phenocryst-rich (35-45 vol. %) lavas of Volc\\­_{a}n Tequila was likely fed from a short-lived (­š 40 kyrs) upper crustal chamber. This scenario is supported by the complex, disequilibrium textures seen in the phenocryst assemblage of the Volc\\­_{a}n Tequila lavas, indicative of magma mingling within an upper crustal chamber (Wallace and Carmichael, 1994). The total volume of erupted material at the Tequila volcanic field is 89 +/- 12 km3, of which

  17. Current direction, chemical, zooplankton, phytoplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Buccaneer Oil Field project, 12 December 1975 - 20 May 1980 (NODC Accession 8000461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from December 12, 1975 to...

  18. Electric power and environment in Mexico; Energia electrica y medio ambiente en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla, J. [ed.] [UNAM IIE-PUE, Ciudad Universitaria (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    This volume is one of the three resulting volumes about the project named Document analysis and prospective organized by the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) through it University Energy Program (PUE). It is a non-periodical publication collection of the variable content and extent that as a whole constitutes an information heritage and an original contribution about the energy problematic as International level as at the country context and the University activities. In this book the manners of producing electrical energy are discussed, so how satisfying the growing necessities of this energy in Mexico without contaminating environment and how doing rational and efficient use of energy. The content of each document of this book is however exclusive responsibility of authors, as in the information as in their told opinions. The following papers were presented: 1) Hydroelectricity, soils use and water management. 2) The electric generation in Mexico and its environmental impacts: Past, present and future. 3) The nucleo electricity and the radioactive materials management. 4) Exposure to electromagnetic fields and its association with leukemia in children. 5) The electric power in Mexico and the supportable development. 6) Potential of electric generation at great scale with eolic energy in Mexico. 7) Toward an electric generation scheme distributed with non-conventional energies. 8) Renewable sources of energy in Mexico at the Century 21. (Author)

  19. Remote Sensing Field Guide - Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    sea in North America is in the Gran Desierto of northern Sonora, Mexico, which extends northward into the Yuma Desert of Arizona and the Algodones...parallel to the dune chains. PATTERN INDICATOR SHEET - DESERT DUNES PHOTO: AERIAL (OBLIQUE) STAR - COMPOUND LOCATION: Mexico (Northern) El Gran Desierto ...dunes. This field is in the central part of El Gran Desierto about 20 km south of the Arizona-Mexico border Photo B (on back) is a closer view. For orien

  20. 410 Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Allergic Conjunctivitis Patients in a Reference Center of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Contreras, Atzin; Ayala-Balboa, Julio; Alonso-Sánchez, Miguel E.; Estrada-Garcia, Iris; Jiménez-Martínez, Maria C.

    2012-01-01

    Background In our country (Mexico) there are few reports about epidemiological characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis patients; despite these studies give us some information about patient profile, in most cases these studies are not always comparable due to the use of different methodologies, that is, Include only a portion of the population (elderly, infants) or there are limited to one region of the city. The purpose of this study was to know the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis (AC)-patients in the biggest reference center of ocular diseases in Mexico (Institute of Ophthalmology “Conde de Valenciana”) Methods Data were obtained from clinical records. Six hundred fifteen patients with diagnosis of AC were included. Epidemiological characteristics included sex, age, residence; clinical-immunological characteristics included atopy, coexistence of other allergies, total IgE, cutaneous reactivity to skin prick test (SPT), sixty allergens were evaluated. Descriptive statistics were performed to obtain frequencies and t test was used to find significant differences, P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results AC-Patients who received medical consultation at the Institute of Ophthalmology where predominantly from State of Mexico (47.25%), Mexico City (37.5%), and in less frequency Hidalgo, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Michoacan, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Guerrero, Chiapas and Guanajuato. 88% of AC-patients were positive to SPT (SPT+), while 12% were negative to SPT (SPT-). Age of diagnosis was significant different between SPT-AC-patients and SPT+AC-patients (14.5-years vs 17.9-years, P = 0.02). Male SPT-AC-patients were diagnosed younger than male SPT+AC-patients (P = 0.001). IgE concentration was significant increased in male SPT+AC-patients than female SPT+AC-patients (P = 0.006). The most common skin reactivity was against Dermatophagoides sp (59.1%), Aedes sp(54.55%) and Blatella-Periplaneta sp.(31.14%); we did not

  1. New Mexico Mountain Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  2. Mexico - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mexican Surface Daily Observations taken at 94 observatories located throughout Mexico, beginning in 1872 and going up through 1981. The data resided on paper...

  3. 1973 Veracruz, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — South of Veracruz, southeastern Mexico. Damage: Severe. The earthquake caused heavy damage in the states of Morelos, Puebla, and Veracruz. Thousands were left...

  4. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  5. Sr, Nd and Pb isotope and geochemical data from the Quaternary Nevado de Toluca volcano, a source of recent adakitic magmatism, and the Tenango Volcanic Field, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Serrano, Raymundo G.; Schaaf, Peter; Solís-Pichardo, Gabriela; Hernández-Bernal, Ma. del Sol; Hernández-Treviño, Teodoro; Julio Morales-Contreras, Juan; Macías, José Luis

    2004-11-01

    Volcanic activity at Nevado de Toluca (NT) volcano began 2.6 Ma ago with the emission of andesitic lavas, but over the past 40 ka, eruptions have produced mainly lava flows and pyroclastic deposits of predominantly orthopyroxene-hornblende dacitic composition. In the nearby Tenango Volcanic Field (TVF) pyroclastic products and lava flows ranging in composition from basaltic andesite to andesite were erupted at most of 40 monogenetic volcanic centers and were coeval with the last stages of NT. All volcanic rocks in the study area are characterized by a calc-alkaline affinity that is consistent with a subduction setting. Relatively high concentrations of Sr (>460 ppm) coupled with low Y (45 km) that underlies the volcanoes of the study area, the geochemical and isotopic patterns of these rocks indicate low interaction with this crust. NT volcano was constructed at the intersection of three fault systems, and it seems that the Plio-Quaternary E-W system played an important role in the ascent and storage of magmas during the recent volcanic activity in the two regions. Chemical and textural features of orthopyroxene, amphibole and Fe-Ti oxides from NT suggest that crystallization of magmas occurred at polybaric conditions, confirming the rapid upwelling of magmas.

  6. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities?: Field experiments in Mexico to assess warning label content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Methods Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers), wherein participants reported responses to different HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs didactic) and the other involved manipulating imagery type (diseased organs vs human suffering). Results Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Conclusions Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms appear to work better than with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases. PMID:22350859

  7. A Strategy for Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    3 smallwarsjournal.com Carlos Salinas de Gortari the former President of Mexico.13 The report suggests that as President, Mr. Salinas had...Frontline, “ Carlos Salinas ,” Frontline, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/mexico/family/carlossalinas.html (accessed March 21, 2011). 16...13 Tim Golden, “ Salinas : Plenty of Smoke, No Smoking Gun,” The New York Times, July 11, 1997, http://www

  8. Mexico tornado climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Macías Medrano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A brief introduction on some features of tornado database in Mexico is exposed showing its substantive criteria. We resent a brief analysis about main Mexican tornadoes´ characteristics, based on data collected between 2000 to 2010, talking about spatial and temporal expressions (historical, seasonal and horary in order to show the importance of it destruction capacity and also the people´s vulnerability in Mexico.

  9. Initial temperature distribution in Los Humeros, Mexico, geothermal field; Distribucion de temperatura inicial en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A; Arellano, V; Aragon, A; Barragan, R.M; Izquierdo, G [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Pizano, A [Comision federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    The initial formation temperatures surrounding 40 wells from the Los Humeros geothermal field are presented. These temperatures were estimated using the Horner and the sphere methods. A brief discussion on the applicability of each method is presented and previous applications are detailed. Then the more likely reservoir temperature of each well versus elevation is plotted based on the estimations about the main feed zone and the temperature of each well. The boiling with depth curve for pure water is also included. Two longitudinal and one traverse geological sections are presented to illustrate the field initial temperature distribution, the lithology and layers thickness, the basement topography and the wells traversed along each sections. Also, the main feed zones of the wells are indicated. Finally, the last series of measured temperature logs in well H-26 are produced by numerical simulation. This considers the well circulation losses and an assumed initial temperature profile. This profile iteratively modified until the computed profiles match the measured temperature profiles. The last assumed temperature profile is then considered as the best approximation to the undisturbed formation temperature around well H-26 and it is then compared with the stabilized temperatures obtained via the Horner and Sphere methods. [Spanish] Se presentan las temperaturas iniciales o estabilizadas de la formacion circundante a 40 pozos del campo geotermico Los Humeros, las cuales se estimaron mediante los metodos de Horner y el metodo de la esfera. Se presenta una discusion sobre la aplicacion de cada metodo y se detallan las aplicaciones previas del metodo de la esfera. Posteriormente y con base en las estimaciones de las principales zonas de aporte de cada pozo y sus correspondientes temperaturas se grafican las temperaturas mas probables de yacimiento para cada pozo contra la elevacion y se incluye en la misma grafica la curva de ebullicion del agua contra la elevacion. Se

  10. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles and fleet averaged emissions. Results indicate that colectivos, particularly CNG-powered colectivos, are potentially significant contributors of NOx and aldehydes in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in US cities. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  11. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Slott, R. S.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L. C.; Shorter, J. H.; Zahniser, M.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-11-01

    A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA) indicate that - in a mole per mole basis - have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  12. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA indicate that – in a mole per mole basis – have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  13. Developing a platform for genomic medicine in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo

    2003-04-11

    Mexico is preparing to develop a genomic medicine program focused on national health problems. Modern Mexicans result from an admixture of more than 65 native Indian groups with Spaniards, leading to a unique genetic makeup and a characteristic set of disease susceptibilities. Since 1999, more than 100 experts from different fields have joined efforts with government, academia, and industry to identify priorities and goals for genomic medicine in Mexico. The plan includes establishment of an Institute of Genomic Medicine with strong intramural and extramural programs. This project is expected to ease the social and financial burden of health problems in Mexico.

  14. Replacement of 13 valves by using an isolation plug in the 20 inches diameter main offshore gas pipeline at Cantarell oil field, Campeche Bay, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvahal Reyes, Jorge Omar; Ulloa Ochoa, Carlos Manuel [PEMEX, Exploracion y Produccion, MX (Mexico)

    2009-12-19

    In 2002 we changed 13 valves on deck of one gas production platform called Nohoch-A-Enlace at Cantarell Offshore Oil Field. The 20'' diameter gas pipeline and 200 km of length, transport and deliver gas for others production platforms in the Gas Lift System, So 2 millions of oil barrels per day depends of the operation of this gas pipeline but there was 13 valves on pig traps to be changed after 20 years of service to high pressure (64 to 63 kg/cm{sup 2}). We could not stop the operation of this pipeline and some little gas leaks were eliminated in some parts of the valves. This pipeline has two risers so the gas can be injected by two sides of the ring of 20 Km. So we found the proper technology in order to isolate one riser nad change 8 valves and the isolate the other and change the 5, and the gas lift system never stop during the plug and maintenance operations on platform. In the first isolation plug operation this tool run 20 mts inside the riser and was actionated and resists 65 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas pressure during 44 hours so we changed 8 valves: 2 of 20'', 2 of 10'', 3 of 4'' and 1 of 8'' diameter. In the second isolation the plug run 30 mts inside the second risers and resist 64 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas during 46 hours and we changed 5 valves of 20'' diameter. In the paper I will describe all the details of this successful operations and procedures. Also the aspects of Health, Security and Environment that we prepared one year before this operations at platform. Pemex save almost 2.5 millions of dollars because the gas lift system never stop and all valves were changed and now we can run cleaning and inspection tools inside the full ring. We used the first isolation plug in Latin America and we want to share this experience to all the pipeline operators in the world as a good practice in pipeline maintenance using plugging technology in the main and large pipelines of high pressure. (author)

  15. The geochemistry and isotope hydrology of the Southern Mexicali Valley in the area of the Cerro Prieto, Baja California (Mexico) geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Enrique; Izquierdo, Georgina; Truesdell, Alfred; Álvarez, Julio

    2005-11-01

    Groundwaters from the phreatic aquifer within and surrounding of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field were analyzed geochemically and isotopically in order to establish a hydrodynamic model of the study zone, which is located in the Mexicali Valley between 655,000-685,000 m E-W and 3,605,000-3,576,000 m N-S relative to UTM coordinates. Based on their chemical composition three types of water were recognized: chloride, sulfate and bicarbonate. However four groups of water were identified on a statistical multi-variable method of cluster analysis (A-D). The average temperature is 25 °C; with a few exceptions in the south where temperature can be as high as 47 °C. Stable isotope ratios for some waters plot close to the world meteoric line, corresponding to the original unaltered waters of the zone. The hydrogeochemistry varies in relation to three principal processes: evaporation, infiltration of water used in agriculture and rock interaction by reaction with evaporitic deposits. Major quartz, calcite and plagioclase and minor smectite, kaolinite, halite, sylvite and gypsum were identified by X-ray diffraction in lacustrine sediments of the central part of the zone. Chemical modeling indicates saturation with respect to calcite and undersaturation with respect to gypsum. By incorporating chemical and isotope data into geological and isopotential well information, a hydrodynamic model has been postulated. In this hydrodynamic model the water (A) enters the study zone from the east and it is originally of the old Colorado River water. The water samples on which the model is based were draw from agricultural wells that intersected two aquifers, a shallow and a deep one, representing the recharge to the zone. The salinity of the deep aquifer water (B) is lower than that of the shallow aquifer water (C) and so is the stable isotope ratio. The difference is though to be due to dissolution of evaporates, evaporation and possible infiltration of spent agriculture water. Both

  16. An evaluation of aquifer and well characteristics of municipal well fields in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons, near Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Robert L.

    1965-01-01

    The Jenkins-Whitesburg area includes approximately 250 square miles In Letcher and Pike Counties in the southeastern part of the Eastern Coal Field. In this area ground water is the principal source of water for nearly all rural families, most public supplies, several coal mines and coal processing plants, and one bottling plant. The major aquifers in the Jenkins-Whitesburg area are the Breathitt and Lee Formations of Pennsylvanian age. Other aquifers range in age from Devonian to Quaternary but are not important in this area because they occur at great depth or yield little or no water. The Breathitt Formation occurs throughout the area except along the crest and slopes of Pine Mountain and where it is covered by unconsolidated material of Quaternary age. The Breathitt Formation consists of shale, sandstone, and lesser amounts of coal and associated underclay. The yield of wells penetrating the Breathitt Formation ranges from less than 1 to 330 gallons per minute. Well yield is controlled by the type and depth of well, character of the aquifer, and topography of the well site. Generally, deep wells drilled in valleys of perennial streams offer the best potential for high yields. Although enough water for a minimum domestic supply (more than 100 gallons per day) may be obtained from shale, all high-yielding wells probably obtain water from vertical joints and from bedding planes which are best developed in sandstone. About 13 percent of the wells inventoried in the Breathitt Formation failed to supply enough water for a minimum domestic supply. Most of these are shallow dug wells or drilled wells on hillsides or hilltops. Abandoned coal dunes are utilized as large infiltration galleries and furnish part of the water for several public supplies. The chemical quality of water from the Breathitt Formation varies considerably from place to place, but the water generally is acceptable for most domestic and industrial uses. Most water is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate

  17. New Mexico Voting Precincts (2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains the New Mexico Voting Precinct Boundaries as of July 2006. It is in a vector digital shapefile created to show the voting precinct coverage for...

  18. HSIP Hospitals in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Hospitals in New Mexico The term "hospital" ... means an institution which- (1) is primarily engaged in providing, by or under the supervision of physicians, to...

  19. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  20. The electric energy and the environment in Mexico. Volume 3; Energia electrica y medio ambiente en Mexico. Volumen 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [eds.] [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document is the third one of three volumes of the 1. Seminar on the Current Conditions and Perspectives of the Electric Sector in Mexico, organized by the Programa Universitario de Energia and the Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas (University Program of Energy and the Institute of Economic Research), both of them agencies of the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). The titles of the three volumes are the following: Volume 1.- The opening of the Mexican Electric Sector to foreign investment. Volume 2.- Concrete innovation and technological learning experiences at the Luz y Fuerza del Centro enterprise. Volume 3.- The Electric Energy and the Environment in Mexico. This third volume covers the following subjects: Hydroelectricity, land use and water managing; the electric generation in Mexico and its environmental impact, the nuclear electricity and the handling of radioactive materials; the exposure to electromagnetic fields and its association with children`s leukemia; the energy in Mexico and the sustainable development; potential of electricity generation in large scale with wind power in Mexico; towards a scheme of distributed electric power generation with non-conventional energies and renewable energy sources in Mexico in the 21Century. These documents were elaborated by specialists of the electric sector, from the sector itself as well as from private and public academic entities [Espanol] Este documento constituye el tercero de tres volumenes del Primer Seminario sobre Situacion y Perspectivas del Sector Electrico en Mexico, organizado por el Programa Universitario de Energia y el Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, ambas dependencias de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). Los titulos de los tres volumenes son los siguientes: volumen 1: La apertura externa del sector electrico mexicano, volumen 2: Experiencias concretas de innovacion y aprendizaje tecnologico en la empresa Luz y Fuerza del Centro, volumen 3: Energia electrica

  1. Securitization of narcotraffic in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Chavez Rosales, Sergio Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The war on drugs has being a major issue for Mexico. In this thesis we follow how narcotraffic became to be an extraordinary threat for Mexico. How some of the presidential administrations have shifted the discourse on drugs in different directions, which have resulted in a variety of outcomes. Mexico first began securitizing narcotraffic as a response to foreign policy, but at the same time distributed responsibilities to drug’ consumer countries. Later on, the government of Mexico declared ...

