WorldWideScience

Sample records for field mapping based

  1. Dipole-magnet field models based on a conformal map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Walstrom

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In general, generation of charged-particle transfer maps for conventional iron-pole-piece dipole magnets to third and higher order requires a model for the midplane field profile and its transverse derivatives (soft-edge model to high order and numerical integration of map coefficients. An exact treatment of the problem for a particular magnet requires use of measured magnetic data. However, in initial design of beam transport systems, users of charged-particle optics codes generally rely on magnet models built into the codes. Indeed, if maps to third order are adequate for the problem, an approximate analytic field model together with numerical map coefficient integration can capture the important features of the transfer map. The model described in this paper is based on the fact that, except at very large distances from the magnet, the magnetic field for parallel pole-face magnets with constant pole gap height and wide pole faces is basically two dimensional (2D. The field for all space outside of the pole pieces is given by a single (complex analytic expression and includes a parameter that controls the rate of falloff of the fringe field. Since the field function is analytic in the complex plane outside of the pole pieces, it satisfies two basic requirements of a field model for higher-order map codes: it is infinitely differentiable at the midplane and also a solution of the Laplace equation. It is apparently the only simple model available that combines an exponential approach to the central field with an inverse cubic falloff of field at large distances from the magnet in a single expression. The model is not intended for detailed fitting of magnetic field data, but for use in numerical map-generating codes for studying the effect of extended fringe fields on higher-order transfer maps. It is based on conformally mapping the area between the pole pieces to the upper half plane, and placing current filaments on the pole faces. An

  2. Structural mapping based on potential field and remote sensing data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swarnapriya Chowdari

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... to comprehend the tectonic development of the ... software for the analysis and interpretation of G– .... The application of remote sensing for mapping ..... Pf1 and Pf2 show profile locations adopted for joint G–M modelling.

  3. GRILLIX. A 3D turbulence code for magnetic fusion devices based on a field line map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegmeir, Andreas Korbinian

    2015-01-01

    The complex geometry in the scrape-off layer of tokamaks poses problems to existing turbulence codes. The usually employed field aligned coordinates become ill defined at the separatrix. Therefore the parallel code GRILLIX was developed, which is based on a field line map. This allows simulations in additional complex geometries, especially across the separatrix. A new discretisation, based on the support operator method, for the highly anisotropic diffusion was developed and applied to a simple turbulence model (Hasegawa-Wakatani).

  4. Mapping the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goerres, Achim; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the call for a political science based study of older people and ageing is not new (Cutler 1977; Heclo 1988), relatively little unified progress has been made so far. This chapter maps the field of generational politics and introduces our edited volume "Ageing Populations in Post-Industri......Whereas the call for a political science based study of older people and ageing is not new (Cutler 1977; Heclo 1988), relatively little unified progress has been made so far. This chapter maps the field of generational politics and introduces our edited volume "Ageing Populations in Post...... boxes by asking a number of central questions. How does population aging change political support for redistribution towards different age groups in society, including not just elderly people but also families with children? How, and when, do established parties in aging democracies implement policies......? The answers provided in this volume promise to be of major interest to scholars in fields such as political economy, political sociology, social policy, comparative politics, demography, and gerontology....

  5. A Joint Land Cover Mapping and Image Registration Algorithm Based on a Markov Random Field Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apisit Eiumnoh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, image registration of multi-modal and multi-temporal images is performed satisfactorily before land cover mapping. However, since multi-modal and multi-temporal images are likely to be obtained from different satellite platforms and/or acquired at different times, perfect alignment is very difficult to achieve. As a result, a proper land cover mapping algorithm must be able to correct registration errors as well as perform an accurate classification. In this paper, we propose a joint classification and registration technique based on a Markov random field (MRF model to simultaneously align two or more images and obtain a land cover map (LCM of the scene. The expectation maximization (EM algorithm is employed to solve the joint image classification and registration problem by iteratively estimating the map parameters and approximate posterior probabilities. Then, the maximum a posteriori (MAP criterion is used to produce an optimum land cover map. We conducted experiments on a set of four simulated images and one pair of remotely sensed images to investigate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm. Our results show that, with proper selection of a critical MRF parameter, the resulting LCMs derived from an unregistered image pair can achieve an accuracy that is as high as when images are perfectly aligned. Furthermore, the registration error can be greatly reduced.

  6. A second-order orientation-contrast stimulus for population-receptive-field-based retinotopic mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Funda; Carvalho, Joana; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2018-01-01

    Visual field or retinotopic mapping is one of the most frequently used paradigms in fMRI. It uses activity evoked by position-varying high luminance contrast visual patterns presented throughout the visual field for determining the spatial organization of cortical visual areas. While the advantage of using high luminance contrast is that it tends to drive a wide range of neural populations - thus resulting in high signal-to-noise BOLD responses - this may also be a limitation, especially for approaches that attempt to squeeze more information out of the BOLD response, such as population receptive field (pRF) mapping. In that case, more selective stimulation of a subset of neurons - despite reduced signals - could result in better characterization of pRF properties. Here, we used a second-order stimulus based on local differences in orientation texture - to which we refer as orientation contrast - to perform retinotopic mapping. Participants in our experiment viewed arrays of Gabor patches composed of a foreground (a bar) and a background. These could only be distinguished on the basis of a difference in patch orientation. In our analyses, we compare the pRF properties obtained using this new orientation contrast-based retinotopy (OCR) to those obtained using classic luminance contrast-based retinotopy (LCR). Specifically, in higher order cortical visual areas such as LO, our novel approach resulted in non-trivial reductions in estimated population receptive field size of around 30%. A set of control experiments confirms that the most plausible cause for this reduction is that OCR mainly drives neurons sensitive to orientation contrast. We discuss how OCR - by limiting receptive field scatter and reducing BOLD displacement - may result in more accurate pRF localization as well. Estimation of neuronal properties is crucial for interpreting cortical function. Therefore, we conclude that using our approach, it is possible to selectively target particular neuronal

  7. Tensor-based morphometry with mappings parameterized by stationary velocity fields in Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossa, Matías Nicolás; Zacur, Ernesto; Olmos, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is an analysis technique where anatomical information is characterized by means of the spatial transformations between a customized template and observed images. Therefore, accurate inter-subject non-rigid registration is an essential prerrequisite. Further statistical analysis of the spatial transformations is used to highlight some useful information, such as local statistical differences among populations. With the new advent of recent and powerful non-rigid registration algorithms based on the large deformation paradigm, TBM is being increasingly used. In this work we evaluate the statistical power of TBM using stationary velocity field diffeomorphic registration in a large population of subjects from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative project. The proposed methodology provided atrophy maps with very detailed anatomical resolution and with a high significance compared with results published recently on the same data set.

  8. Provisional maps of thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, based on satellite thermal infrared imaging and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Heasler, Henry; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2014-01-01

    Maps that define the current distribution of geothermally heated ground are useful toward setting a baseline for thermal activity to better detect and understand future anomalous hydrothermal and (or) volcanic activity. Monitoring changes in the dynamic thermal areas also supports decisions regarding the development of Yellowstone National Park infrastructure, preservation and protection of park resources, and ensuring visitor safety. Because of the challenges associated with field-based monitoring of a large, complex geothermal system that is spread out over a large and remote area, satellite-based thermal infrared images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to map the location and spatial extent of active thermal areas, to generate thermal anomaly maps, and to quantify the radiative component of the total geothermal heat flux. ASTER thermal infrared data acquired during winter nights were used to minimize the contribution of solar heating of the surface. The ASTER thermal infrared mapping results were compared to maps of thermal areas based on field investigations and high-resolution aerial photos. Field validation of the ASTER thermal mapping is an ongoing task. The purpose of this report is to make available ASTER-based maps of Yellowstone’s thermal areas. We include an appendix containing the names and characteristics of Yellowstone’s thermal areas, georeferenced TIFF files containing ASTER thermal imagery, and several spatial data sets in Esri shapefile format.

  9. Landslide Inventory Mapping from Bitemporal 10 m SENTINEL-2 Images Using Change Detection Based Markov Random Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Y.; Lu, P.; Li, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Landslide inventory mapping is essential for hazard assessment and mitigation. In most previous studies, landslide mapping was achieved by visual interpretation of aerial photos and remote sensing images. However, such method is labor-intensive and time-consuming, especially over large areas. Although a number of semi-automatic landslide mapping methods have been proposed over the past few years, limitations remain in terms of their applicability over different study areas and data, and there is large room for improvement in terms of the accuracy and automation degree. For these reasons, we developed a change detection-based Markov Random Field (CDMRF) method for landslide inventory mapping. The proposed method mainly includes two steps: 1) change detection-based multi-threshold for training samples generation and 2) MRF for landslide inventory mapping. Compared with the previous methods, the proposed method in this study has three advantages: 1) it combines multiple image difference techniques with multi-threshold method to generate reliable training samples; 2) it takes the spectral characteristics of landslides into account; and 3) it is highly automatic with little parameter tuning. The proposed method was applied for regional landslides mapping from 10 m Sentinel-2 images in Western China. Results corroborated the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed method especially the capability of rapid landslide mapping. Some directions for future research are offered. This study to our knowledge is the first attempt to map landslides from free and medium resolution satellite (i.e., Sentinel-2) images in China.

  10. Mapping of a major QTL for salt tolerance of mature field-grown maize plants based on SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Meijie; Zhao, Yanxin; Zhang, Ruyang; Xing, Jinfeng; Duan, Minxiao; Li, Jingna; Wang, Naishun; Wang, Wenguang; Zhang, Shasha; Chen, Zhihui; Zhang, Huasheng; Shi, Zi; Song, Wei; Zhao, Jiuran

    2017-08-15

    Salt stress significantly restricts plant growth and production. Maize is an important food and economic crop but is also a salt sensitive crop. Identification of the genetic architecture controlling salt tolerance facilitates breeders to select salt tolerant lines. However, the critical quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for the salt tolerance of field-grown maize plants are still unknown. To map the main genetic factors contributing to salt tolerance in mature maize, a double haploid population (240 individuals) and 1317 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were employed to produce a genetic linkage map covering 1462.05 cM. Plant height of mature maize cultivated in the saline field (SPH) and plant height-based salt tolerance index (ratio of plant height between saline and control fields, PHI) were used to evaluate salt tolerance of mature maize plants. A major QTL for SPH was detected on Chromosome 1 with the LOD score of 22.4, which explained 31.2% of the phenotypic variation. In addition, the major QTL conditioning PHI was also mapped at the same position on Chromosome 1, and two candidate genes involving in ion homeostasis were identified within the confidence interval of this QTL. The detection of the major QTL in adult maize plant establishes the basis for the map-based cloning of genes associated with salt tolerance and provides a potential target for marker assisted selection in developing maize varieties with salt tolerance.

  11. LANDSLIDE INVENTORY MAPPING FROM BITEMPORAL 10 m SENTINEL-2 IMAGES USING CHANGE DETECTION BASED MARKOV RANDOM FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Qin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Landslide inventory mapping is essential for hazard assessment and mitigation. In most previous studies, landslide mapping was achieved by visual interpretation of aerial photos and remote sensing images. However, such method is labor-intensive and time-consuming, especially over large areas. Although a number of semi-automatic landslide mapping methods have been proposed over the past few years, limitations remain in terms of their applicability over different study areas and data, and there is large room for improvement in terms of the accuracy and automation degree. For these reasons, we developed a change detection-based Markov Random Field (CDMRF method for landslide inventory mapping. The proposed method mainly includes two steps: 1 change detection-based multi-threshold for training samples generation and 2 MRF for landslide inventory mapping. Compared with the previous methods, the proposed method in this study has three advantages: 1 it combines multiple image difference techniques with multi-threshold method to generate reliable training samples; 2 it takes the spectral characteristics of landslides into account; and 3 it is highly automatic with little parameter tuning. The proposed method was applied for regional landslides mapping from 10 m Sentinel-2 images in Western China. Results corroborated the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed method especially the capability of rapid landslide mapping. Some directions for future research are offered. This study to our knowledge is the first attempt to map landslides from free and medium resolution satellite (i.e., Sentinel-2 images in China.

  12. MODIS 250m burned area mapping based on an algorithm using change point detection and Markov random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Bernardo; Pereira, Jose; Campagnolo, Manuel; Killick, Rebeca

    2013-04-01

    Area burned in tropical savannas of Brazil was mapped using MODIS-AQUA daily 250m resolution imagery by adapting one of the European Space Agency fire_CCI project burned area algorithms, based on change point detection and Markov random fields. The study area covers 1,44 Mkm2 and was performed with data from 2005. The daily 1000 m image quality layer was used for cloud and cloud shadow screening. The algorithm addresses each pixel as a time series and detects changes in the statistical properties of NIR reflectance values, to identify potential burning dates. The first step of the algorithm is robust filtering, to exclude outlier observations, followed by application of the Pruned Exact Linear Time (PELT) change point detection technique. Near-infrared (NIR) spectral reflectance changes between time segments, and post change NIR reflectance values are combined into a fire likelihood score. Change points corresponding to an increase in reflectance are dismissed as potential burn events, as are those occurring outside of a pre-defined fire season. In the last step of the algorithm, monthly burned area probability maps and detection date maps are converted to dichotomous (burned-unburned maps) using Markov random fields, which take into account both spatial and temporal relations in the potential burned area maps. A preliminary assessment of our results is performed by comparison with data from the MODIS 1km active fires and the 500m burned area products, taking into account differences in spatial resolution between the two sensors.

  13. Mapping spatial variability of soil salinity in a coastal paddy field based on electromagnetic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Huang, Jingyi; Shi, Zhou; Li, Hongyi

    2015-01-01

    In coastal China, there is an urgent need to increase land area for agricultural production and urban development, where there is a rapid growing population. One solution is land reclamation from coastal tidelands, but soil salinization is problematic. As such, it is very important to characterize and map the within-field variability of soil salinity in space and time. Conventional methods are often time-consuming, expensive, labor-intensive, and unpractical. Fortunately, proximal sensing has become an important technology in characterizing within-field spatial variability. In this study, we employed the EM38 to study spatial variability of soil salinity in a coastal paddy field. Significant correlation relationship between ECa and EC1:5 (i.e. r >0.9) allowed us to use EM38 data to characterize the spatial variability of soil salinity. Geostatistical methods were used to determine the horizontal spatio-temporal variability of soil salinity over three consecutive years. The study found that the distribution of salinity was heterogeneous and the leaching of salts was more significant in the edges of the study field. By inverting the EM38 data using a Quasi-3D inversion algorithm, the vertical spatio-temporal variability of soil salinity was determined and the leaching of salts over time was easily identified. The methodology of this study can be used as guidance for researchers interested in understanding soil salinity development as well as land managers aiming for effective soil salinity monitoring and management practices. In order to better characterize the variations in soil salinity to a deeper soil profile, the deeper mode of EM38 (i.e., EM38v) as well as other EMI instruments (e.g. DUALEM-421) can be incorporated to conduct Quasi-3D inversions for deeper soil profiles.

  14. Mapping spatial variability of soil salinity in a coastal paddy field based on electromagnetic sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    Full Text Available In coastal China, there is an urgent need to increase land area for agricultural production and urban development, where there is a rapid growing population. One solution is land reclamation from coastal tidelands, but soil salinization is problematic. As such, it is very important to characterize and map the within-field variability of soil salinity in space and time. Conventional methods are often time-consuming, expensive, labor-intensive, and unpractical. Fortunately, proximal sensing has become an important technology in characterizing within-field spatial variability. In this study, we employed the EM38 to study spatial variability of soil salinity in a coastal paddy field. Significant correlation relationship between ECa and EC1:5 (i.e. r >0.9 allowed us to use EM38 data to characterize the spatial variability of soil salinity. Geostatistical methods were used to determine the horizontal spatio-temporal variability of soil salinity over three consecutive years. The study found that the distribution of salinity was heterogeneous and the leaching of salts was more significant in the edges of the study field. By inverting the EM38 data using a Quasi-3D inversion algorithm, the vertical spatio-temporal variability of soil salinity was determined and the leaching of salts over time was easily identified. The methodology of this study can be used as guidance for researchers interested in understanding soil salinity development as well as land managers aiming for effective soil salinity monitoring and management practices. In order to better characterize the variations in soil salinity to a deeper soil profile, the deeper mode of EM38 (i.e., EM38v as well as other EMI instruments (e.g. DUALEM-421 can be incorporated to conduct Quasi-3D inversions for deeper soil profiles.

  15. Mapping Spatial Variability of Soil Salinity in a Coastal Paddy Field Based on Electromagnetic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Huang, Jingyi; Shi, Zhou; Li, Hongyi

    2015-01-01

    In coastal China, there is an urgent need to increase land area for agricultural production and urban development, where there is a rapid growing population. One solution is land reclamation from coastal tidelands, but soil salinization is problematic. As such, it is very important to characterize and map the within-field variability of soil salinity in space and time. Conventional methods are often time-consuming, expensive, labor-intensive, and unpractical. Fortunately, proximal sensing has become an important technology in characterizing within-field spatial variability. In this study, we employed the EM38 to study spatial variability of soil salinity in a coastal paddy field. Significant correlation relationship between ECa and EC1:5 (i.e. r >0.9) allowed us to use EM38 data to characterize the spatial variability of soil salinity. Geostatistical methods were used to determine the horizontal spatio-temporal variability of soil salinity over three consecutive years. The study found that the distribution of salinity was heterogeneous and the leaching of salts was more significant in the edges of the study field. By inverting the EM38 data using a Quasi-3D inversion algorithm, the vertical spatio-temporal variability of soil salinity was determined and the leaching of salts over time was easily identified. The methodology of this study can be used as guidance for researchers interested in understanding soil salinity development as well as land managers aiming for effective soil salinity monitoring and management practices. In order to better characterize the variations in soil salinity to a deeper soil profile, the deeper mode of EM38 (i.e., EM38v) as well as other EMI instruments (e.g. DUALEM-421) can be incorporated to conduct Quasi-3D inversions for deeper soil profiles. PMID:26020969

  16. Beebook: light field mapping app

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Di Pietro, Gianfranco; Rinnone, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade the mobile systems for field digital mapping were developed (see Wikipedia for "Digital geologic mapping"), also against many skeptic traditional geologists. Until now, hardware was often heavy (tablet PC) and software sometime difficult also for expert GIS users. At present, the advent of light tablet and applications makes things easier, but we are far to find a whole solution for a complex survey like the geological one where you have to manage complexities such information, hypothesis, data, interpretation. Beebook is a new app for Android devices, has been developed for fast ad easy mapping work in the field trying to try to solve this problem. The main features are: • off-line raster management, GeoTIFF ed other raster format using; • on-line map visualisation (Google Maps, OSM, WMS, WFS); • SR management and conversion using PROJ.4; • vector file mash-up (KML and SQLite format); • editing of vector data on the map (lines, points, polygons); • augmented reality using "Mixare" platform; • export of vector data in KML, CSV, SQLite (Spatialite) format; • note: GPS or manual point inserting linked to other application files (pictures, spreadsheet, etc.); • form: creation, edition and filling of customized form; • GPS: status control, tracker and positioning on map; • sharing: synchronization and sharing of data, forms, positioning and other information can be done among users. The input methods are different from digital keyboard to fingers touch, from voice recording to stylus. In particular the most efficient way of inserting information is the stylus (or pen): field geologists are familiar with annotation and sketches. Therefore we suggest the use of devices with stylus. The main point is that Beebook is the first "transparent" mobile GIS for tablet and smartphone deriving from previous experience as traditional mapping and different previous digital mapping software ideation and development (MapIT, BeeGIS, Geopaparazzi

  17. CDC field mapping device - ''ROTOTRACK''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, R.; Hawtree, J.; Kaczar, K.; Leverence, R.; McGuire, K.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Schmidt, E.E.; Shallenberger, J.

    1985-10-01

    A field mapping device for the magnet of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) was constructed. The device was used for extensive study of the CDF magnetic field distribution. The mechanical and electrical features of the device, as well as the data acquisition system and software, are described. The mechanical system was designed so that the errors on the position and angle of the probe were +-0.75 mm and +-1 mrad, respectively

  18. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

    2007-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  19. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  20. Electric field mapping and auroral Birkeland currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.L.; Larson, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic field lines, electric fields and equipotentials have been mapped throughout the magnetosphere in the vicinity of strong Birkeland currents. It was found that a uniform electric field at either the ionospheric or the equatorial end of a field line can map to a highly structured field at the other end if strong Birkeland currents are located nearby. The initiation of sheet currents of the region 1 - region 2 scale size and intensity resulted in magnetic field line displacements of about 1/2 hour in local time between equatorial and ionospheric end points. As a result, a uniform dawn to dusk electric field at the equator mapped to an ionospheric electric field with strong inward pointing components in the dusk hemisphere. Similar distortions were produced by Birkeland currents associated with narrow east-west-aligned auroral arcs. A specific model for the auroral current system, based on ionospheric measurements during a large substorm, was used to study effects seen during disturbed periods. An iterative procedure was developed to generate a self-consistent current system even in the presence of highly twisted field lines. The measured ionospheric electric field was projected tot he equatorial plane in the presence of the model Birkeland current system. Several physical processes were seen to influence ionospheric and equatorial electric fields, and the associated plasma convection, during a substorm

  1. Weed mapping in early-season maize fields using object-based analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; de Castro, Ana Isabel; Kelly, Maggi; López-Granados, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range) with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1) classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2) discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3) generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r(2)=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (weeds) was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance.

  2. Development of mapped stress-field boundary conditions based on a Hill-type muscle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiff, P; Karač, A; FitzPatrick, D; Flavin, R; Ivanković, A

    2014-09-01

    Forces generated in the muscles and tendons actuate the movement of the skeleton. Accurate estimation and application of these musculotendon forces in a continuum model is not a trivial matter. Frequently, musculotendon attachments are approximated as point forces; however, accurate estimation of local mechanics requires a more realistic application of musculotendon forces. This paper describes the development of mapped Hill-type muscle models as boundary conditions for a finite volume model of the hip joint, where the calculated muscle fibres map continuously between attachment sites. The applied muscle forces are calculated using active Hill-type models, where input electromyography signals are determined from gait analysis. Realistic muscle attachment sites are determined directly from tomography images. The mapped muscle boundary conditions, implemented in a finite volume structural OpenFOAM (ESI-OpenCFD, Bracknell, UK) solver, are employed to simulate the mid-stance phase of gait using a patient-specific natural hip joint, and a comparison is performed with the standard point load muscle approach. It is concluded that physiological joint loading is not accurately represented by simplistic muscle point loading conditions; however, when contact pressures are of sole interest, simplifying assumptions with regard to muscular forces may be valid. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Flow field mapping in data rack model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěcha J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to map the flow field inside the data rack model, fitted with three 1U server models. The server model is based on the common four-processor 1U server. The main dimensions of the data rack model geometry are taken fully from the real geometry. Only the model was simplified with respect to the greatest possibility in the experimental measurements. The flow field mapping was carried out both experimentally and numerically. PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry method was used for the experimental flow field mapping, when the flow field has been mapped for defined regions within the 2D/3D data rack model. Ansys CFX and OpenFOAM software were used for the numerical solution. Boundary conditions for numerical model were based on data obtained from experimental measurement of velocity profile at the output of the server mockup. This velocity profile was used as the input boundary condition in the calculation. In order to achieve greater consistency of the numerical model with experimental data, the numerical model was modified with regard to the results of experimental measurements. Results from the experimental and numerical measurements were compared and the areas of disparateness were identified. In further steps the obtained proven numerical model will be utilized for the real geometry of data racks and data.

  4. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Sporring, Jon; Fogh Olsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    . To address this problem, we introduce a photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way, we preserve important illumination features, while...

  5. BaseMap

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The goal of this project is to provide a convenient base map that can be used as a starting point for CA projects. It's simple, but designed to work at a number of...

  6. Mapping the evolution of scientific fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Mark; Roberts, David C; Gulbahce, Natali

    2010-05-04

    Despite the apparent cross-disciplinary interactions among scientific fields, a formal description of their evolution is lacking. Here we describe a novel approach to study the dynamics and evolution of scientific fields using a network-based analysis. We build an idea network consisting of American Physical Society Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme (PACS) numbers as nodes representing scientific concepts. Two PACS numbers are linked if there exist publications that reference them simultaneously. We locate scientific fields using a community finding algorithm, and describe the time evolution of these fields over the course of 1985-2006. The communities we identify map to known scientific fields, and their age depends on their size and activity. We expect our approach to quantifying the evolution of ideas to be relevant for making predictions about the future of science and thus help to guide its development.

  7. The CMS Magnetic Field Map Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Klyukhin, V.I.; Andreev, V.; Ball, A.; Cure, B.; Herve, A.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Karimaki, V.; Loveless, R.; Mulders, M.; Popescu, S.; Sarycheva, L.I.; Virdee, T.

    2010-04-05

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general-purpose detector designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive featuresinclude a 4 T superconducting solenoid with 6 m diameter by 12.5 m long free bore, enclosed inside a 10000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. Accurate characterization of the magnetic field everywhere in the CMS detector is required. During two major tests of the CMS magnet the magnetic flux density was measured inside the coil in a cylinder of 3.448 m diameter and 7 m length with a specially designed field-mapping pneumatic machine as well as in 140 discrete regions of the CMS yoke with NMR probes, 3-D Hall sensors and flux-loops. A TOSCA 3-D model of the CMS magnet has been developed to describe the magnetic field everywhere outside the tracking volume measured with the field-mapping machine. A volume based representation of the magnetic field is used to provide the CMS simulation and reconstruction software with the magnetic field ...

  8. Topological mass mechanism and exact fields mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, R L P G; Ventura, O S; Buffon, L O; Costa, J V

    2006-01-01

    We present a class of mappings between models with topological mass mechanism and purely topological models in arbitrary dimensions. These mappings are established by directly mapping the fields of one model in terms of the fields of the other model in closed expressions. These expressions provide the mappings of their actions as well as the mappings of their propagators. For a general class of models in which the topological model becomes the BF model the mappings present arbitrary functions which otherwise are absent for Chern-Simons like actions. This work generalizes the results of (Ventura O S, Amaral R L P G, Costa J V, Buffon L O and Lemes V E R 2004 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 11711-23) for arbitrary dimensions

  9. Monturaqui meteorite impact crater, Chile: A field test of the utility of satellite-based mapping of ejecta at small craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, K.; Ukstins, I.; Drop, S.

    2017-12-01

    Monturaqui Crater is a small ( 350 m diameter), simple meteorite impact crater located in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile that was emplaced in Ordovician granite overlain by discontinuous Pliocene ignimbrite. Ejecta deposits are granite and ignimbrite, with lesser amounts of dark impact melt and rare tektites and iron shale. The impact restructured existing drainage systems in the area that have subsequently eroded through the ejecta. Satellite-based mapping and modeling, including a synthesis of photographic satellite imagery and ASTER thermal infrared imagery in ArcGIS, were used to construct a basic geological interpretation of the site with special emphasis on understanding ejecta distribution patterns. This was combined with field-based mapping to construct a high-resolution geologic map of the crater and its ejecta blanket and field check the satellite-based geologic interpretation. The satellite- and modeling-based interpretation suggests a well-preserved crater with an intact, heterogeneous ejecta blanket that has been subjected to moderate erosion. In contrast, field mapping shows that the crater has a heavily-eroded rim and ejecta blanket, and the ejecta is more heterogeneous than previously thought. In addition, the erosion rate at Monturaqui is much higher than erosion rates reported elsewhere in the Atacama Desert. The bulk compositions of the target rocks at Monturaqui are similar and the ejecta deposits are highly heterogeneous, so distinguishing between them with remote sensing is less effective than with direct field observations. In particular, the resolution of available imagery for the site is too low to resolve critical details that are readily apparent in the field on the scale of 10s of cm, and which significantly alter the geologic interpretation. The limiting factors for effective remote interpretation at Monturaqui are its target composition and crater size relative to the resolution of the remote sensing methods employed. This

  10. Mapping Fish Community Variables by Integrating Field and Satellite Data, Object-Based Image Analysis and Modeling in a Traditional Fijian Fisheries Management Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Jupiter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of marine spatial planning for zoning multi-use areas is growing in both developed and developing countries. Comprehensive maps of marine resources, including those important for local fisheries management and biodiversity conservation, provide a crucial foundation of information for the planning process. Using a combination of field and high spatial resolution satellite data, we use an empirical procedure to create a bathymetric map (RMSE 1.76 m and object-based image analysis to produce accurate maps of geomorphic and benthic coral reef classes (Kappa values of 0.80 and 0.63; 9 and 33 classes, respectively covering a large (>260 km2 traditional fisheries management area in Fiji. From these maps, we derive per-pixel information on habitat richness, structural complexity, coral cover and the distance from land, and use these variables as input in models to predict fish species richness, diversity and biomass. We show that random forest models outperform five other model types, and that all three fish community variables can be satisfactorily predicted from the high spatial resolution satellite data. We also show geomorphic zone to be the most important predictor on average, with secondary contributions from a range of other variables including benthic class, depth, distance from land, and live coral cover mapped at coarse spatial scales, suggesting that data with lower spatial resolution and lower cost may be sufficient for spatial predictions of the three fish community variables.

  11. Satellite-based mapping of field-scale stress indicators for crop yield forecasting: an application over Mead, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Anderson, M. C.; Gao, F.; Wardlow, B.; Hain, C.; Otkin, J.; Sun, L.; Dulaney, W.

    2017-12-01

    In agricultural regions, water is one of the most widely limiting factors of crop performance and production. Evapotranspiration (ET) describes crop water use through transpiration and water lost through direct soil evaporation, which makes it a good indicator of soil moisture availability and vegetation health and thus has been an integral part of many yield estimation efforts. The Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) describes temporal anomalies in a normalized evapotranspiration metric (fRET) as derived from satellite remote sensing and has demonstrated capacity to explain regional yield variability in water limited crop growing regions. However, its performance in some regions where the vegetation cycle is intensively managed appears to be degraded. In this study we generated maps of ET, fRET, and ESI at high spatiotemporal resolution (30-m pixels, daily timesteps) using a multi-sensor data fusion method, integrating information from satellite platforms with good temporal coverage and other platforms that provide field-scale spatial detail. The study was conducted over the period 2010-2014, covering a region around Mead, Nebraska that includes both rainfed and irrigated crops. Correlations between ESI and measurements of corn yield are investigated at both the field and county level to assess the value of ESI as a yield forecasting tool. To examine the role of phenology in ESI-yield correlations, annual input fRET timeseries were aligned by both calendar day and by biophysically relevant dates (e.g. days since planting or emergence). Results demonstrate that mapping of fRET and ESI at 30-m has the advantage of being able to resolve different crop types with varying phenology. The study also suggests that incorporating phenological information significantly improves yield-correlations by accounting for effects of phenology such as variable planting date and emergence date. The yield-ESI relationship in this study well captures the inter-annual variability of yields

  12. Solving topological field theories on mapping tori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, M.; Jermyn, I.; Thompson, G.

    1996-05-01

    Using gauge theory and functional integral methods, we derive concrete expressions for the partition functions of BF theory and the U(1 modul 1) model of Rozansky and Saleur on Σ x S 1 , both directly and using equivalent two-dimensional theories. We also derive the partition function on a certain non-abelian generalization of the U(1 modul 1) model on mapping tori and hence obtain explicit expressions for the Ray-Singer torsion on these manifolds. Extensions of these results to BF and Chern-Simons theories on mapping tori are also discussed. The topological field theory actions of the equivalent two- dimensional theories we find have the interesting property of depending explicitly on the diffeomorphism defining the mapping torus while the quantum field theory is sensitive only to its isomorphism class defining the mapping torus as a smooth manifold. (author). 20 refs

  13. Diagnosing and mapping pulmonary emphysema on X-ray projection images: incremental value of grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, Felix G; Schwab, Felix; Schleede, Simone; Bech, Martin; Herzen, Julia; Achterhold, Klaus; Auweter, Sigrid; Bamberg, Fabian; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Bohla, Alexander; Eickelberg, Oliver; Loewen, Rod; Gifford, Martin; Ruth, Ronald; Reiser, Maximilian F; Pfeiffer, Franz; Nikolaou, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging can increase the sensitivity of X-ray projection images in the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema and allow for a more accurate assessment of emphysema distribution. Lungs from three mice with pulmonary emphysema and three healthy mice were imaged ex vivo using a laser-driven compact synchrotron X-ray source. Median signal intensities of transmission (T), dark-field (V) and a combined parameter (normalized scatter) were compared between emphysema and control group. To determine the diagnostic value of each parameter in differentiating between healthy and emphysematous lung tissue, a receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed both on a per-pixel and a per-individual basis. Parametric maps of emphysema distribution were generated using transmission, dark-field and normalized scatter signal and correlated with histopathology. Transmission values relative to water were higher for emphysematous lungs than for control lungs (1.11 vs. 1.06, pemphysema provides color-coded parametric maps, which show the best correlation with histopathology. In a murine model, the complementary information provided by X-ray transmission and dark-field images adds incremental diagnostic value in detecting pulmonary emphysema and visualizing its regional distribution as compared to conventional X-ray projections.

  14. Phenology-based Spartina alterniflora mapping in coastal wetland of the Yangtze Estuary using time series of GaoFen satellite no. 1 wide field of view imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jinquan; Gao, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Shi, Runhe; Zhang, Chao

    2017-04-01

    Spartina alterniflora is an aggressive invasive plant species that replaces native species, changes the structure and function of the ecosystem across coastal wetlands in China, and is thus a major conservation concern. Mapping the spread of its invasion is a necessary first step for the implementation of effective ecological management strategies. The performance of a phenology-based approach for S. alterniflora mapping is explored in the coastal wetland of the Yangtze Estuary using a time series of GaoFen satellite no. 1 wide field of view camera (GF-1 WFV) imagery. First, a time series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was constructed to evaluate the phenology of S. alterniflora. Two phenological stages (the senescence stage from November to mid-December and the green-up stage from late April to May) were determined as important for S. alterniflora detection in the study area based on NDVI temporal profiles, spectral reflectance curves of S. alterniflora and its coexistent species, and field surveys. Three phenology feature sets representing three major phenology-based detection strategies were then compared to map S. alterniflora: (1) the single-date imagery acquired within the optimal phenological window, (2) the multitemporal imagery, including four images from the two important phenological windows, and (3) the monthly NDVI time series imagery. Support vector machines and maximum likelihood classifiers were applied on each phenology feature set at different training sample sizes. For all phenology feature sets, the overall results were produced consistently with high mapping accuracies under sufficient training samples sizes, although significantly improved classification accuracies (10%) were obtained when the monthly NDVI time series imagery was employed. The optimal single-date imagery had the lowest accuracies of all detection strategies. The multitemporal analysis demonstrated little reduction in the overall accuracy compared with the

  15. Geothermal system boundary at the northern edge of Patuha Geothermal Field based on integrated study of volcanostratigraphy, geological field mapping, and cool springs contamination by thermal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryantini; Rachmawati, C.; Abdurrahman, M.

    2017-12-01

    Patuha Geothermal System is a volcanic hydrothermal system. In this type of system, the boundary of the system is often determined by low resistivity (10 ohm.m) anomaly from Magnetotelluric (MT) or DC-Resistivity survey. On the contrary, during geothermal exploration, the system boundary often need to be determined as early as possible even prior of resistivity data available. Thus, a method that use early stage survey data must be developed properly to reduce the uncertainty of the geothermal area extent delineation at the time the geophysical data unavailable. Geological field mapping, volcanostratigraphy analysis and fluid chemistry of thermal water and cold water are the data available at the early stage of exploration. This study integrates this data to delineate the geothermal system boundary. The geological mapping and volcanostratigraphy are constructed to limit the extent of thermal and cold springs. It results that springs in the study area are controlled hydrologically by topography of Patuha Volcanic Crown (complex) or so called PVC, the current geothermal field and Masigit Volcanic Crown (complex) or so called MVC, the dormant volcano not associated with active geothermal system. Some of the cold springs at PVC are contaminated by subsurface steam heated outflow while others are not contaminated. The contaminated cold springs have several characteristics such as higher water temperature than ambient temperature at the time it was measured, higher total disolved solid (TDS), and lower pH. The soluble elements analysis support the early contamination indication by showing higher cation and anion, and positive oxygen shifting of stable isotope of these cool springs. Where as the uncontaminated spring shows similar characteristic with cool springs occur at MVC. The boundary of the system is delineated by an arbitrary line drawn between distal thermal springs from the upflow or contaminated cool springs with the cool uncontaminated springs. This boundary is

  16. Field Mapping System for Solenoid Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. H.; Jung, Y. K.; Kim, D. E.; Lee, H. G.; Park, S. J.; Chung, C. W.; Kang, B. K.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional Hall probe mapping system for measuring the solenoid magnet of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun has been developed. It can map the solenoid field either in Cartesian or in cylindrical coordinate system with a measurement reproducibility better than 5 × 10-5 T. The system has three axis motors: one for the azimuthal direction and the other two for the x and z direction. This architecture makes the measuring system simple in fabrication. The magnetic center was calculated using the measured axial component of magnetic field Bz in Cartesian coordinate system because the accuracy of magnetic axis measurement could be improved significantly by using Bz, instead of the radial component of magnetic field Br. This paper describes the measurement system and summarizes the measurement results for the solenoid magnetic of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun.

  17. Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Map of Timisoara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefu, N.; Solyom, I.; Arama, A.

    2015-12-01

    There are many electromagnetic field (EMF) sources nowadays acting simultaneously, especially in urban areas, making the theoretical estimation of electromagnetic power at ground level very difficult. This paper reports on EMF maps built with measurements collected in Timisoara, at various radiofrequencies. A grid of 15×15 squares was built (approximate resolution 400m x 400m) and measurements of the average and maximum values of the electric field E, magnetic field H and total power density S at 0.9, 1.8 and 2.4 GHz were collected in every node of the grid. Positions of the nodes in terms of latitude and longitude were also collected. Maps were built presenting the spatial distribution of the measured quantities over Timisoara. Potential influences of EMF on public health are discussed.

  18. GIS- and field based mapping of geomorphological changes in a glacier retreat area: A case study from the Kromer valley, Silvretta Alps (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann, Markus; Pöppl, Ronald

    2017-04-01

    Global warming results in an ongoing retreat of Alpine glaciers, leaving behind large amounts of easily erodible sediments. As a consequence processes like rockfalls, landslides and debris flows as well as fluvial processes occur more frequently in pro- and paraglacial areas, often involving catastrophic consequences for humans and infrastructure in the affected valleys. The main objective of the presented work was to map and spatially quantify glacier retreat and geomorphological changes in the Kromer valley, Silvretta Alps (Austria) by applying GIS- and field-based geomorphological mapping. In total six geomorphological maps (1950s, 1970s, 2001, 2006, 2012, and 2016) were produced and analyzed in the light of the study aim. First results have shown a significant decrease of total glaciated area from 96 ha to 53 ha which was accompanied by increased proglacial geomorphic activity (i.e. fluvial processes, rockfalls, debris flows, shallow landslides) in the last 15 years. More detailed results will be presented at the EGU General Assembly 2017.

  19. USGS Topo Base Map from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Topographic Base Map from The National Map. This tile cached web map service combines the most current data services (Boundaries, Names, Transportation,...

  20. A combined approach based on MAF analysis and AHP method to fault detection mapping: A case study from a gas field, southwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakiba, Sima; Asghari, Omid; Khah, Nasser Keshavarz Faraj

    2018-01-01

    A combined geostatitical methodology based on Min/Max Auto-correlation Factor (MAF) analysis and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is presented to generate a suitable Fault Detection Map (FDM) through seismic attributes. Five seismic attributes derived from a 2D time slice obtained from data related to a gas field located in southwest of Iran are used including instantaneous amplitude, similarity, energy, frequency, and Fault Enhancement Filter (FEF). The MAF analysis is implemented to reduce dimension of input variables, and then AHP method is applied on three obtained de-correlated MAF factors as evidential layer. Three Decision Makers (DMs) are used to construct PCMs for determining weights of selected evidential layer. Finally, weights obtained by AHP were multiplied in normalized valued of each alternative (MAF layers) and the concluded weighted layers were integrated in order to prepare final FDM. Results proved that applying algorithm proposed in this study generate a map more acceptable than the each individual attribute and sharpen the non-surface discontinuities as well as enhancing continuity of detected faults.

  1. Validation of the CMS Magnetic Field Map

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00096921; Amapane, N.; Ball, A.; Curé, B.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Mulders, M.; Calvelli, V.; Hervé, A.; Loveless, R.

    2014-10-26

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector, designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive features include a 4-T superconducting solenoid with 6-m-diameter by 12.5-m-length free bore, enclosed inside a 10,000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. The return yoke consists of five dodecagonal three-layered barrel wheels and four end-cap disks at each end comprised of steel blocks up to 620 mm thick, which serve as the absorber plates of the muon detection system. To measure the field in and around the steel, a system of 22 flux loops and 82 three-dimensional (3-D) Hall sensors is installed on the return yoke blocks. A TOSCA 3-D model of the CMS magnet is developed to describe the magnetic field everywhere outside the tracking volume measured with the field-mapping machine. The magnetic field description is compared with the measurements and discussed.

  2. USGS Imagery Only Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Imagery Only is a tile cache base map of orthoimagery in The National Map visible to the 1:18,000 scale. Orthoimagery data are typically high resolution images...

  3. Fold maps and positive topological quantum field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrazidlo, Dominik Johannes

    2017-04-12

    The notion of positive TFT as coined by Banagl is specified by an axiomatic system based on Atiyah's original axioms for TFTs. By virtue of a general framework that is based on the concept of Eilenberg completeness of semirings from computer science, a positive TFT can be produced rigorously via quantization of systems of fields and action functionals - a process inspired by Feynman's path integral from classical quantum field theory. The purpose of the present dissertation thesis is to investigate a new differential topological invariant for smooth manifolds that arises as the state sum of the fold map TFT, which has been constructed by Banagl as a example of a positive TFT. By eliminating an internal technical assumption on the fields of the fold map TFT, we are able to express the informational content of the state sum in terms of an extension problem for fold maps from cobordisms into the plane. Next, we use the general theory of generic smooth maps into the plane to improve known results about the structure of the state sum in arbitrary dimensions, and to determine it completely in dimension two. The aggregate invariant of a homotopy sphere, which is derived from the state sum, naturally leads us to define a filtration of the group of homotopy spheres in order to understand the role of indefinite fold lines beyond a theorem of Saeki. As an application, we show how Kervaire spheres can be characterized by indefinite fold lines in certain dimensions.

  4. Soil process-oriented modelling of within-field variability based on high-resolution 3D soil type distribution maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönecke, Eric; Lück, Erika; Gründling, Ralf; Rühlmann, Jörg; Franko, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Today, the knowledge of within-field variability is essential for numerous purposes, including practical issues, such as precision and sustainable soil management. Therefore, process-oriented soil models have been applied for a considerable time to answer question of spatial soil nutrient and water dynamics, although, they can only be as consistent as their variation and resolution of soil input data. Traditional approaches, describe distribution of soil types, soil texture or other soil properties for greater soil units through generalised point information, e.g. from classical soil survey maps. Those simplifications are known to be afflicted with large uncertainties. Varying soil, crop or yield conditions are detected even within such homogenised soil units. However, recent advances of non-invasive soil survey and on-the-go monitoring techniques, made it possible to obtain vertical and horizontal dense information (3D) about various soil properties, particularly soil texture distribution which serves as an essential soil key variable affecting various other soil properties. Thus, in this study we based our simulations on detailed 3D soil type distribution (STD) maps (4x4 m) to adjacently built-up sufficient informative soil profiles including various soil physical and chemical properties. Our estimates of spatial STD are based on high-resolution lateral and vertical changes of electrical resistivity (ER), detected by a relatively new multi-sensor on-the-go ER monitoring device. We performed an algorithm including fuzzy-c-mean (FCM) logic and traditional soil classification to estimate STD from those inverted and layer-wise available ER data. STD is then used as key input parameter for our carbon, nitrogen and water transport model. We identified Pedological horizon depths and inferred hydrological soil variables (field capacity, permanent wilting point) from pedotransferfunctions (PTF) for each horizon. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon

  5. LHCb: Parameterization of the LHCb magnetic field map

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G

    2007-01-01

    The LHCb warm magnet has been designed to provide an integrated field of 4 Tm for tracks coming from the primary vertex. To insure good momentum resolution of a few per mil, an accurate description of the magnetic field map is needed. This is achieved by combining the information from a TOSCA-based simulation and data from measurements. The paper presents the fit method applied to both the simulation and data to achieve the requirements. It also explains how the corresponding software tool is integrated in the LHCb Gaudi software and shows the relation with the environment in which it is used.

  6. European wet deposition maps based on measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen EP van; Erisman JW; Draaijers GPJ; Potma CJM; Pul WAJ van; LLO

    1995-01-01

    To date, wet deposition maps on a European scale have been based on long-range transport model results. For most components wet deposition maps based on measurements are only available on national scales. Wet deposition maps of acidifying components and base cations based on measurements are needed

  7. Stress field modelling from digital geological map data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Gáspár; Barancsuk, Ádám; Szentpéteri, Krisztián

    2016-04-01

    To create a model for the lithospheric stress a functional geodatabase is required which contains spatial and geodynamic parameters. A digital structural-geological map is a geodatabase, which usually contains enough attributes to create a stress field model. Such a model is not accurate enough for engineering-geological purposes because simplifications are always present in a map, but in many cases maps are the only sources for a tectonic analysis. The here presented method is designed for field geologist, who are interested to see the possible realization of the stress field over the area, on which they are working. This study presents an application which can produce a map of 3D stress vectors from a kml-file. The core application logic is implemented on top of a spatially aware relational database management system. This allows rapid and geographically accurate analysis of the imported geological features, taking advantage of standardized spatial algorithms and indexing. After pre-processing the map features in a GIS, according to the Type-Property-Orientation naming system, which was described in a previous study (Albert et al. 2014), the first stage of the algorithm generates an irregularly spaced point cloud by emitting a pattern of points within a user-defined buffer zone around each feature. For each point generated, a component-wise approximation of the tensor field at the point's position is computed, derived from the original feature's geodynamic properties. In a second stage a weighted moving average method calculates the stress vectors in a regular grid. Results can be exported as geospatial data for further analysis or cartographic visualization. Computation of the tensor field's components is based on the implementation of the Mohr diagram of a compressional model, which uses a Coulomb fracture criterion. Using a general assumption that the main principal stress must be greater than the stress from the overburden, the differential stress is

  8. Mapping of electromagnetic fields enhanced by gold nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiutowski, Jacek; Maibohm, Christian; Kostiučenko, Oksana

    2012-01-01

    Laser ablation of an ‘imaging’ polymer layer allows near-field mapping of metal nanostructures with subdiffraction resolution......Laser ablation of an ‘imaging’ polymer layer allows near-field mapping of metal nanostructures with subdiffraction resolution...

  9. Field reconnaissance geologic mapping of the Columbia Hills, Mars, based on Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and MRO HiRISE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpler, L.S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; McCoy, T.; Yingst, A.; Ruff, S.; Farrand, W.; McSween, Y.; Powell, M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F.; Grant, J.; Greeley, R.; DesMarais, D.; Schmidt, M.; Cabrol, N.A.; Haldemann, A.; Lewis, K.W.; Wang, A.E.; Schroder, C.; Blaney, D.; Cohen, B.; Yen, A.; Farmer, J.; Gellert, Ralf; Guinness, E.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhfer, G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J.W.; Rice, M.; deSouza, P.; Hurowitz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical, mineralogic, and lithologic ground truth was acquired for the first time on Mars in terrain units mapped using orbital Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) image data. Examination of several dozen outcrops shows that Mars is geologically complex at meter length scales, the record of its geologic history is well exposed, stratigraphic units may be identified and correlated across significant areas on the ground, and outcrops and geologic relationships between materials may be analyzed with techniques commonly employed in terrestrial field geology. Despite their burial during the course of Martian geologic time by widespread epiclastic materials, mobile fines, and fall deposits, the selective exhumation of deep and well-preserved geologic units has exposed undisturbed outcrops, stratigraphic sections, and structural information much as they are preserved and exposed on Earth. A rich geologic record awaits skilled future field investigators on Mars. The correlation of ground observations and orbital images enables construction of a corresponding geologic reconnaissance map. Most of the outcrops visited are interpreted to be pyroclastic, impactite, and epiclastic deposits overlying an unexposed substrate, probably related to a modified Gusev crater central peak. Fluids have altered chemistry and mineralogy of these protoliths in degrees that vary substantially within the same map unit. Examination of the rocks exposed above and below the major unconformity between the plains lavas and the Columbia Hills directly confirms the general conclusion from remote sensing in previous studies over past years that the early history of Mars was a time of more intense deposition and modification of the surface. Although the availability of fluids and the chemical and mineral activity declined from this early period, significant later volcanism and fluid convection enabled additional, if localized, chemical activity

  10. Applying field mapping refractive beam shapers to improve holographic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Williams, Gavin; McWilliam, Richard; Laskin, Vadim

    2012-03-01

    Performance of various holographic techniques can be essentially improved by homogenizing the intensity profile of the laser beam with using beam shaping optics, for example, the achromatic field mapping refractive beam shapers like πShaper. The operational principle of these devices presumes transformation of laser beam intensity from Gaussian to flattop one with high flatness of output wavefront, saving of beam consistency, providing collimated output beam of low divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible residual wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with several laser sources with different wavelengths simultaneously. Applying of these beam shapers brings serious benefits to the Spatial Light Modulator based techniques like Computer Generated Holography or Dot-Matrix mastering of security holograms since uniform illumination of an SLM allows simplifying mathematical calculations and increasing predictability and reliability of the imaging results. Another example is multicolour Denisyuk holography when the achromatic πShaper provides uniform illumination of a field at various wavelengths simultaneously. This paper will describe some design basics of the field mapping refractive beam shapers and optical layouts of their applying in holographic systems. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  11. USGS Imagery Topo Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Imagery Topo is a topographic tile cache base map with orthoimagery as a backdrop, and combines the most current data (Boundaries, Names, Transportation,...

  12. USGS Hill Shade Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Hill Shade (or Shaded Relief) is a tile cache base map created from the National Elevation Dataset (NED), a seamless dataset of best available raster elevation...

  13. USGS Topo Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Topo is a topographic tile cache base map that combines the most current data (Boundaries, Names, Transportation, Elevation, Hydrography, Land Cover, and other...

  14. Vision-based mapping with cooperative robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, James J.; Jennings, Cullen; Murray, Don

    1998-10-01

    Two stereo-vision-based mobile robots navigate and autonomously explore their environment safely while building occupancy grid maps of the environment. The robots maintain position estimates within a global coordinate frame using landmark recognition. This allows them to build a common map by sharing position information and stereo data. Stereo vision processing and map updates are done at 3 Hz and the robots move at speeds of 200 cm/s. Cooperative mapping is achieved through autonomous exploration of unstructured and dynamic environments. The map is constructed conservatively, so as to be useful for collision-free path planning. Each robot maintains a separate copy of a shared map, and then posts updates to the common map when it returns to observe a landmark at home base. Issues include synchronization, mutual localization, navigation, exploration, registration of maps, merging repeated views (fusion), centralized vs decentralized maps.

  15. Spectrally based mapping of riverbed composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleiter, Carl; Stegman, Tobin K.; Overstreet, Brandon T.

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing methods provide an efficient means of characterizing fluvial systems. This study evaluated the potential to map riverbed composition based on in situ and/or remote measurements of reflectance. Field spectra and substrate photos from the Snake River, Wyoming, USA, were used to identify different sediment facies and degrees of algal development and to quantify their optical characteristics. We hypothesized that accounting for the effects of depth and water column attenuation to isolate the reflectance of the streambed would enhance distinctions among bottom types and facilitate substrate classification. A bottom reflectance retrieval algorithm adapted from coastal research yielded realistic spectra for the 450 to 700 nm range; but bottom reflectance-based substrate classifications, generated using a random forest technique, were no more accurate than classifications derived from above-water field spectra. Additional hypothesis testing indicated that a combination of reflectance magnitude (brightness) and indices of spectral shape provided the most accurate riverbed classifications. Convolving field spectra to the response functions of a multispectral satellite and a hyperspectral imaging system did not reduce classification accuracies, implying that high spectral resolution was not essential. Supervised classifications of algal density produced from hyperspectral data and an inferred bottom reflectance image were not highly accurate, but unsupervised classification of the bottom reflectance image revealed distinct spectrally based clusters, suggesting that such an image could provide additional river information. We attribute the failure of bottom reflectance retrieval to yield more reliable substrate maps to a latent correlation between depth and bottom type. Accounting for the effects of depth might have eliminated a key distinction among substrates and thus reduced discriminatory power. Although further, more systematic study across a broader

  16. Fast static field CIPT mapping of unpatterned MRAM film stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Daniel; Hansen, Ole; Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann

    2015-01-01

    Current In-Plane Tunneling (CIPT) method measures both RA and TMR, but the usefulness for uniformity mapping, e.g. for tool optimization, is limited by excessive measurement time. Thus, we develop and demonstrate a fast complementary static magnetic field method focused only on measurement of RA. We...... compare the static field method to the standard CIPT method and find perfect agreement between the extracted RA values and measurement repeatability while the static field method is several times faster. The static field CIPT method is demonstrated for 200 mm wafer mapping showing radial as well...

  17. In vivo rapid field map measurement and shimming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, Shoichi; Kassai, Yoshimori; Kondo, Masafumi; Kuhara, Shigehide; Satoh, Kozo; Seo, Yasutsugu.

    1992-01-01

    MR imaging and MR spectroscopy need a homogeneous static magnetic field. The static field characteristics are determined by the magnet's homogeneity, the set-up conditions, and the magnetic suspectibility of the subject itself. The field inhomogeneity is usually minimized only once when the apparatus is installed. However, field distortions arising from the magnetic susceptibility differ with each subject and region. To overcome this problem, in vivo shimming can be carried out to improve the homogeneity. The procedures are too lengthy when applying the conventional shimming techniques in vivo. We have developed a new field map measurement technique using a double gradient-recalled echo phase mapping. The values of the currents for the 13-channel shim coils are derived by least squares fitting to the field map and automatically applied to the shim coils. The proposed technique can rapidly and accurately measure the field map in vivo and correct the field inhomogeneity. The results show that this technique improves the homogeneity, especially in regions having a simple field distribution. However, local sharp field distortions which can not be practically corrected by shimming occur near the eyes, ears, heart, etc. due to abrupt susceptibility changes. (author)

  18. Magnetic field measurements and mapping techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    These lectures will present an overview of the most common techniques used for the measurement of magnetic field in accelerator magnets. The formalism for a harmonic description of the magnetic field will be presented, including a discussion of harmonics allowed under various types of symmetries in the magnet. The harmonic coil technique for measurement of field harmonics will be covered in depth. Using examples from recent projects, magnetic measurements will be shown to be a powerful tool for monitoring magnet production. Measurements of magnetic axis using extensions of the harmonic coil technique, as well as other techniques, such as the colloidal cell and stretched wire, will be covered. Topics of interest in superconducting magnets, such as time decay and snapback, requiring relatively fast measurements of the harmonics, will also be described.

  19. Field mapping measurements to determine spatial and field dependence of critical current density in YBCO tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclerc, J.; Berger, K.; Douine, B.; Lévêque, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for characterizing superconducting tapes from field mapping is presented. • A new and efficient field mapping apparatus has been setup. • This method allows the spatial characterization of superconducting tapes. • The critical current density is obtained as a function of the flux density. • This method has been experimentally tested on an YBCO tape. -- Abstract: In this paper a measurement method that allows the determination of the critical current density of superconducting tape from field mapping measurements is presented. This contact-free method allows obtaining characteristics of the superconductor as a function of the position and of the applied flux density. With some modifications, this technique can be used for reel-to-reel measurements. The determination of the critical current density is based on an inverse calculation. This involves calculating the current distribution in the tape from magnetic measurements. An YBaCuO tape has been characterized at 77 K. A defect in this superconductor has been identified. Various tests were carried out to check the efficiency of the method. The inverse calculation was tested theoretically and experimentally. Comparison with a transport current measurement was also performed

  20. Smartphones Based Mobile Mapping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Hamad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The past 20 years have witnessed an explosive growth in the demand for geo-spatial data. This demand has numerous sources and takes many forms; however, the net effect is an ever-increasing thirst for data that is more accurate, has higher density, is produced more rapidly, and is acquired less expensively. For mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS projects, this has been achieved through the major development of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS. MMS integrate various navigation and remote sensing technologies which allow mapping from moving platforms (e.g. cars, airplanes, boats, etc. to obtain the 3D coordinates of the points of interest. Such systems obtain accuracies that are suitable for all but the most demanding mapping and engineering applications. However, this accuracy doesn't come cheaply. As a consequence of the platform and navigation and mapping technologies used, even an "inexpensive" system costs well over 200 000 USD. Today's mobile phones are getting ever more sophisticated. Phone makers are determined to reduce the gap between computers and mobile phones. Smartphones, in addition to becoming status symbols, are increasingly being equipped with extended Global Positioning System (GPS capabilities, Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS inertial sensors, extremely powerful computing power and very high resolution cameras. Using all of these components, smartphones have the potential to replace the traditional land MMS and portable GPS/GIS equipment. This paper introduces an innovative application of smartphones as a very low cost portable MMS for mapping and GIS applications.

  1. Smartphones Based Mobile Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamad, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2014-06-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed an explosive growth in the demand for geo-spatial data. This demand has numerous sources and takes many forms; however, the net effect is an ever-increasing thirst for data that is more accurate, has higher density, is produced more rapidly, and is acquired less expensively. For mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) projects, this has been achieved through the major development of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS). MMS integrate various navigation and remote sensing technologies which allow mapping from moving platforms (e.g. cars, airplanes, boats, etc.) to obtain the 3D coordinates of the points of interest. Such systems obtain accuracies that are suitable for all but the most demanding mapping and engineering applications. However, this accuracy doesn't come cheaply. As a consequence of the platform and navigation and mapping technologies used, even an "inexpensive" system costs well over 200 000 USD. Today's mobile phones are getting ever more sophisticated. Phone makers are determined to reduce the gap between computers and mobile phones. Smartphones, in addition to becoming status symbols, are increasingly being equipped with extended Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities, Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) inertial sensors, extremely powerful computing power and very high resolution cameras. Using all of these components, smartphones have the potential to replace the traditional land MMS and portable GPS/GIS equipment. This paper introduces an innovative application of smartphones as a very low cost portable MMS for mapping and GIS applications.

  2. Solar Field Mapping and Dynamo Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth H. Schatten

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the importance of the Sun’s large-scale magnetic field to the Sun-Planetary environment. This paper narrows its focus down to the motion and evolution of the photospheric large-scale magnetic field which affects many environments throughout this region. For this purpose we utilize a newly developed Netlogo cellular automata model. The domain of this algorithmic model is the Sun’s photosphere. Within this computational space are placed two types of entities or agents; one may refer to them as bluebirds and cardinals; the former carries outward magnetic flux and the latter carries out inward magnetic flux. One may simply call them blue and red agents. The agents provide a granularity with discrete changes not present in smooth MHD models; they undergo three processes: birth, motion, and death within the photospheric domain. We discuss these processes, as well as how we are able to develop a model that restricts its domain to the photosphere and allows the deeper layers to be considered only through boundary conditions. We show the model’s ability to mimic a number of photospheric magnetic phenomena: the solar cycle (11-year oscillations, the Waldmeier effect, unipolar magnetic regions (e.g. sectors and coronal holes, Maunder minima, and the march/rush to the poles involving the geometry of magnetic field reversals. We also discuss why the Sun sometimes appears as a magnetic monopole, which of course requires no alteration of Maxwell’s equations.

