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Sample records for field laboratories ventura

  1. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Department of Energy (DOE) activities at Santa Susana Field Laboratories, Ventura County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) activities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratories Site (DOE/SSFL), conducted May 16 through 26, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual participants for the Survey team are being supplied by an private contractor. The objective of the survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with DOE activities at SSFL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at SSFL, and interviews with site personnel. 90 refs., 17 figs., 28 tabs.

  2. Post-remedial-action survey report for Kinetic Experiment Water Boiler Reactor Facility, Santa Susana Field Laboratories, Rockwell International, Ventura County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Sholeen, C.M.; Flynn, K.F.; Justus, A.L.

    1981-10-01

    Rockwell International's Santa Susana Laboratories in Ventura County, California, have been the site of numerous federally-funded contracted projects involving the use of radioactive materials. Among these was the Kinetics Experiment Water Boiler (KEWB) Reactor which was operated under the auspices of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The KEWB Reactor was last operated in 1966. The facility was subsequently declared excess and decontamination and decommissioning operations were conducted during the first half of calendar year 1975. The facility was completely dismantled and the site graded to blend with the surrounding terrain. During October 1981, a post-remedial-action (certification) survey of the KEWB site was conducted on the behalf of the US Department of Energy by the Radiological Survey Group (RSG) of the Occupational Health and Safety Division's Health Physics Section (OHS/HP) of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The survey confirmed that the site was free from contamination and could be released for unrestricted use

  3. Post remedial action survey report for Building 003, Santa Susana Field Laboratories, Rockwell International, Ventura County, California, October 1981; April 1982. Surplus Facilities Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Sholeen, C.M.; Justus, A.L.; Flynn, K.F.

    1983-10-01

    Rockwell International's Santa Susana Laboratories in Ventura County, California, have been the site of numerous Federally-funded projects involving the use of radioactive materials. One such project was the System for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) Program. Building 003 on the Santa Susana site was used in conjunction with the SNAP Program and contained a highly shielded area designed for remote manipulation of radioactive materials. Such facilities are commonly referred to as hot caves. During the SNAP Program, fuel burnup samples were analyzed and irradiation experiments were evaluated in the Building 003 hot cave. Use of the hot cave facility ended when the SNAP Program was terminated in 1973. Subsequently, the Building 003 facilities were declared excess and were decontaminaed and decommissioned during the first half of calendar year 1975. At that time, the building was given a preliminary release. In 1981, a post-remedial-action (certification) survey of Building 003 was conducted at the request of the Department of Energy. Significant levels of residual contamination were found in various parts of the building. Consequently, additional decontamination was conducted by Rockwell International. A final post-remedial-action survey was conducted during April 1982, and those areas in Building 003 that had been found contaminated in 1981 were now found to be free of detectable radioactive contamination. Sludge samples taken from the sewer sump showed elevated levels of enriched uranium contaminant. Hence, all sewer lines within Building 003 were removed. This permitted unconditional release of the building for unrestricted use. However, the sewer lines exterior to the building, which remain in place, must be considered potentially contaminated and, therefore, subject to restricted use

  4. Surplus Facilities Management Program. Post-remedial-action survey report for SNAP-8 Experimental Reactor Facility, Building 010 site, Santa Susana Field Laboratories, Rockwell International, Ventura County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Sholeen, C.M.; Mayes, C.B.; Justus, A.L.; Flynn, K.F.

    1984-04-01

    Based on the results of the radiological assessment, the Argonne National Laboratory Radiological Survey Group arrived at the following conclusions: (1) soil contaminated with the radionuclides 60 Co and 152 Eu of undetermined origin was detected in the southwest quadrant of the Building 010 site. 60 Co was also detected in one environmental sample taken from an area northwest of the site and in a borehole sample taken from the area that previously held the radioactive gas hold-up tanks. Uranium was detected in soil from a hole in the center of the building site and in a second hole southwest of the building site. In all cases, the radionuclide levels encountered in the soil were well below the criteria set by DOE for this site; and (2) the direct instrument readings at the surface of the site were probably the result of natural radiation (terrestrial and celestial), as well as shine from the material being stored at the nearby RMDF facility. There was no evidence that the contaminated soil under the asphalt pad contributed detectable levels to the total background readings

  5. EAST OJAI HYDROLOGY, VENTURA COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The basis of the hydrologic data for East Ojai FIS is the HSPF study for Ventura River watershed documented in a report entitled...

  6. Verification survey of the 17th Street Drainage Area, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, The Boeing Company, Ventura County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John R. Morton

    2000-01-01

    An independent (third-party) verification of contractor remedial actions of the subject site verifies that remedial actions have been effective in meeting established and site-specific guidelines and that the documentation accurately and adequately describes the radiological conditions at the site

  7. Radon mapping - Santa Barbara and Ventura counties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, R.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1990, the Department of Conservation''s Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) has provided geologic information and conducted several research projects on geology and radon for the California Department of Health Services (DHS) Radon Program. This article provides a brief overview of radon''s occurrence and impact on human health, and summarizes a recent DMG project for DHS that used geologic, geochemical, and indoor radon measurement data to produce detailed radon potential zone maps for Santa Barbara and Ventura counties

  8. National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pulsed Field Program is located in Northern New Mexico at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The user program is designed to provide researchers with a balance of...

  9. Surplus Facilities Management Program. Post remedial action survey report for the Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) facility, Santa Susana Field Laboratories, Rockwell International, Ventura County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Sholeen, C.M.; Flynn, K.F.; Justus, A.L.

    1984-02-01

    Decontamination of the Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) began in 1976 and was completed in 1982. In view of the concurrent and post-remedial-action surveys, the following conclusions can be stated. All the buildings and areas included in this decommissioning project have been decontaminated to below the limits specified in the draft ANSI Standard N13.12 and the NRC Guidelines for Decontamination of Facilities and Equipment Prior to Release for Unrestricted Use or Termination of Licenses for By-Product, Source, or Special Nuclear Material, dated July 1982. Radioactive contamination was found in appropriate access points of the sanitary sewer and storm drain systems included within the boundaries of this decommissioning project. One sample indicated a 90 Sr concentration dissolved in the water of approximately half the recommended water concentration for controlled areas and approximately 15 times the recommended water concentration for uncontrolled areas as stated in DOE-5480.1 Chg. 6, Chapter XI. Therefore, the interior inaccessible surfaces of these systems must be considered contaminated in accordance with statements found in the NRC Regulatory Guidelines issued in July 1982. Effluent from the outfall of this drain system must also be considered as being potentially contaminated. 1 reference, 32 figures, 8 tables

  10. Hydrogen Field Test Standard: Laboratory and Field Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Jodie G.; Wright, John D.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed a prototype field test standard (FTS) that incorporates three test methods that could be used by state weights and measures inspectors to periodically verify the accuracy of retail hydrogen dispensers, much as gasoline dispensers are tested today. The three field test methods are: 1) gravimetric, 2) Pressure, Volume, Temperature (PVT), and 3) master meter. The FTS was tested in NIST's Transient Flow Facility with helium gas and in the field at a hydrogen dispenser location. All three methods agree within 0.57 % and 1.53 % for all test drafts of helium gas in the laboratory setting and of hydrogen gas in the field, respectively. The time required to perform six test drafts is similar for all three methods, ranging from 6 h for the gravimetric and master meter methods to 8 h for the PVT method. The laboratory tests show that 1) it is critical to wait for thermal equilibrium to achieve density measurements in the FTS that meet the desired uncertainty requirements for the PVT and master meter methods; in general, we found a wait time of 20 minutes introduces errors methods, respectively and 2) buoyancy corrections are important for the lowest uncertainty gravimetric measurements. The field tests show that sensor drift can become a largest component of uncertainty that is not present in the laboratory setting. The scale was calibrated after it was set up at the field location. Checks of the calibration throughout testing showed drift of 0.031 %. Calibration of the master meter and the pressure sensors prior to travel to the field location and upon return showed significant drifts in their calibrations; 0.14 % and up to 1.7 %, respectively. This highlights the need for better sensor selection and/or more robust sensor testing prior to putting into field service. All three test methods are capable of being successfully performed in the field and give equivalent answers if proper sensors without drift are

  11. Laboratory and field based evaluation of chromatography ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA) is an on-line ion-chromatography-based instrument designed for speciation of the inorganic gas and aerosol ammonium-nitrate-sulfate system. Previous work to characterize the performance of the MARGA has been primarily based on field comparison to other measurement methods to evaluate accuracy. While such studies are useful, the underlying reasons for disagreement among methods are not always clear. This study examines aspects of MARGA accuracy and precision specifically related to automated chromatography analysis. Using laboratory standards, analytical accuracy, precision, and method detection limits derived from the MARGA chromatography software are compared to an alternative software package (Chromeleon, Thermo Scientific Dionex). Field measurements are used to further evaluate instrument performance, including the MARGA’s use of an internal LiBr standard to control accuracy. Using gas/aerosol ratios and aerosol neutralization state as a case study, the impact of chromatography on measurement error is assessed. The new generation of on-line chromatography-based gas and particle measurement systems have many advantages, including simultaneous analysis of multiple pollutants. The Monitor for Aerosols and Gases in Ambient Air (MARGA) is such an instrument that is used in North America, Europe, and Asia for atmospheric process studies as well as routine monitoring. While the instrument has been evaluat

  12. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Ventura map area lies within the Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the Ventura Basin, in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges, and the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. The city of Ventura is the major cultural center in the map area. The Ventura River cuts through Ventura, draining the Santa Ynez Mountains and the coastal hills north of Ventura. Northwest of Ventura, the coastal zone is a narrow strip containing highway and railway transportation corridors and a few small residential clusters. Rincon Island, an island constructed for oil and gas production, lies offshore of Punta Gorda. Southeast of Ventura, the coastal zone consists of the mouth and broad, alluvial plains of the Santa Clara River

  13. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Ventura Basin Province, California, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Lillis, Paul G.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-10-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geology-based assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional and continuous oil and gas resources in the part of the Ventura Basin Province that lies onshore or within State waters (within 3 miles of the shoreline) of California (fig. 1). Conventional oil and gas resources are those that have migrated upward into structural or stratigraphic traps from deep zones where the oil and gas is generated; water is present below the oil or gas. Continuous accumulations, in contrast, are those in which oil or gas is pervasively present in essentially all wells that penetrate them, that may not be structurally or stratigraphically trapped, and that typically lack oil-water or gas-water contacts. They are commonly produced with well-stimulation technology, such as hydraulic fracturing, referred to as “unconventional.” The same stimulation technology, however, is also used in many conventionally trapped accumulations. We estimated both the likely range of oil and gas volumes remaining to be discovered in accumulations similar to existing conventional oil and gas fields in the Ventura Basin Province (previously assessed by Keller [1995] as 1,060 million barrels of oil [MMBO], 1,900 billion cubic feet of gas [BCFG], and 60 million barrels of natural gas liquids [MMBNGL]), and the potential for oil and gas that might be present in a continuous accumulation at extreme depth in the floor of the basin.

  14. Laboratory and Field Investigations of Small Crater Repair Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Priddy, Lucy P; Tingle, Jeb S; McCaffrey, Timothy J; Rollings, Ray S

    2007-01-01

    .... This airfield damage repair (ADR) investigation consisted of laboratory testing of selected crater fill and capping materials, as well as full-scale field testing of small crater repairs to evaluate field mixing methods, installation...

  15. Ranking protective coatings: Laboratory vs. field experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Jeffrey A.; Connor, William B.

    1994-12-01

    Environmentally protective coatings are used on a wide range of gas turbine components for survival in the harsh operating conditions of engines. A host of coatings are commercially available to protect hot-section components, ranging from simple aluminides to designer metallic overlays and ceramic thermal barrier coatings. A variety of coating-application processes are available, and they range from simple pack cementation processing to complex physical vapor deposition, which requires multimillion dollar facilities. Detailed databases are available for most coatings and coating/process combinations for a range of laboratory tests. Still, the analysis of components actually used in engines often yields surprises when compared against predicted coating behavior from laboratory testing. This paper highlights recent work to develop new laboratory tests that better simulate engine environments. Comparison of in-flight coating performance as well as industrial and factory engine testing on a range of hardware is presented along with laboratory predictions from standard testing and from recently developed cyclic burner-rig testing.

  16. Toward a direct comparison of field and laboratory goniometer measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangel, S.; Verstraete, M.; Schopfer, J.; Kneubuehler, M.; Schaepman, M.E.; Itten, K.I.

    2005-01-01

    Field and laboratory goniometers are widely used in the remote sensing community to assess spectrodirectional reflection properties of selected targets. Even when the same target and goniometer system are used, field and laboratory results cannot directly be compared due to inherent differences,

  17. 1. Introduction. 2. Laboratory experiments. 3. Field experiments. 4. Integrated field-laboratory experiments. 5. Panel recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Some recommendations for the design of laboratory and field studies in marine radioecology are formulated. The difficulties concerning the comparability of various experimental methods used to measure the fluxes of radionuclides through marine organisms and ecosystems, and also the use of laboratory results to make predictions for the natural environment are discussed. Three working groups were established during the panel meeting, to consider laboratory experiments, field studies, and the design and execution of integrated laboratory and field studies respectively. A number of supporting papers dealing with marine radioecological experiments were presented

  18. Dark Field Microscopy for Analytical Laboratory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augspurger, Ashley E.; Stender, Anthony S.; Marchuk, Kyle; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Fang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and inexpensive optical microscopy experiment for a quantitative analysis or an instrumental analysis chemistry course is described. The students have hands-on experience with a dark field microscope and investigate the wavelength dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance in gold and silver nanoparticles. Students also…

  19. The Rwanda Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Rwanda Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (RFELTP) is a 2-year public health leadership development training program that provides applied epidemiology and public health laboratory training while the trainees provide public health service to the Ministry of Health. RFELTP is hosted at the National ...

  20. Remote Laboratory and Animal Behaviour: An Interactive Open Field System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Lorenzo; Ratti, Giovannino

    2007-01-01

    Remote laboratories can provide distant learners with practical acquisitions which would otherwise remain precluded. Our proposal here is a remote laboratory on a behavioural test (open field test), with the aim of introducing learners to the observation and analysis of stereotyped behaviour in animals. A real-time video of a mouse in an…

  1. The New High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Dresden: a Pulsed-Field Laboratory at an IR Free-Electron-Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pobell, F.; Bianchi, A. D.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Krug, H.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Zvyagin, S.; Wosnitza, J.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the construction of a new high magnetic field user laboratory which will offer pulsed-field coils in the range (60 T, 500 ms, 40 mm) to (100 T, 10 ms, 20 mm) for maximum field, pulse time, and bore diameter of the coils. These coils will be energized by a modular 50 MJ/24 kV capacitor bank. Besides many other experimental techniques, as unique possibilities NMR in pulsed fields as well as infrared spectroscopy at 5 to 150 μm will be available by connecting the pulsed field laboratory to a nearby free-electron-laser facility

  2. Accreditation of laboratories in the field of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galjanic, S.; Franic, Z.

    2005-01-01

    This paper gives a review of requirements and procedures for the accreditation of test and calibration laboratories in the field of radiation protection, paying particular attention to Croatia. General requirements to be met by a testing or calibration laboratory to be accredited are described in the standard HRN EN ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. The quality of a radiation protection programme can only be as good as the quality of the measurements made to support it. Measurement quality can be assured by participation in measurement assurance programmes that evaluate the appropriateness of procedures, facilities, and equipment and include periodic checks to assure adequate performance. These also include internal consistency checks, proficiency tests, intercomparisons and site visits by technical experts to review operations. In Croatia, laboratories are yet to be accredited in the field of radiation protection. However, harmonisation of technical legislation with the EU legal system will require some changes in laws and regulations in the field of radiation protection, including the ones dealing with the notification of testing laboratories and connected procedures. Regarding the notification procedures for testing laboratories in Croatia, in the regulated area, the existing accreditation infrastructure, i.e. Croatian Accreditation Agency is ready for its implementation, as it has already established and further developed a consistent accreditation system, compatible with international requirements and procedures.(author)

  3. Upper bound of abutment scour in laboratory and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, conducted a field investigation of abutment scour in South Carolina and used those data to develop envelope curves that define the upper bound of abutment scour. To expand on this previous work, an additional cooperative investigation was initiated to combine the South Carolina data with abutment scour data from other sources and evaluate upper bound patterns with this larger data set. To facilitate this analysis, 446 laboratory and 331 field measurements of abutment scour were compiled into a digital database. This extensive database was used to evaluate the South Carolina abutment scour envelope curves and to develop additional envelope curves that reflected the upper bound of abutment scour depth for the laboratory and field data. The envelope curves provide simple but useful supplementary tools for assessing the potential maximum abutment scour depth in the field setting.

  4. [Strategy Development for International Cooperation in the Clinical Laboratory Field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yoshiko; Osawa, Susumu

    2015-10-01

    The strategy of international cooperation in the clinical laboratory field was analyzed to improve the quality of intervention by reviewing documents from international organizations and the Japanese government. Based on the world development agenda, the target of action for health has shifted from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases (NCD). This emphasizes the importance of comprehensive clinical laboratories instead of disease-specific examinations in developing countries. To achieve this goal, the World Health Organization (WHO) has disseminated to the African and Asian regions the Laboratory Quality Management System (LQMS), which is based on the same principles of the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) 15189. To execute this strategy, international experts must have competence in project management, analyze information regarding the target country, and develop a strategy for management of the LQMS with an understanding of the technical aspects of laboratory work. However, there is no appropriate pre- and post-educational system of international health for Japanese international workers. Universities and academic organizations should cooperate with the government to establish a system of education for international workers. Objectives of this education system must include: (1) training for the organization and understanding of global health issues, (2) education of the principles regarding comprehensive management of clinical laboratories, and (3) understanding the LQMS which was employed based on WHO's initiative. Achievement of these objectives will help improve the quality of international cooperation in the clinical laboratory field.

  5. Predicting bioremediation of hydrocarbons: Laboratory to field scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diplock, E.E.; Mardlin, D.P.; Killham, K.S.; Paton, G.I.

    2009-01-01

    There are strong drivers to increasingly adopt bioremediation as an effective technique for risk reduction of hydrocarbon impacted soils. Researchers often rely solely on chemical data to assess bioremediation efficiently, without making use of the numerous biological techniques for assessing microbial performance. Where used, laboratory experiments must be effectively extrapolated to the field scale. The aim of this research was to test laboratory derived data and move to the field scale. In this research, the remediation of over thirty hydrocarbon sites was studied in the laboratory using a range of analytical techniques. At elevated concentrations, the rate of degradation was best described by respiration and the total hydrocarbon concentration in soil. The number of bacterial degraders and heterotrophs as well as quantification of the bioavailable fraction allowed an estimation of how bioremediation would progress. The response of microbial biosensors proved a useful predictor of bioremediation in the absence of other microbial data. Field-scale trials on average took three times as long to reach the same endpoint as the laboratory trial. It is essential that practitioners justify the nature and frequency of sampling when managing remediation projects and estimations can be made using laboratory derived data. The value of bioremediation will be realised when those that practice the technology can offer transparent lines of evidence to explain their decisions. - Detailed biological, chemical and physical characterisation reduces uncertainty in predicting bioremediation.

  6. Comparison of leach results from field and laboratory prepared samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblath, S.B.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The leach behavior of saltstone prepared in the laboratory agrees well with that from samples mixed in the field using the Littleford mixer. Leach rates of nitrates and cesium from the current reference formulation saltstone were compared. The laboratory samples were prepared using simulated salt solution; those in the field used Tank 50 decontaminated supernate. For both nitrate and cesium, the field and laboratory samples showed nearly identical leach rates for the first 30 to 50 days. For the remaining period of the test, the field samples showed higher leach rates with the maximum difference being less than a factor of three. Ruthenium and antimony were present in the Tank 50 supernate in known amounts. Antimony-125 was observed in the leachate and a fractional leach rate was calculated to be at least a factor of ten less than that of 137 Cs. No 106 Ru was observed in the leachate, and the release rate was not calculated. However, based on the detection limits for the analysis, the ruthenium leach rate must also be at least a factor of ten less than cesium. These data are the first measurements of the leach rates of Ru and Sb from saltstone. The nitrate leach rates for these samples were 5 x 10 -5 grams of nitrate per square cm per day after 100 days for the laboratory samples and after 200 days for the field samples. These values are consistent with the previously measured leach rates for reference formulation saltstone. The relative standard deviation in the leach rate is about 15% for the field samples, which all were produced from one batch of saltstone, and about 35% for the laboratory samples, which came from different batches. These are the first recorded estimates of the error in leach rates for saltstone

  7. Comparing sensitivity of ecotoxicological effect endpoints between laboratory and field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, H.; Riemann, B.; Christoffersen, K.

    2002-01-01

    multispecies field tests using tributyltin (TBT) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) were compared with published laboratory single-species test results and measured in situ concentrations. Extrapolation methods were evaluated by comparing predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs), calculated by AF...

  8. The West Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, a strategy to improve disease surveillance and epidemic control in West Africa. ... The program includes four countries: Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Togo with an overarching goal to progressively cover all French speaking countries in West Africa ...

  9. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  10. Overview of DOE Oil and Gas Field Laboratory Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromhal, G.; Ciferno, J.; Covatch, G.; Folio, E.; Melchert, E.; Ogunsola, O.; Renk, J., III; Vagnetti, R.