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, A. O.; Rojas, R.; Barrios, F. A.

    2001-10-01

    MR imaging has experienced an important growth worldwide and in particular in the USA and Japan. This imaging technique has also shown an important rise in the number of MR imagers in Mexico. However, the development of MRI has followed a typical way of Latin American countries, which is very different from the path shown in the industrialised countries. Despite the fact that Mexico was one the very first countries to install and operate MR imagers in the world, it still lacks of qualified clinical and technical personnel. Since the first MR scanner started to operate, the number of units has grown at a moderate space that now sums up approximately 60 system installed nationwide. Nevertheless, there are no official records of the number of MR units operating, physicians and technicians involved in this imaging modality. The MRI market is dominated by two important companies: General Electric (approximately 51%) and Siemens (approximately 17.5%), the rest is shared by other five companies. According to the field intensity, medium-field systems (0.5 Tesla) represent 60% while a further 35% are 1.0 T or higher. Almost all of these units are in private hospitals and clinics: there is no high-field MR imagers in any public hospital. Because the political changes in the country, a new public plan for health care is still in the process and will be published soon this year. This plan will be determined by the new Congress. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and president Fox. Experience acquired in the past shows that the demand for qualified professionals will grow in the new future. Therefore, systematic training of clinical and technical professionals will be in high demand to meet the needs of this technique. The National University (UNAM) and the Metropolitan University (UAM-Iztapalapa) are collaborating with diverse clinical groups in private facilities to create a systematic training program and carry out research and development in MRI

  3. SOVT analysis of the nuclear industry in Mexico; Analisis FODA de la industria nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez R, E.; Hernandez B, M. C., E-mail: edelmiraf@yahoo.com [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Av. Instituto Tecnologico s/n, Ex-rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    In this work the analysis of strengths, opportunities, vulnerabilities and threats (SOVT) of the nuclear industry in Mexico is presented. This industry presents among its strengths that Mexico is a highly electrified country and has a good established normative mark of nuclear security. Although the Secretaria de Energia in Mexico, with base to the exposed in the Programa Sectorial de Energia 2007-2012, is analyzing the convenience of the generation starting from this source, considering the strong technological dependence of the exterior and the limited federal budget dedicated to this field. As a result of the analysis of the SOVT matrix, were found a great number of strengths that threats, although the vulnerabilities list is major to the strengths, the opportunities list is the bigger. Therefore, the nuclear industry can be a sustainable industry, taking the necessary decisions and taking advantage of the detected opportunities. (Author)

  4. Spatio-temporal evolution of anthropogenic deformation around Cerro Prieto geothermal field in the Mexicali Valley, B.C., Mexico, between 1993 and 2009 from DInSAR and leveling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarychikhina, Olga; Glowacka, Ewa; Robles, Braulio; Mojarro, Jose

    2014-05-01

    Land subsidence is an environmental hazard which could be caused by withdrawal of large amounts of fluid from beneath the earth's surface. Land subsidence is an issue in several geothermal fields worldwide (e.g., Geysers, USA (Mossop and Segall, 1997), Wairakei-Tauhara, New Zealand (Allis et al., 2009)). Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CPGF), located in the Mexicali Valley, northwest Mexico, is the oldest and largest Mexican geothermal field in operation and has been producing electricity since 1973. The large amount of geothermal fluids extracted to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in considerable deformation in and around the field (e.g. Glowacka et al., 1996, 1999; Carnec and Fabriol, 1999; Sarychikhina et al., 2011). The deformation includes land subsidence and related ground fissuring and faulting. These phenomena have produced severe damages to the local infrastructure such as roads, irrigation canals and other facilities. Detection of land subsidence and monitoring of the spatial and temporal changes of its pattern and magnitude can provide important information about the dynamics of this process and controlling geological structures. The technique of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has been demonstrated to be a very effective technique for measuring ground deformation. This study presents an application of DInSAR interferogram stacking technique to investigate the land subsidence in the Mexicali Valley near CPGF. C-band ENVISAR ASAR images acquired between 2003 and 2009 from the ascending (track 306, frame 639) and descending track (track 84, frame 2961), obtained from the European Space Agency (ESA), as part of ESA CAT-1 project (ID - C1P3508), were used. Gamma ISP and DIFF/GEO software packages were used to calculate differential interferograms from SLC data and for differential interferograms stacking (Wegmüller and Werner, 1997). Eight average annual deformation rate maps were generated for 2005 (descending

  5. Characterization of archaeological pieces from San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico with nuclear and conventional techniques; Caracterizacion de piezas arqueologicas provenientes de San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico con tecnicas nucleares y convencionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almazan T, M.G

    2003-07-01

    In this work was used the technique of Neutron Activation Analysis to characterize obsidian samples and of archaeological ceramic coming from the archaeological site of San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico; and samples of clay of three banks bordering to the site. The characterization of the ceramic, was complemented with the analysis of pastes (cooked clay) and pigments, with the techniques of X ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). With the technique of NAA was determined the concentration of 13 elements (Eu,Ce,Lu, Yb, U, Th, Sb, Cs, Sc, Rb, Fe, Co and La) in 44 obsidian samples, in some of them were also determined Na, K and Mn. The analysis of the data, with different techniques of multivariable analysis, indicated that the obsidian comes from three locations that are: Sierra de las Navajas in the Estado de Hidalgo, Zinaparo and Zinapecuaro, both located in the Estado de Michoacan. On the other hand, in the ceramic samples and local clay 19 elements were measured (Sm, Nd, Ce, Lu, Eu, Yb, U, Th, Tb, Cr, Hf, As, Sb, Cs, Sc, Rb, Fe, Co and La). The statistical analysis of the data revealed differences in the elementary composition of the samples, being three main groups that in accordance with the archaeological classification they correspond to the ceramic types: local, foreign and regional. By means of the determination of the elementary composition of the local clays was possible to identify the local ceramic. These results are confirmed with those of the study of XRD, in the one which were observed differences in the mineralogical composition among these three groups. (Author)

  6. Renewable energy systems in Mexico: Installation of a hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ronald C.

    1993-05-01

    Sandia has been providing technical leadership on behalf of DOE and CORECT on a working level cooperative program with Mexico on renewable energy (PROCER). As part of this effort, the Sandia Design Assistance Center (DAC) and the solar energy program staff at Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, recently reached agreement on a framework for mutually beneficial technical collaboration on the monitoring and field evaluation of renewable energy systems in Mexico, particularly village-scale hybrid systems. This trip was made for the purpose of planning the details for the joint installation of a data acquisition system (DAS) on a recently completed PV/Wind/Diesel hybrid system in the village of Xcalac on the Southeast coast of the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. The DAS installation will be made during the week of March 15, 1993. While in Mexico, discussions were also held with personnel from.the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Solar Energy Laboratory and several private sector companies with regard to renewable energy project activities and technical and educational support needs in Mexico.

  7. Humboldt's works on Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Leitner

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Article in English, Abstracts in Spanish and English. Humboldt wrote about Mexico from the perspective of a scientific explorer and naturalist. His works include his diaries, the Essai politique sur le royaume de la Nouvelle-Espagne, the Tablas géograficas, the Vues des Cordillères and a geographic atlas. Concerning the scientific aspect, the lack of a section on Mexico in the Relation historique is not a real deficit, since this can be found in the Essai. But only the diaries and letters from the journey, both published by the Alexander-von-Humboldt Research Centre, Berlin, can be considered an adequate substitute.The following will show the origin of Humboldt's writings on Mexico, offer historical and bibliographical facts and present the publications "Beiträge zur Alexander von Humboldt-Forschung", as well as Humboldt’s handwritten estate as far as they are available to us.

  8. Petroleum exploration and development opportunities in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R. [McCarthy Tetrault, Calgary, AB (Canada); Daschle, R. [Transalta Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a historical overview of the energy sector in Mexico, an important player in the world energy market, whose trade and market policies support economic development and foreign investment. Trade, commerce and investment between Canada and Mexico has been increasing steadily ever since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into effect in January 1994. TransAlta Corporation and Westcoast Energy Inc. are two very active investors in the energy sector. Westcoast has invested in increasing natural gas and oil production from the Cantarell field in the Gulf of Mexico through the Campeche Natural Gas Compression Service Project and the Cantarell Nitrogen Plant. TransAlta has invested in two natural gas fired power plants which are both expected to be in service for the second quarter of 2003. These include the 252 MW Campeche facility and the 259 MW Chihuahua facility. Mexico has proven crude oil reserves of 27 billion barrels, proven natural gas reserves of 30 tcf, and in 2000 had a crude oil production of 3.4 mmbl/d, of which half was exported. The energy sector in Mexico may need about $120 billion of investment by 2010, of which half will be used for crude oil exploration and production, transportation and refining and the other half for natural gas exploration and production, transportation and distribution and power generation. Recently, the Mexican government embarked on two initiatives. The first to increase the productivity and profitability of PEMEX, the largest corporation in Mexico and one of the largest in the world, and to allow a form of private investment in the development of non-associated natural gas fields. This paper discussed the significance of the Multiple Service Contracts (MSC) program which involves domestic and international petroleum exploration and development. It also discussed forms of business organizations, taxation and structuring, financial issues, employment and the North American Free Trade Agreement

  9. Coastal and marine protected areas in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga, Julia; Jesus, Ana

    2008-01-01

    This study on marine protected areas (MPAs) in Mexico relies on a variety of data sources as well as the authors’ longstanding field experience, particularly in the Yucatan Peninsula, to analyze the design, establishment and operation of protected areas. It discusses two case studies of MPAs in detail and summarizes the findings from four others, focusing primarily on the role played by local communities in managing coastal and marine resources. The study also draws on the perspective of key ...

  10. Gulf of Mexico mud toxicity limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, H.E.; Beardmore, D.H. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Stewart, W.S. (Drilling Specialties Co. (US))

    1989-10-01

    Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's recent toxicity limits on drilling mud discharges for offshore Gulf of Mexico, Phillips Petroleum conducted a mud toxicity study based on both field and lab tests. The study, discussed in this article, found the polyanionic cellulose-sulfomethylated quebracho-chrome lignosulfonate mud Phillips had been using would comfortably pass the toxicity limitations. The study also found barite and thinners were of low toxicity, and hydrocarbons and surfactants were highly toxic.

  11. NASA Gulf of Mexico Initiative Hypoxia Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    The Applied Science & Technology Project Office at Stennis Space Center (SSC) manages NASA's Gulf of Mexico Initiative (GOMI). Addressing short-term crises and long-term issues, GOMI participants seek to understand the environment using remote sensing, in-situ observations, laboratory analyses, field observations and computational models. New capabilities are transferred to end-users to help them make informed decisions. Some GOMI activities of interest to the hypoxia research community are highlighted.

  12. Semi-automatic delimitation of volcanic edifice boundaries: Validation and application to the cinder cones of the Tancitaro-Nueva Italia region (Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Traglia, Federico; Morelli, Stefano; Casagli, Nicola; Garduño Monroy, Victor Hugo

    2014-08-01

    The shape and size of monogenetic volcanoes are the result of complex evolutions involving the interaction of eruptive activity, structural setting and degradational processes. Morphological studies of cinder cones aim to evaluate volcanic hazard on the Earth and to decipher the origins of various structures on extraterrestrial planets. Efforts have been dedicated so far to the characterization of the cinder cone morphology in a systematic and comparable manner. However, manual delimitation is time-consuming and influenced by the user subjectivity but, on the other hand, automatic boundary delimitation of volcanic terrains can be affected by irregular topography. In this work, the semi-automatic delimitation of volcanic edifice boundaries proposed by Grosse et al. (2009) for stratovolcanoes was tested for the first time over monogenetic cinder cones. The method, based on the integration of the DEM-derived slope and curvature maps, is applied here to the Tancitaro-Nueva Italia region of the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field (Mexico), where 309 Plio-Quaternary cinder cones are located. The semiautomatic extraction allowed identification of 137 of the 309 cinder cones of the Tancitaro-Nueva Italia region, recognized by means of the manual extraction. This value corresponds to the 44.3% of the total number of cinder cones. Analysis on vent alignments allowed us to identify NE-SW vent alignments and cone elongations, consistent with a NE-SW σmax and a NW-SE σmin. Constructing a vent intensity map, based on computing the number of vents within a radius r centred on each vent of the data set and choosing r = 5 km, four vent intensity maxima were derived: one is positioned in the NW with respect to the Volcano Tancitaro, one in the NE, one to the S and another vent cluster located at the SE boundary of the studied area. The spacing of centroid of each cluster (24 km) can be related to the thickness of the crust (9-10 km) overlying the magma reservoir.

  13. [Dermatophytoses in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Roberto

    2002-06-01

    The dermatophytic infections are superficial mycoses common in Mexico, they have an estimated frequency of 5% in dermatological outpatients. In this review we present a global view of these mycoses as well as their etiological agents in tinea capitis, tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea cruris and onychomycosis and also uncommon infections such as tinea imbricata and epidermophytosis of the diaper area. We also analyze these infections in diabetic patients, healthy carriers and dermatophytic infections in pets and laboratory animals. The most important publications about dermatophytosis in Mexico in the dermatological, epidemiological or mycological area are reviewed, specially those published in the last ten years.

  14. Geothermal map of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prol-Ledesma, R.M.; Juavez, M.G.

    1986-07-01

    Silica temperatures were calculated for 326 water samples from hot and warm springs located throughout Mexico as an attempt to estimate heat flow. Available heat flow data (Smith, 1974; Smith et al., 1979) for northern Mexico were related to silica temperature data to obtain the appropriate constants for the regional conditions according to Swanberg and Morgan's equation (1979, 1980). The constants obtained are similar to those obtained for the United States, therefore heat flow can be estimated on the basis of silica temperature data. By contouring calculated temperatures a map is obtained where geothermal provinces are shown. 4 figs., 1 tab., 15 refs.

  15. Paleoecological studies at Lake Patzcuaro on the west-central Mexican Plateau and at Chalco in the basin of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, W.A.; Bradbury, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    A 1520-cm sediment core from Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico, is 44,000 yr old at the base. All parts of the core have abundant pollen of Pinus (pine), Alnus (alder), and Quercus (oak) with frequent Abies (fir). The interval dated from 44,000 to 11,000 yr ago has a homogeneous flora characterized by abundant Juniperus (juniper) pollen and frequent Artemisia (sagebrush). It is believed to represent an appreciably drier and colder climate than at present. The Holocene at Lake Patzcuaro is characterized by a moderate increase in Pinus pollen and the loss of Juniperus pollen, as the modern type of climate succeeded. Alnus was abundant until about 5000 yr ago; its abrupt decrease with the first appearance of herbaceous weed pollen may reflect the cutting of lake-shore and stream-course alder communities for agricultural purposes, or it may simply reflect a drying tendency in the climate. Pollen of Zea (corn) appears at Lake Patzcuaro along with low peaks of chenopod and grass pollen at 3500 yr B.P. apparently recording a human population large enough to modify the natural environment, as well as the beginning of agriculture. A rich aquatic flora in this phase suggests eutrophication of the lake by slope erosion. In the most recent period corn is absent from the sediments, perhaps reflecting a change in agricultural practices. The environment changes at Lake Patzcuaro are similar to and correlate with those in the Cuenca de Mexico, where diatom stratigraphy from the Chalco basin indicates fluctuations in lake levels and lake chemistry in response to variations in available moisture. Before 10,000 yr ago climates there were cool and dry, and the Chalco basin was occupied by a shallow freshwater marsh that drained north to Lake Texcoco, where saline water accumulated by evaporation. Increases in effective moisture and possible melting of glaciers during the Holocene caused lake levels to rise throughout the Cuenca de Mexico, and Lake Texcoco flooded the Chalco basin with

  16. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, T.E.; Kumar, R.M.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.

    1982-08-01

    Field operations, which were conducted as a cooperative effort between Conoco and Gruy Federal, began on January 16, 1980 when the well was spudded. The well was drilled to 3692 feet, and 18 cores recovered in 18 core-barrel runs (144 feet). Upon completion of the coring phase, the hole was drilled to a total depth of 4150 feet and a complete suite of geophysical logs was run. Logging was then followed by completion and testing by Concoco. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations. Residual oil saturation were 259 STB/acre-ft for the 4035 - 4055 feet interval, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the 3692 - 3718 feet interval. Nine BOPD was produced from the 4035 - 4055 feet interval and no oil was produced from 3692 to 3718 feet interval, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. 68 figures, 11 tables.