  3. A mapping closure for turbulent scalar mixing using a time-evolving reference field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girimaji, Sharath S.

    1992-01-01

    A general mapping-closure approach for modeling scalar mixing in homogeneous turbulence is developed. This approach is different from the previous methods in that the reference field also evolves according to the same equations as the physical scalar field. The use of a time-evolving Gaussian reference field results in a model that is similar to the mapping closure model of Pope (1991), which is based on the methodology of Chen et al. (1989). Both models yield identical relationships between the scalar variance and higher-order moments, which are in good agreement with heat conduction simulation data and can be consistent with any type of epsilon(phi) evolution. The present methodology can be extended to any reference field whose behavior is known. The possibility of a beta-pdf reference field is explored. The shortcomings of the mapping closure methods are discussed, and the limit at which the mapping becomes invalid is identified.

  4. Mapping the absolute electromagnetic field strength of individual field components inside a photonic crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denis, T.; Reijnders, B.; Lee, J.H.H.; Vos, Willem L.; Boller, Klaus J.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to map the absolute electromagnetic field strength inside photonic crystals. We demonstrate our method by applying it to map the electric field component Ez of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab at microwave frequencies. The slab is placed between two mirrors to create a

  5. Communication Regulatory Science: Mapping a New Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Cappella, Joseph N; Price, Simani

    2017-12-13

    Communication regulatory science is an emerging field that uses validated techniques, tools, and models to inform regulatory actions that promote optimal communication outcomes and benefit the public. In the opening article to this special issue on communication and tobacco regulatory science, we 1) describe Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco products in the US; 2) introduce communication regulatory science and provide examples in the tobacco regulatory science realm; and 3) describe the special issue process and final set of articles. Communication research on tobacco regulatory science is a burgeoning area of inquiry, and this work advances communication science, informs and potentially guides the FDA, and may help to withstand legal challenges brought by the tobacco industry. This research has the potential to have a major impact on the tobacco epidemic and population health by helping implement the most effective communications to prevent tobacco initiation and increase cessation. This special issue provides an example of 10 studies that exemplify tobacco regulatory science and demonstrate how the health communication field can affect regulation and benefit public health.

  6. Mapping urban heat islands of arctic cities using combined data on field measurements and satellite images based on the example of the city of Apatity (Murmansk Oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, P. I.; Grishchenko, M. Y.; Varentsov, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the results of a study of the urban heat island (UHI) in the city of Apatity during winter that were obtained according to the data of field meteorological measurements and satellite images. Calculations of the surface layer temperature have been made based on the surface temperature data obtained from satellite images. The experimental data on air temperature were obtained as a result of expeditionary meteorological observations, and the experimental data on surface temperature were obtained based on the data of the space hyperspectral Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) system, channels 31 and 32 (10.78-11.28 and 11.77-12.27 micrometers, respectively). As a result of the analysis of temperature fields, an intensive heat island (up to 3.2°C) has been identified that was estimated based on the underlying surface temperature, and its mean intensity over the observation period significantly exceeds the representative data for European cities in winter. It has also been established that the air temperature calculated according to the MODIS data is systematically higher under winter conditions than the air temperature from direct measurement data.

  7. Radiation field mapping using a mechanical-electronic detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czayka, M., E-mail: mczayka@kent.ed [College of Technology, Kent State University-Ashtabula 3300 Lake Road West, Ashtabula, OH 44004 (United States); Program on Electron Beam Technology, Kent State University, P.O. Box 1028, Middlefield, OH 44062 (United States); Fisch, M. [Program on Electron Beam Technology, Kent State University, P.O. Box 1028, Middlefield, OH 44062 (United States); College of Technology, Kent State University, P.O. Box 5190, Kent, OH 44242-0001 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    A method of radiation field mapping of a scanned electron beam using a Faraday-type detector and an electromechanical linear translator is presented. Utilizing this arrangement, fluence and fluence rate measurements can be made at different locations within the radiation field. The Faraday-type detector used in these experiments differs from most as it consists of a hollow stainless steel sphere. Results are presented in two- and three-dimensional views of the radiation field.

  8. Internet map of the Hungarian nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besenyei, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    The increasing role of Internet in the dissemination of information cannot be questioned. The organisations dealing with public information have to face with this challenge. New methods and ways are needed in order to effectively use this opportunity. An effective communication requires certain knowledge on the characteristics of the target group. The present situation on the Internet use in Hungary has been studied by a number of public opinion polls. In Europe Hungary is the eleventh in the row concerning the population percentage of Internet users. At the same time it is hard to define the exact number as it is continuously increasing. From the public opinion polls it can be seen that about 49 % of active Internet users, about 37 percent seek for information on the Internet. The organisations playing role in nuclear field includes nuclear facilities, research institutes, regulatory bodies as well as civil associations. Almost all of them realised the importance of the appearance on the Internet and have their web site. Among the web-sites of the Hungarian nuclear facilities the new home page of the Paks NPP (www.npp.hu) is especially well designed and worth to visit. The Atomic Energy Research Institute operates the 10 MW Budapest Research Reactor. The main features of the reactor can be found on the web site of the institute (www.kfki.hu/~aekihp/). Information about the research possibilities of the training reactor of the Institute of Nuclear Techniques of the Technical University of Budapest is provided on the web site (www.reak.bme.hu). The web site of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (www.haea.gov.hu) has been renewed recently. Certainly, the list of the web sites of the Hungarian organisations active in nuclear field cannot be complete as it is a continuously evolving area. Nevertheless one can see that the players realised the importance of the challenge given by the Internet. While considerable effort is needed to maintain and refresh the web site

  9. Mapping the force field of a hydrogen-bonded assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetman, A. M.; Jarvis, S. P.; Sang, Hongqian; Lekkas, I.; Rahe, P.; Wang, Yu; Wang, Jianbo; Champness, N. R.; Kantorovich, L.; Moriarty, P.

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogen bonding underpins the properties of a vast array of systems spanning a wide variety of scientific fields. From the elegance of base pair interactions in DNA to the symmetry of extended supramolecular assemblies, hydrogen bonds play an essential role in directing intermolecular forces. Yet fundamental aspects of the hydrogen bond continue to be vigorously debated. Here we use dynamic force microscopy (DFM) to quantitatively map the tip-sample force field for naphthalene tetracarboxylic diimide molecules hydrogen-bonded in two-dimensional assemblies. A comparison of experimental images and force spectra with their simulated counterparts shows that intermolecular contrast arises from repulsive tip-sample interactions whose interpretation can be aided via an examination of charge density depletion across the molecular system. Interpreting DFM images of hydrogen-bonded systems therefore necessitates detailed consideration of the coupled tip-molecule system: analyses based on intermolecular charge density in the absence of the tip fail to capture the essential physical chemistry underpinning the imaging mechanism.

  10. Ray calibration and phase mapping for structured-light-field 3D reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Gao, Bruce Z

    2018-03-19

    In previous work, we presented a structured light field (SLF) method combining light field imaging with structured illumination to perform multi-view depth measurement. However, the previous work just accomplishes depth rather than 3D reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a novel active method involving ray calibration and phase mapping, to achieve SLF 3D reconstruction. We performed the ray calibration for the first time to determine each light field ray with metric spatio-angular parameters, making the SLF realize multi-view 3D reconstruction. Based on the ray parametric equation, we further derived the phase mapping in the SLF that spatial coordinates can be directly mapped from phase. A flexible calibration strategy was correspondently designed to determine mapping coefficients for each light field ray, achieving high-efficiency SLF 3D reconstruction. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method was suitable for high-efficiency multi-view 3D reconstruction in the SLF.

  11. Risk mapping in the customs field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Iordache

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of customs main tasks is to assess risks in the flow of goods. Risks are those factors that could influence Customs objectives. In pursuing those objectives it is important to have good knowledge of the risks that we face and the impact they might have on the objectives. The Customs administrations in the Member Stateshave opted to base the control on economic operators on the basis of risk management.The purpose of using risk management is to aim Customs’ control activities on risks rather then on random selected aspects or declarations.

  12. Study on magnetic field mapping within cylindrical center volume of general magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li; Lee, Sang Jin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    For the magnetic field analysis or design, it is important to know the behavior of the magnetic field in an interesting space. Magnetic field mapping becomes a useful tool for the study of magnetic field. In this paper, a numerical way for mapping the magnetic field within the cylindrical center volume of magnet is presented, based on the solution of the Laplace's equation in the cylindrical coordinate system. The expression of the magnetic field can be obtained by the magnetic flux density, which measured in the mapped volume. According to the form of the expression, the measurement points are arranged with the parallel cylindrical line (PCL) method. As example, the magnetic flux density generated by an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) magnet and a quadrupole magnet were mapped using the PCL method, respectively. The mapping results show the PCL arrangement method is feasible and convenience to map the magnetic field within a cylindrical center volume generated by the general magnet.

  13. Accurate computation of transfer maps from magnetic field data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, Marco; Dragt, Alex J.

    1999-01-01

    Consider an arbitrary beamline magnet. Suppose one component (for example, the radial component) of the magnetic field is known on the surface of some imaginary cylinder coaxial to and contained within the magnet aperture. This information can be obtained either by direct measurement or by computation with the aid of some 3D electromagnetic code. Alternatively, suppose that the field harmonics have been measured by using a spinning coil. We describe how this information can be used to compute the exact transfer map for the beamline element. This transfer map takes into account all effects of real beamline elements including fringe-field, pseudo-multipole, and real multipole error effects. The method we describe automatically takes into account the smoothing properties of the Laplace-Green function. Consequently, it is robust against both measurement and electromagnetic code errors. As an illustration we apply the method to the field analysis of high-gradient interaction region quadrupoles in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

  14. Interferometric methods for mapping static electric and magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzi, Giulio; Beleggia, Marco; Kasama, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    The mapping of static electric and magnetic fields using electron probes with a resolution and sensitivity that are sufficient to reveal nanoscale features in materials requires the use of phase-sensitive methods such as the shadow technique, coherent Foucault imaging and the Transport of Intensi......) the model-independent determination of the locations and magnitudes of field sources (electric charges and magnetic dipoles) directly from electron holographic data.......The mapping of static electric and magnetic fields using electron probes with a resolution and sensitivity that are sufficient to reveal nanoscale features in materials requires the use of phase-sensitive methods such as the shadow technique, coherent Foucault imaging and the Transport of Intensity...... on theoretical models that form the basis of the quantitative interpretation of electron holographic data. We review the application of electron holography to a variety of samples (including electric fields associated with p–n junctions in semiconductors, quantized magnetic flux in superconductors...

  15. Magnetic field mapping for HIE-ISOLDE cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In this report the importance of a magnetic field mapping (B-mapping) around the HIE-ISOLDE superconducting cavities is described. In fact the cavities are not always above the HIE-ISOLDE specification, so it is important to understand the reason of their bad performances and improve them. For doing the B-mapping, the supports for three fluxgate sensors are designed and manufactured. The material of the supports is PEEK: a proper thermoplastic for the extreme operation conditions of the cavities. According to simulation of behavior of external magnetic field, an initial configuration of the sensors is proposed for the first measurements, in order to get the extent of Meissner effect around the superconducting cavities.

  16. Radiation field mapping in mammography units with TLDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, J.C.O.; Silva, J.O., E-mail: jonas.silva@ufg.br [Universidade Federal de Goiás (IFG), Goiânia (Brazil). Instituto de Física; Veneziani, G.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo-SP (Brazil). Centro de Metrologia das Radiações

    2017-07-01

    Mammography is the most common imaging technique for breast cancer detection and its tracking. For dosimetry, is important to know the field intensity variation. In this work, TLD-100 were used to made a field mapping of a mammographic system from a hospital in Goiânia/GO. The maximum radiation intensity was 8 cm far from chest wall. The results obtained could be used in the optimization of the dosimetry in the equipment used in this work. (author)

  17. Measurement and reconstruction of the BEBC magnetic field map

    CERN Document Server

    Häbel, E; Wittgenstein, F

    1973-01-01

    The superconducting magnet of the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) has been excited with currents up to 5035 A corresponding to a magnetic induction of 3.1 Tesla at the center of the chamber. Since one expected that during the charging of the magnet coils long time constant eddy currents would be induced by the varying radial field components, a system of 181 Hall-probes was installed on the boundary of the chamber body allowing to survey the magnetic field map. This Hall-probe system together with an NMR-probe (nuclear magnetic resonance) enabled us to measure and reconstruct to an accuracy of better than 0.1% the field map of BEBC, which in itself is uniform to within 3% inside the visible fiducial volume of the Chamber. Direct evidence was also given for field map distortions due to the eddy current field which amounted to about 0.7% of the maximum recorded field values at the chamber center. (7 refs).

  18. Measurement and reconstruction of the BEBC magnetic field map

    CERN Document Server

    Häbel, E; Wittgenstein, F

    1973-01-01

    The superconducting magnet of the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) has been excited with currents up to 5035 A corresponding to a magnetic induction of 3.1 Tesla at the center of the chamber. Since one expected that during the charging of the magnet coils long time constant eddy currents would be induced by the varying radial field components, a system of 181 Hall-probes was installed on the boundary of the chamber body allowing to survey the magnetic field map. This Hall-probe system together with an NMR-probe (nuclear magnetic resonance) enabled us to measure and reconstruct to an accuracy of better than 0.1the field map of BEBC, which in itself is uniform to within 3 191332nside the visible fiducial volume of the Chamber. Direct evidence was also given for field map distortions due to the eddy current field which amounted to about 0.723420f the maximum recorded field values at the chamber center. (7 refs).

  19. MAPPING OF SOIL DEGRADATION POTENCY IN PADDY FIELD WONOGIRI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiyo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of paddy field becomes the main concern as the media of biomass production, thus it is needed a datum and information about land characteristics to find out its degradation. Mapping of soil degradation potency in paddy field is an identification of initial soil condition to discover the land degradation potency. Mapping was done by overlaying map of soil, slope, rainfall and land use with standard procedures to obtain its value and status of soil degradation potency. Area mapping is an effective land for biomass production (natural forest, mixed farm, savanna, paddy field, shrub and dry field with approximately 43,291.00 hectares (ha in Sidoharjo, Girimarto, Jatipurno, Jatisrono, Jatiroto, Tirtomoyo, Nguntoronadi and Ngadirojo District. The result shows that soil degradation potency (SDP in Districts of Sidoharjo, Girimarto, Jatipurno, Jatisrono, Jatiroto, Tirtomoyo, Nguntoronadi and Ngadirojo are very low, low (DP II 20,702.47 ha (47.82%, moderate (DP III 15,823.80 ha (36,55% and high (DP IV 6,764.73 ha (15.63%. Paddy field covered 22,036.26 ha or about 50.90% of all area as effective biomass production, its SDP considers as low (DP II 16,021.04 ha (37.01% and moderate (DP III 6,015.22 ha (13,89%. Paddy field has a low SDP because it is commonly lies on flat area and conservation method by the farmer is maintaining the paddy bund and terrace. This study needs an advanced study to identify actual SDP through detail verification in the field, and also support by soil sample analysis in the laboratory.

  20. Fluxgate magnetometry for precise mapping of the Earth's field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Fritz; Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The requirements for precise global mapping of the Earth's vector magnetic field from a high inclination LEO satellite needs a stable and precise vector magnetometer. Equally important are the measurement of the stellar attitude of the vector sensor and establishment of the calibration by onboard...... comparison to an absolute scalar magnetometer. In addition, the position in orbit and the precise timing relative to the UTC is needed. Finally, the end-to-end system precision also depends on a known and controlled local satellite magnetic field.......The requirements for precise global mapping of the Earth's vector magnetic field from a high inclination LEO satellite needs a stable and precise vector magnetometer. Equally important are the measurement of the stellar attitude of the vector sensor and establishment of the calibration by onboard...

  1. Semantic Data And Visualization Techniques Applied To Geologic Field Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. I. Q.; Royo-Leon, M.; Munoz, R.; Estrada, E.; Villanueva-Rosales, N.; Pennington, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Geologic field mapping involves the use of technology before, during, and after visiting a site. Geologists utilize hardware such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) connected to mobile computing platforms such as tablets that include software such as ESRI's ArcPad and other software to produce maps and figures for a final analysis and report. Hand written field notes contain important information and drawings or sketches of specific areas within the field study. Our goal is to collect and geo-tag final and raw field data into a cyber-infrastructure environment with an ontology that allows for large data processing, visualization, sharing, and searching, aiding in connecting field research with prior research in the same area and/or aid with experiment replication. Online searches of a specific field area return results such as weather data from NOAA and QuakeML seismic data from USGS. These results that can then be saved to a field mobile device and searched while in the field where there is no Internet connection. To accomplish this we created the GeoField ontology service using the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Protégé software. Advanced queries on the dataset can be made using reasoning capabilities can be supported that go beyond a standard database service. These improvements include the automated discovery of data relevant to a specific field site and visualization techniques aimed at enhancing analysis and collaboration while in the field by draping data over mobile views of the site using augmented reality. A case study is being performed at University of Texas at El Paso's Indio Mountains Research Station located near Van Horn, Texas, an active multi-disciplinary field study site. The user can interactively move the camera around the study site and view their data digitally. Geologist's can check their data against the site in real-time and improve collaboration with another person as both parties have the same interactive view of the data.

  2. Mapping specific soil functions based on digital soil property maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Fodor, Nándor; Farkas-Iványi, Kinga; Szabó, József; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Koós, Sándor

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of soil functions and services is a great challenge in itself even if the spatial relevance is supposed to be identified and regionalized. Proxies and indicators are widely used in ecosystem service mapping. Soil services could also be approximated by elementary soil features. One solution is the association of soil types with services as basic principle. Soil property maps however provide quantified spatial information, which could be utilized more versatilely for the spatial inference of soil functions and services. In the frame of the activities referred as "Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary" (DOSoReMI.hu) numerous soil property maps have been compiled so far with proper DSM techniques partly according to GSM.net specifications, partly by slightly or more strictly changing some of its predefined parameters (depth intervals, pixel size, property etc.). The elaborated maps have been further utilized, since even DOSoReMI.hu was intended to take steps toward the regionalization of higher level soil information (secondary properties, functions, services). In the meantime the recently started AGRAGIS project requested spatial soil related information in order to estimate agri-environmental related impacts of climate change and support the associated vulnerability assessment. One of the most vulnerable services of soils in the context of climate change is their provisioning service. In our work it was approximated by productivity, which was estimated by a sequential scenario based crop modelling. It took into consideration long term (50 years) time series of both measured and predicted climatic parameters as well as accounted for the potential differences in agricultural practice and crop production. The flexible parametrization and multiple results of modelling was then applied for the spatial assessment of sensitivity, vulnerability, exposure and adaptive capacity of soils in the context of the forecasted changes in

  3. The new integrated aeromagnetic map of the Phlegrean Fields volcano and surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rapolla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present and analyze the new detailed aeromagnetic data set resulting from a recent survey carried out in the Phlegrean Fields volcanic area. The survey was aimed at gaining new insight into the volcanological characteristics of the region north of Phlegrean Fields (Parete-Villa Literno area where remarkable thickness of volcanic/sub- volcanic rocks were found in wells. Measurement of total magnetic field was performed on two different flight levels, 70 m and 400 m above the ground surface, along flight lines spaced 400 m apart. Both aeromagnetic maps show the noisy effect of linear anomalies evidently due to the presence of railway lines. To filter out these local anomalies a method based on discrete wavelet transform was used, allowing an accurate local filtering and leaving the rest of the field practically unchanged. The filtered data set was integrated with the existing Agip aeromagnetic map of the Phlegrean Fields, leading to a new aeromagnetic map of the whole Phlegrean volcanic area. The compilation of the pole reduced map and of the maps of the Analytic Signal and of the Horizontal Derivative of the integrated data set represents a first step for the interpretation of the maps in terms of geological structures of the whole Phlegrean volcanic district.

  4. Realistic ion optical transfer maps for Super-FRS magnets from numerical field data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazantseva, Erika; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In large aperture accelerators such as Super-FRS, the non-linearity of the magnetic field in bending elements leads to the non-linear beam dynamics, which cannot be described by means of linear ion optics. Existing non-linear approach is based on the Fourier harmonics formalism and is not working if horizontal aperture is bigger as vertical or vice versa. In Super-FRS dipole the horizontal aperture is much bigger than the vertical. Hence, it is necessary to find a way to create the higher order transfer map for this dipole to accurately predict the particle dynamics in the realistic magnetic fields in the whole aperture. The aim of this work is to generate an accurate high order transfer map of magnetic elements from measured or simulated 3D magnetic field data. Using differential algebraic formalism allows generating transfer maps automatically via numerical integration of ODEs of motion in beam physics coordinates along the reference path. To make the transfer map accurate for all particles in the beam, the magnetic field along the integration path should be represented by analytical function, matching with the real field distribution in the volume of interest. Within this work the steps of high order realistic transfer map production starting from the field values on closed box, covering the volume of interest, will be analyzed in detail.

  5. Field line mapping results in the CNT stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarasola, X.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Kremer, J.P.; Lefrancois, R.G.; Marksteiner, Q.; Ahmad, N.

    2005-01-01

    The Columbia Non-neutral Torus (CNT), located at Columbia University, is a toroidal, ultra-high vacuum stellarator designed to confine pure electron and other non-neutral plasmas. Its coil configuration is the simplest of any stellarator constructed, since it consists only of two pairs of circular planar copper coils. CNT started operation in November 2004. During its first months of operation a detailed mapping of the nested magnetic surfaces has been developed using the fluorescent method. An electron beam was emitted along a field line by a small moveable electron gun. Different beam energies (ranging from 50 to 200 eV) were used to perform the field line mapping. The e- beam emitted by the electron gun followed the field lines around the torus and hit two moveable ZnO coated aluminum rods that emit visible light when struck by the e-beam. For each position of the e- gun, the phosphor rods scanned the cross-section of the torus allowing a standard digital camera to record a single magnetic surface in a five second exposure. Multiple photos were taken and then manipulated and superposed using IDL software to create composite images of the nested magnetic surfaces. Detailed mapping of the magnetic flux surfaces was completed at a variety of magnetic configurations and at pressures in the 10 -8 Torr range. The experimental results were compared with numerical calculations demonstrating that the obtained measurements agree very well with numerical predictions. In particular, the current configuration has an ultralow aspect ratio (A≤ 1.9) and excellent magnetic surface quality with no detectable island structures or stochastic regions, except at the edge of the plasma where a predicted island chain is present. These experimental results will be presented along with details of the field line mapping system. (author)

  6. Magnetic field map for a large TPC prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grefe, Christian

    2008-12-01

    A new e + e - linear collider with an energy of up to 1000 GeV is currently being planned: the International Linear Collider (ILC). It will allow high precision measurements of the Higgs boson and physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) -which is one of the proposed detector concepts for the ILC- a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is intended as the main tracking device. Within the EUDET project a large TPC prototype is currently being built as an infrastructure to test different gas amplification and readout technologies. The prototype will be operated in a 1T superconducting solenoid magnet -the PCMAG- at the DESY testbeam area. In order to reach the best possible track reconstruction the magnetic field has to be known very precisely throughout the TPC volume. The magnetic field of PCMAG has been measured in July 2007. In this work the creation of a high precision field map from the measurements is presented. The magnet and modelling techniques for its magnetic field are described. A model of the magnet has been created as a best fit from the measurements and its limitations are investigated. The field map will be included in the reconstruction software for the TPC prototype. (orig.)

  7. Magnetic field map for a large TPC prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefe, Christian

    2008-12-15

    A new e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider with an energy of up to 1000 GeV is currently being planned: the International Linear Collider (ILC). It will allow high precision measurements of the Higgs boson and physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) -which is one of the proposed detector concepts for the ILC- a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is intended as the main tracking device. Within the EUDET project a large TPC prototype is currently being built as an infrastructure to test different gas amplification and readout technologies. The prototype will be operated in a 1T superconducting solenoid magnet -the PCMAG- at the DESY testbeam area. In order to reach the best possible track reconstruction the magnetic field has to be known very precisely throughout the TPC volume. The magnetic field of PCMAG has been measured in July 2007. In this work the creation of a high precision field map from the measurements is presented. The magnet and modelling techniques for its magnetic field are described. A model of the magnet has been created as a best fit from the measurements and its limitations are investigated. The field map will be included in the reconstruction software for the TPC prototype. (orig.)

  8. 'Fixed-axis' magnetic orientation by an amphibian: non-shoreward-directed compass orientation, misdirected homing or positioning a magnetite-based map detector in a consistent alignment relative to the magnetic field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John B; Borland, S Chris; Freake, Michael J; Brassart, Jacques; Kirschvink, Joseph L

    2002-12-01

    suggestion that homing newts use the light-dependent magnetic compass to align a magnetite-based 'map detector' when obtaining the precise measurements necessary to derive map information from the magnetic field. However, aligning the putative map detector does not explain the fixed-axis response of newts tested under long-wavelength light. Preliminary evidence suggests that, in the absence of reliable directional information from the magnetic compass (caused by the 90 degrees rotation of the response of the magnetic compass under long-wavelength light), newts may resort to a systematic sampling strategy to identify alignment(s) of the map detector that yields reliable magnetic field measurements.

  9. Managing mapping data using commercial data base management software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elassal, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Electronic computers are involved in almost every aspect of the map making process. This involvement has become so thorough that it is practically impossible to find a recently developed process or device in the mapping field which does not employ digital processing in some form or another. This trend, which has been evolving over two decades, is accelerated by the significant improvements in capility, reliability, and cost-effectiveness of electronic devices. Computerized mapping processes and devices share a common need for machine readable data. Integrating groups of these components into automated mapping systems requires careful planning for data flow amongst them. Exploring the utility of commercial data base management software to assist in this task is the subject of this paper. -Author

  10. Digital Field Mapping with the British Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Graham; Smith, Nichola; Jordan, Colm

    2014-05-01

    The BGS•SIGMA project was initiated in 2001 in response to a major stakeholder review of onshore mapping within the British Geological Survey (BGS). That review proposed a significant change for BGS with the recommendation that digital methods should be implemented for field mapping and data compilation. The BGS•SIGMA project (System for Integrated Geoscience MApping) is an integrated workflow for geoscientific surveying and visualisation using digital methods for geological data visualisation, recording and interpretation, in both 2D and 3D. The project has defined and documented an underpinning framework of best practice for survey and information management, best practice that has then informed the design brief and specification for a toolkit to support this new methodology. The project has now delivered BGS•SIGMA2012. BGS•SIGMA2012 is a integrated toolkit which enables assembly and interrogation/visualisation of existing geological information; capture of, and integration with, new data and geological interpretations; and delivery of 3D digital products and services. From its early days as a system which used PocketGIS run on Husky Fex21 hardware, to the present day system which runs on ruggedized tablet PCs with integrated GPS units, the system has evolved into a complete digital mapping and compilation system. BGS•SIGMA2012 uses a highly customised version of ESRI's ArcGIS 10 and 10.1 with a fully relational Access 2007/2010 geodatabase. BGS•SIGMA2012 is the third external release of our award-winning digital field mapping toolkit. The first free external release of the award-winning digital field mapping toolkit was in 2009, with the third version (BGS-SIGMAmobile2012 v1.01) released on our website (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/research/sigma/home.html) in 2013. The BGS•SIGMAmobile toolkit formed the major part of the first two releases but this new version integrates the BGS•SIGMAdesktop functionality that BGS routinely uses to transform our field

  11. Digital field mapping of the Dingle Peninsular, County Kerry, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, David; Bense, Frithjof

    2014-05-01

    In September 2011, a team of eight students from the University of Göttingen digitally mapped seven 10 km2 adjoining areas on the western tip of the Dingle Peninsular in County Kerry, Ireland for their M.Sc. mapping projects. The students worked in pairs; each pair was equipped with an outdoor, waterproof, drop-proof touchscreen tablet running Windows and Midland Valley Exploration Ltd's Fieldmove software. They also used paper field-notebooks, cameras and hand compasses. The tablets have built-in GPS, two five-hour batteries, and displays that are designed to work even in bright sunlight. In preparation for the fieldwork, the topographic maps of the area (from 1890!) were scanned, geo-rectified and draped onto the DEM of the area using the Midland Valley's Move software. The geology of the Dingle Peninsular is complex; an inlier of Ordovician rocks that were deformed in the Caledonian Orogeny, are surrounded by Devonian Old Red Sandstone (ORS) units, which were syntectonically deposited as the whole area was folded during the Variscan Orogeny. Consequently the ORS units vary in thickness tremendously and facies often vary laterally. The ORS also contains many unconformities. The area is excellently exposed at the coastline, but it is poor inland because of glacial deposits. As a consequent the students required the software to record bedding planes, cleavages, fold axes and unconformities, as well as standard geological information. The work went well, despite the weather (the post tropical cyclone Katia!). It was far quicker to complete the map compared to working on a paper map, after the students had got used to the software and the tablet controls. The GPS in the tablet was deemed to be inaccurate and locations on the map were ascertained using standard techniques. It was also extremely useful to export tectonic data in the evening for stereonet projection analysis. Each 10 km2 area was mapped at 1:10000 in approx. 2 weeks. Because the tablet requires two

  12. Mapping gullies, dunes, lava fields, and landslides via surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Karolina; Pfeifer, Norbert; Landtwing, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Gully erosion is a widespread and significant process involved in soil and land degradation. Mapping gullies helps to quantify past, and anticipate future, soil losses. Digital terrain models offer promising data for automatically detecting and mapping gullies especially in vegetated areas, although methods vary widely measures of local terrain roughness are the most varied and debated among these methods. Rarely do studies test the performance of roughness metrics for mapping gullies, limiting their applicability to small training areas. To this end, we systematically explored how local terrain roughness derived from high-resolution Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data can aid in the unsupervised detection of gullies over a large area. We also tested expanding this method for other landforms diagnostic of similarly abrupt land-surface changes, including lava fields, dunes, and landslides, as well as investigating the influence of different roughness thresholds, resolutions of kernels, and input data resolution, and comparing our method with previously published roughness algorithms. Our results show that total curvature is a suitable metric for recognising analysed gullies and lava fields from LiDAR data, with comparable success to that of more sophisticated roughness metrics. Tested dunes or landslides remain difficult to distinguish from the surrounding landscape, partly because they are not easily defined in terms of their topographic signature.

  13. Vision-based topological map building and localisation using persistent features

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sabatta, DG

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Sabatta_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 32284 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Sabatta_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Vision-based Topological Map... of topological mapping was introduced into the field of robotics following studies of human cogni- tive mapping undertaken by Kuipers [8]. Since then, much progress has been made in the field of vision-based topologi- cal mapping. Topological mapping lends...

  14. Mapping the (R-)Evolution of Technological Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurowetzki, Roman; Hain, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide a framework and novel methodology geared towards mapping technological change in complex interdependent systems by using large amounts of unstructured data from various recent on- and offline sources. Combining techniques from the fields of natural language...... processing and network analysis, we are able to identify technological fields as overlapping communities of knowledge fragments. Over time persistence of these fragments allows to observe how these fields evolve into trajectories, which may change, split, merge and finally disappear. As empirical example we...... use the broad area of Technological Singularity, an umbrella term for different technologies ranging from neuroscience to machine learning and bioengineering, which are seen as main contributors to the development of artificial intelligence and human enhancement technologies. Using a socially enhanced...

  15. Geographic information system (GIS)-based maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields: Chapter C.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Kinney, Scott A.; Suitt, Stephen E.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more recent maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields (and the adjoining Black Warrior basin) is the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compilation by Mast and others (1998) (see Trippi and others, this volume, chap. I.1). This map is part of a larger oil and gas field map for the conterminous United States that was derived by Mast and others (1998) from the Well History Control System (WHCS) database of Petroleum Information, Inc. (now IHS Energy Group). Rather than constructing the map from the approximately 500,000 proprietary wells in the Appalachian and Black Warrior part of the WHCS database, Mast and others (1998) subdivided the region into a grid of 1-mi2 (square mile) cells and allocated an appropriate type of hydrocarbon production (oil production, gas production, oil and gas production, or explored but no production) to each cell. Each 1-mi2 cell contains from 0 to 5 or more exploratory and (or) development wells. For example, if the wells in the 1-mi2 cell consisted of three oil wells, one gas well, and one dry well, then the cell would be characterized on the map as an area of oil and gas production. The map by Mast and others (1998) accurately shows the distribution and types of hydrocarbon accumulation in the Appalachian and Black Warrior basins, but it does not show the names of individual fields. To determine the locality and name of individual oil and gas fields, one must refer to State oil and gas maps (for example, Harper and others, 1982), which are generally published at scales of 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 (see References Cited), and (or) published journal articles.

  16. Machine-based mapping of innovation portfolios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, Matthias; Miao, Shengfa; Englebienne, Gwenn; Sools, Anna Maria; Visscher, Klaasjan

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning techniques show a great promise for improving innovation portfolio management. In this paper we experiment with different methods to classify innovation projects of a high-tech firm as either explorative or exploitative, and compare the results with a manual, theory-based mapping of

  17. Mapping the Information Trace in Local Field Potentials by a Computational Method of Two-Dimensional Time-Shifting Synchronization Likelihood Based on Graphic Processing Unit Acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Fang; Li, Xue-Zhu; Wan, You

    2017-12-01

    The local field potential (LFP) is a signal reflecting the electrical activity of neurons surrounding the electrode tip. Synchronization between LFP signals provides important details about how neural networks are organized. Synchronization between two distant brain regions is hard to detect using linear synchronization algorithms like correlation and coherence. Synchronization likelihood (SL) is a non-linear synchronization-detecting algorithm widely used in studies of neural signals from two distant brain areas. One drawback of non-linear algorithms is the heavy computational burden. In the present study, we proposed a graphic processing unit (GPU)-accelerated implementation of an SL algorithm with optional 2-dimensional time-shifting. We tested the algorithm with both artificial data and raw LFP data. The results showed that this method revealed detailed information from original data with the synchronization values of two temporal axes, delay time and onset time, and thus can be used to reconstruct the temporal structure of a neural network. Our results suggest that this GPU-accelerated method can be extended to other algorithms for processing time-series signals (like EEG and fMRI) using similar recording techniques.

  18. Mapping and correcting respiration-induced field changes in the brain using fluorine field probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads; Madsen, Kristoffer; Hanson, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    strength values from signal phase by linear fitting. Ahead of imaging, the field probe positions were determined for each subject, by applying known gradients in all three dimensions while measuring with the field probes. Experiments: Measurements were performed in 4 male subjects instructed to hold...... software was updated with f0 and first order shim values, before the acquisition of every volume. Evaluation: To assess whether the dynamic field changes were captured by the field probe data, the field probe fitted fields were subtracted from the scanner B0 maps to model shimming. We then assessed whether......Purpose. Breathing induced dynamic B0 field perturbations in the head can lead to artefacts in ultra-high field MR by causing line broadening in spectroscopy and signal dropout, ghosting, displacement artifacts and blurring in imaging. It has recently been proposed to continuously stabilize...

  19. Photocurrent mapping of near-field optical antenna resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Barnard, Edward S.; Pala, Ragip A.; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of photonics applications make use of nanoscale optical antennas that exhibit a strong, resonant interaction with photons of a specific frequency. The resonant properties of such antennas are conventionally characterized by far-field light-scattering techniques. However, many applications require quantitative knowledge of the near-field behaviour, and existing local field measurement techniques provide only relative, rather than absolute, data. Here, we demonstrate a photodetector platform that uses a silicon-on-insulator substrate to spectrally and spatially map the absolute values of enhanced fields near any type of optical antenna by transducing local electric fields into photocurrent. We are able to quantify the resonant optical and materials properties of nanoscale (∼50nm) and wavelength-scale (∼1μm) metallic antennas as well as high-refractive-index semiconductor antennas. The data agree well with light-scattering measurements, full-field simulations and intuitive resonator models. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. Photocurrent mapping of near-field optical antenna resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Barnard, Edward S.

    2011-08-21

    An increasing number of photonics applications make use of nanoscale optical antennas that exhibit a strong, resonant interaction with photons of a specific frequency. The resonant properties of such antennas are conventionally characterized by far-field light-scattering techniques. However, many applications require quantitative knowledge of the near-field behaviour, and existing local field measurement techniques provide only relative, rather than absolute, data. Here, we demonstrate a photodetector platform that uses a silicon-on-insulator substrate to spectrally and spatially map the absolute values of enhanced fields near any type of optical antenna by transducing local electric fields into photocurrent. We are able to quantify the resonant optical and materials properties of nanoscale (∼50nm) and wavelength-scale (∼1μm) metallic antennas as well as high-refractive-index semiconductor antennas. The data agree well with light-scattering measurements, full-field simulations and intuitive resonator models. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  1. Reservoir fracture mapping using microearthquakes: Austin chalk, Giddings field, TX and 76 field, Clinton Co., KY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, W.S.; Rutledge, J.T.; Gardner, T.L. [SPE, Richardson, TX (United States); Fairbanks, T.D.; Miller, M.E.; Schuessler, B.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Patterns of microearthquakes detected downhole defined fracture orientation and extent in the Austin chalk, Giddings field, TX and the 76 field, Clinton Co., KY. We collected over 480 and 770 microearthquakes during hydraulic stimulation at two sites in the Austin chalk, and over 3200 during primary production in Clinton Co. Data were of high enough quality that 20%, 31% and 53% of the events could be located, respectively. Reflected waves constrained microearthquakes to the stimulated depths at the base of the Austin chalk. In plan view, microearthquakes defined elongate fracture zones extending from the stimulation wells parallel to the regional fracture trend. However, widths of the stimulated zones differed by a factor of five between the two Austin chalk sites, indicating a large difference in the population of ancillary fractures. Post-stimulation production was much higher from the wider zone. At Clinton Co., microearthquakes defined low-angle, reverse-fault fracture zones above and below a producing zone. Associations with depleted production intervals indicated the mapped fractures had been previously drained. Drilling showed that the fractures currently contain brine. The seismic behavior was consistent with poroelastic models that predicted slight increases in compressive stress above and below the drained volume.

  2. CrowdMapping: A Crowdsourcing-Based Terminology Mapping Method for Medical Data Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huajian; Chi, Chenyang; Huang, Boyu; Meng, Haibin; Yu, Jinghui; Zhao, Dongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Standardized terminology is the prerequisite of data exchange in analysis of clinical processes. However, data from different electronic health record systems are based on idiosyncratic terminology systems, especially when the data is from different hospitals and healthcare organizations. Terminology standardization is necessary for the medical data analysis. We propose a crowdsourcing-based terminology mapping method, CrowdMapping, to standardize the terminology in medical data. CrowdMapping uses a confidential model to determine how terminologies are mapped to a standard system, like ICD-10. The model uses mappings from different health care organizations and evaluates the diversity of the mapping to determine a more sophisticated mapping rule. Further, the CrowdMapping model enables users to rate the mapping result and interact with the model evaluation. CrowdMapping is a work-in-progress system, we present initial results mapping terminologies.

  3. Designing and Testing a UAV Mapping System for Agricultural Field Surveying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Peter Christiansen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR sensor mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV can map the overflown environment in point clouds. Mapped canopy heights allow for the estimation of crop biomass in agriculture. The work presented in this paper contributes to sensory UAV setup design for mapping and textual analysis of agricultural fields. LiDAR data are combined with data from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU sensors to conduct environment mapping for point clouds. The proposed method facilitates LiDAR recordings in an experimental winter wheat field. Crop height estimates ranging from 0.35–0.58 m are correlated to the applied nitrogen treatments of 0–300 kg N ha . The LiDAR point clouds are recorded, mapped, and analysed using the functionalities of the Robot Operating System (ROS and the Point Cloud Library (PCL. Crop volume estimation is based on a voxel grid with a spatial resolution of 0.04 × 0.04 × 0.001 m. Two different flight patterns are evaluated at an altitude of 6 m to determine the impacts of the mapped LiDAR measurements on crop volume estimations.

  4. Designing and Testing a UAV Mapping System for Agricultural Field Surveying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Martin Peter; Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Skovsen, Søren; Gislum, René

    2017-11-23

    A Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensor mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can map the overflown environment in point clouds. Mapped canopy heights allow for the estimation of crop biomass in agriculture. The work presented in this paper contributes to sensory UAV setup design for mapping and textual analysis of agricultural fields. LiDAR data are combined with data from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors to conduct environment mapping for point clouds. The proposed method facilitates LiDAR recordings in an experimental winter wheat field. Crop height estimates ranging from 0.35-0.58 m are correlated to the applied nitrogen treatments of 0-300 kg N ha . The LiDAR point clouds are recorded, mapped, and analysed using the functionalities of the Robot Operating System (ROS) and the Point Cloud Library (PCL). Crop volume estimation is based on a voxel grid with a spatial resolution of 0.04 × 0.04 × 0.001 m. Two different flight patterns are evaluated at an altitude of 6 m to determine the impacts of the mapped LiDAR measurements on crop volume estimations.

  5. Beta Testing StraboSpot: Perspectives on mobile field mapping and data collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunse, E.; Graham, K. A.; Rufledt, C.; Walker, J. D.; Müller, A.; Tikoff, B.

    2017-12-01

    Geologic field mapping has recently transitioned away from traditional techniques (e.g. field notebooks, paper mapping, Brunton compasses) and towards mobile `app' mapping technology. The StraboSpot system (Strabo) is an open-source solution for collection and storage for geologic field, microstructural, and lab-based data. Strabo's mission is to "enable recording and sharing data within the geoscience community, encourage interdisciplinary research, and facilitate the investigation of scientific questions that cannot currently be addressed" (Walker et al., 2015). Several mobile application beta tests of the system, on both Android and Apple iOS platforms using smartphones and tablets, began in Summer 2016. Students at the 2016 and 2017 University of Kansas Field Camps used Strabo in place of ArcGIS for Desktop on Panasonic Toughbooks, to field map two study areas. Strabo was also field tested by students of graduate and undergraduate level for both geo/thermochronologic sample collection and reconnaissance mapping associated with regional tectonic analysis in California. Throughout this period of testing, the app was geared toward structural and tectonic geologic data collection, but is versatile enough for other communities to currently use and is expanding to accommodate the sedimentology and petrology communities. Overall, users in each of the beta tests acclimated quickly to using Strabo for field data collection. Some key advantages to using Strabo over traditional mapping methods are: (1) Strabo allows for consolidation of materials in the field; (2) helps students track their position in the field with integrated GPS; and (3) Strabo data is in a uniform format making it simple for geologists to collaborate. While traditional field methods are not likely to go out of style in the near future, Strabo acts as a bridge between professional and novice geologists by providing a tool that is intuitive on all levels of geological and technological experience and

  6. Distribution Map and Community Characteristics of Weeds in Barley Fields of Ardabil Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Soheili

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Surveying weeds of irrigated barley fields is one of the most important practices in weed management. Based on cultivated areas irrigated barley in all counties of Ardabil province during six years (2000-2005, 46 sample barley fields were selected and weed species were counted in each sampling point and population indices were calculated with Thomas method. By using specific furmula the density, frequency and uniformity of each weed species in fields were calculated. In each field longitude, latitude and altitude were recorded by using GPS. These data were used for producing weed maps using GIS. Results showed that Galium tricurnatum, Fumaria vaillantiand Raphanus raphanistrum were dominante broadleaf species in irrigated barley fields of Ardabil province. The dominant grassy weed species in these fields were Avena fatua and Secale cereal. Convolvulus arvensis and Cirsium arvense were the most important troublesome plants prior to harvesting in irrigated barley fields of this province.

  7. Topographical Hill Shading Map Production Based Tianditu (map World)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Zha, Z.; Tang, D.; Yang, J.

    2018-04-01

    TIANDITU (Map World) is the public version of National Platform for Common Geospatial Information Service, and the terrain service is an important channel for users on the platform. With the development of TIANDITU, topographical hill shading map production for providing and updating global terrain map on line becomes necessary for the characters of strong intuition, three-dimensional sense and aesthetic effect. As such, the terrain service of TIANDITU focuses on displaying the different scales of topographical data globally. And this paper mainly aims to research the method of topographical hill shading map production globally using DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data between the displaying scales about 1 : 140,000,000 to 1 : 4,000,000, corresponded the display level from 2 to 7 on TIANDITU website.

  8. Effects of Field-Map Distortion Correction on Resting State Functional Connectivity MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Togo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field inhomogeneities cause geometric distortions of echo planar images used for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. To reduce this problem, distortion correction (DC with field map is widely used for both task and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI. Although DC with field map has been reported to improve the quality of task fMRI, little is known about its effects on rs-fMRI. Here, we tested the influence of field-map DC on rs-fMRI results using two rs-fMRI datasets derived from 40 healthy subjects: one with DC (DC+ and the other without correction (DC−. Independent component analysis followed by the dual regression approach was used for evaluation of resting-state functional connectivity networks (RSN. We also obtained the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency signal power (0.01–0.1 Hz and above 0.1 Hz, respectively; LFHF ratio to assess the quality of rs-fMRI signals. For comparison of RSN between DC+ and DC− datasets, the default mode network showed more robust functional connectivity in the DC+ dataset than the DC− dataset. Basal ganglia RSN showed some decreases in functional connectivity primarily in white matter, indicating imperfect registration/normalization without DC. Supplementary seed-based and simulation analyses supported the utility of DC. Furthermore, we found a higher LFHF ratio after field map correction in the anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, ventral striatum, and cerebellum. In conclusion, field map DC improved detection of functional connectivity derived from low-frequency rs-fMRI signals. We encourage researchers to include a DC step in the preprocessing pipeline of rs-fMRI analysis.

  9. Spatial Field Variability Mapping of Rice Crop using Clustering Technique from Space Borne Hyperspectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharana, S.; Dutta, S.

    2015-12-01

    Precision farming refers to field-specific management of an agricultural crop at a spatial scale with an aim to get the highest achievable yield and to achieve this spatial information on field variability is essential. The difficulty in mapping of spatial variability occurring within an agriculture field can be revealed by employing spectral techniques in hyperspectral imagery rather than multispectral imagery. However an advanced algorithm needs to be developed to fully make use of the rich information content in hyperspectral data. In the present study, potential of hyperspectral data acquired from space platform was examined to map the field variation of paddy crop and its species discrimination. This high dimensional data comprising 242 spectral narrow bands with 30m ground resolution Hyperion L1R product acquired for Assam, India (30th Sept and 3rd Oct, 2014) were allowed for necessary pre-processing steps followed by geometric correction using Hyperion L1GST product. Finally an atmospherically corrected and spatially deduced image consisting of 112 band was obtained. By employing an advanced clustering algorithm, 12 different clusters of spectral waveforms of the crop were generated from six paddy fields for each images. The findings showed that, some clusters were well discriminated representing specific rice genotypes and some clusters were mixed treating as a single rice genotype. As vegetation index (VI) is the best indicator of vegetation mapping, three ratio based VI maps were also generated and unsupervised classification was performed for it. The so obtained 12 clusters of paddy crop were mapped spatially to the derived VI maps. From these findings, the existence of heterogeneity was clearly captured in one of the 6 rice plots (rice plot no. 1) while heterogeneity was observed in rest of the 5 rice plots. The degree of heterogeneous was found more in rice plot no.6 as compared to other plots. Subsequently, spatial variability of paddy field was

  10. Hash function based on chaotic map lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shihong; Hu, Gang

    2007-06-01

    A new hash function system, based on coupled chaotic map dynamics, is suggested. By combining floating point computation of chaos and some simple algebraic operations, the system reaches very high bit confusion and diffusion rates, and this enables the system to have desired statistical properties and strong collision resistance. The chaos-based hash function has its advantages for high security and fast performance, and it serves as one of the most highly competitive candidates for practical applications of hash function for software realization and secure information communications in computer networks.

  11. USGS Imagery Topo Large-scale Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Imagery Topo Large service from The National Map (TNM) is a dynamic topographic base map service that combines the best available data (Boundaries,...

  12. Alteration mineral mapping for iron prospecting using ETM+ data, Tonkolili iron field, northern Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansaray, Lamin R.; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Ma, Zhimin

    2013-10-01

    The Tonkolili iron field in northern Sierra Leone has the largest known iron ore deposit in Africa. It occurs in a greenstone belt in an Achaean granitic basement. This study focused mainly on mapping areas with iron-oxide and hydroxyl bearing minerals, and identifying potential areas for haematite mineralization and banded iron formations (BIFs) in Tonkolili. The predominant mineral assemblage at the surface (laterite duricrust) of this iron field is haematitegoethite- limonite ±magnetite. The mineralization occurs in quartzitic banded ironstones, layered amphibolites, granites, schists and hornblendites. In this study, Crosta techniques were applied on Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data to enhance areas with alteration minerals and target potential areas of haematite and BIF units in the Tonkolili iron field. Synthetic analysis shows that alteration zones mapped herein are consistent with the already discovered magnetite BIFs in Tonkolili. Based on the overlaps of the simplified geological map and the remote sensing-based alteration mineral maps obtained in this study, three new haematite prospects were inferred within, and one new haematite prospect was inferred outside the tenement boundary of the Tonkolili exploration license. As the primary iron mineral in Tonkolili is magnetite, the study concludes that, these haematite prospects could also be underlain by magnetite BIFs. This study also concludes that, the application of Crosta techniques on ETM+ data is effective not only in mapping iron-oxide and hydroxyl alterations but can also provide a basis for inferring areas of potential iron resources in Algoma-type banded iron formations (BIFs), such as those in the Tonkolili field.

  13. Map-based mobile services design, interaction and usability

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Liqiu; Winter, Stephan; Popovich, Vasily

    2008-01-01

    This book reports the newest research and technical achievements on the following theme blocks: Design of mobile map services and its constraints; Typology and usability of mobile map services; Visualization solutions on small displays for time-critical tasks; Mobile map users; Interaction and adaptation in mobile environments; and Applications of map-based mobile services.

  14. Magnetic field mapping of the UCNTau magneto-gravitational trap: design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libersky, Matthew Murray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-04

    The beta decay lifetime of the free neutron is an important input to the Standard Model of particle physics, but values measured using different methods have exhibited substantial disagreement. The UCN r experiment in development at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) plans to explore better methods of measuring the neutron lifetime using ultracold neutrons (UCNs). In this experiment, UCNs are confined in a magneto-gravitational trap formed by a curved, asymmetric Halbach array placed inside a vacuum vessel and surrounded by holding field coils. If any defects present in the Halbach array are sufficient to reduce the local field near the surface below that needed to repel the desired energy level UCNs, loss by material interaction can occur at a rate similar to the loss by beta decay. A map of the magnetic field near the surface of the array is necessary to identify any such defects, but the array's curved geometry and placement in a vacuum vessel make conventional field mapping methods difficult. A system consisting of computer vision-based tracking and a rover holding a Hall probe has been designed to map the field near the surface of the array, and construction of an initial prototype has begun at LANL. The design of the system and initial results will be described here.

  15. Harmonic maps of the hyperbolic space and development of singularities in wave maps and Yang-Mills fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazenave, T.; Shatah, J.; Tahvildar-Zadeh, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    In this article we explore some of the connections between the theories of Yang-Mills fields, wave maps, and harmonic maps. It has been shown that the search for similarity solutions of wave maps leads to harmonic maps of the hyperbolic space. On the other hand, Glassey and Strauss have shown that the equations for an SO(3)-equivariant Yang-Mills connection on the Minkowski space R 3,1 with gauge group SU(2) reduce to a certain nonlinear wave equation, which we can now identify as a wave map on R 1,1 . More generally, we will here show the reduction under equivariance of a Yang-Mills system on the Minkowski space R n,1 to a wave map system on R n-2,1 in the specific case of SO(n) bundles with SO(n) symmetry. We then prove for odd n the existence of equivariant harmonic maps from the hyperbolic space H n that are smooth at the ideal boundary of H n , thus establishing the existence of similarity solutions for equivariant wave maps and Yang-Mills fields. As a consequence we show that for n ≥ 7, it is possible to have a wave map into a negatively curved target manifold that develops from smooth initial data and blows up in finite time, in sharp contrast to the elliptic case of harmonic maps. Finally we show how these singular solutions can be lifted to one dimension higher to produce singular travelling waves. (orig.)

  16. ActionMap: A web-based software that automates loci assignments to framework maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Guillaume; Falque, Matthieu; Joets, Johann

    2003-07-01

    Genetic linkage computation may be a repetitive and time consuming task, especially when numerous loci are assigned to a framework map. We thus developed ActionMap, a web-based software that automates genetic mapping on a fixed framework map without adding the new markers to the map. Using this tool, hundreds of loci may be automatically assigned to the framework in a single process. ActionMap was initially developed to map numerous ESTs with a small plant mapping population and is limited to inbred lines and backcrosses. ActionMap is highly configurable and consists of Perl and PHP scripts that automate command steps for the MapMaker program. A set of web forms were designed for data import and mapping settings. Results of automatic mapping can be displayed as tables or drawings of maps and may be exported. The user may create personal access-restricted projects to store raw data, settings and mapping results. All data may be edited, updated or deleted. ActionMap may be used either online or downloaded for free (http://moulon.inra.fr/~bioinfo/).

  17. Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondin, L.; Tetienne, J.-P.; Spinicelli, P.; Roch, J.-F.; Jacques, V. [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire, Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan and CNRS UMR 8537, 94235 Cachan Cedex (France); Dal Savio, C.; Karrai, K. [Attocube systems AG, Koeniginstrasse 11A RGB, Munich 80539 (Germany); Dantelle, G. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Ecole Polytechnique and CNRS UMR 7643, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Thiaville, A.; Rohart, S. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-Sud and CNRS UMR 8502, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2012-04-09

    We demonstrate quantitative magnetic field mapping with nanoscale resolution, by applying a lock-in technique on the electron spin resonance frequency of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect placed at the apex of an atomic force microscope tip. In addition, we report an all-optical magnetic imaging technique which is sensitive to large off-axis magnetic fields, thus extending the operation range of diamond-based magnetometry. Both techniques are illustrated by using a magnetic hard disk as a test sample. Owing to the non-perturbing and quantitative nature of the magnetic probe, this work should open up numerous perspectives in nanomagnetism and spintronics.

  18. On the feasibility of real-time mapping of the geoelectric field across North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua; Kelbert, Anna; Finn, Carol A.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Balch, Christopher C.

    2018-06-08

    A review is given of the present feasibility for accurately mapping geoelectric fields across North America in near-realtime by modeling geomagnetic monitoring and magnetotelluric survey data. Should this capability be successfully developed, it could inform utility companies of magnetic-storm interference on electric-power-grid systems. That real-time mapping of geoelectric fields is a challenge is reflective of (1) the spatiotemporal complexity of geomagnetic variation, especially during magnetic storms, (2) the sparse distribution of ground-based geomagnetic monitoring stations that report data in realtime, (3) the spatial complexity of three-dimensional solid-Earth impedance, and (4) the geographically incomplete state of continental-scale magnetotelluric surveys.

  19. PCR-Based EST Mapping in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. PERRY GUSTAFSON

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mapping expressed sequence tags (ESTs to hexaploid wheat is aimed to reveal the structure and function of the hexaploid wheat genome. Sixty eight ESTs representing 26 genes were mapped into all seven homologous chromosome groups of wheat (Triticum aestivum L using a polymerase chain reaction technique. The majority of the ESTs were mapped to homologous chromosome group 2, and the least were mapped to homologous chromosome group 6. Comparative analysis between the EST map from this study and the EST map based on RFLPs showed 14 genes that have been mapped by both approaches were mapped to the same arm of the same homologous chromosome, which indicated that using PCR-based ESTs was a reliable approach in mapping ESTs in hexaploid wheat.

  20. Development of Geospatial Map Based Election Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A. Kumar Chandra; Kumar, P.; Vasanth Kumar, N.

    2014-11-01

    The Geospatial Delhi Limited (GSDL), a Govt. of NCT of Delhi Company formed in order to provide the geospatial information of National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD) to the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) and its organs such as DDA, MCD, DJB, State Election Department, DMRC etc., for the benefit of all citizens of Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD). This paper describes the development of Geospatial Map based Election portal (GMEP) of NCT of Delhi. The portal has been developed as a map based spatial decision support system (SDSS) for pertain to planning and management of Department of Chief Electoral Officer, and as an election related information searching tools (Polling Station, Assembly and parliamentary constituency etc.,) for the citizens of NCTD. The GMEP is based on Client-Server architecture model. It has been developed using ArcGIS Server 10.0 with J2EE front-end on Microsoft Windows environment. The GMEP is scalable to enterprise SDSS with enterprise Geo Database & Virtual Private Network (VPN) connectivity. Spatial data to GMEP includes delimited precinct area boundaries of Voters Area of Polling stations, Assembly Constituency, Parliamentary Constituency, Election District, Landmark locations of Polling Stations & basic amenities (Police Stations, Hospitals, Schools and Fire Stations etc.). GMEP could help achieve not only the desired transparency and easiness in planning process but also facilitates through efficient & effective tools for management of elections. It enables a faster response to the changing ground realities in the development planning, owing to its in-built scientific approach and open-ended design.

  1. DRIFT-FREE INDOOR NAVIGATION USING SIMULTANEOUS LOCALIZATION AND MAPPING OF THE AMBIENT HETEROGENEOUS MAGNETIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. K. Chow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of external reference position information (e.g. surveyed targets or Global Navigation Satellite Systems Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM has proven to be an effective method for indoor navigation. The positioning drift can be reduced with regular loop-closures and global relaxation as the backend, thus achieving a good balance between exploration and exploitation. Although vision-based systems like laser scanners are typically deployed for SLAM, these sensors are heavy, energy inefficient, and expensive, making them unattractive for wearables or smartphone applications. However, the concept of SLAM can be extended to non-optical systems such as magnetometers. Instead of matching features such as walls and furniture using some variation of the Iterative Closest Point algorithm, the local magnetic field can be matched to provide loop-closure and global trajectory updates in a Gaussian Process (GP SLAM framework. With a MEMS-based inertial measurement unit providing a continuous trajectory, and the matching of locally distinct magnetic field maps, experimental results in this paper show that a drift-free navigation solution in an indoor environment with millimetre-level accuracy can be achieved. The GP-SLAM approach presented can be formulated as a maximum a posteriori estimation problem and it can naturally perform loop-detection, feature-to-feature distance minimization, global trajectory optimization, and magnetic field map estimation simultaneously. Spatially continuous features (i.e. smooth magnetic field signatures are used instead of discrete feature correspondences (e.g. point-to-point as in conventional vision-based SLAM. These position updates from the ambient magnetic field also provide enough information for calibrating the accelerometer bias and gyroscope bias in-use. The only restriction for this method is the need for magnetic disturbances (which is typically not an issue for indoor environments; however

  2. Drift-Free Indoor Navigation Using Simultaneous Localization and Mapping of the Ambient Heterogeneous Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, J. C. K.