    2017-12-01

    America's abundant unconventional oil and natural gas (UOG) resources are critical components of our nation's energy portfolio. These resources need to be prudently developed to derive maximum benefits. In spite of the long history of hydraulic fracturing, the optimal number of fracturing stages during multi-stage fracture stimulation in horizontal wells is not known. In addition, there is the dire need of a comprehensive understanding of ways to improve the recovery of shale gas with little or no impacts on the environment. Research that seeks to expand our view of effective and environmentally sustainable ways to develop our nation's oil and natural gas resources can be done in the laboratory or at a computer; but, some experiments must be performed in a field setting. The Department of Energy (DOE) Field Lab Observatory projects are designed to address those research questions that must be studied in the field. The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a suite of "field laboratory" test sites to carry out collaborative research that will help find ways of improving the recovery of energy resources as much as possible, with as little environmental impact as possible, from "unconventional" formations, such as shale and other low permeability rock formations. Currently there are three field laboratories in various stages of development and operation. Work is on-going at two of the sites: The Hydraulic Fracturing Test Site (HFTS) in the Permian Basin and the Marcellus Shale Energy and Environmental Lab (MSEEL) project in the Marcellus Shale Play. Agreement on the third site, the Utica Shale Energy and Environmental Lab (USEEL) project in the Utica Shale Play, was just recently finalized. Other field site opportunities may be forthcoming. This presentation will give an overview of the three field laboratory projects.

  11. Science outside the laboratory measurement in field science and economics

    CERN Document Server

    Boumans, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The conduct of most of social science occurs outside the laboratory. Such studies in field science explore phenomena that cannot for practical, technical, or ethical reasons be explored under controlled conditions. These phenomena cannot be fully isolated from their environment or investigated by manipulation or intervention. Yet measurement, including rigorous or clinical measurement, does provide analysts with a sound basis for discerning what occurs under field conditions, and why. In Science Outside the Laboratory, Marcel Boumans explores the state of measurement theory, its reliability, and the role expert judgment plays in field investigations from the perspective of the philosophy of science. Its discussion of the problems of passive observation, the calculus of observation, the two-model problem, and model-based consensus uses illustrations drawn primarily from economics. Rich in research and discussion, the volume clarifies the extent to which measurement provides valid information about objects an...

  12. Distributed energy resources at naval base ventura county building 1512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Owen C.; Marnay, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a preliminary assessment of the cost effectiveness of distributed energy resources at Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC) Building 1512. This study was conducted in response to the base's request for design assistance to the Federal Energy Management Program. Given the current tariff structure there are two main decisions facing NBVC: whether to install distributed energy resources (DER), or whether to continue the direct access energy supply contract. At the current effective rate, given assumptions about the performance and structure of building energy loads and available generating technology characteristics, the results of this study indicate that if the building installed a 600 kW DER system with absorption cooling and heat capabilities chosen by cost minimization, the energy cost savings would be about 14 percent, or $55,000 per year. However, under current conditions, this study also suggests that significant savings could be obtained if Building 1 512 changed from the direct access contract to a SCE TOU-8 (Southern California Edison time of use tariff number 8) rate without installing a DER system. At current SCE TOU-8 tariffs, the potential savings from installation of a DER system would be about 4 percent, or $15,000 per year

  13. Laboratory and field experience with rim ditch dewatering of MFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoz, A.; Mikula, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Western Research Centre; Lahaie, R. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described a rim ditch method of dewatering mature fine tailings (MFT). Polymer additions were used to strengthen the MFT and to decrease the capillary suction time (CST). Laboratory and field-scale studies were conducted to demonstrate the dewatering method. The flocculants were added in a Komax inline mixer. Polymers were then injected into the tailings. The mixing processes were optimized in a series of laboratory studies and then demonstrated in the field tests. The tests showed that CST and high dewatering rates were consistently maintained using the method. MFT feeds were also consistent. Release water quality was improved using the method. The large-scale test site is now being monitored for compliance with Directive 74. tabs., figs.

  14. Alternatives to Pyrotechnic Distress Signals; Laboratory and Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    distance for positive identity and location. The spectral characteristics (“color”) of the light are important, as daytime and nighttime vision are most...ambient illumination. Figure 10. Laboratory setup. 5.2.1 Projector Specifications The scene projector was a Panasonic PT-AE80000U home cinema ...three were identical to lab signals: 4Hz group/interrupt in white, red, and cyan. For the field testing, experimenters mounted the signal generator

  15. Bacterial Transport in Heterogeneous Porous Media: Laboratory and Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, M. E.

    2001-12-01

    A fully instrumented research site for examining field-scale bacterial transport has been established on the eastern shore of Virginia. Studies employing intact sediment cores from the South Oyster site have been performed to examine the effects of physical and chemical heterogeneity, to derive transport parameters, and to aid in the selection of bacterial strains for use in field experiments. A variety of innovative methods for tracking bacteria were developed and evaluated under both laboratory and field conditions, providing the tools to detect target cell concentrations in groundwater down to effects of physical and chemical heterogeneity on field-scale bacterial transport. The results of this research not only contribute to the development of more effective bioremediation strategies, but also have implications for a better understanding of bacterial movement in the subsurface as it relates to public health microbiology and general microbial ecology.

  16. Individual laboratory-measured discount rates predict field behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabris, Christopher F; Laibson, David; Morris, Carrie L; Schuldt, Jonathon P; Taubinsky, Dmitry

    2008-12-01

    We estimate discount rates of 555 subjects using a laboratory task and find that these individual discount rates predict inter-individual variation in field behaviors (e.g., exercise, BMI, smoking). The correlation between the discount rate and each field behavior is small: none exceeds 0.28 and many are near 0. However, the discount rate has at least as much predictive power as any variable in our dataset (e.g., sex, age, education). The correlation between the discount rate and field behavior rises when field behaviors are aggregated: these correlations range from 0.09-0.38. We present a model that explains why specific intertemporal choice behaviors are only weakly correlated with discount rates, even though discount rates robustly predict aggregates of intertemporal decisions.

  17. 77 FR 21797 - Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuges, Ventura, Kern, San Luis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-R-2011-N253: FXRS12650800000S3-112-FF08R00000] Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuges, Ventura, Kern, San Luis... acres, primarily in Kern County and extending into San Luis Obispo and Ventura Counties. Blue Ridge NWR...

  18. Leaching of wood ash - Laboratory and field studies; Lakning av vedaska - Laboratorie- och faeltstudier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Per-Erik

    2012-02-15

    High forest production leads to diminishing amounts of base cations and micro nutrients in forest soils. This is due to uptake in, and harvest of, the trees. Losses can be compensated for by spreading stabilized wood ash on the forest ground, which means recycling of base cations and micro nutrients. Chemical composition of wood ash can easily be described by standard methods in the laboratory. However, this does not include the process of leaching in nature, such as which components and leaching rate for different compounds. During field conditions several factors are added, which are not available in the laboratory. After almost 10 years in the forest soils there still remains large quantities of the original product. Only 10-30 % of the wood ash products and 5 % of the lime product has been leached. In the laboratory study the leached amount was slightly larger, at the most 35 % for wood ash and 20 % for lime. Both studies indicate long time for weathering of the products in forest soils. Slower leaching rate from pellets of wood ash compared to leaching rate from crushed wood ash in the laboratory study is not verified by the field study. This indicates limited possibilities to control rates of leaching in the environment

  19. From Field to Laboratory: A New Database Approach for Linking Microbial Field Ecology with Laboratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Leslie; Keller, R.; Miller, S.; Jahnke, L.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Ames Exobiology Culture Collection Database (AECC-DB) has been developed as a collaboration between microbial ecologists and information technology specialists. It allows for extensive web-based archiving of information regarding field samples to document microbial co-habitation of specific ecosystem micro-environments. Documentation and archiving continues as pure cultures are isolated, metabolic properties determined, and DNA extracted and sequenced. In this way metabolic properties and molecular sequences are clearly linked back to specific isolates and the location of those microbes in the ecosystem of origin. Use of this database system presents a significant advancement over traditional bookkeeping wherein there is generally little or no information regarding the environments from which microorganisms were isolated. Generally there is only a general ecosystem designation (i.e., hot-spring). However within each of these there are a myriad of microenvironments with very different properties and determining exactly where (which microenvironment) a given microbe comes from is critical in designing appropriate isolation media and interpreting physiological properties. We are currently using the database to aid in the isolation of a large number of cyanobacterial species and will present results by PI's and students demonstrating the utility of this new approach.

  20. Soil erodibility variability in laboratory and field rainfall simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Boglárka; Szabó, Judit; Jakab, Gergely; Centeri, Csaba; Szalai, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall simulation experiments are the most common way to observe and to model the soil erosion processes in in situ and ex situ circumstances. During modelling soil erosion, one of the most important factors are the annual soil loss and the soil erodibility which represent the effect of soil properties on soil loss and the soil resistance against water erosion. The amount of runoff and soil loss can differ in case of the same soil type, while it's characteristics determine the soil erodibility factor. This leads to uncertainties regarding soil erodibility. Soil loss and soil erodibility were examined with the investigation of the same soil under laboratory and field conditions with rainfall simulators. The comparative measurement was carried out in a laboratory on 0,5 m2, and in the field (Shower Power-02) on 6 m2 plot size where the applied slope angles were 5% and 12% with 30 and 90 mm/h rainfall intensity. The main idea was to examine and compare the soil erodibility and its variability coming from the same soil, but different rainfall simulator type. The applied model was the USLE, nomograph and other equations which concern single rainfall events. The given results show differences between the field and laboratory experiments and between the different calculations. Concerning for the whole rainfall events runoff and soil loss, were significantly higher at the laboratory experiments, which affected the soil erodibility values too. The given differences can originate from the plot size. The main research questions are that: How should we handle the soil erodibility factors and its significant variability? What is the best solution for soil erodibility determination?

  1. Laboratory and field evaluation of broiler litter nitrogen mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistani, K R; Adeli, A; McGowen, S L; Tewolde, H; Brink, G E

    2008-05-01

    Two studies were conducted for this research. First, a laboratory incubation to quantify broiler litter N mineralization with the following treatments: two soil moisture regimes, constant at 60% water fill pore space (WFPS) and fluctuating (60-30% WFPS), three soil types, Brooksville silty clay loam, Ruston sandy loam from Mississippi, and Catlin silt loam from Illinois. Second, a field incubation study to quantify broiler litter N mineralization using similar soils and litter application rates as the laboratory incubation. Broiler litter was applied at an equivalent rate of 350 kg total N ha(-1) for both studies except for control treatments. Subsamples were taken at different timing for both experiments for NO3-N and NH4-N determinations. In the laboratory experiment, soil moisture regimes had no significant impact on litter-derived inorganic N. Total litter-derived inorganic N across all treatments increased from 23 mg kg(-1) at time 0, to 159 mg kg(-1) at 93 d after litter application. Significant differences were observed among the soil types. Net litter-derived inorganic N was greater for Brooksville followed by Ruston and Catlin soils. For both studies and all soils, NH4-N content decreased while NO3-N content increased indicating a rapid nitrification of the mineralized litter N. Litter mineralization in the field study followed the same trend as the laboratory study but resulted in much lower net inorganic N, presumably due to environmental conditions such as precipitation and temperature, which may have resulted in more denitrification and immobilization of mineralized litter N. Litter-derived inorganic N from the field study was greater for Ruston than Brooksville. Due to no impact by soil moisture regimes, additional studies are warranted in order to develop predictive relationships to quantify broiler litter N availability.

  2. Microrelief-Controlled Overland Flow Generation: Laboratory and Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface microrelief affects overland flow generation and the related hydrologic processes. However, such influences vary depending on other factors such as rainfall characteristics, soil properties, and initial soil moisture conditions. Thus, in-depth research is needed to better understand and evaluate the combined effects of these factors on overland flow dynamics. The objective of this experimental study was to examine how surface microrelief, in conjunction with the factors of rainfall, soil, and initial moisture conditions, impacts overland flow generation and runoff processes in both laboratory and field settings. A series of overland flow experiments were conducted for rough and smooth surfaces that represented distinct microtopographic characteristics and the experimental data were analyzed and compared. Across different soil types and initial moisture conditions, both laboratory and field experiments demonstrated that a rough soil surface experienced a delayed initiation of runoff and featured a stepwise threshold flow pattern due to the microrelief-controlled puddle filling-spilling-merging dynamics. It was found from the field experiments that a smooth plot surface was more responsive to rainfall variations especially during an initial rainfall event. However, enhanced capability of overland flow generation and faster puddle connectivity of a rough field plot occurred during the subsequent rain events.

  3. A concept for NASA's Mars 2016 astrobiology field laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Luther W; Wilson, Michael G; Abilleira, Fernando; Jordan, James F; Wilson, Gregory R

    2007-08-01

    The Mars Program Plan includes an integrated and coordinated set of future candidate missions and investigations that meet fundamental science objectives of NASA and the Mars Exploration Program (MEP). At the time this paper was written, these possible future missions are planned in a manner consistent with a projected budget profile for the Mars Program in the next decade (2007-2016). As with all future missions, the funding profile depends on a number of factors that include the exact cost of each mission as well as potential changes to the overall NASA budget. In the current version of the Mars Program Plan, the Astrobiology Field Laboratory (AFL) exists as a candidate project to determine whether there were (or are) habitable zones and life, and how the development of these zones may be related to the overall evolution of the planet. The AFL concept is a surface exploration mission equipped with a major in situ laboratory capable of making significant advancements toward the Mars Program's life-related scientific goals and the overarching Vision for Space Exploration. We have developed several concepts for the AFL that fit within known budget and engineering constraints projected for the 2016 and 2018 Mars mission launch opportunities. The AFL mission architecture proposed here assumes maximum heritage from the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). Candidate payload elements for this concept were identified from a set of recommendations put forth by the Astrobiology Field Laboratory Science Steering Group (AFL SSG) in 2004, for the express purpose of identifying overall rover mass and power requirements for such a mission. The conceptual payload includes a Precision Sample Handling and Processing System that would replace and augment the functionality and capabilities provided by the Sample Acquisition Sample Processing and Handling system that is currently part of the 2009 MSL platform.

  4. On-site laboratory support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory environmental restoration field activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, J.L.E.

    1995-07-01

    A remedial investigation/feasibility study has been undertaken at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Bechtel National, Inc. and partners CH2M Hill, Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, and PEER Consultants are contracted to Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, performing this work for ORNL's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. An on-site Close Support Laboratory (CSL) established at the ER Field Operations Facility has evolved into a laboratory where quality analytical screening results can be provided rapidly (e.g., within 24 hours of sampling). CSL capabilities include three basic areas: radiochemistry, chromatography, and wet chemistry. Radiochemical analyses include gamma spectroscopy, tritium and carbon-14 screens using liquid scintillation analysis, and gross alpha and beta counting. Cerenkov counting and crown-ether-based separation are the two rapid methods used for radiostrontium determination in water samples. By extending count times where appropriate, method detection limits can match those achieved by off-site contract laboratories. Volatile organic compounds are detected by means of gas chromatography using either headspace or purge and trap sample introduction (based on EPA 601/602). Ionic content of water samples is determined using ion chromatography and alkalinity measurement. Ion chromatography is used to quantify both anions (based on EPA 300) and cations. Wet chemistry procedures performed at the CSL include alkalinity, pH (water and soil), soil resistivity, and dissolved/suspended solids. Besides environmental samples, the CSL routinely screens health and safety and waste management samples. The cost savings of the CSL are both direct and indirect

  5. Field studies of radionuclide transport at the Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Moltyaner, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors summarize the results of: in situ field column experiments to study the transport behaviour of several long-lived radionuclides, 4 natural gradient non-reactive radiotracer injection experiments at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) Twin Lake Tracer Test Site, and a model validation study that used data for 90 Sr from two well-defined contaminated groundwater flow systems at CRL. The paper also describes a current re-evaluation of radionuclide release and transport from a 1960 experimental burial (in a CRL sand aquifer) of glass blocks containing fission and activation products. (J.P.N.)

  6. International intercomparison of environmental dosimeters under field and laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; de Planque Burke, G.; Becker, K.

    1975-04-01

    Based on the results of a pilot study at ORNL in 1973, a more comprehensive international intercomparison of integrating dosimeters for the assessment of external penetrating environmental radiation fields was carried out. Forty-one laboratories from eleven countries participated in this study. A total of 56 sets of six detectors each were mailed to and from Houston, Texas, where they were exposed for three months (July to September 1974) as follows: two in an unprotected space out-of-doors 1 m above ground; two in an air-conditioned shielded area with a known, low exposure rate; and two with the second group, but with an additional exposure to 30 mR. Evaluation of the dosimeters provides information on the calibration precision, the accuracy of field measurement, and transit exposure. Results are discussed. (U.S.)

  7. Laboratory and field evaluation of sterile male boll weevil competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    The production of pheromone by boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, treated with 10,000 rad of CO-60 gamma irradiation compared favorably with that of control weevils for 5 days; however, feeding (determined by frass collection) was reduced from the first day post-treatment. No direct correlation was found between production of pheromone and elimination of frass. Overwintered male boll weevils were found to produce small quantities of pheromone and the ratio of components was less attractive at the same concentration as the standard laboratory formulation of grandlure. Most healthy sterilized male weevils should be more attractive than overwintered males. Laboratory-reared sterilized male boll weevils can be as attractive to female weevils as overwintered field males. Weevils treated with busulfan (1,4-butanediol dimethanesulfonate) alone were more attractive than those treated with combinations of busulfan and hempa. In general, sterilization reduced the attractiveness of laboratory males by about 50 percent. Evidence is presented for the existence of ''super-males.''

  8. Biochar: from laboratory mechanisms through the greenhouse to field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gao, X.; Dugan, B.; Silberg, J. J.; Zygourakis, K.; Alvarez, P. J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The biochar community is excellent at pointing to individual cases where biochar amendment has changed soil properties, with some studies showing significant improvements in crop yields, reduction in nutrient export, and remediation of pollutants. However, many studies exist which do not show improvements, and in some cases, studies clearly show detrimental outcomes. The next, crucial step in biochar science and engineering research will be to develop a process-based understanding of how biochar acts to improve soil properties. In particular, we need a better mechanistic understanding of how biochar sorbs and desorbs contaminants, how it interacts with soil water, and how it interacts with the soil microbial community. These mechanistic studies need to encompass processes that range from the nanometer to the kilometer scale. At the nanometer scale, we need a predictive model of how biochar will sorb and desorb hydrocarbons, nutrients, and toxic metals. At the micrometer scale we need models that explain biochar's effects on soil water, especially the plant-available fraction of soil water. The micrometer scale is also where mechanistic information is neeed about microbial processes. At the macroscale we need physical models to describe the landscape mobility of biochar, because biochar that washes away from fields can no longer provide crop benefits. To be most informative, biochar research should occur along a lab-greenhouse-field trial trajectory. Laboratory experiments should aim determine what mechanisms may act to control biochar-soil processes, and then greenhouse experiments can be used to test the significance of lab-derived mechanisms in short, highly replicated, controlled experiments. Once evidence of effect is determined from greenhouse experiments, field trials are merited. Field trials are the gold standard needed prior to full deployment, but results from field trials cannot be extrapolated to other field sites without the mechanistic backup provided

  9. Laboratory observation of magnetic field growth driven by shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intrator, T. P., E-mail: intrator@lanl.gov; Feng, Y.; Sears, J.; Weber, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M.S. E526, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Dorf, L. [Applied Materials, Inc., Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Sun, X. [University of Science and Technology, Hefei (China)

    2014-04-15

    Two magnetic flux ropes that collide and bounce have been characterized in the laboratory. We find screw pinch profiles that include ion flow v{sub i}, magnetic field B, current density J, and plasma pressure. The electron flow v{sub e} can be inferred, allowing the evaluation of the Hall J×B term in a two fluid magnetohydrodynamic Ohm's Law. Flux ropes that are initially cylindrical are mutually attracted and compress each other, which distorts the cylindrical symmetry. Magnetic field is created via the ∇×v{sub e}×B induction term in Ohm's Law where in-plane (perpendicular) shear of parallel flow (along the flux rope) is the dominant feature, along with some dissipation and magnetic reconnection. We predict and measure the growth of a quadrupole out-of-plane magnetic field δB{sub z}. This is a simple and coherent example of a shear flow driven dynamo. There is some similarity with two dimensional reconnection scenarios, which induce a current sheet and thus out-of-plane flow in the third dimension, despite the customary picture that considers flows only in the reconnection plane. These data illustrate a general and deterministic mechanism for large scale sheared flows to acquire smaller scale magnetic features, disordered structure, and possibly turbulence.

  10. Laboratory studies of oil spill bioremediation; toward understanding field behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, R.C.; Hinton, S.M.; Elmendorf, D.L.; Lute, J.R.; Grossman, M.J.; Robbins, W.K.; Hsu, Chang S.; Richard, B.E.; Haith, C.E.; Senius, J.D.; Minak-Bernero, V.; Chianelli, R.R.; Bragg, J.R.; Douglas, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    Oil spill remediation aims to enhance the natural process of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. The microbial foundations have been studied throughout this century, but the focus of most of this work has been on the degradation of well defined compounds by well defined microbial species. This paper addresses laboratory studies on crude oil biodegradation by microbial consortia obtained from oiled beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the spill from the Exxon Valdez. It demonstrates that oil degradation is indeed likely to be nitrogen-limited in Prince William Sound, the different molecular classes in crude oil that are subjected to biodegradation, the identification of conserved species in the oil that can be used for assessing biodegradation and bioremediation in the field, the effectiveness of fertilizers in stimulating sub-surface biodegradation, the role of the olephilic fertilizer Inipol EAP22, and the identification of the oil-degrading microorganisms in Prince William Sound. Together, these laboratory studies provided guidance and important insights into the microbial phenomena underlying the successful bioremediation of the oiled shorelines

  11. Leaching of saltstone: Laboratory and field testing and mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, M.W.; Langton, C.A.; Oblath, S.B.; Pepper, D.W.; Wallace, R.M.; Wilhite, E.L.; Yau, W.W.F.