  17. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip. A report of a field trip to the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant project in Southeastern New Mexico, June 16 to 18, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, L

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue.

  18. Educational Reform in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Bertha Orozco; Elizando Y Carr, Sandra

    1993-01-01

    Since the 1970s, each presidential regime has presented an educational modernization reform program for Mexico. Although the various reforms have widened educational opportunities, the quality of education has continued to deteriorate because of student and teacher desertion, a low scholastic progress index, accessibility problems, lack of an…

  19. Aquacultuur in Mexico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García Ortega, A.; Leenstra, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    In Mexico is visteelt nog een jonge bedrijfstak. Pas in de tweede helft van deze eeuw werden de eerste commerciële viskwekerijen opgezet. Vanwege de economische voordelen van de visteelt werden veel extensieve visteeltprojecten opgezet als een alternatief voor de visserij. Vanaf de jaren '80 wordt m

  20. The Art of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccardi, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of books for grades K and up which explores the folklore, poetry, fiction, and art of Mexico, and focuses on the Mayans and Aztecs and Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. Also suggests various research, reading, drama, music, social studies, physical education, and art activities and lists related videos and Internet…

  1. [Food security in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.

  2. Hedging Mexico's Electricity Bets

    OpenAIRE

    Farchy, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Few investors will risk putting all of their money into a single asset based on a 30-year forecast, yet narrowly-interpreted least-cost energy planning has often done just that. In Mexico, regulatory policies have hindered adoption of renewable energy (RE) and other diversified power options that could reduce portfolio risk. Against this backdrop, this note illustrates the country's growin...

  3. Port of Altamira, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croonen, K.; Froeling, D.; Marbus, G.; Van Bemmel, M.

    2006-01-01

    Master project report. The Port of Altamira is one of the fast growing ports in the world and is together with Veracruz and Coatzacoalcos one of the biggest ports of Mexico at the Gulf coast. It is an industrial Port with a lot of potential for expanding. However, the breakwaters of the Port extendi

  4. The Art of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccardi, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of books for grades K and up which explores the folklore, poetry, fiction, and art of Mexico, and focuses on the Mayans and Aztecs and Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. Also suggests various research, reading, drama, music, social studies, physical education, and art activities and lists related videos and Internet…

  5. Literacy in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J. I.

    1971-01-01

    A Supreme Emergency Law launched the National Campaign Against Illiteracy in Mexico in 1944; it served to awaken the public conscience to this enormous social problem. Now literacy education is seen as a basis on which to create a higher cultural life. (EB)

  6. Effect of Methylparathion on nitrous oxide production in Chinampa soil of Xochimilco, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Oropeza, M.; Marquez, S.; Ruiz, U.; Cabirol, N.

    2009-07-01

    Contamination of soil from pesticides is result of their bulk handling at the farmyard or following application in the field. synthetic organophosphorus compounds like chlorpyrifos and methylparathion have been used in the particulate cultivated areas, the chosen chinampa ( from Nahuatl or Aztec, chinamitl, bulrush or cattail stalks lattice for hydro-ponics cultivation) from the Xochimilco zone in Mexico City, Mexico (CICLOPLAFEST, 2006). (Author)

  7. Actuator Line/Navier-Stokes Computations for Flows past the Yawed MEXICO Rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Yang, H.

    2011-01-01

    In the paper the Actuator Line/Navier-Stokes model has been used to simulate flows past the yawed MEXICO rotor. The computed loads as well as the velocity field behind the yawed rotor are compared to detailed pressure and PIV measurements which were carried out in the EU funded MEXICO project...

  8. Fast Identification of Near-Trench Earthquakes Along the Mexican Subduction Zone Based on Characteristics of Ground Motion in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Campos, X.; Singh, S. K.; Arroyo, D.; Rodríguez, Q.; Iglesias, A.

    2015-12-01

    The disastrous 1985 Michoacan earthquake gave rise to a seismic alert system for Mexico City which became operational in 1991. Initially limited to earthquakes along the Guerrero coast, the system now has a much wider coverage. Also, the 2004 Sumatra earthquake exposed the need for a tsunami early warning along the Mexican subduction zone. A fast identification of near-trench earthquakes along this zone may be useful in issuing a reliable early tsunami alert. The confusion caused by low PGA for the magnitude of an earthquake, leading to "missed" seismic alert, would be averted if its near-trench origin can be quickly established. It may also help reveal the spatial extent and degree of seismic coupling on the near-trench portion of the plate interface. This would lead to a better understanding of tsunami potential and seismic hazard along the Mexican subduction zone. We explore three methods for quick detection of near-trench earthquakes, testing them on recordings of 65 earthquakes at station CU in Mexico City (4.8 ≤Mw≤8.0; 270≤R≤615 km). The first method is based on the ratio of total to high-frequency energy, ER (Shapiro et al., 1998). The second method is based on parameter Sa*(6) which is the pseudo-acceleration response spectrum with 5% damping, Sa, at 6 s normalized by the PGA. The third parameter is the PGA residual, RESN, at CU, with respect to a newly-derived ground motion prediction equation at CU for coastal shallow-dipping thrust earthquakes following a bayesian approach. Since the near-trench earthquakes are relatively deficient in high-frequency radiation, we expect ER and Sa*(6) to be relatively large and RESN to be negative for such events. Tests on CU recordings show that if ER ≥ 100 and/or Sa*(6) ≥ 0.70, then the earthquake is near trench; for these events RESN ≤ 0. Such an event has greater tsunami potential. Few misidentifications and missed events are most probably a consequence of poor location, although unusual depth and source

  9. 13th New Mexico Analysis Seminar

    CERN Document Server

    Marcantognini, Stefania; Stokolos, Alexander; Urbina, Wilfredo

    2016-01-01

    Covering a range of subjects from operator theory and classical harmonic analysis to Banach space theory, this book contains survey and expository articles by leading experts in their corresponding fields, and features fully-refereed, high-quality papers exploring new results and trends in spectral theory, mathematical physics, geometric function theory, and partial differential equations. Graduate students and researchers in analysis will find inspiration in the articles collected in this volume, which emphasize the remarkable connections between harmonic analysis and operator theory. Another shared research interest of the contributors of this volume lies in the area of applied harmonic analysis, where a new notion called chromatic derivatives has recently been introduced in communication engineering. The material for this volume is based on the 13th New Mexico Analysis Seminar held at the University of New Mexico, April 3-4, 2014 and on several special sections of the Western Spring Sectional Meeting at th...

  10. Mexico, maquiladoras, and occupational medicine training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, D H; Rea, D F; Schwartz, I; Rea, J

    1989-01-01

    Industrialization and its concomitant social and environmental effects in developing countries are considered in this paper. Mexico offers one example of economic progress achieved through the promotion of industrial growth. Recognising the need for trained experts with global experience in occupational health, the University of Arizona (UA) has begun a programme to train occupational and preventive medicine residents in international aspects of occupational health in the nearby industrialized border regions of Mexico. By using the maquiladora (assembly plant) industries and the resources of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social with the State of Sonora, residents observe existing problems in occupational safety and health in addition to adding to their understanding of the need for worldwide cooperation for research and reform in this field.

  11. Neuropsychology in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky Shejet, Feggy; Velez Garcia, Alicia

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper explores the diverse pathways that have led to the development of neuropsychology in Mexico. The authors conducted a review of the literature and their own experiences to describe the seminal events and people relevant to the development of this area of research and practice. The master's degree is the usual level of educational attainment for those who wish to practice clinical neuropsychology. As of now, there is not a board certification process in neuropsychology, although there is one in clinical psychology. Neuropsychology and other mental health disciplines in Mexico and Latin America have historically been poorly funded, and have lacked optimal means of communication as to research findings and clinical initiatives and standards. However, there is reason to think that this will be improved upon in coming years.

  12. Seismology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, C.

    1982-01-01

    Mexico is situated at the intersection of four major crustal Plates: the Americas Plate, the Pacific Plate, the Caribbean Plate, and the Cocos Plate. The interaction of these four plates is very complex. The pattern of earthquake risk is, therefore, among the most complicated in the world. The average release of seismic energy each is 55x1021 ergs-more than twice the figure for California. 

  13. Mexico: The Ultimate Domino?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    situation, both in Mexico and for, the banks making loans to the country, was the 1973 discovery of additional petroleum reserves by Petroleos Mexicanos ...in financial management and prevent a devaluation of the peso in 19 ... This was the first devaluation since 1954, and it set the stage for man, that...loan to underwrite the peso , and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) responded with a $1.2 billion loan. The JS Treasur/, in turn persuaded the

  14. Independent candidates in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Gonzalo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the issue of independent candidates in Mexico, because through the so-called political reform of 2012 was incorporated in the Political Constitution of the Mexican United States the right of citizens to be registered as independent candidates. Also, in September 2013 was carried out a reform of Article 116 of the Political Constitution of the Mexican United States in order to allow independent candidates in each state of the Republic. However, prior to the constitutio...

  15. New Mexico Clean Energy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation addresses New Mexico oil and gas development, brownfields, mining development, renewable energy development, renewable resources, renewable standards, solar opportunities, climate change, and energy efficiency.

  16. [Obesity in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José Jesús; Barrera-Cruz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Excess body weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, given its size, speed of growth and the negative effect it has on the health of the population that suffers. Overweight and obesity significantly increases the risk of chronic no communicable diseases, premature mortality and the social cost of health. An estimated 90 % of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity. Today, Mexico is second global prevalence of obesity in the adult population, which is ten times higher than that of countries like Japan and Korea. With regard to children, Mexico ranks fourth worldwide obesity prevalence, behind Greece, USA and Italy. In our country, over 70 % of the adult population, between 30 and 60 years are overweight. The prevalence of overweight is higher in men than females, while the prevalence of obesity is higher in women than men. Until 2012, 26 million Mexican adults are overweight and 22 million obese, which represents a major challenge for the health sector in terms of promoting healthy lifestyles in the population and development of public policies to reverse this scenario epidemiology. Mexico needs to plan and implement strategies and action cost effective for the prevention and control of obesity of children, adolescents and adults. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight, required to formulate and coordinate multisectoral strategies and efficient for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual behavior, family and community.

  17. New Mexico Metropolitan Planning Organization Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for the 5 districts that comprise the New Mexico Department of Transportation Metropolitan Planning Organizations

  18. Mexico 1996. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Salvador

    This paper shares the impressions of a participant from the 1996 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program in Mexico. These impressions address several current interest topics about international relations with Mexico including: (1) immigration; (2) politics; (3) education; (4) the economy; (5) the environment; (6) the media; (7) religion; and…

  19. Mexico: Rasgos de Su Historia. (Mexico: Highlights of Its History).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Cecilio

    Intended for both teachers and students, this publication, written in Spanish, briefly traces Mexico's history from its Conquest in 1519 to the overthrow of Porfirio Diaz in 1910. The following are briefly discussed: Mexico's Conquest in 1519; events immediately after the fall of Tenochtitlan; the War for Independence; Texas' separation from…

  20. Earthquake Damage in Mexico City, Mexico, September 19, 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On September 19, 1985, a magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 km2 area of Mexico City, 350 km from...

  1. Mexico: Rasgos de Su Historia. (Mexico: Highlights of Its History).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Cecilio

    Intended for both teachers and students, this publication, written in Spanish, briefly traces Mexico's history from its Conquest in 1519 to the overthrow of Porfirio Diaz in 1910. The following are briefly discussed: Mexico's Conquest in 1519; events immediately after the fall of Tenochtitlan; the War for Independence; Texas' separation from…

  2. New Mexico, Arkansas Kroger Stores Compete in EPAs Sixth Annual Energy Star Battle of the Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS - (July 22, 2015) Today, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the 2015 Energy Star Battle of the Buildings. Kroger supermarkets and warehouses across New Mexico and Arkansas are among the groups fielding 6,500 buildings nationwi

  3. Nontyphoidal Salmonella from Human Clinical Cases, Asymptomatic Children, and Raw Retail Meats in Yucatan, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mussaret B. Zaidi; Patrick F. McDermott; Paula Fedorka-Cray; Verónica Leon; Claudia Canche; Susannah K. Hubert; Jason Abbott; Magda León; Shaohua Zhao; Marcia Headrick; Linda Tollefson

    2006-01-01

    ...; asymptomatic children; and retail pork, poultry, and beef in Yucatan, Mexico. Methods. Isolates were characterized according to serotype, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genetic relatedness with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Results...

  4. Improvement in using steam for electric generation at the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Mejora en el aprovechamiento del vapor para generar energia electrica en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Rodriguez, Marco A.; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Mendoza Covarrubias, Alfredo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    Commercial exploitation in the Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico, started in 1982 when the first five backpressure-power units of 5-MW each were commissioned. Nowadays the installed capacity is 188 MW from 14 units: five in the South Zone fed by steam produced from 18 production wells plus two binary-cycle power units fed by residual brines; and seven in the North Zone with steam supplied by 22 production wells. There are seven backpressure-power units with high specific consumption [between 14.5 and 13.6 tons per hour of steam (t/h) per MW]. Three operate in the South Zone and four in the North Zone. This paper shows a way to achieve more efficient use of the geothermal resource by replacing the seven backpressure units, which have completed their useful lifetime-or are close to do it-with two, new condensing power units with lower specific consumption: one unit of 50 MW to be located in the North Zone and the other of 25 MW to be placed in the South Zone. No new wells need be drilled. In this way, the average specific consumption would be reduced to 8.8-7.2 t/h per MW (saving 47% of the steam), the income for electric generation would be increased and the steam-extraction rate would remain the same. [Spanish] En 1982 empezo la explotacion comercial del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico, con la instalacion y puesta en servicio de las primeras cinco unidades turbogeneradoras a contrapresion de 5 MW cada una. Actualmente la capacidad instalada es de 188 MW, con catorce unidades: cinco en la zona sur, alimentadas por el vapor de 18 pozos productores, mas dos unidades de ciclo binario que utilizan salmuera residual, y siete unidades en la zona norte, alimentadas por 22 pozos. Hay siete unidades a contrapresion con un consumo especifico elevado [entre 14.5 y 13.6 toneladas por hora (t/h) de vapor por MW], tres de las cuales se localizan en la zona sur y cuatro en la zona norte. En este documento se presenta un proyecto para hacer mas

  5. The Struggle of Rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteva, Gustavo; And Others

    Diverse aspects of rural problems and the social organization of Mexican labor are explored in this summary of Mexican rural history. Achnowledging Mexico's rich, unexhausted, and unexplored natural resources, Mexico is described as a poverty-stricken, hungry nation, with high degrees of malnutrition, deprivation, and illiteracy heavily…

  6. Mexico's National Educational Videoconferencing Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanty, Alejandro

    This paper begins with background on the National University of Mexico (UNAM) and its networks. Other distance education projects in Mexico are described, including projects of the Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), the National Distance Education Program operated by the Secretary of Education, and the Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios…

  7. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de Mexico: Condiciones…

  8. Mosses new to New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bryophyte inventory was conducted in the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP), New Mexico, from 2009 to 2011. Specimens representing 113 species of bryophytes were collected. Of those bryophytes, seven of the mosses were new to New Mexico: Atrichum tenellum (Rohling) Bruch & Schimper, Dicranum ...

  9. Catalog of thermal waters in New Mexico. Hydrologic report 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    Waters at 67 locations in New Mexico discharge at anomalous temperatures. Details on these thermal water resources such as the location, temperature, discharge rate, field pH, and specific conductance are presented in 29 tables and 47 figures. Included also are 244 chemical analyses of water from 38 areas.

  10. Experiences in the use of an electronic tool to measure pressure, temperature and spinner logs in the Mexican geothermal fields; Experiencias en el uso de sondas electronicas de presion, temperatura y flujo en campos geotermicos de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly; Jaimes Maldonado, Guillermo [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    In this article are exposed the results of an electronic tool to measure pressure-temperature and spinner profiles in the geothermal wells of Mexico, utilized in order to identify unobservable phenomena with traditional Kuster type pressure and temperature logs. Some examples of the applications are the identifications of production zones, interaction from between two or more zones of contribution under several conditions of operation, casing damages and apparition of sink flow intervals into the formation in producer wells. It is also presented the quantitative method utilized to calculate the masic contribution of the intervals of interest. [Spanish] En este articulo se exponen los resultados obtenidos mediante el uso de una sonda electronica para la medicion de presion-temperatura y flujo en los pozos geotermicos de Mexico, utilizada para identificar fenomenos que no son observables con las mediciones tradicionales tipo Kuster de presion y temperatura. Se ejemplifican algunas de las aplicaciones hechas, tales como la identificacion de zonas de produccion, forma de interaccion entre dos o mas zonas de aporte bajo diferentes condiciones de operacion, roturas en tuberias y aparicion de zonas ladronas en pozos. Se presenta brevemente el metodo cuantitativo utilizado para calcular el aporte masico de las intervalos de interes.

  11. Parabolic trough Project in Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, A.; Cadenas, R.; Almanza, R.; Martinez, I.; Ruiz, V.