    2017-09-01

    In the absence of external reference position information (e.g. surveyed targets or Global Navigation Satellite Systems) Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) has proven to be an effective method for indoor navigation. The positioning drift can be reduced with regular loop-closures and global relaxation as the backend, thus achieving a good balance between exploration and exploitation. Although vision-based systems like laser scanners are typically deployed for SLAM, these sensors are heavy, energy inefficient, and expensive, making them unattractive for wearables or smartphone applications. However, the concept of SLAM can be extended to non-optical systems such as magnetometers. Instead of matching features such as walls and furniture using some variation of the Iterative Closest Point algorithm, the local magnetic field can be matched to provide loop-closure and global trajectory updates in a Gaussian Process (GP) SLAM framework. With a MEMS-based inertial measurement unit providing a continuous trajectory, and the matching of locally distinct magnetic field maps, experimental results in this paper show that a drift-free navigation solution in an indoor environment with millimetre-level accuracy can be achieved. The GP-SLAM approach presented can be formulated as a maximum a posteriori estimation problem and it can naturally perform loop-detection, feature-to-feature distance minimization, global trajectory optimization, and magnetic field map estimation simultaneously. Spatially continuous features (i.e. smooth magnetic field signatures) are used instead of discrete feature correspondences (e.g. point-to-point) as in conventional vision-based SLAM. These position updates from the ambient magnetic field also provide enough information for calibrating the accelerometer bias and gyroscope bias in-use. The only restriction for this method is the need for magnetic disturbances (which is typically not an issue for indoor environments); however, no assumptions

  3. Agroforestry suitability analysis based upon nutrient availability mapping: a GIS based suitability mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoz Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry has drawn the attention of researchers due to its capacity to reduce the poverty and land degradation, improve food security and mitigate the climate change. However, the progress in promoting agroforestry is held back due to the lack of reliable data sets and appropriate tools to accurately map and to have an adequate decision making system for agroforestry modules. Agroforestry suitability being one special form of land suitability is very pertinent to study in the current times when there is tremendous pressure on the land as it is a limited commodity. The study aims for applying the geo-spatial tools towards visualizing various soil and environmental data to reveal the trends and interrelationships and to achieve a nutrient availability and agroforestry suitability map. Using weight matrix and ranks, individual maps were developed in ArcGIS 10.1 platform to generate nutrient availability map, which was later used to develop agroforestry suitability map. Watersheds were delineated using DEM in some part of the study area and were evaluated for prioritizing it and agroforestry suitability of the watersheds were also done as per the schematic flowchart. Agroforestry suitability regions were delineated based upon the weight and ranks by integrated mapping. The total open area was identified 42.4% out of which 21.6% area was found to have high suitability towards agroforestry. Within the watersheds, 22 village points were generated for creating buffers, which were further evaluated showing its proximity to high suitable agroforestry sites thus generating tremendous opportunity to the villagers to carry out agroforestry projects locally. This research shows the capability of remote sensing in studying agroforestry practices and in estimating the prominent factors for its optimal productivity. The ongoing agroforestry projects can be potentially diverted in the areas of high suitability as an extension. The use of ancillary data in GIS

  4. Smart Cities as Organizational Fields: A Framework for Mapping Sustainability-Enabling Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Pierce

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the impressive growth of smart city initiatives worldwide, an organizational theory of smart city has yet to be developed, and we lack models addressing the unprecedented organizational and management challenges that emerge in smart city contexts. Traditional models are often of little use, because smart cities pursue different goals than traditional organizations, are based on networked, cross-boundary activity systems, rely on distributed innovation processes, and imply adaptive policy-making. Complex combinations of factors may lead to vicious or virtuous cycles in smart city initiatives, but we know very little about how these factors may be identified and mapped. Based on an inductive study of a set of primary and secondary sources, we develop a framework for the configurational analysis of smart cities viewed as place-specific organizational fields. This framework identifies five key dimensions in the configurations of smart city fields; these five dimensions are mapped through five sub-frameworks, which can be used both separately as well as for an integrated analysis. Our contribution is conceived to support longitudinal studies, natural experiments and comparative analyses on smart city fields, and to improve our understanding of how different combinations of factors affect the capability of smart innovations to translate into city resilience, sustainability and quality of life. In addition, our results suggest that new forms of place-based entrepreneurship constitute the engine that allows for the dynamic collaboration between government, citizens and research centers in successful smart city organizational fields.

  5. Field studies of Pan troglodytes reviewed and comprehensively mapped, focussing on Japan's contribution to cultural primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, William C

    2017-01-01

    Field studies done over decades of wild chimpanzees in East, Central and West Africa have yielded impressive, cumulative findings in cultural primatology. Japanese primatologists have been involved in this advance from the outset, over a wide variety of topics. Here I review the origins and development of field studies of Pan troglodytes, then assess their progress based on analogy between cultural primatology and cultural anthropology, through four stages: natural history, ethnography, ethnology, and intuition. Then, I focus on six topics that continue to yield informative debate: technology, universals, nuanced variation, archaeology, applied primatology, and ecology. Finally, I offer a map of sites of field study of wild chimpanzees. It is clear that Japanese primatologists have made a significant contribution to East-West scientific exchange, especially at the field sites of Bossou and Mahale.

  6. Mapping Women’s and Gender Studies in the Academic Field in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Antić Gaber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to map the development of women’s and gender studies (WGS in the academic field in Slovenia. Slovenia is the first of the former Yugoslav state republics in which WGS have succeeded in entering the academic field and becoming part of institutionalised university study. In this paper we will ask the following questions: How, when and why did this happen? How was this connected to women’s and feminist movements and politics regarding women’s issues and demands? What were the obstacles in this process? Who were the agents and what were the factors that supported demands for the incorporation of WGS in academia? How has the field evolved in the last few decades? What were the phases of this development? Which fields were the forerunners, which were the late-comers and which are still left aside? What are the thematic scopes taught in WGS courses? In which degrees are the courses offered and what are their modules? Who teaches them? The mapping in this paper is mainly based on primary sources of university programmes and their curricula at faculties of the University of Ljubljana, as well as on interviews with important agents in the field.

  7. Mapping population-based structural connectomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengwu; Descoteaux, Maxime; Zhang, Jingwen; Girard, Gabriel; Chamberland, Maxime; Dunson, David; Srivastava, Anuj; Zhu, Hongtu

    2018-05-15

    Advances in understanding the structural connectomes of human brain require improved approaches for the construction, comparison and integration of high-dimensional whole-brain tractography data from a large number of individuals. This article develops a population-based structural connectome (PSC) mapping framework to address these challenges. PSC simultaneously characterizes a large number of white matter bundles within and across different subjects by registering different subjects' brains based on coarse cortical parcellations, compressing the bundles of each connection, and extracting novel connection weights. A robust tractography algorithm and streamline post-processing techniques, including dilation of gray matter regions, streamline cutting, and outlier streamline removal are applied to improve the robustness of the extracted structural connectomes. The developed PSC framework can be used to reproducibly extract binary networks, weighted networks and streamline-based brain connectomes. We apply the PSC to Human Connectome Project data to illustrate its application in characterizing normal variations and heritability of structural connectomes in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Landsat 5 TM images and DEM in lithologic mapping of Payen Volcanic Field (Mendoza Province, Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornaciai, A.; Bisson, M.; Mazzarini, F.; Del Carlo, P.; Pasquare, G.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite image such as Landsat 5 TM scene provides excellent representation of Earth and synoptic view of large geographic areas in different band combination. Landsat TM images allow automatic and semi-automatic classification of land cover, nevertheless the software frequently may some difficulties in distinguishing between similar radiometric surfaces. In this case, the use of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) can be an important tool to identify different surface covers. In this study, several False Color Composite (FCC) of Landsat 5 TM Image, DEM and the respective draped image of them, were used to delineate lithological boundaries and tectonic features of regional significance of the Paven Volcanic Field (PVF). PFV is a Quaternary fissural structure belonging to the black-arc extensional areas of the Andes in the Mendoza Province (Argentina) characterized by many composite basaltic lava flow fields. The necessity to identify different lava flows with the same composition, and then with same spectral features, allows to highlight the improvement of synergic use of TM images and shaded DEM in the visual interpretation. Information obtained from Satellite data and DEM have been compared with previous geological maps and transferred into a topographical base map. Based on these data a new lithological map at 1:100.000 scale has been presented [it

  9. Particle filter based MAP state estimation: A comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, S.; Boers, Y.; Driessen, J.N.; Mandal, Pranab K.; Bagchi, Arunabha

    2009-01-01

    MAP estimation is a good alternative to MMSE for certain applications involving nonlinear non Gaussian systems. Recently a new particle filter based MAP estimator has been derived. This new method extracts the MAP directly from the output of a running particle filter. In the recent past, a Viterbi

  10. BEE FORAGE MAPPING BASED ON MULTISPECTRAL IMAGES LANDSAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moskalenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of bee forage identification and mapping based on multispectral images have been shown in the research. Spectral brightness of bee forage has been determined with the use of satellite images. The effectiveness of some methods of image classification for mapping of bee forage is shown. Keywords: bee forage, mapping, multispectral images, image classification.

  11. Method to map individual electromagnetic field components inside a photonic crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denis, T.; Reijnders, B.; Lee, J.H.H.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Vos, Willem L.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method to map the absolute electromagnetic field strength inside photonic crystals. We apply the method to map the dominant electric field component Ez of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab at microwave frequencies. The slab is placed between two mirrors to select Bloch standing

  12. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Jing Tao; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE 06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE 06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/sq m. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy. Keywords: Vegetation, field experimentation, thematic mapper, NDWI, agriculture.

  13. Evaluation of using digital gravity field models for zoning map creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, Dmitry

    2018-05-01

    At the present time the digital cartographic models of geophysical fields are taking a special significance into geo-physical mapping. One of the important directions to their application is the creation of zoning maps, which allow taking into account the morphology of geophysical field in the implementation automated choice of contour intervals. The purpose of this work is the comparative evaluation of various digital models in the creation of integrated gravity field zoning map. For comparison were chosen the digital model of gravity field of Russia, created by the analog map with scale of 1 : 2 500 000, and the open global model of gravity field of the Earth - WGM2012. As a result of experimental works the four integrated gravity field zoning maps were obtained with using raw and processed data on each gravity field model. The study demonstrates the possibility of open data use to create integrated zoning maps with the condition to eliminate noise component of model by processing in specialized software systems. In this case, for solving problem of contour intervals automated choice the open digital models aren't inferior to regional models of gravity field, created for individual countries. This fact allows asserting about universality and independence of integrated zoning maps creation regardless of detail of a digital cartographic model of geo-physical fields.

  14. Localization and Classification of Paddy Field Pests using a Saliency Map and Deep Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziyi; Gao, Junfeng; Yang, Guoguo; Zhang, Huan; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We present a pipeline for the visual localization and classification of agricultural pest insects by computing a saliency map and applying deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) learning. First, we used a global contrast region-based approach to compute a saliency map for localizing pest insect objects. Bounding squares containing targets were then extracted, resized to a fixed size, and used to construct a large standard database called Pest ID. This database was then utilized for self-learning of local image features which were, in turn, used for classification by DCNN. DCNN learning optimized the critical parameters, including size, number and convolutional stride of local receptive fields, dropout ratio and the final loss function. To demonstrate the practical utility of using DCNN, we explored different architectures by shrinking depth and width, and found effective sizes that can act as alternatives for practical applications. On the test set of paddy field images, our architectures achieved a mean Accuracy Precision (mAP) of 0.951, a significant improvement over previous methods. PMID:26864172

  15. Full-Field Calibration of Color Camera Chromatic Aberration using Absolute Phase Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2017-05-06

    The refractive index of a lens varies for different wavelengths of light, and thus the same incident light with different wavelengths has different outgoing light. This characteristic of lenses causes images captured by a color camera to display chromatic aberration (CA), which seriously reduces image quality. Based on an analysis of the distribution of CA, a full-field calibration method based on absolute phase maps is proposed in this paper. Red, green, and blue closed sinusoidal fringe patterns are generated, consecutively displayed on an LCD (liquid crystal display), and captured by a color camera from the front viewpoint. The phase information of each color fringe is obtained using a four-step phase-shifting algorithm and optimum fringe number selection method. CA causes the unwrapped phase of the three channels to differ. These pixel deviations can be computed by comparing the unwrapped phase data of the red, blue, and green channels in polar coordinates. CA calibration is accomplished in Cartesian coordinates. The systematic errors introduced by the LCD are analyzed and corrected. Simulated results show the validity of the proposed method and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed full-field calibration method based on absolute phase maps will be useful for practical software-based CA calibration.

  16. Studying Geographical Distribution Map of Weeds of Irrigated Wheat Fields of Ardabil Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Soheili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the density and abundance of weeds in irrigated wheat fields of Ardabil Province, 76 samples of irrigated wheat fields based on cultivation area from all counties of Ardabil province for six years (2001-2006 were selected. The genus and species of weeds from each sampling fields and their population indices density, frequency and uniformity of each species were calculated by using Thomas method. Geographic coordinates of field (Latitude, Altitude and Elevation were the main coverage and were determined by using GPS. These data were used for producing weed maps using GIS in irrigated wheat fields of Ardabil province. Results showed that bedstraw (Galium tricurnatum, Fumitory(Fumaria vaillantiand wildradish (Raphanus raphanistrum were dominant broad leaf weed species and wild oats (Avena fatua, rye (Secale cereal and mouse foxtail(Alopecurus myosuroides dominant grassy weeds species in irrigated wheat fields of Ardabil province. Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis, Canada thistle(Cirsium arvenseand Acroptilon repens were the most important disturbing plants prior to harvesting in irrigated wheat fields of Ardabil province.

  17. A comparison of contour maps derived from independent methods of measuring lunar magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, B. R.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Russell, C. T.

    1978-01-01

    Computer-generated contour maps of strong lunar remanent magnetic fields are presented and discussed. The maps, obtained by previously described (Eliason and Soderblom, 1977) techniques, are derived from a variety of direct and indirect measurements from Apollo 15 and 16 and Explorer 35 magnetometer and electron reflection data. A common display format is used to facilitate comparison of the maps over regions of overlapping coverage. Most large scale features of either weak or strong magnetic field regions are found to correlate fairly well on all the maps considered.

  18. Geologic Interpretation of Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Geology Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping. Part 1; A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Bleacher, Jacob F.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Feng, Wanda; Gruener, John; Hurwitz, Debra M.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Whitson, Peggy; Janoiko, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Geologic maps integrate the distributions, contacts, and compositions of rock and sediment bodies as a means to interpret local to regional formative histories. Applying terrestrial mapping techniques to other planets is challenging because data is collected primarily by orbiting instruments, with infrequent, spatiallylimited in situ human and robotic exploration. Although geologic maps developed using remote data sets and limited "Apollo-style" field access likely contain inaccuracies, the magnitude, type, and occurrence of these are only marginally understood. This project evaluates the interpretative and cartographic accuracy of both field- and remote-based mapping approaches by comparing two 1:24,000 scale geologic maps of the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF), north-central Arizona. The first map is based on traditional field mapping techniques, while the second is based on remote data sets, augmented with limited field observations collected during NASA Desert Research & Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 exercises. The RATS mission used Apollo-style methods not only for pre-mission traverse planning but also to conduct geologic sampling as part of science operation tests. Cross-comparison demonstrates that the Apollo-style map identifies many of the same rock units and determines a similar broad history as the field-based map. However, field mapping techniques allow markedly improved discrimination of map units, particularly unconsolidated surficial deposits, and recognize a more complex eruptive history than was possible using Apollo-style data. Further, the distribution of unconsolidated surface units was more obvious in the remote sensing data to the field team after conducting the fieldwork. The study raises questions about the most effective approach to balancing mission costs with the rate of knowledge capture, suggesting that there is an inflection point in the "knowledge capture curve" beyond which additional resource investment yields progressively

  19. Introducing students to digital geological mapping: A workflow based on cheap hardware and free software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabec, Marko; Dolžan, Erazem

    2016-04-01

    The undergraduate field course in Geological Mapping at the University of Ljubljana involves 20-40 students per year, which precludes the use of specialized rugged digital field equipment as the costs would be way beyond the capabilities of the Department. A different mapping area is selected each year with the aim to provide typical conditions that a professional geologist might encounter when doing fieldwork in Slovenia, which includes rugged relief, dense tree cover, and moderately-well- to poorly-exposed bedrock due to vegetation and urbanization. It is therefore mandatory that the digital tools and workflows are combined with classical methods of fieldwork, since, for example, full-time precise GNSS positioning is not viable under such circumstances. Additionally, due to the prevailing combination of complex geological structure with generally poor exposure, students cannot be expected to produce line (vector) maps of geological contacts on the go, so there is no need for such functionality in hardware and software that we use in the field. Our workflow therefore still relies on paper base maps, but is strongly complemented with digital tools to provide robust positioning, track recording, and acquisition of various point-based data. Primary field hardware are students' Android-based smartphones and optionally tablets. For our purposes, the built-in GNSS chips provide adequate positioning precision most of the time, particularly if they are GLONASS-capable. We use Oruxmaps, a powerful free offline map viewer for the Android platform, which facilitates the use of custom-made geopositioned maps. For digital base maps, which we prepare in free Windows QGIS software, we use scanned topographic maps provided by the National Geodetic Authority, but also other maps such as aerial imagery, processed Digital Elevation Models, scans of existing geological maps, etc. Point data, like important outcrop locations or structural measurements, are entered into Oruxmaps as

  20. Building Exposure Maps Of Urban Infrastructure And Crop Fields In The Mekong River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, E.; Weichselbaum, J.; Gangkofner, U.; Miltzer, J.; Wali, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the frame of the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) initiative for the Mekong river basin World Bank is collaborating with the Mekong River Commission and governmental organizations in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam to build national and regional capacities for managing the risks associated with natural disasters, such as floods, flash floods and droughts. Within ‘eoworld', a joint initiative set up by ESA and World Bank to foster the use of Earth Observation (EO) for sustainable development work, a comprehensive database of elements at risk in the Lower Mekong river basin has been established by GeoVille, including urban infrastructure and crops (primarily rice paddies). In the long term, this exposure information shall be fed into an open-source multi- hazard modeling tool for risk assessment along the Mekong River, which then shall be used by national stakeholders as well as insurance and financial institutions for planning, disaster preparedness and emergency management. Earth Observation techniques can provide objective, synoptic and repetitive observations of elements at risk including buildings, infrastructure and crops. Through the fusion of satellite-based with in-situ data from field surveys and local knowledge (e.g. on building materials) features at risk can be characterised and mapped with high accuracy. Earth Observation data utilised comprise bi-weekly Envisat ASAR imagery programmed for a period of 9 months in 2011 to map the development of the rice cultivation area, identify predominant cropping systems (wet-season vs. dry season cultivation), crop cycles (single /double / triple crop per year), date of emergence/harvest and the distinction between rice planted under intensive (SRI) vs. regular rice cultivation techniques. Very High Resolution (VHR) optical data from SPOT, KOMPSAT and QuickBird were used for mapping of buildings and infrastructure, such as building footprints, residential / commercial areas, industrial

  1. A differential algebraic integration algorithm for symplectic mappings in systems with three-dimensional magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P.; Lee, S.Y.; Yan, Y.T.

    2006-01-01

    A differential algebraic integration algorithm is developed for symplectic mapping through a three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic field. The self-consistent reference orbit in phase space is obtained by making a canonical transformation to eliminate the linear part of the Hamiltonian. Transfer maps from the entrance to the exit of any 3-D magnetic field are then obtained through slice-by-slice symplectic integration. The particle phase-space coordinates are advanced by using the integrable polynomial procedure. This algorithm is a powerful tool to attain nonlinear maps for insertion devices in synchrotron light source or complicated magnetic field in the interaction region in high energy colliders

  2. A Differential Algebraic Integration Algorithm for Symplectic Mappings in Systems with Three-Dimensional Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P

    2004-01-01

    A differential algebraic integration algorithm is developed for symplectic mapping through a three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic field. The self-consistent reference orbit in phase space is obtained by making a canonical transformation to eliminate the linear part of the Hamiltonian. Transfer maps from the entrance to the exit of any 3-D magnetic field are then obtained through slice-by-slice symplectic integration. The particle phase-space coordinates are advanced by using the integrable polynomial procedure. This algorithm is a powerful tool to attain nonlinear maps for insertion devices in synchrotron light source or complicated magnetic field in the interaction region in high energy colliders

  3. Mapping query terms to data and schema using content based similarity search in clinical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Leila; Patrick, Jon D

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the issues in mapping the terms of a query to the field names of the schema of an Entity Relationship (ER) model or to the data part of the Entity Attribute Value (EAV) model using similarity based Top-K algorithm in clinical information system together with an extension of EAV mapping for medication names. In addition, the details of the mapping algorithm and the required pre-processing including NLP (Natural Language Processing) tasks to prepare resources for mapping are explained. The experimental results on an example clinical information system demonstrate more than 84 per cent of accuracy in mapping. The results will be integrated into our proposed Clinical Data Analytics Language (CliniDAL) to automate mapping process in CliniDAL.

  4. Activity Based Costing in Value Stream Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abuthakeer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to integrate Value Stream Map (VSM with the cost aspects. A value stream map provides a blueprint for implementing lean manufacturing concepts by illustrating information and materials flow in a value stream. The objective of the present work is to integrate the various cost aspects. The idea is to introduce a cost line, which enhances the clarity in decision making. The redesigned map proves to be effective in highlighting the improvement areas, in terms of quantitative data. TAKT time calculation is carried out to set the pace of production. Target cost is set as a bench mark for product cost. The results of the study indicates that implementing VSM led to reduction in the following areas: processing lead time by 34%, processing cycle time was reduced by 35%, Inventory level by 66% and product cost from Rs 137 to Rs 125. It was found that adopting VSM in a small scale industry can make significant improvements.

  5. The Role of the Photogeologic Mapping in the Morocco 2013 Mars Analog Field Simulation (Austrian Space Forum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losiak, Anna; Orgel, Csilla; Moser, Linda; MacArthur, Jane; Gołębiowska, Izabela; Wittek, Steffen; Boyd, Andrea; Achorner, Isabella; Rampey, Mike; Bartenstein, Thomas; Jones, Natalie; Luger, Ulrich; Sans, Alejandra; Hettrich, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The MARS2013 mission: The Austrian Space Forum together with multiple scientific partners will conduct a Mars analog field simulation. The project takes place between 1st and 28th of February 2013 in the northern Sahara near Erfoud. During the simulation a field crew (consisting of suited analog astronauts and a support team) will conduct several experiments while being managed by the Mission Support Center (MSC) located in Innsbruck, Austria. The aim of the project is to advance preparation of the future human Mars missions by testing: 1) the mission design with regard to operational and engineering challenges (e.g., how to work efficiently with introduced time delay in communication between field team and MSC), 2) scientific instruments (e.g., rovers) and 3) human performance in conditions analogous to those that will be encountered on Mars. The Role of Geological Mapping: Remote Science Support team (RSS) is responsible for processing science data obtained in the field. The RSS is also in charge of preparing a set of maps to enable planning activities of the mission (including the development of traverses) [1, 2]. The usage of those maps will increase the time-cost efficiency of the entire mission. The RSS team members do not have any prior knowledge about the area where the simulation is taking place and the analysis is fully based on remote sensing satellite data (Landsat, GoogleEarth) and a digital elevation model (ASTER GDEM)from the orbital data. The maps design: The set of maps (covering area 5 km X 5 km centered on the Mission Base Camp) was designed to simplify the process of site selection for the daily traverse planning. Additionally, the maps will help to accommodate the need of the field crew for the increased autonomy in the decision making process, forced by the induced time delay between MSC and "Mars". The set of provided maps should allow the field team to orientate and navigate in the explored areas as well as make informed decisions about

  6. Comparing different stimulus configurations for population receptive field mapping in human fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan eAlvarez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Population receptive field (pRF mapping is a widely used approach to measuring aggregate human visual receptive field properties by recording non-invasive signals using functional MRI. Despite growing interest, no study to date has systematically investigated the effects of different stimulus configurations on pRF estimates from human visual cortex. Here we compared the effects of three different stimulus configurations on a model-based approach to pRF estimation: size-invariant bars and eccentricity-scaled bars defined in Cartesian coordinates and traveling along the cardinal axes, and a novel simultaneous ‘wedge and ring’ stimulus defined in polar coordinates, systematically covering polar and eccentricity axes. We found that the presence or absence of eccentricity scaling had a significant effect on goodness of fit and pRF size estimates. Further, variability in pRF size estimates was directly influenced by stimulus configuration, particularly for higher visual areas including V5/MT+. Finally, we compared eccentricity estimation between phase-encoded and model-based pRF approaches. We observed a tendency for more peripheral eccentricity estimates using phase-encoded methods, independent of stimulus size. We conclude that both eccentricity scaling and polar rather than Cartesian stimulus configuration are important considerations for optimal experimental design in pRF mapping. While all stimulus configurations produce adequate estimates, simultaneous wedge and ring stimulation produced higher fit reliability, with a significant advantage in reduced acquisition time.

  7. Near-field mapping by laser ablation of PMMA coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiutowski, J.; Maibohm, C.; Kostiucenko, O.

    2011-01-01

    The optical near-field of lithography-defined gold nanostructures, arranged into regular arrays on a gold film, is characterized via ablation of a polymer coating by laser illumination. The method utilizes femto-second laser pulses from a laser scanning microscope which induces electrical field...... that the different stages in the ablation process can be controlled and characterized making the technique suitable for characterizing optical near-fields of metal nanostructures....

  8. Soil organic carbon mapping of partially vegetated agricultural fields with imaging spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartholomeus, H.; Kooistra, L.; Stevens, A.; Leeuwen, van M.; Wesemael, van B.; Ben-Dor, E.; Tychon, B.

    2011-01-01

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) is one of the key soil properties, but the large spatial variation makes continuous mapping a complex task. Imaging spectroscopy has proven to be an useful technique for mapping of soil properties, but the applicability decreases rapidly when fields are partially covered

  9. Iris Matching Based on Personalized Weight Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenbo; Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2011-09-01

    Iris recognition typically involves three steps, namely, iris image preprocessing, feature extraction, and feature matching. The first two steps of iris recognition have been well studied, but the last step is less addressed. Each human iris has its unique visual pattern and local image features also vary from region to region, which leads to significant differences in robustness and distinctiveness among the feature codes derived from different iris regions. However, most state-of-the-art iris recognition methods use a uniform matching strategy, where features extracted from different regions of the same person or the same region for different individuals are considered to be equally important. This paper proposes a personalized iris matching strategy using a class-specific weight map learned from the training images of the same iris class. The weight map can be updated online during the iris recognition procedure when the successfully recognized iris images are regarded as the new training data. The weight map reflects the robustness of an encoding algorithm on different iris regions by assigning an appropriate weight to each feature code for iris matching. Such a weight map trained by sufficient iris templates is convergent and robust against various noise. Extensive and comprehensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed personalized iris matching strategy achieves much better iris recognition performance than uniform strategies, especially for poor quality iris images.

  10. Mapping genomic deletions down to the base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunø, Morten; Hove, Hanne; Kirchhoff, Maria

    2004-01-01

    the breakpoint of the third patient was mapped to a region previously predicted to be prone for rearrangements. One patient also harboured an inversion in connection with the deletion that disrupted the HDAC9 gene. All three patients showed clinical characteristics reminiscent of the hand-foot-genital syndrome...

  11. Cognitive mapping based on synthetic vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmetag, Arnd; Halbig, Christian; Kubbat, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Rainer

    1999-07-01

    The analysis of accidents focused our work on the avoidance of 'Controlled Flight Into Terrain' caused by insufficient situation awareness. Analysis of safety concepts led us to the design of the proposed synthetic vision system that will be described. Since most information on these 3D-Displays is shown in a graphical way, it can intuitively be understood by the pilot. What are the new possibilities using SVS enhancing situation awareness? First, detection of ground collision hazard is possible by monitoring a perspective Primary Flight Display. Under the psychological point of view it is based on the perception of expanding objects in the visual flow field. Supported by a Navigation Display a local conflict resolution can be mentally worked out very fast. Secondly, it is possible to follow a 3D flight path visualized as a 'Tunnel in the sky.' This can further be improved by using a flight path prediction. These are the prerequisites for a safe and adequate movement in any kind of spatial environment. However situation awareness requires the ability of navigation and spatial problem solving. Both abilities are based on higher cognitive functions in real as well as in a synthetic environment. In this paper the current training concept will be analyzed. Advantages resulting from the integration of a SVS concerning pilot training will be discussed and necessary requirements in terrain depiction will be pinpointed. Finally a modified Computer Based Training for the familiarization with Salzburg Airport for a SVS equipped aircraft will be presented. It is developed by Darmstadt University of Technology in co-operation with Lufthansa Flight Training.

  12. Introduction of wild MAP species into the field culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušková, Elena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Althea officinalis L., Dracocephalum moldavica L., Gentiana lutea L., Rhodiola rosea L., and Valeriana officinalis L. are the species of wild medicinal plants which are not very commonly grown in field culture. The methods and practical experiences of their multiplication and growing in a field nursery in Olomouc (the Czech Republic are explained and shown in the manuscript.

  13. Further Mapping of Mercury's Crustal Magnetic Field Using MESSENGER Magnetometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Oliveira, J. S.; Spudis, P. D.; Galluzzi, V.

    2018-05-01

    Further mapping of Mercury's crustal magnetic field shows that anomalies are associated with some impact craters but not others. Differences in impactor composition (e.g., iron content) may be indicated by this new observation.

  14. Weed map generation from UAV image mosaics based on crop row detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    To control weed in a field effectively with a minimum of herbicides, knowledge about the weed patches is required. Based on images acquired by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), a vegetation map of the entire field can be generated. Manual analysis, which is often required, to detect weed patches...... is used as input for the method. Issues related to perspective distortion are reduced by using an orthomosaic, which is a high resolution image of the entire field, built from hundreds of images taken by a UAV. A vegetation map is generated from the orthomosaic by calculating the excess green color index...

  15. Field Courses for Volcanic Hazards Mapping at Parícutinand Jorullo Volcanoes (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria Morales, A.; Delgado Granados, H.; Roberge, J.; Farraz Montes, I. A.; Linares López, C.

    2007-05-01

    During the last decades, Mexico has suffered several geologic phenomena-related disasters. The eruption of El Chichón volcano in 1982 killed >2000 people and left a large number of homeless populations and severe economic damages. The best way to avoid and mitigate disasters and their effects is by making geologic hazards maps. In volcanic areas these maps should show in a simplified fashion, but based on the largest geologic background possible, the probable (or likely) distribution in time and space of the products related to a variety of volcanic processes and events, according to likely magnitude scenarios documented on actual events at a particular volcano or a different one with similar features to the volcano used for calibration and weighing geologic background. Construction of hazards maps requires compilation and acquisition of a large amount of geological data in order to obtain the physical parameters needed to calibrate and perform controlled simulation of volcanic events under different magnitude-scenarios in order to establish forecasts. These forecasts are needed by the authorities to plan human settlements, infrastructure, and economic development. The problem is that needs are overwhelmingly faster than the adjustments of university programs to include courses. At the Earth Science División of the Faculty of Engineering at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, the students have a good background that permits to learn the methodologies for hazards map construction but no courses on hazards evaluations. Therefore, under the support of the university's Program to Support Innovation and Improvement of Teaching (PAPIME, Programa de Apoyo para la Innovación y Mejoramiento de la Enseñanza) a series of field-based intensive courses allow the Earth science students to learn what kind of data to acquire, how to record, and process in order to carry out hazards evaluations. This training ends with hazards maps that can be used immediately by the

  16. State Base Map for GIS – New Digital Topographic Map of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Srbinoski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI built in accordance with INSPIRE directive is to standardize spatial data infrastructure on national level. In that direction, topographic maps are a basic platform for acquiring spatial data within geoinformation systems and one of the most important  segments of NSDI. This paper presents methodology of establishing the new digital topographic map of the Republic of Macedonia titled “State Base Map for GIS in Macedonia”. This paper analyzes geometrical accuracy of new digital topographic maps. Production of the new digital topographic map has been the most important cartographic project in the Republic of Macedonia since it became independent.

  17. Mapping misoriented fibers using X-ray dark field tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Torsten; Lauridsen, Erik Mejdal; Feidenhans’l, Robert

    2014-01-01

    such tomograms on a highly nonisotropic sample, i.e. a five layer “sandwich” of oriented carbon fibers. The fibers are parallel within the individual sandwich layers, but perpendicular to the fibers in the adjacent layers. We show that by choosing a rotation axis parallel to the grating stepping direction (i.......e. a horizontal rotation axis in most setup configurations) it is possible to produce a darkfield tomogram where fibers parallel to the probed scattering direction appear to have no dark field signal. The method produces a tomogram in the form of a scalar field of dark field scattering values....

  18. Generalized logistic map and its application in chaos based cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawnik, M.

    2017-12-01

    The logistic map is commonly used in, for example, chaos based cryptography. However, its properties do not render a safe construction of encryption algorithms. Thus, the scope of the paper is a proposal of generalization of the logistic map by means of a wellrecognized family of chaotic maps. In the next step, an analysis of Lyapunov exponent and the distribution of the iterative variable are studied. The obtained results confirm that the analyzed model can safely and effectively replace a classic logistic map for applications involving chaotic cryptography.

  19. Method for Stereo Mapping Based on Objectarx and Pipeline Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Chen, T.; Lin, Z.; Yang, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Stereo mapping is an important way to acquire 4D production. Based on the development of the stereo mapping and the characteristics of ObjectARX and pipeline technology, a new stereo mapping scheme which can realize the interaction between the AutoCAD and digital photogrammetry system is offered by ObjectARX and pipeline technology. An experiment is made in order to make sure the feasibility with the example of the software MAP-AT (Modern Aerial Photogrammetry Automatic Triangulation), the experimental results show that this scheme is feasible and it has very important meaning for the realization of the acquisition and edit integration.

  20. Prompt Proxy Mapping of Flood Damaged Rice Fields Using MODIS-Derived Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjoo Kwak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood mapping, particularly hazard and risk mapping, is an imperative process and a fundamental part of emergency response and risk management. This paper aims to produce a flood risk proxy map of damaged rice fields over the whole of Bangladesh, where monsoon river floods are dominant and frequent, affecting over 80% of the total population. This proxy risk map was developed to meet the request of the government on a national level. This study represents a rapid, straightforward methodology for estimating rice-crop damage in flood areas of Bangladesh during the large flood from July to September 2007, despite the lack of primary data. We improved a water detection algorithm to achieve a better discrimination capacity to discern flood areas by using a modified land surface water index (MLSWI. Then, rice fields were estimated utilizing a hybrid rice field map from land-cover classification and MODIS-derived indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and enhanced vegetation index (EVI. The results showed that the developed method is capable of providing instant, comprehensive, nationwide mapping of flood risks, such as rice field damage. The detected flood areas and damaged rice fields during the 2007 flood were verified by comparing them with the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS AVNIR-2 images (a 10 m spatial resolution and in situ field survey data with moderate agreement (K = 0.57.

  1. Solar monochromatic images in magneto-sensitive spectral lines and maps of vector magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihui, Y.; Jiehai, J.; Minhan, J.

    1985-01-01

    A new method which allows by use of the monochromatic images in some magneto-sensitive spectra line to derive both the magnetic field strength as well as the angle between magnetic field lines and line of sight for various places in solar active regions is described. In this way two dimensional maps of vector magnetic fields may be constructed. This method was applied to some observational material and reasonable results were obtained. In addition, a project for constructing the three dimensional maps of vector magnetic fields was worked out.

  2. Broadband illusion optical devices based on conformal mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhan; Xu, Lin; Xu, Ya-Dong; Chen, Huan-Yang

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple method of illusion optics based on conformal mappings. By carefully developing designs with specific conformal mappings, one can make an object look like another with a significantly different shape. In addition, the illusion optical devices can work in a broadband of frequencies.

  3. VISUAL UAV TRAJECTORY PLAN SYSTEM BASED ON NETWORK MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. L. Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The base map of the current software UP-30 using in trajectory plan for Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle is vector diagram. UP-30 draws navigation points manually. But in the field of operation process, the efficiency and the quality of work is influenced because of insufficient information, screen reflection, calculate inconveniently and other factors. If we do this work in indoor, the effect of external factors on the results would be eliminated, the network earth users can browse the free world high definition satellite images through downloading a client software, and can export the high resolution image by standard file format. This brings unprecedented convenient of trajectory plan. But the images must be disposed by coordinate transformation, geometric correction. In addition, according to the requirement of mapping scale ,camera parameters and overlap degree we can calculate exposure hole interval and trajectory distance between the adjacent trajectory automatically . This will improve the degree of automation of data collection. Software will judge the position of next point according to the intersection of the trajectory and the survey area and ensure the position of point according to trajectory distance. We can undertake the points artificially. So the trajectory plan is automatic and flexible. Considering safety, the date can be used in flying after simulating flight. Finally we can export all of the date using a key

  4. Visual Uav Trajectory Plan System Based on Network Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. L.; Lin, Z. J.; Su, G. Z.; Wu, B. Y.

    2012-07-01

    The base map of the current software UP-30 using in trajectory plan for Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle is vector diagram. UP-30 draws navigation points manually. But in the field of operation process, the efficiency and the quality of work is influenced because of insufficient information, screen reflection, calculate inconveniently and other factors. If we do this work in indoor, the effect of external factors on the results would be eliminated, the network earth users can browse the free world high definition satellite images through downloading a client software, and can export the high resolution image by standard file format. This brings unprecedented convenient of trajectory plan. But the images must be disposed by coordinate transformation, geometric correction. In addition, according to the requirement of mapping scale ,camera parameters and overlap degree we can calculate exposure hole interval and trajectory distance between the adjacent trajectory automatically . This will improve the degree of automation of data collection. Software will judge the position of next point according to the intersection of the trajectory and the survey area and ensure the position of point according to trajectory distance. We can undertake the points artificially. So the trajectory plan is automatic and flexible. Considering safety, the date can be used in flying after simulating flight. Finally we can export all of the date using a key

  5. Measurable realistic image-based 3D mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. J.; Ding, W.; Almagbile, A.

    2011-12-01

    Maps with 3D visual models are becoming a remarkable feature of 3D map services. High-resolution image data is obtained for the construction of 3D visualized models.The3D map not only provides the capabilities of 3D measurements and knowledge mining, but also provides the virtual experienceof places of interest, such as demonstrated in the Google Earth. Applications of 3D maps are expanding into the areas of architecture, property management, and urban environment monitoring. However, the reconstruction of high quality 3D models is time consuming, and requires robust hardware and powerful software to handle the enormous amount of data. This is especially for automatic implementation of 3D models and the representation of complicated surfacesthat still need improvements with in the visualisation techniques. The shortcoming of 3D model-based maps is the limitation of detailed coverage since a user can only view and measure objects that are already modelled in the virtual environment. This paper proposes and demonstrates a 3D map concept that is realistic and image-based, that enables geometric measurements and geo-location services. Additionally, image-based 3D maps provide more detailed information of the real world than 3D model-based maps. The image-based 3D maps use geo-referenced stereo images or panoramic images. The geometric relationships between objects in the images can be resolved from the geometric model of stereo images. The panoramic function makes 3D maps more interactive with users but also creates an interesting immersive circumstance. Actually, unmeasurable image-based 3D maps already exist, such as Google street view, but only provide virtual experiences in terms of photos. The topographic and terrain attributes, such as shapes and heights though are omitted. This paper also discusses the potential for using a low cost land Mobile Mapping System (MMS) to implement realistic image 3D mapping, and evaluates the positioning accuracy that a measureable

  6. A fast approach to generate large-scale topographic maps based on new Chinese vehicle-borne Lidar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmei, Han; Bogang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Large -scale topographic maps are important basic information for city and regional planning and management. Traditional large- scale mapping methods are mostly based on artificial mapping and photogrammetry. The traditional mapping method is inefficient and limited by the environments. While the photogrammetry methods(such as low-altitude aerial mapping) is an economical and effective way to map wide and regulate range of large scale topographic map but doesn't work well in the small area due to the high cost of manpower and resources. Recent years, the vehicle-borne LIDAR technology has a rapid development, and its application in surveying and mapping is becoming a new topic. The main objective of this investigation is to explore the potential of vehicle-borne LIDAR technology to be used to fast mapping large scale topographic maps based on new Chinese vehicle-borne LIDAR system. It studied how to use the new Chinese vehicle-borne LIDAR system measurement technology to map large scale topographic maps. After the field data capture, it can be mapped in the office based on the LIDAR data (point cloud) by software which programmed by ourselves. In addition, the detailed process and accuracy analysis were proposed by an actual case. The result show that this new technology provides a new fast method to generate large scale topographic maps, which is high efficient and accuracy compared to traditional methods

  7. Approach of simultaneous localization and mapping based on local maps for robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bai-fan; CAI Zi-xing; HU De-wen

    2006-01-01

    An extended Kalman filter approach of simultaneous localization and mapping(SLAM) was proposed based on local maps.A local frame of reference was established periodically at the position of the robot, and then the observations of the robot and landmarks were fused into the global frame of reference. Because of the independence of the local map, the approach does not cumulate the estimate and calculation errors which are produced by SLAM using Kalman filter directly. At the same time, it reduces the computational complexity. This method is proven correct and feasible in simulation experiments.

  8. Electrostatic frequency maps for amide-I mode of β-peptide: Comparison of molecular mechanics force field and DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kaicong; Zheng, Xuan; Du, Fenfen

    2017-08-01

    The spectroscopy of amide-I vibrations has been widely utilized for the understanding of dynamical structure of polypeptides. For the modeling of amide-I spectra, two frequency maps were built for β-peptide analogue (N-ethylpropionamide, NEPA) in a number of solvents within different schemes (molecular mechanics force field based, GM map; DFT calculation based, GD map), respectively. The electrostatic potentials on the amide unit that originated from solvents and peptide backbone were correlated to the amide-I frequency shift from gas phase to solution phase during map parameterization. GM map is easier to construct with negligible computational cost since the frequency calculations for the samples are purely based on force field, while GD map utilizes sophisticated DFT calculations on the representative solute-solvent clusters and brings insight into the electronic structures of solvated NEPA and its chemical environments. The results show that the maps' predicted amide-I frequencies present solvation environmental sensitivities and exhibit their specific characters with respect to the map protocols, and the obtained vibrational parameters are in satisfactory agreement with experimental amide-I spectra of NEPA in solution phase. Although different theoretical schemes based maps have their advantages and disadvantages, the present maps show their potentials in interpreting the amide-I spectra for β-peptides, respectively.

  9. Integrating field sampling, geostatistics and remote sensing to map wetland vegetation in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arieira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of efficient methodologies for mapping wetland vegetation is of key importance to wetland conservation. Here we propose the integration of a number of statistical techniques, in particular cluster analysis, universal kriging and error propagation modelling, to integrate observations from remote sensing and field sampling for mapping vegetation communities and estimating uncertainty. The approach results in seven vegetation communities with a known floral composition that can be mapped over large areas using remotely sensed data. The relationship between remotely sensed data and vegetation patterns, captured in four factorial axes, were described using multiple linear regression models. There were then used in a universal kriging procedure to reduce the mapping uncertainty. Cross-validation procedures and Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainty in the resulting map. Cross-validation showed that accuracy in classification varies according with the community type, as a result of sampling density and configuration. A map of uncertainty derived from Monte Carlo simulations revealed significant spatial variation in classification, but this had little impact on the proportion and arrangement of the communities observed. These results suggested that mapping improvement could be achieved by increasing the number of field observations of those communities with a scattered and small patch size distribution; or by including a larger number of digital images as explanatory variables in the model. Comparison of the resulting plant community map with a flood duration map, revealed that flooding duration is an important driver of vegetation zonation. This mapping approach is able to integrate field point data and high-resolution remote-sensing images, providing a new basis to map wetland vegetation and allow its future application in habitat management, conservation assessment and long-term ecological monitoring in wetland

  10. A fast image encryption algorithm based on chaotic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhao; Sun, Kehui; Zhu, Congxu

    2016-09-01

    Derived from Sine map and iterative chaotic map with infinite collapse (ICMIC), a new two-dimensional Sine ICMIC modulation map (2D-SIMM) is proposed based on a close-loop modulation coupling (CMC) model, and its chaotic performance is analyzed by means of phase diagram, Lyapunov exponent spectrum and complexity. It shows that this map has good ergodicity, hyperchaotic behavior, large maximum Lyapunov exponent and high complexity. Based on this map, a fast image encryption algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, the confusion and diffusion processes are combined for one stage. Chaotic shift transform (CST) is proposed to efficiently change the image pixel positions, and the row and column substitutions are applied to scramble the pixel values simultaneously. The simulation and analysis results show that this algorithm has high security, low time complexity, and the abilities of resisting statistical analysis, differential, brute-force, known-plaintext and chosen-plaintext attacks.

  11. Lessons in modern digital field geology: Open source software, 3D techniques, and the new world of digital mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, Terry; Hurtado, Jose; Langford, Richard; Serpa, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Although many geologists refuse to admit it, it is time to put paper-based geologic mapping into the historical archives and move to the full potential of digital mapping techniques. For our group, flat map digital geologic mapping is now a routine operation in both research and instruction. Several software options are available, and basic proficiency with the software can be learned in a few hours of instruction and practice. The first practical field GIS software, ArcPad, remains a viable, stable option on Windows-based systems. However, the vendor seems to be moving away from ArcPad in favor of mobile software solutions that are difficult to implement without GIS specialists. Thus, we have pursued a second software option based on the open source program QGIS. Our QGIS system uses the same shapefile-centric data structure as our ArcPad system, including similar pop-up data entry forms and generic graphics for easy data management in the field. The advantage of QGIS is that the same software runs on virtually all common platforms except iOS, although the Android version remains unstable as of this writing. A third software option we are experimenting with for flat map-based field work is Fieldmove, a derivative of the 3D-capable program Move developed by Midland Valley. Our initial experiments with Fieldmove are positive, particularly with the new, inexpensive (potential for communicating the complexity of key exposures. For example, in studies of metamorphic structures we often search for days to find "Rosetta Stone" outcrops that display key geometric relationships. While conventional photographs rarely can capture the essence of the field exposure, capturing a true 3D representation of the exposure with multiple photos from many orientations can solve this communication problem. As spatial databases evolve these 3D models should be readily importable into the database.

  12. A Fast Map Merging Algorithm in the Field of Multirobot SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the research on single-robot simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM has made a great success. However, multirobot SLAM faces many challenging problems, including unknown robot poses, unshared map, and unstable communication. In this paper, a map merging algorithm based on virtual robot motion is proposed for multi-robot SLAM. The thinning algorithm is used to construct the skeleton of the grid map’s empty area, and a mobile robot is simulated in one map. The simulated data is used as information sources in the other map to do partial map Monte Carlo localization; if localization succeeds, the relative pose hypotheses between the two maps can be computed easily. We verify these hypotheses using the rendezvous technique and use them as initial values to optimize the estimation by a heuristic random search algorithm.

  13. An Autonomous Robotic System for Mapping Weeds in Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karl Damkjær; Garcia Ruiz, Francisco Jose; Kazmi, Wajahat

    2013-01-01

    The ASETA project develops theory and methods for robotic agricultural systems. In ASETA, unmanned aircraft and unmanned ground vehicles are used to automate the task of identifying and removing weeds in sugar beet fields. The framework for a working automatic robotic weeding system is presented...

  14. Nanoscale electric and magnetic optical vector fields: mapping & injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Feber, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Nanophotonic structures, which offer a sub-wavelength control over light and nearby emitters, promise to advance, for example, our ability to harvest light, process information and detect (bio-) chemical compounds. In general, the optical field distributions near nanophotonic structures are much

  15. Pseudo-random bit generator based on Chebyshev map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, B. P.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study a pseudo-random bit generator based on two Chebyshev polynomial maps. The novel derivative algorithm shows perfect statistical properties established by number of statistical tests.

  16. National-scale crop type mapping and area estimation using multi-resolution remote sensing and field survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X. P.; Potapov, P.; Adusei, B.; King, L.; Khan, A.; Krylov, A.; Di Bella, C. M.; Pickens, A. H.; Stehman, S. V.; Hansen, M.

    2016-12-01

    Reliable and timely information on agricultural production is essential for ensuring world food security. Freely available medium-resolution satellite data (e.g. Landsat, Sentinel) offer the possibility of improved global agriculture monitoring. Here we develop and test a method for estimating in-season crop acreage using a probability sample of field visits and producing wall-to-wall crop type maps at national scales. The method is first illustrated for soybean cultivated area in the US for 2015. A stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design was used to collect field data to estimate national soybean area. The field-based estimate employed historical soybean extent maps from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Cropland Data Layer to delineate and stratify U.S. soybean growing regions. The estimated 2015 U.S. soybean cultivated area based on the field sample was 341,000 km2 with a standard error of 23,000 km2. This result is 1.0% lower than USDA's 2015 June survey estimate and 1.9% higher than USDA's 2016 January estimate. Our area estimate was derived in early September, about 2 months ahead of harvest. To map soybean cover, the Landsat image archive for the year 2015 growing season was processed using an active learning approach. Overall accuracy of the soybean map was 84%. The field-based sample estimated area was then used to calibrate the map such that the soybean acreage of the map derived through pixel counting matched the sample-based area estimate. The strength of the sample-based area estimation lies in the stratified design that takes advantage of the spatially explicit cropland layers to construct the strata. The success of the mapping was built upon an automated system which transforms Landsat images into standardized time-series metrics. The developed method produces reliable and timely information on soybean area in a cost-effective way and could be implemented in an operational mode. The approach has also been applied for other crops in

  17. Mapping Women's and Gender Studies in the Academic Field in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Milica Antic

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to map the development of women's and gender studies (WGS) in the academic field in Slovenia. Slovenia is the first of the former Yugoslav state republics in which WGS have succeeded in entering the academic field and becoming part of institutionalised university study. In this paper we will ask the following…

  18. Mapping Research in the Field of Special Education on the Island of Ireland since 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Joseph; Savage, Rosie; Butler, Cathal; O'Donnell, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the process of building a database mapping research and policy in the field of special education on the island of Ireland from 2000 to 2013. The field of study includes special educational needs, disability and inclusion. The database contains 3188 references organised thematically and forms a source for researchers to access…

  19. Rigorous bounds on survival times in circular accelerators and efficient computation of fringe-field transfer maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffstaetter, G.H.

    1994-12-01

    Analyzing stability of particle motion in storage rings contributes to the general field of stability analysis in weakly nonlinear motion. A method which we call pseudo invariant estimation (PIE) is used to compute lower bounds on the survival time in circular accelerators. The pseudeo invariants needed for this approach are computed via nonlinear perturbative normal form theory and the required global maxima of the highly complicated multivariate functions could only be rigorously bound with an extension of interval arithmetic. The bounds on the survival times are large enough to the relevant; the same is true for the lower bounds on dynamical aperatures, which can be computed. The PIE method can lead to novel design criteria with the objective of maximizing the survival time. A major effort in the direction of rigourous predictions only makes sense if accurate models of accelerators are available. Fringe fields often have a significant influence on optical properties, but the computation of fringe-field maps by DA based integration is slower by several orders of magnitude than DA evaluation of the propagator for main-field maps. A novel computation of fringe-field effects called symplectic scaling (SYSCA) is introduced. It exploits the advantages of Lie transformations, generating functions, and scaling properties and is extremely accurate. The computation of fringe-field maps is typically made nearly two orders of magnitude faster. (orig.)

  20. Destruction of Spiral Wave Using External Electric Field Modulated by Logistic Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jun; Chen Yong; Jin Wuyin

    2007-01-01

    Evolution of spiral wave generated from the excitable media within the Barkley model is investigated. The external gradient electric field modulated by the logistic map is imposed on the media (along x- and y-axis). Drift and break up of spiral wave are observed when the amplitude of the electric field is modulated by the chaotic signal from the logistic map, and the whole system could become homogeneous finally and the relevant results are compared when the gradient electric field is modulated by the Lorenz or Roessler chaotic signal.

  1. Assessment of planetary geologic mapping techniques for Mars using terrestrial analogs: The SP Mountain area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.L.; Skinner, J.A.; Crumpler, L.S.; Dohm, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    We photogeologically mapped the SP Mountain region of the San Francisco Volcanic Field in northern Arizona, USA to evaluate and improve the fidelity of approaches used in geologic mapping of Mars. This test site, which was previously mapped in the field, is chiefly composed of Late Cenozoic cinder cones, lava flows, and alluvium perched on Permian limestone of the Kaibab Formation. Faulting and folding has deformed the older rocks and some of the volcanic materials, and fluvial erosion has carved drainage systems and deposited alluvium. These geologic materials and their formational and modificational histories are similar to those for regions of the Martian surface. We independently prepared four geologic maps using topographic and image data at resolutions that mimic those that are commonly used to map the geology of Mars (where consideration was included for the fact that Martian features such as lava flows are commonly much larger than their terrestrial counterparts). We primarily based our map units and stratigraphic relations on geomorphology, color contrasts, and cross-cutting relationships. Afterward, we compared our results with previously published field-based mapping results, including detailed analyses of the stratigraphy and of the spatial overlap and proximity of the field-based vs. remote-based (photogeologic) map units, contacts, and structures. Results of these analyses provide insights into how to optimize the photogeologic mapping of Mars (and, by extension, other remotely observed planetary surfaces). We recommend the following: (1) photogeologic mapping as an excellent approach to recovering the general geology of a region, along with examination of local, high-resolution datasets to gain insights into the complexity of the geology at outcrop scales; (2) delineating volcanic vents and lava-flow sequences conservatively and understanding that flow abutment and flow overlap are difficult to distinguish in remote data sets; (3) taking care to

  2. Object-based Landslide Mapping: Examples, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölbling, Daniel; Eisank, Clemens; Friedl, Barbara; Chang, Kang-Tsung; Tsai, Tsai-Tsung; Birkefeldt Møller Pedersen, Gro; Betts, Harley; Cigna, Francesca; Chiang, Shou-Hao; Aubrey Robson, Benjamin; Bianchini, Silvia; Füreder, Petra; Albrecht, Florian; Spiekermann, Raphael; Weinke, Elisabeth; Blaschke, Thomas; Phillips, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade, object-based image analysis (OBIA) has been increasingly used for mapping landslides that occur after triggering events such as heavy rainfall. The increasing availability and quality of Earth Observation (EO) data in terms of temporal, spatial and spectral resolution allows for comprehensive mapping of landslides at multiple scales. Most often very high resolution (VHR) or high resolution (HR) optical satellite images are used in combination with a digital elevation model (DEM) and its products such as slope and curvature. Semi-automated object-based mapping makes use of various characteristics of image objects that are derived through segmentation. OBIA enables numerous spectral, spatial, contextual and textural image object properties to be applied during an analysis. This is especially useful when mapping complex natural features such as landslides and constitutes an advantage over pixel-based image analysis. However, several drawbacks in the process of object-based landslide mapping have not been overcome yet. The developed classification routines are often rather complex and limited regarding their transferability across areas and sensors. There is still more research needed to further improve present approaches and to fully exploit the capabilities of OBIA for landslide mapping. In this study several examples of object-based landslide mapping from various geographical regions with different characteristics are presented. Examples from the Austrian and Italian Alps are shown, whereby one challenge lies in the detection of small-scale landslides on steep slopes while preventing the classification of false positives with similar spectral properties (construction areas, utilized land, etc.). Further examples feature landslides mapped in Iceland, where the differentiation of landslides from other landscape-altering processes in a highly dynamic volcanic landscape poses a very distinct challenge, and in Norway, which is exposed to multiple

  3. A Lithology Based Map Unit Schema For Onegeology Regional Geologic Map Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosdorf, N.; Richard, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    A system of lithogenetic categories for a global lithological map (GLiM, http://www.ifbm.zmaw.de/index.php?id=6460&L=3) has been compiled based on analysis of lithology/genesis categories for regional geologic maps for the entire globe. The scheme is presented for discussion and comment. Analysis of units on a variety of regional geologic maps indicates that units are defined based on assemblages of rock types, as well as their genetic type. In this compilation of continental geology, outcropping surface materials are dominantly sediment/sedimentary rock; major subdivisions of the sedimentary category include clastic sediment, carbonate sedimentary rocks, clastic sedimentary rocks, mixed carbonate and clastic sedimentary rock, colluvium and residuum. Significant areas of mixed igneous and metamorphic rock are also present. A system of global categories to characterize the lithology of regional geologic units is important for Earth System models of matter fluxes to soils, ecosystems, rivers and oceans, and for regional analysis of Earth surface processes at global scale. Because different applications of the classification scheme will focus on different lithologic constituents in mixed units, an ontology-type representation of the scheme that assigns properties to the units in an analyzable manner will be pursued. The OneGeology project is promoting deployment of geologic map services at million scale for all nations. Although initial efforts are commonly simple scanned map WMS services, the intention is to move towards data-based map services that categorize map units with standard vocabularies to allow use of a common map legend for better visual integration of the maps (e.g. see OneGeology Europe, http://onegeology-europe.brgm.fr/ geoportal/ viewer.jsp). Current categorization of regional units with a single lithology from the CGI SimpleLithology (http://resource.geosciml.org/201202/ Vocab2012html/ SimpleLithology201012.html) vocabulary poorly captures the

  4. Bridging scale gaps between regional maps of forest aboveground biomass and field sampling plots using TanDEM-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, G.