    1987-01-01

    A low-level alkaline salt solution will be a byproduct in the processing of high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This solution will be incorporated into a wasteform, saltstone, and disposed of in surface vaults. Laboratory and field leach testing and mathematical modeling have demonstrated the predictability of contaminant release from cement wasteforms. Saltstone disposal in surface vaults will meet the design objective, which is to meet drinking water standards in shallow groundwater at the disposal area boundary. Diffusion is the predominant mechanism for release of contaminants to the environment. Leach testing in unsaturated soil, at soil moisture levels above 1 wt %, has shown no difference in leach rate compared to leaching in distilled water. Field leach testing of three thirty-ton blocks of saltstone in lysimeters has been underway since January 1984. Mathematical models were applied to assess design features for saltstone disposal. One dimensional infinite-composite and semi-infinite analytical models were developed for assessing diffusion of nitrate from saltstone through a cement barrier. Numerical models, both finite element and finite difference, were validated by comparison of model predictions with the saltstone lysimeter results. Validated models were used to assess the long-term performance of the saltstone stored in surface vaults. The maximum concentrations of all contaminants released from saltstone to shallow groundwater are predicted to be below drinking water standards at the disposal area boundary. 5 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Field electron emission spectrometer combined with field ion/electron microscope as a field emission laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkuratov, S.I.; Ivanov, S.N.; Shilimanov, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    The facility, combining the field ion microscope, field electron emission microscope and field electron emission spectrometer, is described. Combination of three methodologies makes it possible to carry out the complete cycle of emission studies. Atom-plane and clean surface of the studied samples is prepared by means of field evaporation of the material atom layers without any thermal and radiation impact. This enables the study of atom and electron structure of clean surface of the wide range materials, the study whereof through the field emission methods was previously rather difficult. The temperature of the samples under study changes from 75 up to 2500 K. The energy resolution of the electron analyzer equals 30 MeV. 19 refs., 10 figs

  13. Results from laboratory and field testing of nitrate measuring spectrophotometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snazelle, Teri T.

    2015-01-01

    Five ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer nitrate analyzers were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) during a two-phase evaluation. In Phase I, the TriOS ProPs (10-millimeter (mm) path length), Hach NITRATAX plus sc (5-mm path length), Satlantic Submersible UV Nitrate Analyzer (SUNA, 10-mm path length), and S::CAN Spectro::lyser (5-mm path length) were evaluated in the HIF Water-Quality Servicing Laboratory to determine the validity of the manufacturer's technical specifications for accuracy, limit of linearity (LOL), drift, and range of operating temperature. Accuracy specifications were met in the TriOS, Hach, and SUNA. The stock calibration of the S::CAN required two offset adjustments before the analyzer met the manufacturer's accuracy specification. Instrument drift was observed only in the S::CAN and was the result of leaching from the optical path insert seals. All tested models, except for the Hach, met their specified LOL in the laboratory testing. The Hach's range was found to be approximately 18 milligrams nitrogen per liter (mg-N/L) and not the manufacturer-specified 25 mg-N/L. Measurements by all of the tested analyzers showed signs of hysteresis in the operating temperature tests. Only the SUNA measurements demonstrated excessive noise and instability in temperatures above 20 degrees Celsius (°C). The SUNA analyzer was returned to the manufacturer at the completion of the Phase II field deployment evaluation for repair and recalibration, and the performance of the sensor improved significantly.

  14. Pedro Ventura de Puga, último señor de la Casa de Fontefiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leirós de la Peña, Paz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on documentation from Casa de Fontefiz kept in the AHPOR. The documents cover the period from the sixteenth to nineteenth century and provide information about the patrimony of the house, its social position and the political activities of Pedro Ventura de Puga during the firts half of the nineteenth century. The first part is focused on the origin and evolution of patrimony, way of living, nobility abuses (including social and sexual aspects, and the difficulties to keep the social status. In the second part, Pedro Ventura plays the main role: his participation in the War of Independence and the building of the liberal state. He is a relevant character to undestand the adaptation of nobility to an age of political changes and social ad economical survivals. The defense of the constitution and his participation in the liberal regime is compatible with the maintenance of a economy based on the collection of taxes and nobility titles. Pedro Ventura is politically registered as a moderate liberalist.

    Este trabajo está basado en la documentación de la Casa de Fontefiz, conservada en al AHPOR. Los documentos abarcan desde el siglo XVI al XIX y nos aportan información sobre el patrimonio de la Casa, su posición social y las actividades políticas de Pedro Ventura de Puga en la primera mitad del siglo XIX. La primera parte se centra en el origen y evolución del patrimonio, modo de vida, abusos de la hidalguía en el plano social y sexual y las dificultades para mantener el stuatus social. La segunda parte tiene como protagonista a Pedro Ventura de Puga, su participación en la Guerra de la Independencia y en la construcción del estado liberal. Es una figura clave para entender la adaptación de la hidalguía a una época de cambios políticos y de pervivencias sociales y económicas. La defensa de la Constitución y la participación en el régimen liberal es compatible con el mantenimiento de una econocmía basada en

  15. Link between laboratory/field observations and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.R.; Foley, M.G.

    1985-10-01

    The various linkages in system performance assessments that integrate disposal program elements must be understood. The linkage between model development and field/laboratory observations is described as the iterative program of site and system characterization for development of an observational-confirmatory data base to develop, improve, and support conceptual models for site and system behavior. The program consists of data gathering and experiments to demonstrate understanding at various spatial and time scales and degrees of complexity. Understanding and accounting for the decreasing characterization certainty that arises with increasing space and time scales is an important aspect of the link between models and observations. The performance allocation process for setting performance goals and confidence levels coupled with a performance assessment approach that provides these performance and confidence estimates will resolve when sufficient characterization has been achieved. At each iteration performance allocation goals are reviewed and revised as necessary. The updated data base and appropriate performance assessment tools and approaches are utilized to identify and design additional tests and data needs necessary to meet current performance allocation goals. 9 refs

  16. The link between laboratory/field observations and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.R.; Foley, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The various linkages in system performance assessments that integrate disposal program elements must be understood. The linkage between model development and field/laboratory observations is described as the iterative program of site and system characterization for development of an observational-confirmatory data base. This data base is designed to develop, improve, and support conceptual models for site and system behavior. The program consists of data gathering and experiments to demonstrate understanding at various spatial and time scales and degrees of complexity. Understanding and accounting for the decreasing characterization certainty that arises with increasing space and time scales is an important aspect of the link between models and observations. The performance allocation process for setting performance goals and confidence levels, coupled with a performance assessment approach that provides these performance and confidence estimates, will determine when sufficient characterization has been achieved. At each iteration, performance allocation goals are reviewed and revised as necessary. The updated data base and appropriate performance assessment tools and approaches are utilized to identify and design additional tests and data needs necessary to meet current performance allocation goals

  17. New developments in pulsed fields at the US National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.; Parkin, D.M.; Rickel, D.G.; Pernambuco-Wise, P.

    1996-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a member of a consortium (with Florida State University and the University of Florida) to operate the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), with funding from the National Science Foundation and the State of Florida. Los Alamos provides unique resources for its component of NHMFL in the form of a 1.4 GW inertial storage motor-generator for high field pulsed magnets and infrastructure for fields generated by flux compression. The NHMFL provides a user facility open to all qualified users, develops magnet technology in association with the private sector, and advances science and technology opportunities. The magnets in service at Los Alamos are of three types. Starting with the pre-existing explosive flux compression capability in 1991, NHMFL added capacitor-driven magnets in December, 1992, and a 20 tesla superconducting magnet in January, 1993. The capacitor-driven magnets continue to grow in diversity and accessibility, with four magnet stations now available for several different magnet types. Two magnets of unprecedented size and strength are nearing completion of assembly and design, respectively. Under final assembly is a quasi-continuous magnet that contains 90 MJ of magnetic energy at full field, and being designed is a non-destructive 100 T magnet containing 140 MJ

  18. Costs and benefits of cold acclimation in field released Drosophila – Associating laboratory and field results.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; A. Hoffmann, Ary

    2008-01-01

    Physiological and evolutionary responses to thermal variation are often investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. However, this approach may fail to account for the complexity of natural environments. Here we investigated the costs and benefits of developmental or adult cold acclimation...... temperatures where cold acclimated flies were up to 36 times less likely to find a resource under warm conditions. These costs were not detected in standard laboratory tests but indicate that physiological acclimation may improve fitness only over a narrow set of thermal conditions while it may have...... using the ability of field released Drosophila melanogaster to find a resource as a proxy of fitness. Measurements were carried out on two continents across a range of temperatures. Cold acclimation improved the flies' ability to find resources at low temperatures. However, this came at a cost at higher...

  19. Field and Laboratory Studies of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, Matthew Mitchell

    This thesis is the culmination of field and laboratory studies aimed at assessing processes that affect the composition and distribution of atmospheric organic aerosol. An emphasis is placed on measurements conducted using compact and high-resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS). The first three chapters summarize results from aircraft campaigns designed to evaluate anthropogenic and biogenic impacts on marine aerosol and clouds off the coast of California. Subsequent chapters describe laboratory studies intended to evaluate gas and particle-phase mechanisms of organic aerosol oxidation. The 2013 Nucleation in California Experiment (NiCE) was a campaign designed to study environments impacted by nucleated and/or freshly formed aerosol particles. Terrestrial biogenic aerosol with > 85% organic mass was observed to reside in the free troposphere above marine stratocumulus. This biogenic organic aerosol (BOA) originated from the Northwestern United States and was transported to the marine atmosphere during periodic cloud-clearing events. Spectra recorded by a cloud condensation nuclei counter demonstrated that BOA is CCN active. BOA enhancements at latitudes north of San Francisco, CA coincided with enhanced cloud water concentrations of organic species such as acetate and formate. Airborne measurements conducted during the 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE) were aimed at evaluating the contribution of ship emissions to the properties of marine aerosol and clouds off the coast of central California. In one study, analysis of organic aerosol mass spectra during periods of enhanced shipping activity yielded unique tracers indicative of cloud-processed ship emissions (m/z 42 and 99). The variation of their organic fraction (f42 and f 99) was found to coincide with periods of heavy (f 42 > 0.15; f99 > 0.04), moderate (0.05 controlled organic plume emitted from the R/V Point Sur. Under sunny conditions, nucleated particles composed

  20. Field and laboratory procedures used in a soil chronosequence study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael J.; Janitzky, Peter

    1986-01-01

    In 1978, the late Denis Marchand initiated a research project entitled "Soil Correlation and Dating at the U.S. Geological Survey" to determine the usefulness of soils in solving geologic problems. Marchand proposed to establish soil chronosequences that could be dated independently of soil development by using radiometric and other numeric dating methods. In addition, by comparing dated chronosequences in different environments, rates of soil development could be studied and compared among varying climates and mineralogical conditions. The project was fundamental in documenting the value of soils in studies of mapping, correlating, and dating late Cenozoic deposits and in studying soil genesis. All published reports by members of the project are included in the bibliography.The project demanded that methods be adapted or developed to ensure comparability over a wide variation in soil types. Emphasis was placed on obtaining professional expertise and on establishing consistent techniques, especially for the field, laboratory, and data-compilation methods. Since 1978, twelve chronosequences have been sampled and analyzed by members of this project, and methods have been established and used consistently for analysis of the samples.The goals of this report are to:Document the methods used for the study on soil chronosequences,Present the results of tests that were run for precision, accuracy, and effectiveness, andDiscuss our modifications to standard procedures.Many of the methods presented herein are standard and have been reported elsewhere. However, we assume less prior analytical knowledge in our descriptions; thus, the manual should be easy to follow for the inexperienced analyst. Each chapter presents one or more references of the basic principle, an equipment and reagents list, and the detailed procedure. In some chapters this is followed by additional remarks or example calculations.The flow diagram in figure 1 outlines the step-by-step procedures used to

  1. DO TIE LABORATORY BASED ASSESSMENT METHODS REALLY PREDICT FIELD EFFECTS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both porewaters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question of whethe...

  2. DO TIE LABORATORY BASED METHODS REALLY REFLECT FIELD CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both interstitial waters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question ...

  3. Measuring the Earth's Magnetic Field in a Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartacci, A.; Straulino, S.

    2008-01-01

    Two methods for measuring the Earth's magnetic field are described. In the former, according to Gauss, the Earth's magnetic field is compared with that of a permanent magnet; in the latter, a well-known method, the comparison is made with the magnetic field generated by a current. As all the used instruments are available off the shelf, both…

  4. About Region 3's Laboratory and Field Services at EPA's Environmental Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mission & contact information for EPA Region 3's Laboratory and Field Services located at EPA's Environmental Science Center: the Office of Analytical Services and Quality Assurance & Field Inspection Program

  5. Soil profile property estimation with field and laboratory VNIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) soil sensors have the potential to provide rapid, high-resolution estimation of multiple soil properties. Although many studies have focused on laboratory-based visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectroscopy of dried soil samples, previous work has demonstrated ...

  6. Effects of chlorpyrifos on individuals and populations of Daphnia pulex in the laboratory and field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven, N. van der; Gerritsen, A.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (cpf) on young (laboratory. Populations of D. pulex exposed to cpf were studied in the laboratory and field. In the field, cpf was applied in

  7. A Coastal Environment Field and Laboratory Activity for an Undergraduate Geomorphology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jean T.; Rindfleisch, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    A field and laboratory exercise for an undergraduate geomorphology class is described that focuses on the beach. The project requires one day of fieldwork and two laboratory sessions. In the field, students measure water surface fluctuations (waves) with a pressure sensor, survey beach profiles, collect sediment samples, and observe the beach…

  8. 78 FR 47007 - National Environmental Policy Act; Santa Susana Field Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... project Web site address listed below. http://www.nasa.gov/agency/nepa/news/SSFL.html . ADDRESSES...; Santa Susana Field Laboratory AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION... Environmental Cleanup Activities for the NASA-administered portion of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL...

  9. Water Quality & Pollutant Source Monitoring: Field and Laboratory Procedures. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on techniques and instrumentation used to develop data in field monitoring programs and related laboratory operations concerned with water quality and pollution monitoring. Topics include: collection and handling of samples; bacteriological, biological, and chemical field and laboratory methods; field…

  10. Further details on the applicability of Thellier paleointensity method: The effect of magnitude of laboratory field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Juan; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Alva-Valdivia, Luis M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2006-06-01

    Twenty years after Tanaka and Kono's pioneering contribution (Tanaka and Kono, 1984), we give some new details on the effect of applied field strength during Thellier paleointensity experiments. Special attention is paid to the relation of magnitude of laboratory field and Coe's quality factors (Coe et al., 1978). Full thermoremanent magnetizations were imparted on natural samples containing low-Ti titanomagnetites of pseudo-single domain structure in a 40-μT magnetic field from 600 °C to room temperature. The samples were subjected to the routine Thellier procedure using a wide range of applied laboratory fields. Results indicate that values of laboratory fields may be accurately reproduced within 2% of standard error. The quality factors, however, decrease when the magnitude of 'ancient' field does not match to applied laboratory fields. To cite this article: J. Morales et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  11. Water chemistry and phytoplankton field and laboratory procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.O.; Simmons, M.S. (eds.)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this manual is to serve as a guide for persons using these techniques in water quality studies and as a written record of the methods used in this laboratory at this time. It is anticipated that the manual will be updated frequently as new methods are added and the present ones are further refined. The present methods are all used routinely and have been in regular use for a year or longer. This manual is specifically written as a guide for the collection and analysis of lake water samples from the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, all of the analytical methods are easily adapted for laboratory culture or small lake studies. The descriptions contained in this manual are designed primarily as users guides oriented to the equipment available at the Great Lakes Research Division, and as most of the methods are taken from the literature, the reader is referred to the original articles for a more detailed discussion of the methods.

  12. Linking Aerosol Optical Properties Between Laboratory, Field, and Model Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, S. M.; Pokhrel, R. P.; Foster, K. A.; Brown, H.; Liu, X.

    2017-12-01

    The optical properties of aerosol emissions from biomass burning have a significant impact on the Earth's radiative balance. Based on measurements made during the Fourth Fire Lab in Missoula Experiment, our group published a series of parameterizations that related optical properties (single scattering albedo and absorption due to brown carbon at multiple wavelengths) to the elemental to total carbon ratio of aerosols emitted from biomass burning. In this presentation, the ability of these parameterizations to simulate the optical properties of ambient aerosol is assessed using observations collected in 2017 from our mobile laboratory chasing wildfires in the Western United States. The ambient data includes measurements of multi-wavelength absorption, scattering, and extinction, size distribution, chemical composition, and volatility. In addition to testing the laboratory parameterizations, this combination of measurements allows us to assess the ability of core-shell Mie Theory to replicate observations and to assess the impact of brown carbon and mixing state on optical properties. Finally, both laboratory and ambient data are compared to the optical properties generated by a prominent climate model (Community Earth System Model (CESM) coupled with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5)). The discrepancies between lab observations, ambient observations and model output will be discussed.

  13. HVAC systems in a field laboratory for indoor climate study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a HVAC system for a field lab. The design integrated mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation, low impulse vertical ventilation, personalized ventilation, natural ventilation, hybrid ventilation, active chilled beams, radiant ceiling and floor, and heat...... with the controlled room temperature in the range from 10 to 35 °C and relative humidity in the range from 15 to 80 %. The field lab can be used to test the performance of each system included in the field lab as well as the combined performance of two or more systems....

  14. A laboratory and field condition comparison of life table parameters of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini-Tabesh Behnaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Life table studies are essential tools for understanding population dynamics. The life table parameters of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae feeding on the host plant, Hibiscus syriacus L. were studied under laboratory (25±1°C and relative humidity of 65±5% and a photoperiod of 16L : 8D h and field conditions (23-43°C, and relative humidity of 27-95%. The data were analysed using the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. The life table studies were started with 50 and 40 nymphs in laboratory and field conditions, respectively. Under laboratory conditions, A. gossypii reared on H. syriacus had a higher survival rate, fecundity, and longevity than those reared under field conditions. When reared under field conditions, A. gossypii had a longer nymphal developmental time, shorter adult longevity, and lower fecundity than those reared under laboratory conditions. The intrinsic rate of increase (r, net reproductive rate (R0, and the finite rate of increase (λ under laboratory conditions, were higher than those obtained under field conditions. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in the mean generation time T (days between field and laboratory conditions. In the present study, the results clearly showed that life table parameters of A. gossypii were significantly different under field and laboratory conditions. These results could help us to understand the A. gossypii population dynamics under field conditions. The results could also help us make better management decisions for economically important crops

  15. La crónica de Ventura García Calderón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Espinoza E.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio brinda una lectura del libro de crónicas Bajo el clamor delas sirenas de Ventura García Calderón, en el que ofrece su visión de labarbarie instalada en el centro de la civilización, mediante la guerra. Lamirada del autor logra extraer de esa experiencia la oportunidad parauniversalizar los valores franceses, capaces de convocar a todos los pueblos y culturas, en una nueva era de avance tecnológico.

  16. Geometric morphometric differences between Panstrongylus geniculatus from field and laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Jaramillo O

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The finding of Panstrongylus geniculatus nymphs inside a house in northeastern Antioquia, Colombia, and the reports related to their increasing presence in homes suggest the need for surveillance methods for monitoring the invasion processes. We analyzed the morphological differences between a wild population and its laboratory descendants, using the techniques of geometric morphometry, with the idea that such differences might parallel those between sylvatic and synanthropic populations. The analyses over five generations showed differences in size but not in shape. Head size and wing size were both reduced from sylvatic to laboratory populations, but the decrease in head size occurred only up to the second generation while the decrease in wing size proceeded up to the fifth generation. In contrast, although a decrease in sexual size dimorphism has been proposed as a marker of colonization in human dwellings, we did not detect any significant loss of dimorphism between sexes of P. geniculatus over the five generations studied. We conclude that size changes may have a physiological origin in response to a change of ecotopes, but more than five generations may be required for the expression of permanent morphological markers of human dwellings colonization.

  17. Sampling atmospheric pesticides with SPME: Laboratory developments and field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junxia; Tuduri, Ludovic; Mercury, Maud; Millet, Maurice; Briand, Olivier; Montury, Michel

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the atmospheric exposure of the greenhouse workers to pesticides, solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used under non-equilibrium conditions. Using Fick's law of diffusion, the concentrations of pesticides in the greenhouse can be calculated using pre-determined sampling rates (SRs). Thus the sampling rates (SRs) of two modes of SPME in the lab and in the field were determined and compared. The SRs for six pesticides in the lab were 20.4-48.3 mL min -1 for the exposed fiber and 0.166-0.929 mL min -1 for the retracted fiber. In field sampling, two pesticides, dichlorvos and cyprodinil were detected with exposed SPME. SR with exposed SPME for dichlorvos in the field (32.4 mL min -1 ) was consistent with that in the lab (34.5 mL min -1 ). SR for dichlorvos in the field (32.4 mL min -1 ) was consistent with that in the lab (34.5 mL min -1 ). The trends of temporal concentration and the inhalation exposure were also obtained. - SPME was proved to be a powerful and simple tool for determining pesticides' atmospheric concentration

  18. Laboratory and field studies of guayule modified to overexpress HMGR

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the genetic modification of guayule to overexpress the isoprenoid pathway enzyme HMGR. The rubber content of two-month old in vitro transformed plantlets showed a 65% increase in rubber over the control for one line (HMGR6), and lower resin for another (HMGR2). In field evaluations HMGR6...