    2006-07-01

    Federal Electricity Commission (CFE), the most important electricity Company in Mexico wants to install a parabolic trough row in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal field. Cerro Prieto (CP) is the most important geothermal field in Mexico; this area has the highest levels of irradiance in the country. The levels of irradiance make it feasible to set up a solar collector field in the geothermal field to build a hybrid system in order to increase the steam and electricity production. There are several alternative in the hybrid system, depending where the solar field place is located. Two new options are presented in this paper. The first one uses water from the condenser in DSG with the solar field and steam is separated in the first separator. The second option (DSG), the steam produced is separated in an expansion vessel; the water is reinjected in the solar field and the steam goes to the turbine. This project plans to install an experimental facility to research and learning about the technology, CFE main objective will be the electricity generation; using steam from solar collectors using the existing turbines in CPIV; the second objective is to instruct the workers in the operation of the real facility. The third objective is to study the geothermal flow in the absorbers in Direct Steam Generation (DSG), which has salt and silica dissolved, and look for a possible solution for steam generation. The geothermal facilities have considerable experience using the brine flow, so it is not considered an impediment in the solar-geothermal hybrid system. (Author)

  12. [Health technology in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, C; Faba, G; Martuscelli, J

    1992-01-01

    The features of the health technology cycle are presented, and the effects of the demographic, epidemiologic and economic transition on the health technology demand in Mexico are discussed. The main problems of science and technology in the context of a decreasing scientific and technological activity due to the economic crisis and the adjustment policies are also analyzed: administrative and planning problems, low impact of scientific production, limitations of the Mexican private sector, and the obstacles for technology assessment. Finally, this paper also discusses the main support strategies for science and technology implemented by the Mexican government during the 1980s and the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead.

  13. Ferric Tourmaline from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B; Donnay, G; Hardie, L A

    1964-04-03

    Dark brown crystals, up to 10 mm long, occur in rhyolite at Mexquitic, San Luis Potosi, Mexico. They are short prismatic, showing {1120}, {3030}, {1011}, {0221}, with c/a 0.4521, measured with a goniometer, and distinct {1120} cleavage. With an unusual combination of cell dimensions, high density, high refractive indices, and extreme birefringence, this tourmaline falls outside the known elbaite-schorl and schorl-dravite series. A chemical analysis, recalculated on the basis of cell volume and density, gives close to the theoretical 150 atoms per cell, whether the iron is ferrous or ferric, but the physical properties indicate a ferric tourmaline.

  14. Magnetometry and archaeological prospection in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba Pingarron, L.; Laboratorio de Prospeccion Arqueologica

    2013-05-01

    Luis Barba Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México The first magnetic survey in archaeological prospection was published in 1958 in the first number of Archaeometry, in Oxford. That article marked the beginning of this applications to archaeology. After that, magnetic field measurements have become one of the most important and popular prospection tools. Its most outstanding characteristic is the speed of survey that allows to cover large areas in short time. As a consequence, it is usually the first approach to study a buried archaeological site. The first attempts in Mexico were carried out in 196. Castillo and Urrutia, among other geophysical techniques, used a magnetometer to study the northern part of the main plaza, zocalo, in Mexico City to locate some stone Aztec sculptures. About the same time Morrison et al. in La Venta pyramid used a magnetometer to measure total magnetic field trying to find a substructure. Some years later Brainer and Coe made a magnetic survey to locate large stone Olmec heads in San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz. Technology development has provided everyday more portable and accurate instruments to measure the magnetic field. The first total magnetic field proton magnetometers were followed by differential magnetometers and more recently gradiometers. Presently, multiple sensor magnetometers are widely used in European archaeology. The trend has been to remove the environmental and modern interference and to make more sensitive the instruments to the superficial anomalies related to most of the archaeological sites. There is a close relationship between the geology of the region and the way magnetometry works in archaeological sites. Archaeological prospection in Europe usually needs very sensitive instruments to detect slight magnetic contrast of ditches in old sediments. In contrast, volcanic conditions in Mexico produce large magnetic contrast

  15. Earthquake hazard assessment after Mexico (1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degg, M R

    1989-09-01

    The 1985 Mexican earthquake ranks foremost amongst the major earthquake disasters of the twentieth century. One of the few positive aspects of the disaster is that it provided massive quantities of data that would otherwise have been unobtainable. Every opportunity should be taken to incorporate the findings from these data in earthquake hazard assessments. The purpose of this paper is to provide a succinct summary of some of the more important lessons from Mexico. It stems from detailed field investigations, and subsequent analyses, conducted by the author on the behalf of reinsurance companies.

  16. Paleoecological studies at Lake Patzcuaro on the west-central Mexican Plateau and at Chalco in the basin of Mexico*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, W. A.; Bradbury, J. Platt

    1982-01-01

    A 1520-cm sediment core from Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico, is 44,000 yr old at the base. All parts of the core have abundant pollen of Pinus (pine), Alnus (alder), and Quercus (oak) with frequent Abies (fir). The interval dated from 44,000 to 11,000 yr ago has a homogeneous flora characterized by abundant Juniperus (juniper) pollen and frequent Artemisia (sagebrush). It is believed to represent an appreciably drier and colder climate than at present. The Holocene at Lake Patzcuaro is characterized by a moderate increase in Pinus pollen and the loss of Juniperus pollen, as the modern type of climate succeeded. Alnus was abundant until about 5000 yr ago; its abrupt decrease with the first appearance of herbaceous weed pollen may reflect the cutting of lake-shore and stream-course alder communities for agricultural purposes, or it may simply reflect a drying tendency in the climate. Pollen of Zea (corn) appears at Lake Patzcuaro along with low peaks of chenopod and grass pollen at 3500 yr B.P. apparently recording a human population large enough to modify the natural environment, as well as the beginning of agriculture. A rich aquatic flora in this phase suggests eutrophication of the lake by slope erosion. In the most recent period corn is absent from the sediments, perhaps reflecting a change in agricultural practices. The environment changes at Lake Patzcuaro are similar to and correlate with those in the Cuenca de Mexico, where diatom stratigraphy from the Chalco basin indicates fluctuations in lake levels and lake chemistry in response to variations in available moisture. Before 10,000 yr ago climates there were cool and dry, and the Chalco basin was occupied by a shallow freshwater marsh that drained north to Lake Texcoco, where saline water accumulated by evaporation. Increases in effective moisture and possible melting of glaciers during the Holocene caused lake levels to rise throughout the Cuenca de Mexico, and Lake Texcoco flooded the Chalco basin with

  17. 21 CFR 808.81 - New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New Mexico. 808.81 Section 808.81 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.81 New Mexico. The following New Mexico medical device requirement is... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: New Mexico Statutes Annotated, section 67-36-16(F)....

  18. Main aspects of geothermal energy in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiriart, G.; Gutierrez-Negrin, L.C.A. [Comision Federal de Electridad, Morelia (Mexico)

    2003-12-01

    With an installed geothermal electric capacity of 853 MW{sub e}, Mexico is currently the third largest producer of geothermal power worldwide, after the USA and the Philippines. There are four geothermal fields now under exploitation: Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, Los Humeros and Las Tres Virgenes. Cerro Prieto is the second largest field in the world, with 720 MW{sub e} and 138 production wells in operation; sedimentary (sandstone) rocks host its geothermal fluids. Los Azufres (88 MW{sub e}), Los Humeros (35 MW{sub e}) and Las Tres Virgenes (10 MW{sub e}) are volcanic fields, with fluids hosted by volcanic (andesites) and intrusive (granodiorite) rocks. Four additional units, 25 MW{sub e} each, are under construction in Los Azufres and due to go into operation in April 2003. One small (300 kW) binary-cycle unit is operating in Maguarichi, a small village in an isolated area with no link to the national grid. The geothermal power installed in Mexico represents 2% of the total installed electric capacity, but the electricity generated from geothermal accounts for almost 3% of the national total. (author)

  19. Terrorism in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Yannick; Cruz-Vega, Felipe; Roman, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    Even though Mexico is considered internationally as a pacifist country, its economic, social, and geopolitical characteristics during the last half of the 20th century have resulted in internal events that can be considered acts of terrorism. Most of the acts of terrorism during the last 15 years have had to do either with political movements or drug-dealing actions. After the 11 September 2001 attacks in the United States, Mexican Health Authorities have strengthened the epidemiological surveillance system. More than 1,372 calls asking for information or reporting suspicious envelopes were received between 16 October and 21 October 2001. Following the earthquake in 1985 that caused great damage and many deaths in Mexico, the National Civil Protection System was created in 1986. This protection system is led by the President and the Secretary of Government. It was developed to improve preparedness for disaster coordination more than for terrorism responses. In addition, the emergency medical systems continue to lack organization, even though some states have shown significant progress in their emergency medical system.

  20. MEXICO Wants to Attract Chinese Tourists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey GUO

    2009-01-01

    @@ Though last year many countries were affected by the global financial crisis,tourism in Mexico enjoyed an increase of 5% in 2008.Aiming at attracting more Chinese tourists to Mexico,on April 7,2009,Ambassador Jorge Guajardo together with Mr.Eligio Serna,China Director of the Mexico Tourism Board,held a conference to introduce Mexico Travel in Mexico Embassy to China,Beijing.

  1. Mexico Wind Resource Assessment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.N.; Elliott, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    A preliminary wind energy resource assessment of Mexico that produced wind resource maps for both utility-scale and rural applications was undertaken as part of the Mexico-U.S. Renewable Energy Cooperation Program. This activity has provided valuable information needed to facilitate the commercialization of small wind turbines and windfarms in Mexico and to lay the groundwork for subsequent wind resource activities. A surface meteorological data set of hourly data in digital form was utilized to prepare a more detailed and accurate wind resource assessment of Mexico than otherwise would have been possible. Software was developed to perform the first ever detailed analysis of the wind characteristics data for over 150 stations in Mexico. The hourly data set was augmented with information from weather balloons (upper-air data), ship wind data from coastal areas, and summarized wind data from sources in Mexico. The various data were carefully evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. The preliminary assessment has identified many areas of good-to-excellent wind resource potential and shows that the wind resource in Mexico is considerably greater than shown in previous surveys.

  2. Demonstrated reserve base for coal in New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G.K.

    1995-02-01

    The new demonstrated reserve base estimate of coal for the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, is 11.28 billion short tons. This compares with 4.429 billion short tons in the Energy Information Administration`s demonstrated reserve base of coal as of January 1, 1992 for all of New Mexico and 2.806 billion short tons for the San Juan Basin. The new estimate includes revised resource calculations in the San Juan Basin, in San Juan, McKinley, Sandoval, Rio Arriba, Bernalillo and Cibola counties, but does not include the Raton Basin and smaller fields in New Mexico. These estimated {open_quotes}remaining{close_quotes} coal resource quantities, however, include significant adjustments for depletion due to past mining, and adjustments for accessibility and recoverability.

  3. 75 FR 28555 - Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico... Commercial Service are organizing an Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City... data centers, telecommunications, utilities, and construction. Green ICTs--or smart...

  4. NUEVA EVIDENCIA DE LA OCUPACIÓN DE TINGAMBATO DURANTE EL CLÁSICO Y EL EPICLÁSICO EN EL OCCIDENTE DE MÉXICO (New Evidence for the Occupation of Tingambato (Western Mexico during the Classic and Epiclassic Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Punzo Díaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El sitio arqueológico de Tingambato es uno de los pocos que ha sido excavado de manera extensa en Michoacán, sin embargo es muy poco lo que aún sabemos de él; incluso una cuestión básica como su ubicación temporal sigue todavía en discusión. Es en este sentido que en el presente artículo se presentan las primeras dataciones radiocarbónicas que nos permiten comenzar a entender la función de esa importante población, una de las más grandes y relevantes durante su tiempo en el occidente de México. ENGLISH: The archaeological site of Tingambato is one of the few sites in Michoacan to have been extensively excavated, but despite this little is known about it; even its chronology is debated. This paper presents the first results of radiocarbon dating of the site. These data allow us to begin to understand the relevance and function of Tingambato, which at the time of its occupation was one of the largest in Western Mexico.

  5. National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pulsed Field Program is located in Northern New Mexico at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The user program is designed to provide researchers with a balance of...

  6. National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pulsed Field Program is located in Northern New Mexico at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The user program is designed to provide researchers with a balance of...

  7. Surgical education in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Surgical education in Mexico basically follows the same model as in the United States, with a selection process resembling the matching program. There is a 4-year training period during which residents in their third year spend 4 months as the sole surgeon in a rural community. During the senior year they are entitled to an elective period in a place of their choosing. After completion of the 4 years, residents have to present a thesis and undergo an oral examination before getting a university diploma. They are then encouraged to pass the written and oral examination of the Mexican Board of Surgery before they are fully certified to enter practice in a public or private hospital.

  8. On the behavior of site effects in Central Mexico (the Mexican Volcanic Belt – MVB, based on records of shallow earthquakes that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Clemente-Chavez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB is a seismogenic zone that transects the central part of Mexico with an east–west orientation. The risk and hazard seismic of this seismogenic zone has not been studied at detail due to the scarcity of instrumental data as well as because seismicity in the continental regimen of Central Mexico is not too frequent, however, it is known that there are precedents of large earthquakes (Mw > 6.0 that have taken place in this zone. The Valley of Mexico City (VM is the sole zone, within the MVB, which has been studied in detail; mainly focusing on the ground amplification during large events such as the 1985 subduction earthquake that occurred in Michoacan. The purpose of this article is to analyze the behavior of site effects in the MVB zone based on records of shallow earthquakes (data not reported before that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011. We present a general overview of site effects on the MVB, a classification of the stations in order to reduce the uncertainty in the data to obtain attenuation parameters in future works, and some comparisons between the information presented here and that presented in previous studies. A regional evaluation of site effects and Fourier Acceleration Spectrum (FAS shape was estimated based on 80 records of 22 shallow earthquakes within the MVB zone. Data of 25 stations were analyzed. Site effects were estimated by using the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR methodology. The results show that seismic waves are less amplified in the northeast sites of the MVB with respect to the rest of the zone and that it is possible to classify two groups of stations: (1 stations with Negligible Site Amplification (NSA and (2 stations with Significant Site Amplification (SSA. Most of the sites in the first group showed small ( These aspects help to advance the understanding about the amplification behavior and of the expected seismic risk on the Central Mexico due to large

  9. New Mexico Urban Areas - Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  10. New Mexico, 2010 Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  11. Drought Assessment in Zacatecas, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bautista-Capetillo, Carlos; Carrillo, Brenda; Picazo, Gonzalo; Júnez-Ferreira, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    ... activities, particularly those related to agriculture and livestock. This research reports on drought assessment for Zacatecas, Mexico using monthly data from 111 weather stations with temperature and precipitation information from a 33-year period...

  12. New Mexico, 2010 Census Place

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  13. COMPETITIVENESS TEXTILE CLUSTER PERU MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Huby, Ana María; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Amador Murguía, María Eugenia; Universidad de Guadalajara

    2014-01-01

    This article is a summary of the research study entitled "A comparative study in Peru- Mexico textile cluster in determining competitive strategies" that was developed in 2010 by the author in collaboration with a team of researchers at the University of Guadalajara. This article basically presents the results in comparative terms of the competitive situation of the textile cluster, Peru and Mexico, "Gamarra" and "Zapotlanejo" respectively representing the textile industry in their countries,...

  14. Automobile emissions in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, S.; Bishop, G.; Stedman, D.

    1996-09-01

    In order to determine the exhaust characteristics of the Mexico City vehicle fleet, a Fuel Efficiency Automotive Test (FEAT) unit was placed at 5 different sites over a 10 day period from 11 February 1991 through 21 February 1991. Valid data for the percent of carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) were obtained on 31 838 vehicles. This represents approximately 1 % of the entire Mexico City fleet.

  15. MARKETING WINTER VEGETABLES FROM MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Calvin, Linda; Barrios, Veronica

    1999-01-01

    The North American winter-vegetable industry is highly integrated, with Mexican production supplying a large part of U.S. winter consumption needs. Imports from Mexico undergo a rigorous inspection procedure before entering the United States. In addition to Mexican firms, many U.S. firms are also involved in sourcing winter vegetables from Mexico. To compete well, both U.S. and Mexican firms must adapt to the changing market pressures, which reward firms that can source from many locations to...

  16. Transportation energy use in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, C.; Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents data on passenger travel and freight transport and analysis of the consequent energy use in Mexico during the 1970--1971 period. We describe changes in modal shares for passenger travel and freight transport, and analyze trends in the energy intensity of different modes. We look in more detail at transportation patterns, energy use, and the related environmental problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, and also discuss policies that have been implemented there to reduce emissions from vehicles.