    2017-12-01

    Several large-scale maps of forest AGB have been released [1] [2] [3]. However, these existing global or regional datasets were only approximations based on combining land cover type and representative values instead of measurements of actual forest aboveground biomass or forest heights [4]. Rodríguez-Veiga et al[5] reported obvious discrepancies of existing forest biomass stock maps with in-situ observations in Mexico. One of the biggest challenges to the credibility of these maps comes from the scale gaps between the size of field sampling plots used to develop(or validate) estimation models and the pixel size of these maps and the availability of field sampling plots with sufficient size for the verification of these products [6]. It is time-consuming and labor-intensive to collect sufficient number of field sampling data over the plot size of the same as resolutions of regional maps. The smaller field sampling plots cannot fully represent the spatial heterogeneity of forest stands as shown in Figure 1. Forest AGB is directly determined by forest heights, diameter at breast height (DBH) of each tree, forest density and tree species. What measured in the field sampling are the geometrical characteristics of forest stands including the DBH, tree heights and forest densities. The LiDAR data is considered as the best dataset for the estimation of forest AGB. The main reason is that LiDAR can directly capture geometrical features of forest stands by its range detection capabilities.The remotely sensed dataset, which is capable of direct measurements of forest spatial structures, may serve as a ladder to bridge the scale gaps between the pixel size of regional maps of forest AGB and field sampling plots. Several researches report that TanDEM-X data can be used to characterize the forest spatial structures [7, 8]. In this study, the forest AGB map of northeast China were produced using ALOS/PALSAR data taking TanDEM-X data as a bridges. The TanDEM-X InSAR data used in

  5. The feasibility of an infrared system for real-time visualization and mapping of ultrasound fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Adam; Nunn, John, E-mail: adam.shaw@npl.co.u [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-07

    In treatment planning for ultrasound therapy, it is desirable to know the 3D structure of the ultrasound field. However, mapping an ultrasound field in 3D is very slow, with even a single planar raster scan taking typically several hours. Additionally, hydrophones that are used for field mapping are expensive and can be damaged in some therapy fields. So there is value in rapid methods which enable visualization and mapping of the ultrasound field in about 1 min. In this note we explore the feasibility of mapping the intensity distribution by measuring the temperature distribution produced in a thin sheet of absorbing material. A 0.2 mm thick acetate sheet forms a window in the wall of a water tank containing the transducer. The window is oriented at 45{sup 0} to the beam axis, and the distance from the transducer to the window can be varied. The temperature distribution is measured with an infrared camera; thermal images of the inclined plane could be viewed in real time or images could be captured for later analysis and 3D field reconstruction. We conclude that infrared thermography can be used to gain qualitative information about ultrasound fields. Thermal images are easily visualized with good spatial and thermal resolutions (0.044 mm and 0.05 {sup 0}C in our system). The focus and field structure such as side lobes can be identified in real time from the direct video output. 3D maps and image planes at arbitrary orientations to the beam axis can be obtained and reconstructed within a few minutes. In this note we are primarily interested in the technique for characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields, but other applications such as physiotherapy fields are also possible. (note)

  6. The feasibility of an infrared system for real-time visualization and mapping of ultrasound fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Adam; Nunn, John

    2010-01-01

    In treatment planning for ultrasound therapy, it is desirable to know the 3D structure of the ultrasound field. However, mapping an ultrasound field in 3D is very slow, with even a single planar raster scan taking typically several hours. Additionally, hydrophones that are used for field mapping are expensive and can be damaged in some therapy fields. So there is value in rapid methods which enable visualization and mapping of the ultrasound field in about 1 min. In this note we explore the feasibility of mapping the intensity distribution by measuring the temperature distribution produced in a thin sheet of absorbing material. A 0.2 mm thick acetate sheet forms a window in the wall of a water tank containing the transducer. The window is oriented at 45 0 to the beam axis, and the distance from the transducer to the window can be varied. The temperature distribution is measured with an infrared camera; thermal images of the inclined plane could be viewed in real time or images could be captured for later analysis and 3D field reconstruction. We conclude that infrared thermography can be used to gain qualitative information about ultrasound fields. Thermal images are easily visualized with good spatial and thermal resolutions (0.044 mm and 0.05 0 C in our system). The focus and field structure such as side lobes can be identified in real time from the direct video output. 3D maps and image planes at arbitrary orientations to the beam axis can be obtained and reconstructed within a few minutes. In this note we are primarily interested in the technique for characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields, but other applications such as physiotherapy fields are also possible. (note)

  7. Acoustic Longitudinal Field NIF Optic Feature Detection Map Using Time-Reversal & MUSIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, S K

    2006-02-09

    We developed an ultrasonic longitudinal field time-reversal and MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) based detection algorithm for identifying and mapping flaws in fused silica NIF optics. The algorithm requires a fully multistatic data set, that is one with multiple, independently operated, spatially diverse transducers, each transmitter of which, in succession, launches a pulse into the optic and the scattered signal measured and recorded at every receiver. We have successfully localized engineered ''defects'' larger than 1 mm in an optic. We confirmed detection and localization of 3 mm and 5 mm features in experimental data, and a 0.5 mm in simulated data with sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio. We present the theory, experimental results, and simulated results.

  8. Mapping the Field: A Bibliometric Analysis of Green Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Albort-Morant

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The topic of green innovation (GI has increasingly attained organizational relevance due to its contribution to the satisfaction of environmental needs while concurrently enabling companies to differentiate themselves from their competitors, and hence attain sustainable competitive advantages. In this context, we conducted a detailed analysis of 618 papers on green innovation from the Web of Science (WoS database for the 1971–2015 period. This paper develops a bibliometric analysis with the aim of assessing the key papers in the field and identifying the most substantive contributions to the literature. This study presents the following findings: (i the chronological development of the discipline; (ii the research trends and popular issues in this field; (iii the antecedent variables acting as key drivers of GI in these studies; and (iv the main outcomes of GI. Therefore, this paper provides the past, the present and the potential future of this specific topic and serves as an orientation and guide for researchers who are new to the topic of GI; it also enhances their knowledge concerning which journals, authors and articles they may consult while creating their theoretical framework or designing future research models.

  9. a Mapping Method of Slam Based on Look up Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Li, J.; Wang, A.; Wang, J.

    2017-09-01

    In the last years several V-SLAM(Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) approaches have appeared showing impressive reconstructions of the world. However these maps are built with far more than the required information. This limitation comes from the whole process of each key-frame. In this paper we present for the first time a mapping method based on the LOOK UP TABLE(LUT) for visual SLAM that can improve the mapping effectively. As this method relies on extracting features in each cell divided from image, it can get the pose of camera that is more representative of the whole key-frame. The tracking direction of key-frames is obtained by counting the number of parallax directions of feature points. LUT stored all mapping needs the number of cell corresponding to the tracking direction which can reduce the redundant information in the key-frame, and is more efficient to mapping. The result shows that a better map with less noise is build using less than one-third of the time. We believe that the capacity of LUT efficiently building maps makes it a good choice for the community to investigate in the scene reconstruction problems.

  10. The T?lz Temporal Topography Study: Mapping the visual field across the life span. Part II: Cognitive factors shaping visual field maps

    OpenAIRE

    Poggel, Dorothe A.; Treutwein, Bernhard; Calmanti, Claudia; Strasburger, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Part I described the topography of visual performance over the life span. Performance decline was explained only partly by deterioration of the optical apparatus. Part II therefore examines the influence of higher visual and cognitive functions. Visual field maps for 95 healthy observers of static perimetry, double-pulse resolution (DPR), reaction times, and contrast thresholds, were correlated with measures of visual attention (alertness, divided attention, spatial cueing), visual search, an...

  11. The Nab Spectrometer, Precision Field Mapping, and Associated Systematic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jason; Nab Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Nab experiment will make precision measurements of a, the e- ν correlation parameter, and b, the Fierz interference term, in neutron beta decay, aiming to deliver an independent determination of the ratio λ =GA /GV to sensitively test CKM unitarity. Nab utilizes a novel, long asymmetric spectrometer to measure the proton TOF and electron energy. We extract a from the slope of the measured TOF distribution for different electron energies. A reliable relation of the measured proton TOF to a requires detailed knowledge of the effective proton pathlength, which in turn imposes further requirements on the precision of the magnetic fields in the Nab spectrometer. The Nab spectrometer, magnetometry, and associated systematics will be discussed.

  12. Pattern recognition neural-net by spatial mapping of biology visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin; Mori, Masahiko

    2000-05-01

    The method of spatial mapping in biology vision field is applied to artificial neural networks for pattern recognition. By the coordinate transform that is called the complex-logarithm mapping and Fourier transform, the input images are transformed into scale- rotation- and shift- invariant patterns, and then fed into a multilayer neural network for learning and recognition. The results of computer simulation and an optical experimental system are described.

  13. Visualizing flow fields using acoustic Doppler current profilers and the Velocity Mapping Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide examples of how the U.S. Geological Survey is using acoustic Doppler current profilers for much more than routine discharge measurements. These instruments are capable of mapping complex three-dimensional flow fields within rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Using the Velocity Mapping Toolbox to process the ADCP data allows detailed visualization of the data, providing valuable information for a range of studies and applications.

  14. Single acquisition electrical property mapping based on relative coil sensitivities: A proof-of-concept demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, J.P.; Sodickson, D.K.; Ipek, O.; Collins, C.M.; Gruetter, R.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeAll methods presented to date to map both conductivity and permittivity rely on multiple acquisitions to compute quantitatively the magnitude of radiofrequency transmit fields, B-1(+). In this work, we propose a method to compute both conductivity and permittivity based solely on relative

  15. High resolution Slovak Bouguer gravity anomaly map and its enhanced derivative transformations: new possibilities for interpretation of anomalous gravity fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pašteka, Roman; Zahorec, Pavol; Kušnirák, David; Bošanský, Marián; Papčo, Juraj; Szalaiová, Viktória; Krajňák, Martin; Ivan, Marušiak; Mikuška, Ján; Bielik, Miroslav

    2017-06-01

    The paper deals with the revision and enrichment of the present gravimetric database of the Slovak Republic. The output of this process is a new version of the complete Bouguer anomaly (CBA) field on our territory. Thanks to the taking into account of more accurate terrain corrections, this field has significantly higher quality and higher resolution capabilities. The excellent features of this map will allow us to re-evaluate and improve the qualitative interpretation of the gravity field when researching the structural and tectonic geology of the Western Carpathian lithosphere. In the contribution we also analyse the field of the new CBA based on the properties of various transformed fields - in particular the horizontal gradient, which by its local maximums defines important density boundaries in the lateral direction. All original and new transformed maps make a significant contribution to improving the geological interpretation of the CBA field. Except for the horizontal gradient field, we are also interested in a new special transformation of TDXAS, which excellently separates various detected anomalies of gravity field and improves their lateral delimitation.

  16. Visualization maps for the evolution of research hotspots in the field of regional health information networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjun; Zheng, Jianzhong; Zhang, Ailian; Zhou, Wei; Dong, Haiyuan

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal research hotspots in the field of regional health information networks (RHINs) and use visualization techniques to explore their evolution over time and differences between countries. We conducted a literature review for a 50-year period and compared the prevalence of certain index terms during the periods 1963-1993 and 1994-2014 and in six countries. We applied keyword frequency analysis, keyword co-occurrence analysis, multidimensional scaling analysis, and network visualization technology. The total number of keywords was found to increase with time. From 1994 to 2014, the research priorities shifted from hospital planning to community health planning. The number of keywords reflecting information-based research increased. The density of the knowledge network increased significantly, and partial keywords condensed into knowledge groups. All six countries focus on keywords including Information Systems; Telemedicine; Information Service; Medical Records Systems, Computerized; Internet; etc.; however, the level of development and some research priorities are different. RHIN research has generally increased in popularity over the past 50 years. The research hotspots are evolving and are at different levels of development in different countries. Knowledge network mapping and perceptual maps provide useful information for scholars, managers, and policy-makers.

  17. A Game Map Complexity Measure Based on Hamming Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Su, Pan; Li, Wenliang

    With the booming of PC game market, Game AI has attracted more and more researches. The interesting and difficulty of a game are relative with the map used in game scenarios. Besides, the path-finding efficiency in a game is also impacted by the complexity of the used map. In this paper, a novel complexity measure based on Hamming distance, called the Hamming complexity, is introduced. This measure is able to estimate the complexity of binary tileworld. We experimentally demonstrated that Hamming complexity is highly relative with the efficiency of A* algorithm, and therefore it is a useful reference to the designer when developing a game map.

  18. Lunar remnant magnetic field mapping from orbital observations of mirrored electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, J E [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, Tex. (USA). Johnson Space Center; Anderson, K A; Lin, R P; Howe, H C; McGuire, R E [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Space Sciences Lab.

    1975-09-01

    Areas of lunar surface magnetic field are observed to ''mirror'' low energy electrons present in the normal lunar space environment. The ambient electrons provide, in effect, a probe along the ambient magnetic field lines down to the lunar surface for remote sensing of the presence of surface fields. Use of the on-board vector magnetometer measurements of the ambient magnetic field orientation allows accurate projection of such mapping onto the lunar surface. Preliminary maps of the lunar surface magnetic areas underlying the orbit of the ''Particles and Fields Satellite deployed from Apollo 16'' have been generated, obtaining 40% coverage from partial data to demonstrate feasibility of the technique. These maps reveal many previously unreported areas of surface magnetism. The method is sensitive to fields of less than 0.1..gamma.. at the surface. The surface field regions observed are generally due to sources smaller than 10-50km in size, although many individual regions are often so close together as to give much larger regions of effectively continuous mirroring. Absence of consistent mirroring by any global field places an upper limit on the size of any net lunar dipole moment of less than 10/sup 10/..gamma..km/sup 3/. Much additional information regarding the magnetic regions can be obtained by correlated analysis of both the electron return and vector magnetometer measurements at orbital altitude, the two techniques providing each other with directly complimentary measurements at the satellite and along the ambient field lines to the surface.

  19. Uncertainty on shallow landslide hazard assessment: from field data to hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefolini, Emanuele; Tolo, Silvia; Patelli, Eduardo; Broggi, Matteo; Disperati, Leonardo; Le Tuan, Hai

    2015-04-01

    Shallow landsliding that involve Hillslope Deposits (HD), the surficial soil that cover the bedrock, is an important process of erosion, transport and deposition of sediment along hillslopes. Despite Shallow landslides generally mobilize relatively small volume of material, they represent the most hazardous factor in mountain regions due to their high velocity and the common absence of warning signs. Moreover, increasing urbanization and likely climate change make shallow landslides a source of widespread risk, therefore the interest of scientific community about this process grown in the last three decades. One of the main aims of research projects involved on this topic, is to perform robust shallow landslides hazard assessment for wide areas (regional assessment), in order to support sustainable spatial planning. Currently, three main methodologies may be implemented to assess regional shallow landslides hazard: expert evaluation, probabilistic (or data mining) methods and physical models based methods. The aim of this work is evaluate the uncertainty of shallow landslides hazard assessment based on physical models taking into account spatial variables such as: geotechnical and hydrogeologic parameters as well as hillslope morphometry. To achieve this goal a wide dataset of geotechnical properties (shear strength, permeability, depth and unit weight) of HD was gathered by integrating field survey, in situ and laboratory tests. This spatial database was collected from a study area of about 350 km2 including different bedrock lithotypes and geomorphological features. The uncertainty associated to each step of the hazard assessment process (e.g. field data collection, regionalization of site specific information and numerical modelling of hillslope stability) was carefully characterized. The most appropriate probability density function (PDF) was chosen for each numerical variable and we assessed the uncertainty propagation on HD strength parameters obtained by

  20. Map-based model of the cardiac action potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, Evgeny A.; Osipov, Grigory V.; Chan, C.K.; Suykens, Johan A.K.

    2011-01-01

    A simple computationally efficient model which is capable of replicating the basic features of cardiac cell action potential is proposed. The model is a four-dimensional map and demonstrates good correspondence with real cardiac cells. Various regimes of cardiac activity, which can be reproduced by the proposed model, are shown. Bifurcation mechanisms of these regimes transitions are explained using phase space analysis. The dynamics of 1D and 2D lattices of coupled maps which model the behavior of electrically connected cells is discussed in the context of synchronization theory. -- Highlights: → Recent experimental-data based models are complicated for analysis and simulation. → The simplified map-based model of the cardiac cell is constructed. → The model is capable for replication of different types of cardiac activity. → The spatio-temporal dynamics of ensembles of coupled maps are investigated. → Received data are analyzed in context of biophysical processes in the myocardium.

  1. Map-based model of the cardiac action potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, Evgeny A., E-mail: genie.pavlov@gmail.com [Department of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23, Gagarin Avenue, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Osipov, Grigory V. [Department of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23, Gagarin Avenue, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Chan, C.K. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, 128 Sec. 2, Academia Road, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Suykens, Johan A.K. [K.U. Leuven, ESAT-SCD/SISTA, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Heverlee) (Belgium)

    2011-07-25

    A simple computationally efficient model which is capable of replicating the basic features of cardiac cell action potential is proposed. The model is a four-dimensional map and demonstrates good correspondence with real cardiac cells. Various regimes of cardiac activity, which can be reproduced by the proposed model, are shown. Bifurcation mechanisms of these regimes transitions are explained using phase space analysis. The dynamics of 1D and 2D lattices of coupled maps which model the behavior of electrically connected cells is discussed in the context of synchronization theory. -- Highlights: → Recent experimental-data based models are complicated for analysis and simulation. → The simplified map-based model of the cardiac cell is constructed. → The model is capable for replication of different types of cardiac activity. → The spatio-temporal dynamics of ensembles of coupled maps are investigated. → Received data are analyzed in context of biophysical processes in the myocardium.

  2. Base Closure: A Road Map for Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-22

    leadership . At the same time, he should issue written press releases. Selected senior leaders from the base should be briefed separately from key community...they will hold with other agencies on base. These matters should be the commander’s call; they will reflect his style of leadership and preference for...base closure. He alone must foresee what can most likely go wrong as well as what should go right in this arduous process. DCNSIZING AN ORGANIZATIN The

  3. Faraday rotation, stochastic magnetic fields and CMB maps

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    The high- and low-frequency descriptions of the pre-decoupling plasma are deduced from the Vlasov-Landau treatment generalized to curved space-times and in the presence of the relativistic fluctuations of the geometry. It is demonstrated that the interplay between one-fluid and two-fluid treatments is mandatory for a complete and reliable calculation of the polarization observables. The Einstein-Boltzmann hierarchy is generalized to handle the dispersive propagation of the electromagnetic disturbances in the pre-decoupling plasma. Given the improved physical and numerical framework, the polarization observables are computed within the magnetized $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm (m$\\Lambda$CDM). In particular, the Faraday-induced B-mode is consistently estimated by taking into account the effects of the magnetic fields on the initial conditions of the Boltzmann hierarchy, on the dynamical equations and on the dispersion relations. The complete calculations of the angular power spectra constitutes the first step for the d...

  4. Color encryption scheme based on adapted quantum logistic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Alaa; Zhang, Tiejun; Amin, Mohamed; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a new color image encryption scheme based on quantum chaotic system. In this scheme, a new encryption scheme is accomplished by generating an intermediate chaotic key stream with the help of quantum chaotic logistic map. Then, each pixel is encrypted by the cipher value of the previous pixel and the adapted quantum logistic map. The results show that the proposed scheme has adequate security for the confidentiality of color images.

  5. Pemanfaatan Google Maps Api Untuk Visualisasi Data Base Transceiver Station

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it’s location, it’s transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  6. A novel block cryptosystem based on iterating a chaotic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Tao; Liao Xiaofeng; Tang Guoping; Chen Yong; Wong, Kwok-wo

    2006-01-01

    A block cryptographic scheme based on iterating a chaotic map is proposed. With random binary sequences generated from the real-valued chaotic map, the plaintext block is permuted by a key-dependent shift approach and then encrypted by the classical chaotic masking technique. Simulation results show that performance and security of the proposed cryptographic scheme are better than those of existing algorithms. Advantages and security of our scheme are also discussed in detail

  7. Pemanfaatan Google Maps Api Untuk Visualisasi Data Base Transceiver Station

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it's location, it's transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  8. PEMANFAATAN GOOGLE MAPS API UNTUK VISUALISASI DATA BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it’s location, it’s transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  9. Spatial and Global Sensory Suppression Mapping Encompassing the Central 10° Field in Anisometropic Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Li, Jinrong; Chen, Zidong; Liu, Jing; Yuan, Junpeng; Cai, Xiaoxiao; Deng, Daming; Yu, Minbin

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the efficacy of a novel dichoptic mapping paradigm in evaluating visual function of anisometropic amblyopes. Using standard clinical measures of visual function (visual acuity, stereo acuity, Bagolini lenses, and neutral density filters) and a novel quantitative mapping technique, 26 patients with anisometropic amblyopia (mean age = 19.15 ± 4.42 years) were assessed. Two additional psychophysical interocular suppression measurements were tested with dichoptic global motion coherence and binocular phase combination tasks. Luminance reduction was achieved by placing neutral density filters in front of the normal eye. Our study revealed that suppression changes across the central 10° visual field by mean luminance modulation in amblyopes as well as normal controls. Using simulation and an elimination of interocular suppression, we identified a novel method to effectively reflect the distribution of suppression in anisometropic amblyopia. Additionally, the new quantitative mapping technique was in good agreement with conventional clinical measures, such as interocular acuity difference (P suppression with dichoptic mapping paradigm and the results of the other two psychophysical methods (suppression mapping versus binocular phase combination, P suppression mapping versus global motion coherence, P = 0.005). The dichoptic suppression mapping technique is an effective method to represent impaired visual function in patients with anisometropic amblyopia. It offers a potential in "micro-"antisuppression mapping tests and therapies for amblyopia.

  10. Modeling, Designing, and Implementing an Avatar-based Interactive Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Designing interactive maps has always been a challenge due to the geographical complexity of the earth’s landscape and the difficulty of resolving details to a high resolution. In the past decade or so, one of the most impressive map-based software application, the Global Positioning System (GPS, has probably the highest level of interaction with the user. This article describes an innovative technique for designing an avatar-based virtual interactive map for the Lamar University Campus, which will entail the buildings’ exterior as well as their interiors. Many universities provide 2D or 3D maps and even interactive maps. However, these maps do not provide a complete interaction with the user. To the best of our knowledge, this project is the first avatar-based interaction game that allows 100% interaction with the user. This work provides tremendous help to the freshman students and visitors of Lamar University. As an important marketing tool, the main objective is to get better visibility of the campus worldwide and to increase the number of students attending Lamar University.

  11. BAC-end sequence-based SNPs and Bin mapping for rapid integration of physical and genetic maps in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuepeng; Chagné, David; Gasic, Ksenija; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Beever, Jonathan E; Gardiner, Susan E; Korban, Schuyler S

    2009-03-01

    A genome-wide BAC physical map of the apple, Malus x domestica Borkh., has been recently developed. Here, we report on integrating the physical and genetic maps of the apple using a SNP-based approach in conjunction with bin mapping. Briefly, BAC clones located at ends of BAC contigs were selected, and sequenced at both ends. The BAC end sequences (BESs) were used to identify candidate SNPs. Subsequently, these candidate SNPs were genetically mapped using a bin mapping strategy for the purpose of mapping the physical onto the genetic map. Using this approach, 52 (23%) out of 228 BESs tested were successfully exploited to develop SNPs. These SNPs anchored 51 contigs, spanning approximately 37 Mb in cumulative physical length, onto 14 linkage groups. The reliability of the integration of the physical and genetic maps using this SNP-based strategy is described, and the results confirm the feasibility of this approach to construct an integrated physical and genetic maps for apple.

  12. Drag-Free Motion Control of Satellite for High-Precision Gravity Field Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Bent Lindvig; Blanke, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    High precision mapping of the geoid and the Earth's gravity field are of importance to a wide range of ongoing studies in areas like ocean circulation, solid Earth physics and ice sheet dynamics. Using a satellite in orbit around the Earth gives the opportunity to map the Earth's gravity field in 3...... will compromise measurement accuracy, unless they are accurately compensated by on-board thrusters. The paper concerns the design of a control system to performing such delicate drag compensation. A six degrees-of-freedom model for the satellite is developed with the model including dynamics of the satellite...

  13. Use of mobile robots for mapping radiation field around particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Agashe, V.; Pal, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    In Particle Accelerators, when the accelerated particles hit the target or inadvertently strike the wall, prompt and induced radiation is produced. It is necessary to monitor the resulting radiation field in order to reduce radiation exposure to operating personnel, as well as to locate points of leakage of the particle beam. This paper describes the development of mobile robots equipped with onboard radiation detectors for mapping such radiation fields. They include a user interface software running on a host computer to tele operate the robot, monitor radiation levels, and build and display a radiation map out of these data through interpolation. One such robot (ARMER-II), designed and developed by us in consultation with Radiation Safety Division (RSD), is a portable mobile robot for identifying locations with radiation levels higher than permissible limits. Its remote interface computes and guides the robot to move in a direction in which the increase in intensity of radiation is the steepest. Another mobile robot (ARMER-I) has a telescopic arm fitted with a light and small GM tube. This also can be controlled remotely, and is very useful in remote measurement of radiation from locations which are difficult to reach otherwise. Another version (ASHWA) has been successfully adapted by VECC, Kolkata, for gamma and neutron radiation profiling in the cyclotron vault area. We are presently working on the design and development of a four-wheel differentially driven mobile robot (RADMAPPER) with higher payload capacity for carrying radiation detectors like gamma camera and neutron dosimeters and positioning them at desired heights. With appropriate localization capability, this is going to be a very flexible mobile robot based system for radiation profiling around particle accelerators. The specification for this robot has been prepared in consultation with VECC for use in their cyclotron facilities. (author)

  14. Mapping the magnetic field generated by a supercurrent in a ring of YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulca, P. D.; Gómez, R. W.

    2017-11-01

    We design and construct a device to map the magnetic field generated by a supercurrent in a rectangular cross section ring of YBa2Cu3O7-δ . For the measurements of the magnetic field, we develop a Gaussmeter based on a commercial Hall effect sensor coupled to an Arduino microprocessor. Our results show an asymmetric distribution of the magnetic field intensity measured at a certain distance along a plane parallel to the ring surface. The behavior of the magnetic field intensity with distance along the ring axis is closely related to what is expected for a toroid. Using the Biot-Savart law and the measured magnetic field values, the induced supercurrent is determined.

  15. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a cone with conformal mapping: Application to scanning near-field optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, S. T.; Chen, Xinzhong; Liu, Mengkun; Lin, Zhifang; Zi, Jian

    2018-02-01

    We study the response of a conical metallic surface to an external electromagnetic (em) field by representing the fields in basis functions containing the integrable singularity at the tip of the cone. A fast analytical solution is obtained by the conformal mapping between the cone and a round disk. We apply our calculation to the scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) and successfully quantify the elastic light scattering from a vibrating metallic tip over a uniform sample. We find that the field-induced charge distribution consists of localized terms at the tip and the base and an extended bulk term along the body of the cone far away from the tip. In recent s-SNOM experiments at the visible and infrared range (600 nm to 1 μ m ) the fundamental of the demodulated near-field signal is found to be much larger than the higher harmonics whereas at THz range (100 μ m to 3 mm) the fundamental becomes comparable to the higher harmonics. We find that the localized tip charge dominates the contribution to the higher harmonics and becomes larger for the THz experiments, thus providing an intuitive understanding of the origin of the near-field signals. We demonstrate the application of our method by extracting a two-dimensional effective dielectric constant map from the s-SNOM image of a finite metallic disk, where the variation comes from the charge density induced by the em field.

  16. An Approach of Dynamic Object Removing for Indoor Mapping Based on UGV SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of indoor mapping for Location Based Service (LBS becomes more and more popular in recent years. LiDAR SLAM based mapping method seems to be a promising indoor mapping solution. However, there are some dynamic objects such as pedestrians, indoor vehicles, etc. existing in the raw LiDAR range data. They have to be removal for mapping purpose. In this paper, a new approach of dynamic object removing called Likelihood Grid Voting (LGV is presented. It is a model free method and takes full advantage of the high scanning rate of LiDAR, which is moving at a relative low speed in indoor environment. In this method, a counting grid is allocated for recording the occupation of map position by laser scans. The lower counter value of this position can be recognized as dynamic objects and the point cloud will be removed from map. This work is a part of algorithms in our self- developed Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV simultaneous localization and Mapping (SLAM system- NAVIS. Field tests are carried in an indoor parking place with NAVIS to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The result shows that all the small size objects like pedestrians can be detected and removed quickly; large size of objects like cars can be detected and removed partly.

  17. GIS-based maps and area estimates of Northern Hemisphere permafrost extent during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgren, A.; Hugelius, G.; Kuhry, P.; Christensen, T.R.; Vandenberghe, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents GIS-based estimates of permafrost extent in the northern circumpolar region during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), based on a review of previously published maps and compilations of field evidence in the form of ice-wedge pseudomorphs and relict sand wedges. We focus on field

  18. Field size dependent mapping of medical linear accelerator radiation leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu Bezin, Jérémi; De Vathaire, Florent; Diallo, Ibrahima; Veres, Attila; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Chavaudra, Jean; Deutsch, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of a graphics library based model for the assessment of linear accelerator radiation leakage. Transmission through the shielding elements was evaluated using the build-up factor corrected exponential attenuation law and the contribution from the electron guide was estimated using the approximation of a linear isotropic radioactive source. Model parameters were estimated by a fitting series of thermoluminescent dosimeter leakage measurements, achieved up to 100 cm from the beam central axis along three directions. The distribution of leakage data at the patient plane reflected the architecture of the shielding elements. Thus, the maximum leakage dose was found under the collimator when only one jaw shielded the primary beam and was about 0.08% of the dose at isocentre. Overall, we observe that the main contributor to leakage dose according to our model was the electron beam guide. Concerning the discrepancies between the measurements used to calibrate the model and the calculations from the model, the average difference was about 7%. Finally, graphics library modelling is a readily and suitable way to estimate leakage dose distribution on a personal computer. Such data could be useful for dosimetric evaluations in late effect studies. (paper)

  19. Magnetic field mapping equipment for KEK 1 m hydrogen bubble chamber magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Yuji

    1979-01-01

    Magnetic field mapping was carried out for the 1 m hydrogen bubble chamber magnet in November, 1976, and March, 1977 at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK). The magnetic field mapping equipment was manufactured for the main purposes of getting low cost and short time in manufacture, sufficient accuracy of measurement, fairly fast speed of measurement and automatic measurement. The design was made, aiming at 18 kgauss of field intensity and 10 -3 of measuring accuracy. The magnetic field mapping system consists of seven parts as shown in the block diagram. The measuring elements are Hall elements, and three elements are mounted on three surfaces of the inner wall so that three directional (X, Y and Z) components can be determined by moving the magnetic field mapping equipment. The control circuit of the equipment regulates the shift of the equipment by 5 cm step in X and Y directions. Other circuits, relays and switches are explained. Since 100 V AC power relays were placed together with TTL's and IC's in this system, relay circuits became serious noise sources. The countermeasures such as separation of IC power supply, independent grounding, are suppression and so on were taken. Of these, it was effective that relay circuit and IC circuit were put in respective shield cases, and wirings in both circuits were made so as not to intersect each other as far as possible. Finally the points to be noticed in manufacturing, obtained from the experiences, are summarized. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. Precambrian Field Camp at the University of Minnesota Duluth - Teaching Skills Applicable to Mapping Glaciated Terranes of the Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. D.; Hudak, G. J.; Peterson, D.

    2011-12-01

    Since 2007, the central program of the Precambrian Research Center (PRC) at the University of Minnesota Duluth has been a six-week geology field camp focused on the Precambrian geology of the Canadian Shield. This field camp has two main purposes. First and foremost is to teach students specialized field skills and field mapping techniques that can be utilized to map and interpret Precambrian shield terranes characterized by sparse outcrop and abundant glacial cover. In addition to teaching basic outcrop mapping technique , students are introduced to geophysical surveying (gravity, magnetics), glacial drift prospecting, and drill core logging techniques in several of our geological mapping exercises. These mapping methodologies are particularly applicable to minerals exploration in shield terranes. The second and equally important goal of the PRC field camp is to teach students modern map-making and map production skills. During the fifth and sixth weeks of field camp, students conduct "capstone" mapping projects. These projects encompass one week of detailed bedrock mapping in remote regions of northern Minnesota that have not been mapped in detail (e.g. scales greater than 1:24,000) and a second week of map-making and map generation utilizing geographic information systems (currently ArcGIS10), graphics software packages (Adobe Illustrator CS4), and various imaging software for geophysical and topographic data. Over the past five years, PRC students and faculty have collaboratively published 21 geologic maps through the Precambrian Research Center Map Series. These maps are currently being utilized in a variety of ways by industry, academia, and government for mineral exploration programs, development of undergraduate, graduate, and faculty research projects, and for planning, archeological studies, and public education programs in Minnesota's state parks. Acquisition of specialized Precambrian geological mapping skills and geologic map-making proficiencies has

  1. Methodical bases of perceptual mapping of printing industry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinin Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is to study the methodological foundations of perceptual mapping in printing industry enterprises. This research has a practice focus which affects the choice of its methodological framework. The authors use such scientific research as analysis of cause-effect relationships, synthesis, problem analysis, expert evaluation and image visualization methods. In this paper, the authors present their assessment of the competitive environment of major printing industry companies in Kirov oblast; their assessment employs perceptual mapping enables by Minitab 14. This technique can be used by experts in the field of marketing and branding to assess the competitive environment in any market. The object of research is printing industry in Kirov oblast. The most important conclusion of this study is that in perceptual mapping, all the parameters are integrated in a single system and provide a more objective view of the company’s market situation.

  2. Digital field mapping for stimulating Secondary School students in the recognition of geological features and landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Magagna, Alessandra; Ferrero, Elena; Perrone, Gianluigi

    2015-04-01

    Digital field mapping has certainly provided geoscientists with the opportunity to map and gather data in the field directly using digital tools and software rather than using paper maps, notebooks and analogue devices and then subsequently transferring the data to a digital format for subsequent analysis. But, the same opportunity has to be recognized for Geoscience education, as well as for stimulating and helping students in the recognition of landforms and interpretation of the geological and geomorphological components of a landscape. More, an early exposure to mapping during school and prior to university can optimise the ability to "read" and identify uncertainty in 3d models. During 2014, about 200 Secondary School students (aged 12-15) of the Piedmont region (NW Italy) participated in a research program involving the use of mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) in the field. Students, divided in groups, used the application Trimble Outdoors Navigators for tracking a geological trail in the Sangone Valley and for taking georeferenced pictures and notes. Back to school, students downloaded the digital data in a .kml file for the visualization on Google Earth. This allowed them: to compare the hand tracked trail on a paper map with the digital trail, and to discuss about the functioning and the precision of the tools; to overlap a digital/semitransparent version of the 2D paper map (a Regional Technical Map) used during the field trip on the 2.5D landscape of Google Earth, as to help them in the interpretation of conventional symbols such as contour lines; to perceive the landforms seen during the field trip as a part of a more complex Pleistocene glacial landscape; to understand the classical and innovative contributions from different geoscientific disciplines to the generation of a 3D structural geological model of the Rivoli-Avigliana Morainic Amphitheatre. In 2013 and 2014, some other pilot projects have been carried out in different areas of the

  3. Creating soil moisture maps based on radar satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatushenko, Volodymyr; Garkusha, Igor; Vasyliev, Volodymyr

    2017-10-01

    The presented work is related to a study of mapping soil moisture basing on radar data from Sentinel-1 and a test of adequacy of the models constructed on the basis of data obtained from alternative sources. Radar signals are reflected from the ground differently, depending on its properties. In radar images obtained, for example, in the C band of the electromagnetic spectrum, soils saturated with moisture usually appear in dark tones. Although, at first glance, the problem of constructing moisture maps basing on radar data seems intuitively clear, its implementation on the basis of the Sentinel-1 data on an industrial scale and in the public domain is not yet available. In the process of mapping, for verification of the results, measurements of soil moisture obtained from logs of the network of climate stations NOAA US Climate Reference Network (USCRN) were used. This network covers almost the entire territory of the United States. The passive microwave radiometers of Aqua and SMAP satellites data are used for comparing processing. In addition, other supplementary cartographic materials were used, such as maps of soil types and ready moisture maps. The paper presents a comparison of the effect of the use of certain methods of roughening the quality of radar data on the result of mapping moisture. Regression models were constructed showing dependence of backscatter coefficient values Sigma0 for calibrated radar data of different spatial resolution obtained at different times on soil moisture values. The obtained soil moisture maps of the territories of research, as well as the conceptual solutions about automation of operations of constructing such digital maps, are presented. The comparative assessment of the time required for processing a given set of radar scenes with the developed tools and with the ESA SNAP product was carried out.

  4. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Yoshio; Hirota, Noriyuki; Horii, Shigeru; Ando, Tsutomu

    2009-07-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Materials Fields (MAP3) was held on 14-16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan. The first was held in March 2004 at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, USA. Two years later the second took place in Grenoble, France. MAP3 was held at The University of Tokyo International Symposium, and jointly with MANA Workshop on Materials Processing by External Stimulation, and JSPS CORE Program of Construction of the World Center on Electromagnetic Processing of Materials. At the end of MAP3 it was decided that the next MAP4 will be held in Atlanta, USA in 2010. Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science. MAP3 focused on the magnetic field interactions involved in the study and processing of materials in all disciplines ranging from physics to chemistry and biology: Magnetic field effects on chemical, physical, and biological phenomena Magnetic field effects on electrochemical phenomena Magnetic field effects on thermodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on hydrodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on crystal growth Magnetic processing of materials Diamagnetic levitation Magneto-Archimedes effect Spin chemistry Application of magnetic fields to analytical chemistry Magnetic orientation Control of structure by magnetic fields Magnetic separation and purification Magnetic field-induced phase transitions Materials properties in high magnetic fields Development of NMR and MRI Medical application of magnetic fields Novel magnetic phenomena Physical property measurement by Magnetic fields High magnetic field generation> MAP3 consisted of 84 presentations including 16 invited talks. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the proceeding of MAP3 with 34 papers that provide a scientific record of the topics covered by the conference with the special topics (13 papers) in

  5. Hash function based on piecewise nonlinear chaotic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhavan, A.; Samsudin, A.; Akhshani, A.

    2009-01-01

    Chaos-based cryptography appeared recently in the early 1990s as an original application of nonlinear dynamics in the chaotic regime. In this paper, an algorithm for one-way hash function construction based on piecewise nonlinear chaotic map with a variant probability parameter is proposed. Also the proposed algorithm is an attempt to present a new chaotic hash function based on multithreaded programming. In this chaotic scheme, the message is connected to the chaotic map using probability parameter and other parameters of chaotic map such as control parameter and initial condition, so that the generated hash value is highly sensitive to the message. Simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm presented several interesting features, such as high flexibility, good statistical properties, high key sensitivity and message sensitivity. These properties make the scheme a suitable choice for practical applications.

  6. Vulnerability mapping in kelud volcano based on village information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisbaron, D. R.; Wijayanti, H.; Iffani, M.; Winastuti, R.; Yudinugroho, M.

    2018-04-01

    Kelud Volcano is a basaltic andesitic stratovolcano, situated at 27 km to the east of Kediri, Indonesia. Historically, Kelud Volcano has erupted with return period of 9-75 years, had caused nearly 160,000 people living in Tulungagung, Blitar and Kediri District to be in high-risk areas. This study aims to map vulnerability towards lava flows in Kediri and Malang using detailed scale. There are four major variables, namely demography, asset, hazard, and land use variables. PGIS (Participatory Geographic Information System) is employed to collect data, while ancillary data is derived from statistics information, interpretation of high resolution satellite imagery and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Data were obtained from field checks and some from high resolution satellite imagery and UAVs. The output of this research is village-based vulnerability information that becomes a valuable input for local stakeholders to improve local preparedness in areas prone to improved disaster resilience. The results indicated that the highest vulnerability to lava flood disaster in Kelud Volcano is owned by Kandangan Hamlet, Pandean Hamlet and Kacangan Hamlet, because these two hamlets are in the dominant high vulnerability position of 3 out of 4 scenarios (economic, social and equal).

  7. Mapping of electromagnetic fields of industrial frequencies in the city of Petrozavodsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturman Vladimir Itshakovich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In a modern city there are numerous sources of electro-magnetic radiation. However, their interaction and overlap are studied extremely insufficiently. We investigated the spatial distribution of strength indicators of electric fields and flux density of magnetic fields in Petrozavodsk. It was established that the intensity of electric fields reaches significant values only near overhead high-voltage lines, but there is no revealed excess of exposure standard outside their security zones. The flux density does not exceed the permissible level, but within the city area it varies wildly. It was represented on the compiled map. The largest levels of the flux density were observed in modern building zones, mainly in the centre of the city. In separate points the abnormal values were noted. They were explained by the influence of underground power cables. The results are useful for working out the method of mapping electrio-magnetic fields.

  8. Mapping publication status and exploring hotspots in a research field: chronic disease self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Li, Zheng; Arthur, David

    2014-08-01

    To provide insight into the characteristics of chronic disease self-management by mapping publication status and exploring hotspots. Chronic disease is becoming a major public health issue worldwide, highlighting the importance of self-management in this area. Despite the volume and variety of publications, little is known about how 'chronic disease self-management' has developed, since the first publication 40 years ago. Such is the number of publications in the area, that there is a need for a systematic bibliographic examination to enable clinicians and researchers to navigate this literature. A bibliometric analysis of publications was used. Publication status was achieved using BICOMB software, whereas hotspots were identified with Ucinet software. A search of PubMed was conducted for papers published between 1971-2012. By 2011, the number of publications reached 696, a fourfold increase from the previous 10 years, of which 75% came from the USA and UK. There were 1284 journals, which published chronic disease self-management research, involving various disciplines. The research hotspots highlighted various self-management strategies for the following: diabetes; cardiac vascular and pulmonary chronic disease; pain relief for neoplasms; and obesity. Psychological adjustment was a permeating theme in self-management processes as was using internet-based interventions. Self-management in chronic disease publication has been most evident in developed countries. The bibliographic mapping and identification of publication hotspots provides scholars and practitioners with key target journals, as well as a rigorous overview of the field for use in further research, evidence-based practice and health policy development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Global Mapping of Near-Earth Magnetic Fields Measured by KITSAT-1 and KITSAT-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-Surn Pyo

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic field measurements from the KitSat-1 and KitSat-2 were tested by comparing with the IGRF model. The magnetic data have been collected by a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer on each satellite at an altitude of 1,325km and 820km, respectively. To avoid highly variable magnetic disturbances at the polar region, the field map has been drawn within the limits of 50 degrees in latitude. Each data is averaged over the square of 5x5 degrees in both latitude and longitude. In these results, the relatively quiet periods were selected and the sampling rate was 30 seconds. It is shown that the results from these measurements are consistent with the IGRF map over the global surface map.

  10. Analysis of family-wise error rates in statistical parametric mapping using random field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandin, Guillaume; Friston, Karl J

    2017-11-01

    This technical report revisits the analysis of family-wise error rates in statistical parametric mapping-using random field theory-reported in (Eklund et al. []: arXiv 1511.01863). Contrary to the understandable spin that these sorts of analyses attract, a review of their results suggests that they endorse the use of parametric assumptions-and random field theory-in the analysis of functional neuroimaging data. We briefly rehearse the advantages parametric analyses offer over nonparametric alternatives and then unpack the implications of (Eklund et al. []: arXiv 1511.01863) for parametric procedures. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. NaviCell: a web-based environment for navigation, curation and maintenance of large molecular interaction maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperstein, Inna; Cohen, David P A; Pook, Stuart; Viara, Eric; Calzone, Laurence; Barillot, Emmanuel; Zinovyev, Andrei

    2013-10-07

    Molecular biology knowledge can be formalized and systematically represented in a computer-readable form as a comprehensive map of molecular interactions. There exist an increasing number of maps of molecular interactions containing detailed and step-wise description of various cell mechanisms. It is difficult to explore these large maps, to organize discussion of their content and to maintain them. Several efforts were recently made to combine these capabilities together in one environment, and NaviCell is one of them. NaviCell is a web-based environment for exploiting large maps of molecular interactions, created in CellDesigner, allowing their easy exploration, curation and maintenance. It is characterized by a combination of three essential features: (1) efficient map browsing based on Google Maps; (2) semantic zooming for viewing different levels of details or of abstraction of the map and (3) integrated web-based blog for collecting community feedback. NaviCell can be easily used by experts in the field of molecular biology for studying molecular entities of interest in the context of signaling pathways and crosstalk between pathways within a global signaling network. NaviCell allows both exploration of detailed molecular mechanisms represented on the map and a more abstract view of the map up to a top-level modular representation. NaviCell greatly facilitates curation, maintenance and updating the comprehensive maps of molecular interactions in an interactive and user-friendly fashion due to an imbedded blogging system. NaviCell provides user-friendly exploration of large-scale maps of molecular interactions, thanks to Google Maps and WordPress interfaces, with which many users are already familiar. Semantic zooming which is used for navigating geographical maps is adopted for molecular maps in NaviCell, making any level of visualization readable. In addition, NaviCell provides a framework for community-based curation of maps.

  12. Mapping of the total magnetic field in the area of Lake Balaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnovitz, Ferenc; Hegyi, Betti; Raveloson, Andrea; Rozman, Gábor; Lenkey, László; Kovács, Péter; Csontos, András; Heilig, Balázs; Horváth, Ferenc

    2017-04-01

    The Lake Balaton with 600 km2 area represents the largest lake in Central Europe and a blank spot on the magnetic anomaly map of Hungary. It is because the construction of the Hungarian magnetic anomaly map dates back to the 1960s and relied mainly on classical vertical-field balance surveys. To fill the gap, we initiated a systematic mapping using modern magnetometers and positioning system in the framework of a complex geophysical study of Lake Balaton (National Research Project 109255 K). The main goal of this study has been to identify subvolcanic bodies and tectonic structures below the lake and correlate them with well-known features mapped onshore in the vicinity of Balaton. During the magnetic survey an Overhauser field magnetometer (GEM System, GSM-19) was mounted on a plastic boat and towed behind a motorboat in a distance of 20 m with a speed of 6 to 16 km/h depending on weather conditions. Tests measurements showed that at this distance the magnetic noise generated by the motorboat was negligible. We measured total field values with a sampling interval of 1 to 2 s. As a result, the whole lake has been covered by magnetic profiles in an orthogonal grid with spacing of 1 km. During data interpretation we applied for correction of temporal variation of magnetic field registered in the Tihany Geophysical Observatory and normal field correction from a regional model. The final anomaly map in the western part of the lake shows anomalies with amplitudes of 20 to 60 nT and a half wavelength of 0.5 to 1 km. A larger feature was recognized related to the Badacsony Hill a major basaltic bute at the northern shore of the lake. In the middle part of the lake the total field is rather smooth, no significant anomaly has been revealed. However, slight disturbances can be noticed in the proximity of a neotectonic fault zone mapped by high resolution seismic data. In the eastern part of the lake few low amplitude (5-20 nT) anomalies have been observed that are associated

  13. Laser ablation of polymer coatings allows for electromagnetic field enhancement mapping around nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiutowski, Jacek; Maibohm, Christian; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Subdiffraction spatially resolved, quantitative mapping of strongly localized field intensity enhancement on gold nanostructures via laser ablation of polymer thin films is reported. Illumination using a femtosecond laser scanning microscope excites surface plasmons in the nanostructures....... The accompanying field enhancement substantially lowers the ablation threshold of the polymer film and thus creates local ablation spots and corresponding topographic modifications of the polymer film. Such modifications are quantified straightforwardly via scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy...

  14. Contour Detection for UAV-Based Cadastral Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Crommelinck

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs provide a flexible and low-cost solution for the acquisition of high-resolution data. The potential of high-resolution UAV imagery to create and update cadastral maps is being increasingly investigated. Existing procedures generally involve substantial fieldwork and many manual processes. Arguably, multiple parts of UAV-based cadastral mapping workflows could be automated. Specifically, as many cadastral boundaries coincide with visible boundaries, they could be extracted automatically using image analysis methods. This study investigates the transferability of gPb contour detection, a state-of-the-art computer vision method, to remotely sensed UAV images and UAV-based cadastral mapping. Results show that the approach is transferable to UAV data and automated cadastral mapping: object contours are comprehensively detected at completeness and correctness rates of up to 80%. The detection quality is optimal when the entire scene is covered with one orthoimage, due to the global optimization of gPb contour detection. However, a balance between high completeness and correctness is hard to achieve, so a combination with area-based segmentation and further object knowledge is proposed. The localization quality exhibits the usual dependency on ground resolution. The approach has the potential to accelerate the process of general boundary delineation during the creation and updating of cadastral maps.

  15. Volume-based Representation of the Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Amapane, N; Drollinger, V; Karimäki, V; Klyukhin, V; Todorov, T

    2005-01-01

    Simulation and reconstruction of events in high-energy experiments require the knowledge of the value of the magnetic field at any point within the detector. The way this information is extracted from the actual map of the magnetic field and served to simulation and reconstruction applications has a large impact on accuracy and performance in terms of speed. As an example, the CMS high level trigger performs on-line tracking of muons within the magnet yoke, where the field is discontinuous and largely inhomogeneous. In this case the high level trigger execution time is dominated by the time needed to access the magnetic field map.For this reason, an optimized approach for the access to the CMS field was developed, based on a dedicated representation of thedetector geometry. The detector is modeled in terms of volumes, constructed in such a way that their boundaries correspond to the fiel d discontinuities due to changes in the magnetic permeability of the materials. The field within each volume is therefore c...

  16. Mapping the absolute magnetic field and evaluating the quadratic Zeeman-effect-induced systematic error in an atom interferometer gravimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing-Qing; Freier, Christian; Leykauf, Bastian; Schkolnik, Vladimir; Yang, Jun; Krutzik, Markus; Peters, Achim

    2017-09-01

    Precisely evaluating the systematic error induced by the quadratic Zeeman effect is important for developing atom interferometer gravimeters aiming at an accuracy in the μ Gal regime (1 μ Gal =10-8m /s2 ≈10-9g ). This paper reports on the experimental investigation of Raman spectroscopy-based magnetic field measurements and the evaluation of the systematic error in the gravimetric atom interferometer (GAIN) due to quadratic Zeeman effect. We discuss Raman duration and frequency step-size-dependent magnetic field measurement uncertainty, present vector light shift and tensor light shift induced magnetic field measurement offset, and map the absolute magnetic field inside the interferometer chamber of GAIN with an uncertainty of 0.72 nT and a spatial resolution of 12.8 mm. We evaluate the quadratic Zeeman-effect-induced gravity measurement error in GAIN as 2.04 μ Gal . The methods shown in this paper are important for precisely mapping the absolute magnetic field in vacuum and reducing the quadratic Zeeman-effect-induced systematic error in Raman transition-based precision measurements, such as atomic interferometer gravimeters.

  17. The Visibility of Information Science and Library Science Research in Bibliometric Mapping of the LIS Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrom, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    The relation between information science and library science has been debated for decades, and even attempts at utilizing methods generally acknowledged as robust for the purpose of mapping research fields have yielded results with large variations. Therefore, a set of citation analyses was performed, comparing the results of analyses on…

  18. Codimension-one tangency bifurcations of global Poincare maps of four-dimensional vector fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krauskopf, B.; Lee, C.M.; Osinga, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    When one considers a Poincarreturn map on a general unbounded (n - 1)-dimensional section for a vector field in R-n there are typically points where the flow is tangent to the section. The only notable exception is when the system is (equivalent to) a periodically forced system. The tangencies can

  19. Electron dose map inversion based on several algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Gui; Zheng Huaqing; Wu Yican; Fds Team

    2010-01-01

    The reconstruction to the electron dose map in radiation therapy was investigated by constructing the inversion model of electron dose map with different algorithms. The inversion model of electron dose map based on nonlinear programming was used, and this model was applied the penetration dose map to invert the total space one. The realization of this inversion model was by several inversion algorithms. The test results with seven samples show that except the NMinimize algorithm, which worked for just one sample, with great error,though,all the inversion algorithms could be realized to our inversion model rapidly and accurately. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, having the greatest accuracy and speed, could be considered as the first choice in electron dose map inversion.Further tests show that more error would be created when the data close to the electron range was used (tail error). The tail error might be caused by the approximation of mean energy spectra, and this should be considered to improve the method. The time-saving and accurate algorithms could be used to achieve real-time dose map inversion. By selecting the best inversion algorithm, the clinical need in real-time dose verification can be satisfied. (authors)

  20. Stochastic Wheel-Slip Compensation Based Robot Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIDHARTHAN, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wheel slip compensation is vital for building accurate and reliable dead reckoning based robot localization and mapping algorithms. This investigation presents stochastic slip compensation scheme for robot localization and mapping. Main idea of the slip compensation technique is to use wheel-slip data obtained from experiments to model the variations in slip velocity as Gaussian distributions. This leads to a family of models that are switched depending on the input command. To obtain the wheel-slip measurements, experiments are conducted on a wheeled mobile robot and the measurements thus obtained are used to build the Gaussian models. Then the localization and mapping algorithm is tested on an experimental terrain and a new metric called the map spread factor is used to evaluate the ability of the slip compensation technique. Our results clearly indicate that the proposed methodology improves the accuracy by 72.55% for rotation and 66.67% for translation motion as against an uncompensated mapping system. The proposed compensation technique eliminates the need for extro receptive sensors for slip compensation, complex feature extraction and association algorithms. As a result, we obtain a simple slip compensation scheme for localization and mapping.

  1. Machine learning-based dual-energy CT parametric mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuan-Hao; Kuo, Jung-Wen; Jordan, David W; Van Hedent, Steven; Klahr, Paul; Wei, Zhouping; Al Helo, Rose; Liang, Fan; Qian, Pengjiang; Pereira, Gisele C; Rassouli, Negin; Gilkeson, Robert C; Traughber, Bryan J; Cheng, Chee-Wai; Muzic, Raymond F

    2018-05-22

    The aim is to develop and evaluate machine learning methods for generating quantitative parametric maps of effective atomic number (Zeff), relative electron density (ρe), mean excitation energy (Ix), and relative stopping power (RSP) from clinical dual-energy CT data. The maps could be used for material identification and radiation dose calculation. Machine learning methods of historical centroid (HC), random forest (RF), and artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to learn the relationship between dual-energy CT input data and ideal output parametric maps calculated for phantoms from the known compositions of 13 tissue substitutes. After training and model selection steps, the machine learning predictors were used to generate parametric maps from independent phantom and patient input data. Precision and accuracy were evaluated using the ideal maps. This process was repeated for a range of exposure doses, and performance was compared to that of the clinically-used dual-energy, physics-based method which served as the reference. The machine learning methods generated more accurate and precise parametric maps than those obtained using the reference method. Their performance advantage was particularly evident when using data from the lowest exposure, one-fifth of a typical clinical abdomen CT acquisition. The RF method achieved the greatest accuracy. In comparison, the ANN method was only 1% less accurate but had much better computational efficiency than RF, being able to produce parametric maps in 15 seconds. Machine learning methods outperformed the reference method in terms of accuracy and noise tolerance when generating parametric maps, encouraging further exploration of the techniques. Among the methods we evaluated, ANN is the most suitable for clinical use due to its combination of accuracy, excellent low-noise performance, and computational efficiency. . © 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in

  2. IDAS, software support for mathematical models and map-based graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaum, M.D.; Wecker, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    IDAS (Intermediate Dose Assessment System) was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a hardware/software host for radiological models and display of map-based plume graphics at the Operations Center (HQ), regional incident response centers, and site emergency facilities. IDAS design goals acknowledged the likelihood of future changes in the suite of models and the composition of map features for analysis and graphical display. IDAS provides a generalized software support environment to programmers and users of modeling programs. A database manager process provides multi-user access control to all input and output data for modeling programs. A programmer-created data description file (schema) specifies data field names, data types, legal and recommended ranges, default values, preferred units of measurement, and ''help'' text. Subroutine calls to IDAS from a model program invoke a consistent user interface which can show any of the schema contents, convert units of measurement, and route data to multiple logical devices, including the database. A stand-alone data editor allows the user to read and write model data records without execution of a model. IDAS stores digitized map features in a 4-level naming hierarchy. A user can select the map icon, color, and whether to show a stored name tag, for each map feature. The user also selects image scale (zoom) within limits set by map digitization. The resulting image combines static map information, computed analytic modeling results, and the user's feature selections for display to decision-makers

  3. Global trends in satellite-based emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Stefan; Giulio-Tonolo, Fabio; Lyons, Josh; Kučera, Jan; Jones, Brenda; Schneiderhan, Tobias; Platzeck, Gabriel; Kaku, Kazuya; Hazarika, Manzul Kumar; Czaran, Lorant; Li, Suju; Pedersen, Wendi; James, Godstime Kadiri; Proy, Catherine; Muthike, Denis Macharia; Bequignon, Jerome; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, scientists and disaster responders have increasingly used satellite-based Earth observations for global rapid assessment of disaster situations. We review global trends in satellite rapid response and emergency mapping from 2000 to 2014, analyzing more than 1000 incidents in which satellite monitoring was used for assessing major disaster situations. We provide a synthesis of spatial patterns and temporal trends in global satellite emergency mapping efforts and show that satellite-based emergency mapping is most intensively deployed in Asia and Europe and follows well the geographic, physical, and temporal distributions of global natural disasters. We present an outlook on the future use of Earth observation technology for disaster response and mitigation by putting past and current developments into context and perspective.

  4. Mapping Field Trials II Mendocino Volcano Field I and II (EX0905, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of this field trial cruise are to test use of EX mapping sensors to characterize complex geological areas (i.e. volcanic field) and develop protocols to...

  5. Fourier-based magnetic induction tomography for mapping resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puwal, Steffan; Roth, Bradley J.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic induction tomography is used as an experimental tool for mapping the passive electromagnetic properties of conductors, with the potential for imaging biological tissues. Our numerical approach to solving the inverse problem is to obtain a Fourier expansion of the resistivity and the stream functions of the magnetic fields and eddy current density. Thus, we are able to solve the inverse problem of determining the resistivity from the applied and measured magnetic fields for a two-dimensional conducting plane. When we add noise to the measured magnetic field, we find the fidelity of the measured to the true resistivity is quite robust for increasing levels of noise and increasing distances of the applied and measured field coils from the conducting plane, when properly filtered. We conclude that Fourier methods provide a reliable alternative for solving the inverse problem.

  6. Hyperbolic mapping of complex networks based on community information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuxi; Li, Qingguang; Jin, Fengdong; Xiong, Wei; Wu, Yao

    2016-08-01

    To improve the hyperbolic mapping methods both in terms of accuracy and running time, a novel mapping method called Community and Hyperbolic Mapping (CHM) is proposed based on community information in this paper. Firstly, an index called Community Intimacy (CI) is presented to measure the adjacency relationship between the communities, based on which a community ordering algorithm is introduced. According to the proposed Community-Sector hypothesis, which supposes that most nodes of one community gather in a same sector in hyperbolic space, CHM maps the ordered communities into hyperbolic space, and then the angular coordinates of nodes are randomly initialized within the sector that they belong to. Therefore, all the network nodes are so far mapped to hyperbolic space, and then the initialized angular coordinates can be optimized by employing the information of all nodes, which can greatly improve the algorithm precision. By applying the proposed dual-layer angle sampling method in the optimization procedure, CHM reduces the time complexity to O(n2) . The experiments show that our algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  7. Measuring diffusion-relaxation correlation maps using non-uniform field gradients of single-sided NMR devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira d'Eurydice, Marcel; Galvosas, Petrik

    2014-11-01

    Single-sided NMR systems are becoming a relevant tool in industry and laboratory environments due to their low cost, low maintenance and capacity to evaluate quantity and quality of hydrogen based materials. The performance of such devices has improved significantly over the last decade, providing increased field homogeneity, field strength and even controlled static field gradients. For a class of these devices, the configuration of the permanent magnets provides a linear variation of the magnetic field and can be used in diffusion measurements. However, magnet design depends directly on its application and, according to the purpose, the field homogeneity may significantly be compromised. This may prevent the determination of diffusion properties of fluids based on the natural inhomogeneity of the field using known techniques. This work introduces a new approach that extends the applicability of diffusion-editing CPMG experiments to NMR devices with highly inhomogeneous magnetic fields, which do not vary linearly in space. Herein, we propose a method to determine a custom diffusion kernel based on the gradient distribution, which can be seen as a signature of each NMR device. This new diffusion kernel is then utilised in the 2D inverse Laplace transform (2D ILT) in order to determine diffusion-relaxation correlation maps of homogeneous multi-phasic fluids. The experiments were performed using NMR MObile Lateral Explore (MOLE), which is a single-sided NMR device designed to maximise the volume at the sweet spot with enhanced depth penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative atomic resolution mapping using high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Aert, S.; Verbeeck, J.; Erni, R.; Bals, S.; Luysberg, M.; Dyck, D. Van; Tendeloo, G. Van

    2009-01-01

    A model-based method is proposed to relatively quantify the chemical composition of atomic columns using high angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images. The method is based on a quantification of the total intensity of the scattered electrons for the individual atomic columns using statistical parameter estimation theory. In order to apply this theory, a model is required describing the image contrast of the HAADF STEM images. Therefore, a simple, effective incoherent model has been assumed which takes the probe intensity profile into account. The scattered intensities can then be estimated by fitting this model to an experimental HAADF STEM image. These estimates are used as a performance measure to distinguish between different atomic column types and to identify the nature of unknown columns with good accuracy and precision using statistical hypothesis testing. The reliability of the method is supported by means of simulated HAADF STEM images as well as a combination of experimental images and electron energy-loss spectra. It is experimentally shown that statistically meaningful information on the composition of individual columns can be obtained even if the difference in averaged atomic number Z is only 3. Using this method, quantitative mapping at atomic resolution using HAADF STEM images only has become possible without the need of simultaneously recorded electron energy loss spectra.