  19. Deformation bands in porous carbonate grainstones: Field and laboratory observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilona, A.; Baud, P.; Tondi, E.; Agosta, F.; Vinciguerra, S.; Rustichelli, A.; Spiers, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent field-based studies documented deformation bands in porous carbonates; these structures accommodate volumetric and/or shear strain by means of pore collapse, grain rotation and/or sliding. Microstructural observations of natural deformation bands in carbonates showed that, at advanced stages

  20. Translating laboratory compaction test results to field scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roholl, J.A.; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Breunese, J.N.

    2016-01-01

    In recent studies on the surface subsidence caused by hydrocarbon recovery of the Groningen gas field, the predicted subsidence is overestimated if results of compaction experiments are not corrected by an empirical `upscaling factor'. In order to find an explanation for this `upscaling factor', an

  1. Road traffic noise-induced sleep disturbances: a comparison between laboratory and field settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skånberg, Annbritt

    2004-10-01

    Due to the ongoing discussion about the relevance of sleep studies performed in the laboratory, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of road traffic noise exposure on sleep in laboratory and in field settings. Eighteen healthy young subjects participated in the study. They were exposed to noise from road traffic in the laboratory and exposed to the same recorded traffic noise exposure in their own homes. Their sleep was evaluated with wrist actigraphs and questionnaires on sleep. No significant increase in effects of noise on sleep in the laboratory was found. The results indicate that laboratory experiments do not exaggerate effects of noise on sleep.

  2. Laboratory and field scale demonstration of reactive barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.; Cantrell, K.; Stewart, W.

    1996-10-01

    In an effort to devise a cost efficient technology for remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater, the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (DOE-UMTRA) Program through Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) fabricated a pilot scale research project utilizing reactive subsurface barriers at an UMTRA site in Durango, Colorado. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by placing a reactant material (in this experiment, metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. The reactive media then removes and/or transforms the contaminant(s) to regulatory acceptable levels. Experimental design and results are discussed with regard to other potential applications of reactive barrier remediation strategies at other sites with contaminated groundwater problems

  3. Technetium behaviour in Boom Clay - a laboratory and field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baston, G.M.N.; Ilett, D.J.; Cowper, M.M.; Pilkington, N.J.; Tweed, C.J.; Williams, S.J. [AEA Technology plc, Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Canniere, P.R. de; Wang, L. [SCK.CEN, Waste and Disposal Project, Boeretang, Mol (Belgium)

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes a study of technetium solubility and migration under chemical conditions representative of those prevailing in a Boom Clay environment. Laboratory and in situ measurements yielded similar aqueous concentrations of technetium, of about 1 x 10{sup -8} mol dm{sup -3}, close to the concentrations measured for hydrated technetium(IV) oxide TcO{sub 2}.1.6H{sub 2}O in the solubility studies. From fitting the curves of the Tc concentrations as function of time, distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) values were estimated to lie between 0.8 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} and 1.8 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}. Exposure of the system at 80 C and to {gamma}-radiation dose rates of several hundred Gy h{sup -1} resulted in only minor differences in behaviour. (orig.)

  4. Technetium behaviour in Boom Clay - a laboratory and field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, G.M.N.; Ilett, D.J.; Cowper, M.M.; Pilkington, N.J.; Tweed, C.J.; Williams, S.J.; Canniere, P.R. de; Wang, L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a study of technetium solubility and migration under chemical conditions representative of those prevailing in a Boom Clay environment. Laboratory and in situ measurements yielded similar aqueous concentrations of technetium, of about 1 x 10 -8 mol dm -3 , close to the concentrations measured for hydrated technetium(IV) oxide TcO 2 .1.6H 2 O in the solubility studies. From fitting the curves of the Tc concentrations as function of time, distribution coefficient (K d ) values were estimated to lie between 0.8 cm 3 g -1 and 1.8 cm 3 g -1 . Exposure of the system at 80 C and to γ-radiation dose rates of several hundred Gy h -1 resulted in only minor differences in behaviour. (orig.)

  5. Vapor-phase biofiltration: Laboratory and field experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Bourbonais, K.A.; Peterson, L.E.; Lee, J.H.; Laakso, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Application of vapor-phase bioreactors (VPBs) to petroleum hydrocarbons is complicated by the different mass transfer characteristics of aliphatics and aromatics. Laboratory- and pilot-scale VPB studies were conducted to evaluate treatment of soil vapor extraction (SVE) off-gas. A mixture of compost, perlite, and activated carbon was the selected medium based on pressure drop, microbial colonization, and adsorption properties. Two different pilot-scale reactors were built with a difference of 70:1 in scale. The smaller VPB's maximum effective elimination capacity (EC) was determined to be 7.2 g m -3 h -1 ; the larger unit's EC was 70% to 80% of this value. Low EC values may be attributable to a combination of mass-transfer and kinetic limitations

  6. Response of Halimeda to ocean acidification: Field and laboratory evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, L.L.; Knorr, P.O.; Hallock, P.

    2009-01-01

    Rising atmospheric pCO2 levels are changing ocean chemistry more dramatically now than in the last 20 million years. In fact, pHvalues of the open ocean have decreased by 0.1 since the 1800s and are predicted to decrease 0.1-0.4 globally in the next 90 years. Ocean acidification will affect fundamental geochemical and biological processes including calcification and carbonate sediment production. The west Florida shelf is a natural laboratory to examine the effects of ocean acidification on aragonite production by calcareous green algae. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of crystal morphology of calcifying organisms reveals ultrastructural details of calcification that occurred at different saturation states. Comparison of archived and recent specimens of calcareous green alga Halimeda spp. from the west Florida shelf, demonstrates crystal changes in shape and abundance over a 40+ year time span. Halimeda crystal data from apical sections indicate that increases in crystal concentration and decreases in crystal width occurred over the last 40+ years. Laboratory experiments using living specimens of Halimeda grown in environments with known pH values were used to constrain historical observations. Percentages of organic and inorganic carbon per sample weight of pooled species did not significantly change. However, individual species showed decreased inorganic carbon and increased organic carbon in more recent samples, although the sample sizes were limited. These results indicate that the effect of increased pCO 2 and decreased pH on calcification is reflected in the crystal morphology of this organism. More data are needed to confirm the observed changes in mass of crystal and organic carbon. ?? Author(s) 2009.

  7. Deep Borehole Field Test Laboratory and Borehole Testing Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gardner, W. Payton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jang, Je-Hun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Daley, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Freifeld, Barry M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spane, Frank A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    Deep Borehole Disposal (DBD) of high-level radioactive wastes has been considered an option for geological isolation for many years (Hess et al. 1957). Recent advances in drilling technology have decreased costs and increased reliability for large-diameter (i.e., ≥50 cm [19.7”]) boreholes to depths of several kilometers (Beswick 2008; Beswick et al. 2014). These advances have therefore also increased the feasibility of the DBD concept (Brady et al. 2009; Cornwall 2015), and the current field test design will demonstrate the DBD concept and these advances. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013) specifically recommended developing a research and development plan for DBD. DOE sought input or expression of interest from States, local communities, individuals, private groups, academia, or any other stakeholders willing to host a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT). The DBFT includes drilling two boreholes nominally 200m [656’] apart to approximately 5 km [16,400’] total depth, in a region where crystalline basement is expected to begin at less than 2 km depth [6,560’]. The characterization borehole (CB) is the smaller-diameter borehole (i.e., 21.6 cm [8.5”] diameter at total depth), and will be drilled first. The geologic, hydrogeologic, geochemical, geomechanical and thermal testing will take place in the CB. The field test borehole (FTB) is the larger-diameter borehole (i.e., 43.2 cm [17”] diameter at total depth). Surface handling and borehole emplacement of test package will be demonstrated using the FTB to evaluate engineering feasibility and safety of disposal operations (SNL 2016).

  8. Laboratory shake flask batch tests can predict field biodegradation of aniline in the Rhine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toräng, Lars; Reuschenbach, P.; Müller, B.

    2001-01-01

    .7 degreesC, respectively. This field rate estimate was compared with results from 38 laboratory shake flask batch tests with Rhine water which averaged 1.5 day(-1) at 15 degreesC and 2.0 day(-1) at 20 degreesC. These results indicate that laboratory shake flask batch tests with low concentrations of test...

  9. Laboratory and field studies on an Indian strain of the brine shrimp Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The Tuticorin strain of the brine shrimp @iArtemia@@ was studied under both laboratory and field conditions. Studies on the survival of the nauplii at different temperatures and salinities revealed that the nauplii preferred a salinity of 35 ppt...

  10. Explaining differences between Bioaccumulation Measurements in laboratory and field data through use of probabilistic modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selck, H.; Drouillard, K.; Eisenreich, K.; Koelmans, A.A.; Palmqvist, A.; Ruus, A.; Salvito, D.; Schultz, I.; Stewart, R.; Weisbrod, A.; Brink, van den N.W.; Heuvel-Greve, van den M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the regulatory context, bioaccumulation assessment is often hampered by substantial data uncertainty as well as by the poorly understood differences often observed between results from laboratory and field bioaccumulation studies. Bioaccumulation is a complex, multifaceted process, which calls

  11. Inter operability of smart field devices on an open field-bus: from laboratory tests to on-site applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piguet, M.; Favennec, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a field trial held in EDF's R and D laboratories concerning smart field instruments (sensors, I/O modules, transmitters) operating on the WorldFIP field-bus. The trial put into operation a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system on the field-bus with available industrial field devices and software tools. The field trial enables EDF's teams to address the inter-operability issue regarding smart field devices and to prepare the forthcoming step from analog to fully digital measurement technology by evaluating new services and higher performances provided. Possible architectures for process control and on-site testing purposes have been identified. A first application for a flow-measuring rig is under way. It implements a WorldFIP field-bus based DCS with FIP/HART multiplexers, FIP and HART smart devices (sensors and actuators) and a field management system. (authors)

  12. Anomalous cross-field velocities in a CIV laboratory experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axnaes, I.

    1988-10-01

    The axial and radial ion velocities and the electron radial velocity are determined in coaxial plasma gun operated under critical velocity conditions. The particle celocities are determined from probe measurement together with He I 3889 AA absolute intensity measurements and the consideration of the total momentum balance of the current sheet. The ions are found move axially and the electrons radially much faster than predicted by the E/B drift in the macroscopic fields. These results agree with what can be expected from the instability processes, which has earlier been proposed to operate in these experiments. It is therefore a direct experimental demonstration that instability processes have to be invoked not only for the electron heating, but also to explain the macroscopic velocities and currents. (author)

  13. The Policy Recommendations of the Association of American Geographers as Reflected In the Ventura County Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannold, Thomas A.

    A survey was conducted to identify the degree to which the Association of American Geographers (AAG) 1970 recommendations on geography programs in two-year colleges were reflected in geography programs offered in the Ventura County Community College District (California). Results indicated that the recommendations were followed to a great extent,…

  14. Electron beam irradiation: laboratory and field studies of cowpea seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, K.; Chauhan, S.K.; Prasad, T.V.; Pramod, R.; Verma, V.P.; Petwal, V.; Dwivedi, J.; Bhalla, S.

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) rich in protein and vitamins is emerging as one of the most important food legumes to tackle malnutrition. Pulse beetles (Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus) are the pests of economic importance causing enormous losses during storage. Although various pest management strategies exist for the control of these pests, environmental concerns necessitate developing ecofriendly strategies. Electron beam (EB) irradiation has the potential to be a viable, non-chemical, residue-free strategy for management of pulse beetles during storage, but higher doses affect seed germination and viability. Hence, the present investigation was taken up to analyse the dosage effect of the irradiation on seed attributes of cowpea. Healthy cowpea seeds were irradiated with low energy electrons at different doses viz., 180, 360, 540, 720, 900, 1080, 1260, 1440 and 1620 Gy at 500 keV using the EB Accelerator facility at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. EB irradiated seeds were tested for physiological viz., germination, seedling vigour and vigour index and biochemical parameters viz., electrical conductivity of seed leachate, seed viability/tetrazolium test and dehydrogenase activity. Germination and vigour of the irradiated seeds were evaluated as per the ISTA Rules (ISTA, 1996). Vigour index was calculated as the product of germination percentage and seedling vigour. About 3,000 irradiated seeds from each dose were grown in the field at the Experimental farm, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi. Seeds harvested from 1500 individual plants of M 1 generation from each dose (50 seeds from each plant individually) were sown in next season and observed for chlorophyll mutations, if any. Results revealed that doses upto 1080 Gy (88%) did not affect the germination of cowpea seeds drastically as compared to untreated seeds (98%). Lower doses viz., 180 and 360 Gy had no impact on vigour components while higher doses (1080 Gy

  15. Field manual for ground water reconnaissance. Savannah River Laboratory National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.B.; Price, V.; Baucom, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    A manual is presented that is intended to direct and coordinate field operations, site selection, groundwater sample collection, and information codes for the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) contribution to the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. The manual provides public relations information for field sampling teams as well as technical direction

  16. Field manual for stream sediment reconnaissance. Savannah River Laboratory National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.B.; Price, V.; Baucom, E.I.

    1976-07-01

    A manual is presented that is intended to direct and coordinate field operations, site selection, stream sediment sample collection, water sample collection, and information codes for the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) contribution to the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. The manual provides public relations information for field sampling teams as well as technical direction

  17. 78 FR 55763 - National Environmental Policy Act; Santa Susana Field Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... document format at http://www.nasa.gov/agency/nepa/news/SSFL.html . The Federal Register Notice of Intent...; Santa Susana Field Laboratory AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION... Demolition and Environmental Cleanup Activities for the NASA-administered portion of the Santa Susana Field...

  18. Assessment of toxicity of heavy metal contaminated soils for Collembola in the field and laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jie; Krogh, Paul Henning; Luo, Yongming

    2008-01-01

    We present a field and laboratory investigation of effects of increasing levels of heavy metal contamination on the biodiversity and performance of collembolans. A 40 year old pollution with Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd pollution due to Cu smelting over 40 years was investigated in a paddy field area of Zhe...

  19. Size-dependent reactivity of magnetite nanoparticles: a field-laboratory comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, Andrew L.; Elwood Madden, Andrew S.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Benamara, Mourad

    2014-01-01

    Logistic challenges make direct comparisons between laboratory- and field-based investigations into the size-dependent reactivity of nanomaterials difficult. This investigation sought to compare the size-dependent reactivity of nanoparticles in a field setting to a laboratory analog using the specific example of magnetite dissolution. Synthetic magnetite nanoparticles of three size intervals, ∼6 nm, ∼44 nm, and ∼90 nm were emplaced in the subsurface of the USGS research site at the Norman Landfill for up to 30 days using custom-made subsurface nanoparticle holders. Laboratory analog dissolution experiments were conducted using synthetic groundwater. Reaction products were analyzed via TEM and SEM and compared to initial particle characterizations. Field results indicated that an organic coating developed on the particle surfaces largely inhibiting reactivity. Limited dissolution occurred, with the amount of dissolution decreasing as particle size decreased. Conversely, the laboratory analogs without organics revealed greater dissolution of the smaller particles. These results showed that the presence of dissolved organics led to a nearly complete reversal in the size-dependent reactivity trends displayed between the field and laboratory experiments indicating that size-dependent trends observed in laboratory investigations may not be relevant in organic-rich natural systems.

  20. Field distribution on an HVDC wall bushing during laboratory rain tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, W.; Wikstrom, D.; Jacobson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that an efficient counter-measure to suppress flashovers across HVDC wall bushings is to make their surfaces hydrophobic. This laboratory investigation reports the measured electric field along such a bushing under different environmental conditions. A significantly reduced radial field strength has been found for the hydrophobic bushing. Moreover, the total field strength distribution becomes almost independent of the prevailing dry zone. The flashover voltage for bushings with a hydrophobic surface is therefore significantly increased

  1. Determination of Soil Moisture Content using Laboratory Experimental and Field Electrical Resistivity Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Rosli, S.; Fauziah, A.; Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Ashraf, M. I. M.; Faizal, T. B. M.; Kamarudin, A. F.; Rais, Y.; Dan, M. F. Md; Azhar, A. T. S.; Hafiz, Z. M.

    2018-04-01

    The efficiency of civil engineering structure require comprehensive geotechnical data obtained from site investigation. In the past, conventional site investigation was heavily related to drilling techniques thus suffer from several limitations such as time consuming, expensive and limited data collection. Consequently, this study presents determination of soil moisture content using laboratory experimental and field electrical resistivity values (ERV). Field and laboratory electrical resistivity (ER) test were performed using ABEM SAS4000 and Nilsson400 soil resistance meter. Soil sample used for resistivity test was tested for characterization test specifically on particle size distribution and moisture content test according to BS1377 (1990). Field ER data was processed using RES2DINV software while laboratory ER data was analyzed using SPSS and Excel software. Correlation of ERV and moisture content shows some medium relationship due to its r = 0.506. Moreover, coefficient of determination, R2 analyzed has demonstrate that the statistical correlation obtain was very good due to its R2 value of 0.9382. In order to determine soil moisture content based on statistical correlation (w = 110.68ρ-0.347), correction factor, C was established through laboratory and field ERV given as 19.27. Finally, this study has shown that soil basic geotechnical properties with particular reference to water content was applicably determined using integration of laboratory and field ERV data analysis thus able to compliment conventional approach due to its economic, fast and wider data coverage.

  2. Holocene deformation offshore Ventura basin, CA, constrained by new high-resolution geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, H.; Ucarkus, G.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G. M.; Levy, Y.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Transverse Ranges (Southern California, USA) accommodate the contraction resulting from a regional restraining bend in the San Andreas Fault to form a thrust-and-fold belt system. The southern boundary of this system corresponds to the E-W trending Ventura basin, which is filled by more than 5 km of Pleistocene sediment and is shortening at about 10 mm/yr as inferred from geodetic data. Although the different thrust and folds are fairly well known in the onshore areas of the basin, there is still uncertainty about their continuation in the offshore. The analysis of new high-resolution (SIO CHIRP) and existing (USGS sparker and chirp) seismic data has allowed us to characterize better the active geological structures in the offshore. In the dataset, we have identified different latest Quaternary seismostratigraphic units and horizons, with the most regionally recognized being a transgressive surface (LGTS) associated to the Last Glacial maximum and subsequent sea level rise. A series of E-W regional folds related to thrust faults have deformed the LGTS producing highs and depressions. The correlation of these structures between profiles shows that they are elongated and parallel between them and continue to the coastline. In addition, considering their trend and kinematics, we have been able to tie them with the main onshore active thrusts and folds. Above the LGTS we have identified progradational and agradational units that are related to global sea level rise, which exhibit less deformation (folding and faulting) than the lower units and horizons. However, we have recognized some specific fold growth sequences above LGTS associated with the activity of different thrust-related anticlines. Accordingly, we have identified between 3 and 5 tectonic deformation events (e.g., earthquakes) associated to thrust fault activity. These results may help us to determine the deformation history for the offshore Ventura basin and the potentiality of the thrust faults that

  3. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Steel and Aluminum in Sodium Hydroxide: Field Failure and Laboratory Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Prawoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Through an investigation of the field failure analysis and laboratory experiment, a study on (stress corrosion cracking SCC behavior of steel and aluminum was performed. All samples were extracted from known operating conditions from the field failures. Similar but accelerated laboratory test was subsequently conducted in such a way as to mimic the field failures. The crack depth and behavior of the SCC were then analyzed after the laboratory test and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking was studied. The results show that for the same given stress relative to ultimate tensile strength, the susceptibility to SCC is greatly influenced by heat treatment. Furthermore, it was also concluded that when expressed relative to the (ultimate tensile strength UTS, aluminum has similar level of SCC susceptibility to that of steel, although with respect to the same absolute value of applied stress, aluminum is more susceptible to SCC in sodium hydroxide environment than steel.

  4. Cost comparison of laboratory methods and four field screening technologies for uranium-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q.

    1994-01-01

    To address the problem of characterizing uranium-contaminated surface soil at federal facilities, the Department of Energy has the development of four uranium field screening technologies, under the direction of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) Program. These four technologies include: a long-range alpha detector a beta scintillation detector, an in situ gamma detector, and a mobile laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (LA-ICP/AES) laboratory. As part of the performance assessment for these field screening technologies, cost estimates for the development and operation of each technology were created. A cost study was conducted to compare three of the USID field screening technologies to the use of traditional field surveying equipment to adequately characterize surface soils of a one-acre site. The results indicate that the use of traditional equipment costs more than the in situ gamma detector, but less than the beta scintillation detector and LRAD. The use of traditional field surveying equipment results in cost savings of 4% and 34% over the use of the beta scintillation and LRAD technologies, respectively. A study of single-point surface soil sampling and laboratory analysis costs was also conducted. Operational costs of the mobile LA-ICP/AES laboratory were compared with operational costs of traditional sampling and analysis, which consists of collecting soil samples and conducting analysis in a radiochemical laboratory. The cost study indicates that the use of the mobile LA-ICP/AES laboratory results in cost savings of 23% and 40% over traditional field sampling and laboratory analysis conducted by characterization groups at two DOE facilities

  5. Field Measurements Indicate Unexpected, Serious Underestimation of Mussel Heart Rates and Thermal Tolerance by Laboratory Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Tagliarolo

    Full Text Available Attempts to predict the response of species to long-term environmental change are generally based on extrapolations from laboratory experiments that inevitably simplify the complex interacting effects that occur in the field. We recorded heart rates of two genetic lineages of the brown mussel Perna perna over a full tidal cycle in-situ at two different sites in order to evaluate the cardiac responses of the two genetic lineages present on the South African coast to temperature and the immersion/emersion cycle. "Robomussel" temperature loggers were used to monitor thermal conditions at the two sites over one year. Comparison with live animals showed that robomussels provided a good estimate of mussel body temperatures. A significant difference in estimated body temperatures was observed between the sites and the results showed that, under natural conditions, temperatures regularly approach or exceed the thermal limits of P. perna identified in the laboratory. The two P. perna lineages showed similar tidal and diel patterns of heart rate, with higher cardiac activity during daytime immersion and minimal values during daytime emersion. Comparison of the heart rates measured in the field with data previously measured in the laboratory indicates that laboratory results seriously underestimate heart rate activity, by as much as 75%, especially during immersion. Unexpectedly, field estimates of body temperatures indicated an ability to tolerate temperatures considered lethal on the basis of laboratory measurements. This suggests that the interaction of abiotic conditions in the field does not necessarily raise vulnerability to high temperatures.