  17. The growth of gerontology and geriatrics in Mexico: Past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Hernandez, Maricruz; Flores Cerqueda, Sergio; García Ramírez, José Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Life expectancy is increasing in Mexico, creating new opportunities and challenges in different areas, including gerontology and geriatric education and research. Although in the European Union there are more than 3,000 institutions that focus on aging research, in Latin America there are only 250 programs where theoretical and practical knowledge is taught. In Mexico, the number of institutions that offer gerontology and geriatric education is relatively small. One of the major concerns is that Mexico is not adequately prepared to optimally deal with the aging of its population. Thus, the main challenge that Mexico faces is to train practitioners, researchers, and policy makers to be able to respond to the aging priorities of this country. The goal of this review is to investigate the literature regarding 60 years in the fields of gerontology and geriatrics in Mexico. Even when programs have evolved within the past decades, there are some challenges to gerontological and geriatric education and aging research in Mexico. The implications for Mexico are discussed, as well as opportunities for moving these fields forward.

  18. The growth of gerontology and geriatrics in Mexico: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Hernandez, Maricruz; Cerqueda, Sergio Flores; Ramírez, José Carlos García

    2017-01-01

    Life expectancy is increasing in Mexico, creating new opportunities and challenges in different areas, including gerontology and geriatric education and research. Although in the European Union there are more than 3,000 institutions that focus on aging research, in Latin America there are only 250 programs where theoretical and practical knowledge is taught. In Mexico, the number of institutions that offer gerontology and geriatric education is relatively small. One of the major concerns is that Mexico is not adequately prepared to optimally deal with the aging of its population. Thus, the main challenge that Mexico faces is to train practitioners, researchers, and policy makers to be able to respond to the aging priorities of this country. The goal of this review is to investigate the literature regarding 60 years in the fields of gerontology and geriatrics in Mexico. Even when programs have evolved within the past decades, there are some challenges to gerontological and geriatric education and aging research in Mexico. The implications for Mexico are discussed, as well as opportunities for moving these fields forward. PMID:27754821

  19. Prospects for an Accelerator Program in Mexico Focused on Photon Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Hernandez-Garcia, Mauro Napsuciale

    2011-05-01

    Recent interest in developing an accelerator-based light source in Mexico has driven several actions by the Division of Particles and Fields in Mexico, and by the electron accelerator community in the United States. We report on activities over the past two years that are very encouraging and offer a variety of possibilities to start the development of an accelerator program in Mexico. A suggested path towards this goal that would eventually lead to building, commissioning and operating a third or fourth generation light source will also be presented

  20. Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea Data and Model Base Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    apparently taking place in the shallower water depths. Although Mexico has deep water reserves, PEMEX is developing the fields under shallow water first...Campeche is presently being explored by 9 rigs, so we can expect about that number of supply boats to b’. operating there at all times. PEMEX is...the northern Gulf of Mexico, and PEMEX is reportedly using 2 in the vicinity of the Bay of Campeche and the periphery of the Yucatan Atoll. With this

  1. Brachygastra mellifica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): Predation preference and feeding behavior on Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Rosas, M. A.; Loera-Gallardo, J.; López-Arroyo, J. I.; Buck, M.

    2014-01-01

    In previous field studies in Northern Mexico, we found the wasp Brachygastra mellifica (Say 1837) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) preying voraciously the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the vector of the bacteria Ca. Liberibacter spp., the putative agent of Huanglongbing, one of the most devastating citrus disease in the world.   As in Mexico, the ACP management considers the use of pest biological control, the availability of potential agents for the con...

  2. Public communication of science in Mexico: past, present and future of a profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Mora, Carmen; Reynoso-Haynes, Elaine; Sánchez Mora, Ana María; Tagüeña Parga, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we offer an analysis of the evolution of the professional field of public communication of science in Mexico, particularly at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, the influences it has received from other countries, the impact it has on Mexican society and some of its relationships with other Latin American countries. We present examples of successful programmes in different mass media and an analysis of the evolution and diversification of science communicators over the last four decades.

  3. Governability in Contemporary Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Curzio Gutiérrez

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the difficulties to establish a concept of governability and the frequent ideological usage of the term, it is much more operative to turn to the principle of governability, in the broad sense, which supports itself on five pillars: the political legitimacy of the government, the governmental efficiency to attend to the demands of society, the existence of shared social project, the agreement with the principle special interest groups, and international viability. The analysis of the structure and relevance of these five points during the long period of political transition that Mexico underwent between 1988 and 1997 shows how it was possible for this country to play off certain factors against each other in order to secure governability and safeguard against the consequences of any resultant imbalances. Between 1998-1993, the government of Salinas de Gotari based itself on the viability of a neoliberal project within an international context, and on this projectís attention to domestic demands as well as on the governmentís pact with elites. Institutional integration and legitimacy made up, then, for a process of discreet liberalization and the lack of democratic electoral commitment, which culminated in the PRI’s 1994 elections victory.The assassination of Colosia, though, and the appearance of the EZLN and the subsequent crisis surrounding the peso’s devaluation that accompanied Ernesto Zedilloís rise to power soon led to the collapse of those pillars of support. Crowning the process of the silenttransition were the elections of 1997, which makes it possible to say that in Mexico today there are now smooth elections, but that reform of the State is still unresolved —a subject that includes the reduction of the president’s competence. Seen in the short term, the most direct threats to Mexico’s governability will come as a result of the lack of attention to those demands of society’s underprivileged and the ill

  4. 75 FR 9645 - Additional Designations of Individuals and Entities Pursuant to Section 804(b) of the Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ....), Avenida de la Revolution 7, Zumpimito, Carr. Apatzingan y Articulo 27, Uruapan, Michoacan 60190, Mexico... HUERTA, Arnoldo; a.k.a. LOPEZ RUEDA, Jose Arnoldo; a.k.a. MODELO); DOB 15 Dec 1969; alt. DOB 27 Dec 1969...

  5. New Mexico House Legislative District Boundaries - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains the New Mexico House District Boundaries as of July 2006. It is in a vector digital shapefile created to show the voting precinct coverage for...

  6. New Mexico Senate Legislative District Boundaries - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains the New Mexico Senate District Boundaries as of July 2006. It is in a vector digital shapefile created to show the voting precinct coverage for...

  7. New Mexico Campaigns Against Hunger and Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Shami

    1972-01-01

    Describes the nutritional needs of individuals in New Mexico, and the efforts of the Nutrition Improvement Program (NIP) of the University of New Mexico School of Medicine at Albuquerque to remove hunger and malnutrition. (DM)

  8. New Mexico HUC-8 Boundaries - 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the Subbasin (8-digit) 8th level for the State of New Mexico. This data set consists of...

  9. New Mexico HUC-12 Boundaries - 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the subwatershed (12-digit) 12th level for the State of New Mexico. This data set consists of...

  10. Mexico Terrain Corrected Free Air Anomalies (97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' gravity anomaly grid for Mexico, North-Central America and the Western Caribbean Sea is NOT the input data set used in the development of the MEXICO97 model....

  11. Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Bathymetry with Hillshade

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Gulf of Mexico Depth Grid Cells derived from BOEM's seismic grid compilation. BOEM's deepwater Gulf of Mexico bathymetry grid. Created by mosaicing over 100 3D...

  12. HSIP Fire Stations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Fire Stations in New Mexico Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  13. New Mexico HUC-10 Boundaries - 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer to the watershed (10-digit) 10th level for the State of New Mexico. This data set consists of...

  14. New Mexico Museums and Cultural Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of museums and cultural centers in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using...

  15. 墨西哥湾盆地陆棚区油气田数量与储量规模的分形分析%Fractals of Oil and Gas Field Reserve Distribution in Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠玮; 侯贵廷; 肖芳锋

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of dividing the size of proved oil and gas fields in the outer continental shelf (OCS) of Gulf of Mexico Basin, the authors applied the fractal theory to the study of the relationship between the number of oil and gas fields and their sizes, and discussed the meaning of fractal dimension D. The fractal dimension D is a reflection of the exploratory development level, the larger the fractal dimension D is, the more mature the exploration is. The fractal method is a good way to analyze the size-distribution of oil and gas fields, to decide the exploration degree and to predict the reserve distribution of oil and gas fields.%在对墨西哥湾盆地陆棚区已探明油气田储量规模划分的基础上,应用分形理论对油气田数量与储量规模之间的分形关系进行了研究,讨论了油气田储量规模分布的分数维值D的含义。油气田储量规模分布的分数维值D反映了油气田的勘探开发程度,勘探开发程度越高,分数维值D越大;勘探开发程度越低,分数维值D越小。利用分形方法可以较好地分析油气田储量规模与数量之间的关系,评判油气田勘探开发的程度。预测未来发现油气田的数量及其储量规模。

  16. [Health manpower in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuscelli, J

    1986-01-01

    Population increase, rural-to-urban migration, excessive population concentration side by side with scattered rural populations, and the economic crisis provide the primary framework for this analysis of health manpower in Mexico. The secondary frame of reference is the primary causes of mortality (in 1981): the leading cause, accidents and violence; the second, heart disease; the third, influenza and pneumonia; and the fourth, enteric diseases and diarrheas. Data are supplied on the number of new physicians graduating (this number rose from 2,493 in 1976 to 14,099 in 1983), and on the number of nurses (about 98,000, of which 40% are professionals). The growth pattern of the contingent of dentists is the same as that of physicians, namely, disproportionate and inefficient. The Federal Government is now trying to set up a National Health System that will fulfill the constitutional right of all Mexican citizens to health protection. On the basis of the disequilibrium apparent in every part of the health sector, the author recommends that educational and health institutions plan and coordinate the training of physicians so that the number of graduates may meet the country's needs, and the quality of their education may be improved.

  17. Biological pest control in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Mexico is a megadiverse country that forms part of the Mesoamerican biological corridor that connects North and South America. Mexico's biogeographical situation places it at risk from invasive exotic insect pests that enter from the United States, Central America, or the Caribbean. In this review we analyze the factors that contributed to some highly successful past programs involving classical biological control and/or the sterile insect technique (SIT). The present situation is then examined with reference to biological control, including SIT programs, targeted at seven major pests, with varying degrees of success. Finally, we analyze the current threats facing Mexico's agriculture industry from invasive pests that have recently entered the country or are about to do so. We conclude that despite a number of shortcomings, Mexico is better set to develop biological control-based pest control programs, particularly on an area-wide basis, than many other Latin American countries are. Classical and augmentative biological control and SIT-based programs are likely to provide effective and sustainable options for control of native and exotic pests, particularly when integrated into technology packages that meet farmers' needs across the great diversity of production systems in Mexico.

  18. Navajo minettes in the Cerros de las Mujeres, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D.; Laughlin, A. W.; Gladney, E. S.

    1985-06-01

    The Cerros de las Mujeres in west-central New Mexico are three mafic minette plugs that should be considered part of the Navajo volcanic fields on the central Colorado Plateau. This newly recognized occurrence extends the Navajo volcanic fields to the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau, within 45 km of the extensional tectonic setting in which the Mogollon ash-flow tuff cauldrons occur. The Cerros de las Mujeres provide additional evidence for contemporaneous sodic and potassic volcanism within the Navajo volcanic fields.

  19. Carbon and Aerosol Emissions from Biomass Fires in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, W. M.; Flores Garnica, G.; Baker, S. P.; Urbanski, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    system contains 4 electro-polished stainless steel canisters to sample trace gas emissions, with a corresponding set of Teflon filters in the sampling ports to collect PM2.5 particulates. In addition, biomass burning was sampled by aircraft with canisters and real-time instruments as part of the MILAGRO field campaign. We present the emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4, C2-C4 compounds, and PM2.5 for prescribed fires of the major vegetation types in Mexico, as well as for regional wildfires in southern and central Mexico. We will also present a high-resolution vegetation map in Mexico based on the Landsat satellites and the fuel consumption models for various components and sizes of fuels.

  20. Percived ethical misconduct: a survey of Neuropsychology professionals in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in the practice of neuropsychology in Mexico. Method: One hundred fourteen psychologists answered a survey which assessed perceptions of ethical misconduct in four areas of professional practice in the field of neuropsychology. Results: The area of professional training contained the highest percentage of perception of ethical misconduct, followed by research and publications, clinical care, and professional relationships. Conclusion: The high frequency of ethical misconduct perceived by neuropsychology professionals in Mexico is a cause for concern. The results suggest the need to create and implement a system to make sure that professionals follow the ethics standards required by the profession, and to provide consequences for those who fail to do so. The profession of neuropsychology and training of professionals in the field must be regularized in the country, to reduce the frequency of future ethical misconducts.

  1. Mexico and China:Strategic Trade Parthers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge Guajardo

    2008-01-01

    @@ In recent years,trade between Mexico and China has grown dynamically with an average annual growth of 36.7%.Mexico and China are both major world economies and China is the second largest trading partner of Mexico.Our two countries have been committed to deepening strategic partnership,cementing the basis for cooperation in all areas with fruitful outcome achieved.

  2. Digital Geologic Map of New Mexico - Formations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The geologic map was created in GSMAP at Socorro, New Mexico by Orin Anderson and Glen Jones and published as the Geologic Map of New Mexico 1:500,000 in GSMAP...

  3. Working without a Union in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adele, Niame; Rack, Christine

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a description of the academic climate in New Mexico. Like many other places in the world today, New Mexico is trying to find an identity in an environment that the authors label "increasingly privatized, corporatized, and militarized." New Mexico's higher education salaries are lower than those in…

  4. New Mexico Charter Schools Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Public Education Department, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the New Mexico legislature passed changes to the Charter School Act that provided more accountability for both charters and authorizers in New Mexico. As part of that law, the Public Education Department (PED) is asked to submit an annual report on the status of charter schools in New Mexico. This is the first report submitted under that…

  5. Aztec Mexico: Discovery of Templo Mayor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslav, Marc

    1982-01-01

    Describes the Aztec archaeological artifacts shown in the American Museum of Natural History exhibit: "Aztec Mexico: Discovery of Templo Mayor." More than 100 objects, ranging from human skulls to jewelry, found in the excavation of the Great Temple of Mexico located under the center of Mexico City, were displayed. (AM)

  6. Incidencia y sintomatología de cinco virus en parcelas comerciales de chile seco en Aguascalientes, San Luis Potosí y Zacatecas, México Incidence and symptomatology of five viruses in commercial dry chili pepper fields in Aguascalientes, San Luis Potosí, and Zacatecas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Velásquez-Valle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A nivel mundial el cultivo de chile es afectado por más de 60 enfermedades virales; sin embargo, poco se conoce acerca de ellas en el área productora de chile seco del norte centro de México por lo que el objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en detectar la presencia y sintomatología de cinco virus en parcelas comerciales de chile seco en los estados mencionados. Plantas de chile de los tipos mirasol y ancho fueron muestreadas y se anotó la presencia de síntomas como enanismo, clorosis, deformación de hojas, defoliación, necrosis vascular y ramas unidas. Las muestras fueron analizadas mediante la técnica DAS-ELISA empleando los antisueros para el virus del mosaico del tabaco (Tobacco mosaic virus: TMV, mosaico del pepino (Cucumber mosaic virus: CMV, Y de la papa (Potato virus Y: PVY, moteado del chile (Pepper mottle virus: PepMoV y jaspeado del tabaco (Tobacco etch virus: TEV. Esos virus fueron identificados en plantas de chile colectadas en las parcelas comerciales de chile seco de los tres estados antes mencionados.World-wide the chili pepper crop is affected by more than 60 viral diseases, although very little is known about them in the area of dry pepper plantation in northern-central Mexico. Consequently, the aims of this work were to identify the presence of the virus and the associated symptoms in commercial dry pepper fields of the states of Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, and Aguascalientes, Mexico. Mirasol and ancho pepper plants were sampled and the presence of symptoms such as dwarfing, chlorosis, leaf deformation, defoliation, vascular necrosis and joined branches, were recorded. Samples were analyzed using DAS-ELISA with the antisera of the tobacco mosaic virus (Tobacco mosaic virus: TMV, cucumber mosaic virus (Cucumber mosaic virus: CMV, potato virus Y (Potato virus Y: PVY, pepper mottle virus (Pepper mottle virus: PepMoV, and tobacco etch virus (Tobacco etch virus: TEV. These viruses were identified in pepper plants

  7. CERN servers go to Mexico

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Wednesday, 26 August, 384 servers from the CERN Computing Centre were donated to the Faculty of Science in Physics and Mathematics (FCFM) and the Mesoamerican Centre for Theoretical Physics (MCTP) at the University of Chiapas, Mexico.   CERN’s Director-General, Rolf Heuer, met the Mexican representatives in an official ceremony in Building 133, where the servers were prepared for shipment. From left to right: Frédéric Hemmer, CERN IT Department Head; Raúl Heredia Acosta, Deputy Permanent Representative of Mexico to the United Nations and International Organizations in Geneva; Jorge Castro-Valle Kuehne, Ambassador of Mexico to the Swiss Confederation and the Principality of Liechtenstein; Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General; Luis Roberto Flores Castillo, President of the Swiss Chapter of the Global Network of Qualified Mexicans Abroad; Virginia Romero Tellez, Coordinator of Institutional Relations of the Swiss Chapter of the Global Network of Qualified Me...

  8. Perceived ethical misconduct: a survey of neuropsychology professionals in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in the practice of neuropsychology in Mexico. Method: One hundred fourteen psychologists answered a survey which assessed perceptions of ethical misconduct in four areas of professional practice in the field of neuropsychology.Results: The area of professional training contained the highest percentage of perception of ethical misconduct, followed by research and publications, clinical care, and professional relationships. Co...