  9. Synthetic three-dimensional turbulent passive scalar fields via the minimal Lagrangian map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    A method for simple but realistic generation of three-dimensional synthetic turbulent passive scalar fields is presented. The method is an extension of the minimal turnover Lagrangian map approach (MTLM) [C. Rosales and C. Meneveau, Phys. Rev. E 78, 016313 (2008)] formulated for the generation of synthetic turbulent velocity fields. In this development, the minimal Lagrangian map is applied to deform simultaneously a vector field and an advected scalar field. This deformation takes place over a hierarchy of spatial scales encompassing a range from integral to dissipative scales. For each scale, fluid particles are mapped transporting the scalar property, without interaction or diffusional effects, from their initial configuration to new positions determined only by their velocity at the beginning of the motion and a parameter chosen to accumulate deformation for the equivalent of the phenomenological "turn-over" time scale. The procedure is studied for the case of inertial-convective regime. It is found that many features of passive scalar turbulence are well reproduced by this simple kinematical construction. Fundamental statistics of the resulting synthetic scalar fields, evaluated through the flatness and probability density functions of the scalar gradient and scalar increments, reproduce quite well the known statistical characteristics of passive scalars in turbulent fields. High-order statistics are also consistent with those observed in real hydrodynamic turbulence. The anomalous scaling of real turbulence is well reproduced for different kind of structure functions, with good quantitative agreement in general, for the scaling exponents. The spatial structure of the scalar field is also quite realistic, as well as several characteristics of the dissipation fields for the scalar variance and kinetic energy. Similarly, the statistical geometry at dissipative scales that ensues from the coupling of velocity and scalar gradients behaves in agreement with what is

  10. The ETLMR MapReduce-Based ETL Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiufeng, Liu; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents ETLMR, a parallel Extract--Transform--Load (ETL) programming framework based on MapReduce. It has built-in support for high-level ETL-specific constructs including star schemas, snowflake schemas, and slowly changing dimensions (SCDs). ETLMR gives both high programming...

  11. Tissue-based map of the human proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhlén, Mathias; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M.

    2015-01-01

    Resolving the molecular details of proteome variation in the different tissues and organs of the human body will greatly increase our knowledge of human biology and disease. Here, we present a map of the human tissue proteome based on an integrated omics approach that involves quantitative transc...

  12. Rule-based Test Generation with Mind Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Polivaev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces basic concepts of rule based test generation with mind maps, and reports experiences learned from industrial application of this technique in the domain of smart card testing by Giesecke & Devrient GmbH over the last years. It describes the formalization of test selection criteria used by our test generator, our test generation architecture and test generation framework.

  13. Map based localization to assist commercial fleet operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report outlines key recent contributions to the state of the art in lane detection, lane departure warning, : and map-based sensor fusion algorithms. These key studies are used as a basis for a discussion about the : limitations of systems that ...

  14. Balanced Civilization Map Generation based on Open Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barros, Gabriella; Togelius, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates how to incorporate real-world data into game content so that the content is playable and enjoyable while not misrepresenting the data. We propose a method for generating balanced Civilization maps based on Open Data, describing how to acquire, transform and integrate...

  15. An improved map based graphical android authentication system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, graphical password methods are available for android and other devices, but the major problem is vulnerability issue. A map graphical-based authentication system (Dheeraj et al, 2013) was designed on mobile android devices, but it did not provide a large choice or multiple sequence to user for selecting ...

  16. Circularly polarized near-field optical mapping of spin-resolved quantum Hall chiral edge states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyouda, Syuhei; Ito, Hironori; Shibata, Yusuke; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masumi; Akazaki, Tatsushi; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Ootuka, Youiti; Nomura, Shintaro

    2015-04-08

    We have successfully developed a circularly polarized near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) that enables us to irradiate circularly polarized light with spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. As a demonstration, we perform real-space mapping of the quantum Hall chiral edge states near the edge of a Hall-bar structure by injecting spin polarized electrons optically at low temperature. The obtained real-space mappings show that spin-polarized electrons are injected optically to the two-dimensional electron layer. Our general method to locally inject spins using a circularly polarized NSOM should be broadly applicable to characterize a variety of nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  17. Marsh dieback, loss, and recovery mapped with satellite optical, airborne polarimetric radar, and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Chi, Zhaohui; Jones, Cathleen E.; Bannister, Terri

    2014-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper and Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite based optical sensors, NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle synthetic aperture radar (UAVSAR) polarimetric SAR (PolSAR), and field data captured the occurrence and the recovery of an undetected dieback that occurred between the summers of 2010, 2011, and 2012 in the Spartina alterniflora marshes of coastal Louisiana. Field measurements recorded the dramatic biomass decrease from 2010 to 2011 and a biomass recovery in 2012 dominated by a decrease of live biomass, and the loss of marsh as part of the dieback event. Based on an established relationship, the near-infrared/red vegetation index (VI) and site-specific measurements delineated a contiguous expanse of marsh dieback encompassing 6649.9 ha of 18,292.3 ha of S. alterniflora marshes within the study region. PolSAR data were transformed to variables used in biophysical mapping, and of this variable suite, the cross-polarization HV (horizontal send and vertical receive) backscatter was the best single indicator of marsh dieback and recovery. HV backscatter exhibited substantial and significant changes over the dieback and recovery period, tracked measured biomass changes, and significantly correlated with the live/dead biomass ratio. Within the context of regional trends, both HV and VI indicators started higher in pre-dieback marshes and exhibited substantially and statistically higher variability from year to year than that exhibited in the non-dieback marshes. That distinct difference allowed the capturing of the S. alterniflora marsh dieback and recovery; however, these changes were incorporated in a regional trend exhibiting similar but more subtle biomass composition changes.

  18. Sensor fusion-based map building for mobile robot exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribo, M.

    2000-01-01

    To carry out exploration tasks in unknown or partially unknown environments, a mobile robot needs to acquire and maintain models of its environment. In doing so, several sensors of same nature and/or heterogeneous sensor configurations may be used by the robot to achieve reliable performances. However, this in turn poses the problem of sensor fusion-based map building: How to interpret, combine and integrate sensory information in order to build a proper representation of the environment. Specifically, the goal of this thesis is to probe integration algorithms for Occupancy Grid (OG) based map building using odometry, ultrasonic rangefinders, and stereo vision. Three different uncertainty calculi are presented here which are used for sensor fusion-based map building purposes. They are based on probability theory, Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence, and fuzzy set theory. Besides, two different sensor models are depicted which are used to translate sensing data into range information. Experimental examples of OGs built from real data recorded by two robots in office-like environment are presented. They show the feasibility of the proposed approach for building both sonar and visual based OGs. A comparison among the presented uncertainty calculi is performed in a sonar-based framework. Finally, the fusion of both sonar and visual information based of the fuzzy set theory is depicted. (author)

  19. CLOUD-BASED PLATFORM FOR CREATING AND SHARING WEB MAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Gatera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise of cloud computing is one the most important thing happening in information technology today. While many things are moving into the cloud, this trend has also reached the Geographic Information System (GIS world. For the users of GIS technology, the cloud opens new possibilities for sharing web maps, applications and spatial data. The goal of this presentation/demo is to demonstrate ArcGIS Online which is a cloud-based collaborative platform that allows to easily and quickly create interactive web maps that you can share with anyone. With ready-to-use content, apps, and templates you can produce web maps right away. And no matter what you use - desktops, browsers, smartphones, or tablets - you always have access to your content.

  20. The Use of Faraday Rotation Sign Maps as a Diagnostic for Helical Jet Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichstein, Andrea; Gabuzda, Denise

    2012-01-01

    We present maps of the sign of the Faraday Rotation measure obtained from multi-frequency radio observations made with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). The Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) considered have B-field structures with a central 'spine' of B-field orthogonal to the jet and/or a longitudinal B-field near one or both edges of the jet. This structure can plausibly be interpreted as being caused by a helical/toroidal jet magnetic field. Faraday Rotation is a rotation of the plane of polarization that occurs when the polarized radiation passes through a magnetized plasma. The sign of the RM is determined by the direction of the line-of-sight B-field in the region causing the Faraday Rotation, and an ordered toroidal or helical magnetic field associated with an AGN jet will thus produce a distinctive bilateral distribution of the RMs across the jet. We present and discuss RM-sign maps and their possible interpretation regarding the magnetic field geometries for several sources.

  1. Intensity Based Seismic Hazard Map of Republic of Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dojcinovski, Dragi; Dimiskovska, Biserka; Stojmanovska, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The territory of the Republic of Macedonia and the border terrains are among the most seismically active parts of the Balkan Peninsula belonging to the Mediterranean-Trans-Asian seismic belt. The seismological data on the R. Macedonia from the past 16 centuries point to occurrence of very strong catastrophic earthquakes. The hypocenters of the occurred earthquakes are located above the Mohorovicic discontinuity, most frequently, at a depth of 10-20 km. Accurate short -term prognosis of earthquake occurrence, i.e., simultaneous prognosis of time, place and intensity of their occurrence is still not possible. The present methods of seismic zoning have advanced to such an extent that it is with a great probability that they enable efficient protection against earthquake effects. The seismic hazard maps of the Republic of Macedonia are the result of analysis and synthesis of data from seismological, seismotectonic and other corresponding investigations necessary for definition of the expected level of seismic hazard for certain time periods. These should be amended, from time to time, with new data and scientific knowledge. The elaboration of this map does not completely solve all issues related to earthquakes, but it provides basic empirical data necessary for updating the existing regulations for construction of engineering structures in seismically active areas regulated by legal regulations and technical norms whose constituent part is the seismic hazard map. The map has been elaborated based on complex seismological and geophysical investigations of the considered area and synthesis of the results from these investigations. There were two phases of elaboration of the map. In the first phase, the map of focal zones characterized by maximum magnitudes of possible earthquakes has been elaborated. In the second phase, the intensities of expected earthquakes have been computed according to the MCS scale. The map is prognostic, i.e., it provides assessment of the

  2. Parallel image encryption algorithm based on discretized chaotic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qing; Wong Kwokwo; Liao Xiaofeng; Xiang Tao; Hu Yue

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a variety of chaos-based algorithms were proposed for image encryption. Nevertheless, none of them works efficiently in parallel computing environment. In this paper, we propose a framework for parallel image encryption. Based on this framework, a new algorithm is designed using the discretized Kolmogorov flow map. It fulfills all the requirements for a parallel image encryption algorithm. Moreover, it is secure and fast. These properties make it a good choice for image encryption on parallel computing platforms

  3. Application of terrestrial laser scanning to the development and updating of the base map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapa, Przemysław; Mitka, Bartosz

    2017-06-01

    The base map provides basic information about land to individuals, companies, developers, design engineers, organizations, and government agencies. Its contents include spatial location data for control network points, buildings, land lots, infrastructure facilities, and topographic features. As the primary map of the country, it must be developed in accordance with specific laws and regulations and be continuously updated. The base map is a data source used for the development and updating of derivative maps and other large scale cartographic materials such as thematic or topographic maps. Thanks to the advancement of science and technology, the quality of land surveys carried out by means of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) matches that of traditional surveying methods in many respects. This paper discusses the potential application of output data from laser scanners (point clouds) to the development and updating of cartographic materials, taking Poland's base map as an example. A few research sites were chosen to present the method and the process of conducting a TLS land survey: a fragment of a residential area, a street, the surroundings of buildings, and an undeveloped area. The entire map that was drawn as a result of the survey was checked by comparing it to a map obtained from PODGiK (pol. Powiatowy Ośrodek Dokumentacji Geodezyjnej i Kartograficznej - Regional Centre for Geodetic and Cartographic Records) and by conducting a field inspection. An accuracy and quality analysis of the conducted fieldwork and deskwork yielded very good results, which provide solid grounds for predicating that cartographic materials based on a TLS point cloud are a reliable source of information about land. The contents of the map that had been created with the use of the obtained point cloud were very accurately located in space (x, y, z). The conducted accuracy analysis and the inspection of the performed works showed that high quality is characteristic of TLS surveys. The

  4. The effects of a concept map-based support tool on simulation-based inquiry learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagemans, M.G.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Students often need support to optimize their learning in inquiry learning environments. In 2 studies, we investigated the effects of adding concept-map-based support to a simulation-based inquiry environment on kinematics. The concept map displayed the main domain concepts and their relations,

  5. The Effects of a Concept Map-Based Support Tool on Simulation-Based Inquiry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemans, Mieke G.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton

    2013-01-01

    Students often need support to optimize their learning in inquiry learning environments. In 2 studies, we investigated the effects of adding concept-map-based support to a simulation-based inquiry environment on kinematics. The concept map displayed the main domain concepts and their relations, while dynamic color coding of the concepts displayed…

  6. Single molecule mapping of the optical field distribution of probes for near-field microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, J.A.; Garcia Parajo, M.F.; Kuipers, L.; van Hulst, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    The most difficult task in near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) is to make a high quality subwavelength aperture probe, Recently we have developed high definition NSOM probes by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. These probes have a higher brightness, better polarization characteristics,

  7. Construction of Improved Maps of Mercury's Crustal Magnetic Field at Northern Midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Oliveira, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    We report progress toward the construction of a refined version of the northern midlatitude crustal magnetic field map of Hood [GRL, 2016], extended to cover latitudes from 35N to 80N and all longitudes. The main improvements include: (1) Combining MESSENGER magnetometer data from August and September of 2014 with that from February, March, and April of 2015 to provide the best overall input data set for mapping and the largest possible area of coverage; (2) improving the elimination of external and core field contamination by using a model for Mercury's core field and a more conservative high-pass filter length; and (3) improving the equivalent source dipole (ESD) mapping technique using an equidistant equivalent source dipole array and varying the depth, orientation, and resolution of the array to minimize the overall root mean square misfit. Combining data from the two time intervals allows the total latitude range of the final map to be increased by at least 5 degrees to 35N - 80N. Also, previous mapping has concentrated on the hemisphere from 90E to 270E; inclusion of all available data will allow the final maps to be extended to all longitudes, more than doubling the coverage reported by Hood [2016]. Previous work has demonstrated a concentration of relatively strong magnetic anomalies near and within the Caloris impact basin. A secondary concentration near Sobkou Planitia, which contains an older impact basin, was also found. The existence of anomalies within the Caloris rim implies that a steady magnetizing field, i.e., a core dynamo, was present when this basin formed. A major application of the improved map will be to investigate whether anomalies are concentrated near and within other impact basins. If some basins are found not to have concentrations of magnetic anomalies, this could imply a role of impactor composition (e.g., iron content) in producing the crustal materials that are most strongly magnetized, as has previously been proposed to be the

  8. The symmetric quartic map for trajectories of magnetic field lines in elongated divertor tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Morgin; Wadi, Hasina; Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh

    2009-04-01

    The coordinates of the area-preserving map equations for integration of magnetic field line trajectories in divertor tokamaks can be any coordinates for which a transformation to (ψt,θ,φ) coordinates exists [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, T. Evans, and A. Boozer, Phys. Lett. A 364, 140 (2007)]. ψt is toroidal magnetic flux, θ is poloidal angle, and φ is toroidal angle. This freedom is exploited to construct the symmetric quartic map such that the only parameter that determines magnetic geometry is the elongation of the separatrix surface. The poloidal flux inside the separatrix, the safety factor as a function of normalized minor radius, and the magnetic perturbation from the symplectic discretization are all held constant, and only the elongation is κ varied. The width of stochastic layer, the area, and the fractal dimension of the magnetic footprint and the average radial diffusion coefficient of magnetic field lines from the stochastic layer; and how these quantities scale with κ is calculated. The symmetric quartic map gives the correct scalings which are consistent with the scalings of coordinates with κ. The effects of m =1, n =±1 internal perturbation with the amplitude that is expected to occur in tokamaks are calculated by adding a term [H. Ali, A. Punjabi, A. H. Boozer, and T. Evans, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1908 (2004)] to the symmetric quartic map. In this case, the width of stochastic layer scales as 0.35 power of κ. The area of the footprint is roughly constant. The average radial diffusion coefficient of field lines near the X-point scales linearly with κ. The low mn perturbation changes the quasisymmetric structure of the footprint, and reorganizes it into a single, large scale, asymmetric structure. The symmetric quartic map is combined with the dipole map [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, and A. H. Boozer, Phys. Plasmas 10, 3992 (2003)] to calculate the effects of magnetic perturbation from a current carrying coil. The coil position and coil current coil are

  9. The symmetric quartic map for trajectories of magnetic field lines in elongated divertor tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Morgin; Wadi, Hasina; Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh

    2009-01-01

    The coordinates of the area-preserving map equations for integration of magnetic field line trajectories in divertor tokamaks can be any coordinates for which a transformation to (ψ t ,θ,φ) coordinates exists [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, T. Evans, and A. Boozer, Phys. Lett. A 364, 140 (2007)]. ψ t is toroidal magnetic flux, θ is poloidal angle, and φ is toroidal angle. This freedom is exploited to construct the symmetric quartic map such that the only parameter that determines magnetic geometry is the elongation of the separatrix surface. The poloidal flux inside the separatrix, the safety factor as a function of normalized minor radius, and the magnetic perturbation from the symplectic discretization are all held constant, and only the elongation is κ varied. The width of stochastic layer, the area, and the fractal dimension of the magnetic footprint and the average radial diffusion coefficient of magnetic field lines from the stochastic layer; and how these quantities scale with κ is calculated. The symmetric quartic map gives the correct scalings which are consistent with the scalings of coordinates with κ. The effects of m=1, n=±1 internal perturbation with the amplitude that is expected to occur in tokamaks are calculated by adding a term [H. Ali, A. Punjabi, A. H. Boozer, and T. Evans, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1908 (2004)] to the symmetric quartic map. In this case, the width of stochastic layer scales as 0.35 power of κ. The area of the footprint is roughly constant. The average radial diffusion coefficient of field lines near the X-point scales linearly with κ. The low mn perturbation changes the quasisymmetric structure of the footprint, and reorganizes it into a single, large scale, asymmetric structure. The symmetric quartic map is combined with the dipole map [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, and A. H. Boozer, Phys. Plasmas 10, 3992 (2003)] to calculate the effects of magnetic perturbation from a current carrying coil. The coil position and coil current coil are

  10. Planimetric Features Generalization for the Production of Small-Scale Map by Using Base Maps and the Existing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Modiri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cartographic maps are representations of the Earth upon a flat surface in the smaller scale than it’s true. Large scale maps cover relatively small regions in great detail and small scale maps cover large regions such as nations, continents and the whole globe. Logical connection between the features and scale map must be maintained by changing the scale and it is important to recognize that even the most accurate maps sacrifice a certain amount of accuracy in scale to deliver a greater visual usefulness to its user. Cartographic generalization, or map generalization, is the method whereby information is selected and represented on a map in a way that adapts to the scale of the display medium of the map, not necessarily preserving all intricate geographical or other cartographic details. Due to the problems facing small-scale map production process and the need to spend time and money for surveying, today’s generalization is used as executive approach. The software is proposed in this paper that converted various data and information to certain Data Model. This software can produce generalization map according to base map using the existing algorithm. Planimetric generalization algorithms and roles are described in this article. Finally small-scale maps with 1:100,000, 1:250,000 and 1:500,000 scale are produced automatically and they are shown at the end.

  11. Systematic Mapping on Research Methodology in the Field of E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    elham asadamraji

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Methodology Researches in the field of e-commerce is related to the science generation practices and to understand the logic of problem solving in this area. In every scientific discipline, this type of research is critical for the scientific community.The aim of this paper was to review articles that have been published in three Journals of Electronic Commerce from 2009 to 2013 using systematic mapping study. As a result of this study, 337 articles were extracted from a total of 422 articles to investigate different dimensions such as type, goal, scope and method of researches along with philosophical paradigm and unit of analysis, in qualitative and quantitative manner. The results showed that quantitative researches based on positivism paradigm with practical purposes on issues dealing with the development of new products and services and survey research methods in the society unit of analysis had the highest frequency. Finally, we also analyzed the relations between some results, using the Clementine software.

  12. In Situ Spatiotemporal Mapping of Flow Fields around Seeded Stem Cells at the Subcellular Length Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min Jae; Dean, David; Knothe Tate, Melissa L.

    2010-01-01

    A major hurdle to understanding and exploiting interactions between the stem cell and its environment is the lack of a tool for precise delivery of mechanical cues concomitant to observing sub-cellular adaptation of structure. These studies demonstrate the use of microscale particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) for in situ spatiotemporal mapping of flow fields around mesenchymal stem cells, i.e. murine embryonic multipotent cell line C3H10T1/2, at the subcellular length scale, providing a tool for real time observation and analysis of stem cell adaptation to the prevailing mechanical milieu. In the absence of cells, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predicts flow regimes within 12% of μ-PIV measures, achieving the technical specifications of the chamber and the flow rates necessary to deliver target shear stresses at a particular height from the base of the flow chamber. However, our μ-PIV studies show that the presence of cells per se as well as the density at which cells are seeded significantly influences local flow fields. Furthermore, for any given cell or cell seeding density, flow regimes vary significantly along the vertical profile of the cell. Hence, the mechanical milieu of the stem cell exposed to shape changing shear stresses, induced by fluid drag, varies with respect to proximity of surrounding cells as well as with respect to apical height. The current study addresses a previously unmet need to predict and observe both flow regimes as well as mechanoadaptation of cells in flow chambers designed to deliver precisely controlled mechanical signals to live cells. An understanding of interactions and adaptation in response to forces at the interface between the surface of the cell and its immediate local environment may be key for de novo engineering of functional tissues from stem cell templates as well as for unraveling the mechanisms underlying multiscale development, growth and adaptation of organisms. PMID:20862249

  13. Carbon mapping of Argentine savannas: Using fractional tree cover to scale from field to region

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Roglich, M.; Swenson, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Programs which intend to maintain or enhance carbon (C) stocks in natural ecosystems are promising, but require detailed and spatially explicit C distribution models to monitor the effectiveness of management interventions. Savanna ecosystems are significant components of the global C cycle, covering about one fifth of the global land mass, but they have received less attention in C monitoring protocols. Our goal was to estimate C storage across a broad savanna ecosystem using field surveys and freely available satellite images. We first mapped tree canopies at 2.5 m resolution with a spatial subset of high resolution panchromatic images to then predict regional wall-to-wall tree percent cover using 30-m Landsat imagery and the Random Forests algorithms. We found that a model with summer and winter spectral indices from Landsat, climate and topography performed best. Using a linear relationship between C and % tree cover, we then predicted tree C stocks across the gradient of tree cover, explaining 87 % of the variability. The spatially explicit validation of the tree C model with field-measured C-stocks revealed an RMSE of 8.2 tC/ha which represented ~30% of the mean C stock for areas with tree cover, comparable to studies based on more advanced remote sensing methods, such as LiDAR and RADAR. Sample spatial distribution highly affected the performance of the RF models in predicting tree cover, raising concerns regarding the predictive capabilities of the model in areas for which training data is not present. The 50,000 km2 has ~41 Tg C, which could be released to the atmosphere if agricultural pressure intensifies in this semiarid savanna.

  14. In situ spatiotemporal mapping of flow fields around seeded stem cells at the subcellular length scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Song

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A major hurdle to understanding and exploiting interactions between the stem cell and its environment is the lack of a tool for precise delivery of mechanical cues concomitant to observing sub-cellular adaptation of structure. These studies demonstrate the use of microscale particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV for in situ spatiotemporal mapping of flow fields around mesenchymal stem cells, i.e. murine embryonic multipotent cell line C3H10T1/2, at the subcellular length scale, providing a tool for real time observation and analysis of stem cell adaptation to the prevailing mechanical milieu. In the absence of cells, computational fluid dynamics (CFD predicts flow regimes within 12% of μ-PIV measures, achieving the technical specifications of the chamber and the flow rates necessary to deliver target shear stresses at a particular height from the base of the flow chamber. However, our μ-PIV studies show that the presence of cells per se as well as the density at which cells are seeded significantly influences local flow fields. Furthermore, for any given cell or cell seeding density, flow regimes vary significantly along the vertical profile of the cell. Hence, the mechanical milieu of the stem cell exposed to shape changing shear stresses, induced by fluid drag, varies with respect to proximity of surrounding cells as well as with respect to apical height. The current study addresses a previously unmet need to predict and observe both flow regimes as well as mechanoadaptation of cells in flow chambers designed to deliver precisely controlled mechanical signals to live cells. An understanding of interactions and adaptation in response to forces at the interface between the surface of the cell and its immediate local environment may be key for de novo engineering of functional tissues from stem cell templates as well as for unraveling the mechanisms underlying multiscale development, growth and adaptation of organisms.

  15. D-zero rototrack: first stage of D-zero 2 Tesla solenoid field mapping device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, R.; Korienek, J.; Krider, J.; Lindenmeyer, C.; Miksa, D.; Miksa, R.

    1997-09-01

    A simple and portable field mapping device was developed at Fermilab and successfully used to test the D0 2 Tesla solenoid at Toshiba Works in Japan. A description of the mechanical structure, electric driving and control system, and software of the field mapping device is given. Four Hall probe elements of Group3 Digital Gaussmeters are mounted on the radial extension arm of a carriage, which is mounted on a central rotating beam. The system gives two dimensional motions (axial and rotational) to the Hall probes. To make the system compact and portable, we used a laptop computer with PCMCIA cards. For the control system we used commercially available software LabVIEW and Motion Toolbox, and for the data analysis we used Microsoft Excel

  16. Wide-Field Lensing Mass Maps from Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C; Vikram, V; Jain, B; Bacon, D; Amara, A; Becker, M R; Bernstein, G; Bonnett, C; Bridle, S; Brout, D; Busha, M; Frieman, J; Gaztanaga, E; Hartley, W; Jarvis, M; Kacprzak, T; Kovács, A; Lahav, O; Lin, H; Melchior, P; Peiris, H; Rozo, E; Rykoff, E; Sánchez, C; Sheldon, E; Troxel, M A; Wechsler, R; Zuntz, J; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Annis, J; Bauer, A H; Benoit-Lévy, A; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Capozzi, D; Carnero Rosell, A; Carrasco Kind, M; Castander, F J; Crocce, M; D'Andrea, C B; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Eifler, T F; Evrard, A E; Fausti Neto, A; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Gutierrez, G; Honscheid, K; James, D; Kent, S; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Maia, M A G; March, M; Martini, P; Merritt, K W; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Neilsen, E; Nichol, R C; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Sevilla, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Thomas, D; Tucker, D; Walker, A R

    2015-07-31

    We present a mass map reconstructed from weak gravitational lensing shear measurements over 139  deg2 from the Dark Energy Survey science verification data. The mass map probes both luminous and dark matter, thus providing a tool for studying cosmology. We find good agreement between the mass map and the distribution of massive galaxy clusters identified using a red-sequence cluster finder. Potential candidates for superclusters and voids are identified using these maps. We measure the cross-correlation between the mass map and a magnitude-limited foreground galaxy sample and find a detection at the 6.8σ level with 20 arc min smoothing. These measurements are consistent with simulated galaxy catalogs based on N-body simulations from a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant. This suggests low systematics uncertainties in the map. We summarize our key findings in this Letter; the detailed methodology and tests for systematics are presented in a companion paper.

  17. Comparing Geologic Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping: Desert Rats Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wanda; Evans, Cynthia; Gruener, John; Eppler, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Geologic mapping involves interpreting relationships between identifiable units and landforms to understand the formative history of a region. Traditional field techniques are used to accomplish this on Earth. Mapping proves more challenging for other planets, which are studied primarily by orbital remote sensing and, less frequently, by robotic and human surface exploration. Systematic comparative assessments of geologic maps created by traditional mapping versus photogeology together with data from planned traverses are limited. The objective of this project is to produce a geologic map from data collected on the Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 analog mission using Apollo-style traverses in conjunction with remote sensing data. This map is compared with a geologic map produced using standard field techniques.

  18. Name-Based Address Mapping for Virtual Private Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surányi, Péter; Shinjo, Yasushi; Kato, Kazuhiko

    IPv4 private addresses are commonly used in local area networks (LANs). With the increasing popularity of virtual private networks (VPNs), it has become common that a user connects to multiple LANs at the same time. However, private address ranges for LANs frequently overlap. In such cases, existing systems do not allow the user to access the resources on all LANs at the same time. In this paper, we propose name-based address mapping for VPNs, a novel method that allows connecting to hosts through multiple VPNs at the same time, even when the address ranges of the VPNs overlap. In name-based address mapping, rather than using the IP addresses used on the LANs (the real addresses), we assign a unique virtual address to each remote host based on its domain name. The local host uses the virtual addresses to communicate with remote hosts. We have implemented name-based address mapping for layer 3 OpenVPN connections on Linux and measured its performance. The communication overhead of our system is less than 1.5% for throughput and less than 0.2ms for each name resolution.

  19. Mapping Intraplate Volcanic Fields: A Case Study from Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, D. T.; Stelten, M. E.; Champion, D. E.; Dietterich, H. R.

    2017-12-01

    Continental intraplate mafic volcanoes are typically small-volume (200 volcanic fields proposed to be active worldwide during the Holocene. Their small individual eruption volumes make any hazards low, however their high prevalence offsets this by raising the risk to populations and infrastructure. The western Arabian Plate hosts at least 15 continental, intra-plate volcanic fields that stretch >3,000 km south to north from Yemen to Turkey. In total, these volcanic fields comprise one of the largest alkali basalt volcanic provinces on Earth, covering an area of 180,000 km2. With a total volume of 20,000 km3, Harrat Rahat in western Saudi Arabia is one of the largest of these volcanic fields. Our study focused on mapping the northern third of the Harrat Rahat volcanic field using a multidisciplinary approach. We have discriminated >200 individual eruptive units, mainly basaltic lava flows throughout Harrat Rahat that are distinguished through a combination of field observations, petrography, geochemistry, paleomagnetism, and 40Ar/39Ar radiometric and 36Cl cosmogenic surface-exposure dating. We have compiled these results into a high-resolution geologic map, which provides new information about the timing, compositions, and eruptive processes of Quaternary volcanism in Harrat Rahat. For example, prior mapping and geochronology undertaken during the 1980s suggested that the majority of mafic and silicic volcanics erupted during the Miocene and Pliocene, whereas several of the youngest-appearing lava flows were interpreted to be Neolithic ( 7,000 to 4,500 years BP) to post-Neolithic. New mapping and age-constrained stratigraphic relations indicate that all exposed volcanic units within the northern third of Harrat Rahat erupted during the Pleistocene, with the exception of a single Holocene eruption in 1256 AD. This new multidisciplinary mapping is critical for understanding the overall spatial, temporal, and compositional evolution of Harrat Rahat, timescales of

  20. The Tölz Temporal Topography Study: mapping the visual field across the life span. Part II: cognitive factors shaping visual field maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggel, Dorothe A; Treutwein, Bernhard; Calmanti, Claudia; Strasburger, Hans

    2012-08-01

    Part I described the topography of visual performance over the life span. Performance decline was explained only partly by deterioration of the optical apparatus. Part II therefore examines the influence of higher visual and cognitive functions. Visual field maps for 95 healthy observers of static perimetry, double-pulse resolution (DPR), reaction times, and contrast thresholds, were correlated with measures of visual attention (alertness, divided attention, spatial cueing), visual search, and the size of the attention focus. Correlations with the attentional variables were substantial, particularly for variables of temporal processing. DPR thresholds depended on the size of the attention focus. The extraction of cognitive variables from the correlations between topographical variables and participant age substantially reduced those correlations. There is a systematic top-down influence on the aging of visual functions, particularly of temporal variables, that largely explains performance decline and the change of the topography over the life span.

  1. Background field removal using a region adaptive kernel for quantitative susceptibility mapping of human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jinsheng; Bao, Lijun; Li, Xu; van Zijl, Peter C. M.; Chen, Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Background field removal is an important MR phase preprocessing step for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). It separates the local field induced by tissue magnetic susceptibility sources from the background field generated by sources outside a region of interest, e.g. brain, such as air-tissue interface. In the vicinity of air-tissue boundary, e.g. skull and paranasal sinuses, where large susceptibility variations exist, present background field removal methods are usually insufficient and these regions often need to be excluded by brain mask erosion at the expense of losing information of local field and thus susceptibility measures in these regions. In this paper, we propose an extension to the variable-kernel sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (V-SHARP) background field removal method using a region adaptive kernel (R-SHARP), in which a scalable spherical Gaussian kernel (SGK) is employed with its kernel radius and weights adjustable according to an energy "functional" reflecting the magnitude of field variation. Such an energy functional is defined in terms of a contour and two fitting functions incorporating regularization terms, from which a curve evolution model in level set formation is derived for energy minimization. We utilize it to detect regions of with a large field gradient caused by strong susceptibility variation. In such regions, the SGK will have a small radius and high weight at the sphere center in a manner adaptive to the voxel energy of the field perturbation. Using the proposed method, the background field generated from external sources can be effectively removed to get a more accurate estimation of the local field and thus of the QSM dipole inversion to map local tissue susceptibility sources. Numerical simulation, phantom and in vivo human brain data demonstrate improved performance of R-SHARP compared to V-SHARP and RESHARP (regularization enabled SHARP) methods, even when the whole paranasal sinus regions

  2. Background field removal using a region adaptive kernel for quantitative susceptibility mapping of human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jinsheng; Bao, Lijun; Li, Xu; van Zijl, Peter C M; Chen, Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Background field removal is an important MR phase preprocessing step for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). It separates the local field induced by tissue magnetic susceptibility sources from the background field generated by sources outside a region of interest, e.g. brain, such as air-tissue interface. In the vicinity of air-tissue boundary, e.g. skull and paranasal sinuses, where large susceptibility variations exist, present background field removal methods are usually insufficient and these regions often need to be excluded by brain mask erosion at the expense of losing information of local field and thus susceptibility measures in these regions. In this paper, we propose an extension to the variable-kernel sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (V-SHARP) background field removal method using a region adaptive kernel (R-SHARP), in which a scalable spherical Gaussian kernel (SGK) is employed with its kernel radius and weights adjustable according to an energy "functional" reflecting the magnitude of field variation. Such an energy functional is defined in terms of a contour and two fitting functions incorporating regularization terms, from which a curve evolution model in level set formation is derived for energy minimization. We utilize it to detect regions of with a large field gradient caused by strong susceptibility variation. In such regions, the SGK will have a small radius and high weight at the sphere center in a manner adaptive to the voxel energy of the field perturbation. Using the proposed method, the background field generated from external sources can be effectively removed to get a more accurate estimation of the local field and thus of the QSM dipole inversion to map local tissue susceptibility sources. Numerical simulation, phantom and in vivo human brain data demonstrate improved performance of R-SHARP compared to V-SHARP and RESHARP (regularization enabled SHARP) methods, even when the whole paranasal sinus regions

  3. Use of Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery to Map Soil Properties in Tilled Agricultural Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, W.D; McCarty, G.W; Reeves, J.B; Lang, M.W; Oesterling, R.A; Delwiche, S.R

    2011-01-01

    Soil hyperspectral reflectance imagery was obtained for six tilled (soil) agricultural fields using an airborne imaging spectrometer (400-2450 nm, -10 nm resolution, 2.5 m spatial resolution). Surface soil samples (n=315) were analyzed for carbon content, particle size distribution, and 15 agronomically important elements (Mehlich-III extraction). When partial least squares (PLS) regression of imagery-derived reflectance spectra was used to predict analyte concentrations, 13 of the 19 analytes were predicted with R 2 >0.50, including carbon (0.65), aluminum (0.76), iron (0.75), and silt content (0.79). Comparison of 15 spectral math preprocessing treatments showed that a simple first derivative worked well for nearly all analytes. The resulting PLS factors were exported as a vector of coefficients and used to calculate predicted maps of soil properties for each field. Image smoothing with a 3 x 3 low-pass filter prior to spectral data extraction improved prediction accuracy. The resulting raster maps showed variation associated with topographic factors, indicating the effect of soil redistribution and moisture regime on in-field spatial variability. High-resolution maps of soil analyte concentrations can be used to improve precision environmental management of farmlands.

  4. Differential receptive field organizations give rise to nearly identical neural correlations across three parallel sensory maps in weakly electric fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Volker; Chacron, Maurice J

    2017-09-01

    Understanding how neural populations encode sensory information thereby leading to perception and behavior (i.e., the neural code) remains an important problem in neuroscience. When investigating the neural code, one must take into account the fact that neural activities are not independent but are actually correlated with one another. Such correlations are seen ubiquitously and have a strong impact on neural coding. Here we investigated how differences in the antagonistic center-surround receptive field (RF) organization across three parallel sensory maps influence correlations between the activities of electrosensory pyramidal neurons. Using a model based on known anatomical differences in receptive field center size and overlap, we initially predicted large differences in correlated activity across the maps. However, in vivo electrophysiological recordings showed that, contrary to modeling predictions, electrosensory pyramidal neurons across all three segments displayed nearly identical correlations. To explain this surprising result, we incorporated the effects of RF surround in our model. By systematically varying both the RF surround gain and size relative to that of the RF center, we found that multiple RF structures gave rise to similar levels of correlation. In particular, incorporating known physiological differences in RF structure between the three maps in our model gave rise to similar levels of correlation. Our results show that RF center overlap alone does not determine correlations which has important implications for understanding how RF structure influences correlated neural activity.

  5. Precise Mapping of the Magnetic Field in the CMS Barrel Yoke using Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

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D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS detector is designed around a large 4 T superconducting solenoid, enclosed in a 12000-tonne steel return yoke. A detailed map of the magnetic field is required for the accurate simulation and reconstruction of physics events in the CMS detector, not only in the inner tracking region inside the solenoid but also in the large and complex structure of the steel yoke, which is instrumented with muon chambers. Using a large sample of cosmic muon events collected by CMS in 2008, the field in the steel of the barrel yoke has been determined with a precision of 3 to 8% depending on the location.

  6. Precise mapping of the magnetic field in the CMS barrel yoke using cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Aremenia); et al.,

    2010-03-01

    The CMS detector is designed around a large 4 T superconducting solenoid, enclosed in a 12000-tonne steel return yoke. A detailed map of the magnetic field is required for the accurate simulation and reconstruction of physics events in the CMS detector, not only in the inner tracking region inside the solenoid but also in the large and complex structure of the steel yoke, which is instrumented with muon chambers. Using a large sample of cosmic muon events collected by CMS in 2008, the field in the steel of the barrel yoke has been determined with a precision of 3 to 8% depending on the location.

  7. Two-photon mapping of localized field enhancements in thin nanostrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beermann, I.; Novikov, S.M.; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    scanning optical microscopy, in which two-photon-excited photoluminescence (TPL) excited with a strongly focused laser beam at the wavelength 745 nm is detected. We use TPL images to map the local field enhancements from individual nanostrips at a resolution of 0.35µm and compare results with theoretical......Resonant scattering and local field enhancements by 11-nm-thin gold nanostrip antennas due to constructive interference of counter propagating slow surface plasmon polaritons is investigated. We characterize nanostrips of widths between 50-530 nm using both reflection spectroscopy and nonlinear...

  8. The Theory-based Influence of Map Features on Risk Beliefs: Self-reports of What is Seen and Understood for Maps Depicting an Environmental Health Hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Severtson, Dolores J.; Vatovec, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Theory-based research is needed to understand how maps of environmental health risk information influence risk beliefs and protective behavior. Using theoretical concepts from multiple fields of study including visual cognition, semiotics, health behavior, and learning and memory supports a comprehensive assessment of this influence. We report results from thirteen cognitive interviews that provide theory-based insights into how visual features influenced what participants saw ...

  9. Breaking an encryption scheme based on chaotic baker map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Gonzalo; Li, Shujun

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, a growing number of cryptosystems based on chaos have been proposed, many of them fundamentally flawed by a lack of robustness and security. This Letter describes the security weaknesses of a recently proposed cryptographic algorithm with chaos at the physical level based on the baker map. It is shown that the security is trivially compromised for practical implementations of the cryptosystem with finite computing precision and for the use of the iteration number n as the secret key. Some possible countermeasures to enhance the security of the chaos-based cryptographic algorithm are also discussed

  10. Multispectral Image Road Extraction Based Upon Automated Map Conflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin

    Road network extraction from remotely sensed imagery enables many important and diverse applications such as vehicle tracking, drone navigation, and intelligent transportation studies. There are, however, a number of challenges to road detection from an image. Road pavement material, width, direction, and topology vary across a scene. Complete or partial occlusions caused by nearby buildings, trees, and the shadows cast by them, make maintaining road connectivity difficult. The problems posed by occlusions are exacerbated with the increasing use of oblique imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. Further, common objects such as rooftops and parking lots are made of materials similar or identical to road pavements. This problem of common materials is a classic case of a single land cover material existing for different land use scenarios. This work addresses these problems in road extraction from geo-referenced imagery by leveraging the OpenStreetMap digital road map to guide image-based road extraction. The crowd-sourced cartography has the advantages of worldwide coverage that is constantly updated. The derived road vectors follow only roads and so can serve to guide image-based road extraction with minimal confusion from occlusions and changes in road material. On the other hand, the vector road map has no information on road widths and misalignments between the vector map and the geo-referenced image are small but nonsystematic. Properly correcting misalignment between two geospatial datasets, also known as map conflation, is an essential step. A generic framework requiring minimal human intervention is described for multispectral image road extraction and automatic road map conflation. The approach relies on the road feature generation of a binary mask and a corresponding curvilinear image. A method for generating the binary road mask from the image by applying a spectral measure is presented. The spectral measure, called anisotropy-tunable distance (ATD

  11. Pseudo random number generator based on quantum chaotic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhshani, A.; Akhavan, A.; Mobaraki, A.; Lim, S.-C.; Hassan, Z.

    2014-01-01

    For many years dissipative quantum maps were widely used as informative models of quantum chaos. In this paper, a new scheme for generating good pseudo-random numbers (PRNG), based on quantum logistic map is proposed. Note that the PRNG merely relies on the equations used in the quantum chaotic map. The algorithm is not complex, which does not impose high requirement on computer hardware and thus computation speed is fast. In order to face the challenge of using the proposed PRNG in quantum cryptography and other practical applications, the proposed PRNG is subjected to statistical tests using well-known test suites such as NIST, DIEHARD, ENT and TestU01. The results of the statistical tests were promising, as the proposed PRNG successfully passed all these tests. Moreover, the degree of non-periodicity of the chaotic sequences of the quantum map is investigated through the Scale index technique. The obtained result shows that, the sequence is more non-periodic. From these results it can be concluded that, the new scheme can generate a high percentage of usable pseudo-random numbers for simulation and other applications in scientific computing.

  12. Self-organizing maps based on limit cycle attractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di-Wei; Gentili, Rodolphe J; Reggia, James A

    2015-03-01

    Recent efforts to develop large-scale brain and neurocognitive architectures have paid relatively little attention to the use of self-organizing maps (SOMs). Part of the reason for this is that most conventional SOMs use a static encoding representation: each input pattern or sequence is effectively represented as a fixed point activation pattern in the map layer, something that is inconsistent with the rhythmic oscillatory activity observed in the brain. Here we develop and study an alternative encoding scheme that instead uses sparsely-coded limit cycles to represent external input patterns/sequences. We establish conditions under which learned limit cycle representations arise reliably and dominate the dynamics in a SOM. These limit cycles tend to be relatively unique for different inputs, robust to perturbations, and fairly insensitive to timing. In spite of the continually changing activity in the map layer when a limit cycle representation is used, map formation continues to occur reliably. In a two-SOM architecture where each SOM represents a different sensory modality, we also show that after learning, limit cycles in one SOM can correctly evoke corresponding limit cycles in the other, and thus there is the potential for multi-SOM systems using limit cycles to work effectively as hetero-associative memories. While the results presented here are only first steps, they establish the viability of SOM models based on limit cycle activity patterns, and suggest that such models merit further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards Large-area Field-scale Operational Evapotranspiration for Water Use Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G. B.; Friedrichs, M.; Morton, C.; Huntington, J. L.; Verdin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Field-scale evapotranspiration (ET) estimates are needed for improving surface and groundwater use and water budget studies. Ideally, field-scale ET estimates would be at regional to national levels and cover long time periods. As a result of large data storage and computational requirements associated with processing field-scale satellite imagery such as Landsat, numerous challenges remain to develop operational ET estimates over large areas for detailed water use and availability studies. However, the combination of new science, data availability, and cloud computing technology is enabling unprecedented capabilities for ET mapping. To demonstrate this capability, we used Google's Earth Engine cloud computing platform to create nationwide annual ET estimates with 30-meter resolution Landsat ( 16,000 images) and gridded weather data using the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model in support of the National Water Census, a USGS research program designed to build decision support capacity for water management agencies and other natural resource managers. By leveraging Google's Earth Engine Application Programming Interface (API) and developing software in a collaborative, open-platform environment, we rapidly advance from research towards applications for large-area field-scale ET mapping. Cloud computing of the Landsat image archive combined with other satellite, climate, and weather data, is creating never imagined opportunities for assessing ET model behavior and uncertainty, and ultimately providing the ability for more robust operational monitoring and assessment of water use at field-scales.

  14. Assessing Methods for Mapping 2D Field Concentrations of CO2 Over Large Spatial Areas for Monitoring Time Varying Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccheo, T. S.; Pernini, T.; Botos, C.; Dobler, J. T.; Blume, N.; Braun, M.; Levine, Z. H.; Pintar, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a methodology for constructing 2D estimates of CO2 field concentrations from integrated open path measurements of CO2 concentrations. It provides a description of the methodology, an assessment based on simulated data and results from preliminary field trials. The Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE) system, currently under development by Exelis and AER, consists of a set of laser-based transceivers and a number of retro-reflectors coupled with a cloud-based compute environment to enable real-time monitoring of integrated CO2 path concentrations, and provides 2D maps of estimated concentrations over an extended area of interest. The GreenLITE transceiver-reflector pairs provide laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) measurements of differential absorption due to CO2 along intersecting chords within the field of interest. These differential absorption values for the intersecting chords of horizontal path are not only used to construct estimated values of integrated concentration, but also employed in an optimal estimation technique to derive 2D maps of underlying concentration fields. This optimal estimation technique combines these sparse data with in situ measurements of wind speed/direction and an analytic plume model to provide tomographic-like reconstruction of the field of interest. This work provides an assessment of this reconstruction method and preliminary results from the Fall 2014 testing at the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) site in Bozeman, Montana. This work is funded in part under the GreenLITE program developed under a cooperative agreement between Exelis and the National Energy and Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the Department of Energy (DOE), contract # DE-FE0012574. Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. is a major partner in this development.

  15. Generating a Danish raster-based topsoil property map combining choropleth maps and point information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Mogens H.; Greve, Mette B.; Bøcher, Peder K.

    2007-01-01

    The Danish environmental authorities have posed a soil type dependent restriction on the application of nitrogen. The official Danish soil map is a choropleth topsoil map classifying the agricultural land into eight classes. The use of the soil map has shown that the maps have serious...... classification flaws. The objective of this work is to compile a continuous national topsoil texture map to replace the old topsoil map. Approximately 45,000 point samples were interpolated using ordinary kriging in 250 m x 250 m cells. To reduce variability and to obtain more homogeneous strata, the samples...... were stratified according to landscape types. Five new soil texture maps were compiled; one for each of the five textural classes, and a new categorical soil type map was compiled using the old classification system. Both the old choropleth map and the new continuous soil maps were compared to 354...

  16. Relaxation-based viscosity mapping for magnetic particle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkur, M.; Muslu, Y.; Saritas, E. U.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has been shown to provide remarkable contrast for imaging applications such as angiography, stem cell tracking, and cancer imaging. Recently, there is growing interest in the functional imaging capabilities of MPI, where ‘color MPI’ techniques have explored separating different nanoparticles, which could potentially be used to distinguish nanoparticles in different states or environments. Viscosity mapping is a promising functional imaging application for MPI, as increased viscosity levels in vivo have been associated with numerous diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. In this work, we propose a viscosity mapping technique for MPI through the estimation of the relaxation time constant of the nanoparticles. Importantly, the proposed time constant estimation scheme does not require any prior information regarding the nanoparticles. We validate this method with extensive experiments in an in-house magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS) setup at four different frequencies (between 250 Hz and 10.8 kHz) and at three different field strengths (between 5 mT and 15 mT) for viscosities ranging between 0.89 mPa · s-15.33 mPa · s. Our results demonstrate the viscosity mapping ability of MPI in the biologically relevant viscosity range.

  17. Rapid Prototyping of a Map-Based Android App

    OpenAIRE

    Flanagan, Nicholas M; Theller, Eric; Theller, Larry

    2013-01-01

    This project tries to provide a mobile phone-based solution app named “DriftWatch Pollinator Mapper” that will allow beekeepers, apiary inspectors, and association staff to easily register and map a hive into the Driftwatch system, where local pesticide applicators will notice it and be aware of the presence of pollinators. The purpose of the mobile application is to speed the process of registering beekeepers within DriftWatch, since many beekeepers have significant trouble using only web-ba...

  18. SODIM: Service Oriented Data Integration based on MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada ElSheikh

    2013-09-01

    Data integration systems can benefit from innovative dynamic infrastructure solutions such as Clouds, with its more agility, lower cost, device independency, location independency, and scalability. This study consolidates the data integration system, Service Orientation, and distributed processing to develop a new data integration system called Service Oriented Data Integration based on MapReduce (SODIM that improves the system performance, especially with large number of data sources, and that can efficiently be hosted on modern dynamic infrastructures as Clouds.

  19. A symplectic map for trajectories of magnetic field lines in double-null divertor tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Willie; Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh

    2009-11-01

    The coordinates of the area-preserving map equations for integration of magnetic field line trajectories in tokamaks can be any coordinates for which a transformation to (ψ,θ,φ) coordinates exists [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, T. Evans, and A. Boozer, Phys. Lett. A 364, 140 (2007)]. ψ is toroidal magnetic flux, θ is poloidal angle, and φ is toroidal angle. This freedom is exploited to construct a map that represents the magnetic topology of double-null divertor tokamaks. For this purpose, the generating function of the simple map [A. Punjabi, A. Verma, and A. Boozer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3322 (1992)] is slightly modified. The resulting map equations for the double-null divertor tokamaks are: x1=x0-ky0(1-y0^2 ), y1=y0+kx1. k is the map parameter. It represents the generic topological effects of toroidal asymmetries. The O-point is at (0.0). The X-points are at (0,±1). The equilibrium magnetic surfaces are calculated. These surfaces are symmetric about the x- and y- axes. The widths of stochastic layer near the X-points in the principal plane, and the fractal dimensions of the magnetic footprints on the inboard and outboard side of upper and lower X-points are calculated from the map. This work is supported by US Department of Energy grants DE-FG02-07ER54937, DE-FG02-01ER54624 and DE-FG02-04ER54793.

  20. The field-testing of a novel integrated mapping protocol for neglected tropical diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pelletreau

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vertical control and elimination programs focused on specific neglected tropical diseases (NTDs can achieve notable success by reducing the prevalence and intensity of infection. However, many NTD-endemic countries have not been able to launch or scale-up programs because they lack the necessary baseline data for planning and advocacy. Each NTD program has its own mapping guidelines to collect missing data. Where geographic overlap among NTDs exists, an integrated mapping approach could result in significant resource savings. We developed and field-tested an innovative integrated NTD mapping protocol (Integrated Threshold Mapping (ITM Methodology for lymphatic filariasis (LF, trachoma, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The protocol is designed to be resource-efficient, and its specific purpose is to determine whether a threshold to trigger public health interventions in an implementation unit has been attained. The protocol relies on World Health Organization (WHO recommended indicators in the disease-specific age groups. For each disease, the sampling frame was the district, but for schistosomiasis, the sub-district rather than the ecological zone was used. We tested the protocol by comparing it to current WHO mapping methodologies for each of the targeted diseases in one district each in Mali and Senegal. Results were compared in terms of public health intervention, and feasibility, including cost. In this study, the ITM methodology reached the same conclusions as the WHO methodologies regarding the initiation of public health interventions for trachoma, LF and STH, but resulted in more targeted intervention recommendations for schistosomiasis. ITM was practical, feasible and demonstrated an overall cost saving compared with the standard, non-integrated, WHO methodologies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This integrated mapping tool could facilitate the implementation of much

  1. Mapping Rice Cropping Systems in Vietnam Using an NDVI-Based Time-Series Similarity Measurement Based on DTW Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Guan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS time-series data has been widely used in the fields of crop and rice classification. The cloudy and rainy weather characteristics of the monsoon season greatly reduce the likelihood of obtaining high-quality optical remote sensing images. In addition, the diverse crop-planting system in Vietnam also hinders the comparison of NDVI among different crop stages. To address these problems, we apply a Dynamic Time Warping (DTW distance-based similarity measure approach and use the entire yearly NDVI time series to reduce the inaccuracy of classification using a single image. We first de-noise the NDVI time series using S-G filtering based on the TIMESAT software. Then, a standard NDVI time-series base for rice growth is established based on field survey data and Google Earth sample data. NDVI time-series data for each pixel are constructed and the DTW distance with the standard rice growth NDVI time series is calculated. Then, we apply thresholds to extract rice growth areas. A qualitative assessment using statistical data and a spatial assessment using sampled data from the rice-cropping map reveal a high mapping accuracy at the national scale between the statistical data, with the corresponding R2 being as high as 0.809; however, the mapped rice accuracy decreased at the provincial scale due to the reduced number of rice planting areas per province. An analysis of the results indicates that the 500-m resolution MODIS data are limited in terms of mapping scattered rice parcels. The results demonstrate that the DTW-based similarity measure of the NDVI time series can be effectively used to map large-area rice cropping systems with diverse cultivation processes.

  2. Object detection system based on multimodel saliency maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya'nan; Luo, Chongfan; Ma, Yide

    2017-03-01

    Detection of visually salient image regions is extensively applied in computer vision and computer graphics, such as object detection, adaptive compression, and object recognition, but any single model always has its limitations to various images, so in our work, we establish a method based on multimodel saliency maps to detect the object, which intelligently absorbs the merits of various individual saliency detection models to achieve promising results. The method can be roughly divided into three steps: in the first step, we propose a decision-making system to evaluate saliency maps obtained by seven competitive methods and merely select the three most valuable saliency maps; in the second step, we introduce heterogeneous PCNN algorithm to obtain three prime foregrounds; and then a self-designed nonlinear fusion method is proposed to merge these saliency maps; at last, the adaptive improved and simplified PCNN model is used to detect the object. Our proposed method can constitute an object detection system for different occasions, which requires no training, is simple, and highly efficient. The proposed saliency fusion technique shows better performance over a broad range of images and enriches the applicability range by fusing different individual saliency models, this proposed system is worthy enough to be called a strong model. Moreover, the proposed adaptive improved SPCNN model is stemmed from the Eckhorn's neuron model, which is skilled in image segmentation because of its biological background, and in which all the parameters are adaptive to image information. We extensively appraise our algorithm on classical salient object detection database, and the experimental results demonstrate that the aggregation of saliency maps outperforms the best saliency model in all cases, yielding highest precision of 89.90%, better recall rates of 98.20%, greatest F-measure of 91.20%, and lowest mean absolute error value of 0.057, the value of proposed saliency evaluation

  3. Synergy Maps: exploring compound combinations using network-based visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard; Guha, Rajarshi; Korcsmaros, Tamás; Bender, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of super-additivity of biological response to compounds applied jointly, termed synergy, has the potential to provide many therapeutic benefits. Therefore, high throughput screening of compound combinations has recently received a great deal of attention. Large compound libraries and the feasibility of all-pairs screening can easily generate large, information-rich datasets. Previously, these datasets have been visualized using either a heat-map or a network approach-however these visualizations only partially represent the information encoded in the dataset. A new visualization technique for pairwise combination screening data, termed "Synergy Maps", is presented. In a Synergy Map, information about the synergistic interactions of compounds is integrated with information about their properties (chemical structure, physicochemical properties, bioactivity profiles) to produce a single visualization. As a result the relationships between compound and combination properties may be investigated simultaneously, and thus may afford insight into the synergy observed in the screen. An interactive web app implementation, available at http://richlewis42.github.io/synergy-maps, has been developed for public use, which may find use in navigating and filtering larger scale combination datasets. This tool is applied to a recent all-pairs dataset of anti-malarials, tested against Plasmodium falciparum, and a preliminary analysis is given as an example, illustrating the disproportionate synergism of histone deacetylase inhibitors previously described in literature, as well as suggesting new hypotheses for future investigation. Synergy Maps improve the state of the art in compound combination visualization, by simultaneously representing individual compound properties and their interactions. The web-based tool allows straightforward exploration of combination data, and easier identification of correlations between compound properties and interactions.

  4. Wavelet-Based Quantum Field Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Altaisky

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The Euclidean quantum field theory for the fields $phi_{Delta x}(x$, which depend on both the position $x$ and the resolution $Delta x$, constructed in SIGMA 2 (2006, 046, on the base of the continuous wavelet transform, is considered. The Feynman diagrams in such a theory become finite under the assumption there should be no scales in internal lines smaller than the minimal of scales of external lines. This regularisation agrees with the existing calculations of radiative corrections to the electron magnetic moment. The transition from the newly constructed theory to a standard Euclidean field theory is achieved by integration over the scale arguments.

  5. Mapping Coral Reef Resilience Indicators Using Field and Remotely Sensed Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Phinn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the face of increasing climate-related impacts on coral reefs, the integration of ecosystem resilience into marine conservation planning has become a priority. One strategy, including resilient areas in marine protected area (MPA networks, relies on information on the spatial distribution of resilience. We assess the ability to model and map six indicators of coral reef resilience—stress-tolerant coral taxa, coral generic diversity, fish herbivore biomass, fish herbivore functional group richness, density of juvenile corals and the cover of live coral and crustose coralline algae. We use high spatial resolution satellite data to derive environmental predictors and use these in random forest models, with field observations, to predict resilience indicator values at unsampled locations. Predictions are compared with those obtained from universal kriging and from a baseline model. Prediction errors are estimated using cross-validation, and the ability to map each resilience indicator is quantified as the percentage reduction in prediction error compared to the baseline model. Results are most promising (percentage reduction = 18.3% for mapping the cover of live coral and crustose coralline algae and least promising (percentage reduction = 0% for coral diversity. Our study has demonstrated one approach to map indicators of coral reef resilience. In the context of MPA network planning, the potential to consider reef resilience in addition to habitat and feature representation in decision-support software now exists, allowing planners to integrate aspects of reef resilience in MPA network development.

  6. Microstructural parcellation of the human cerebral cortex – from Brodmann's post-mortem map to in vivo mapping with high-field magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Geyer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The year 2009 marked the 100th anniversary of the publication of the famous brain map of Korbinian Brodmann. Although a "classic" guide to microanatomical parcellation of the cerebral cortex, it is – from today's state-of-the-art neuroimaging perspective – problematic to use Brodmann's map as a structural guide to functional units in the cortex. In this article we discuss some of the reasons, especially the problematic compatibility of the "post-mortem world" of microstructural brain maps with the "in vivo world" of neuroimaging. We conclude with some prospects for the future of in vivo structural brain mapping: a new approach which has the enormous potential to make direct correlations between microstructure and function in living human brains: "in vivo Brodmann mapping" with high-field magnetic resonance imaging.