  6. Comparative Studies on the Bioretention of Radionuclides under Laboratory and Field Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyraud, M.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of different sea water treatments on radio-isotope flux rates was tested in three species. For any one species no significant differences in 65 Zn loss rate were noted between organisms held in sea water collected in situ and in those maintained in sea water from the laboratory system. Increased sea water zinc concentration accelerated 65 Zn flux rates; however, the more rapid 65 Zn loss compared to that measured in control sea water was only significant when the concentration was increased by 100μg zinc/liter. Simultaneous laboratory and field experiments indicated that loss rates in clams and mussels were similar whether animals were held in the field or in the laboratory. Experiments in which crabs were monitored for 65 Zn loss gave conflicting results. One experiment performed during the summer indicated that crabs lost 65 Zn significantly faster in the laboratory than in the field. Another experiment performed during the winter when water temperatures were lower indicated no differences in loss rates between the two systems. Differences in radioisotope flux rate may have been related to the intermolt cycle; nevertheless, it was concluded that for certain organisms care should be exercised when applying results of laboratory experiments to the field situation. (author)

  7. The generation and amplification of intergalactic magnetic fields in analogue laboratory experiments with high power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, G.; Reville, B.; Miniati, F.

    2015-11-01

    The advent of high-power laser facilities has, in the past two decades, opened a new field of research where astrophysical environments can be scaled down to laboratory dimensions, while preserving the essential physics. This is due to the invariance of the equations of magneto-hydrodynamics to a class of similarity transformations. Here we review the relevant scaling relations and their application in laboratory astrophysics experiments with a focus on the generation and amplification of magnetic fields in cosmic environment. The standard model for the origin of magnetic fields is a multi stage process whereby a vanishing magnetic seed is first generated by a rotational electric field and is then amplified by turbulent dynamo action to the characteristic values observed in astronomical bodies. We thus discuss the relevant seed generation mechanisms in cosmic environment including resistive mechanism, collision-less and fluid instabilities, as well as novel laboratory experiments using high power laser systems aimed at investigating the amplification of magnetic energy by magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. Future directions, including efforts to model in the laboratory the process of diffusive shock acceleration are also discussed, with an emphasis on the potential of laboratory experiments to further our understanding of plasma physics on cosmic scales.

  8. The erosion of carbonate stone by acid rain: Laboratory and field investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory experiment on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone erosion. It can serve as the basis for an undergraduate (or pre college) experiment in environmental chemistry. Recent field investigations are described that provide measurements of carbonate stone dissolution and mechanical erosion under weathering conditions that are prevalent in the eastern US. The purpose of the laboratory work is to answer questions concerning the effects of hydrogen ion deposition on stone erosion processes that were difficult to resolve on the basis of field experiments alone

  9. Laboratory and pilot field-scale testing of surfactants for environmental restoration of chlorinated solvent DNAPLs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.E.; Fountain, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    This project is composed of two phases and has the objective of demonstrating surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) as a practical remediation technology at DOE sites with ground water contaminated by dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), in particular, chlorinated solvents. The first phase of this project, Laboratory and Pilot Field Scale Testing, which is the subject of the work so far, involves (1) laboratory experiments to examine the solubilization of multiple component DNAPLs, e.g., solvents such as perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), by dilute surfactant solutions, and (2) a field test to demonstrate SEAR technology on a small scale and in an existing well

  10. Physical barriers formed from gelling liquids: 1. numerical design of laboratory and field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Pruess, K.; Persoff, P.

    1994-01-01

    The emplacement of liquids under controlled viscosity conditions is investigated by means of numerical simulations. Design calculations are performed for a laboratory experiment on a decimeter scale, and a field experiment on a meter scale. The purpose of the laboratory experiment is to study the behavior of multiple gout plumes when injected in a porous medium. The calculations for the field trial aim at designing a grout injection test from a vertical well in order to create a grout plume of a significant extent in the subsurface

  11. Are laboratory derived toxicity results informative for field situations? Case study on earthworm populations contaminated with heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, T.C.; Thissen, J.

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of laboratory tests on toxicants for field situations is often disputed given that laboratory tests are conducted under, next to the toxicant stress, optimal conditions which are not expected in field situations. In this paper we confront the results of laboratory tests on growth,

  12. Urban and marine corrosion: Comparative behaviour between field and laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iribarren Laco, J.I.; Liesa Mestres, F.; Bilurbina Alter, L. [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica E.T.S.E.I.B. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Cadena Villota, F. [Departamento de Materiales, Escuela Politecnica Nacional, Quito (Ecuador)

    2004-09-01

    A detailed study of the corrosion phenomena of carbon steel has been investigated in this work by means of the comparison of field and laboratory tests. Two areas of the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain) were selected to carry out the field tests, whereas two different solutions of sodium chloride and sodium hydrogen sulfite were used to simulate the field conditions by means of cyclic laboratory tests. The corrosion rate has been evaluated from the weight loss of the specimens and the morphology surface has been visualized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Corrosion products and contaminants have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The penetration results can be adjusted to the Passano equation and the corrosivity degree can be assigned in accordance with ISO standards. A correlation between field and laboratory tests has been found, by comparing the specimens with the same degree of corrosion, showing the validity of the accelerated laboratory tests in order to simulate the field conditions. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Recent developments at the high-field laboratory of Tohoku University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motokawa, M.; Watanabe, K.; Miura, S.; Awaji, S.; Nojiri, H.; Mogi, I.; Mitsudo, S.; Sakon, T.

    1998-01-01

    Recent developments and experiments performed at the high-field laboratory of Tohoku University are described. We have (1) hybrid magnets which produce high fields up to 31.1 T, (2) liquid-helium-free superconducting magnets up to 11 T which are available continuously for more than a year, (3) a 20 T superconducting magnet, (4) pulsed field magnets up to 40 T by a 100 kJ bank and (5) repeating pulsed field systems up to 25 T, synchronized with a pulsed neutron source

  14. Field and laboratory tests on acute toxicity of cadmium to freshwater crayfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    Environmental regulatory standards for cadmium (EPA 1980), like those for most pollutants, are based on acute, laboratory toxicity tests of single species. Such tests can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively in comparison to acute or chronic field studies, but their validity has often been questioned. Laboratory-based criteria are subject to two criticisms: (1) chemical and physical conditions differ greatly in degree and variability from laboratory to field, and (2) species are not isolated, but live in an ecosystem of interacting taxa and biofeedback. To investigate the validity of basing field toxicity standards on laboratory data, the authors subjected the freshwater crayfish Orconectes immunis for 96 h to various levels of cadmium in laboratory aquaria and experimental ponds. The study was designed to evaluate in part the first criticism of lab-based criteria. The studies were conducted concurrently with similar short-term experiments on the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and coincided with studies of chronic cadmium stress on fathead minnows in experimental ponds.

  15. The upper bound of abutment scour defined by selected laboratory and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen; Caldwell, Andral W.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, conducted a field investigation of abutment scour in South Carolina and used that data to develop envelope curves defining the upper bound of abutment scour. To expand upon this previous work, an additional cooperative investigation was initiated to combine the South Carolina data with abutment-scour data from other sources and evaluate the upper bound of abutment scour with the larger data set. To facilitate this analysis, a literature review was made to identify potential sources of published abutment-scour data, and selected data, consisting of 446 laboratory and 331 field measurements, were compiled for the analysis. These data encompassed a wide range of laboratory and field conditions and represent field data from 6 states within the United States. The data set was used to evaluate the South Carolina abutment-scour envelope curves. Additionally, the data were used to evaluate a dimensionless abutment-scour envelope curve developed by Melville (1992), highlighting the distinct difference in the upper bound for laboratory and field data. The envelope curves evaluated in this investigation provide simple but useful tools for assessing the potential maximum abutment-scour depth in the field setting.

  16. An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part II: Field and Laboratory Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Dabbs, Gretchen R; Spencer, Jessica R

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on potential hazards and risks to forensic anthropologists while working in the field and laboratory in North America. Much has changed since Galloway and Snodgrass published their seminal article addressing these issues. The increased number of forensic practitioners combined with new information about potential hazards calls for an updated review of these pathogens and chemicals. Discussion of pathogen hazards (Brucella, Borrelia burgdorferi, Yersinia pestis, Clostridium tetani and West Nile virus) includes important history, exposure routes, environmental survivability, early symptoms, treatments with corresponding morbidity and mortality rates, and decontamination measures. Additionally, data pertaining to the use of formaldehyde in the laboratory environment have resulted in updated safety regulations, and these are highlighted. These data should inform field and laboratory protocols. The hazards of working directly with human remains are discussed in a companion article, "An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part I: Human Remains." © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. The Role of Laboratory Experiments in the Validation of Field Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouneyrac, Catherine; Lagarde, Fabienne; Chatel, Amelie

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence and persistency of microplastics (MPs) in aquatic environments are of particular concern, since they constitute a potential threat to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, evaluating this threat and the impacts of MP on aquatic organisms is challenging. MPs form a very...... and to what degree these complexities are addressed in the current literature, to: (1) evaluate how well laboratory studies, investigated so far, represent environmentally relevant processes and scenarios and (2) suggest directions for future research The Role of Laboratory Experiments in the Validation...... of Field Data | Request PDF. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/310360438_The_Role_of_Laboratory_Experiments_in_the_Validation_of_Field_Data [accessed Jan 15 2018]....

  18. Experiences in Accreditation of Laboratories in the Field of Radiation Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.; Galjanic, S.; Krizanec, D.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient interaction of technical legislation, metrology, standardization and accreditation within the system of quality infrastructure is precondition for assurance of safety of goods and services as well as protection of humans and environment. In the paper importance of quality infrastructure on national and international levels is presented while special interest is paid to accreditation. Current situation regarding the accreditation of laboratories in the field of radiation science is presented. Regarding this field, in Croatia three laboratories are accredited by Croatian Accreditation Agency: 1. Laboratory for Radioecology, Rudjer Boskovic Institute (Scope: Measurement of radionuclide content in environmental samples and commodities - Including foodstuffs and drinking water) 2. EKOTEH Dozimetrija Ltd., Department for Radiation Protection (Scope: Testing in the scope of ionizing and nonionizing radiation) 3. Radiation Protection Unit, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health (Scope: Determination of radioactivity). (author)

  19. The interface between clinicians and laboratory staff: A field study in northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coosje J. Tuijn

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Hospital managers, clinicians and laboratory workers need to recognise the critical and complementary roles each professional plays and the importance of addressing the gap between them. Field application of the framework proved successful, justifying the expansion of this study to a larger geographical area to include additional healthcare institutions

  20. Field and Laboratory Evaluations of Insecticides for Southern Pine Beetle Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton L. Hastings; Jack E. Coster; [Editors

    1981-01-01

    Reports results of laboratory screenings and field studies of insecticides for use against the southern pine beetle. Preventive as webas remedial efficacywere observed, along with phytotoxicity to pine and understory hardwood species, effects of insecticides on soil microbial and mesofaunal populations, and degradation of insecticides by selected soil microbes.

  1. Studies on the survival of Ascaris suum eggs under laboratory and simulated field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    A series of four experiments was carried out to study the survival of Ascaris suum eggs: in a pig slurry unit on a farm, in the laboratory under anaerobic conditions and different relative humidities (rH), and under simulated field conditions. Survival of eggs in the pig slurry unit was 20% after

  2. Use of a Laboratory Field Project in an Introductory Crop Science Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Robert A.

    1986-01-01

    Assesses the benefits resulting from a laboratory field project and report for agricultural students in an introductory crop science course. Student responses to evaluation statements indicated that the project helped them identify crops, understand cultural and management practices, and recognize environmental influences that affect crop…

  3. Potential effect of fiddler crabs on organic matter distribution: A combined laboratory and field experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natálio, Luís F.; Pardo, Juan C. F.; Machado, Glauco B. O.; Fortuna, Monique D.; Gallo, Deborah G.; Costa, Tânia M.

    2017-01-01

    Bioturbators play a key role in estuarine environments by modifying the availability of soil elements, which in turn may affect other organisms. Despite the importance of bioturbators, few studies have combined both field and laboratory experiments to explore the effects of bioturbators on estuarine soils. Herein, we assessed the bioturbation potential of fiddler crabs Leptuca leptodactyla and Leptuca uruguayensis in laboratory and field experiments, respectively. We evaluated whether the presence of fiddler crabs resulted in vertical transport of sediment, thereby altering organic matter (OM) distribution. Under laboratory conditions, the burrowing activity by L. leptodactyla increased the OM content in sediment surface. In the long-term field experiment with areas of inclusion and exclusion of L. uruguayensis, we did not observe influence of this fiddler crab in the vertical distribution of OM. Based on our results, we suggest that small fiddler crabs, such as the species used in these experiments, are potentially capable of alter their environment by transporting sediment and OM but such effects may be masked by environmental drivers and spatial heterogeneity under natural conditions. This phenomenon may be related to the small size of these species, which affects how much sediment is transported, along with the way OM interacts with biogeochemical and physical processes. Therefore, the net effect of these burrowing organisms is likely to be the result of a complex interaction with other environmental factors. In this sense, we highlight the importance of performing simultaneous field and laboratory experiments in order to better understanding the role of burrowing animals as bioturbators.

  4. Degradation of herbicides in shallow Danish aquifers - an integrated laboratory and field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Mills, M.; Aamand, J.

    2001-01-01

    Degradation of pesticides in aquifers has been evaluated based on a number of co-ordinated field and laboratory studies carried out in Danish aquifers. These studies included investigations of vertical and horizontal variability in degradation rates from the vadose zone to an aquifer, the effects...

  5. Acid Rain: A Resource Guide for Classroom, Laboratory, Field, and Debate Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoss, Frederick W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a partially annotated bibliography of journals and book chapters which deal with acid rain. Includes selections which provide background information, ideas for introducing acid rain into science or social studies curricula, inventories of audio-visual aids, and non-print media to supplement classroom, laboratory, and field instruction.…

  6. Fate of Listeria spp. on parsley leaves grown in laboratory and field cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreux, N; Albagnac, C; Carlin, F; Morris, C E; Nguyen-The, C

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the population dynamics of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua on the aerial surfaces of parsley. Under 100% relative humidity (RH) in laboratory and regardless of the inoculum tested (10(3)-10(8) CFU per leaf), counts of L. monocytogenes EGDe, LO28, LmP60 and L. innocua CIP 80-12 tended towards approx. 10(5) CFU per leaf. Under low RH, Listeria spp. populations declined regardless to the inoculum size (10(4)-10(8) CFU per leaf). L. innocua CIP 80-12 survived slightly better than L. monocytogenes in the laboratory and was used in field cultures. Under field cultures, counts of L. innocua decreased more rapidly than in the laboratory, representing a decrease of 9 log(10) in 2 days in field conditions compared to a decrease of 4.5 log(10) in 8 days in the laboratory. Counts of L. innocua on tunnel parsley cultures were always higher (at least by 100 times) than those on unprotected parsley culture. Even with a high inoculum and under protected conditions (i.e. plastic tunnels), population of L. monocytogenes on the surface of parsley on the field would decrease by several log(10) scales within 2 days. Direct contamination of aerial surfaces of parsley with L. monocytogenes (i.e. through contaminated irrigation water) will not lead to contaminated produce unless it occurs very shortly before harvest.

  7. An Alternative Approach to Assessing Laboratory and Field Notebooks: The Data Retrieval Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Hilary; Bedford, Alan; Thomas, Judith; Ashton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Marking field and laboratory notebooks can be a time consuming and tedious task. This article describes a system whereby the contents of student's notebooks are assessed by testing the students on what they have included and their understanding of what has been done. It also tests the quality of the student's notes--detailed, organised notes…

  8. Do laboratory salinity tolerances of freshwater animals correspond with their field salinity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kefford, Ben J.; Papas, Phil J.; Metzeling, Leon; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2004-01-01

    The degree to which laboratory derived measures of salinity tolerance reflect the field distributions of freshwater biota is uncertain. In this paper we compare laboratory-derived acute salinity tolerance (LC 50 values) of freshwater macroinvertebrates (range 5.5-76 mS/cm) and fish (range 2.7-82 mS/cm) from southeastern Australia with the salinity from which they have been collected in the field. Only 4% of the macroinvertebrates were collected at salinity levels substantially higher than their 72-h LC 50 obtained from directly transferring animals from low salinity water to the water they were tested (direct transfer LC 50 ). This LC 50 value was correlated with the maximum salinity at which a species had been collected. For common macroinvertebrates, the maximum field salinity was approximated by the direct transfer 72-h LC 50 . For adult freshwater fish, 21% of species were collected at salinities substantially greater than their acute direct transfer LC 50 and there was a weak relationship between these two variables. Although there was a weak correlation between the direct transfer LC 50 of early life stages of freshwater fish and the maximum field salinity, 58% of the field distribution were in higher than their LC 50 values. In contrast, LC 50 determined from experiments that acclimated adult fish to higher salinity (slow acclimation) provided a better indication of the field distribution: with only one fish species (7%) being in conflict with their maximum field salinity and a strong positive relationship between these variables. This study shows that laboratory measures of acute salinity tolerance can reflect the maximum salinity that macroinvertebrate and fish species inhabit and are consistent with some anecdotal observations from other studies. - Acute laboratory salinity tolerances relate to maximum salinity where organisms occur in nature

  9. Do laboratory salinity tolerances of freshwater animals correspond with their field salinity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J.; Papas, Phil J.; Metzeling, Leon; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2004-06-01

    The degree to which laboratory derived measures of salinity tolerance reflect the field distributions of freshwater biota is uncertain. In this paper we compare laboratory-derived acute salinity tolerance (LC{sub 50} values) of freshwater macroinvertebrates (range 5.5-76 mS/cm) and fish (range 2.7-82 mS/cm) from southeastern Australia with the salinity from which they have been collected in the field. Only 4% of the macroinvertebrates were collected at salinity levels substantially higher than their 72-h LC{sub 50} obtained from directly transferring animals from low salinity water to the water they were tested (direct transfer LC{sub 50}). This LC{sub 50} value was correlated with the maximum salinity at which a species had been collected. For common macroinvertebrates, the maximum field salinity was approximated by the direct transfer 72-h LC{sub 50}. For adult freshwater fish, 21% of species were collected at salinities substantially greater than their acute direct transfer LC{sub 50} and there was a weak relationship between these two variables. Although there was a weak correlation between the direct transfer LC{sub 50} of early life stages of freshwater fish and the maximum field salinity, 58% of the field distribution were in higher than their LC{sub 50} values. In contrast, LC{sub 50} determined from experiments that acclimated adult fish to higher salinity (slow acclimation) provided a better indication of the field distribution: with only one fish species (7%) being in conflict with their maximum field salinity and a strong positive relationship between these variables. This study shows that laboratory measures of acute salinity tolerance can reflect the maximum salinity that macroinvertebrate and fish species inhabit and are consistent with some anecdotal observations from other studies. - Acute laboratory salinity tolerances relate to maximum salinity where organisms occur in nature.

  10. Comparison of field-measured radon diffusion coefficients with laboratory-measured coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepel, E.A.; Silker, W.B.; Thomas, V.W.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1983-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare radon diffusion coefficients determined for 0.1-m depths of soils by a steady-state method in the laboratory and diffusion coefficients evaluated from radon fluxes through several-fold greater depths of the same soils covering uranium-mill tailings. The coefficients referred to diffusion in the total pore volume of the soils and are equivalent to values for the quantity, D/P, in the Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Uranium Milling prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two soils were tested: a well-graded sand and an inorganic clay of low plasticity. For the flux evaluations, radon was collected by adsorption on charcoal following passive diffusion from the soil surface and also from air recirculating through an aluminum tent over the soil surface. An analysis of variance in the flux evaluations showed no significant difference between these two collection methods. Radon diffusion coefficients evaluated from field data were statistically indistinguishable, at the 95% confidence level, from those measured in the laboratory; however, the low precision of the field data prevented a sensitive validation of the laboratory measurements. From the field data, the coefficients were calculated to be 0.03 +- 0.03 cm 2 /s for the sand cover and 0.0036 +- 0.0004 cm 2 /s for the clay cover. The low precision in the coefficients evaluated from field data was attributed to high variation in radon flux with time and surface location at the field site

  11. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, A; Ahmed, S; Shahid, M

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 × 10(10), 1 × 10(8), 1 × 10(6) and 1 × 10(4) conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose...