  9. Geophysical Exploration of Faults, Fissures, and Fractures at Four Sites in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro-Mancilla, O.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Contreras-Corvera, A.; Stock, J. M.; Moreno-Ayala, D.; Ramirez-Hernandez, J.; Carreon-Diazconti, C.; Lopez, D. A. L.; Lopez, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We conducted field geophysical measurements in areas in the City of Mexicali that are associated with geological faults, fissures, and fractures. The study sites are: 1) Instituto Tecnologico de Mexicali 2) The buried trace of the Michoacan de Ocampo fault in the urban zone 3) Rio Nuevo 4) A site reported by Frez (2013) with ground rupture SW of Cerro Prieto At Site 1, seismic reflection profiling used a cable with 24 geophones at 1 m spacing. The source was a 3.6 kg sledge hammer, with 3 impacts per shot point. 347 shot points at 2 m spacing provided 6 fold coverage along a straight line with minimal elevation changes. Sample rate was 2000/s, and record length 1 s; reflections were seen down to 0.3 s TWTT. Processing included: frequency filter, fk filter, predictive deconvolution, geometry, velocity analysis, NMO and stacking. Lateral changes in the seismic section are due to surface modification and/or the presence of faults.At site 2, we measured 222Radon in 36 locations along 17 profiles across the fault, using inherent alpha spectrometry with a Durridge RAD7 detector. Each site was measured at a depth of 60 cm, with 31 five-minute readings in a 3 hour period, interspersed with 10 minute of background purge and 3 five-minute background measurements. In a profile parallel to the fault, 78% of the readings were > 100 pCi/L, confirming the presence of the fault along the swath surveyed. At Site 3 we compiled observations of post-earthquake cracks, conducted reconnaissance, and measured some profiles using 100 MHz GPR. These observations showed that the cracks are associated with ground failure due to earthquake shaking. At Site 4 our new 222Radon gas measurements complemented a pre-existing profile that had high 222Radon values lacking a structural explanation. Related to this we found that this region has two NW-SE trending features: a magnetic anomaly low of 360 nT (Evans, Summer and Castillo, 1972) and a graben reported by the Mexican Geological Survey in 2003

  10. Designing Distributed Generation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linvill, Carl [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montepelier, VT (United States); Brutkoski, Donna [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montepelier, VT (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Mexico's energy reform will have far-reaching effects on how people produce and consume electricity in the country. Market liberalization will open the door to an increasing number of options for Mexican residential, commercial, and industrial consumers, and distributed generation (DG), which for Mexico includes generators of less than 500 kilowatts (kW) of capacity connected to the distribution network. Distributed generation is an option for consumers who want to produce their own electricity and provide electricity services to others. This report seeks to provide guidance to Mexican officials on designing DG economic and regulatory policies.

  11. New Mexico GPW Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-04-01

    N e w M e x i c o New Mexico holds considerable reserves of this clean, reliable form of energy that to date have barely been tapped. New Mexico has more acres of geothermally heated greenhouses than any other state, and aquaculture, or fish farming, is a burgeoning enterprise for state residents. Several electric power generation opportunities also have been identified. G e o t h e r m a l ? W h y Homegrown Energy It's here, right beneath our feet! No need to import! Current Development New Mex

  12. Opportunity for America: Mexico`s coal future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, V.W.

    1993-09-01

    This study examines the history, current status and future prospects for increased coal use in Mexico. Environmental implications of the power-generation capacity expansion plans are examined in general terms. Mexican environmental law and regulations are briefly reviewed along with the new sense of urgency in the cleanup of existing environmental problems and avoidance of new problems as clearly mandated in recent Mexican government policy initiatives. It is expected that new capital facilities will need to incorporate the latest in process and technology to comply with existing environmental regulation. Technology developments which address these issues are identified. What opportunities have new initiatives caused by the recent diversification of Mexico`s energy economy offered US firms? This report looks at the potential future use of coal in the Mexican energy economy, examining this issue with an eye toward identifying markets that might be available to US coal producers and the best way to approach them. Market opportunities are identified by examining new developments in the Mexican economy generally and the energy economy particularly. These developments are examined in light of the current situation and the history which brought Mexico to its present status.

  13. Las Tierras de Nuevo Mexico. [The Lands of New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadesh, Frances Leon; And Others

    New Mexico was inhabited thousands of years ago. Each group of settlers saw the land in distinct ways. For some, its beauty consisted of its quality, the abundance of water, and the hope of a good harvest. For others, its beautiful sites were of more importance. Thus, each group established its own manner of living on the land and of using it.…

  14. Phase Field Fracture Mechanics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Brett Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    For this assignment, a newer technique of fracture mechanics using a phase field approach, will be examined and compared with experimental data for a bend test and a tension test. The software being used is Sierra Solid Mechanics, an implicit/explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bend test experimental data was also obtained at Sandia Labs while the tension test data was found in a report online from Purdue University.

  15. The People of New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Sigurd

    The bulletin provides data on New Mexico's population. Information is given on population size, distribution, and composition; topography and climate; urban and rural population changes; racial and ethnic characteristics; age and sex composition; fertility and mortality; population mobility; nativity; income; marital status; and education. A brief…

  16. Sports Facilities, Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelar, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Highlights a new K-12 school gymnasium in Mexico that changes and reacts to weather conditions, requires no air conditioning, and, on typical days, uses sunlight filtering through its ample clerestory as the sole source of illumination. Includes numerous photographs, a section drawing, and a site plan. (GR)

  17. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de…

  18. The Language Situation in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terborg, Roland; Landa, Laura Garcia; Moore, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    This monograph will cover the language situation in Mexico; a linguistically very complex country with 62 recognised indigenous languages, the "de facto" official language, Spanish, and some immigrant languages of lesser importance. Throughout the monograph, we will concentrate on three distinct challenges which we consider relevant for…

  19. Alternative Education Spaces in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Chloe

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the architecture of the Red de Innovacion y Aprendizaje (RIA), or Learning and Innovation Network, which is a group of education centres that provide access to computers, the Internet and quality education to low-income communities in Mexico. The RIA began in May 2009 when ten pilot centres were opened in four municipalities…

  20. Shell Trumpets from Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Novella

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine shells have been used as musical instruments in almost all parts of the world (Izikowitz 1935, including Mesoamerica, where large univalves, also called conch shells in the literature, had a utilitarian function as trumpets. Their use is well documented in most cultural areas of Mesoamerica, as in Western Mexico, through their various occurrences in archaeological contexts and museums collections.

  1. The Scholarship Project: Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Irina Arroyo

    1987-01-01

    The Carmen Millan School (Puebla, Mexico) was established to meet the high intellectual faculties of gifted students through development of willingness to learn, oral expression, talent, and the ability to plan systematically. Special education teachers act as monitors of learning contracts developed for students during school and during…

  2. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de…

  3. The Scholarship Project: Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Irina Arroyo

    1987-01-01

    The Carmen Millan School (Puebla, Mexico) was established to meet the high intellectual faculties of gifted students through development of willingness to learn, oral expression, talent, and the ability to plan systematically. Special education teachers act as monitors of learning contracts developed for students during school and during…

  4. Alternative Education Spaces in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Chloe

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the architecture of the Red de Innovacion y Aprendizaje (RIA), or Learning and Innovation Network, which is a group of education centres that provide access to computers, the Internet and quality education to low-income communities in Mexico. The RIA began in May 2009 when ten pilot centres were opened in four municipalities…

  5. The Geography Olympiad in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The formal organisation of science Olympiads in Mexico dates from 1987, when a national contest on Mathematics was held in order to identify a team to represent the country in the International Mathematics Olympiad. In 1991, the Mexican Academy of Sciences ("Academia Mexicana de Ciencias"-AMC) created the National Science Olympiads Program with…

  6. UV-B Measurements in Mexico City: Comparison with Modeled UVB and Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, N. A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Frederick, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) represents a chemically important region of the sun's spectrum. At the earth's surface, UV-B can initiate a number of important photochemical reactions (e.g., ozone photolysis) that lead to the formation of OH radicals. Where levels of nitrogen oxides are high and reactive hydrocarbons are found, as in Mexico City and other megacities, UV-B can initiate photochemical smog formation. We used a broadband instrument to obtain UV-B measurements in Mexico City during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2003/Mexico City Megacity 2003 field study. We then used a simple radiation model for the Mexico City latitude, altitude, and time of year to construct UV-B contours for comparison with our results. Early morning discrepancies involve reductions in UV-B that are consistent with the presence of significant levels of BC in the Mexico City environment. During most afternoons, UV-B reductions were dominated by clouds. The results are discussed in terms of the potential impacts of BC on UV-B and downwind photochemical processes. The authors wish to thank the researchers at Centro Nacional de Investigación en Calidad Ambiental (CENICA), Mexico City. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Atmospheric Science Program (Marley and Gaffney), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Frederick). We also wish to acknowledge Drs. Mario and Luisa Molina for their help in organizing and directing the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2003 field study, during which these data were collected.

  7. Alkyl nitrate production and persistence in the Mexico City Plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sachse

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Alkyl and multifunctional nitrates (ΣANs have been observed to be a significant fraction of NOy in a number of different chemical regimes. Their formation is an important free radical chain termination step ending production of ozone and possibly affecting formation of secondary organic aerosol. ΣANs also represent a potentially large, unmeasured contribution to OH reactivity and are a major pathway for the removal of nitrogen oxides from the atmosphere. Numerous studies have investigated the role of nitrate formation from biogenic compounds. Less attention has been paid to the role ΣANs may play in the complex mixtures of hydrocarbons typical of urban settings. Measurements of ΣANs, NO2, total peroxy nitrates (ΣPNs, HNO3 and a wide suite of hydrocarbons were obtained from the NASA DC-8 aircraft during spring of 2006 in and around Mexico City and the Gulf of Mexico. ΣANs were observed to be 10–20% of NOy in the Mexico City plume and to increase in importance with increased photochemical age. We describe three conclusions: 1 Correlations of ΣANs with odd-oxygen (Ox indicate a stronger role for ΣANs in the photochemistry of Mexico City than is expected based on currently accepted photochemical mechanisms, 2 ΣAN formation suppresses peak ozone production rates by as much as 30% in the near-field of Mexico City and 3 ΣANs play a comparable role to ΣPNs in the export of NOy to the Gulf Region.

  8. Application of a one-dimensional model to explore the drivers and lability of carbon in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A one-dimensional water quality model, Gulf of Mexico Dissolved Oxygen Model (GoMDOM-1D), was developed to simulate phytoplankton, carbon, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen in Gulf of Mexico. The model was calibrated and corroborated against a comprehensive set of field observation...

  9. 7 CFR 319.8-13 - From Northwest Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From Northwest Mexico. 319.8-13 Section 319.8-13... for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-13 From Northwest Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of Northwest Mexico and of the West Coast of Mexico from infestations of the pink...

  10. Results of Geothermal Exploitation in Mexico During 1996; Resultados de la explotacion geotermica en Mexico en 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Negrin, Luis C. A. [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1997-01-01

    During 1996, 56.2 million tons of steam were produced, at an average annual rate of 6,416 tons per hour (t/h), to supply enough steam to operate of 26 geothermal-electric plants in three geothermal fields, which represent an installed capacity of 743 MW. To accomplish that production, 177 geothermal wells were operated at an average annual production of 36 t/h of steam. Electricity generation was 5,737 gigawatts-hour, which represent 3.8% of the whole electrical energy generated in Mexico in 1996. Production of steam and generation of electricity were increased in 1996, comparing with 1994 and 1995. However, unitary costs were practically the same between 1995 and 1996. The Comision Federal de Electricidad (Federal Commission for Electricity, or CFE) has programmed several geothermal- electric projects to increase the installed capacity in the fields under exploitation in new fields. Also, the CFE has some non electrical projects to reach an integral use of geothermics in Mexico. [Espanol] A fin de suministrar el vapor necesario para la generacion de 26 plantas geotermoelectricas instaladas en tres campos geotermicos, con una capacidad total de 743 megawatts (MW) durante 1996 se produjeron 56.2 millones de toneladas de vapor, a una tasa media anual de 6,416 toneladas por hora (t/h). Ello implico la operacion de 177 pozos productores, con una produccion de la energia electrica generada en Mexico en 1996. Tanto la produccion de vapor como la generacion de electricidad en 1996 se incrementaron con respecto a los anos precedentes de 1994 y 1995, pese a que los costos unitarios se mantuvieron practicamente constantes entre 1995 y 1996. La Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) tiene en programa varios proyectos geotermoelectricos para incrementar la capacidad instalada en los campos en explotacion y para iniciar el aprovechamiento en campos nuevos, asi como proyectos no electricos para conseguir un aprovechamiento integral de la geotermia en Mexico.

  11. Anaglyph, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula was generated entirely from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, and shows a subtle but distinctive indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the demise of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life then on Earth. The crater's rim is marked by a shallow semicircular depression arcing about an offshore center point in the upper left of the picture. (The arcing depression is just above the blue line, when viewed with the naked eye.) This depression, or trough, only about 3 to 5 meters (10 - 15 feet) deep and about 5 kilometers (3 miles) wide, was likely caused by collapse of limestone caverns preferentially above the crater rim, resulting in an arcing chain of sinkholes. The limestone that covers most of the Yucatan Peninsula post-dates the impact crater. However, the crater pattern apparently controls the subsidence pattern just enough to show through.This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. Illumination is from the north (top). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The total relief (range of elevations) across this entire image is less than 300 meters (1000 feet).Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was

  12. Selectivity of Undocumented Mexico-U.S. Migrants and Implications for U.S. Immigration Reform. Impacts of Immigration in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. Edward

    Proposed United States immigration reforms are founded on the assumption that illegal immigration can be significantly curbed by reducing economic incentives to migrate. Effects of these reforms, however, are not the same for all undocumented workers. Data from 61 rural Mexican households in Michoacan were used to explore which undocumented…

  13. Historical earthquakes in Mexico. Past efforts andnew multidisciplinary achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. García Acosta

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The 1985 Mexican earthquakes demonstrated that knowledge concerning their history was still scarce and precarious.In fact those earthquakes acted as triggers, because it was then when a new field of research began to develop: disaster historical research. An initial task was to retrieve the history of earthquakes in Mexico in order throughout to produce an exhaustive inventory. The main result was a paradigmatic catalogue, published some years ago as the book Los sismos en la historia de México (Earthquakes in Mexican History. It contains information about every event along 450 years of Mexican seismological history. This paper will focus on the background of this seismological compilation and its characteristics, addressing mainly methodological items concerning sources, qualitative and/or quantitative data, the importance of joint and multidisciplinary efforts, and the research they have inspired on historical earthquakes investigation in Mexico.

  14. Web Tools 2.0 for Health Promotion in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. García-Cuéllar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Web Tools 2.0 are potential allies for health promotion, since they can provide the population with information in order to improve their health; they are an effective way to share knowledge within the health sector institutions. In Mexico, these tools are used by public and private organizations. We explain what Web Tools 2.0 are and which the ones mostly used in the health field are. For this, a documentary research project was carried out and scientific virtual libraries were consulted; the information was collected and analyzed, with the following results: the ones that are mostly used are the social networks, followed by the content management platforms and, finally, by the knowledge management systems. Mexico faces the challenge of increasing access to these tools for most of the population as well as extending digital literacy.

  15. Mexico and the CTBT; Mexico y el CTBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre G, J.; Martinez L, J.; Ruiz E, L. J.; Aragon M, I. B., E-mail: jaguirre@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) is a treaty that prohibits all the nuclear explosions by anybody and in any place, either on the terrestrial surface, in the atmosphere, under the sea or underground. From the adoption of this Treaty by the United Nations, Mexico has had interest for its entrance in vigor, as integral part to assure the international peace. For this reason, our country signed the Treaty since it was open in September 24, 1996 and three years later ratified it, due to Mexico is part of the group of necessary countries for their entrance in vigor. During 13 years, the country has been committed and helped to the installation of monitoring stations, actions that allow the strengthening of the International System of Surveillance. The purpose of this work is to divulge the Treaty,its technologies and benefits; and also to diffuse the works realized by Mexico regarding the radionuclides monitoring station and noble gases both certified ones for the CTBT. Besides the radionuclides technology, Mexico has taken charge of the installation and operation of the seismic stations and hydro-acoustics that have been certified too. The radionuclides station Rn-44 located in Guerrero Negro, BCS has two technologies, an automated sampler of suspended particles in air brand Cinderella/ARAME and a noble gases system Sauna used for the particles detection of radioactive material gamma emitting and Xenon radioisotopes product of nuclear assays. Both technologies are transmitting data in real time to the International Center of Data. These technologies are shown in this work. (Author)

  16. 76 FR 58772 - Safety & Security Trade Mission; Mexico City and Monterrey, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... trade media, direct mail, industry trade associations and other multiplier groups, and publicity at... International Trade Administration Safety & Security Trade Mission; Mexico City and Monterrey, Mexico AGENCY: International Trade Administration. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United States Department of Commerce...