  7. Mapping of Ambient Magnetic Fields within Liquid Helium Dewar for Testing of a DC SQUID Magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newhouse, Randal

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore the cavity lights phenomenon, Experimental Facilities Department at SLAC is testing a DC SQUID magnetometer. Due to the nature of the SQUID magnetometer and the intended tests, the earth's magnetic field must be negated. It is proposed to reduce ambient fields using bucking coils. First, however, an accurate map of the magnetic field inside the liquid helium Dewar where the experiment is going to take place needed to be made. This map was made using a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer mounted on a 3D positioning device made for this purpose. A ten inch tall volume within the Dewar was measured at data points approximately an inch from each other in all three axes. A LabVEIW program took readings from the magnetometer at 2 ms intervals for 1000 readings in such a way as to eliminate any ambient 60 Hz signals that may be present in the data. This data was stored in spreadsheet format and was analyzed to determine how the magnetic field within the Dewar was changing as a function of position

  8. Distributed Sensor Fusion for Scalar Field Mapping Using Mobile Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Hung Manh; Sheng, Weihua

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, autonomous mobile sensor networks are deployed to measure a scalar field and build its map. We develop a novel method for multiple mobile sensor nodes to build this map using noisy sensor measurements. Our method consists of two parts. First, we develop a distributed sensor fusion algorithm by integrating two different distributed consensus filters to achieve cooperative sensing among sensor nodes. This fusion algorithm has two phases. In the first phase, the weighted average consensus filter is developed, which allows each sensor node to find an estimate of the value of the scalar field at each time step. In the second phase, the average consensus filter is used to allow each sensor node to find a confidence of the estimate at each time step. The final estimate of the value of the scalar field is iteratively updated during the movement of the mobile sensors via weighted average. Second, we develop the distributed flocking-control algorithm to drive the mobile sensors to form a network and track the virtual leader moving along the field when only a small subset of the mobile sensors know the information of the leader. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate our proposed algorithms.

  9. Fracture mapping in geothermal fields with long-offset induction logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilt, M.; Takasugi, Shinji; Uchida, Toshihiro [and others

    1997-12-31

    The mapping of producing fractures in a geothermal field is an important technical objective in field development. Locating, orienting, and assessing producing fractures can guide drilling programs and optimize the placement of production and injection wells. A long-offset multicomponent borehole induction resistivity tool capable of surviving the high temperatures encountered in geothermal wells has recently been developed in a NEDO project, {open_quotes}Deep-Seated Geothermal Reservoirs,{close_quotes} and tested in a high temperature environment. Several characteristics of this device make it ideal for detecting producing fractures. Whereas commercial induction logging devices have source-receiver separations of 1 m, this device has multiple sensors with separations up to 8 m, allowing for deeper penetration and the ability to straddle fracture-induced washout zones in boreholes. The three-component measurements also make it possible to map the strike and inclination of nearby fractures and other three-dimensional structures. This, in turn, allows for accurate projection of these structures into the space between wells. In this paper, we describe the design of the tool and show results of a performance test carried out in an oil-field steam flood. Data from vertical sensors are compared to conventional logging results and indicate the recent formation of a low-resistivity zone associated with high temperatures due to steam flood breakthrough. Horizontal field data indicate that the high-temperature zone is irregular in the vicinity of the borehole and more pronounced closest to the steam injector.

  10. Integrating collaborative concept mapping in case based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tifi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Different significance of collaborative concept mapping and collaborative argumentation in Case Based Learning are discussed and compared in the different perspectives of answering focus questions, of fostering reflective thinking skills and in managing uncertainty in problem solving in a scaffolded environment. Marked differences are pointed out between the way concepts are used in constructing concept maps and the way meanings are adopted in case based learning through guided argumentation activities. Shared concept maps should be given different scopes, as for example a as an advance organizer in preparing a background system of concepts that will undergo transformation while accompanying the inquiry activities on case studies or problems; b together with narratives, to enhance awareness of the situated epistemologies that are being entailed in choosing certain concepts during more complex case studies, and c after-learning construction of a holistic vision of the whole domain by means of the most inclusive concepts, while scaffoldedcollaborative writing of narratives and arguments in describing-treating cases could better serve as a source of situated-inspired tools to create-refine meanings for particular concepts.

  11. Affordance-based individuation of junctions in Open Street Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Scheider

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an algorithm that can be used to identify automatically the subset of street segments of a road network map that corresponds to a junction. The main idea is to use turn-compliant locomotion affordances, i.e., restricted patterns of supported movement, in order to specify junctions independently of their data representation, and in order to motivate tractable individuation and classification strategies. We argue that common approaches based solely on geometry or topology of the street segment graph are useful but insufficient proxies. They miss certain turn restrictions essential to junctions. From a computational viewpoint, the main challenge of affordance-based individuation of junctions lies in its complex recursive definition. In this paper, we show how Open Street Map data can be interpreted into locomotion affordances, and how the recursive junction definition can be translated into a deterministic algorithm. We evaluate this algorithm by applying it to small map excerpts in order to delineate the contained junctions.

  12. Agent-based mapping of credit risk for sustainable microfinance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joung-Hun Lee

    Full Text Available By drawing analogies with independent research areas, we propose an unorthodox framework for mapping microfinance credit risk--a major obstacle to the sustainability of lenders outreaching to the poor. Specifically, using the elements of network theory, we constructed an agent-based model that obeys the stylized rules of microfinance industry. We found that in a deteriorating economic environment confounded with adverse selection, a form of latent moral hazard may cause a regime shift from a high to a low loan payment probability. An after-the-fact recovery, when possible, required the economic environment to improve beyond that which led to the shift in the first place. These findings suggest a small set of measurable quantities for mapping microfinance credit risk and, consequently, for balancing the requirements to reasonably price loans and to operate on a fully self-financed basis. We illustrate how the proposed mapping works using a 10-year monthly data set from one of the best-known microfinance representatives, Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. Finally, we discuss an entirely new perspective for managing microfinance credit risk based on enticing spontaneous cooperation by building social capital.

  13. Agent-based mapping of credit risk for sustainable microfinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joung-Hun; Jusup, Marko; Podobnik, Boris; Iwasa, Yoh

    2015-01-01

    By drawing analogies with independent research areas, we propose an unorthodox framework for mapping microfinance credit risk--a major obstacle to the sustainability of lenders outreaching to the poor. Specifically, using the elements of network theory, we constructed an agent-based model that obeys the stylized rules of microfinance industry. We found that in a deteriorating economic environment confounded with adverse selection, a form of latent moral hazard may cause a regime shift from a high to a low loan payment probability. An after-the-fact recovery, when possible, required the economic environment to improve beyond that which led to the shift in the first place. These findings suggest a small set of measurable quantities for mapping microfinance credit risk and, consequently, for balancing the requirements to reasonably price loans and to operate on a fully self-financed basis. We illustrate how the proposed mapping works using a 10-year monthly data set from one of the best-known microfinance representatives, Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. Finally, we discuss an entirely new perspective for managing microfinance credit risk based on enticing spontaneous cooperation by building social capital.

  14. Agroclimatic mapping of maize crop based on soil physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dourado Neto, Durval; Sparovek, G.; Reichardt, K.; Timm, Luiz Carlos; Nielsen, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of estimating water deficit to forecast yield knowing productivity (potential yield), the water balance is useful tool to recommend maize exploration and to define the sowing date. The computation can be done for each region with the objective of mapping maize grain yield based on agro-climatic data and soil physical properties. Based on agro-climatic data, air temperature and solar radiation, a model was built to estimate the corn grain productivity (the energy conversion results in dry mass production). The carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) fixation by plants is related to gross carbohydrate (CH 2 O) production and solar radiation. The CO 2 assimilation by C4 plants depends on the photosynthetic active radiation and temperature. From agro-climatic data and soil physical properties, a map with region identification can be built for solar radiation, air temperature, rainfall, maize grain productivity and yield, potential and real evapo-transpiration and water deficit. The map allows to identify the agro-climatic and the soil physical restrictions. This procedure can be used in different spatial (farm to State) and temporal (daily to monthly data) scales. The statistical analysis allows to compare estimated and observed values in different situations to validate the model and to verify which scale is more appropriate

  15. Dataflow-Based Mapping of Computer Vision Algorithms onto FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Corretjer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a design methodology for mapping computer vision algorithms onto an FPGA through the use of coarse-grain reconfigurable dataflow graphs as a representation to guide the designer. We first describe a new dataflow modeling technique called homogeneous parameterized dataflow (HPDF, which effectively captures the structure of an important class of computer vision applications. This form of dynamic dataflow takes advantage of the property that in a large number of image processing applications, data production and consumption rates can vary, but are equal across dataflow graph edges for any particular application iteration. After motivating and defining the HPDF model of computation, we develop an HPDF-based design methodology that offers useful properties in terms of verifying correctness and exposing performance-enhancing transformations; we discuss and address various challenges in efficiently mapping an HPDF-based application representation into target-specific HDL code; and we present experimental results pertaining to the mapping of a gesture recognition application onto the Xilinx Virtex II FPGA.

  16. Studying Geographical Distribution Map of Weeds of Irrigated Wheat Fields of Ardabil Province

    OpenAIRE

    B Soheili

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify the density and abundance of weeds in irrigated wheat fields of Ardabil Province, 76 samples of irrigated wheat fields based on cultivation area from all counties of Ardabil province for six years (2001-2006) were selected. The genus and species of weeds from each sampling fields and their population indices density, frequency and uniformity of each species were calculated by using Thomas method. Geographic coordinates of field (Latitude, Altitude and Elevation) were the ...

  17. Distribution Map and Community Characteristics of Weeds in Barley Fields of Ardabil Province

    OpenAIRE

    B. Soheili; M. Minbashi; D. Hasanpanah; N. Razmi

    2013-01-01

    Surveying weeds of irrigated barley fields is one of the most important practices in weed management. Based on cultivated areas irrigated barley in all counties of Ardabil province during six years (2000-2005), 46 sample barley fields were selected and weed species were counted in each sampling point and population indices were calculated with Thomas method. By using specific furmula the density, frequency and uniformity of each weed species in fields were calculated. In each field longitude,...

  18. A Parallel Encryption Algorithm Based on Piecewise Linear Chaotic Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xizhong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a parallel chaos-based encryption algorithm for taking advantage of multicore processors. The chaotic cryptosystem is generated by the piecewise linear chaotic map (PWLCM. The parallel algorithm is designed with a master/slave communication model with the Message Passing Interface (MPI. The algorithm is suitable not only for multicore processors but also for the single-processor architecture. The experimental results show that the chaos-based cryptosystem possesses good statistical properties. The parallel algorithm provides much better performance than the serial ones and would be useful to apply in encryption/decryption file with large size or multimedia.

  19. PERCEPTUAL MAPPING BASED ON IDIOSYNCRATIC SETS OF ATTRIBUTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEENKAMP, JBEM; VANTRIJP, HCM; TENBERGE, JMF

    The authors describe a compositional perceptual mapping procedure, unrestricted attribute-elicitation mapping (UAM), which allows consumers to describe and rate the brands in their own terminology and thus relaxes the restrictive assumptions of traditional compositional mapping techniques regarding

  20. Performance Evaluation of Java Based Object Relational Mapping Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Mahmood Bhatti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Object persistency is the hot issue in the form of ORM (Object Relational Mapping tools in industry as developers use these tools during software development. This paper presents the performance evaluation of Java based ORM tools. For this purpose, Hibernate, Ebean and TopLinkhave been selected as the ORM tools which are popular and open source. Their performance has been measured from execution point of view. The results show that ORM tools are the good option for the developers considering the system throughput in shorter setbacks and they can be used efficiently and effectively for performing mapping of the objects into the relational dominated world of database, thus creating a hope for a better and well dominated future of this technology.

  1. Low Cost Vision Based Personal Mobile Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Amami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile mapping systems (MMS can be used for several purposes, such as transportation, highway infrastructure mapping and GIS data collecting. However, the acceptance of these systems is not wide spread and their use is still limited due the high cost and dependency on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS. A low cost vision based personal MMS has been produced with an aim to overcome these limitations. The system has been designed to depend mainly on cameras and use of low cost GNSS and inertial sensors to provide a bundle adjustment solution with initial values. The system has the potential to be used indoor and outdoor. The system has been tested indoors and outdoors with different GPS coverage, surrounded features, and narrow and curvy paths. Tests show that the system is able to work in such environments providing 3D coordinates of better than 10 cm accuracy.

  2. Low Cost Vision Based Personal Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amami, M. M.; Smith, M. J.; Kokkas, N.

    2014-03-01

    Mobile mapping systems (MMS) can be used for several purposes, such as transportation, highway infrastructure mapping and GIS data collecting. However, the acceptance of these systems is not wide spread and their use is still limited due the high cost and dependency on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). A low cost vision based personal MMS has been produced with an aim to overcome these limitations. The system has been designed to depend mainly on cameras and use of low cost GNSS and inertial sensors to provide a bundle adjustment solution with initial values. The system has the potential to be used indoor and outdoor. The system has been tested indoors and outdoors with different GPS coverage, surrounded features, and narrow and curvy paths. Tests show that the system is able to work in such environments providing 3D coordinates of better than 10 cm accuracy.

  3. A new cryptosystem based on chaotic map and operations algebraic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huaqian; Liao Xiaofeng; Wong, Kwok-wo; Zhang Wei; Wei Pengcheng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the study of some existing chaotic encryption algorithms, a new block cipher is proposed. The proposed cipher encrypts 128-bit plaintext to 128-bit ciphertext blocks, using a 128-bit key K and the initial value x 0 and the control parameter mu of logistic map. It consists of an initial permutation and eight computationally identical rounds followed by an output transformation. Round r uses a 128-bit roundkey K (r) to transform a 128-bit input C (r-1) , which is fed to the next round. The output after round 8 enters the output transformation to produce the final ciphertext. All roundkeys are derived from K and a 128-bit random binary sequence generated from a chaotic map. Analysis shows that the proposed block cipher does not suffer from the flaws of pure chaotic cryptosystems and possesses high security.

  4. Empty tracks optimization based on Z-Map model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Le; Yan, Guangrong; Wang, Zaijun; Zang, Genao

    2017-12-01

    For parts with many features, there are more empty tracks during machining. If these tracks are not optimized, the machining efficiency will be seriously affected. In this paper, the characteristics of the empty tracks are studied in detail. Combining with the existing optimization algorithm, a new tracks optimization method based on Z-Map model is proposed. In this method, the tool tracks are divided into the unit processing section, and then the Z-Map model simulation technique is used to analyze the order constraint between the unit segments. The empty stroke optimization problem is transformed into the TSP with sequential constraints, and then through the genetic algorithm solves the established TSP problem. This kind of optimization method can not only optimize the simple structural parts, but also optimize the complex structural parts, so as to effectively plan the empty tracks and greatly improve the processing efficiency.

  5. Encoding methods for B1+ mapping in parallel transmit systems at ultra high field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Desmond H. Y.; Poole, Michael S.; Magill, Arthur W.; Felder, Jörg; Brenner, Daniel; Jon Shah, N.

    2014-08-01

    Parallel radiofrequency (RF) transmission, either in the form of RF shimming or pulse design, has been proposed as a solution to the B1+ inhomogeneity problem in ultra high field magnetic resonance imaging. As a prerequisite, accurate B1+ maps from each of the available transmit channels are required. In this work, four different encoding methods for B1+ mapping, namely 1-channel-on, all-channels-on-except-1, all-channels-on-1-inverted and Fourier phase encoding, were evaluated using dual refocusing acquisition mode (DREAM) at 9.4 T. Fourier phase encoding was demonstrated in both phantom and in vivo to be the least susceptible to artefacts caused by destructive RF interference at 9.4 T. Unlike the other two interferometric encoding schemes, Fourier phase encoding showed negligible dependency on the initial RF phase setting and therefore no prior B1+ knowledge is required. Fourier phase encoding also provides a flexible way to increase the number of measurements to increase SNR, and to allow further reduction of artefacts by weighted decoding. These advantages of Fourier phase encoding suggest that it is a good choice for B1+ mapping in parallel transmit systems at ultra high field.

  6. A LiDAR based analysis of hydraulic hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorzi, F.; De Luca, A.; Checchinato, A.; Segna, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2012-04-01

    Mapping hydraulic hazard is a ticklish procedure as it involves technical and socio-economic aspects. On the one hand no dangerous areas should be excluded, on the other hand it is important not to exceed, beyond the necessary, with the surface assigned to some use limitations. The availability of a high resolution topographic survey allows nowadays to face this task with innovative procedures, both in the planning (mapping) and in the map validation phases. The latter is the object of the present work. It should be stressed that the described procedure is proposed purely as a preliminary analysis based on topography only, and therefore does not intend in any way to replace more sophisticated analysis methods requiring based on hydraulic modelling. The reference elevation model is a combination of the digital terrain model and the digital building model (DTM+DBM). The option of using the standard surface model (DSM) is not viable, as the DSM represents the vegetation canopy as a solid volume. This has the consequence of unrealistically considering the vegetation as a geometric obstacle to water flow. In some cases the topographic model construction requires the identification and digitization of the principal breaklines, such as river banks, ditches and similar natural or artificial structures. The geometrical and topological procedure for the validation of the hydraulic hazard maps is made of two steps. In the first step the whole area is subdivided into fluvial segments, with length chosen as a reasonable trade-off between the need to keep the hydrographical unit as complete as possible, and the need to separate sections of the river bed with significantly different morphology. Each of these segments is made of a single elongated polygon, whose shape can be quite complex, especially for meandering river sections, where the flow direction (i.e. the potential energy gradient associated to the talweg) is often inverted. In the second step the segments are analysed

  7. Risk-based fault detection using Self-Organizing Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hongyang; Khan, Faisal; Garaniya, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of modern systems is increasing rapidly and the dominating relationships among system variables have become highly non-linear. This results in difficulty in the identification of a system's operating states. In turn, this difficulty affects the sensitivity of fault detection and imposes a challenge on ensuring the safety of operation. In recent years, Self-Organizing Maps has gained popularity in system monitoring as a robust non-linear dimensionality reduction tool. Self-Organizing Map is able to capture non-linear variations of the system. Therefore, it is sensitive to the change of a system's states leading to early detection of fault. In this paper, a new approach based on Self-Organizing Map is proposed to detect and assess the risk of fault. In addition, probabilistic analysis is applied to characterize the risk of fault into different levels according to the hazard potential to enable a refined monitoring of the system. The proposed approach is applied on two experimental systems. The results from both systems have shown high sensitivity of the proposed approach in detecting and identifying the root cause of faults. The refined monitoring facilitates the determination of the risk of fault and early deployment of remedial actions and safety measures to minimize the potential impact of fault. - Highlights: • A new approach based on Self-Organizing Map is proposed to detect faults. • Integration of fault detection with risk assessment methodology. • Fault risk characterization into different levels to enable focused system monitoring

  8. Spectral features based tea garden extraction from digital orthophoto maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Akhtar; Bayram, Bulent; Kucuk, Turgay; Zafer Seker, Dursun

    2018-05-01

    The advancements in the photogrammetry and remote sensing technologies has made it possible to extract useful tangible information from data which plays a pivotal role in various application such as management and monitoring of forests and agricultural lands etc. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of spectral signatures for extraction of tea gardens from 1 : 5000 scaled digital orthophoto maps obtained from Rize city in Turkey. First, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was derived from the input images to suppress the non-vegetation areas. NDVI values less than zero were discarded and the output images was normalized in the range 0-255. Individual pixels were then mapped into meaningful objects using global region growing technique. The resulting image was filtered and smoothed to reduce the impact of noise. Furthermore, geometrical constraints were applied to remove small objects (less than 500 pixels) followed by morphological opening operator to enhance the results. These objects served as building blocks for further image analysis. Finally, for the classification stage, a range of spectral values were empirically calculated for each band and applied on candidate objects to extract tea gardens. For accuracy assessment, we employed an area based similarity metric by overlapping obtained tea garden boundaries with the manually digitized tea garden boundaries created by experts of photogrammetry. The overall accuracy of the proposed method scored 89 % for tea gardens from 10 sample orthophoto maps. We concluded that exploiting the spectral signatures using object based analysis is an effective technique for extraction of dominant tree species from digital orthophoto maps.

  9. Adaptive Kalman filtering for real-time mapping of the visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, B. Douglas; Janik, John; Mazaheri, Yousef; Ma, Yan; DeYoe, Edgar A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of real-time mapping of the visual field for clinical applications. Specifically, three aspects of this problem were considered: (1) experimental design, (2) statistical analysis, and (3) display of results. Proper experimental design is essential to achieving a successful outcome, particularly for real-time applications. A random-block experimental design was shown to have less sensitivity to measurement noise, as well as greater robustness to error in modeling of the hemodynamic impulse response function (IRF) and greater flexibility than common alternatives. In addition, random encoding of the visual field allows for the detection of voxels that are responsive to multiple, not necessarily contiguous, regions of the visual field. Due to its recursive nature, the Kalman filter is ideally suited for real-time statistical analysis of visual field mapping data. An important feature of the Kalman filter is that it can be used for nonstationary time series analysis. The capability of the Kalman filter to adapt, in real time, to abrupt changes in the baseline arising from subject motion inside the scanner and other external system disturbances is important for the success of clinical applications. The clinician needs real-time information to evaluate the success or failure of the imaging run and to decide whether to extend, modify, or terminate the run. Accordingly, the analytical software provides real-time displays of (1) brain activation maps for each stimulus segment, (2) voxel-wise spatial tuning profiles, (3) time plots of the variability of response parameters, and (4) time plots of activated volume. PMID:22100663

  10. Spectrally based bathymetric mapping of a dynamic, sand‐bedded channel: Niobrara River, Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbone, Elizabeth; Legleiter, Carl; Alexander, Jason S.; McElroy, Brandon

    2018-01-01

    Methods for spectrally based mapping of river bathymetry have been developed and tested in clear‐flowing, gravel‐bed channels, with limited application to turbid, sand‐bed rivers. This study used hyperspectral images and field surveys from the dynamic, sandy Niobrara River to evaluate three depth retrieval methods. The first regression‐based approach, optimal band ratio analysis (OBRA), paired in situ depth measurements with image pixel values to estimate depth. The second approach used ground‐based field spectra to calibrate an OBRA relationship. The third technique, image‐to‐depth quantile transformation (IDQT), estimated depth by linking the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of depth to the CDF of an image‐derived variable. OBRA yielded the lowest depth retrieval mean error (0.005 m) and highest observed versus predicted R2 (0.817). Although misalignment between field and image data did not compromise the performance of OBRA in this study, poor georeferencing could limit regression‐based approaches such as OBRA in dynamic, sand‐bedded rivers. Field spectroscopy‐based depth maps exhibited a mean error with a slight shallow bias (0.068 m) but provided reliable estimates for most of the study reach. IDQT had a strong deep bias but provided informative relative depth maps. Overprediction of depth by IDQT highlights the need for an unbiased sampling strategy to define the depth CDF. Although each of the techniques we tested demonstrated potential to provide accurate depth estimates in sand‐bed rivers, each method also was subject to certain constraints and limitations.

  11. Mapping the evolution of entrepreneurship as a field of research (1990-2013): A scientometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Yanto

    2018-01-01

    This article applies scientometric techniques to study the evolution of the field of entrepreneurship between 1990 and 2013. Using a combination of topic mapping, author and journal co-citation analyses, and overlay visualization of new and hot topics in the field, this article makes important contribution to the entrepreneurship research by identifying 46 topics in the 24-year history of entrepreneurship research and demonstrates how they appear, disappear, reappear and stabilize over time. It also identifies five topics that are persistent across the 24-year study period--institutions and institutional entrepreneurship, innovation and technology management, policy and development, entrepreneurial process and opportunity, and new ventures--which I labeled as The Pentagon of Entrepreneurship. Overall, the analyses revealed patterns of convergence and divergence and the diversity of topics, specialization, and interdisciplinary engagement in entrepreneurship research, thus offering the latest insights on the state of the art of the field.

  12. Mapping the evolution of entrepreneurship as a field of research (1990–2013): A scientometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This article applies scientometric techniques to study the evolution of the field of entrepreneurship between 1990 and 2013. Using a combination of topic mapping, author and journal co-citation analyses, and overlay visualization of new and hot topics in the field, this article makes important contribution to the entrepreneurship research by identifying 46 topics in the 24-year history of entrepreneurship research and demonstrates how they appear, disappear, reappear and stabilize over time. It also identifies five topics that are persistent across the 24-year study period––institutions and institutional entrepreneurship, innovation and technology management, policy and development, entrepreneurial process and opportunity, and new ventures––which I labeled as The Pentagon of Entrepreneurship. Overall, the analyses revealed patterns of convergence and divergence and the diversity of topics, specialization, and interdisciplinary engagement in entrepreneurship research, thus offering the latest insights on the state of the art of the field. PMID:29300735

  13. The Geopotential Research Mission - Mapping the near earth gravity and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. T.; Keating, T.; Smith, D. E.; Langel, R. A.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Kahn, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    The Geopotential Research Mission (GRM), NASA's low-level satellite system designed to measure the gravity and magnetic fields of the earth, and its objectives are described. The GRM will consist of two, Shuttle launched, satellite systems (300 km apart) that will operate simultaneously at a 160 km circular-polar orbit for six months. Current mission goals include mapping the global geoid to 10 cm, measuring gravity-field anomalies to 2 mgal with a spatial resolution of 100 km, detecting crustal magnetic anomalies of 100 km wavelength with 1 nT accuracy, measuring the vectors components to + or - 5 arc sec and 5 nT, and computing the main dipole or core field to 5 nT with a 2 nT/year secular variation detection. Resource analysis and exploration geology are additional applications considered.

  14. Three-dimensional field map of the Fermilab D0 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostiguy, J.; Yamada, R.

    1991-08-01

    The D0 detector is a general purpose hadron collider detector presently under construction at Fermilab and scheduled to be put in operation in the fall of 1991. The D0 muon detection system is composed of three major toroids referred to respectively as the Central Field (CF) toroid and the End Field (EF) toroids. The complete detector weighs in excess of 4000 metric tons and rests on a steel platform. The muon detection system was designed using standard 2D codes and flux maps inside were obtained for each of the toroids taken separately. Various magnetic field measurements were performed; discrepancies with the design calculations have been observed and attributed to three dimensional effects. In this paper, we compare the predictions of the 2D computations to 3D calculations for a fully assembled detector. We also estimate the electromagnetic forces between the toroids and discuss other 3D effects, in particular, the effect of the supporting platform. 4 refs., 3 figs

  15. Mapping the evolution of entrepreneurship as a field of research (1990-2013: A scientometric analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanto Chandra

    Full Text Available This article applies scientometric techniques to study the evolution of the field of entrepreneurship between 1990 and 2013. Using a combination of topic mapping, author and journal co-citation analyses, and overlay visualization of new and hot topics in the field, this article makes important contribution to the entrepreneurship research by identifying 46 topics in the 24-year history of entrepreneurship research and demonstrates how they appear, disappear, reappear and stabilize over time. It also identifies five topics that are persistent across the 24-year study period--institutions and institutional entrepreneurship, innovation and technology management, policy and development, entrepreneurial process and opportunity, and new ventures--which I labeled as The Pentagon of Entrepreneurship. Overall, the analyses revealed patterns of convergence and divergence and the diversity of topics, specialization, and interdisciplinary engagement in entrepreneurship research, thus offering the latest insights on the state of the art of the field.

  16. Seismic Microzonation of Breginjski Kot (NW Slovenia) Based on Detailed Engineering Geological Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Breginjski kot is among the most endangered seismic zones in Slovenia with the seismic hazard assessed to intensity IX MSK and the design ground acceleration of 0.250 g, both for 500-year return period. The most destructive was the 1976 Friuli Mw = 6.4 earthquake which had maximum intensity VIII-IX. Since the previous microzonation of the area was based solely on the basic geological map and did not include supplementary field research, we have performed a new soil classification of the area. First, a detailed engineering geological mapping in scale 1 : 5.000 was conducted. Mapped units were described in detail and some of them interpreted anew. Stiff sites are composed of hard to medium-hard rocks which were subjected to erosion mainly evoked by glacial and postglacial age. At that time a prominent topography was formed and different types of sediments were deposited in valleys by mass flows. A distinction between sediments and weathered rocks, their exact position, and thickness are of significant importance for microzonation. On the basis of geological mapping, a soil classification was carried out according to the Medvedev method (intensity increments) and the Eurocode 8 standard (soil factors) and two microzonation maps were prepared. The bulk of the studied area is covered by soft sediments and nine out of ten settlements are situated on them. The microzonation clearly points out the dependence of damage distribution in the case of 1976 Friuli earthquake to local site effects. PMID:24453884

  17. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geological provinces of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C. J.; Viger, R.J.; Anderson, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    This digitally compiled map includes geology, geologic provinces, and oil and gas fields of South America. The map is part of a worldwide series on CD-ROM by World Energy Project released of the U.S. Geological Survey . The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. For data management purposes the world is divided into eight energy regions corresponding approximately to the economic regions of the world as defined by the U.S. Department of State. South America (Region 6) includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyuna, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  18. Field Evaluation of Two Geophysical Techniques for Real-Time Mapping of Smouldering Remediation (STAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trento, L. M.; Tsourlos, P.; McMaster, M.; Liefl, D.; Sims, A.; Dominguez, J. L. G.; Vidumsky, J.; Gerhard, J.

    2016-12-01

    Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR) technology destroys non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in situ using principles of smouldering combustion. It involves propagating an exothermic (400-1000C) oxidation reaction outwards from an ignition well. A full-scale STAR system is currently being applied at an industrial site contaminated with coal tar below the water table in New Jersey, USA. STAR is typically tracked using multi-level thermocouples, which are discrete and sparse in space and time. This study evaluates two surface-based geophysical methods - Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Self-Potential (SP) - for the ability to map the STAR reaction in real time at the New Jersey site. Both techniques involve placing electrode arrays on the surface and monitoring electrical signals over time (i.e., time-lapse). It is hypothesized that ERT should be able to monitor the resistive dry zone that precedes the reaction front and/or the growing NAPL-depleted zone. SP is expected to be able to detect the potential difference associated with thermal gradients generated by the reaction. Approximately 72 ERT electrodes in a "swiss cross" pattern plus 10 SP electrodes will be emplaced over single STAR treatment cell (six ignition wells). This setup will be employed to monitor both a deep (25 feet) and shallow (8 feet) STAR treatments. The geophysics will be complemented by in situ temperature measurements, continuous gas measurements, and pre- and post-treatment coring. The primary goal of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of using ERT and SP for STAR under field conditions. The tests will be conducted in August 2016.

  19. Real-time flood extent maps based on social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilander, Dirk; van Loenen, Arnejan; Roskam, Ruud; Wagemaker, Jurjen

    2015-04-01

    During a flood event it is often difficult to get accurate information about the flood extent and the people affected. This information is very important for disaster risk reduction management and crisis relief organizations. In the post flood phase, information about the flood extent is needed for damage estimation and calibrating hydrodynamic models. Currently, flood extent maps are derived from a few sources such as satellite images, areal images and post-flooding flood marks. However, getting accurate real-time or maximum flood extent maps remains difficult. With the rise of social media, we now have a new source of information with large numbers of observations. In the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, the intensity of unique flood related tweets during a flood event, peaked at 8 tweets per second during floods in early 2014. A fair amount of these tweets also contains observations of water depth and location. Our hypothesis is that based on the large numbers of tweets it is possible to generate real-time flood extent maps. In this study we use tweets from the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, to generate these flood extent maps. The data-mining procedure looks for tweets with a mention of 'banjir', the Bahasa Indonesia word for flood. It then removes modified and retweeted messages in order to keep unique tweets only. Since tweets are not always sent directly from the location of observation, the geotag in the tweets is unreliable. We therefore extract location information using mentions of names of neighborhoods and points of interest. Finally, where encountered, a mention of a length measure is extracted as water depth. These tweets containing a location reference and a water level are considered to be flood observations. The strength of this method is that it can easily be extended to other regions and languages. Based on the intensity of tweets in Jakarta during a flood event we can provide a rough estimate of the flood extent. To provide more accurate flood extend

  20. Constructing a Soil Class Map of Denmark based on the FAO Legend Using Digital Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Kabindra; Minasny, Budiman; Greve, Mette Balslev

    2014-01-01

    Soil mapping in Denmark has a long history and a series of soil maps based on conventional mapping approaches have been produced. In this study, a national soil map of Denmark was constructed based on the FAO–Unesco Revised Legend 1990 using digital soil mapping techniques, existing soil profile......) confirmed that the output is reliable and can be used in various soil and environmental studies without major difficulties. This study also verified the importance of GlobalSoilMap products and a priori pedological information that improved prediction performance and quality of the new FAO soil map...

  1. Feature selection based on SVM significance maps for classification of dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.E. Bron (Esther); M. Smits (Marion); J.C. van Swieten (John); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); S. Klein (Stefan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractSupport vector machine significance maps (SVM p-maps) previously showed clusters of significantly different voxels in dementiarelated brain regions. We propose a novel feature selection method for classification of dementia based on these p-maps. In our approach, the SVM p-maps are

  2. Multishot versus single-shot pulse sequences in very high field fMRI: a comparison using retinotopic mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jascha D Swisher

    Full Text Available High-resolution functional MRI is a leading application for very high field (7 Tesla human MR imaging. Though higher field strengths promise improvements in signal-to-noise ratios (SNR and BOLD contrast relative to fMRI at 3 Tesla, these benefits may be partially offset by accompanying increases in geometric distortion and other off-resonance effects. Such effects may be especially pronounced with the single-shot EPI pulse sequences typically used for fMRI at standard field strengths. As an alternative, one might consider multishot pulse sequences, which may lead to somewhat lower temporal SNR than standard EPI, but which are also often substantially less susceptible to off-resonance effects. Here we consider retinotopic mapping of human visual cortex as a practical test case by which to compare examples of these sequence types for high-resolution fMRI at 7 Tesla. We performed polar angle retinotopic mapping at each of 3 isotropic resolutions (2.0, 1.7, and 1.1 mm using both accelerated single-shot 2D EPI and accelerated multishot 3D gradient-echo pulse sequences. We found that single-shot EPI indeed led to greater temporal SNR and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR than the multishot sequences. However, additional distortion correction in postprocessing was required in order to fully realize these advantages, particularly at higher resolutions. The retinotopic maps produced by both sequence types were qualitatively comparable, and showed equivalent test/retest reliability. Thus, when surface-based analyses are planned, or in other circumstances where geometric distortion is of particular concern, multishot pulse sequences could provide a viable alternative to single-shot EPI.

  3. Mapping site-based construction workers’ motivation: Expectancy theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Ghoddousi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to apply a recently proposed model of motivation based on expectancy theory to site-based workers in the construction context and confirm the validity of this model for the construction industry. The study drew upon data from 194 site-based construction workers in Iran to test the proposed model of motivation. To this end, the structural equation modelling (SEM approach based on the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA technique was deployed. The study reveals that the proposed model of expectancy theory incorporating five indicators (i.e. intrinsic instrumentality, extrinsic instrumentality, intrinsic valence, extrinsic valence and expectancy is able to map the process of construction workers’ motivation. Nonetheless, the findings posit that intrinsic indicators could be more effective than extrinsic ones. This proffers the necessity of construction managers placing further focus on intrinsic motivators to motivate workers. 

  4. Mapping site-based construction workers’ motivation: Expectancy theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Ghoddousi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to apply a recently proposed model of motivation based on expectancy theory to site-based workers in the construction context and confirm the validity of this model for the construction industry. The study drew upon data from 194 site-based construction workers in Iran to test the proposed model of motivation. To this end, the structural equation modelling (SEM approach based on the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA technique was deployed. The study reveals that the proposed model of expectancy theory incorporating five indicators (i.e. intrinsic instrumentality, extrinsic instrumentality, intrinsic valence, extrinsic valence and expectancy is able to map the process of construction workers’ motivation. Nonetheless, the findings posit that intrinsic indicators could be more effective than extrinsic ones. This proffers the necessity of construction managers placing further focus on intrinsic motivators to motivate workers.

  5. Blanding’s Turtle (Emydoidea blandingii Potential Habitat Mapping Using Aerial Orthophotographic Imagery and Object Based Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J. King

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blanding’s turtle (Emydoidea blandingii is a threatened species under Canada’s Species at Risk Act. In southern Québec, field based inventories are ongoing to determine its abundance and potential habitat. The goal of this research was to develop means for mapping of potential habitat based on primary habitat attributes that can be detected with high-resolution remotely sensed imagery. Using existing spring leaf-off 20 cm resolution aerial orthophotos of a portion of Gatineau Park where some Blanding’s turtle observations had been made, habitat attributes were mapped at two scales: (1 whole wetlands; (2 within wetland habitat features of open water, vegetation (used for camouflage and thermoregulation, and logs (used for spring sun-basking. The processing steps involved initial pixel-based classification to eliminate most areas of non-wetland, followed by object-based segmentations and classifications using a customized rule sequence to refine the wetland map and to map the within wetland habitat features. Variables used as inputs to the classifications were derived from the orthophotos and included image brightness, texture, and segmented object shape and area. Independent validation using field data and visual interpretation showed classification accuracy for all habitat attributes to be generally over 90% with a minimum of 81.5% for the producer’s accuracy of logs. The maps for each attribute were combined to produce a habitat suitability map for Blanding’s turtle. Of the 115 existing turtle observations, 92.3% were closest to a wetland of the two highest suitability classes. High-resolution imagery combined with object-based classification and habitat suitability mapping methods such as those presented provide a much more spatially explicit representation of detailed habitat attributes than can be obtained through field work alone. They can complement field efforts to document and track turtle activities and can contribute to

  6. Physical and genetic mapping of the genomes of five Mycoplasma hominis strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Søren; Christiansen, Gunna

    1992-01-01

    -field gel electrophoresis. All the ApaI, SmaI, BamHI, XhoI, and SalI restriction sites (total of 21 to 33 sites in each strain) were placed on the physical map, yielding an average resolution of 26 kb. The maps were constructed using three different approaches: (i) size determination of DNA fragments...

  7. A human motion model based on maps for navigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser Susanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Foot-mounted indoor positioning systems work remarkably well when using additionally the knowledge of floor-plans in the localization algorithm. Walls and other structures naturally restrict the motion of pedestrians. No pedestrian can walk through walls or jump from one floor to another when considering a building with different floor-levels. By incorporating known floor-plans in sequential Bayesian estimation processes such as particle filters (PFs, long-term error stability can be achieved as long as the map is sufficiently accurate and the environment sufficiently constraints pedestrians' motion. In this article, a new motion model based on maps and floor-plans is introduced that is capable of weighting the possible headings of the pedestrian as a function of the local environment. The motion model is derived from a diffusion algorithm that makes use of the principle of a source effusing gas and is used in the weighting step of a PF implementation. The diffusion algorithm is capable of including floor-plans as well as maps with areas of different degrees of accessibility. The motion model more effectively represents the probability density function of possible headings that are restricted by maps and floor-plans than a simple binary weighting of particles (i.e., eliminating those that crossed walls and keeping the rest. We will show that the motion model will help for obtaining better performance in critical navigation scenarios where two or more modes may be competing for some of the time (multi-modal scenarios.

  8. Development of a cryogenic radiation detector for mapping radio frequency superconducting cavity field emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny Dotson; John Mammosser

    2005-05-01

    Field emissions in a super conducting helium cooled RF cavity and the production of radiation (mostly X-Rays) have been measured externally on cryomodules at Jefferson Lab since 1991. External measurements are limited to radiation energies above 100 keV due to shielding of the stainless steel cryogenic body. To measure the onset of and to map field emissions from a superconducting cavity requires the detecting instrument be inside the shield and within the liquid Helium. Two possible measurement systems are undergoing testing at JLab. A CsI detector array set on photodiodes and an X-Ray film camera with a fixed aperture. Several devices were tested in the cell with liquid Helium without success. The lone survivor, a CsI array, worked but saturated at high power levels due to backscatter. The array was encased in a lead shield with a slit opening set to measure the radiation emitted directly from the cell eliminating a large portion of the backscatter. This is a work in progress and te sting should be complete before the PAC 05. The second system being tested is passive. It is a shielded box with an aperture to expose radiation diagnostic film located inside to direct radiation from the cell. Developing a technique for mapping field emissions in cryogenic cells will assist scientists and engineers in pinpointing any surface imperfections for examination.

  9. SAT-MAP-CLIMATE project results[SATellite base bio-geophysical parameter MAPping and aggregation modelling for CLIMATE models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay Hasager, C.; Woetmann Nielsen, N.; Soegaard, H.; Boegh, E.; Hesselbjerg Christensen, J.; Jensen, N.O.; Schultz Rasmussen, M.; Astrup, P.; Dellwik, E.

    2002-08-01

    Earth Observation (EO) data from imaging satellites are analysed with respect to albedo, land and sea surface temperatures, land cover types and vegetation parameters such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the leaf area index (LAI). The observed parameters are used in the DMI-HIRLAM-D05 weather prediction model in order to improve the forecasting. The effect of introducing actual sea surface temperatures from NOAA AVHHR compared to climatological mean values, shows a more pronounced land-sea breeze effect which is also observable in field observations. The albedo maps from NOAA AVHRR are rather similar to the climatological mean values so for the HIRLAM model this is insignicant, yet most likely of some importance in the HIRHAM regional climate model. Land cover type maps are assigned local roughness values determined from meteorological field observations. Only maps with a spatial resolution around 25 m can adequately map the roughness variations of the typical patch size distribution in Denmark. A roughness map covering Denmark is aggregated (ie area-average non-linearly) by a microscale aggregation model that takes the non-linear turbulent responses of each roughness step change between patches in an arbitrary pattern into account. The effective roughnesses are calculated into a 15 km by 15 km grid for the HIRLAM model. The effect of hedgerows is included as an added roughness effect as a function of hedge density mapped from a digital vector map. Introducing the new effective roughness maps into the HIRLAM model appears to remedy on the seasonal wind speed bias over land and sea in spring. A new parameterisation on the effective roughness for scalar surface fluxes is developed and tested on synthetic data. Further is a method for the estimation the evapotranspiration from albedo, surface temperatures and NDVI succesfully compared to field observations. The HIRLAM predictions of water vapour at 12 GMT are used for atmospheric correction of

  10. Improved regional-scale Brazilian cropping systems' mapping based on a semi-automatic object-based clustering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellón, Beatriz; Bégué, Agnès; Lo Seen, Danny; Lebourgeois, Valentine; Evangelista, Balbino Antônio; Simões, Margareth; Demonte Ferraz, Rodrigo Peçanha

    2018-06-01

    Cropping systems' maps at fine scale over large areas provide key information for further agricultural production and environmental impact assessments, and thus represent a valuable tool for effective land-use planning. There is, therefore, a growing interest in mapping cropping systems in an operational manner over large areas, and remote sensing approaches based on vegetation index time series analysis have proven to be an efficient tool. However, supervised pixel-based approaches are commonly adopted, requiring resource consuming field campaigns to gather training data. In this paper, we present a new object-based unsupervised classification approach tested on an annual MODIS 16-day composite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index time series and a Landsat 8 mosaic of the State of Tocantins, Brazil, for the 2014-2015 growing season. Two variants of the approach are compared: an hyperclustering approach, and a landscape-clustering approach involving a previous stratification of the study area into landscape units on which the clustering is then performed. The main cropping systems of Tocantins, characterized by the crop types and cropping patterns, were efficiently mapped with the landscape-clustering approach. Results show that stratification prior to clustering significantly improves the classification accuracies for underrepresented and sparsely distributed cropping systems. This study illustrates the potential of unsupervised classification for large area cropping systems' mapping and contributes to the development of generic tools for supporting large-scale agricultural monitoring across regions.

  11. Body-centred map in parietal eye fields - functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotchie, P.; Chen, D.Y.; Bradley, W.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In order for us to interact with our environment we need to know where objects are around us, relative to our body. In monkeys, a body-centred map of visual space is known to exist within the parietal eye fields. This map is formed by the modulation of neuronal activity by eye and head position (Brotchie et al, Nature 1995; Synder et al, Nature 1998). In humans no map of body centred space has been demonstrated. By using functional MRI we have localised a region along the intraparietal sulcus which has properties similar to the parietal eye fields of monkeys (Brotchie et al, ISMRM, 2000). The aim of this study was to determine if activity in this region is modulated by head position, consistent with a body centered representation of visual space. Functional MRI was performed on 6 subjects performing simple visually guided saccades using a 1.5 Tesla GE Echospeed scanner. 10 scans were performed on the 6 subjects at left and right body orientations. Regions of interest were selected around the intraparietal sulcus proper (IPSP) of both hemispheres and voxels with BOLD signal which correlated with the paradigm (r>0.35) were selected for further analysis. Comparisons of percentage signal change were made between the left and right IPSP using Student t test. Of the 10 MRI examinations, 6 demonstrated statistically significant differences in the amount of signal change between left and right IPSP. In each of these 6 cases, the signal change was greater within the IPSP contralateral to the direction of head position relative to the body. This indicates a modulation of activity within the IPSP related to head position, most likely reflecting modulation of the underlying neuronal activity and suggests the existence of a body-centred encoding of space within the parietal eye fields of humans. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  12. QMM Project. A proposal for field map measurement of the six HRS Quadrupoles in Hall A, CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonvieille, H.; Quemener, G.; Vernin, P.

    1993-12-01

    The proposed measurements of the magnetic field maps of the six HRS quadrupoles in Hall A at CEBAF is summarized. The basis of the measurement using rotating coils and a preliminary design of the apparatus are presented. (author)

  13. Objective mapping of temperature field by stochastic inverse method using acoustic tomography experimental data of eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; Rao, M.M.M.; Sadhuram, Y.

    . The data are revisited for objective mapping of the temperature fields using Stochastic Inverse Method. Hourly reciprocal transmissions were carried with time lag of 30 minutes between each direction. From the multipath arrival patterns, significant peaks...

  14. A consensus linkage map of lentil based on DArT markers from three RIL mapping populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Ates

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus is a diploid (2n = 2x = 14, self-pollinating grain legume with a haploid genome size of about 4 Gbp and is grown throughout the world with current annual production of 4.9 million tonnes.A consensus map of lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus was constructed using three different lentils recombinant inbred line (RIL populations, including "CDC Redberry" x "ILL7502" (LR8, "ILL8006" x "CDC Milestone" (LR11 and "PI320937" x "Eston" (LR39.The lentil consensus map was composed of 9,793 DArT markers, covered a total of 977.47 cM with an average distance of 0.10 cM between adjacent markers and constructed 7 linkage groups representing 7 chromosomes of the lentil genome. The consensus map had no gap larger than 12.67 cM and only 5 gaps were found to be between 12.67 cM and 6.0 cM (on LG3 and LG4. The localization of the SNP markers on the lentil consensus map were in general consistent with their localization on the three individual genetic linkage maps and the lentil consensus map has longer map length, higher marker density and shorter average distance between the adjacent markers compared to the component linkage maps.This high-density consensus map could provide insight into the lentil genome. The consensus map could also help to construct a physical map using a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library and map based cloning studies. Sequence information of DArT may help localization of orientation scaffolds from Next Generation Sequencing data.

  15. A consensus linkage map of lentil based on DArT markers from three RIL mapping populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Duygu; Aldemir, Secil; Alsaleh, Ahmad; Erdogmus, Semih; Nemli, Seda; Kahriman, Abdullah; Ozkan, Hakan; Vandenberg, Albert; Tanyolac, Bahattin

    2018-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 14), self-pollinating grain legume with a haploid genome size of about 4 Gbp and is grown throughout the world with current annual production of 4.9 million tonnes. A consensus map of lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus) was constructed using three different lentils recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, including "CDC Redberry" x "ILL7502" (LR8), "ILL8006" x "CDC Milestone" (LR11) and "PI320937" x "Eston" (LR39). The lentil consensus map was composed of 9,793 DArT markers, covered a total of 977.47 cM with an average distance of 0.10 cM between adjacent markers and constructed 7 linkage groups representing 7 chromosomes of the lentil genome. The consensus map had no gap larger than 12.67 cM and only 5 gaps were found to be between 12.67 cM and 6.0 cM (on LG3 and LG4). The localization of the SNP markers on the lentil consensus map were in general consistent with their localization on the three individual genetic linkage maps and the lentil consensus map has longer map length, higher marker density and shorter average distance between the adjacent markers compared to the component linkage maps. This high-density consensus map could provide insight into the lentil genome. The consensus map could also help to construct a physical map using a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library and map based cloning studies. Sequence information of DArT may help localization of orientation scaffolds from Next Generation Sequencing data.

  16. Auxin molecular field maps define AUX1 selectivity: many auxin herbicides are not substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoyerová, Klára; Hošek, Petr; Quareshy, M.; Li, J.; Klíma, Petr; Kubeš, Martin; Yemm, A. A.; Neve, P.; Tripathi, A.; Bennett, M.J.; Napier, R. M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 217, č. 4 (2018), s. 1625-1639 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-19557S; GA MŠk LD15137 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21519 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin transport * cheminformatics * herbicide * herbicide resistance * molecular field maps * pharmacophore * structure–activity relationship * uptake carrier Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 7.330, year: 2016

  17. A regularized, model-based approach to phase-based conductivity mapping using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropella, Kathleen M; Noll, Douglas C

    2017-11-01

    To develop a novel regularized, model-based approach to phase-based conductivity mapping that uses structural information to improve the accuracy of conductivity maps. The inverse of the three-dimensional Laplacian operator is used to model the relationship between measured phase maps and the object conductivity in a penalized weighted least-squares optimization problem. Spatial masks based on structural information are incorporated into the problem to preserve data near boundaries. The proposed Inverse Laplacian method was compared against a restricted Gaussian filter in simulation, phantom, and human experiments. The Inverse Laplacian method resulted in lower reconstruction bias and error due to noise in simulations than the Gaussian filter. The Inverse Laplacian method also produced conductivity maps closer to the measured values in a phantom and with reduced noise in the human brain, as compared to the Gaussian filter. The Inverse Laplacian method calculates conductivity maps with less noise and more accurate values near boundaries. Improving the accuracy of conductivity maps is integral for advancing the applications of conductivity mapping. Magn Reson Med 78:2011-2021, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. GEOSTATISTICAL BASED SUSCEPTIBILITY MAPPING OF SOIL EROSION AND OPTIMIZATION OF ITS CAUSATIVE FACTORS: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULKADIR T. SHOLAGBERU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion hazard is the second biggest environmental challenges after population growth causing land degradation, desertification and water deterioration. Its impacts on watersheds include loss of soil nutrients, reduced reservoir capacity through siltation which may lead to flood risk, landslide, high water turbidity, etc. These problems become more pronounced in human altered mountainous areas through intensive agricultural activities, deforestation and increased urbanization among others. However, due to challenging nature of soil erosion management, there is great interest in assessing its spatial distribution and susceptibility levels. This study is thus intend to review the recent literatures and develop a novel framework for soil erosion susceptibility mapping using geostatistical based support vector machine (SVM, remote sensing and GIS techniques. The conceptual framework is to bridge the identified knowledge gaps in the area of causative factors’ (CFs selection. In this research, RUSLE model, field studies and the existing soil erosion maps for the study area will be integrated for the development of inventory map. Spatial data such as Landsat 8, digital soil and geological maps, digital elevation model and hydrological data shall be processed for the extraction of erosion CFs. GISbased SVM techniques will be adopted for the establishment of spatial relationships between soil erosion and its CFs, and subsequently for the development of erosion susceptibility maps. The results of this study include evaluation of predictive capability of GIS-based SVM in soil erosion mapping and identification of the most influential CFs for erosion susceptibility assessment. This study will serve as a guide to watershed planners and to alleviate soil erosion challenges and its related hazards.

  19. A Web-Based Information System for Field Data Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Y. H.; Sun, F. S.

    2014-12-01

    A web-based field data management system has been designed and developed to allow field geologists to store, organize, manage, and share field data online. System requirements were analyzed and clearly defined first regarding what data are to be stored, who the potential users are, and what system functions are needed in order to deliver the right data in the right way to the right user. A 3-tiered architecture was adopted to create this secure, scalable system that consists of a web browser at the front end while a database at the back end and a functional logic server in the middle. Specifically, HTML, CSS, and JavaScript were used to implement the user interface in the front-end tier, the Apache web server runs PHP scripts, and MySQL to server is used for the back-end database. The system accepts various types of field information, including image, audio, video, numeric, and text. It allows users to select data and populate them on either Google Earth or Google Maps for the examination of the spatial relations. It also makes the sharing of field data easy by converting them into XML format that is both human-readable and machine-readable, and thus ready for reuse.

  20. Laser-Assisted Field Evaporation and Three-Dimensional Atom-by-Atom Mapping of Diamond Isotopic Homojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Samik; Watanabe, Hideyuki; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N; Moutanabbir, Oussama

    2016-02-10

    It addition to its high evaporation field, diamond is also known for its limited photoabsorption, strong covalent bonding, and wide bandgap. These characteristics have been thought for long to also complicate the field evaporation of diamond and make its control hardly achievable on the atomistic-level. Herein, we demonstrate that the unique behavior of nanoscale diamond and its interaction with pulsed laser lead to a controlled field evaporation thus enabling three-dimensional atom-by-atom mapping of diamond (12)C/(13)C homojunctions. We also show that one key element in this process is to operate the pulsed laser at high energy without letting the dc bias increase out of bounds for diamond nanotip to withstand. Herein, the role of the dc bias in evaporation of diamond is essentially to generate free charge carriers within the nanotip via impact ionization. The mobile free charges screen the internal electric field, eventually creating a hole rich surface where the pulsed laser is effectively absorbed leading to an increase in the nanotip surface temperature. The effect of this temperature on the uncertainty in the time-of-flight of an ion, the diffusion of atoms on the surface of the nanotip, is also discussed. In addition to paving the way toward a precise manipulation of isotopes in diamond-based nanoscale and quantum structures, this result also elucidates some of the basic properties of dielectric nanostructures under high electric field.

  1. Domain XML semantic integration based on extraction rules and ontology mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayu LI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A plenty of XML documents exist in petroleum engineering field, but traditional XML integration solution can’t provide semantic query, which leads to low data use efficiency. In light of WeXML(oil&gas well XML data semantic integration and query requirement, this paper proposes a semantic integration method based on extraction rules and ontology mapping. The method firstly defines a series of extraction rules with which elements and properties of WeXML Schema are mapped to classes and properties in WeOWL ontology, respectively; secondly, an algorithm is used to transform WeXML documents into WeOWL instances. Because WeOWL provides limited semantics, ontology mappings between two ontologies are then built to explain class and property of global ontology with terms of WeOWL, and semantic query based on global domain concepts model is provided. By constructing a WeXML data semantic integration prototype system, the proposed transformational rule, the transfer algorithm and the mapping rule are tested.

  2. A low-cost drone based application for identifying and mapping of coastal fish nursery grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Daniele; Bruno, Michele; Jona Lasinio, Giovanna; Belluscio, Andrea; Ardizzone, Giandomenico

    2016-03-01

    Acquiring seabed, landform or other topographic data in the field of marine ecology has a pivotal role in defining and mapping key marine habitats. However, accessibility for this kind of data with a high level of detail for very shallow and inaccessible marine habitats has been often challenging, time consuming. Spatial and temporal coverage often has to be compromised to make more cost effective the monitoring routine. Nowadays, emerging technologies, can overcome many of these constraints. Here we describe a recent development in remote sensing based on a small unmanned drone (UAVs) that produce very fine scale maps of fish nursery areas. This technology is simple to use, inexpensive, and timely in producing aerial photographs of marine areas. Both technical details regarding aerial photos acquisition (drone and camera settings) and post processing workflow (3D model generation with Structure From Motion algorithm and photo-stitching) are given. Finally by applying modern algorithm of semi-automatic image analysis and classification (Maximum Likelihood, ECHO and Object-based Image Analysis) we compared the results of three thematic maps of nursery area for juvenile sparid fishes, highlighting the potential of this method in mapping and monitoring coastal marine habitats.

  3. Technical note: A simple approach for efficient collection of field reference data for calibrating remote sensing mapping of northern wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gålfalk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The calibration and validation of remote sensing land cover products are highly dependent on accurate field reference data, which are costly and practically challenging to collect. We describe an optical method for collection of field reference data that is a fast, cost-efficient, and robust alternative to field surveys and UAV imaging. A lightweight, waterproof, remote-controlled RGB camera (GoPro HERO4 Silver, GoPro Inc. was used to take wide-angle images from 3.1 to 4.5 m in altitude using an extendable monopod, as well as representative near-ground (< 1 m images to identify spectral and structural features that correspond to various land covers in present lighting conditions. A semi-automatic classification was made based on six surface types (graminoids, water, shrubs, dry moss, wet moss, and rock. The method enables collection of detailed field reference data, which is critical in many remote sensing applications, such as satellite-based wetland mapping. The method uses common non-expensive equipment, does not require special skills or training, and is facilitated by a step-by-step manual that is included in the Supplement. Over time a global ground cover database can be built that can be used as reference data for studies of non-forested wetlands from satellites such as Sentinel 1 and 2 (10 m pixel size.

  4. Finger Vein Recognition Based on a Personalized Best Bit Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gongping; Xi, Xiaoming; Yin, Yilong

    2012-01-01

    Finger vein patterns have recently been recognized as an effective biometric identifier. In this paper, we propose a finger vein recognition method based on a personalized best bit map (PBBM). Our method is rooted in a local binary pattern based method and then inclined to use the best bits only for matching. We first present the concept of PBBM and the generating algorithm. Then we propose the finger vein recognition framework, which consists of preprocessing, feature extraction, and matching. Finally, we design extensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposal. Experimental results show that PBBM achieves not only better performance, but also high robustness and reliability. In addition, PBBM can be used as a general framework for binary pattern based recognition. PMID:22438735

  5. Mapping Neogene and Quaternary sedimentary deposits in northeastern Brazil by integrating geophysics, remote sensing and geological field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrades-Filho, Clódis de Oliveira; Rossetti, Dilce de Fátima; Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego; Medeiros, Walter Eugênio; Valeriano, Márcio de Morisson; Cremon, Édipo Henrique; Oliveira, Roberto Gusmão de

    2014-12-01

    Neogene and late Quaternary sedimentary deposits corresponding respectively to the Barreiras Formation and Post-Barreiras Sediments are abundant along the Brazilian coast. Such deposits are valuable for reconstructing sea level fluctuations and recording tectonic reactivation along the passive margin of South America. Despite this relevance, much effort remains to be invested in discriminating these units in their various areas of occurrence. The main objective of this work is to develop and test a new methodology for semi-automated mapping of Neogene and late Quaternary sedimentary deposits in northeastern Brazil integrating geophysical and remote sensing data. The central onshore Paraíba Basin was selected due to the recent availability of a detailed map based on the integration of surface and subsurface geological data. We used airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (i.e., potassium-K and thorium-Th concentration) and morphometric data (i.e., relief-dissection, slope and elevation) extracted from the digital elevation model (DEM) generated by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The procedures included: (a) data integration using geographic information systems (GIS); (b) exploratory statistical analyses, including the definition of parameters and thresholds for class discrimination for a set of sample plots; and (c) development and application of a decision-tree classification. Data validation was based on: (i) statistical analysis of geochemical and airborne gamma-ray spectrometry data consisting of K and Th concentrations; and (ii) map validation with the support of a confusion matrix, overall accuracy, as well as quantity disagreement and allocation disagreement for accuracy assessment based on field points. The concentration of K successfully separated the sedimentary units of the basin from Precambrian basement rocks. The relief-dissection morphometric variable allowed the discrimination between the Barreiras Formation and the Post-Barreiras Sediments. In

  6. Multimodal Sensor-Based Semantic 3D Mapping for a Large-Scale Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Jongmin; Yoon, Tae Sung; Park, Jin Bae

    2018-01-01

    Semantic 3D mapping is one of the most important fields in robotics, and has been used in many applications, such as robot navigation, surveillance, and virtual reality. In general, semantic 3D mapping is mainly composed of 3D reconstruction and semantic segmentation. As these technologies evolve, there has been great progress in semantic 3D mapping in recent years. Furthermore, the number of robotic applications requiring semantic information in 3D mapping to perform high-level tasks has inc...