  12. In-situ measurement of environment radioactivity by mobile nuclear field laboratory (MNFL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalani, Deepak; Mathur, A.P.; Rawat, D.K.; Barala, S.S.; Singhal, K.P.; Singh, G.P.; Samant, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    In-situ measurement of environment radioactivity is useful tool for determine the unusual increase of radioactivity at any place due to any nuclear eventuality take place. A mobile nuclear field laboratory has been designed and developed for in-situ measurement of environment radioactivity at any desired location. This vehicle is equipped with different monitoring and analysis instruments. These equipment can be operated while vehicle is moving. The measured data can be stored in computer. This vehicle has the space for storage of various environmental matrices of affected area and these can analysis in laboratory. (author)

  13. Si:P as a laboratory analogue for hydrogen on high magnetic field white dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, B N; Li, Juerong; Pang, M L Y; Bowyer, E T; Litvinenko, K L; Clowes, S K; Engelkamp, H; Pidgeon, C R; Galbraith, I; Abrosimov, N V; Riemann, H; Pavlov, S G; Hübers, H-W; Murdin, P G

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen in a magnetic flux density of 10(5) T (1 gigagauss), the maximum observed on high-field magnetic white dwarfs, is impossible because practically available fields are about a thousand times less. In this regime, the cyclotron and binding energies become equal. Here we demonstrate Lyman series spectra for phosphorus impurities in silicon up to the equivalent field, which is scaled to 32.8 T by the effective mass and dielectric constant. The spectra reproduce the high-field theory for free hydrogen, with quadratic Zeeman splitting and strong mixing of spherical harmonics. They show the way for experiments on He and H(2) analogues, and for investigation of He(2), a bound molecule predicted under extreme field conditions.

  14. Simulating the volatilization of solvents in unsaturated soils during laboratory and field infiltration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H. Jean; Jaffe, Peter R.; Smith, James A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes laboratory and field experiments which were conducted to study the dynamics of trichloroethylene (TCE) as it volatilized from contaminated groundwater and diffused in the presence of infiltrating water through the unsaturated soil zone to the land surface. The field experiments were conducted at the Picatinny Arsenal, which is part of the United States Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program. In both laboratory and field settings the gas and water phase concentrations of TCE were not in equilibrium during infiltration. Gas-water mass transfer rate constants were calibrated to the experimental data using a model in which the water phase was treated as two phases: a mobile water phase and an immobile water phase. The mass transfer limitations of a volatile organic compound between the gas and liquid phases were described explicitly in the model. In the laboratory experiment the porous medium was nonsorbing, and water infiltration rates ranged from 0.076 to 0.28 cm h−1. In the field experiment the water infiltration rate was 0.34 cm h−1, and sorption onto the soil matrix was significant. The laboratory-calibrated gas-water mass transfer rate constant is 3.3×10−4 h−1 for an infiltration rate of 0.076 cm h−1 and 1.4×10−3 h−1 for an infiltration rate of 0.28 cm h−1. The overall mass transfer rate coefficients, incorporating the contribution of mass transfer between mobile and immobile water phases and the variation of interfacial area with moisture content, range from 3×10−4 h−1 to 1×10−2 h−1. A power law model relates the gas-water mass transfer rate constant to the infiltration rate and the fraction of the water phase which is mobile. It was found that the results from the laboratory experiments could not be extrapolated to the field. In order to simulate the field experiment the very slow desorption of TCE from the soil matrix was incorporated into the mathematical model. When desorption from the

  15. Laboratory tests on sorption and transformation of the insecticide flubendiamide in Japanese tea field soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, Susen; Iwasaki, Masahide; Ogawa, Naoto; Kreuzig, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Flubendiamide belongs to the modern insecticides applied in Japanese tea cultivation to control smaller tea tortrix and tea leaf roller. Since fate and behavior in soil have been only monitored sparsely and fragmentarily until today, laboratory tests were performed on sorption, leaching, biotransformation and photo-induced biotransformation of flubendiamide in two different soils. In batch equilibrium tests, K d and K OC values were 15 and 298 L kg −1 for the Japanese tea field soil as well as 16 and 1610 L kg −1 for the German arable field soil classifying flubendiamide to be moderately mobile and slightly mobile, respectively. The affinity to the tea field soil was additionally confirmed by soil column tests where flubendiamide was predominantly retarded in the topsoil layers resulting in a percolate contamination of only 0.002 mg L −1 . In the aerobic biotransformation tests, flubendiamide did not substantially disappear within the 122-d incubation period. Due to DT 50 > 122 d, flubendiamide was assessed very persistent. Supplementary, photo-induced impacts on biotransformation were studied in a special laboratory irradiation system. Despite a 14-d irradiation period, photo-induced biotransformation in the tea field soil was not identifiable, neither by HPLC/DAD nor by LC/MS/MS. 3-d irradiation tests in photosensibilizing acetone, however, showed that the primary photo-transformation product desiodo-flubendiamide was formed. How far this photochemical reaction may also occur in soil of perennial tea plant stands, however, has to be checked in field studies. - Highlights: ► Laboratory tests on sorption, leaching, microbial and photo-induced microbial transformation were performed. ► Strong sorption was revealed by batch equilibrium and column tests. ► High persistence was found in aerobic biotransformation tests. ► An enhanced biotransformation by photo-induced impacts could not be confirmed. ► Field studies are necessary to elucidate fate and

  16. Community and Ecosystem-Level Impacts of an Emergent Macrophyte on the Ventura River, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J.; Leydecker, A.; Melack, J.

    2005-05-01

    Ludwigia hexapetala is a pervasive, emergent vascular plant on the lower Ventura River. Presence of this plant appears to facilitate growth of shade-tolerant diatoms, while indirectly inhibiting filamentous green macroalgae. Four sites on the river were monitored during 2003; three downstream of a wastewater treatment plant, where Ludwigia is present, and one upstream site where it is absent. Filamentous algae occurred at all four sites, but declined rapidly at the below-treatment plant sites as growth and cover of vascular plants increased. By late summer, percent cover at these sites was dominated by Ludwigia, while the upstream site was consistently dominated by green macroalgae. Submerged plant parts provided substrate for diatom colonization, roughly doubling benthic diatom biomass (measured as chlorophyll a) at the downstream sites. Presence of the Ludwigia population also had strong ecosystem-level effects. The wastewater effluent produced typical stream water nitrate concentrations of 100-200 uM. Nitrate uptake rates downstream of the treatment plant inputs averaged 5 kg N/km/day, and direct uptake by Ludwigia could account for 20-40% of this nitrate drawdown. Further nitrate removal from the water column may be indirectly facilitated by the presence of Ludwigia through facilitation of diatom population growth.

  17. Field and laboratory evaluations of soybean lines against soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S; Prischmann, Deirdre A; Dashiell, Kenton E

    2012-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.). Merr., that significantly reduces yield in northern production areas of North America. Insecticides are widely used to control soybean aphid outbreaks, but efforts are underway to develop host plant resistance as an effective alternative management strategy. Here, previously identified resistant lines were evaluated in laboratory tests against field-collected populations of soybean aphid and in field-plot tests over 2 yr in South Dakota. Six lines previously identified with resistance to soybean aphid--Jackson, Dowling, K1639, Cobb, Palmetto and Sennari--were resistant in this study, but relatively high aphid counts on Tie-feng 8 in field plots contrasted with its previously reported resistance. Bhart-PI 165989 showed resistance in one of two laboratory tests, but it had relatively large aphid infestations in both years of field tests. Intermediate levels of soybean aphid occurred in field plots on lines previously shown to have strong (Sugao Zairai, PI 230977, and D75-10169) or moderate resistance to soybean aphid (G93-9223, Bragg, Braxton, and Tracy-M). Sugao Zairai also failed to have a significant proportion of resistant plants in two laboratory tests against aphids field-collected in 2008, but it was resistant in laboratory tests with aphids collected in 2002, 2005, and 2006. Overall, results showed that lines with Rag (i.e., Jackson) or Rag1 gene (i.e., Dowling) had low aphid numbers, whereas lines with Rag2 (i.e., Sugao Zairai, Sennari) had mixed results. Collectively, responses of soybean aphid populations in laboratory and field tests in 2008 resembled a virulence pattern reported previously for biotype 3 soybean aphids, but virulence in soybean aphid populations was variable and dynamic over years of the study. These results, coupled with previous reports of biotypes virulent to Rag1, suggest that deployment of lines with a single aphid

  18. Comparison of laboratory and field experience of PWSCC in Alloy 182 weld metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.; Meunier, M.-C.; Steltzlen, F. [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, Paris La Defense (France); Calonne, O.; Foucault, M. [AREVA NP, Centre Technique, Le Creusot Cedex (France); Combrade, P. [ACXCOR, Saint Etienne (France); Amzallag, C. [EDF, SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France)

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory studies of stress corrosion cracking of the nickel base weld metal, Alloy 182, in simulated PWR primary water suggest similar resistance to crack initiation and somewhat enhanced propagation rates relative to wrought Alloy 600. By contrast, field experience of cracking in the primary circuits of PWRs shows in general much better performance for Alloy 182 relative to Alloy 600 than would be anticipated from laboratory studies. This paper endeavours to resolve this apparent conundrum. It draws on the conclusions of recent research that has focussed on the role of surface finish, particularly cold work and residual stresses resulting from different fabrication processes, on the risk of initiating IGSCC in nickel base alloys in PWR primary water. It also draws on field experience of stress corrosion cracking that highlights the important role of surface finish for crack initiation. (author)

  19. Pyranometer offsets triggered by ambient meteorology: insights from laboratory and field experiments

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Oswald; H. Pietsch; D. J. Baumgartner; P. Weihs; H. E. Rieder

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates effects of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements performed with pyranometers contained in various heating/ventilation systems (HV-systems). It focuses particularly on instrument offsets observed following precipitation events. To quantify pyranometer responses to precipitation, a series of controlled laboratory experiments as well as two targeted field campaigns were performed in 2016. The results indicate that precipitation (as simulated by spr...

  20. Comparison of Laboratory and Field Remote Sensing Methods to Measure Forage Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xulin; Wilmshurst, John F.; Li, Zhaoqin

    2010-01-01

    Recent research in range ecology has emphasized the importance of forage quality as a key indicator of rangeland condition. However, we lack tools to evaluate forage quality at scales appropriate for management. Using canopy reflectance data to measure forage quality has been conducted at both laboratory and field levels separately, but little work has been conducted to evaluate these methods simultaneously. The objective of this study is to find a reliable way of assessing grassland quality ...

  1. Laboratory and field tests for radionuclide migration and high flow paths in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.; Jefferies, N.L.; Lineham, T.R.; Nesirky, P.

    1991-01-01

    Two investigations have been undertaken in this programme. The principal investigation was at Culham Laboratory, England, where water flow within the Kimmeridge clay was measured. A subsidiary investigation at SCK/CEN was undertaken at the Underground Research Laboratory SCK/CEN Mol, Belgium, where an in situ measurement of solute transport by diffusion was attempted. The in situ migration experiment at the Underground Research Laboratory at SCK/CEN Mol, Belgium, was unsuccessful, due to problems with the engineering installation. These difficulties caused significant disturbance to the Boom clay which was to be tested. Nevertheless the laboratory test proved the feasibility of the experiment. The field measurements at Culham Laboratory, Oxfordshire, were completed with the flow testing of a very silty clay horizon in the Kimmeridge clay. This layer was proved to be laterally continuous after drilling three exploratory boreholes. The hydraulic conductivity of the layer was ≥ 10 -8 ms -1 and comparative tests in the clay showed the conductivity of the clay to be at least 50 times less. 12 figs

  2. Echolocation behavior of big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, in the field and the laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2000-01-01

    Echolocation signals were recorded from big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, flying in the field and the laboratory. In open field areas the interpulse intervals ~IPI! of search signals were either around 134 ms or twice that value, 270 ms. At long IPI’s the signals were of long duration ~14 to 18......–20 ms!, narrow bandwidth, and low frequency, sweeping down to a minimum frequency (Fmin) of 22–25 kHz. At short IPI’s the signals were shorter ~6–13 ms!, of higher frequency, and broader bandwidth. In wooded areas only short ~6–11 ms! relatively broadband search signals were emitted at a higher rate...

  3. Measurements of Ozone, Lightning, and Electric Fields within Thunderstorms over Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, K. B.; Winn, W. P.; Rust, W. D.; Minschwaner, K.; Fredrickson, S.; Kennedy, D.; Edens, H. E.; Kalnajs, L. E.; Rabin, R. M.; Lu, G. P.; Bonin, D.

    2008-12-01

    A field project was conducted at the Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research during the summer of 2008 in an effort to better understand the direct production of ozone within electrically active storms. Five balloon flights were successfully launched into thunderstorms during this project. In situ measurements from the balloon instrument package included ozone mixing ratio, electric field strength, meteorological variables, and GPS location and timing. Lightning discharges were identified within each storm using a ground based lightning mapping array. The data show that the instruments ascended through regions of high electric fields within the sampled storms, and in some cases the balloon was in very close proximity to lightning. Relationships between electric field, lightning, and ozone observed during these flights will be discussed.

  4. Turbulent amplification of magnetic fields in laboratory laser-produced shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinecke, J.; Doyle, H.W.; Bell, A.R.; Schekochihin, A.A.; Miniati, F.; Bingham, R.; Koenig, M.; Pelka, A.; Ravasio, A.; Yurchak, R.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray and radio observations of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A reveal the presence of magnetic fields about 100 times stronger than those in the surrounding interstellar medium. Field coincident with the outer shock probably arises through a nonlinear feedback process involving cosmic rays. The origin of the large magnetic field in the interior of the remnant is less clear but it is presumably stretched and amplified by turbulent motions. Turbulence may be generated by hydrodynamic instability at the contact discontinuity between the supernova ejecta and the circumstellar gas. However, optical observations of Cassiopeia A indicate that the ejecta are interacting with a highly inhomogeneous, dense circumstellar cloud bank formed before the supernova explosion. Here we investigate the possibility that turbulent amplification is induced when the outer shock overtakes dense clumps in the ambient medium. We report laboratory experiments that indicate the magnetic field is amplified when the shock interacts with a plastic grid. We show that our experimental results can explain the observed synchrotron emission in the interior of the remnant. The experiment also provides a laboratory example of magnetic field amplification by turbulence in plasmas, a physical process thought to occur in many astrophysical phenomena. (authors)

  5. Effect of Soil Fumigation on Degradation of Pendimethalin and Oxyfluorfen in Laboratory and Ginger Field Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Li, Jun; Fang, Wensheng; Liu, Pengfei; Guo, Meixia; Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qiuxia; Cao, Aocheng

    2016-11-23

    Herbicides are usually applied to agricultural fields following soil fumigation to provide effective weed control in high-value cash crops. However, phytotoxicity has been observed in ginger seedlings following the application of herbicides in fumigated fields. This study tested a mixture of herbicides (pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen) and several fumigant treatments in laboratory and field studies to determine their effect on the growth of ginger. The results showed that soil fumigation significantly (P oxyfluorfen was extended by an average of about 1.19 times in the field and 1.32 times in the laboratory. Moreover, the extended period of herbicide degradation in the fumigant and nonfumigant treatments significantly reduced ginger plant height, leaf number, stem diameter, and the chlorophyll content. The study concluded that applying a dose below the recommended rate of these herbicides in chloropicrin (CP) or CP + 1,3-dichloropropene fumigated ginger fields is appropriate, as application of the recommended herbicide dose in fumigated soil may be phytotoxic to ginger.

  6. Evidence of lead biomagnification in invertebrate predators from laboratory and field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio-Franchini, Isidoro; Rico-Martinez, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This report includes atomic absorption data from water column, elutriates and zooplankton that demonstrate that lead biomagnifies at El Niagara reservoir, Mexico. Results include field data (bioaccumulation factors) (BAFs) and laboratory data (bioconcentration factors) (BCFs). Two findings: high BAFs for invertebrate predator like Acanthocyclops robustus, Asplanchna brightwellii, Culex sp. larvae, and Hyalella azteca, compared to grazer species Moina micrura and Simocephalus vetulus; low BCF's found for some predators, suggested that lead biomagnifications were taking place. The presence of Moina micrura in the gut of Asplanchna allowed us to design experiments where A. brightwellii was fed lead-exposed M. micrura neonates. The BAF of Asplanchna was 123,684, BCF was 490. Asplanchna individuals fed exposed Moina had 13.31 times more lead than Asplanchna individuals just exposed 48-h to lead, confirming that lead biomagnification occurs. Results of two fish species showed no lead biomagnification, suggesting that lead biomagnification might be restricted to invertebrate predators. - Highlights: → Study shows lead biomagnification evidence in reservoirs where top predators are invertebrates. → Study discusses why in previous studies lead biomagnifications were not detected. → Evidence of biomagnification comes from field and laboratory studies. - This study shows evidence (from field and laboratory experiments) of lead biomagnification in a freshwater reservoir where the main predators are invertebrates.

  7. Biological reduction of uranium-From the laboratory to the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dullies, Frank; Lutze, Werner; Gong, Weiliang; Nuttall, H. Eric

    2010-01-01

    The chemical and biological processes underlying in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater have been studied in the laboratory and in the field. This article focuses on the long-term stability of uraninite (UO 2 ) in the underground. A large tailings pond, 'Daenkritz 1' in Germany, was selected for this investigation. A single-pass flow-through experiment was run in a 100-liter column: bioremediation for 1 year followed by infiltration of tap water (2.5 years) saturated with oxygen, sufficient to oxidize the precipitated uraninite in two months. Instead, only 1 wt.% uraninite was released over 2.4 years at concentrations typically less than 20 μg/L. Uraninite was protected against oxidation by the mineral mackinawite (FeS 0.9 ), a considerable amount of which had formed, together with uraninite. A confined field test was conducted adjacent to the tailings pond, which after bio-stimulation showed similarly encouraging results as in the laboratory. Taking Daenkritz 1 as an example we show that in situ bioremediation can be a viable option for long-term site remediation, if the process is designed based on sufficient laboratory and field data. The boundary conditions for the site in Germany are discussed.

  8. Microseismicity of an Unstable Rock Mass: From Field Monitoring to Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombero, C.; Comina, C.; Vinciguerra, S.; Benson, P. M.

    2018-02-01

    The field-scale microseismic (MS) activity of an unstable rock mass is known to be an important tool to assess damage and cracking processes eventually leading to macroscopic failures. However, MS-event rates alone may not be enough for a complete understanding of the trigger mechanisms of mechanical instabilities. Acoustic Emission (AE) techniques at the laboratory scale can be used to provide complementary information. In this study, we report a MS/AE comparison to assess the stability of a granitic rock mass in the northwestern Italian Alps (Madonna del Sasso). An attempt to bridge the gap between the two different scales of observation, and the different site and laboratory conditions, is undertaken to gain insights on the rock mass behavior as a function of external governing factors. Time- and frequency-domain parameters of the MS/AE waveforms are compared and discussed with this aim. At the field scale, special attention is devoted to the correlation of the MS-event rate with meteorological parameters (air temperature and rainfalls). At the laboratory scale, AE rates, waveforms, and spectral content, recorded under controlled temperature and fluid conditions, are analyzed in order to better constrain the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed field patterns. The factors potentially governing the mechanical instability at the site were retrieved from the integration of the results. Abrupt thermal variations were identified as the main cause of the site microsesimicity, without highlighting irreversible acceleration in the MS-event rate potentially anticipating the rock mass collapse.

  9. Test plan for preparing the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory for field deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Killian, E.W.; Watts, K.D.

    1994-04-01

    This plan describes experimental work that will be performed during fiscal year 1994 to prepare the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) for routine field use by US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management programs. The RTML is a mobile, field-deployable laboratory developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) that provides a rapid, cost-effective means of characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste remediation sites for low-level radioactive contaminants. Analytical instruments currently installed in the RTML include an extended-range, germanium photon analysis spectrometer with an automatic sample changer; two, large-area, ionization chamber alpha spectrometers; and four alpha continuous air monitors. The RTML was field tested at the INEL during June 1993 in conjunction with the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration's remote retrieval demonstration. The major tasks described in this test plan are to (a) evaluate the beta detectors for use in screening soil samples for 90 Sr, (b) upgrade the alpha spectral analysis software programs, and (c) upgrade the photon spectral analysis software programs

  10. Corrosion of metals exposed to 25% magnesium chloride solution and tensile stress: Field and laboratory studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemicals for snow and ice control operations is a common practice for improving the safety and mobility of roadways in cold climate, but brings significant concerns over their risks including the corrosive effects on transportation infrastructure and motor vehicles. The vast majority of existing studies and methods to test the deicer corrosivity have been restricted to laboratory environments and unstressed metals, which may not reliably simulate actual service conditions. As such, we report a case study in which stainless steel SS 304 (unstressed and externally tensile stressed, aluminum (Al 1100 and low carbon steel (C1010 coupons were exposed to 25% MgCl2 under field conditions for six weeks. A new corrosion test-bed was developed in Montana to accelerate the field exposure to this deicer. To further investigate the observed effect of tensile stress on the corrosion of stainless steel, SS 304 (unstressed and externally stressed coupons were exposed to 25% MgCl2 solution under the laboratory conditions. The C 1010 exhibited the highest percentage of rust area and suffered the most weight loss as a result of field exposure and MgCl2 sprays. In terms of ultimate tensile strength, the Al 1100 coupons saw the greatest reduction and the unstressed and externally stressed SS 304 coupons saw the least. The ability of MgCl2 to penetrate deep into the matrix of aluminum alloy poses great risk to such structural material. Tensile stressed SS 304 suffered more corrosion than unstressed SS 304 in both the field and laboratory conditions. Results from this case study may shed new light on the deicer corrosion issue and help develop improved field testing methods to evaluate the deicer corrosivity to metals in service.