  17. 76 FR 73595 - Healthcare Technology, Policy & Trade Mission: Mexico City, Mexico, May 13-16, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... trade media, direct mail, industry trade associations and other multiplier groups, and publicity at... International Trade Administration Healthcare Technology, Policy & Trade Mission: Mexico City, Mexico, May 13-16, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission...

  18. Natural Hazards In Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vera, M.

    2001-12-01

    Around the world more than 300 natural disasters occur each year, taking about 250,000 lives and directly affecting more than 200 million people. Natural hazards are complex and vary greatly in their frequency, speed of onset, duration and area affected. They are distinguished from extreme natural events, which are much more common and widespread, by their potential impacts on human societies. A natural disaster is the occurrence of a natural hazard on a large scale, involving great damage and, particularly in developing countries, great loss of life. The Basin of Mexico, whose central and southwestern parts are occupied by the urban area of Mexico City at the average altitude of 2,240 m above the sea level, is located on the southern edge of the Southern Plateau Central, on a segment of the Trans-Mexican Neovolcanic Belt that developed during Pliocene-Holocene times. The Basin of Mexico is a closed basin, which was created with the closing of the former Valley of Mexico because of basaltic-andesitic volcanism that formed the Sierra de Chichinautzin south of the city. The south-flowing drainage was obstructed and prompted the development of a lake that became gradually filled with sediments during the last 700,000 years. The lake fill accumulated unconformably over a terrain of severely dissected topography, which varies notably in thickness laterally. The major part of the urban area of Mexico City is built over these lake deposits, whereas the rest is built over alluvial material that forms the transition zone between the lake deposits and what constitutes the basement for the basin fill. In the present study, the effect of rain, fire and earthquakes onto Mexico City is evaluated. Rain risk was calculated using the most dangerous flood paths. The fire risk zones were determined by defining the vegetation areas with greater probability to catch fires. Earthquake hazards were determined by characterization of the zones that are vulnerable to damages produced by

  19. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the New Mexico portions of the Douglas, Silver City, Clifton, and Saint Johns NTMS quadrangles, New Mexico/Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Morris, W.A.; Aamodt, P.L.

    1978-03-01

    This report describes work done in the Douglas, Silver City, Clifton, and Saint Johns, New Mexico/Arizona, National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) quadrangles (1:250,000 scale) by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) as part of the nationwide Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). The HSSR is designed to identify areas having higher-than-normal concentrations of uranium in ground waters, surface waters, and water-transported sediments. In 1976 three private contractors, under contract to the LASL, collected water and stream sediment samples in New Mexico from the Mexico border north to Interstate 40 (north of 35/sup 0/N latitude) and from 107/sup 0/30' W longitude west to the New Mexico/Arizona state line. This report presents only the data from these sampling programs for the locations west of 108/sup 0/W longitude--the New Mexico portions of the Douglas, Silver City, Clifton, and Saint Johns NTMS quadrangles. The numbers of water samples and sediment samples, respectively, collected in each quadrangle were: Douglas, 181 and 237; Silver City, 474 and 755; Clifton, 469 and 913; and Saint Johns, 437 and 672. The standard field and analytical procedures used in this uranium reconnaissance are given in Appendix A. Listings of the field and uranium data for the water samples from the New Mexico portions of the four NTMS quadrangles are given in Appendixes B-I through B-IV. Listings of the field and uranium data for the sediment samples are given in Appendixes C-I through C-IV. Keys to the water and sediment sample types as well as codes to site data are given in Appendix D.

  20. 75 FR 30431 - Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States... on carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden. SUMMARY: The Commission... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden would be likely to lead to continuation...

  1. 77 FR 20690 - Environmental Impact Statement: Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Albuquerque, New Mexico AGENCY... the Interstate 25 and Paseo del Norte Interchange in Albuquerque, New Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Greg Heitmann, Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, New Mexico...

  2. Seismologic study of Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico. Part II: Seismic tomography by attenuation of coda waves (Qc-1) of local earthquakes; Estudio sismologico del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico. Parte II: Tomografia sismica por atenuacion a partir de ondas de coda (Qc-1) de sismos locales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antayhua, Yanet; Lermo, Javier [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F (Mexico); Carlos, Vargas [Departamento de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Colombia)]. E-mail: jles@pumas.iingen.unam.mx

    2008-07-15

    In the Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, seismic tomography has been studied using the attenuation of coda waves (Qc{sup -1}). Ninety-five local earthquakes (Md{<=}3.6) have been used with depths up to 4.0 km registered in the seismic network stations from December 1997 to December 2004. A simple backscattering model was used, filtered in four ranks of frequencies (2, 4, 6, and 8 Hz) and one window of 5 seconds. For the 3D-representation, we used an approximation based on first-order scattering of ellipsoids. The results show that values of Qc for the used frequencies have a frequency dependency shown in the equation: Qc=24{+-}12f{sup 0.86}{+-}{sup 0.06}, where the low values of Qc were observed in the zone of higher seismic and tectonic activity and in the location of injection and production wells. The high values are located in the periphery of the geothermal field. The distribution of the Qc{sup -1} attenuation in 3D and 2D shows the anomalies of high-seismic attenuation are located in the north, south, and southwestern ends of the zone presently under operation, at depths greater than 2.5 km. [Spanish] Para realizar la tomografia sismica por atenuacion de ondas de coda (Qc{sup -1}) en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, se han utilizado 95 sismos locales (Md{<=}3.6) con profundidades hasta 4.0 km, registrados en las estaciones de su red sismica, durante el periodo de diciembre 1997 a diciembre 2004. Se utilizo el modelo de retrodispersion simple, filtrados en cuatro rangos de frecuencias (2, 4, 6, y 8 Hz) y una ventana de 5 segundos. Para la representacion en 3D, se utilizo una aproximacion basada en elipsoides que representan dispersion de primer orden. Los resultados muestran que los valores de Qc para las frecuencias utilizadas tienen una dependencia con la frecuencia de la forma: Qc=24{+-}12f{sup 0.86}{+-}{sup 0.06}, donde los valores bajos de Qc fueron observados en la zona de mayor actividad sismica y en la ubicacion de pozos inyectores y

  3. Manufacturing real wages in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López V Antonia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the recent evolution and determinants of real wages in Mexico?s manufacturing sector, using theories based on the assumption of imperfect competition both in the product and in the labour markets, especially wage-bargain theory, insider-outsider and mark-up models. We show evidence that the Mexican labour market does not behave as a traditional competitive market. The proposed explanation for this fact is that some workers benefit from advantages when compared with others, so that they can get a greater share of the proceedings of the productive process. Also, we find that changes in the degree of competition in the market for output influence the behaviour of real wages.

  4. Human bioclimate atlas for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morillon-Galvez, D. [Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan (Mexico). Inst. de Ingenieria; Saldana-Flores, R. [Gerencia de Energias no Convencionales, Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco (Mexico); Tejeda-Martinez, A. [Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa (Mexico). Centro de Ciencias de la Tierra

    2004-07-01

    This work presents bioclimatic charts for Mexico, as a result of an analysis of climate for the period 1951-1980. The basis to define the zone of thermal comfort was the equation proposed by Auliciems combined with the bioclimatic chart of Olgyay and the diagram of Givoni for bioclimatic control in buildings. Other tools used to carry out the diagnosis were the equations of Fanger. The results obtained were validated according to the parameters established by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineering (ASHRAE), for the different climates of Mexico. The climatic data were those reported by 700 climatological stations throughout the country. The charts were developed using the ArcInfo program, in which the conditions of comfort, cool and warm were identified in order to achieve better thermal comfort in buildings and the profitable use of this renewable energy. (author)

  5. Language manaement of Huastecan Nahuatl in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Vlková Hingarová, Vendula

    2011-01-01

    Language management of Nahuatl in Mexico This thesis describes the current status of Nahuatl language, and disccus its functioning and position within the institutional structures of Mexican society, as well as language community in the municipality of Chicontepec in northeastern Mexico. Nahuatl is one of the best-known indigenous languages with wider distribution across the Mexico and according to the latest census, there are one and half million speakers of the language. The aim of this pap...

  6. The state of HVAC in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.M. [Air Quality Systems, Shawnee Mission, KS (United States)

    1997-07-01

    With the chartering of the Manual de Anda ASHRAE Chapter in Mexico City, the first chapter in Latin America, and with increasing cross-border trade and investment as a result of NAFTA, it`s important for US and Canadian engineers to understand the state of HVAC technology in Mexico. The goal of this article is to introduce the reader to some industry leaders in Mexico and to show their creative design and installation expertise by reviewing some recent projects.

  7. History of nonnative Monk Parakeets in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Elizabeth A; Smith-Vidaurre, Grace; Salinas-Melgoza, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Nonnative Monk Parakeets have been reported in increasing numbers across many cities in Mexico, and were formally classified as an invasive species in Mexico in late 2016. However, there has not been a large-scale attempt to determine how international pet trade and national and international governmental regulations have played a part in colonization, and when the species appeared in different areas. We describe the changes in regulations that led the international pet trade market to shift to Mexico, then used international trade data to determine how many parakeets were commercially imported each year and where those individuals originated. We also quantified the recent increases in Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) sightings in Mexico in both the scientific literature and in citizen science reports. We describe the timeline of increased reports to understand the history of nonnative Monk Parakeets in Mexico. As in other areas where the species has colonized, the main mode of transport is through the international pet trade. Over half a million Monk Parakeets were commercially imported to Mexico during 2000-2015, with the majority of importation (90%) occurring in 2008-2014, and almost all (98%) were imported from Uruguay. The earliest record of a free-flying Monk Parakeet was observed during 1994-1995 in Mexico City, but sightings of the parakeets did not become geographically widespread in either the scientific literature or citizen science databases until 2012-2015. By 2015, parakeets had been reported in 97 cities in Mexico. Mexico City has consistently seen steep increases in reporting since this species was first reported in Mexico. Here we find that both national and international legal regulations and health concerns drove a rise and fall in Monk Parakeet pet trade importations, shortly followed by widespread sightings of feral parakeets across Mexico. Further monitoring of introduced Monk Parakeet populations in Mexico is needed to understand the

  8. EVIDENCIA DE ESCORIAS DE COBRE PREHISPÁNICAS EN EL ÁREA DE SANTA CLARA DEL COBRE, MICHOACÁN, OCCIDENTE DE MÉXICO (Evidence of Prehispanic Copper Slags from the Santa Clara del Cobre Area, Michoacan, Western Mexico)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Luis Punzo Díaz; Juan Morales; Avto Goguitchaichvili

    2015-01-01

    ... arqueomagnético de las escorias, producto de la fundición del cobre en siete sitios arqueológicos de los alrededores de Santa Clara del Cobre, Michoacán, se logró ubicarlas cronológicamente...

  9. EVIDENCIA DE ESCORIAS DE COBRE PREHISPÁNICAS EN EL ÁREA DE SANTA CLARA DEL COBRE, MICHOACÁN, OCCIDENTE DE MÉXICO (Evidence of Prehispanic Copper Slags from the Santa Clara del Cobre Area, Michoacan, Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Punzo Díaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los primeros resultados de dataciones para objetos arqueológicos metálicos en Mesoamérica. A través del análisis arqueomagnético de las escorias, producto de la fundición del cobre en siete sitios arqueológicos de los alrededores de Santa Clara del Cobre, Michoacán, se logró ubicarlas cronológicamente; pudiendo determinar la presencia de esta tecnología de fundición desde los últimos cien años antes de la llegada de los españoles, durante el esplendor del Señorío Tarasco, hasta adentrado el siglo XVIII, cuando nuevas tecnologías y una producción masiva de cobre se desarrollaron en todos los territorios bajo el dominio español. ENGLISH: This paper presents the first magnetic dating of metal items in Mesoamerica. The archaeomagnetic analysis of the slags, the residual product of the copper smelting process from seven archaeological sites near the town of Santa Clara del Cobre, Michoacán State, made it possible to estimate their production time. The results obtained thus far suggest the presence of smelting technology in this area 100 years before the Spanish conquest, synchronous of apogee of the Tarascan Señorio, until the XVIII century when the development of new technologies and a massive production of copper occurred in whole territories under the Spanish dominance.

  10. Analysis of the automation and control of the well production conditions in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico; Analisis de la automatizacion y del control de las condiciones de produccion de los pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo Zamora, Isaac [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, BC, (Mexico); Ocampo Diaz, Juan de Dios [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Mexicali, BC, (Mexico); De la Pena Reyna, Gilberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    Through 31 years of development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, the number of wells in operation and the distances between them has been increasing. Now there are 150 wells producing a mixture of water and steam at different ratios, depending on the reservoir characteristics (pressure, temperature, depth, etc.) and the operation conditions in the superficial installations (obstructions in the orifice plates diameter, separator pressures, etc.). Therefore, Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has started a pilot plan to handle the automation and control of the operating conditions of production wells, and to install a data production acquisition system. The initial results of the system are in this paper. [Spanish] A traves de los 31 anos de desarrollo del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto el numero de pozos en operacion asi como la distancia entre ellos se ha estado incrementando. Ahora hay mas de 150 pozos produciendo una cantidad de mezcla de agua y vapor a diferentes rangos, dependiendo de las caracteristicas del yacimiento (presion, temperatura, profundidad, etc.) y de las condiciones de operacion de las instalaciones superficiales (diametros de placas de orificio obstruidos, presion de los separadores, etc.). Como resultado la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) ha dado inicio a un plan de pruebas para llevar a cabo la automatizacion y control de las condiciones de operacion de los pozos productores, e instalar un sistema con equipos para recoleccion de datos del campo, cuyos primeros resultados se presentan en este articulo.

  11. Otomi de San Andres Cuexcontitlan, Estado de Mexico (Otomi of San Andres Cuexcontitlan, State of Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastra, Yolanda

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Otomi, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Andres Cuexcontitlan, in the state of Mexico. The objective of collecting such a representative…

  12. Elimination of Onchocerciasis from Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez

    Full Text Available Mexico is one of the six countries formerly endemic for onchocerciasis in Latin America. Transmission has been interrupted in the three endemic foci of that country and mass drug distribution has ceased. Three years after mass drug distribution ended, post-treatment surveillance (PTS surveys were undertaken which employed entomological indicators to check for transmission recrudescence.In-depth entomologic assessments were performed in 18 communities in the three endemic foci of Mexico. None of the 108,212 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from the three foci were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA, resulting in a maximum upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.035/2,000 flies examined. This is an order of magnitude below the threshold of a 95%-ULCI of less than one infective fly per 2,000 flies tested, the current entomological criterion for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. The point estimate of seasonal transmission potential (STP was zero, and the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for the STP ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 L3/person/season in the different foci. This value is below all previous estimates for the minimum transmission potential required to maintain the parasite population.The results from the in-depth entomological post treatment surveillance surveys strongly suggest that transmission has not resumed in the three foci of Mexico during the three years since the last distribution of ivermectin occurred; it was concluded that transmission remains undetectable without intervention, and Onchocerca volvulus has been eliminated from Mexico.

  13. Contemporary earthen architecture in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Prieto, Berenice

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to put forward an appraisal of current remarkable works of earthen architecture in Mexico, where raw earth architecture, particularly in adobe, has been built since ancient times, but has nevertheless, been substituted by industrial materials that bring poor living conditions for the inhabitants both in urban as in rural areas. Recently, rather than vernacular architecture built by its users, it is within architectonic design that a kind of revival ...

  14. The outer Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henery, D. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij BV, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with the offshore activity in the Gulf of Mexico. Up to the end of 1995 there have been close to 300 exploratory wells drilled in water depths beyond 450 metres, and over 50 development wells. In addition approximately 1.500 leases have been awarded in the deep water. Themes discussed are deep water discoveries, average well rates, and key learnings points

  15. Cartel Car Bombings in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    April and Au- gust 2006 were targeted against a “. . . busy restaurant in the Pacific coast town of Petatlán, Mexico . . .” and against “. . . the...understand military concepts, much less perceptions of an opposition force (OPFOR) that engages in proactive offensive operations, drawing upon both...to throwing it into the bar. The grenade was South Korean made and had the same markings as grenades used against the U.S consulate in Monterey

  16. United States Strategy for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    17 March 2005. 2 Homero Aridjis, "Survival of Indigenous Cultures in Mexico," 9 April 1998; available from <http://www.klys.se/worldconference/papers...HomeroAridjis.htm>;Internet; accessed 21 November 2004. 3Tania Carrasco, "Indigenous Peoples in the States of Chiapas, Guerrero and Oaxaca ," 2005...analysis by the State representatives from Chiapas, Guerrero and Oaxaca (3 Southern States). The plan reviewed possible options to reduce poverty and

  17. Mexico and apachería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Julián Durazo Herrmann

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this document is to analyze the relations between the government of Mexico and the Apaches, one of the nomadic tribes inhabiting Northern Mexico, with the tools and from the perspective of foreign policy. My hypothesis is that, although Mexico´s policy towards the Apaches was never international neither in its object (as the Apaches were never treated as an independent nation nor in its approach (Apache policy in Mexico was designed and implemented mainly by local and state authorities, its object was clearly, albeit indirectly, international: the consolidation of Mexican control over its border with the United States.