  7. WIDE FIELD CO MAPPING IN THE REGION OF IRAS 19312+1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Jun-ichi [Department of Astronomy and Geodesy, Ural Federal University, Lenin Avenue 51, 620000, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ladeyschikov, Dmitry A.; Sobolev, Andrej M. [Astronomical Observatory, Ural Federal University, Lenin Avenue 51, 620000, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zhang, Yong; Hsia, Chih-Hao [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Yung, Bosco H. K., E-mail: nakashima.junichi@gmail.com [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Rabiańska 8, 87-100 Toruń (Poland)

    2016-07-01

    We report the results of wide field CO mapping in the region of IRAS 19312+1950. This Infrared Astronomical Satellite ( IRAS ) object exhibits SiO/H{sub 2}O/OH maser emission, and is embedded in a chemically rich molecular component, the origin of which is still unknown. In order to reveal the entire structure and gas mass of the surrounding molecular component for the first time, we have mapped a wide region around IRAS 19312+1950 in the {sup 12}CO J = 1–0, {sup 13}CO J = 1–0 and C{sup 18}O J = 1–0 lines using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. In conjunction with archival CO maps, we investigated a region up to 20′ × 20′ in size around this IRAS object. We calculated the CO gas mass assuming local thermal equilibrium, the stellar velocity through the interstellar medium assuming an analytic model of bow shock, and the absolute luminosity, using the latest archival data and trigonometric parallax distance. The derived gas mass (225 M {sub ⊙}–478 M {sub ⊙}) of the molecular component and the relatively large luminosity (2.63 × 10{sup 4} L {sub ☉}) suggest that the central SiO/H{sub 2}O/OH maser source is a red supergiant rather than an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star or post-AGB star.

  8. Structural-genetic approach to analysis and mapping of Chernobyl's radionuclide contamination field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskura, N.I.; Bujkov, M.; Nagorsky, V.A.; Tepikin, V.; Poletaev, V.; Solyanke, E.G.; Shkvorets, O.Y.; Shestopalov, V.M.; Skvortsov, V.

    1997-01-01

    As a main tool for revealing and interpreting the internal structure of radionuclide contamination field, around the Chernobyl NPP the reliable and validated detailed scale maps of contamination densities could serve. Such maps should have, on the one hand, a high enough density of initial observation points (not less than 1 to 10 points per 1 sq.cm. of final map) and, on the other hand, a high representativeness of each observation point, i.e. reliability of presentation of its vicinity (0.1 to 1 sq.km). The available analytical data files of soil sampling in the exclusion zone conform neither to the first requirement, nor to the second one: real density of sampling does not exceed 0-2 to 0.5 points per 1 sq.m, and the representativeness of obtained results has a typical variation from medium values (in the neighbourhood of 0.1 to 1 sq.km) to 3 to 5 times

  9. Sensitivity of simulated transcranial ultrasound fields to acoustic medium property maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, James; Martin, Eleanor; Cox, Ben; Treeby, Bradley E.

    2017-04-01

    High intensity transcranial focused ultrasound is an FDA approved treatment for essential tremor, while low-intensity applications such as neurostimulation and opening the blood brain barrier are under active research. Simulations of transcranial ultrasound propagation are used both for focusing through the skull, and predicting intracranial fields. Maps of the skull acoustic properties are necessary for accurate simulations, and can be derived from medical images using a variety of methods. The skull maps range from segmented, homogeneous models, to fully heterogeneous models derived from medical image intensity. In the present work, the impact of uncertainties in the skull properties is examined using a model of transcranial propagation from a single element focused transducer. The impact of changes in bone layer geometry and the sound speed, density, and acoustic absorption values is quantified through a numerical sensitivity analysis. Sound speed is shown to be the most influential acoustic property, and must be defined with less than 4% error to obtain acceptable accuracy in simulated focus pressure, position, and volume. Changes in the skull thickness of as little as 0.1 mm can cause an error in peak intracranial pressure of greater than 5%, while smoothing with a 1 \\text{m}{{\\text{m}}3} kernel to imitate the effect of obtaining skull maps from low resolution images causes an increase of over 50% in peak pressure. The numerical results are confirmed experimentally through comparison with sonications made through 3D printed and resin cast skull bone phantoms.

  10. Mapping absolute tissue endogenous fluorophore concentrations with chemometric wide-field fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhang; Reilley, Michael; Li, Run; Xu, Min

    2017-06-01

    We report chemometric wide-field fluorescence microscopy for imaging the spatial distribution and concentration of endogenous fluorophores in thin tissue sections. Nonnegative factorization aided by spatial diversity is used to learn both the spectral signature and the spatial distribution of endogenous fluorophores from microscopic fluorescence color images obtained under broadband excitation and detection. The absolute concentration map of individual fluorophores is derived by comparing the fluorescence from "pure" fluorophores under the identical imaging condition following the identification of the fluorescence species by its spectral signature. This method is then demonstrated by characterizing the concentration map of endogenous fluorophores (including tryptophan, elastin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide) for lung tissue specimens. The absolute concentrations of these fluorophores are all found to decrease significantly from normal, perilesional, to cancerous (squamous cell carcinoma) tissue. Discriminating tissue types using the absolute fluorophore concentration is found to be significantly more accurate than that achievable with the relative fluorescence strength. Quantification of fluorophores in terms of the absolute concentration map is also advantageous in eliminating the uncertainties due to system responses or measurement details, yielding more biologically relevant data, and simplifying the assessment of competing imaging approaches.

  11. Structural Mapping Based on Potential Field and Remote Sensing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    52

    exploration program sponsored by oil industries (Bijendra Singh et al. 2009). G-M surveys revealed ... structural details of the basin architecture in order to comprehend the tectonic development of the basin. In this endeavor, we have utilized ..... increasing frequency (Spector and Grant 1970). In this approach, depth to the ...

  12. Color image encryption based on Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazloom, Sahar; Eftekhari-Moghadam, Amir Masud

    2009-01-01

    Image encryption is somehow different from text encryption due to some inherent features of image such as bulk data capacity and high correlation among pixels, which are generally difficult to handle by conventional methods. The desirable cryptographic properties of the chaotic maps such as sensitivity to initial conditions and random-like behavior have attracted the attention of cryptographers to develop new encryption algorithms. Therefore, recent researches of image encryption algorithms have been increasingly based on chaotic systems, though the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. This paper proposes a Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map, called CNCM, and a novel chaos-based image encryption algorithm to encrypt color images by using CNCM. The chaotic cryptography technique which used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography with a stream cipher structure. In order to increase the security of the proposed algorithm, 240 bit-long secret key is used to generate the initial conditions and parameters of the chaotic map by making some algebraic transformations to the key. These transformations as well as the nonlinearity and coupling structure of the CNCM have enhanced the cryptosystem security. For getting higher security and higher complexity, the current paper employs the image size and color components to cryptosystem, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to known/chosen-plaintext attacks. The results of several experimental, statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real-time image encryption and transmission.

  13. Study of Research Trend in Knowledge Management Field(2001-2010 and Mapping its Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Sedighi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Using scientometric and bibliometric methods, the present study will answer this question: What approach had paid the scientific output in the field of knowledge management at international level in the last decade? For this purpose the first, keywords and subdirectories in this field were identified and selected. Then advanced search of these words were performed in the Web of Science database. All the extracted data from WoS database were entered to the "Histcite" software in the form of 500 record files. After performing the necessary analysis on them, scientific map in this field in 2001-2010 periods was drawn by the software. The study showed average annual growth rate of WoS publications in the field of knowledge management in the last decade, was 10.9 percent. Scientific products of Iranian scientists were included 221 records, and were formed 0.4 percent of the total scientific outputs in this field, and the rank of it, was 35. The most frequent thematic trends were: support information technology like 'data mining' and also organizational, social and managerial elements of knowledge management.

  14. Geologic map of the Simcoe Mountains Volcanic Field, main central segment, Yakama Nation, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Mountainous parts of the Yakama Nation lands in south-central Washington are mostly covered by basaltic lava flows and cinder cones that make up the Simcoe Mountains volcanic field. The accompanying geologic map of the central part of the volcanic field has been produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on behalf of the Water Resources Program of the Yakama Nation. The volcanic terrain stretches continuously from Mount Adams eastward as far as Satus Pass and Mill Creek Guard Station. Most of the many hills and buttes are volcanic cones where cinders and spatter piled up around erupting vents while lava flows spread downslope. All of these small volcanoes are now extinct, and, even during their active lifetimes, most of them erupted for no more than a few years. On the Yakama Nation lands, the only large long-lived volcano capable of erupting again in the future is Mount Adams, on the western boundary.

  15. Nanoscale mapping of the three-dimensional deformation field within commercial nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqbool, Muhammad Salman; Hoxley, David; Phillips, Nicholas W.; Coughlan, Hannah D.; Darmanin, Connie; Johnson, Brett C.; Harder, Ross; Clark, Jesse N.; Balaur, Eugeniu; Abbey, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The unique properties of nanodiamonds make them suitable for use in a wide range of applications, including as biomarkers for cellular tracking in vivo at the molecular level. The sustained fluorescence of nanodiamonds containing nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centres is related to their internal structure and strain state. Theoretical studies predict that the location of the N-V centre and the nanodiamonds' residual elastic strain state have a major influence on their photoluminescence properties. However, to date there have been no direct measurements made of their spatially resolved deformation fields owing to the challenges that such measurements present. Here we apply the recently developed technique of Bragg coherent diffractive imaging (BCDI) to map the three-dimensional deformation field within a single nanodiamond of approximately 0.5 µm diameter. The results indicate that there are high levels of residual elastic strain present in the nanodiamond which could have a critical influence on its optical and electronic properties.

  16. Mapping residual stress fields from Vickers hardness indents using Raman microprobe spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, R.G.; Enloe, W.S.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to map the residual stress fields in the vicinity of Vickers hardness indents. Both 514.5 and 488.0 nm, light is used to excite the effect and the resulting shifted and broadened Raman peaks are analyzed using computer deconvolution. Half-wave plates are used to vary the orientation of the incident later light`s polarization state with respect to crystal orientation. The Raman scattered light is then analyzed for polarization dependences which are indicative of the various components of the Raman scattering tensor. Such studies can yield valuable information about the orientation of stress components in a well known stress field. The results can then be applied to the determination of stress components in machined semiconductor materials.

  17. Mean-field dynamics of a population of stochastic map neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franović, Igor; Maslennikov, Oleg V.; Bačić, Iva; Nekorkin, Vladimir I.

    2017-07-01

    We analyze the emergent regimes and the stimulus-response relationship of a population of noisy map neurons by means of a mean-field model, derived within the framework of cumulant approach complemented by the Gaussian closure hypothesis. It is demonstrated that the mean-field model can qualitatively account for stability and bifurcations of the exact system, capturing all the generic forms of collective behavior, including macroscopic excitability, subthreshold oscillations, periodic or chaotic spiking, and chaotic bursting dynamics. Apart from qualitative analogies, we find a substantial quantitative agreement between the exact and the approximate system, as reflected in matching of the parameter domains admitting the different dynamical regimes, as well as the characteristic properties of the associated time series. The effective model is further shown to reproduce with sufficient accuracy the phase response curves of the exact system and the assembly's response to external stimulation of finite amplitude and duration.

  18. Development of a Cryogenic Radiation Detector for Mapping Radio Frequency Superconducting Cavity Field Emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Dotson, Danny W

    2005-01-01

    There is a relationship between field emissions in a Super Conducting RF cavity and the production of radiation (mostly X-rays). External (room temperature) detectors are shielded from the onset of low energy X-rays by the vacuum and cryogenic stainless steel module walls. An internal measuring system for mapping field emissions would assist scientists and engineers in perfecting surface deposition and acid washing module surfaces. Two measurement systems are undergoing cryogenic testing at JLab. One is an active CsI photodiode array and the second is an X-ray film camera. The CsI array has operated sucessfully in a cavity in liquid Helium but saturated at higher power due to scattering in the cavity. A shield with an aperature similar to the X-ray film detector is being designed for the next series of tests which will be completed before PAC-05.

  19. An extended anchored linkage map and virtual mapping for the american mink genome based on homology to human and dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Ansari, S.; Farid, A.

    2009-01-01

    hybridization (FISH) and/or by means of human/dog/mink comparative homology. The average interval between markers is 8.5 cM and the linkage groups collectively span 1340 cM. In addition, 217 and 275 mink microsatellites have been placed on human and dog genomes, respectively. In conjunction with the existing...... comparative human/dog/mink data, these assignments represent useful virtual maps for the American mink genome. Comparison of the current human/dog assembled sequential map with the existing Zoo-FISH-based human/dog/mink maps helped to refine the human/dog/mink comparative map. Furthermore, comparison...... of the human and dog genome assemblies revealed a number of large synteny blocks, some of which are corroborated by data from the mink linkage map....

  20. Regulation of microtubule-based transport by MAP4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Irina; Ikeda, Kazuho; Resaul, Karim; Kraikivski, Pavel; Aguiar, Mike; Gygi, Steven; Zaliapin, Ilya; Cowan, Ann; Rodionov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule (MT)-based transport of organelles driven by the opposing MT motors kinesins and dynein is tightly regulated in cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we tested the regulation of MT transport by the ubiquitous protein MAP4 using Xenopus melanophores as an experimental system. In these cells, pigment granules (melanosomes) move along MTs to the cell center (aggregation) or to the periphery (dispersion) by means of cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-2, respectively. We found that aggregation signals induced phosphorylation of threonine residues in the MT-binding domain of the Xenopus MAP4 (XMAP4), thus decreasing binding of this protein to MTs. Overexpression of XMAP4 inhibited pigment aggregation by shortening dynein-dependent MT runs of melanosomes, whereas removal of XMAP4 from MTs reduced the length of kinesin-2–dependent runs and suppressed pigment dispersion. We hypothesize that binding of XMAP4 to MTs negatively regulates dynein-dependent movement of melanosomes and positively regulates kinesin-2–based movement. Phosphorylation during pigment aggregation reduces binding of XMAP4 to MTs, thus increasing dynein-dependent and decreasing kinesin-2–dependent motility of melanosomes, which stimulates their accumulation in the cell center, whereas dephosphorylation of XMAP4 during dispersion has an opposite effect. PMID:25143402

  1. Semantic Web-based digital, field and virtual geological

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    Digital, field and virtual Semantic Web-based education (SWBE) of geological mapping requires the construction of a set of searchable, reusable, and interoperable digital learning objects (LO) for learners, teachers, and authors. These self-contained units of learning may be text, image, or audio, describing, for example, how to calculate the true dip of a layer from two structural contours or find the apparent dip along a line of section. A collection of multi-media LOs can be integrated, through domain and task ontologies, with mapping-related learning activities and Web services, for example, to search for the description of lithostratigraphic units in an area, or plotting orientation data on stereonet. Domain ontologies (e.g., GeologicStructure, Lithostratigraphy, Rock) represent knowledge in formal languages (RDF, OWL) by explicitly specifying concepts, relations, and theories involved in geological mapping. These ontologies are used by task ontologies that formalize the semantics of computational tasks (e.g., measuring the true thickness of a formation) and activities (e.g., construction of cross section) for all actors to solve specific problems (making map, instruction, learning support, authoring). A SWBE system for geological mapping should also involve ontologies to formalize teaching strategy (pedagogical styles), learner model (e.g., for student performance, personalization of learning), interface (entry points for activities of all actors), communication (exchange of messages among different components and actors), and educational Web services (for interoperability). In this ontology-based environment, actors interact with the LOs through educational servers, that manage (reuse, edit, delete, store) ontologies, and through tools which communicate with Web services to collect resources and links to other tools. Digital geological mapping involves a location-based, spatial organization of geological elements in a set of GIS thematic layers. Each layer

  2. Differential phase-contrast dark-field electron holography for strain mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denneulin, Thibaud, E-mail: thibaud.denneulin@cemes.fr; Houdellier, Florent, E-mail: florent.houdellier@cemes.fr; Hÿtch, Martin, E-mail: martin.hytch@cemes.fr

    2016-01-15

    Strain mapping is an active area of research in transmission electron microscopy. Here we introduce a dark-field electron holographic technique that shares several aspects in common with both off-axis and in-line holography. Two incident and convergent plane waves are produced in front of the specimen thanks to an electrostatic biprism in the condenser system of a transmission electron microscope. The interference of electron beams diffracted by the illuminated crystal is then recorded in a defocused plane. The differential phase recovered from the hologram is directly proportional to the strain in the sample. The strain can be quantified if the separation of the images due to the defocus is precisely determined. The present technique has the advantage that the derivative of the phase is measured directly which allows us to avoid numerical differentiation. The distribution of the noise in the reconstructed strain maps is isotropic and more homogeneous. This technique was used to investigate different samples: a Si/SiGe superlattice, transistors with SiGe source/drain and epitaxial PZT thin films. - Highlights: • DPC dark-field electron holography is set up with a condenser biprism. • The DPC phase is directly proportional to the lattice deformation. • The technique is illustrated with epitaxial SiGe and Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} samples. • The defocus allows us to control the strain sensitivity and the spatial resolution. • A solution is proposed to setup this technique with a post-specimen biprism.

  3. Computation of Charged-Particle Transfer Maps for General Fields and Geometries Using Electromagnetic Boundary-Value Data

    OpenAIRE

    Dragt, A. J.; Roberts, P.; Stasevich, T. J.; Dragt, A. Bodoh-Creed A. J.; Roberts, P.; Stasevich, T. J.; Bodoh-Creed, A.; Walstrom, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional field distributions from realistic beamline elements can be obtained only by measurement or by numerical solution of a boundary-value problem. In numerical charged-particle map generation, fields along a reference trajectory are differentiated multiple times. Any attempt to differentiate directly such field data multiple times is soon dominated by "noise" due to finite meshing and/or measurement errors. This problem can be overcome by the use of field data on a surface outsi...

  4. A secure key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Luan Da-Peng

    2013-01-01

    To guarantee the security of communication in the public channel, many key agreement protocols have been proposed. Recently, Gong et al. proposed a key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps with password sharing. In this paper, Gong et al.'s protocol is analyzed, and we find that this protocol exhibits key management issues and potential security problems. Furthermore, the paper presents a new key agreement protocol based on enhanced Chebyshev polynomials to overcome these problems. Through our analysis, our key agreement protocol not only provides mutual authentication and the ability to resist a variety of common attacks, but also solve the problems of key management and security issues existing in Gong et al.'s protocol

  5. Topology Optimization of Passive Micromixers Based on Lagrangian Mapping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Guo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimization-based design method of passive micromixers for immiscible fluids, which means that the Peclet number infinitely large. Based on topology optimization method, an optimization model is constructed to find the optimal layout of the passive micromixers. Being different from the topology optimization methods with Eulerian description of the convection-diffusion dynamics, this proposed method considers the extreme case, where the mixing is dominated completely by the convection with negligible diffusion. In this method, the mixing dynamics is modeled by the mapping method, a Lagrangian description that can deal with the case with convection-dominance. Several numerical examples have been presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  6. Quantitative susceptibility mapping across two clinical field strengths: Contrast-to-noise ratio enhancement at 1.5T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippoliti, Matteo; Adams, Lisa C; Winfried, Brenner; Hamm, Bernd; Spincemaille, Pascal; Wang, Yi; Makowski, Marcus R

    2018-04-16

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is an MRI postprocessing technique that allows quantification of the spatial distribution of tissue magnetic susceptibility in vivo. Contributing sources include iron, blood products, calcium, myelin, and lipid content. To evaluate the reproducibility and consistency of QSM across clinical field strengths of 1.5T and 3T and to optimize the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) at 1.5T through bandwidth tuning. Prospective. Sixteen healthy volunteers (10 men, 6 women; age range 24-37; mean age 27.8 ± 3.2 years). 1.5T and 3T systems from the same vendor. Four spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) sequences were designed with different acquisition bandwidths. QSM reconstruction was achieved through a nonlinear morphology-enabled dipole inversion (MEDI) algorithm employing L1 regularization. CNR was calculated in seven regions of interest (ROIs), while reproducibility and consistency of QSM measurements were evaluated through voxel-based and region-specific linear correlation analyses and Bland-Altman plots. Interclass correlation, Wilcoxon rank sum test, linear regression analysis, Bland-Altman analysis, Welch's t-test. CNR analysis showed a statistically significant (P limits of agreement from -18.7 to 25.8 ppb) in the ROI-based analysis, while the correlation was found to be good for the voxel-based analysis of averaged maps (R ≥ 0.90, widest limits of agreement from -9.3 to 9.1 ppb). CNR of QSM images reconstructed from 1.5T acquisitions can be enhanced through bandwidth tuning. MEDI-based QSM reconstruction demonstrated to be reproducible and consistent both across field strengths (1.5T and 3T) and bandwidth variation. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. In-Field, In Situ, and In Vivo 3-Dimensional Elemental Mapping for Plant Tissue and Soil Analysis Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjiang Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensing and mapping element distributions in plant tissues and its growth environment has great significance for understanding the uptake, transport, and accumulation of nutrients and harmful elements in plants, as well as for understanding interactions between plants and the environment. In this study, we developed a 3-dimensional elemental mapping system based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy that can be deployed in- field to directly measure the distribution of multiple elements in living plants as well as in the soil. Mapping is performed by a fast scanning laser, which ablates a micro volume of a sample to form a plasma. The presence and concentration of specific elements are calculated using the atomic, ionic, and molecular spectral characteristics of the plasma emission spectra. Furthermore, we mapped the pesticide residues in maize leaves after spraying to demonstrate the capacity of this method for trace elemental mapping. We also used the system to quantitatively detect the element concentrations in soil, which can be used to further understand the element transport between plants and soil. We demonstrate that this method has great potential for elemental mapping in plant tissues and soil with the advantages of 3-dimensional and multi-elemental mapping, in situ and in vivo measurement, flexible use, and low cost.

  8. Cloud-based computation for accelerating vegetation mapping and change detection at regional to national scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Gregory; Zhiqiang Yang; David M. Bell; Warren B. Cohen; Sean Healey; Janet L. Ohmann; Heather M. Roberts

    2015-01-01

    Mapping vegetation and landscape change at fine spatial scales is needed to inform natural resource and conservation planning, but such maps are expensive and time-consuming to produce. For Landsat-based methodologies, mapping efforts are hampered by the daunting task of manipulating multivariate data for millions to billions of pixels. The advent of cloud-based...

  9. Whole brain MP2RAGE-based mapping of the longitudinal relaxation time at 9.4T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, G E; Bause, J; Ethofer, T; Ehses, P; Dresler, T; Herbert, C; Pohmann, R; Shajan, G; Fallgatter, A; Pavlova, M A; Scheffler, K

    2017-01-01

    Mapping of the longitudinal relaxation time (T 1 ) with high accuracy and precision is central for neuroscientific and clinical research, since it opens up the possibility to obtain accurate brain tissue segmentation and gain myelin-related information. An ideal, quantitative method should enable whole brain coverage within a limited scan time yet allow for detailed sampling with sub-millimeter voxel sizes. The use of ultra-high magnetic fields is well suited for this purpose, however the inhomogeneous transmit field potentially hampers its use. In the present work, we conducted whole brain T 1 mapping based on the MP2RAGE sequence at 9.4T and explored potential pitfalls for automated tissue classification compared with 3T. Data accuracy and T 2 -dependent variation of the adiabatic inversion efficiency were investigated by single slice T 1 mapping with inversion recovery EPI measurements, quantitative T 2 mapping using multi-echo techniques and simulations of the Bloch equations. We found that the prominent spatial variation of the transmit field at 9.4T (yielding flip angles between 20% and 180% of nominal values) profoundly affected the result of image segmentation and T 1 mapping. These effects could be mitigated by correcting for both flip angle and inversion efficiency deviations. Based on the corrected T 1 maps, new, 'flattened', MP2RAGE contrast images were generated, that were no longer affected by variations of the transmit field. Unlike the uncorrected MP2RAGE contrast images acquired at 9.4T, these flattened images yielded image segmentations comparable to 3T, making bias-field correction prior to image segmentation and tissue classification unnecessary. In terms of the T 1 estimates at high field, the proposed correction methods resulted in an improved precision, with test-retest variability below 1% and a coefficient-of-variation across 25 subjects below 3%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Field-based systems and advanced diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eryurek, E.

    1998-01-01

    Detection and characterization of anomalies in an industrial plant provide improved plant availability and plant efficiency thus yielding increased economic efficiency. Traditionally, detection of process anomalies is done at a high-level control system through various signal validation methods. These signal validation techniques rely on data from transmitters, which measure related process variables. Correlating these signals and deducing anomalies often is a very time consuming and a difficult task. Delays in detecting these anomalies can be costly during plant operation. Conventional centralized approaches also suffer from their dependence on detailed mathematical models of the processes. Smart field devices have the advantage of providing the necessary information directly to the control system as anomalies develop during operation of the processes enabling operators to take necessary steps to either prevent an unnecessary shut down before the problem becomes serious or schedule maintenance on the problematic loop. Fisher-Rosemount's PlantWeb TM architecture addresses 'Enhanced Measurement, Advanced Diagnostics and Control in the Field'. PlantWeb TM builds open process management systems by networking intelligent field devices, scalable control and systems platforms, and integrated modular software. A description of PlantWeb TM and how it improves various process conditions and reduces operating cost of a plant as well as a high level description of 'Enhanced Measurement, Advanced Diagnostics and Control in the Field', will be provided in this paper. PlantWeb TM is the trademark for Fisher-Rosemount's new field-based architecture that uses emerging technologies to utilize the power of intelligent field devices and deliver critical process and equipment information to improve plant performance. (author)

  11. Construction of microsatellite-based linkage map and mapping of nectarilessness and hairiness genes in Gossypium tomentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Meiying; Cai, Caiping; Zhang, Shuwen; Guo, Wangzhen; Zhang, Tianzhen; Zhou, Baoliang

    2013-12-01

    Gossypium tomentosum, a wild tetraploid cotton species with AD genomes, possesses genes conferring strong fibers and high heat tolerance. To effectively transfer these genes into Gossypium hirsutum, an entire microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR)-based genetic map was constructed using the interspecific cross of G. hirsutum x G. tomentosum (HT). We detected 1800 loci from 1347 pairs of polymorphic primers. Of these, 1204 loci were grouped into 35 linkage groups at LOD ≥ 4. The map covers 3320.8 cM, with a mean density of 2.76 cM per locus. We detected 420 common loci (186 in the At subgenome and 234 in Dt) between the HT map and the map of TM-1 (G. hirsutum) and Hai 7124 (G. barbadense; HB map). The linkage groups were assigned chromosome numbers based on location of common loci and the HB map as reference. A comparison of common markers revealed that no significant chromosomal rearrangement exist between G. tomentosum and G. barbadense. Interestingly, however, we detected numerous (33.7%) segregation loci deviating from 3:1 ratio (P constructed in this study will be useful for further genetic studies on cotton breeding, including mapping loci controlling quantitative traits associated with fiber quality, stress tolerance and developing chromosome segment specific introgression lines from G. tomentosum into G. hirsutum using marker-assisted selection.

  12. Direct magnetic field estimation based on echo planar raw data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, Frederik; Splitthoff, Daniel Nicolas; Speck, Oliver; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2010-07-01

    Gradient recalled echo echo planar imaging is widely used in functional magnetic resonance imaging. The fast data acquisition is, however, very sensitive to field inhomogeneities which manifest themselves as artifacts in the images. Typically used correction methods have the common deficit that the data for the correction are acquired only once at the beginning of the experiment, assuming the field inhomogeneity distribution B(0) does not change over the course of the experiment. In this paper, methods to extract the magnetic field distribution from the acquired k-space data or from the reconstructed phase image of a gradient echo planar sequence are compared and extended. A common derivation for the presented approaches provides a solid theoretical basis, enables a fair comparison and demonstrates the equivalence of the k-space and the image phase based approaches. The image phase analysis is extended here to calculate the local gradient in the readout direction and improvements are introduced to the echo shift analysis, referred to here as "k-space filtering analysis." The described methods are compared to experimentally acquired B(0) maps in phantoms and in vivo. The k-space filtering analysis presented in this work demonstrated to be the most sensitive method to detect field inhomogeneities.

  13. Full-Field Strain Mapping at a Ge/Si Heterostructure Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buwen Cheng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The misfit dislocations and strain fields at a Ge/Si heterostructure interface were investigated experimentally using a combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and quantitative electron micrograph analysis methods. The type of misfit dislocation at the interface was determined to be 60° dislocation and 90° full-edge dislocation. The full-field strains at the Ge/Si heterostructure interface were mapped by using the geometric phase analysis (GPA and peak pairs analysis (PPA, respectively. The effect of the mask size on the GPA and PPA results was analyzed in detail. For comparison, the theoretical strain fields of the misfit dislocations were also calculated by the Peierls-Nabarro and Foreman dislocation models. The results showed that the optimal mask sizes in GPA and PPA were approximately three tenths and one-tenth of the reciprocal lattice vector, respectively. The Foreman dislocation model with an alterable factor a = 4 can best describe the strain field of the misfit dislocation at the Ge/Si heterostructure interface.

  14. Wide-field optical mapping of neural activity and brain haemodynamics: considerations and novel approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Shaik, Mohammed A.; Kozberg, Mariel G.; Thibodeaux, David N.; Zhao, Hanzhi T.; Yu, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Although modern techniques such as two-photon microscopy can now provide cellular-level three-dimensional imaging of the intact living brain, the speed and fields of view of these techniques remain limited. Conversely, two-dimensional wide-field optical mapping (WFOM), a simpler technique that uses a camera to observe large areas of the exposed cortex under visible light, can detect changes in both neural activity and haemodynamics at very high speeds. Although WFOM may not provide single-neuron or capillary-level resolution, it is an attractive and accessible approach to imaging large areas of the brain in awake, behaving mammals at speeds fast enough to observe widespread neural firing events, as well as their dynamic coupling to haemodynamics. Although such wide-field optical imaging techniques have a long history, the advent of genetically encoded fluorophores that can report neural activity with high sensitivity, as well as modern technologies such as light emitting diodes and sensitive and high-speed digital cameras have driven renewed interest in WFOM. To facilitate the wider adoption and standardization of WFOM approaches for neuroscience and neurovascular coupling research, we provide here an overview of the basic principles of WFOM, considerations for implementation of wide-field fluorescence imaging of neural activity, spectroscopic analysis and interpretation of results. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574312

  15. Wide-field optical mapping of neural activity and brain haemodynamics: considerations and novel approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Shaik, Mohammed A; Kim, Sharon H; Kozberg, Mariel G; Thibodeaux, David N; Zhao, Hanzhi T; Yu, Hang; Hillman, Elizabeth M C

    2016-10-05

    Although modern techniques such as two-photon microscopy can now provide cellular-level three-dimensional imaging of the intact living brain, the speed and fields of view of these techniques remain limited. Conversely, two-dimensional wide-field optical mapping (WFOM), a simpler technique that uses a camera to observe large areas of the exposed cortex under visible light, can detect changes in both neural activity and haemodynamics at very high speeds. Although WFOM may not provide single-neuron or capillary-level resolution, it is an attractive and accessible approach to imaging large areas of the brain in awake, behaving mammals at speeds fast enough to observe widespread neural firing events, as well as their dynamic coupling to haemodynamics. Although such wide-field optical imaging techniques have a long history, the advent of genetically encoded fluorophores that can report neural activity with high sensitivity, as well as modern technologies such as light emitting diodes and sensitive and high-speed digital cameras have driven renewed interest in WFOM. To facilitate the wider adoption and standardization of WFOM approaches for neuroscience and neurovascular coupling research, we provide here an overview of the basic principles of WFOM, considerations for implementation of wide-field fluorescence imaging of neural activity, spectroscopic analysis and interpretation of results.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. © 2016 The Authors.

  16. Simulated near-field mapping of ripple pattern supported metal nanoparticles arrays for SERS optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Mahima; Bhatnagar, Mukul; Ranjan, Mukesh; Mukherjee, Subroto; Nath, Rabinder; Mitra, Anirban

    2017-11-01

    An analytical model has been developed using a modified Yamaguchi model along with the wavelength dependent plasmon line-width correction. The model has been used to calculate the near-field response of random nanoparticles on the plane surface, elongated and spherical silver nanoparticle arrays supported on ion beam produced ripple patterned templates. The calculated near-field mapping for elongated nanoparticles arrays on the ripple patterned surface shows maximum number of hot-spots with a higher near-field enhancement (NFE) as compared to the spherical nanoparticle arrays and randomly distributed nanoparticles on the plane surface. The results from the simulations show a similar trend for the NFE when compared to the far field reflection spectra. The nature of the wavelength dependent NFE is also found to be in agreement with the observed experimental results from surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The calculated and the measured optical response unambiguously reveal the importance of interparticle gap and ordering, where a high intensity Raman signal is obtained for ordered elongated nanoparticles arrays case as against non-ordered and the aligned configuration of spherical nanoparticles on the rippled surface.

  17. Mobile Ground-Based Radar Sensor for Localization and Mapping: An Evaluation of two Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Vivet

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with robotic applications using a ground-based radar sensor for simultaneous localization and mapping problems. In mobile robotics, radar technology is interesting because of its long range and the robustness of radar waves to atmospheric conditions, making these sensors well-suited for extended outdoor robotic applications. Two localization and mapping approaches using data obtained from a 360° field of view microwave radar sensor are presented and compared. The first method is a trajectory-oriented simultaneous localization and mapping technique, which makes no landmark assumptions and avoids the data association problem. The estimation of the ego-motion makes use of the Fourier-Mellin transform for registering radar images in a sequence, from which the rotation and translation of the sensor motion can be estimated. The second approach uses the consequence of using a rotating range sensor in high speed robotics. In such a situation, movement combinations create distortions in the collected data. Velocimetry is achieved here by explicitly analysing these measurement distortions. As a result, the trajectory of the vehicle and then the radar map of outdoor environments can be obtained. The evaluation of experimental results obtained by the two methods is presented on real-world data from a vehicle moving at 30 km/h over a 2.5 km course.

  18. Developing a scientific procedure for community based hazard mapping and risk mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, M.

    2011-12-01

    As an international exchange student from the Geological Sciences Department at San Diego State University (SDSU), I joined the KKN-PPM program at Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in July 2011 for 12 days (July 4th to July 16th) of its two month duration (July 4th to August 25th). The KKN-PPM group I was attached was designated 154 and was focused in Plosorejo Village, Karanganyar, Kerjo, Central Java, Indonesia. The mission of KKN-PPM 154 was to survey Plosorejo village for existing landslides, to generate a simple hazard susceptibility map that can be understood by local villagers, and then to begin dissemination of that map into the community. To generate our susceptibility map we first conducted a geological survey of the existing landslides in the field study area, with a focus on determining landslide triggers and gauging areas for susceptibility for future landslides. The methods for gauging susceptibility included lithological observation, the presence of linear cracking, visible loss of structural integrity in structures such as villager homes, as well as collaboration with local residents and with the local rescue and response team. There were three color distinctions used in representing susceptibility which were green, where there is no immediate danger of landslide damage; orange, where transportation routes are at risk of being disrupted by landslides; and red, where imminent landslide potential puts a home in direct danger. The landslide inventory and susceptibility data was compiled into digital mediums such as CorelDraw, ArcGIS and Google Earth. Once a technical map was generated, we presented it to the village leadership for confirmation and modification based on their experience. Finally, we began to use the technical susceptibility map to draft evacuation routes and meeting points in the event of landslides, as well as simple susceptibility maps that can be understood and utilized by local villagers. Landslide mitigation

  19. A dynamic identity based authentication scheme using chaotic maps for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiheng; Huo, Zhanqiang; Shi, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    With rapid development of computer technology and wide use of mobile devices, the telecare medicine information system has become universal in the field of medical care. To protect patients' privacy and medial data's security, many authentication schemes for the telecare medicine information system have been proposed. Due to its better performance, chaotic maps have been used in the design of authentication schemes for the telecare medicine information system. However, most of them cannot provide user's anonymity. Recently, Lin proposed a dynamic identity based authentication scheme using chaotic maps for the telecare medicine information system and claimed that their scheme was secure against existential active attacks. In this paper, we will demonstrate that their scheme cannot provide user anonymity and is vulnerable to the impersonation attack. Further, we propose an improved scheme to fix security flaws in Lin's scheme and demonstrate the proposed scheme could withstand various attacks.

  20. Chaotic map based key agreement with/out clock synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.; Chang, E.

    2009-01-01

    In order to address Bergamo et al.'s attack, Xiao et al. proposed a key agreement protocol using chaotic maps. Han then presented three attacks on Xiao et al.'s protocol. To enhance the security of key agreement based on chaotic maps, Chang et al. proposed a new key agreement using passphrase, which works in clock synchronization environment. However, their protocol still has some issues: one is its passphrase is not easy to remember and much longer than password; the second one is it cannot resist guessing attack if the constructed passphrase is easy to remember and also has already existed in some rational dictionaries; the third one is it cannot work without clock synchronization. In this paper, we will present two different key agreement protocols, which can resist guessing attack. The first one works in clock synchronization environment. The second one can work without clock synchronization. They both use authenticated password for secure communications. The protocols are secure against replaying attacks and a shared session key can be established.

  1. An Isometric Mapping Based Co-Location Decision Tree Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Wei, J.; Zhou, X.; Zhang, R.; Huang, W.; Sha, H.; Chen, J.

    2018-05-01

    Decision tree (DT) induction has been widely used in different pattern classification. However, most traditional DTs have the disadvantage that they consider only non-spatial attributes (ie, spectral information) as a result of classifying pixels, which can result in objects being misclassified. Therefore, some researchers have proposed a co-location decision tree (Cl-DT) method, which combines co-location and decision tree to solve the above the above-mentioned traditional decision tree problems. Cl-DT overcomes the shortcomings of the existing DT algorithms, which create a node for each value of a given attribute, which has a higher accuracy than the existing decision tree approach. However, for non-linearly distributed data instances, the euclidean distance between instances does not reflect the true positional relationship between them. In order to overcome these shortcomings, this paper proposes an isometric mapping method based on Cl-DT (called, (Isomap-based Cl-DT), which is a method that combines heterogeneous and Cl-DT together. Because isometric mapping methods use geodetic distances instead of Euclidean distances between non-linearly distributed instances, the true distance between instances can be reflected. The experimental results and several comparative analyzes show that: (1) The extraction method of exposed carbonate rocks is of high accuracy. (2) The proposed method has many advantages, because the total number of nodes, the number of leaf nodes and the number of nodes are greatly reduced compared to Cl-DT. Therefore, the Isomap -based Cl-DT algorithm can construct a more accurate and faster decision tree.

  2. AN ISOMETRIC MAPPING BASED CO-LOCATION DECISION TREE ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Decision tree (DT induction has been widely used in different pattern classification. However, most traditional DTs have the disadvantage that they consider only non-spatial attributes (ie, spectral information as a result of classifying pixels, which can result in objects being misclassified. Therefore, some researchers have proposed a co-location decision tree (Cl-DT method, which combines co-location and decision tree to solve the above the above-mentioned traditional decision tree problems. Cl-DT overcomes the shortcomings of the existing DT algorithms, which create a node for each value of a given attribute, which has a higher accuracy than the existing decision tree approach. However, for non-linearly distributed data instances, the euclidean distance between instances does not reflect the true positional relationship between them. In order to overcome these shortcomings, this paper proposes an isometric mapping method based on Cl-DT (called, (Isomap-based Cl-DT, which is a method that combines heterogeneous and Cl-DT together. Because isometric mapping methods use geodetic distances instead of Euclidean distances between non-linearly distributed instances, the true distance between instances can be reflected. The experimental results and several comparative analyzes show that: (1 The extraction method of exposed carbonate rocks is of high accuracy. (2 The proposed method has many advantages, because the total number of nodes, the number of leaf nodes and the number of nodes are greatly reduced compared to Cl-DT. Therefore, the Isomap -based Cl-DT algorithm can construct a more accurate and faster decision tree.

  3. Discrete phase space based on finite fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, Kathleen S.; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Wootters, William K.

    2004-01-01

    The original Wigner function provides a way of representing in phase space the quantum states of systems with continuous degrees of freedom. Wigner functions have also been developed for discrete quantum systems, one popular version being defined on a 2Nx2N discrete phase space for a system with N orthogonal states. Here we investigate an alternative class of discrete Wigner functions, in which the field of real numbers that labels the axes of continuous phase space is replaced by a finite field having N elements. There exists such a field if and only if N is a power of a prime; so our formulation can be applied directly only to systems for which the state-space dimension takes such a value. Though this condition may seem limiting, we note that any quantum computer based on qubits meets the condition and can thus be accommodated within our scheme. The geometry of our NxN phase space also leads naturally to a method of constructing a complete set of N+1 mutually unbiased bases for the state space

  4. Smartphone-Based Mobile Detection Platform for Molecular Diagnostics and Spatiotemporal Disease Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinzhao; Pandian, Vikram; Mauk, Michael G; Bau, Haim H; Cherry, Sara; Tisi, Laurence C; Liu, Changchun

    2018-04-03

    Rapid and quantitative molecular diagnostics in the field, at home, and at remote clinics is essential for evidence-based disease management, control, and prevention. Conventional molecular diagnostics requires extensive sample preparation, relatively sophisticated instruments, and trained personnel, restricting its use to centralized laboratories. To overcome these limitations, we designed a simple, inexpensive, hand-held, smartphone-based mobile detection platform, dubbed "smart-connected cup" (SCC), for rapid, connected, and quantitative molecular diagnostics. Our platform combines bioluminescent assay in real-time and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (BART-LAMP) technology with smartphone-based detection, eliminating the need for an excitation source and optical filters that are essential in fluorescent-based detection. The incubation heating for the isothermal amplification is provided, electricity-free, with an exothermic chemical reaction, and incubation temperature is regulated with a phase change material. A custom Android App was developed for bioluminescent signal monitoring and analysis, target quantification, data sharing, and spatiotemporal mapping of disease. SCC's utility is demonstrated by quantitative detection of Zika virus (ZIKV) in urine and saliva and HIV in blood within 45 min. We demonstrate SCC's connectivity for disease spatiotemporal mapping with a custom-designed website. Such a smart- and connected-diagnostic system does not require any lab facilities and is suitable for use at home, in the field, in the clinic, and particularly in resource-limited settings in the context of Internet of Medical Things (IoMT).

  5. Characteristics of equatorial plasma bubbles observed by TEC map based on ground-based GNSS receivers over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Diego; Takahashi, Hisao; Wrasse, Cristiano M.; Figueiredo, Cosme Alexandre O. B.

    2018-01-01

    A ground-based network of GNSS receivers has been used to monitor equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) by mapping the total electron content (TEC map). The large coverage of the TEC map allowed us to monitor several EPBs simultaneously and get characteristics of the dynamics, extension and longitudinal distributions of the EPBs from the onset time until their disappearance. These characteristics were obtained by using TEC map analysis and the keogram technique. TEC map databases analyzed were for the period between November 2012 and January 2016. The zonal drift velocities of the EPBs showed a clear latitudinal gradient varying from 123 m s-1 at the Equator to 65 m s-1 for 35° S latitude. Consequently, observed EPBs are inclined against the geomagnetic field lines. Both zonal drift velocity and the inclination of the EPBs were compared to the thermospheric neutral wind, which showed good agreement. Moreover, the large two-dimensional coverage of TEC maps allowed us to study periodic EPBs with a wide longitudinal distance. The averaged values observed for the inter-bubble distances also presented a clear latitudinal gradient varying from 920 km at the Equator to 640 km at 30° S. The latitudinal gradient in the inter-bubble distances seems to be related to the difference in the zonal drift velocity of the EPB from the Equator to middle latitudes and to the difference in the westward movement of the terminator. On several occasions, the distances reached more than 2000 km. Inter-bubble distances greater than 1000 km have not been reported in the literature.

  6. Landslide susceptibility mapping using GIS-based statistical models and Remote sensing data in tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Himan; Hashim, Mazlan

    2015-04-22

    This research presents the results of the GIS-based statistical models for generation of landslide susceptibility mapping using geographic information system (GIS) and remote-sensing data for Cameron Highlands area in Malaysia. Ten factors including slope, aspect, soil, lithology, NDVI, land cover, distance to drainage, precipitation, distance to fault, and distance to road were extracted from SAR data, SPOT 5 and WorldView-1 images. The relationships between the detected landslide locations and these ten related factors were identified by using GIS-based statistical models including analytical hierarchy process (AHP), weighted linear combination (WLC) and spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) models. The landslide inventory map which has a total of 92 landslide locations was created based on numerous resources such as digital aerial photographs, AIRSAR data, WorldView-1 images, and field surveys. Then, 80% of the landslide inventory was used for training the statistical models and the remaining 20% was used for validation purpose. The validation results using the Relative landslide density index (R-index) and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) demonstrated that the SMCE model (accuracy is 96%) is better in prediction than AHP (accuracy is 91%) and WLC (accuracy is 89%) models. These landslide susceptibility maps would be useful for hazard mitigation purpose and regional planning.

  7. MSD-MAP: A Network-Based Systems Biology Platform for Predicting Disease-Metabolite Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathieu, Henri; Issa, Naiem T; Mohandoss, Manisha; Byers, Stephen W; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan

    2017-01-01

    Cancer-associated metabolites result from cell-wide mechanisms of dysregulation. The field of metabolomics has sought to identify these aberrant metabolites as disease biomarkers, clues to understanding disease mechanisms, or even as therapeutic agents. This study was undertaken to reliably predict metabolites associated with colorectal, esophageal, and prostate cancers. Metabolite and disease biological action networks were compared in a computational platform called MSD-MAP (Multi Scale Disease-Metabolite Association Platform). Using differential gene expression analysis with patient-based RNAseq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, genes up- or down-regulated in cancer compared to normal tissue were identified. Relational databases were used to map biological entities including pathways, functions, and interacting proteins, to those differential disease genes. Similar relational maps were built for metabolites, stemming from known and in silico predicted metabolite-protein associations. The hypergeometric test was used to find statistically significant relationships between disease and metabolite biological signatures at each tier, and metabolites were assessed for multi-scale association with each cancer. Metabolite networks were also directly associated with various other diseases using a disease functional perturbation database. Our platform recapitulated metabolite-disease links that have been empirically verified in the scientific literature, with network-based mapping of jointly-associated biological activity also matching known disease mechanisms. This was true for colorectal, esophageal, and prostate cancers, using metabolite action networks stemming from both predicted and known functional protein associations. By employing systems biology concepts, MSD-MAP reliably predicted known cancermetabolite links, and may serve as a predictive tool to streamline conventional metabolomic profiling methodologies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any

  8. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field scales over rainfed and irrigated agricultural areas using remote sensing data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    A continuous monitoring of daily evapotranspiration (ET) at field scale can be achieved by combining thermal infrared remote sensing data information from multiple satellite platforms. Here, an integrated approach to field scale ET mapping is described, combining multi-scale surface energy balance e...

  9. New light field camera based on physical based rendering tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Han; Chang, Shan-Ching; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2014-03-01

    Even though light field technology was first invented more than 50 years ago, it did not gain popularity due to the limitation imposed by the computation technology. With the rapid advancement of computer technology over the last decade, the limitation has been uplifted and the light field technology quickly returns to the spotlight of the research stage. In this paper, PBRT (Physical Based Rendering Tracing) was introduced to overcome the limitation of using traditional optical simulation approach to study the light field camera technology. More specifically, traditional optical simulation approach can only present light energy distribution but typically lack the capability to present the pictures in realistic scenes. By using PBRT, which was developed to create virtual scenes, 4D light field information was obtained to conduct initial data analysis and calculation. This PBRT approach was also used to explore the light field data calculation potential in creating realistic photos. Furthermore, we integrated the optical experimental measurement results with PBRT in order to place the real measurement results into the virtually created scenes. In other words, our approach provided us with a way to establish a link of virtual scene with the real measurement results. Several images developed based on the above-mentioned approaches were analyzed and discussed to verify the pros and cons of the newly developed PBRT based light field camera technology. It will be shown that this newly developed light field camera approach can circumvent the loss of spatial resolution associated with adopting a micro-lens array in front of the image sensors. Detailed operational constraint, performance metrics, computation resources needed, etc. associated with this newly developed light field camera technique were presented in detail.

  10. Map-Based Channel Model for Urban Macrocell Propagation Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose F. Monserrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of LTE towards 5G has started and different research projects and institutions are in the process of verifying new technology components through simulations. Coordination between groups is strongly recommended and, in this sense, a common definition of test cases and simulation models is needed. The scope of this paper is to present a realistic channel model for urban macrocell scenarios. This model is map-based and takes into account the layout of buildings situated in the area under study. A detailed description of the model is given together with a comparison with other widely used channel models. The benchmark includes a measurement campaign in which the proposed model is shown to be much closer to the actual behavior of a cellular system. Particular attention is given to the outdoor component of the model, since it is here where the proposed approach is showing main difference with other previous models.

  11. An Improved Piecewise Linear Chaotic Map Based Image Encryption Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An image encryption algorithm based on improved piecewise linear chaotic map (MPWLCM model was proposed. The algorithm uses the MPWLCM to permute and diffuse plain image simultaneously. Due to the sensitivity to initial key values, system parameters, and ergodicity in chaotic system, two pseudorandom sequences are designed and used in the processes of permutation and diffusion. The order of processing pixels is not in accordance with the index of pixels, but it is from beginning or end alternately. The cipher feedback was introduced in diffusion process. Test results and security analysis show that not only the scheme can achieve good encryption results but also its key space is large enough to resist against brute attack.

  12. A novel image encryption scheme based on spatial chaos map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fuyan; Liu Shutang; Li Zhongqin; Lue Zongwang

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the chaos-based cryptographic algorithms have suggested some new and efficient ways to develop secure image encryption techniques, but the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. In this paper, spatial chaos system are used for high degree security image encryption while its speed is acceptable. The proposed algorithm is described in detail. The basic idea is to encrypt the image in space with spatial chaos map pixel by pixel, and then the pixels are confused in multiple directions of space. Using this method one cycle, the image becomes indistinguishable in space due to inherent properties of spatial chaotic systems. Several experimental results, key sensitivity tests, key space analysis, and statistical analysis show that the approach for image cryptosystems provides an efficient and secure way for real time image encryption and transmission from the cryptographic viewpoint

  13. Mapping shape to visuomotor mapping: learning and generalisation of sensorimotor behaviour based on contextual information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes C J van Dam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans can learn and store multiple visuomotor mappings (dual-adaptation when feedback for each is provided alternately. Moreover, learned context cues associated with each mapping can be used to switch between the stored mappings. However, little is known about the associative learning between cue and required visuomotor mapping, and how learning generalises to novel but similar conditions. To investigate these questions, participants performed a rapid target-pointing task while we manipulated the offset between visual feedback and movement end-points. The visual feedback was presented with horizontal offsets of different amounts, dependent on the targets shape. Participants thus needed to use different visuomotor mappings between target location and required motor response depending on the target shape in order to "hit" it. The target shapes were taken from a continuous set of shapes, morphed between spiky and circular shapes. After training we tested participants performance, without feedback, on different target shapes that had not been learned previously. We compared two hypotheses. First, we hypothesised that participants could (explicitly extract the linear relationship between target shape and visuomotor mapping and generalise accordingly. Second, using previous findings of visuomotor learning, we developed a (implicit Bayesian learning model that predicts generalisation that is more consistent with categorisation (i.e. use one mapping or the other. The experimental results show that, although learning the associations requires explicit awareness of the cues' role, participants apply the mapping corresponding to the trained shape that is most similar to the current one, consistent with the Bayesian learning model. Furthermore, the Bayesian learning model predicts that learning should slow down with increased numbers of training pairs, which was confirmed by the present results. In short, we found a good correspondence between the

  14. [MapDraw: a microsoft excel macro for drawing genetic linkage maps based on given genetic linkage data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren-Hu; Meng, Jin-Ling

    2003-05-01

    MAPMAKER is one of the most widely used computer software package for constructing genetic linkage maps.However, the PC version, MAPMAKER 3.0 for PC, could not draw the genetic linkage maps that its Macintosh version, MAPMAKER 3.0 for Macintosh,was able to do. Especially in recent years, Macintosh computer is much less popular than PC. Most of the geneticists use PC to analyze their genetic linkage data. So a new computer software to draw the same genetic linkage maps on PC as the MAPMAKER for Macintosh to do on Macintosh has been crying for. Microsoft Excel,one component of Microsoft Office package, is one of the most popular software in laboratory data processing. Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is one of the most powerful functions of Microsoft Excel. Using this program language, we can take creative control of Excel, including genetic linkage map construction, automatic data processing and more. In this paper, a Microsoft Excel macro called MapDraw is constructed to draw genetic linkage maps on PC computer based on given genetic linkage data. Use this software,you can freely construct beautiful genetic linkage map in Excel and freely edit and copy it to Word or other application. This software is just an Excel format file. You can freely copy it from ftp://211.69.140.177 or ftp://brassica.hzau.edu.cn and the source code can be found in Excel's Visual Basic Editor.

  15. Continental Scale Vegetation Structure Mapping Using Field Calibrated Landsat, ALOS Palsar And GLAS ICESat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarth, P.; Phinn, S. R.; Armston, J.; Lucas, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vertical plant profiles are important descriptors of canopy structure and are used to inform models of biomass, biodiversity and fire risk. In Australia, an approach has been developed to produce large area maps of vertical plant profiles by extrapolating waveform lidar estimates of vertical plant profiles from ICESat/GLAS using large area segmentation of ALOS PALSAR and Landsat satellite image products. The main assumption of this approach is that the vegetation height profiles are consistent across the segments defined from ALOS PALSAR and Landsat image products. More than 1500 field sites were used to develop an index of fractional cover using Landsat data. A time series of the green fraction was used to calculate the persistent green fraction continuously across the landscape. This was fused with ALOS PALSAR L-band Fine Beam Dual polarisation 25m data and used to segment the Australian landscapes. K-means clustering then grouped the segments with similar cover and backscatter into approximately 1000 clusters. Where GLAS-ICESat footprints intersected these clusters, canopy profiles were extracted and aggregated to produce a mean vertical vegetation profile for each cluster that was used to derive mean canopy and understorey height, depth and density. Due to the large number of returns, these retrievals are near continuous across the landscape, enabling them to be used for inventory and modelling applications. To validate this product, a radiative transfer model was adapted to map directional gap probability from airborne waveform lidar datasets to retrieve vertical plant profiles Comparison over several test sites show excellent agreement and work is underway to extend the analysis to improve national biomass mapping. The integration of the three datasets provide options for future operational monitoring of structure and AGB across large areas for quantifying carbon dynamics, structural change and biodiversity.

  16. Template based rodent brain extraction and atlas mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimin Huang; Jiaqi Zhang; Zhiping Lin; Su Huang; Yuping Duan; Zhongkang Lu

    2016-08-01

    Accurate rodent brain extraction is the basic step for many translational studies using MR imaging. This paper presents a template based approach with multi-expert refinement to automatic rodent brain extraction. We first build the brain appearance model based on the learning exemplars. Together with the template matching, we encode the rodent brain position into the search space to reliably locate the rodent brain and estimate the rough segmentation. With the initial mask, a level-set segmentation and a mask-based template learning are implemented further to the brain region. The multi-expert fusion is used to generate a new mask. We finally combine the region growing based on the histogram distribution learning to delineate the final brain mask. A high-resolution rodent atlas is used to illustrate that the segmented low resolution anatomic image can be well mapped to the atlas. Tested on a public data set, all brains are located reliably and we achieve the mean Jaccard similarity score at 94.99% for brain segmentation, which is a statistically significant improvement compared to two other rodent brain extraction methods.

  17. Finger Vein Recognition Based on Personalized Weight Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gongping; Xiao, Rongyang; Yin, Yilong; Yang, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Finger vein recognition is a promising biometric recognition technology, which verifies identities via the vein patterns in the fingers. Binary pattern based methods were thoroughly studied in order to cope with the difficulties of extracting the blood vessel network. However, current binary pattern based finger vein matching methods treat every bit of feature codes derived from different image of various individuals as equally important and assign the same weight value to them. In this paper, we propose a finger vein recognition method based on personalized weight maps (PWMs). The different bits have different weight values according to their stabilities in a certain number of training samples from an individual. Firstly we present the concept of PWM, and then propose the finger vein recognition framework, which mainly consists of preprocessing, feature extraction, and matching. Finally, we design extensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposal. Experimental results show that PWM achieves not only better performance, but also high robustness and reliability. In addition, PWM can be used as a general framework for binary pattern based recognition. PMID:24025556

  18. Finger Vein Recognition Based on Personalized Weight Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Finger vein recognition is a promising biometric recognition technology, which verifies identities via the vein patterns in the fingers. Binary pattern based methods were thoroughly studied in order to cope with the difficulties of extracting the blood vessel network. However, current binary pattern based finger vein matching methods treat every bit of feature codes derived from different image of various individuals as equally important and assign the same weight value to them. In this paper, we propose a finger vein recognition method based on personalized weight maps (PWMs. The different bits have different weight values according to their stabilities in a certain number of training samples from an individual. Firstly we present the concept of PWM, and then propose the finger vein recognition framework, which mainly consists of preprocessing, feature extraction, and matching. Finally, we design extensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposal. Experimental results show that PWM achieves not only better performance, but also high robustness and reliability. In addition, PWM can be used as a general framework for binary pattern based recognition.

  19. Projector primary-based optimization for superimposed projection mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Bilal; Lee, Jong Hun; Lee, Yong Yi; Lee, Kwan H.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, many researchers have focused on fully overlapping projections for three-dimensional (3-D) projection mapping systems but reproducing a high-quality appearance using this technology still remains a challenge. On top of existing color compensation-based methods, much effort is still required to faithfully reproduce an appearance that is free from artifacts, colorimetric inconsistencies, and inappropriate illuminance over the 3-D projection surface. According to our observation, this is due to the fact that overlapping projections are treated as an additive-linear mixture of color. However, this is not the case according to our elaborated observations. We propose a method that enables us to use high-quality appearance data that are measured from original objects and regenerate the same appearance by projecting optimized images using multiple projectors, ensuring that the projection-rendered results look visually close to the real object. We prepare our target appearances by photographing original objects. Then, using calibrated projector-camera pairs, we compensate for missing geometric correspondences to make our method robust against noise. The heart of our method is a target appearance-driven adaptive sampling of the projection surface followed by a representation of overlapping projections in terms of the projector-primary response. This gives off projector-primary weights to facilitate blending and the system is applied with constraints. These samples are used to populate a light transport-based system. Then, the system is solved minimizing the error to get the projection images in a noise-free manner by utilizing intersample overlaps. We ensure that we make the best utilization of available hardware resources to recreate projection mapped appearances that look as close to the original object as possible. Our experimental results show compelling results in terms of visual similarity and colorimetric error.