  11. Air flow and pollution in a real, heterogeneous urban street canyon: A field and laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, Styliani; Malki-Epshtein, Liora; Neophytou, Marina K.-A.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we investigate the influence of real world conditions, including heterogeneity and natural variability of background wind, on the air flow and pollutant concentrations in a heterogeneous urban street canyon using both a series of field measurements and controlled laboratory experiments. Field measurements of wind velocities and Carbon Monoxide (CO) concentrations were taken under field conditions in a heterogeneous street in a city centre at several cross-sections along the length of the street (each cross-section being of different aspect ratio). The real field background wind was in fact observed to be highly variable and thus different Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) represented by a different mean wind velocity and different wind variability were defined. Observed pollution concentrations reveal high sensitivity to local parameters: there is a bias towards the side closer to the traffic lane; higher concentrations are found in the centre of the street as compared to cross-sections closer to the junctions; higher concentrations are found at 1.5 height from the ground than at 2.5 m height, all of which are of concern regarding pedestrian exposure to traffic-related pollution. A physical model of the same street was produced for the purpose of laboratory experiments, making some geometrical simplifications of complex volumes and extrusions. The physical model was tested in an Atmospheric Boundary Layer water channel, using simultaneously Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF), for flow visualisation as well as for quantitative measurement of concentrations and flow velocities. The wind field conditions were represented by a steady mean approach velocity in the laboratory simulation (essentially representing periods of near-zero wind variability). The laboratory investigations showed a clear sensitivity of the resulting flow field to the local geometry and substantial three-dimensional flow patterns were

  12. Exchange of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) between plants and the atmosphere under laboratory and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuninger, C.; Meixner, F. X.; Thielmann, A.; Kuhn, U.; Dindorf, T.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), often denoted as nitrogen oxides (NOx), and ozone (O3) are considered as most important compounds in atmospheric chemistry. In remote areas NOx concentration is related to biological activities of soils and vegetation. The emitted NOx will not entirely be subject of long range transport through the atmosphere. Aside oxidation of NO2 by the OH radical (forming HNO3), a considerable part of it is removed from the atmosphere through the uptake of NO2 by plants. The exchange depends on stomatal activity and on NO2 concentrations in ambient air. It is known that NO2 uptake by plants represents a large NO2 sink, but the magnitude and the NO2 compensation point concentration are still under discussion. Our dynamic chamber system allows exchange measurements of NO2 under field conditions (uncontrolled) as well as studies under controlled laboratory conditions including fumigation experiments. For NO2 detection we used a highly NO2 specific blue light converter (photolytic converter) with subsequent chemiluminescence analysis of the generated NO. Furthermore, as the exchange of NO2 is a complex interaction of transport, chemistry and plant physiology, in our field experiments we determined fluxes of NO, NO2, O3, CO2 and H2O. For a better knowledge of compensation point values for the bi-directional NO2 exchange we investigated a primary representative of conifers, Picea abies, under field and laboratory conditions, and re-analyzed older field data of the deciduous tree Quercus robur.

  13. Field and laboratory test methods for geomembranes during waste management facility construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.R.; McCutchan, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Hazardous waste management facilities are required to use approved lining and leak detection systems to prevent the migration of waste into the environment. Synthetic flexible membrane liners (FMLs) have effectively served as the critical barrier for waste containment and fluid migration. The U.S. EPA has established minimum technology requirements for the construction of lined facilities that include detailed and documented Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) plans. The U.S. EPA (EPA) recognizes that CQA during field construction is imperative for successful completion of project work and long-term facility operation. This paper discusses the importance of CQA during FML installation and the practical aspects of implementing a successful CQA program. Standard methods used for FML evaluation, in both the field and laboratory, are discussed and specific aspects of seam testing and data evaluation are addressed. The general importance of comprehensive definition of geomembrane seam field failures is strongly emphasized so that an appropriate response to test failures can be recommended

  14. The erosion of carbonate stone by acid rain: Laboratory and field investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the goals of research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone surfaces is to define the incremental impact of acidic deposition relative to natural weathering processes on the rate of carbonate stone erosion. If rain that impacts carbonate stone surfaces is resident on the surface long enough to approach chemical equilibrium, the incremental effect of hydrogen ion is expected to be small (i.e., 6% for a rain of pH 4.0). Under nonequilibrium (i.e., high flow rate) conditions, kinetic considerations suggest that the incremental effect of hydrogen ion deposition could be quite significant. Field run-off experiments involving the chemical analysis of rain collected from inclined stone slabs have been used to evaluate stone dissolution processes under ambient conditions of wet and dry deposition of acidic species. The stoichiometry of the reaction of stone with hydrogen ion is difficult to define from the field data due to scatter in the data attributed to hydrodynamic effects. Laboratory run-off experiments show that the stoichiometry is best defined by a reaction with H+ in which CO2 is released from the system. The baseline effect caused by water in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 is identical in the field and in laboratory simulation. The experiments show that the solutions are close enough to equilibrium for the incremental effect of hydrogen ion to be minor (i.e., 24% for marble for a rain of pH 4.0) relative to dissolution due to water and carbonic acid reactions. Stone erosion rates based on physical measurement are approximately double the recession rates that are due to dissolution (estimated from the observed calcium content of the run-off solutions). The difference may reflect the loss of granular material not included in recession estimates based on the run-off data. Neither the field nor the laboratory run-off experiments indicate a pH dependence for the grain-removal process.

  15. Laboratory and field tests of the Sutron RLR-0003-1 water level sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Janice M.; Bryars, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Three Sutron RLR-0003-1 water level sensors were tested in laboratory conditions to evaluate the accuracy of the sensor over the manufacturer’s specified operating temperature and distance-to-water ranges. The sensor was also tested for compliance to SDI-12 communication protocol and in field conditions at a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgaging site. Laboratory results were compared to the manufacturer’s accuracy specification for water level and to the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) policy requirement that water level sensors have a measurement uncertainty of no more than 0.01 foot or 0.20 percent of the indicated reading. Except for one sensor, the differences for the temperature testing were within 0.05 foot and the average measurements for the sensors were within the manufacturer’s accuracy specification. Two of the three sensors were within the manufacturer’s specified accuracy and met the USGS accuracy requirements for the laboratory distance to water testing. Three units passed a basic SDI-12 communication compliance test. Water level measurements made by the Sutron RLR-0003-1 during field testing agreed well with those made by the bubbler system and a Design Analysis Associates (DAA) H3613 radar, and they met the USGS accuracy requirements when compared to the wire-weight gage readings.

  16. Methodologically controlled variations in laboratory and field pH measurements in waterlogged soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Bo; Matthiesen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    artefacts is critical. But the study includes agricultural and forest soils for comparison. At a waterlogged site, Laboratory results were compared with three different field methods: calomel pH probes inserted in the soil from pits, pH measurements of soil solution extracted from the soil, and pH profiles...... using a solid-state pH electrode pushed into the soil from the surface. Comparisons between in situ and laboratory methods revealed differences of more than 1 pH unit. The content of dissolved ions in soil solution and field observations of O2 and CO2 concentrations were used in the speciation model...... PHREEQE in order to predict gas exchange processes. Changes in pH in soil solution following equilibrium in the laboratory could be explained mainly by CO2 degassing. Only soil pH measured in situ using either calomel or solid-state probes inserted directly into the soil was not affected by gas exchange...

  17. A laboratory dispersant effectiveness test which reflects dispersant efficiency in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunel, T.; Wood, P.

    1996-01-01

    Oil dispersion efficiencies of surfactants, from laboratory dispersion tests and field data were compared and calibrated. Data from an oil spill, where dispersants were used as a major part of the response, was analysed. The data was accumulated through the monitoring of the dispersant operation of the Sea Empress spill incident, in which Forties Blend oil was spilled at sea. This detailed data set was used to calibrate existing laboratory dispersant tests, and to devise a new International Dispersant Effectiveness Test. The objective was to create a comprehensive guide to decision making on whether and when to start a dispersant spraying operation. The dispersion efficiencies obtained from the laboratory dispersant tests were compared with field data. Flume tests produced the highest percentage of dispersed oil for all the dispersal tests. However, it was emphasised that the total percentage of oil dispersed should not be the only measure of dispersant effectiveness, since it does not distinguish between the contribution of natural and chemically enhanced dispersion. 9 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs

  18. Laboratory simulation of the magnetosphere, magnetotail reconnection and the study of field-aligned currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yur, G.

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory simulation of the Earth's magnetosphere is performed. A wide plasma beam with plasma density ∼ 10 13 cm -3 , velocity ∼ 10 7 cm/s, temperature ∼ 10 eV and pulse duration ∼ 100μs simulates the solar wind plasma. An externally applied magnetic field throughout the interaction chamber is varied between -300 to +300 G to simulate the interplanetary magnet field (IMF). Detailed characterization of the flow of this plasma across the IMF shows various degrees of diamagnetism and rvec E x rvec B propagation. This magnetized plasma beam interacts with a spherical dipole magnetic field that simulates the planetary field to form a planetary type plasma sphere. Cusp structures and particle precipitations are studied with optical time exposure photographs of the simulated magnetosphere. The structure is strongly controlled by the polarity of the IMF. The global structure of the magnetosphere is measured in detail for different values of the IMF at various locations in the magnetosphere. Particularly, the magnetic field measurements in the tail reveal interesting reconnection processes and above the polar region, the structure of field aligned currents that are similar to the ones obtained from the satellites above the polar region of the Earth. The main experimental parameters are selected in such a way that, at least, MHD scaling is satisfied

  19. Laboratory tests on sorption and transformation of the insecticide flubendiamide in Japanese tea field soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartung, Susen [Technische Universität Braunschweig, Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Hagenring 30, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Iwasaki, Masahide; Ogawa, Naoto [Shizuoka University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Kreuzig, Robert, E-mail: r.kreuzig@tu-bs.de [Technische Universität Braunschweig, Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Hagenring 30, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Flubendiamide belongs to the modern insecticides applied in Japanese tea cultivation to control smaller tea tortrix and tea leaf roller. Since fate and behavior in soil have been only monitored sparsely and fragmentarily until today, laboratory tests were performed on sorption, leaching, biotransformation and photo-induced biotransformation of flubendiamide in two different soils. In batch equilibrium tests, K{sub d} and K{sub OC} values were 15 and 298 L kg{sup −1} for the Japanese tea field soil as well as 16 and 1610 L kg{sup −1} for the German arable field soil classifying flubendiamide to be moderately mobile and slightly mobile, respectively. The affinity to the tea field soil was additionally confirmed by soil column tests where flubendiamide was predominantly retarded in the topsoil layers resulting in a percolate contamination of only 0.002 mg L{sup −1}. In the aerobic biotransformation tests, flubendiamide did not substantially disappear within the 122-d incubation period. Due to DT{sub 50} > 122 d, flubendiamide was assessed very persistent. Supplementary, photo-induced impacts on biotransformation were studied in a special laboratory irradiation system. Despite a 14-d irradiation period, photo-induced biotransformation in the tea field soil was not identifiable, neither by HPLC/DAD nor by LC/MS/MS. 3-d irradiation tests in photosensibilizing acetone, however, showed that the primary photo-transformation product desiodo-flubendiamide was formed. How far this photochemical reaction may also occur in soil of perennial tea plant stands, however, has to be checked in field studies. - Highlights: ► Laboratory tests on sorption, leaching, microbial and photo-induced microbial transformation were performed. ► Strong sorption was revealed by batch equilibrium and column tests. ► High persistence was found in aerobic biotransformation tests. ► An enhanced biotransformation by photo-induced impacts could not be confirmed. ► Field studies are

  20. Field and laboratory evaluation of the mobility of cobalt-60/EDTA in an arid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.L.; Gee, G.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Kirkham, R.R.

    1983-02-01

    The ability of the organic complexant EDTA to enhance the mobility of cobalt-60 was investigated in both laboratory and field experiments. Laboratory tests consisted of short term (approximately 7 day) column and batch adsorption tests using soil from the Hanford site as well as long term (approximately 70 day) batch tests with Hanford soil and soils from Oak Ridge and Savannah River. In addition, two large scale tracer tests were conducted using Hanford soil. One used a large (1.6 m) laboratory column, spiked with cobalt-60/EDTA and the other was a field test conducted in an 8 m deep lysimeter. Enhanced mobility decreased sorption were observed in both column and batch tests when the cobalt-60/EDTA solutions contacted Hanford and Oak Ridge soil for only a few days. When long contact times were allowed (months) the Hanford soil showed large increases in sorption with time. The low sorption exhibited initially by the Oak Ridge soil increased slightly over time, however, the high sorption observed with the Savannah River soil remained constant with time. The reduced mobility, with time, observed in Hanford soils was confirmed in both the large scale laboratory and breaking down when contacted with Hanford and Savannah River soil and to a lesser extent, the Oak Ridge soil. It is not known at this time why the complex is breaking down or why the kinetics are different among the soils tested. The implication to waste management is that the potential for transport of cobalt by EDTA complexation may not be as serious as once thought

  1. South African Ebola diagnostic response in Sierra Leone: A modular high biosafety field laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz T Paweska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD cases.The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone. Furthermore, the NICD set out to establish local capacity amongst Sierra Leonean nationals in all aspects of the FEDL functions from the outset. This led to the successful hand-over of the FEDL to the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation in March 2015. Between 25 August 2014 and 22 June 2016, the laboratory tested 11,250 specimens mostly from the Western Urban and Western Rural regions of Sierra Leone, of which 2,379 (21.14% tested positive for Ebola virus RNA.The bio-safety standards and the portability of the SA FEDL, offered a cost-effective and practical alternative for the rapid deployment of a field-operated high biocontainment facility. The SA FEDL teams demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to train the national staff in the course of formidable disease outbreak and accomplished their full integration into all operational and diagnostic aspects of the laboratory. This initiative contributed to the international efforts in bringing the EVD outbreak under control in Sierra Leone, as well as capacitating local African scientists and technologists to respond to diagnostic needs that might be required in future outbreaks of highly contagious pathogens.

  2. South African Ebola diagnostic response in Sierra Leone: A modular high biosafety field laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paweska, Janusz T; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Meier, Gunther H; le Roux, Chantel; Conteh, Ousman S; Kemp, Alan; Fourie, Cardia; Naidoo, Prabha; Naicker, Serisha; Ohaebosim, Phumza; Storm, Nadia; Hellferscee, Orienka; Ming Sun, Lisa K; Mogodi, Busisiwe; Prabdial-Sing, Nishi; du Plessis, Desiree; Greyling, Deidre; Loubser, Shayne; Goosen, Mark; McCulloch, Stewart D; Scott, Terence P; Moerdyk, Alexandra; Dlamini, Wesley; Konneh, Kelfala; Kamara, Idrissa L; Sowa, Dauda; Sorie, Samuel; Kargbo, Brima; Madhi, Shabir A

    2017-06-01

    In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL) near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone. Furthermore, the NICD set out to establish local capacity amongst Sierra Leonean nationals in all aspects of the FEDL functions from the outset. This led to the successful hand-over of the FEDL to the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation in March 2015. Between 25 August 2014 and 22 June 2016, the laboratory tested 11,250 specimens mostly from the Western Urban and Western Rural regions of Sierra Leone, of which 2,379 (21.14%) tested positive for Ebola virus RNA. The bio-safety standards and the portability of the SA FEDL, offered a cost-effective and practical alternative for the rapid deployment of a field-operated high biocontainment facility. The SA FEDL teams demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to train the national staff in the course of formidable disease outbreak and accomplished their full integration into all operational and diagnostic aspects of the laboratory. This initiative contributed to the international efforts in bringing the EVD outbreak under control in Sierra Leone, as well as capacitating local African scientists and technologists to respond to diagnostic needs that might be required in future outbreaks of highly contagious pathogens.

  3. Conceptual Design of the 45 T Hybrid Magnet at the Nijmegen High Field Magnet Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, SAJ; Bird, M D; Rook, J; Perenboom, J A A J; Wiegers, S A J; Bonito-Oliva, A; den Ouden, A

    2010-01-01

    A 45 T Hybrid Magnet System is being developed at the Nijmegen High Field Magnet Laboratory as part of the Nijmegen Center for Advanced Spectroscopy. The 45 T Hybrid Magnet System will be used in combination with far-infra-red light produced by a Free Electron Laser under construction directly adjacent to the High Field Magnet Laboratory. The superconducting outsert magnet will consist of three CICC coils wound on a single coil form, using Nb$_{3}$Sn strands. A test program for strand and cable qualification is underway. The CICC will carry 13 kA and the coils will produce 12 T on axis field in a 600 mm warm bore. The nominal operating temperature will be 4.5 K maintained with forced-flow supercritical helium. The insert magnet will produce 33 T at 40 kA in a 32 mm bore consuming 20 MW, and will consist of four coils. The insert magnet will be galvanically and mechanically isolated from the outsert magnet. Complete system availability for users is expected in 2014. In this paper we will report on the conceptu...

  4. Coupled numerical modeling of gas hydrates bearing sediments from laboratory to field-scale conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, M. J.; Santamarina, C.; Gai, X., Sr.; Teymouri, M., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    Stability and behavior of Hydrate Bearing Sediments (HBS) are characterized by the metastable character of the gas hydrate structure which strongly depends on thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical (THCM) actions. Hydrate formation, dissociation and methane production from hydrate bearing sediments are coupled THCM processes that involve, amongst other, exothermic formation and endothermic dissociation of hydrate and ice phases, mixed fluid flow and large changes in fluid pressure. The analysis of available data from past field and laboratory experiments, and the optimization of future field production studies require a formal and robust numerical framework able to capture the very complex behavior of this type of soil. A comprehensive fully coupled THCM formulation has been developed and implemented into a finite element code to tackle problems involving gas hydrates sediments. Special attention is paid to the geomechanical behavior of HBS, and particularly to their response upon hydrate dissociation under loading. The numerical framework has been validated against recent experiments conducted under controlled conditions in the laboratory that challenge the proposed approach and highlight the complex interaction among THCM processes in HBS. The performance of the models in these case studies is highly satisfactory. Finally, the numerical code is applied to analyze the behavior of gas hydrate soils under field-scale conditions exploring different features of material behavior under possible reservoir conditions.

  5. Exposure to electromagnetic fields from smart utility meters in GB; part I) laboratory measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, Azadeh; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Goiceanu, Cristian; Maslanyj, Myron; Mann, Simon

    2017-05-01

    Laboratory measurements of electric fields have been carried out around examples of smart meter devices used in Great Britain. The aim was to quantify exposure of people to radiofrequency signals emitted from smart meter devices operating at 2.4 GHz, and then to compare this with international (ICNIRP) health-related guidelines and with exposures from other telecommunication sources such as mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices. The angular distribution of the electric fields from a sample of 39 smart meter devices was measured in a controlled laboratory environment. The angular direction where the power density was greatest was identified and the equivalent isotropically radiated power was determined in the same direction. Finally, measurements were carried out as a function of distance at the angles where maximum field strengths were recorded around each device. The maximum equivalent power density measured during transmission around smart meter devices at 0.5 m and beyond was 15 mWm -2 , with an estimation of maximum duty factor of only 1%. One outlier device had a maximum power density of 91 mWm -2 . All power density measurements reported in this study were well below the 10 W m -2 ICNIRP reference level for the general public. Bioelectromagnetics. 2017;38:280-294. © 2017 Crown copyright. BIOELECTROMAGNETICS © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Crown copyright. BIOELECTROMAGNETICS © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Comparison of laboratory and field remote sensing methods to measure forage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xulin; Wilmshurst, John F; Li, Zhaoqin

    2010-09-01

    Recent research in range ecology has emphasized the importance of forage quality as a key indicator of rangeland condition. However, we lack tools to evaluate forage quality at scales appropriate for management. Using canopy reflectance data to measure forage quality has been conducted at both laboratory and field levels separately, but little work has been conducted to evaluate these methods simultaneously. The objective of this study is to find a reliable way of assessing grassland quality through measuring forage chemistry with reflectance. We studied a mixed grass ecosystem in Grasslands National Park of Canada and surrounding pastures, located in southern Saskatchewan. Spectral reflectance was collected at both in-situ field level and in the laboratory. Vegetation samples were collected at each site, sorted into the green grass portion, and then sent to a chemical company for measuring forage quality variables, including protein, lignin, ash, moisture at 135 °C, Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Total Digestible, Digestible Energy, Net Energy for Lactation, Net Energy for Maintenance, and Net Energy for Gain. Reflectance data were processed with the first derivative transformation and continuum removal method. Correlation analysis was conducted on spectral and forage quality variables. A regression model was further built to investigate the possibility of using canopy spectral measurements to predict the grassland quality. Results indicated that field level prediction of protein of mixed grass species was possible (r² = 0.63). However, the relationship between canopy reflectance and the other forage quality variables was not strong.

  7. Comparison of Laboratory and Field Remote Sensing Methods to Measure Forage Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqin Li

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in range ecology has emphasized the importance of forage quality as a key indicator of rangeland condition. However, we lack tools to evaluate forage quality at scales appropriate for management. Using canopy reflectance data to measure forage quality has been conducted at both laboratory and field levels separately, but little work has been conducted to evaluate these methods simultaneously. The objective of this study is to find a reliable way of assessing grassland quality through measuring forage chemistry with reflectance. We studied a mixed grass ecosystem in Grasslands National Park of Canada and surrounding pastures, located in southern Saskatchewan. Spectral reflectance was collected at both in-situ field level and in the laboratory. Vegetation samples were collected at each site, sorted into the green grass portion, and then sent to a chemical company for measuring forage quality variables, including protein, lignin, ash, moisture at 135 ºC, Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF, Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF, Total Digestible, Digestible Energy, Net Energy for Lactation, Net Energy for Maintenance, and Net Energy for Gain. Reflectance data were processed with the first derivative transformation and continuum removal method. Correlation analysis was conducted on spectral and forage quality variables. A regression model was further built to investigate the possibility of using canopy spectral measurements to predict the grassland quality. Results indicated that field level prediction of protein of mixed grass species was possible (r2 = 0.63. However, the relationship between canopy reflectance and the other forage quality variables was not strong.