  18. Yes… Mexico is a racist country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrales, Juan Carlos Finck

    2017-01-01

    According to recent official statistics, in Mexico there is a relation between people’s privileges and their skin color: The lighter, the more privilege. However, social exclusion by racist practices in Mexico has been common practically since its Spanish conquest between 1519 and 1521, in which...... privileges where absorbed and monopolized by European settlers in Mexico (Spanish people: peninsulares) and their descendants (creole: criollos). As a consequence, currently in Mexico, the color of skin affects people’s economic and political privileges and powers in individual and social levels related...

  19. [Seroepidemiology of brucellosis in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Merino, A; Migranas-Ortiz, R; Pérez-Miravete, A; Magos, C; Salvatierra-Izaba, B; Tapia-Conyer, R; Valdespino, J L; Sepúlveda, J

    1992-01-01

    Brucellosis is an important and widely distributed zoonosis in Mexican cattle which also affects an unknown proportion of the human population. This report presents the brucellosis antibody levels registered in the National Seroepidemiology Survey (NAS) in sera obtained from 66,982 healthy persons from one to 98 years of age and determined by the test of plaque microagglutination. Seroprevalences by states ranged from 0.24 per cent in Morelos to 13.5 per cent in the state of Mexico. The national mean was estimated to be 3.42 per cent. The analysis showed no statistical differences for brucellosis antibody levels by urban and rural residence and by density of family sleeping areas (three or more persons vs. one or two persons per bedroom). Adults between 20 and 39 years of age had greater seropositivity and children from one to nine years had the least. Women were most affected and had 48 per cent more seropositivity than men. According to the information obtained in the study, brucellosis in Mexico has the following characteristics: it is related to gender but not to occupation; affects persons in all age groups, social strata and is independent of size of the community of residence. Historically, brucellosis has been an endemic disease in Mexico. Recently an increasing incidence has been reported, and this is possibly due to a better national notification system.

  20. GIS application on modern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Bharath

    This is a GIS based tool for showcasing the history of modern Mexico starting from the post-colonial era to the elections of 2012. The tool is developed using simple language and is flexible so as to allow for future enhancements. The application consists of numerous images and textual information, and also some links which can be used by primary and high school students to understand the history of modern Mexico, and also by tourists to look for all the international airports and United States of America consulates. This software depicts the aftermaths of the Colonial Era or the Spanish rule of Mexico. It covers various topics like the wars, politics, important personalities, drug cartels and violence. All these events are shown on GIS (Geographic information Science) maps. The software can be customized according to the user requirements and is developed using JAVA and GIS technology. The user interface is created using JAVA and MOJO which contributes to effective learning and understanding of the concepts with ease. Some of the user interface features provided in this tool includes zoom-in, zoom-out, legend editing, location identifier, print command, adding a layer and numerous menu items.

  1. Environmental radon studies in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, N; Gaso, M I; Armienta, M A

    2007-04-01

    Radon has been determined in soil, groundwater, and air in Mexico, both indoors and outdoors, as part of geophysical studies and to estimate effective doses as a result of radon exposure. Detection of radon has mainly been performed with solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and, occasionally, with active detection devices based on silicon detectors or ionization chambers. The liquid scintillation technique, also, has been used for determination of radon in groundwater. The adjusted geometric mean indoor radon concentration (74 Bq m-3) in urban developments, for example Mexico City, is higher than the worldwide median concentration of radon in dwellings. In some regions, particularly hilly regions of Mexico where air pollution is high, radon concentrations are higher than action levels and the effective dose for the general population has increased. Higher soil radon levels have been found in the uranium mining areas in the northern part of the country. Groundwater radon levels are, in general, low. Soil-air radon contributing to indoor atmospheres and air pollution is the main source of increased exposure of the population.

  2. [Diabetes in Mexico. CARMELA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge; Buitrón-Granados, Luisa Virginia; Ramírez-Martínez, Jesús Cenobio; Chavira-Mejía, Raymundo; Schargrodsky, Herman; Champagne, Beatriz Marcet

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes has demonstrated an epidemic behavior in Mexico, which is among the top countries with the highest number of patients with diabetes. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Mexico City and its relation with some cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 1,772 adults of both genders, aged 25 to 64 years, were randomly selected. Type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose prevalence were estimated as well as its relation with some cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, abdominal obesity and the common carotid artery intima-media thickness. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 9.7% in women and 8.0% in men. An age effect was evident. The proportion of patients who were unaware of having diabetes was 26%. The main risk factors related to diabetes were age, abdominal obesity, hypertension, low high-density cholesterol lipoproteins (HDL-c) and hypertriglyceridemia. Metabolic control was low. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Mexico is high and is a major health problem. Its close relation with cardiovascular risk factors demand health policies aimed to diminish risk factors related to its occurrence.

  3. Seismic monitoring during acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13 at the Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS, Mexico; Monitoreo sismico durante la estimulacion acida de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13 del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venegas Salgado, Saul; Arredondo Fragoso, Jesus; Ramirez Silva, German; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    From September through December 2004 a seismic monitoring in the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field was carried out simultaneously with the acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13. The seismic network had four digital seismographs and recorded 174 local seismic events, 131 regional ones and many more volcanic signals at seismic station TV20 during the acid stimulation. Additionally, 37 seismic events were located, 22 of them inside the most important geothermal zone at depths between 0.4 and 4 km with typically low magnitudes (0.7 to 2.2 Md). Two relevant zones were determined: Zone A related to the El Volcan fault system and Zone B related to injection well LV-8. In Zone A the well-induction stage and the operation start of the wells LV-4 and LV-13 after acidification on October 30 and November 17, 2004, increased seismic activity to a maximum of 12 daily events in early December. When the two wells in Zone B were cooled before the acidification, the seismic events recorded there increased to a maximum of 6 daily events on October 2, and then decreased. Also in Zone B the seismic activity increased after well-induction and the start of well production once they were acidified, recording up to 11 daily events in late November. According to the seismic distribution, we may conclude that the most active fault systems are El Volcan and El Viejo. New proposals for well locations in the field are supported by these results. [Spanish] De septiembre a diciembre de 2004 se realizo un estudio de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, simultaneamente con las estimulaciones acidas de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13. Se utilizo una red sismica conformada por cuatro sismografos digitales, logrando registrar en la estacion sismica TV20 un total de 174 sismos locales, 131 sismos regionales y muchas mas senales de tipo volcanico, durante el periodo del monitoreo de la estimulacion acida. Ademas, se localizaron un total de 37 sismos, de los cuales 22 se

  4. 2017 Annual Terrestrial Sampling Plan for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico on Kirtland Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Stacy R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The 2017 Annual Terrestrial Sampling Plan for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico on Kirtland Air Force Base has been prepared in accordance with the “Letter of Agreement Between Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Sandia Field Office (DOE/NNSA/SFO) and 377th Air Base Wing (ABW), Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) for Terrestrial Sampling” (signed January 2017), Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The Letter of Agreement requires submittal of an annual terrestrial sampling plan.

  5. Parameterization of almanac crop simulation model for non-irrigated dry bean in semi-arid temperate areas in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alma Delia Baez-Gonzalez; James R. Kiniry; Jose Saul Padilla Ramirez; Guillermo Medina Garcia; Jose Luis Ramos Gonzalez; Esteban Salvador Osuna Ceja

    2015-01-01

    Dry bean simulation models can be used to make management decisions when properly parameterized. This study aimed to parameterize the ALMANAC (Agricultural Land Management Alternatives with Numerical Assessment Criteria) crop simulation model for dry bean in the semi-arid temperate areas of Mexico. The parameterization process was based on data from two important non-irrigated dry bean fields in Mexico. The parameters were potential heat units (PHU), leaf area index (LAI) and harvest index (H...

  6. Rural health care in Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañedo, L

    1974-09-27

    A very large percentage of Mexico's population living in rural areas lacks resources for health care. Any new effort to provide such care must emphasize the health of the infant population because of the high percentage of infants in the country. Plans made at the national level have not been correlated with the conditions that exist in rural areas. For example, the majority of university programs are oriented toward urban medical practice, and the construction of more schools of medicine to solve the problem of doctors in rural areas is based on a mistaken premise. This problem has not been solved even in developed countries such as the United States where, as in Mexico, graduates in medicine migrate to the cities where optimal conditions are met for practicing the type of medicine for which they have been trained. Furthermore, it is both expensive and illogical to maintain urban doctors in rural areas where they cannot practice their profession for lack of resources; to do so is to deny the purpose of their education (27). Conventional schools of medicine, for reasons of investment and of structure, should teach only very selected groups of students who, on finishing their training, are fully capacitated to practice specialized medicine. A different system is required if we are to provide adequate health care in the rural communities. A system such as that described herein, adapted to the real need of rural communities, would avoid the necessity to create dysfunctional bureaucracies and would not destroy those institutions which have proved useful in the past. This study should be considered as one of the many pilot programs that should be initiated in order to determine the type of program that would best solve the problem of health care in rural Mexico. Other programs already being considered at the National Autonomous University of Mexico include the A36 plan of the Faculty of Medicine, now in operation; the work of C. Biro carried out in Netzahualcoyotl City

  7. Volcanism and sedimentation along the western margin of the Rio Grande rift between caldera-forming eruptions of the Jemez Mountains volcanic field, north-central New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Elaine P.; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Kelley, Shari A.; Broxton, David; Ridley, John

    2016-11-01

    The Cerro Toledo Formation (CTF), a series of intracaldera rhyolitic dome complexes and their associated extracaldera tephras and epiclastic sedimentary deposits, records the dynamic interplay between volcanic, tectonic, and geomorphic processes that were occurring along the western margin of the Rio Grande rift between major caldera-forming eruptions of the Bandelier Tuff 1.65-1.26 Ma. The Alamo Canyon and Pueblo Canyon Members differ significantly despite deposition within a few kilometers of each other on the Pajarito Plateau. These differences highlight spatial distinctions in vent sources, eruptive styles, and depositional environments along the eastern side of the Jemez Mountains volcanic field during this ca. 400,000 year interval. Intercalated pyroclastic fall deposits and sandstones of the Pueblo Canyon Member reflect deposition with a basin. Thick Alamo Canyon Member deposits of block-and-ash-flow tuff and pyroclastic fall deposits fill a paleovalley carved into coarse grained sedimentary units reflecting deposition along the mountain front. Chemistry and ages of glass from fall deposits together with clast lithologies of sedimentary units, allow correlation of outcrops, subsurface units, and sources. Dates on pyroclastic fall deposits from Alamo Canyon record deep incision into the underlying Otowi Member in the southern part of the Pajarito Plateau within 100 k.y. of the Toledo caldera-forming eruption. Reconstruction of the CTF surface shows that this period of rapid incision was followed by aggradation where sediments largely filled pre-existing paleocanyons. Complex sequences within the upper portion of the Otowi Member in outcrop and in the subsurface record changes in the style of eruptive activity during the waning stages of the Toledo caldera-forming eruption.

  8. Comparison of PAN and Black Carbon Levels in Mexico City: 1997 and 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2004-12-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is a secondary oxidant formed by the oxidation of hydrocarbons in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. PAN is a good indicator compound for hydrocarbon reactivity that leads to ozone formation. Black carbon (BC) is formed by incomplete combustion processes such as diesel soot formation and is a good indicator of primary carbonaceous aerosols in urban areas. We used a fast-response luminol method to measure PAN and BC during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2003/Mexico City Megacity 2003 field study in April 2003. We compare these results with our previous PAN measurements in Mexico City during February 1997, made with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. The decreased PAN levels observed in 2003 are consistent with the application of emissions controls on spark ignition gasoline-fueled vehicles, leading to lower levels of the nitrogen oxides and reactive volatile hydrocarbons needed to form PAN. Black carbon data for Mexico City in 2003, taken with a seven-channel aethalometer, are compared with data from 1997, estimated from thermal analyses as elemental carbon (EC). The comparison indicates little change in the levels of BC/EC over the six-year period. This observation is consistent with the application of minimal controls to diesel engines, the likely major source of BC in the Mexico City megacity complex during this period. The authors wish to thank the researchers at Centro Nacional de Investigación en Calidad Ambiental (CENICA), Mexico City. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Atmospheric Science Program. We also wish to acknowledge Drs. Mario and Luisa Molina for their help in organizing and directing the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2003 field study, during which these data were collected.

  9. Investigation of the role of environmental contaminants upon ecological sentinel species and their habitats at Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the summers of 1996 and 1997, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, New Mexico Ecological Services Field Office collected 139 biologic and substrate samples,...

  10. Historical oceanographic data and climatologies in support of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event in the Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0064867)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data products and in situ oceanographic data collected as part of the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Gulf of Mexico (May 2010). The climatological fields detailed...

  11. Soil respiration in Mexico: Advances and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cueva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (RS is a CO2 efflux from the soil to the atmosphere defined as the sum of autotrophic (respiration by roots and mycorrhizae, and heterotrophic (respiration of microorganisms that decompose fractions of organic matter and of soil fauna respiration. Globally, RS is considered to be the second largest flux of C to the atmosphere. From published literature it is clear that its main controls are soil temperature, soil moisture, photosynthesis, organic matter inputs and soil biota composition. Despite its relevance in C cycle science, there have been only twenty eight studies in Mexico in the last decade where direct measurement of gas exchange was conducted in the field. These studies were held mostly in agricultural and forest ecosystems, in Central and Southern Mexico where mild subtropical conditions prevail. However, arid, semi-arid, tropical and wetland ecosystems may have an important role in Mexico’s CO2 emissions because of their extent and extensive land use changes. From the twenty eight studies, only two provided continuous measurements of RS with high temporal resolution, highlighting the need for long-term studies to evaluate the complex biophysical controls of this flux and associated processes over different ecological succession stages. We conclude that Mexico represents an important opportunity to understand its complex dynamics, in national and global context, as ecosystems in the country cover a wide range of climatic conditions. This is particularly important because deforestation and degradation of Mexican ecosystems is rapidly increasing along with expected changes in climate.

  12. The influence of aerosols on photochemical smog in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T.; Mar, B. [UNAM, Mexico, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera (Mexico); Madronich, S.; Rivale, S. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Muhlia, A. [UNAM, Mexico, Inst. de Geofysica (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Aerosols in the Mexico City atmosphere can have a non-negligible effect on the ultraviolet radiation field and hence on the formation of photochemical smog. We used estimates of aerosol optical depths from sun photometer observations in a detailed radiative transfer model, to calculate photolysis rate coefficients (J{sub NO2}) for the key reaction NO{sub 2}+h{nu}{yields}NO+O ({lambda}<430nm). The calculated values are in good agreement with previously published measurements of J{sub NO2} at two sites in Mexico City: Palacio de Mineria (19 degrees 25'59''N, 99 degrees 07'58''W, 2233masl), and IMP (19 degrees 28'48''N, 99 degrees 11'07''W, 2277masl) and in Tres Marias, a town near Mexico City (19 degrees 03'N, 99 degrees 14'W, 2810masl). In particular, the model reproduces very well the contrast between the two urban sites and the evidently much cleaner Tres Marias site. For the measurement days, reductions in surface J{sub NO2} by 10-30% could be attributed to the presence of aerosols, with considerable uncertainty due largely to lack of detailed data on aerosol optical properties at ultraviolet wavelengths (esp. the single scattering albedo). The potential impact of such large reductions in photolysis rates on surface ozone concentrations is illustrated with a simple zero-dimensional photochemical model. (Author)

  13. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, L. (ed.)

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  14. Petroleum and Political Change in Mexico,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    34 Ejnaagij Iij~p.’ August 30, 1979, ISLA 778. For the announcement on the increase in proouction,. see ŕMexico Hacia una Nueva Etapa de su Historia...published in Mexico is Marco Antonio Michel and Leopoldo Allub, "Petr~leo y Cambio Social en el Sureste de Mixico," iL In~smar.1.nalp XVIII, April

  15. 77 FR 4461 - New Mexico Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Rules New Mexico proposed minor wording, editorial, punctuation, and grammatical changes to the..., Federal Register (45 FR 86459). You can also find later actions concerning New Mexico's program and... proposed program changes made at its own initiative. We announced receipt of the proposed amendment in...

  16. New Mexico Minerals Industry Locator System (MILS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This contains all Mineral Industry Systems in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a 1:500,000 scale map of the state of New...

  17. New Mexico Known Mineral Deposit Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains all Known Mineral Deposit Areas in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  18. Facing NAFTA: Literacy and Work in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gloria Hernandez; Lankshear, Colin

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the deep and complex challenge faced by Mexico in its quest for closer economic integration with so-called advanced economies. Discusses extensive poverty and illiteracy, and the systematic exclusion of many people from access to the very kinds of learning required by Mexico's economic project. Argues that extraordinary efforts and…

  19. LCA of road infrastructure in Mexico City.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosales Carreon, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a major problem in metropolitan areas and Mexico City is no exception. Located in a pollutant-trapping valley, Mexico City (one of the largest cities in the world) is famous for its size, its history, and the warmth of its people. Nev

  20. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...