  20. Visual cortex in aging and Alzheimer’s disease: Changes in visual field maps and population receptive fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa A. Brewer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although several studies have suggested that cortical alterations underlie such age-related visual deficits as decreased acuity, little is known about what changes actually occur in visual cortex during healthy aging. Two recent studies showed changes in primary visual cortex (V1 during normal aging; however, no studies have characterized the effects of aging on visual cortex beyond V1, important measurements both for understanding the aging process and for comparison to changes in age-related diseases. Similarly, there is almost no information about changes in visual cortex in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most common form of dementia. Because visual deficits are often reported as one of the first symptoms of AD, measurements of such changes in the visual cortex of AD patients might improve our understanding of how the visual system is affected by neurodegeneration as well as aid early detection, accurate diagnosis and timely treatment of AD. Here we use fMRI to first compare the visual field map (VFM organization and population receptive fields (pRFs between young adults and healthy aging subjects for occipital VFMs V1, V2, V3, and hV4. Healthy aging subjects do not show major VFM organizational deficits, but do have reduced surface area and increased pRF sizes in the foveal representations of V1, V2, and hV4 relative to healthy young control subjects. These measurements are consistent with behavioral deficits seen in healthy aging. We then demonstrate the feasibility and first characterization of these measurements in two patients with mild AD, which reveal potential changes in visual cortex as part of the pathophysiology of AD. Our data aid in our understanding of the changes in the visual processing pathways in normal aging and provide the foundation for future research into earlier and more definitive detection of AD.

  1. Laboratory and field based evaluation of chromatography ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA) is an on-line ion-chromatography-based instrument designed for speciation of the inorganic gas and aerosol ammonium-nitrate-sulfate system. Previous work to characterize the performance of the MARGA has been primarily based on field comparison to other measurement methods to evaluate accuracy. While such studies are useful, the underlying reasons for disagreement among methods are not always clear. This study examines aspects of MARGA accuracy and precision specifically related to automated chromatography analysis. Using laboratory standards, analytical accuracy, precision, and method detection limits derived from the MARGA chromatography software are compared to an alternative software package (Chromeleon, Thermo Scientific Dionex). Field measurements are used to further evaluate instrument performance, including the MARGA’s use of an internal LiBr standard to control accuracy. Using gas/aerosol ratios and aerosol neutralization state as a case study, the impact of chromatography on measurement error is assessed. The new generation of on-line chromatography-based gas and particle measurement systems have many advantages, including simultaneous analysis of multiple pollutants. The Monitor for Aerosols and Gases in Ambient Air (MARGA) is such an instrument that is used in North America, Europe, and Asia for atmospheric process studies as well as routine monitoring. While the instrument has been evaluat

  2. Asymmetric focusing study from twin input power couplers using realistic rf cavity field maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colwyn Gulliford

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Advanced simulation codes now exist that can self-consistently solve Maxwell’s equations for the combined system of an rf cavity and a beam bunch. While these simulations are important for a complete understanding of the beam dynamics in rf cavities, they require significant time and computing power. These techniques are therefore not readily included in real time simulations useful to the beam physicist during beam operations. Thus, there exists a need for a simplified algorithm which simulates realistic cavity fields significantly faster than self-consistent codes, while still incorporating enough of the necessary physics to ensure accurate beam dynamics computation. To this end, we establish a procedure for producing realistic field maps using lossless cavity eigenmode field solvers. This algorithm incorporates all relevant cavity design and operating parameters, including beam loading from a nonrelativistic beam. The algorithm is then used to investigate the asymmetric quadrupolelike focusing produced by the input couplers of the Cornell ERL injector cavity for a variety of beam and operating parameters.

  3. 2D mapping of plane stress crack-tip fields following an overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Withers

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of crack-tip strain fields in a thin (plane stress compact tension sample following an overload (OL event has been studied using two different experimental techniques. Surface behaviour has been characterised by Digital Image Correlation (DIC, while the bulk behaviour has been characterised by means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD. The combination of both surface and bulk information allowed us to visualise the through-thickness evolution of the strain fields before the OL event, during the overload event, just after OL and at various stages after it. Unlike previous work, complete 2D maps of strains around the crack-tip were acquired at 60m spatial resolution by XRD. The DIC shows less crack opening after overload and the XRD a lower crack-tip peak stress after OL until the crack has grown past the compressive crack-tip residual stress introduced by the overload after which the behaviour returned to that for the baseline fatigue response. While the peak crack-tip stress is supressed by the compressive residual stress, the crack-tip stress field changes over each cycle are nevertheless the same for all Kmax cycles except at OL.

  4. Strain field mapping of dislocations in a Ge/Si heterostructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanlong Liu

    Full Text Available Ge/Si heterostructure with fully strain-relaxed Ge film was grown on a Si (001 substrate by using a two-step process by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition. The dislocations in the Ge/Si heterostructure were experimentally investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The dislocations at the Ge/Si interface were identified to be 90° full-edge dislocations, which are the most efficient way for obtaining a fully relaxed Ge film. The only defect found in the Ge epitaxial film was a 60° dislocation. The nanoscale strain field of the dislocations was mapped by geometric phase analysis technique from the HRTEM image. The strain field around the edge component of the 60° dislocation core was compared with those of the Peierls-Nabarro and Foreman dislocation models. Comparison results show that the Foreman model with a = 1.5 can describe appropriately the strain field around the edge component of a 60° dislocation core in a relaxed Ge film on a Si substrate.

  5. Strain field mapping of dislocations in a Ge/Si heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanlong; Zhao, Chunwang; Su, Shaojian; Li, Jijun; Xing, Yongming; Cheng, Buwen

    2013-01-01

    Ge/Si heterostructure with fully strain-relaxed Ge film was grown on a Si (001) substrate by using a two-step process by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition. The dislocations in the Ge/Si heterostructure were experimentally investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The dislocations at the Ge/Si interface were identified to be 90° full-edge dislocations, which are the most efficient way for obtaining a fully relaxed Ge film. The only defect found in the Ge epitaxial film was a 60° dislocation. The nanoscale strain field of the dislocations was mapped by geometric phase analysis technique from the HRTEM image. The strain field around the edge component of the 60° dislocation core was compared with those of the Peierls-Nabarro and Foreman dislocation models. Comparison results show that the Foreman model with a = 1.5 can describe appropriately the strain field around the edge component of a 60° dislocation core in a relaxed Ge film on a Si substrate.

  6. Mapping of the solar wind electric field to the Earth's polar caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffoletto, F.R.; Hill, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we describe a quantitative model of a magnetically interconnected (open) magnetosphere, developed as a perturbation to Voigt's closed magnetosphere model with a given magnetopause shape. The ''interconnection'' (perturbation) field is obtained as a solution to a Neumann boundary value problem, with the magnetopause normal component distribution as a boundary condition. The normal component at the magnetopause is required to be time independent and is specified in accordance with one of two hypotheses: the subsolar point merging hypothesis and Crooker's antiparallel merging hypothesis. The resulting open magnetospheric configuration is used to map the magnetopause electric field down to the polar cap ionosphere. We present ionospheric convection patterns derived from three representative interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations for each of the two dayside merging geometries. Both merging geometries reproduce the observed convergence of convection streamlines near noon in a convection ''throat,'' and the east-west deflection of these streamlines in response to the east-west IMF component. The major difference between the two dayside merging geometries occurs for nonsouthward IMF, and consists of a Sun-aligned convection gap that bifurcates the polar cap in the case of the antiparallel merging geometry but not in the subsolar point merging geometry. This convection gap may plausibly be associated with the ''theta aurora'' structure observed when the IMF has a northward component. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  7. Mapping the global football field: a sociological model of transnational forces within the world game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianotti, Richard; Robertson, Roland

    2012-06-01

    This paper provides a sociological model of the key transnational political and economic forces that are shaping the 'global football field'. The model draws upon, and significantly extends, the theory of the 'global field' developed previously by Robertson. The model features four quadrants, each of which contains a dominant operating principle, an 'elemental reference point', and an 'elemental theme'. The quadrants contain, first, neo-liberalism, associated with the individual and elite football clubs; second, neo-mercantilism, associated with nation-states and national football systems; third, international relations, associated with international governing bodies; and fourth, global civil society, associated with diverse institutions that pursue human development and/or social justice. We examine some of the interactions and tensions between the major institutional and ideological forces across the four quadrants. We conclude by examining how the weakest quadrant, featuring global civil society, may gain greater prominence within football. In broad terms, we argue that our four-fold model may be utilized to map and to examine other substantive research fields with reference to globalization. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  8. Alteration mineral mapping using ETM+ and hyperion remote sensing data at Bau Gold Field, Sarawak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pour, A B; Hashim, M

    2014-01-01

    The area under investigation is the Bau gold mining district in the State of Sarawak, East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It has tropical climate with limited bedrock exposures. Bau is a gold field similar to Carlin style gold deposits. Geological analyses coupled with remote sensing data were used to detect hydrothermally altered rocks associated with gold mineralization. The Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper + (ETM + ) and Hyperion data were used to carry out mineral mapping of mineralized zones in the study area and surrounding terrain. Directed Principal Components Analysis (DPCA) transformation of four appropriate ETM+ band ratios were applied to produce DPC images, allowing the removal of the effects of vegetation from ETM+ data and the detection of separate mineral images at a regional scale. Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU) was used to produce image maps of hydroxyl-bearing minerals using Hyperion data at a district scale. Results derived from the visible and near infrared and shortwave infrared bands of Hyperion represented iron oxide/hydroxide and clay minerals rich zones associated with the known gold prospects in the Bau district. The results show that the known gold prospects and potentially interesting areas are recognizable by the methods used, despite limited bedrock exposure in this region and the constraints imposed by the tropical environment. The approach used in this study can be more broadly applicable to provide an opportunity for detecting potentially interesting areas of gold mineralization using the ETM + and Hyperion data in the tropical/sub-tropical regions

  9. Alteration mineral mapping using ETM+ and hyperion remote sensing data at Bau Gold Field, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, A. B.; Hashim, M.

    2014-02-01

    The area under investigation is the Bau gold mining district in the State of Sarawak, East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It has tropical climate with limited bedrock exposures. Bau is a gold field similar to Carlin style gold deposits. Geological analyses coupled with remote sensing data were used to detect hydrothermally altered rocks associated with gold mineralization. The Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ (ETM+) and Hyperion data were used to carry out mineral mapping of mineralized zones in the study area and surrounding terrain. Directed Principal Components Analysis (DPCA) transformation of four appropriate ETM+ band ratios were applied to produce DPC images, allowing the removal of the effects of vegetation from ETM+ data and the detection of separate mineral images at a regional scale. Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU) was used to produce image maps of hydroxyl-bearing minerals using Hyperion data at a district scale. Results derived from the visible and near infrared and shortwave infrared bands of Hyperion represented iron oxide/hydroxide and clay minerals rich zones associated with the known gold prospects in the Bau district. The results show that the known gold prospects and potentially interesting areas are recognizable by the methods used, despite limited bedrock exposure in this region and the constraints imposed by the tropical environment. The approach used in this study can be more broadly applicable to provide an opportunity for detecting potentially interesting areas of gold mineralization using the ETM+ and Hyperion data in the tropical/sub-tropical regions.

  10. Air Pollutant Mapping with a Mobile Laboratory during the BEE-TEX Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara I. Yacovitch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was deployed to the Houston Ship Channel and surrounding areas during the Benzene and Other Toxics Exposure field study in February 2015. We evaluated atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic hydrocarbons and other hazardous air pollutants of importance to human health, including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzenes, styrene, and NO 2 . Ambient concentration measurements were focused on the neighborhoods of Manchester, Harrisburg, and Galena Park. The most likely measured concentration of 1,3-butadiene in the Manchester neighborhood (0.17 ppb exceeds the Environmental Protection Agency's E-5 lifetime cancer risk level of 0.14 ppb. In all the three neighborhoods, the measured benzene concentration falls below or within the E-5 lifetime cancer risk levels of 0.4–1.4 ppb for benzene. Pollution maps as a function of wind direction show the impact of nearby sources.

  11. Prediction of dose and field mapping around a shielded plutonium fuel fabrication glovebox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strode, J.N.; Soldat, K.L.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company, as the Department of Energy's (DOE) prime contractor for the operation of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), is responsible for the development of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Line which is to be installed in the recently constructed Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The SAF Line will fabricate mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel pins for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at an annual throughput rate of six (6) metric tons (MT) of MOX. The SAF Line will also demonstrate the automated manufacture of fuel pins on a production-scale. This paper describes some of the techniques used to reduce personnel exposure on the SAF Line, as well as the prediction and field mapping of doses from a shielded fuel fabrication glovebox. Tables are also presented from which exposure rate estimates can be made for plutonium recovered from fuels having different isotopic compositions as a result of varied burnup

  12. Mobile Anomaly Detection Based on Improved Self-Organizing Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyong Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomaly detection has always been the focus of researchers and especially, the developments of mobile devices raise new challenges of anomaly detection. For example, mobile devices can keep connection with Internet and they are rarely turned off even at night. This means mobile devices can attack nodes or be attacked at night without being perceived by users and they have different characteristics from Internet behaviors. The introduction of data mining has made leaps forward in this field. Self-organizing maps, one of famous clustering algorithms, are affected by initial weight vectors and the clustering result is unstable. The optimal method of selecting initial clustering centers is transplanted from K-means to SOM. To evaluate the performance of improved SOM, we utilize diverse datasets and KDD Cup99 dataset to compare it with traditional one. The experimental results show that improved SOM can get higher accuracy rate for universal datasets. As for KDD Cup99 dataset, it achieves higher recall rate and precision rate.

  13. Sensitivity and specificity considerations for fMRI encoding, decoding, and mapping of auditory cortex at ultra-high field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerel, Michelle; De Martino, Federico; Kemper, Valentin G; Schmitter, Sebastian; Vu, An T; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Formisano, Elia; Yacoub, Essa

    2018-01-01

    Following rapid technological advances, ultra-high field functional MRI (fMRI) enables exploring correlates of neuronal population activity at an increasing spatial resolution. However, as the fMRI blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast is a vascular signal, the spatial specificity of fMRI data is ultimately determined by the characteristics of the underlying vasculature. At 7T, fMRI measurement parameters determine the relative contribution of the macro- and microvasculature to the acquired signal. Here we investigate how these parameters affect relevant high-end fMRI analyses such as encoding, decoding, and submillimeter mapping of voxel preferences in the human auditory cortex. Specifically, we compare a T 2 * weighted fMRI dataset, obtained with 2D gradient echo (GE) EPI, to a predominantly T 2 weighted dataset obtained with 3D GRASE. We first investigated the decoding accuracy based on two encoding models that represented different hypotheses about auditory cortical processing. This encoding/decoding analysis profited from the large spatial coverage and sensitivity of the T 2 * weighted acquisitions, as evidenced by a significantly higher prediction accuracy in the GE-EPI dataset compared to the 3D GRASE dataset for both encoding models. The main disadvantage of the T 2 * weighted GE-EPI dataset for encoding/decoding analyses was that the prediction accuracy exhibited cortical depth dependent vascular biases. However, we propose that the comparison of prediction accuracy across the different encoding models may be used as a post processing technique to salvage the spatial interpretability of the GE-EPI cortical depth-dependent prediction accuracy. Second, we explored the mapping of voxel preferences. Large-scale maps of frequency preference (i.e., tonotopy) were similar across datasets, yet the GE-EPI dataset was preferable due to its larger spatial coverage and sensitivity. However, submillimeter tonotopy maps revealed biases in assigned frequency

  14. Spectroscopic mapping of the white horse alunite deposit, Marysvale volcanic field, Utah: Evidence of a magmatic component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, B.W.; Cunningham, C.G.; Breit, G.N.; Rye, R.O.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the replacement alunite deposits just north of the town of Marysvale, Utah, USA, were formed primarily by low-temperature (100??-170?? C), steam-heated processes near the early Miocene paleoground surface, immediately above convecting hydrothermal plumes. Pyrite-bearing propylitically altered rocks occur mainly beneath the steam-heated alunite and represent the sulfidized feeder zone of the H2S-dominated hydrothermal fluids, the oxidation of which at higher levels led to the formation of the alunite. Maps of surface mineralogy at the White Horse deposit generated from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were used in conjunction with X-ray diffraction studies of field samples to test the accuracy and precision of AVIRIS-based mineral mapping of altered rocks and demonstrate the utility of spectroscopic mapping for ore deposit characterization. The mineral maps identified multiple core zones of alunite that grade laterally outward to kaolinite. Surrounding the core zones are dominantly propylitically altered rocks containing illite, montmorillonite, and chlorite, with minor pyrite, kaolinite, gypsum, and remnant potassium feldspar from the parent rhyodacitic ash-flow tuff. The AVIRIS mapping also identified fracture zones expressed by ridge-forming selvages of quartz + dickite + kaolinite that form a crude ring around the advanced argillic core zones. Laboratory analyses identified the aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals woodhouseite and svanbergite in one sample from these dickite-bearing argillic selvages. Reflectance spectroscopy determined that the outer edges of the selvages contain more dickite than do the medial regions. The quartz + dickite ?? kaolinite ?? APS-mineral selvages demonstrate that fracture control of replacement processes is more prevalent away from the advanced argillic core zones. Although not exposed at the White Horse deposit, pyrophyllite ?? ordered illite was identified

  15. COMPARISON of FUZZY-BASED MODELS in LANDSLIDE HAZARD MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mijani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is one of the main geomorphic processes which effects on the development of prospect in mountainous areas and causes disastrous accidents. Landslide is an event which has different uncertain criteria such as altitude, slope, aspect, land use, vegetation density, precipitation, distance from the river and distance from the road network. This research aims to compare and evaluate different fuzzy-based models including Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (Fuzzy-AHP, Fuzzy Gamma and Fuzzy-OR. The main contribution of this paper reveals to the comprehensive criteria causing landslide hazard considering their uncertainties and comparison of different fuzzy-based models. The quantify of evaluation process are calculated by Density Ratio (DR and Quality Sum (QS. The proposed methodology implemented in Sari, one of the city of Iran which has faced multiple landslide accidents in recent years due to the particular environmental conditions. The achieved results of accuracy assessment based on the quantifier strated that Fuzzy-AHP model has higher accuracy compared to other two models in landslide hazard zonation. Accuracy of zoning obtained from Fuzzy-AHP model is respectively 0.92 and 0.45 based on method Precision (P and QS indicators. Based on obtained landslide hazard maps, Fuzzy-AHP, Fuzzy Gamma and Fuzzy-OR respectively cover 13, 26 and 35 percent of the study area with a very high risk level. Based on these findings, fuzzy-AHP model has been selected as the most appropriate method of zoning landslide in the city of Sari and the Fuzzy-gamma method with a minor difference is in the second order.

  16. GPS-based handheld device for mapping contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridaens, J.

    2005-01-01

    Sometimes one is confronted with the challenge to map large areas with enhanced radioactivity. Examples are mine tailings or waste rock piles, deposits of the phosphate industry, flooding zones contaminated by effluents of plants processing ores containing enhanced natural radiation, nuclear accident sites etc. Car borne measuring equipment is not always an option, as the terrain might be rough and only accessible by foot. Airborne mapping with helicopters on the other hand is fast, but expensive, not readily available, shows difficulties with complex topography and lacks the necessary detail. The objective of this study was to create a portable and easily usable tool for the real time logging of radiation and location data, allowing mapping the radioactivity by simply walking over any kind of terrain with the portable equipment and post processing the data in the office. We also assessed the performance of the GPS based system on contaminated sites with areas varying from less than a hectare to several tens of hectares, with respect to speed, precision and ease of use. At sites of large scale mining and processing of uranium ore, tailings and waste rock piles are today the most visible relics of the uranium extractive industry. These mining relics are constantly subjected to weathering and leaching processes causing the dissemination of radioactive and toxic elements and sometimes requiring remedial operations. The in situ remediation of waste rock piles usually includes their revegetation for minimizing the water infiltration and for increasing surface soil stability. Thanks to its biomass density and longevity, the perennial vegetation plays an important role in stabilisation of the water cycling. The buffer role of forest vegetation can reduce water export from watersheds as well as erosion and hydrological losses of chemicals including radionuclides from contaminated sites. If long term reduction of contaminant dispersion at revegetated uranium mining sites is

  17. Stability estimate for the aligned magnetic field in a periodic quantum waveguide from Dirichlet-to-Neumann map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejri, Youssef, E-mail: josef-bizert@hotmail.fr [Aix Marseille Universite, Toulon Universite, CNRS, CPT, Marseille (France); Dép. des Mathématiques, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, 7021 Jarzouna (Tunisia); Laboratoire de Modélisation Mathématique et Numérique dans les Sciences de l’Ingénieur, ENIT BP 37, Le Belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2016-06-15

    In this article, we study the boundary inverse problem of determining the aligned magnetic field appearing in the magnetic Schrödinger equation in a periodic quantum cylindrical waveguide, by knowledge of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map. We prove a Hölder stability estimate with respect to the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map, by means of the geometrical optics solutions of the magnetic Schrödinger equation.

  18. Strain mapping of LED devices by dark-field inline electron holography: Comparison between deterministic and iterative phase retrieval approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyung; Shin, Ga-Young; Kim, Jong Kyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31 Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang Ho, E-mail: shoh@postech.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31 Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Koch, Christoph T. [Institute for Experimental Physics, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Dark-field inline electron holography has recently been established as a convenient method to map strain in semiconductor devices, combining high precision, low noise, sub-nm spatial resolution and fields-of-view larger than 1 μm. Here we compare two approaches to reconstruct the geometric phase from a transmission electron microscopy dark-field focal series and their effects on the strain measurement: the transport-of-intensity-equation (TIE) and a flux-preserving iterative approach. For this task, we used a GaN-based light emitting diode with a highly complex heterostructure as a model system. While the TIE relies on 3 images only but requires the optimization of two free parameters (defocus step and low-limit cut-off frequency), the iterative reconstruction algorithm involves no adjustable parameters and uses images recorded at 9 different planes of focus with quadratically increasing defocus values. Optimum parameters for the TIE-reconstruction could be identified. However, the iterative phase retrieval approach yields the strain values that agree best with the expected strain levels and provides also higher spatial resolution.

  19. GeneRecon Users' Manual — A coalescent based tool for fine-scale association mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T

    2006-01-01

    GeneRecon is a software package for linkage disequilibrium mapping using coalescent theory. It is based on Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for fine-scale linkage-disequilibrium gene mapping using high-density marker maps. GeneRecon explicitly models the genealogy of a sample of th...

  20. A Electronic Map Data Model Based on PDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaodong; Yang, Chuncheng; Meng, Nina; Peng, Peng

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we proposed the PDFEMAP (PDF electronic map) that is a kind of new electronic map products aiming at the current situation and demand of the use of electronic map products. Firstly gives the definition and characteristics of PDFEMAP, followed by a detailed description of the data model and method for generating PDFEMAP, and finally expounds application modes of the PDFEMAP which feasibility and effectiveness are verified.

  1. Map showing selected surface-water data for the Alton-Kolob coal-fields area, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Don

    1982-01-01

    This is one of a series of maps that describe the geology and related natural resources of the Alton-Kolob coal-fields area, Utah. Streamflow records used to compile the map and the following table were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Transportation. The principal runoff-producing areas were delineated form a work map (scale 1:250,000) compiled to estimate water yields in Utah (Bagley and others, 1964).

  2. Integral Field Spectroscopy of Markarian 273: Mapping High-Velocity Gas Flows and an Off-Nucleus Seyfert 2 Nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina; Arribas; Borne

    1999-12-10

    Integral field optical spectroscopy with the INTEGRAL fiber-based system is used to map the extended ionized regions and gas flows in Mrk 273, one of the closest ultraluminous infrared galaxies. The Hbeta and [O iii] lambda5007 maps show the presence of two distinct regions separated by 4&arcsec; (3.1 kpc) along position angle (P.A.) 240 degrees. The northeastern region coincides with the optical nucleus of the galaxy and shows the spectral characteristics of LINERs. The southwestern region is dominated by [O iii] emission and is classified as a Seyfert 2. Therefore, in the optical, Mrk 273 is an ultraluminous infrared galaxy with a LINER nucleus and an extended off-nucleus Seyfert 2 nebula. The kinematics of the [O iii] ionized gas shows (1) the presence of highly disturbed gas in the regions around the LINER nucleus, (2) a high-velocity gas flow with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 2.4x103 km s-1, and (3) quiescent gas in the outer regions (at 3 kpc). We hypothesize that the high-velocity flow is the starburst-driven superwind generated in an optically obscured nuclear starburst and that the quiescent gas is directly ionized by a nuclear source, similar to the ionization cones typically seen in Seyfert galaxies.

  3. Cloud field classification based on textural features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sailes Kumar

    1989-01-01

    An essential component in global climate research is accurate cloud cover and type determination. Of the two approaches to texture-based classification (statistical and textural), only the former is effective in the classification of natural scenes such as land, ocean, and atmosphere. In the statistical approach that was adopted, parameters characterizing the stochastic properties of the spatial distribution of grey levels in an image are estimated and then used as features for cloud classification. Two types of textural measures were used. One is based on the distribution of the grey level difference vector (GLDV), and the other on a set of textural features derived from the MaxMin cooccurrence matrix (MMCM). The GLDV method looks at the difference D of grey levels at pixels separated by a horizontal distance d and computes several statistics based on this distribution. These are then used as features in subsequent classification. The MaxMin tectural features on the other hand are based on the MMCM, a matrix whose (I,J)th entry give the relative frequency of occurrences of the grey level pair (I,J) that are consecutive and thresholded local extremes separated by a given pixel distance d. Textural measures are then computed based on this matrix in much the same manner as is done in texture computation using the grey level cooccurrence matrix. The database consists of 37 cloud field scenes from LANDSAT imagery using a near IR visible channel. The classification algorithm used is the well known Stepwise Discriminant Analysis. The overall accuracy was estimated by the percentage or correct classifications in each case. It turns out that both types of classifiers, at their best combination of features, and at any given spatial resolution give approximately the same classification accuracy. A neural network based classifier with a feed forward architecture and a back propagation training algorithm is used to increase the classification accuracy, using these two classes

  4. Awake craniotomy, electrophysiologic mapping, and tumor resection with high-field intraoperative MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parney, Ian F; Goerss, Stephan J; McGee, Kiaran; Huston, John; Perkins, William J; Meyer, Frederic B

    2010-05-01

    Awake craniotomy and electrophysiologic mapping (EPM) is an established technique to facilitate the resection of near eloquent cortex. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) is increasingly used to aid in the resection of intracranial lesions. Standard draping protocols in high-field iMRI units make awake craniotomies challenging, and only two groups have previously reported combined EPM and high-field iMRI. We present an illustrative case describing a simple technique for combining awake craniotomy and EPM with high-field iMRI. A movable platter is used to transfer the patient from the operating table to a transport trolley and into the adjacent MRI and still maintaining the patient's surgical position. This system allows excess drapes to be removed, facilitating awake craniotomy. A 57-year-old right-handed man presented with new onset seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large left temporal mass. The patient underwent an awake, left frontotemporal craniotomy. The EPM demonstrated a single critical area for speech in his inferior frontal gyrus. After an initial tumor debulking, the scalp flap was loosely approximated, the wound was covered with additional drapes, and the excess surrounding drapes were trimmed. An iMRI was obtained. The image-guidance system was re-registered and the patient was redraped. Additional resection was performed, allowing extensive removal of what proved to be an anaplastic astrocytoma. The patient tolerated this well without any new neurological deficits. Standard protocols for positioning and draping in high-field iMRI units make awake craniotomies problematic. This straightforward technique for combined awake EPM and iMRI may facilitate safe removal of large lesions in eloquent cortex. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mapping Deforestation in North Korea Using Phenology-Based Multi-Index and Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihua Jin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenology-based multi-index with the random forest (RF algorithm can be used to overcome the shortcomings of traditional deforestation mapping that involves pixel-based classification, such as ISODATA or decision trees, and single images. The purpose of this study was to investigate methods to identify specific types of deforestation in North Korea, and to increase the accuracy of classification, using phenological characteristics extracted with multi-index and random forest algorithms. The mapping of deforestation area based on RF was carried out by merging phenology-based multi-indices (i.e., normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, normalized difference water index (NDWI, and normalized difference soil index (NDSI derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer products and topographical variables. Our results showed overall classification accuracy of 89.38%, with corresponding kappa coefficients of 0.87. In particular, for forest and farm land categories with similar phenological characteristic (e.g., paddy, plateau vegetation, unstocked forest, hillside field, this approach improved the classification accuracy in comparison with pixel-based methods and other classes. The deforestation types were identified by incorporating point data from high-resolution imagery, outcomes of image classification, and slope data. Our study demonstrated that the proposed methodology could be used for deciding on the restoration priority and monitoring the expansion of deforestation areas.

  6. Molecular polarization potential maps of the nucleic acid bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkorta, I.; Perez, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Ab initio calculations at the SCF level were carried out to compute the polarization potential map NM of the nucleic acid bases: cytosine, thymine, uracil, adedine, and guanine. For this purpose, the Dunning's 9s5p basis set contracted to a split-valence, was selected to perform the calculations. The molecular polarization potential (MPP) at each point was evaluated by the difference between the interaction energy of the molecule with a unit point charge and the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) at that point. MEPS and MPPS for the different molecules were computed with a density of 5 points/Angstrom 2 on the van der Waals surface of each molecule, defined using the van der Waals radii. Due to the symmetry of the molecules, only half the points were computed. The total number of points calculated was 558 for cytosine, 621 for thymine, 526 for uracil, 666 for adenine, and 699 for guanine. The results of these calculations are analyzed in terms of their implications on the molecular interactions between pairs of nucleic acid bases. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. High-resolution, real-time mapping of surface soil moisture at the field scale using ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambot, S.; Minet, J.; Slob, E.; Vereecken, H.; Vanclooster, M.

    2008-12-01

    Measuring soil surface water content is essential in hydrology and agriculture as this variable controls important key processes of the hydrological cycle such as infiltration, runoff, evaporation, and energy exchanges between the earth and the atmosphere. We present a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method for automated, high-resolution, real-time mapping of soil surface dielectric permittivity and correlated water content at the field scale. Field scale characterization and monitoring is not only necessary for field scale management applications, but also for unravelling upscaling issues in hydrology and bridging the scale gap between local measurements and remote sensing. In particular, such methods are necessary to validate and improve remote sensing data products. The radar system consists of a vector network analyzer combined with an off-ground, ultra-wideband monostatic horn antenna, thereby setting up a continuous-wave steeped-frequency GPR. Radar signal analysis is based on three-dimensional electromagnetic inverse modelling. The forward model accounts for all antenna effects, antenna-soil interactions, and wave propagation in three-dimensional multilayered media. A fast procedure was developed to evaluate the involved Green's function, resulting from a singular, complex integral. Radar data inversion is focused on the surface reflection in the time domain. The method presents considerable advantages compared to the current surface characterization methods using GPR, namely, the ground wave and common reflection methods. Theoretical analyses were performed, dealing with the effects of electric conductivity on the surface reflection when non-negligible, and on near-surface layering, which may lead to unrealistic values for the surface dielectric permittivity if not properly accounted for. Inversion strategies are proposed. In particular the combination of GPR with electromagnetic induction data appears to be promising to deal with highly conductive soils

  8. Mapping the Distribution and Flora of the Weeds in Canola Fields of Gorgan Township by Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sahar jannati ataie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oil seeds are the second world’s food supply after cereals. These crops are grown primarily for the oil contained in the seeds. The major world sources of edible seed oils are soybeans, sunflowers, canola, cotton and peanuts. Canola is one of the most important plants in the world that has great importance. The plant belongs to the Brassica genus, the botanical family that includes cauliflower and cabbages. Weeds are one of the major problems in canola production that reduce yield and its quality. In general, one of the most important factors in development of management plans is information about the weed’s flora and geographic distribution. Knowledge of weed flora enables one to use the required herbicide and formulate other suitable management strategies. It is also useful in exploiting abundant weeds as a cover crop or pasture and for other economic uses. The geographic information system has the proper use in weed science and management of agricultural information and their analysis. In this study, distribution and flora of the weeds in canola fields of Gorgan Township investigated by Geographic Information System. Material and Methods: Crop sampling was conducted during May and June 2014, in 58 canola fields in Gorgan Township (Golestan province and the weed species were sampled and detected using a W method and by specific formula of density, frequency, uniformity, and abundance of each weed species was calculated. Also, geographic coordinates of fields (latitude, altitude and elevation were determined by using GPS model Garmin map 60. After collecting data, in order to create a database of weed distribution, the data was transferred from GPS to ArcGIS 9/3.1 software. From all information obtained, consistently a database with location was created and after separation of data based on present or absence of weeds on fields, distribution maps were produced. Results and Discussion: The results showed that there are 35 weed

  9. Estimation of 3-D conduction velocity vector fields from cardiac mapping data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnette, A R; Bayly, P V; Zhang, S; Walcott, G P; Ideker, R E; Smith, W M

    2000-08-01

    A method to estimate three-dimensional (3-D) conduction velocity vector fields in cardiac tissue is presented. The speed and direction of propagation are found from polynomial "surfaces" fitted to space-time (x, y, z, t) coordinates of cardiac activity. The technique is applied to sinus rhythm and paced rhythm mapped with plunge needles at 396-466 sites in the canine myocardium. The method was validated on simulated 3-D plane and spherical waves. For simulated data, conduction velocities were estimated with an accuracy of 1%-2%. In experimental data, estimates of conduction speeds during paced rhythm were slower than those found during normal sinus rhythm. Vector directions were also found to differ between different types of beats. The technique was able to distinguish between premature ventricular contractions and sinus beats and between sinus and paced beats. The proposed approach to computing velocity vector fields provides an automated, physiological, and quantitative description of local electrical activity in 3-D tissue. This method may provide insight into abnormal conduction associated with fatal ventricular arrhythmias.

  10. Intracellular recording, sensory field mapping, and culturing identified neurons in the leech, Hirudo medicinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlow, Josh; Majeed, Zana R; Nicholls, John G; Cooper, Robin L

    2013-11-04

    The freshwater leech, Hirudo medicinalis, is a versatile model organism that has been used to address scientific questions in the fields of neurophysiology, neuroethology, and developmental biology. The goal of this report is to consolidate experimental techniques from the leech system into a single article that will be of use to physiologists with expertise in other nervous system preparations, or to biology students with little or no electrophysiology experience. We demonstrate how to dissect the leech for recording intracellularly from identified neural circuits in the ganglion. Next we show how individual cells of known function can be removed from the ganglion to be cultured in a Petri dish, and how to record from those neurons in culture. Then we demonstrate how to prepare a patch of innervated skin to be used for mapping sensory or motor fields. These leech preparations are still widely used to address basic electrical properties of neural networks, behavior, synaptogenesis, and development. They are also an appropriate training module for neuroscience or physiology teaching laboratories.

  11. Overlay improvement by exposure map based mask registration optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Irene; Guo, Eric; Chen, Ming; Lu, Max; Li, Gordon; Li, Rivan; Tian, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Along with the increased miniaturization of semiconductor electronic devices, the design rules of advanced semiconductor devices shrink dramatically. [1] One of the main challenges of lithography step is the layer-to-layer overlay control. Furthermore, DPT (Double Patterning Technology) has been adapted for the advanced technology node like 28nm and 14nm, corresponding overlay budget becomes even tighter. [2][3] After the in-die mask registration (pattern placement) measurement is introduced, with the model analysis of a KLA SOV (sources of variation) tool, it's observed that registration difference between masks is a significant error source of wafer layer-to-layer overlay at 28nm process. [4][5] Mask registration optimization would highly improve wafer overlay performance accordingly. It was reported that a laser based registration control (RegC) process could be applied after the pattern generation or after pellicle mounting and allowed fine tuning of the mask registration. [6] In this paper we propose a novel method of mask registration correction, which can be applied before mask writing based on mask exposure map, considering the factors of mask chip layout, writing sequence, and pattern density distribution. Our experiment data show if pattern density on the mask keeps at a low level, in-die mask registration residue error in 3sigma could be always under 5nm whatever blank type and related writer POSCOR (position correction) file was applied; it proves random error induced by material or equipment would occupy relatively fixed error budget as an error source of mask registration. On the real production, comparing the mask registration difference through critical production layers, it could be revealed that registration residue error of line space layers with higher pattern density is always much larger than the one of contact hole layers with lower pattern density. Additionally, the mask registration difference between layers with similar pattern density

  12. Visualization research of 3D radiation field based on Delaunay triangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Changji; Chen Yuqing; Li Shiting; Zhu Bo

    2011-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the three dimensional partition, the triangulation of discrete date sets is improved by the method of point-by-point insertion. The discrete data for the radiation field by theoretical calculation or actual measurement is restructured, and the continuous distribution of the radiation field data is obtained. Finally, the 3D virtual scene of the nuclear facilities is built with the VR simulation techniques, and the visualization of the 3D radiation field is also achieved by the visualization mapping techniques. It is shown that the method combined VR and Delaunay triangulation could greatly improve the quality and efficiency of 3D radiation field visualization. (authors)

  13. Identification of probabilistic approaches and map-based navigation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Madhevan

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... consists of three processes: map learning (ML), localization and PP [73–76]. (i) ML ...... [83] Thrun S 2001 A probabilistic online mapping algorithm for teams of .... for target tracking using fuzzy logic controller in game theoretic ...

  14. Remote sensing-based fire frequency mapping in a savannah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from 2000 to 2006 were obtained and classified for burnt area mapping. Linear pixel unmixing was used for image classification and subsequent mapping of burnt areas. The results showed that it was feasible to have discrimination of burnt areas and ...

  15. Fusion of pixel and object-based features for weed mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junfeng; Liao, Wenzhi; Nuyttens, David; Lootens, Peter; Vangeyte, Jürgen; Pižurica, Aleksandra; He, Yong; Pieters, Jan G.

    2018-05-01

    The developments in the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and advanced imaging sensors provide new opportunities for ultra-high resolution (e.g., less than a 10 cm ground sampling distance (GSD)) crop field monitoring and mapping in precision agriculture applications. In this study, we developed a strategy for inter- and intra-row weed detection in early season maize fields from aerial visual imagery. More specifically, the Hough transform algorithm (HT) was applied to the orthomosaicked images for inter-row weed detection. A semi-automatic Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed with Random Forests (RF) combined with feature selection techniques to classify soil, weeds and maize. Furthermore, the two binary weed masks generated from HT and OBIA were fused for accurate binary weed image. The developed RF classifier was evaluated by 5-fold cross validation, and it obtained an overall accuracy of 0.945, and Kappa value of 0.912. Finally, the relationship of detected weeds and their ground truth densities was quantified by a fitted linear model with a coefficient of determination of 0.895 and a root mean square error of 0.026. Besides, the importance of input features was evaluated, and it was found that the ratio of vegetation length and width was the most significant feature for the classification model. Overall, our approach can yield a satisfactory weed map, and we expect that the obtained accurate and timely weed map from UAV imagery will be applicable to realize site-specific weed management (SSWM) in early season crop fields for reducing spraying non-selective herbicides and costs.

  16. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field to continental scales using geostationary and polar orbiting satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared (TIR remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetation amount (e.g., as quantified by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI have demonstrated utility in monitoring ET and drought conditions over large areas, they may provide ambiguous results when other factors (e.g., air temperature, advection are affecting plant functioning. A more physically based interpretation of LST and NDVI and their relationship to sub-surface moisture conditions can be obtained with a surface energy balance model driven by TIR remote sensing. The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI model is a multi-sensor TIR approach to ET mapping, coupling a two-source (soil + canopy land-surface model with an atmospheric boundary layer model in time-differencing mode to routinely and robustly map daily fluxes at continental scales and 5 to 10-km resolution using thermal band imagery and insolation estimates from geostationary satellites. A related algorithm (DisALEXI spatially disaggregates ALEXI fluxes down to finer spatial scales using moderate resolution TIR imagery from polar orbiting satellites. An overview of this modeling approach is presented, along with strategies for fusing information from multiple satellite platforms and wavebands to map daily ET down to resolutions on the order of 10 m. The ALEXI/DisALEXI model has potential for global applications by integrating data from multiple geostationary meteorological satellite systems, such as the US Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, the European Meteosat satellites, the Chinese Fen-yung 2B series, and the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellites. Work is underway to further evaluate multi-scale ALEXI implementations over the US, Europe, Africa

  17. Creating Geologically Based Radon Potential Maps for Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overfield, B.; Hahn, E.; Wiggins, A.; Andrews, W. M., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Radon potential in the United States, Kentucky in particular, has historically been communicated using a single hazard level for each county; however, physical phenomena are not controlled by administrative boundaries, so single-value county maps do not reflect the significant variations in radon potential in each county. A more accurate approach uses bedrock geology as a predictive tool. A team of nurses, health educators, statisticians, and geologists partnered to create 120 county maps showing spatial variations in radon potential by intersecting residential radon test kit results (N = 60,000) with a statewide 1:24,000-scale bedrock geology coverage to determine statistically valid radon-potential estimates for each geologic unit. Maps using geology as a predictive tool for radon potential are inherently more detailed than single-value county maps. This mapping project revealed that areas in central and south-central Kentucky with the highest radon potential are underlain by shales and karstic limestones.

  18. The MAPS based PXL vertex detector for the STAR experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contin, G.; Anderssen, E.; Greiner, L.; Schambach, J.; Silber, J.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Szelezniak, M.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.; Woodmansee, S.

    2015-03-01

    The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) was installed in the STAR experiment for the 2014 heavy ion run of RHIC. Designed to improve the vertex resolution and extend the measurement capabilities in the heavy flavor domain, the HFT is composed of three different silicon detectors based on CMOS monolithic active pixels (MAPS), pads and strips respectively, arranged in four concentric cylinders close to the STAR interaction point. The two innermost HFT layers are placed at a radius of 2.7 and 8 cm from the beam line, respectively, and accommodate 400 ultra-thin (50 μ m) high resolution MAPS sensors arranged in 10-sensor ladders to cover a total silicon area of 0.16 m2. Each sensor includes a pixel array of 928 rows and 960 columns with a 20.7 μ m pixel pitch, providing a sensitive area of ~ 3.8 cm2. The architecture is based on a column parallel readout with amplification and correlated double sampling inside each pixel. Each column is terminated with a high precision discriminator, is read out in a rolling shutter mode and the output is processed through an integrated zero suppression logic. The results are stored in two SRAM with ping-pong arrangement for a continuous readout. The sensor features 185.6 μ s readout time and 170 mW/cm2 power dissipation. The detector is air-cooled, allowing a global material budget as low as 0.39% on the inner layer. A novel mechanical approach to detector insertion enables effective installation and integration of the pixel layers within an 8 hour shift during the on-going STAR run.In addition to a detailed description of the detector characteristics, the experience of the first months of data taking will be presented in this paper, with a particular focus on sensor threshold calibration, latch-up protection procedures and general system operations aimed at stabilizing the running conditions. Issues faced during the 2014 run will be discussed together with the implemented solutions. A preliminary analysis of the detector performance

  19. The MAPS based PXL vertex detector for the STAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contin, G.; Anderssen, E.; Greiner, L.; Silber, J.; Stezelberger, T.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.; Woodmansee, S.; Schambach, J.; Sun, X.; Szelezniak, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) was installed in the STAR experiment for the 2014 heavy ion run of RHIC. Designed to improve the vertex resolution and extend the measurement capabilities in the heavy flavor domain, the HFT is composed of three different silicon detectors based on CMOS monolithic active pixels (MAPS), pads and strips respectively, arranged in four concentric cylinders close to the STAR interaction point. The two innermost HFT layers are placed at a radius of 2.7 and 8 cm from the beam line, respectively, and accommodate 400 ultra-thin (50 μ m) high resolution MAPS sensors arranged in 10-sensor ladders to cover a total silicon area of 0.16 m 2 . Each sensor includes a pixel array of 928 rows and 960 columns with a 20.7 μ m pixel pitch, providing a sensitive area of ∼ 3.8 cm 2 . The architecture is based on a column parallel readout with amplification and correlated double sampling inside each pixel. Each column is terminated with a high precision discriminator, is read out in a rolling shutter mode and the output is processed through an integrated zero suppression logic. The results are stored in two SRAM with ping-pong arrangement for a continuous readout. The sensor features 185.6 μ s readout time and 170 mW/cm 2 power dissipation. The detector is air-cooled, allowing a global material budget as low as 0.39% on the inner layer. A novel mechanical approach to detector insertion enables effective installation and integration of the pixel layers within an 8 hour shift during the on-going STAR run.In addition to a detailed description of the detector characteristics, the experience of the first months of data taking will be presented in this paper, with a particular focus on sensor threshold calibration, latch-up protection procedures and general system operations aimed at stabilizing the running conditions. Issues faced during the 2014 run will be discussed together with the implemented solutions. A preliminary analysis of the detector

  20. Can Probability Maps of Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Predict Visual Field Changes in Preperimetric Glaucoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won June; Kim, Young Kook; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Park, Ki Ho

    2017-12-01

    To determine the usefulness of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) probability maps in detecting locations with significant reduction in visual field (VF) sensitivity or predicting future VF changes, in patients with classically defined preperimetric glaucoma (PPG). Of 43 PPG patients, 43 eyes were followed-up on every 6 months for at least 2 years were analyzed in this longitudinal study. The patients underwent wide-field SS-OCT scanning and standard automated perimetry (SAP) at the time of enrollment. With this wide-scan protocol, probability maps originating from the corresponding thickness map and overlapped with SAP VF test points could be generated. We evaluated the vulnerable VF points with SS-OCT probability maps as well as the prevalence of locations with significant VF reduction or subsequent VF changes observed in the corresponding damaged areas of the probability maps. The vulnerable VF points were shown in superior and inferior arcuate patterns near the central fixation. In 19 of 43 PPG eyes (44.2%), significant reduction in baseline VF was detected within the areas of structural change on the SS-OCT probability maps. In 16 of 43 PPG eyes (37.2%), subsequent VF changes within the areas of SS-OCT probability map change were observed over the course of the follow-up. Structural changes on SS-OCT probability maps could detect or predict VF changes using SAP, in a considerable number of PPG eyes. Careful comparison of probability maps with SAP results could be useful in diagnosing and monitoring PPG patients in the clinical setting.

  1. Mapping the magnetic field generated by a supercurrent in a ring of YBa2Cu3O7−δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulca, P D; Gómez, R W

    2017-01-01

    We design and construct a device to map the magnetic field generated by a supercurrent in a rectangular cross section ring of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−δ . For the measurements of the magnetic field, we develop a Gaussmeter based on a commercial Hall effect sensor coupled to an Arduino microprocessor. Our results show an asymmetric distribution of the magnetic field intensity measured at a certain distance along a plane parallel to the ring surface. The behavior of the magnetic field intensity with distance along the ring axis is closely related to what is expected for a toroid. Using the Biot–Savart law and the measured magnetic field values, the induced supercurrent is determined. (paper)

  2. Field microcomputerized multichannel γ ray spectrometer based on notebook computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Wenyi; Wei Biao; Zhou Rongsheng; Li Guodong; Tang Hong

    1996-01-01

    Currently, field γ ray spectrometry can not rapidly measure γ ray full spectrum, so a field microcomputerized multichannel γ ray spectrometer based on notebook computer is described, and the γ ray full spectrum can be rapidly measured in the field

  3. KSC ADVANCED GROUND BASED FIELD MILL V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Ground Based Field Mill (AGBFM) network consists of 34 (31 operational) field mills located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The field mills...

  4. Combined 60° Wide-Field Choroidal Thickness Maps and High-Definition En Face Vasculature Visualization Using Swept-Source Megahertz OCT at 1050 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Kathrin J; Draxinger, Wolfgang; Klein, Thomas; Kolb, Jan Philip; Wieser, Wolfgang; Haritoglou, Christos; Kampik, Anselm; Fujimoto, James G; Neubauer, Aljoscha S; Huber, Robert; Wolf, Armin

    2015-10-01

    To demonstrate ultrahigh-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1.68 million A-scans/s for choroidal imaging in normal and diseased eyes over a ∼60° field of view. To investigate and correlate wide-field three-dimensional (3D) choroidal thickness (ChT) and vascular patterns using ChT maps and coregistered high-definition en face images extracted from a single densely sampled Megahertz-OCT (MHz-OCT) dataset. High-definition, ∼60° wide-field 3D datasets consisting of 2088 × 1024 A-scans were acquired using a 1.68 MHz prototype SS-OCT system at 1050 nm based on a Fourier-domain mode-locked laser. Nine subjects (nine eyes) with various chorioretinal diseases or without ocular pathology are presented. Coregistered ChT maps, choroidal summation maps, and depth-resolved en face images referenced to either the retinal pigment epithelium or the choroidal-scleral interface were generated using manual segmentation. Wide-field ChT maps showed a large inter- and intraindividual variance in peripheral and central ChT. In only four of the nine eyes, the location with the largest ChT was coincident with the fovea. The anatomy of the large lumen vessels of the outer choroid seems to play a major role in determining the global ChT pattern. Focal ChT changes with large thickness gradients were observed in some eyes. Different ChT and vascular patterns could be visualized over ∼60° in patients for the first time using OCT. Due to focal ChT changes, a high density of thickness measurements may be favorable. High-definition depth-resolved en face images are complementary to cross sections and thickness maps and enhance the interpretation of different ChT patterns.

  5. Strategies for haplotype-based association mapping in complex pedigreed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boleckova, J; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Sørensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In association mapping, haplotype-based methods are generally regarded to provide higher power and increased precision than methods based on single markers. For haplotype-based association mapping most studies use a fixed haplotype effect in the model. However, an increase in haplotype length inc...

  6. Identification of Coupled Map Lattice Based on Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for the parameter identification of coupled map lattice (CML based on compressed sensing is presented in this paper. We establish a meaningful connection between these two seemingly unrelated study topics and identify the weighted parameters using the relevant recovery algorithms in compressed sensing. Specifically, we first transform the parameter identification problem of CML into the sparse recovery problem of underdetermined linear system. In fact, compressed sensing provides a feasible method to solve underdetermined linear system if the sensing matrix satisfies some suitable conditions, such as restricted isometry property (RIP and mutual coherence. Then we give a low bound on the mutual coherence of the coefficient matrix generated by the observed values of CML and also prove that it satisfies the RIP from a theoretical point of view. If the weighted vector of each element is sparse in the CML system, our proposed approach can recover all the weighted parameters using only about M samplings, which is far less than the number of the lattice elements N. Another important and significant advantage is that if the observed data are contaminated with some types of noises, our approach is still effective. In the simulations, we mainly show the effects of coupling parameter and noise on the recovery rate.

  7. Sensitivity-based virtual fields for the non-linear virtual fields method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Aleksander; Davis, Frances M.; Pierron, Fabrice

    2017-09-01

    The virtual fields method is an approach to inversely identify material parameters using full-field deformation data. In this manuscript, a new set of automatically-defined virtual fields for non-linear constitutive models has been proposed. These new sensitivity-based virtual fields reduce the influence of noise on the parameter identification. The sensitivity-based virtual fields were applied to a numerical example involving small strain plasticity; however, the general formulation derived for these virtual fields is applicable to any non-linear constitutive model. To quantify the improvement offered by these new virtual fields, they were compared with stiffness-based and manually defined virtual fields. The proposed sensitivity-based virtual fields were consistently able to identify plastic model parameters and outperform the stiffness-based and manually defined virtual fields when the data was corrupted by noise.

  8. Web-Based Urban Metabolic Mapping for Bangalore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, V. K.; Kemp-Benedict, E.; Wang, G.; Malghan, D.

    2012-12-01

    Cities are like living entities, needing a continuous throughput of resources and energy for survival and growth, creating waste in the process. This paper documents the Bangalore Urban Mapping Project: an initiative that uses this metabolic concept [1],[2]. to inform comprehensive planning in the rapidly growing software capital of Bangalore city in India. Focusing on demographic growth, and water supply and consumption in its first phase, a web-based geo-portal has been developed for two purposes - interactive information communication and delivery, and online planning in the water supply sector. The application, titled Bangalore Urban Mapping Project (BUMP) is built on a free and open source web GIS stack consisting of a Postgis database, PHP, OpenLayers, and Apache Web Server deployed on a 64-bit Ubuntu Linux server platform. The interactive planning portion of the application allows BUMP users to build, run and visualize demographic growth, water supply, and growth scenarios on the browser. Application logic is written in PHP to connect the many components of the interactive application, which is available on the BUMP website (http://www.seimapping.org/bump/index.php). It relies on AJAX to fetch layer data from the server and render the layer using OpenLayers on the fly. This allows users to view multiple layers at the same time without refreshing the page. Data is packed in GeoJSON format and is compressed to reduce traffic. The information communication portion of the application provides thematic representation of each of twenty different map layers, graphical and tabular summaries of demographic and water data that are presented dynamically using Javascript libraries including the Google Chart API. The application also uses other common Javascript libraries/plug-ins, like jQuery, jQuery UI, qTip, to ease the development and to ensure cross-browser compatibility. The planning portion of the platform allows the user to interact with a scenario explorer

  9. Impurity heterogeneity in natural pyrite and its relation to internal electric fields mapped using remote laser beam induced current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, Jamie S., E-mail: csirojamie@gmail.com [CSIRO, Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Victoria (Australia); Large, Ross [Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); Ryan, Chris G. [CSIRO, Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Victoria (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    Regions of band-bending in naturally occurring semiconducting sulfides are thought to drive electrochemical reactions with passing fluids. Metal bearing fluids within the right pH range interact with the electric fields at the surface resulting in precious metal ore genesis, even in under-saturated solutions. Metal reduction at the surface occurs via field assisted electron transfer from the semiconductor bulk to the ion in solution via surface states. Better understanding the role these regions and their texturing play on nucleating ore growth requires imaging of electric field distributions near the sulfide surface and correlation with underlying elemental heterogeneity. In this paper we discuss PIXE measurements made on the CSIRO Nuclear Microprobe and correlate elemental maps with laser beam induced current maps of the electric field distribution.

  10. Slender Ca ii H Fibrils Mapping Magnetic Fields in the Low Solar Chromosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafarzadeh, S.; Rutten, R. J.; Szydlarski, M. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Solanki, S. K.; Wiegelmann, T.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Noort, M. van; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rodríguez, J. Blanco [Grupo de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Iniesta, J. C. del Toro; Suárez, D. Orozco [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Knölker, M. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Pillet, V. Martínez [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Schmidt, W., E-mail: shahin.jafarzadeh@astro.uio.no [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    A dense forest of slender bright fibrils near a small solar active region is seen in high-quality narrowband Ca ii H images from the SuFI instrument onboard the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory. The orientation of these slender Ca ii H fibrils (SCF) overlaps with the magnetic field configuration in the low solar chromosphere derived by magnetostatic extrapolation of the photospheric field observed with Sunrise/IMaX and SDO/HMI. In addition, many observed SCFs are qualitatively aligned with small-scale loops computed from a novel inversion approach based on best-fit numerical MHD simulation. Such loops are organized in canopy-like arches over quiet areas that differ in height depending on the field strength near their roots.

  11. Wide-field absolute transverse blood flow velocity mapping in vessel centerline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nanshou; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Bifeng; Guan, Caizhong; Wang, Mingyi; Han, Dingan; Tan, Haishu; Zeng, Yaguang

    2018-02-01

    We propose a wide-field absolute transverse blood flow velocity measurement method in vessel centerline based on absorption intensity fluctuation modulation effect. The difference between the light absorption capacities of red blood cells and background tissue under low-coherence illumination is utilized to realize the instantaneous and average wide-field optical angiography images. The absolute fuzzy connection algorithm is used for vessel centerline extraction from the average wide-field optical angiography. The absolute transverse velocity in the vessel centerline is then measured by a cross-correlation analysis according to instantaneous modulation depth signal. The proposed method promises to contribute to the treatment of diseases, such as those related to anemia or thrombosis.

  12. Near-Surface Geophysical Mapping of the Hydrological Response to an Intense Rainfall Event at the Field Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, G.; Vanderlinden, K.; Giraldez, J. V.; Espejo, A. J.; Muriel, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Soil moisture plays an important role in a wide variety of biogeochemical fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system and governs the (eco)hydrological response of a catchment to an external forcing such as rainfall. Near-surface electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors that measure the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) provide a fast and non-invasive means for characterizing this response at the field or catchment scale through high-resolution time-lapse mapping. Here we show how ECa maps, obtained before and after an intense rainfall event of 125 mm h-1, elucidate differences in soil moisture patterns and hydrologic response of an experimental field as a consequence of differed soil management. The dryland field (Vertisol) was located in SW Spain and cropped with a typical wheat-sunflower-legume rotation. Both, near-surface and subsurface ECa (ECas and ECad, respectively), were measured using the EM38-DD EMI sensor in a mobile configuration. Raw ECa measurements and Mean Relative Differences (MRD) provided information on soil moisture patterns while time-lapse maps were used to evaluate the hydrologic response of the field. ECa maps of the field, measured before and after the rainfall event showed similar patterns. The field depressions where most of water and sediments accumulated had the highest ECa and MRD values. The SE-oriented soil, which was deeper and more exposed to sun and wind, showed the lowest ECa and MRD. The largest differences raised in the central part of the field where a high ECa and MRD area appeared after the rainfall event as a consequence of the smaller soil depth and a possible subsurface flux concentration. Time-lapse maps of both ECa and MRD were also similar. The direct drill plots showed higher increments of ECa and MRD as a result of the smaller runoff production. Time-lapse ECa increments showed a bimodal distribution differentiating clearly the direct drill from the conventional and minimum tillage plots. However this kind

  13. Standards-Based Open-Source Planetary Map Server: Lunaserv

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, N. M.; Silva, V. H.; Bowley, K. S.; Lanjewar, K. K.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    Lunaserv is a planetary capable Web Map Service developed by the LROC SOC. It enables researchers to serve their own planetary data to a wide variety of GIS clients without any additional processing or download steps.

  14. Development of a web based GIS for health facilities mapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hilary Mushonga

    Key Words: Spatial Decision Support System, Web GIS, Mapping, Health geography. 1. Introduction ... Health geography is an area of medical research that incorporates geographic techniques into the study of ... street water pump. Once the ...

  15. Aircraft route planning based on digital map pre-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran ZHEN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the flight path project in low complicated airspace, the influence of terrain conditions and surface threatening to aircraft flight are studied. Through the analysis of digital map and static threat, the paper explores the processing method of the digital map, and uses the Hermite function to process the map smoothly, reducing the searching range of optimal trajectory. By designing the terrain following, terrain avoidance and the way of avoiding a threat, the safety of aircraft can be guaranteed. In-depth analysis of particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm realizes the three dimensional paths project before the aircraft performs a task. Through simulation, the difference of the maps before and after processing is shown, and offline programming of the three dimensional optimal path is achieved.

  16. Calculation of stochastic broadening due to noise and field errors in the simple map in action-angle coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Courtney; Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima

    2008-11-01

    The simple map is the simplest map that has topology of divertor tokamaks [1]. Recently, the action-angle coordinates for simple map are analytically calculated, and simple map is constructed in action-angle coordinates [2]. Action-angle coordinates for simple map can not be inverted to real space coordinates