  8. Root-associated bacteria promote grapevine growth: from the laboratory to the field

    KAUST Repository

    Rolli, Eleonora

    2016-08-18

    Background and Aims: Laboratory and greenhouse experiments have shown that root-associated bacteria have beneficial effects on grapevine growth; however, these effects have not been tested in the field. Here, we aimed to demonstrate whether bacteria of different geographical origins derived from different crop plants can colonize grapevine to gain a beneficial outcome for the plant leading to promote growth at the field scale. Methods: To link the ecological functions of bacteria to the promotion of plant growth, we sorted fifteen bacterial strains from a larger isolate collection to study in vitro Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) traits. We analysed the ability of these strains to colonise the root tissues of grapevine and Arabidopsis using green-fluorescent-protein-labelled strain derivatives and a cultivation independent approach. We assessed the ability of two subsets randomly chosen from the 15 selected strains to promote grapevine growth in two field-scale experiments in north and central Italy over two years. Parameters of plant vigour were measured during the vegetative season in de novo grafted vine cuttings and adult productive plants inoculated with the bacterial strains. Results: Beneficial bacteria rapidly and intimately colonized the rhizoplane and the root system of grapevine. In the field, plants inoculated with bacteria isolated from grapevine roots out-performed untreated plants. In both the tested vineyards, bacteria-promotion effects largely rely in the formation of an extended epigeal system endowed of longer shoots with larger diameters and more nodes than non-inoculated plants. Conclusions: PGP bacteria isolated in the laboratory can be successfully used to promote growth of grapevines in the field. The resulting larger canopy potentially increased the photosynthetic surface of the grapevine, promoting growth.

  9. Electrokinetic soil decontamination - summary of results of various studies in laboratory, bench-scale and field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutschan, B.; Wutzler, R.; Goldmann, T. [INTUS Inst. fuer Technologie und Umweltschutz e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In electroremediation, contaminants are removed form soil and groundwater by the action of an electric potential applied across electrodes embedded in the contaminated medium. Driving the remediation are the electrokinetic phenomena of electro-osmosis, ion migration and electrophoresis. Other common physicochemical phenomena that are also present are diffusion, chemical reactions, hydrolysis (change of pH-value), ion exchange, complexation and others. The complex interactions between all these phenomena determine the processes. Important process parameters are transition rates, bulk liquid velocity, {zeta}-potential (Helmholtz-Smoluchowski-equation) and others. Some parameters are determined at laboratory-, bench- and field scale. (orig.)

  10. Laboratory experiments on the magnetic field and neutral density limits on CIV interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axnaes, I.; Brenning, N.

    1990-03-01

    Laboratory experiments are reported which determine the magnetic field and neutral density limit for Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) interaction in the impact configuration. A combination of microwave interferometry and spectroscopy has been used to measure how the electron energy distribution varies with the neutral density and the magnetic field strength. The efficiency of the CIV process is evaluated in terms of the efficiency factor η of energy transfer to the electron. This efficiency is studied as function of the ratio V A /V 0 between the Alfven velocity and the plasma stream velocity and the ratio ν i /ω gi between the ionization frequency and the ion gyro frequency. With other parameters kept constant, V A /V 0 is proportional to the square root of the magnetic field, while ν i /ω gi is proportional to the neutral density. We have found that these two dimensionless parameters are coupled in such a fashion that a stronger magnetic field can compensate for a lower neutral density. For our strongest magnetic field, corresponding to V A /V 0 = 4, CIV interaction is found to occur for a comparatively low value ν i /ω gi ∼ 0.1. For V A /V 0 = 1, we found a clear absence of CIV interaction even for ν i /ω gi approaching unity. (authors)

  11. Gravity Field of the Orientale Basin from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Goossens, Sander; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Head, James W.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Asmar, Sami W.; Konopliv, Alexander S.; Lemoine, Frank G.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Orientale basin is the youngest and best-preserved major impact structure on the Moon. We used the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft to investigate the gravitational field of Orientale at 3- to 5-kilometer (km) horizontal resolution. A volume of at least (3.4 +/- 0.2) × 10(exp 6) cu km of crustal material was removed and redistributed during basin formation. There is no preserved evidence of the transient crater that would reveal the basin's maximum volume, but its diameter may now be inferred to be between 320 and 460 km. The gravity field resolves distinctive structures of Orientale's three rings and suggests the presence of faults associated with the outer two that penetrate to the mantle. The crustal structure of Orientale provides constraints on the formation of multiring basins.

  12. Field and laboratory determination of a poly(vinyl/vinylidene chloride) additive in brick mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, S L; Newman, J H; Ptak, F L

    1990-02-01

    A polymerized vinyl/vinylidene chloride additive, used in brick mortar during the 60s and 70s, is detected at the building site by the field method, which employs a commercially available chloride test strip. The field test results can then be verified by the laboratory methods. In one method, total chlorine in the mortar is determined by an oxygen-bomb method and the additive chloride is determined by difference after water-soluble chlorides have been determined on a separate sample. In the second method, the polymerized additive is extracted directly from the mortar with tetrahydrofuran (THF). The difference in weight before and after extraction of the additive gives the weight of additive in the mortar. Evaporation of the THF from the extract leaves a thin film of the polymer, which gives an infrared "fingerprint" spectrum characteristic of the additive polymer.

  13. A comprehensive field and laboratory study of scale control and scale squeezes in Sumatra, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oddo, J.E.; Reizer, J.M.; Sitz, C.D. [Champion Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Setia, D.E.A. [FMT Production Duri P.T. Caltex Pacific Indonesia (Indonesia); Hinrichsen, C.J. [Texaco Panama, Bellaire, TX (United States); Sujana, W. [P.T. Champion Kumia Djaja Technologies, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1999-11-01

    Scale squeezes were performed on thirteen wells in the Duri Field, Sumatra. At the time the squeezes were completed, seven were designed to be `Acid Squeezes` and six were designed to be `Neutral Squeezes.` In the course of preparing for the scale squeezes, produced waters were collected and analyzed. In addition, scale inhibitor evaluations, and inhibitor compatibility studies were completed. Simulated squeezes were done in the laboratory to predict field performance. The methodologies and results of the background work are reported. In addition, the relative effectiveness of the two sets of squeezes is discussed. The inhibitor flowback concentrations alter the squeezes, in all cases, can be explained using speciation chemistry and the amorphous and crystalline phase solubilities of the inhibitor used. The wells squeezed with a more acidic inhibitor have more predictable and uniform inhibitor return concentration curves than the wells squeezed with a more neutral scale inhibitor.

  14. FAMILIARISATION AND RELIABILITY OF SPRINT TEST INDICES DURING LABORATORY AND FIELD ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Galbraith

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the reliability of sprint performance in both field and laboratory conditions. Twenty-one male (mean ± s: 19 ± 1 years, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 77.6 ± 7.1 kg and seventeen female team sport players (mean ± s: 21 ± 4 years, 1.68 ± 0. 07 m, 62.7 ± 4.7 kg performed a maximal 20-metre sprint running test on eight separate occasions. Four trials were conducted on a non-motorised treadmill in the laboratory; the other four were conducted outdoors on a hard-court training surface with time recorded by single-beam photocells. Trials were conducted in random order with no familiarisation prior to testing. There was a significant difference between times recorded during outdoor field trials (OFT and indoor laboratory trials (ILT using a non-motorised treadmill (3.47 ± 0.53 vs. 6.06 ±1.17s; p < 0.001. The coefficient of variation (CV for time was 2.55-4.22% for OFT and 5.1-7.2% for ILT. During ILT peak force (420.9 ± 87.7N, mean force (147.2 ± 24.7N, peak power (1376.8 ± 451.9W and mean power (514.8 ± 164.4W, and were measured. The CV for all ILT variables was highest during trial 1-2 comparison. The CV (95% confidence interval for the trial 3-4 comparison yielded: 9.4% (7.7-12. 1%, 7.9% (6.4-10.2%, 10.1% (8.2-13.1% and 6.2% (5.1-8.0% for PF, MF, PP and MP and respectively. The results indicate that reliable data can be derived for single maximal sprint measures, using fixed distance protocols. However, significant differences in time/speed over 20-m exist between field and laboratory conditions. This is primarily due to the frictional resistance in the non- motorised treadmill. Measures of force and power during ILT require at least 3 familiarisations to reduce variability in test scores

  15. “El asesinato del Chantre Don Ventura Ferrer. Clérigos y bandos en la Seo valentina seiscentista”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callado Estela, Emilio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The cathedral clergy did not remain aloof from the factions that drew together a major part of the valencian society during the XVII century. A good example is the case of the precentor Don Ventura Ferrer, who led one of the cathedral sections and who, supported by the Vallterra family, sought the control of the first church of the kingdom. On the opposite side was the group of canons represented by the admiral of Aragón, head of the opposing supporters and liable for the precentor’s murder in 1661. This event revealed the overlapping of the ecclesiastic world and the phenomenon of banditry.El clero de la Seo no fue ajeno a las bandositats que aglutinaron a buena parte de la sociedad valenciana durante el siglo XVII. Lo demuestra el caso del chantre don Ventura Ferrer, líder de una de las facciones catedralicias que, con el apoyo externo del bando de los Vallterra, luchaba por el control de la primera iglesia del reino. Frente a él, el grupo de canónigos patrocinado por el Almirante de Aragón, a la cabeza de la parcialidad contraria y responsable último del asesinato del chantre en 1661, suceso este que pondría al descubierto la imbricación entre el mundo eclesiástico y el fenómeno del bandolerismo.

  16. The 2015 Fillmore earthquake swarm and possible crustal deformation mechanisms near the bottom of the eastern Ventura Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauksson, Egill; Andrews, Jennifer; Plesch, Andreas; Shaw, John H.; Shelly, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 Fillmore swarm occurred about 6 km west of the city of Fillmore in Ventura, California, and was located beneath the eastern part of the actively subsiding Ventura basin at depths from 11.8 to 13.8 km, similar to two previous swarms in the area. Template‐matching event detection showed that it started on 5 July 2015 at 2:21 UTC with an M∼1.0 earthquake. The swarm exhibited unusual episodic spatial and temporal migrations and unusual diversity in the nodal planes of the focal mechanisms as compared to the simple hypocenter‐defined plane. It was also noteworthy because it consisted of >1400 events of M≥0.0, with M 2.8 being the largest event. We suggest that fluids released by metamorphic dehydration processes, migration of fluids along a detachment zone, and cascading asperity failures caused this prolific earthquake swarm, but other mechanisms (such as simple mainshock–aftershock stress triggering or a regional aseismic creep event) are less likely. Dilatant strengthening may be a mechanism that causes the temporal decay of the swarm as pore‐pressure drop increased the effective normal stress, and counteracted the instability driving the swarm.

  17. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Ahmed, S.; Shahid, M.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 x 10 10 , 1 x 10 8 , 1 x 10 6 and 1 x 10 4 conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose dependent. There were no significant differences in the LT 50 values between species. Field evaluation of M. anisopliae alone or in combination with diesel oil and thyamethoxam was carried out in two growing seasons (autumn 2005 and spring 2006) at two sites located in Punjab, Pakistan. Dipping the sugarcane setts in these suspensions was tried to determine their effects on germination and percentage of bud damage to sugarcane setts. All treatments significantly reduced termite infestation compared to the untreated control. The combined treatment of M. anisopliae and diesel oil significantly reduced insect damage by attaining higher germination > 55% and lower bud damage < 5.50% at both sites in both seasons. The results suggest that the application of M. anisopliae and diesel oil in combination might be a useful treatment option for the management of termites in sugarcane. (author)

  18. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, A. [South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (China). College of Natural Resources and Environment; Ahmed, S. [South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (China). Dept. of Agricultural Entomology; Shahid, M., E-mail: solvia_aah@yahoo.co [University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2011-03-15

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 x 10{sup 10}, 1 x 10{sup 8}, 1 x 10{sup 6} and 1 x 10{sup 4} conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose dependent. There were no significant differences in the LT{sub 50} values between species. Field evaluation of M. anisopliae alone or in combination with diesel oil and thyamethoxam was carried out in two growing seasons (autumn 2005 and spring 2006) at two sites located in Punjab, Pakistan. Dipping the sugarcane setts in these suspensions was tried to determine their effects on germination and percentage of bud damage to sugarcane setts. All treatments significantly reduced termite infestation compared to the untreated control. The combined treatment of M. anisopliae and diesel oil significantly reduced insect damage by attaining higher germination > 55% and lower bud damage < 5.50% at both sites in both seasons. The results suggest that the application of M. anisopliae and diesel oil in combination might be a useful treatment option for the management of termites in sugarcane. (author)

  19. Organics removal of combined wastewater through shallow soil infiltration treatment: a field and laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyin; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya; Sugiura, Norio; Xu, Xiaotian; Yin, Didi

    2007-11-19

    Soil infiltration treatment (SIT) was proved to be an effective and low-cost treatment technique for decentralized effluents in the areas without perfect sewage systems. Field-scale experiments were conducted under several conditions to assess organics removals through a shallow soil infiltration treatment (SSIT, with effective depth 0.3m) of combined wastewater (discharge from toilets, restaurants and a gas station), while bench-scale soil column experiments were performed in laboratory in parallel to investigate biological and abiological effects of this kind of system. From the start-up to the 10th month, the field SSIT trenches experienced the lowest and highest temperatures of the operation period in Shanghai and exhibited effective organics removals after maturation, with the highest removal rate 75.8% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), highest ultraviolet absorption at 254 nm (UV(254)) decrease by 67.2% and 35.2-100% removals of phenolic and phthalate pollutants. The laboratory results indicated that more organics could be removed in room-temperatured (25+/-2 degrees C) SSIT systems under different influent COD concentrations from 45 mg/l to 406 mg/l, and the highest total COD removal rate could reach 94.0%, in which biological effect accounted for 57.7-71.9%. The results showed that temperature and hydraulic loading rate were the most important factors influencing the removals of COD and organic pollutants in SSIT.

  20. Rocketdyne division annual site environmental report, Santa Susana Field Laboratory and De Soto Site, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1992-12-03

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the De Soto site. These sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site is essentially light industry with some laboratory-scale R&D and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2.668 acres), warranted comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. The purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring primarily for the regulatory agencies involved in controlling operations with nuclear fuel or nuclear reactors. i.e., the U.S. DOE and the California State Department of Health Services (DHS). Radiologic Health Branch (RHB). For that reason. information concentrates on Area IV at SSFL as this is the site of the former nuclear operations. While the major area of interest is radiological, this report also includes a discussion of nonradiological monitoring at SSFL.

  1. Pressure-Water Content Relations for a Sandy, Granitic Soil Under Field and Laboratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, D. G.; McNamara, J. M.; Gribb, M. M.

    2001-12-01

    A new sensor was developed to measure soil water potential in order to determine the predominant mechanisms of snowmelt delivery to streamflow. The sensors were calibrated for +50 to -300 cm for application on steep granitic slopes and deployed at three depths and 2 locations on a slope in a headwater catchment of the Idaho Batholith throughout the 2001 snowmelt season. Soil moisture was measured simultaneously with Water Content Reflectometers (Cambell Scientific, Logan, UT), that were calibrated in situ with Time Domain Reflectometry measurements. Sensor performance was evaluated in a laboratory soil column via side-by-side monitoring during injection of water with a cone permeameter. Soil characteristic curves were also determined for the field site by multi-step outflow tests. Comparison of the results from the field study to those from the laboratory experiment and to the characteristic curves demonstrate the utility of the new sensor for recording dynamic changes in soil water status. During snowmelt, the sensor responded to both matric potential and bypass-flow pore potential. Large shifts in the pressure record that correspond to changes in the infiltration flux indicate initiation and cessation of macropore flow. The pore pressure records may be used to document the frequency, timing and duration of bypass flow that are not apparent from the soil moisture records.

  2. Rocketdyne division annual site environmental report, Santa Susana Field Laboratory and De Soto Sites, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1994-10-21

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the De Soto site. These sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site is essentially light industry with some laboratory-scale R&D and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2,668 acres), warranted comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. The purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring primarily for the regulatory agencies involved in controlling environmental remediation, i.e., the U.S. DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the California State Department of Health Services (DHS) Radiologic Health Branch (RHB). For that reason, information concentrates on Area IV at SSFL as this is the site of the former nuclear operations. While the major area of interest is radiological, this report also includes a discussion of nonoradiological monitoring at SSFL.

  3. In situ precipitation and sorption of arsenic from groundwater: Laboratory and ex situ field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whang, J.M.; Adu-Wusu, K.; Frampton, W.H.; Staib, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    Permeable, reactive walls may provide long term, low-maintenance prevention of off-site migration of contaminated groundwater. Laboratory and ex situ field tests conducted on several arsenic-contaminated groundwaters indicate that both precipitation and sorption can remove arsenic to levels of less than 10 ppb. Precipitation has been induced by adjusting pH, adding selected cations, and/or reducing the oxidation-reduction potential. Adjusting pH or adding cations was most effective when there were high levels of other ionic species with which arsenic could coprecipitate. Reducing the oxidation-reduction potential was effective on a variety of groundwaters. Humate was an effective sorbent at low pH; aluminum and iron materials were effective over a large range of conditions. Long term performance of precipitation systems can be limited by formation of precipitate on reactive surfaces. Long term sorption can be reduced by competing ions, such as phosphate. Laboratory and ex situ field tests indicate that reactive walls may have lifetimes of decades or more

  4. Pyranometer offsets triggered by ambient meteorology: insights from laboratory and field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Sandro M.; Pietsch, Helga; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Weihs, Philipp; Rieder, Harald E.

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates the effects of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation (R) measurements performed with pyranometers contained in various heating and ventilation systems (HV-systems). It focuses particularly on instrument offsets observed following precipitation events. To quantify pyranometer responses to precipitation, a series of controlled laboratory experiments as well as two targeted field campaigns were performed in 2016. The results indicate that precipitation (as simulated by spray tests or observed under ambient conditions) significantly affects the thermal environment of the instruments and thus their stability. Statistical analyses of laboratory experiments showed that precipitation triggers zero offsets of -4 W m-2 or more, independent of the HV-system. Similar offsets were observed in field experiments under ambient environmental conditions, indicating a clear exceedance of BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network) targets following precipitation events. All pyranometers required substantial time to return to their initial signal states after the simulated precipitation events. Therefore, for BSRN-class measurements, the recommendation would be to flag the radiation measurements during a natural precipitation event and 90 min after it in nighttime conditions. Further daytime experiments show pyranometer offsets of 50 W m-2 or more in comparison to the reference system. As they show a substantially faster recovery, the recommendation would be to flag the radiation measurements within a natural precipitation event and 10 min after it in daytime conditions.

  5. Rocketdyne division annual site environmental report, Santa Susana Field Laboratory and De Soto Sites, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1993-12-14

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the De Soto site. These sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site is essentially light industry with some laboratory-scale R&D and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2,668 acres), warranted comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. The purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring primarily for the regulatory agencies involved in controlling environmental remediation, i.e., the U.S. DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the California State Department of Health Services (DHS) Radiologic Health Branch (RHB). For that reason, information concentrates on Area IV at SSFL as this is the site of the former nuclear operations. While the major area of interest is radiological, this report also includes a discussion of nonradiological monitoring at SSFL.

  6. Balancing ballistic protection against physiological strain: evidence from laboratory and field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Burdon, Catriona A; van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Fogarty, Alison L; Notley, Sean R; Hunt, Andrew P; Billing, Daniel C; Drain, Jace R; Silk, Aaron J; Patterson, Mark J; Peoples, Gregory E

    2016-02-01

    This project was based on the premise that decisions concerning the ballistic protection provided to defence personnel should derive from an evaluation of the balance between protection level and its impact on physiological function, mobility, and operational capability. Civilians and soldiers participated in laboratory- and field-based studies in which ensembles providing five levels of ballistic protection were evaluated, each with progressive increases in protection, mass (3.4-11.0 kg), and surface-area coverage (0.25-0.52 m(2)). Physiological trials were conducted on volunteers (N = 8) in a laboratory, under hot-dry conditions simulating an urban patrol: walking at 4 km·h(-1) (90 min) and 6 km·h(-1) (30 min or to fatigue). Field-based trials were used to evaluate tactical battlefield movements (mobility) of soldiers (N = 31) under tropical conditions, and across functional tests of power, speed, agility, endurance, and balance. Finally, trials were conducted at a jungle training centre, with soldiers (N = 32) patrolling under tropical conditions (averaging 5 h). In the laboratory, work tolerance was reduced as protection increased, with deep-body temperature climbing relentlessly. However, the protective ensembles could be grouped into two equally stressful categories, each providing a different level of ballistic protection. This outcome was supported during the mobility trials, with the greatest performance decrement evident during fire and movement simulations, as the ensemble mass was increased (-2.12%·kg(-1)). The jungle patrol trials similarly supported this outcome. Therefore, although ballistic protection does increase physiological strain, this research has provided a basis on which to determine how that strain can be balanced against the mission-specific level of required personal protection.

  7. The biochemical estimation of age in Euphausiids: Laboratory calibration and field comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, H. R.; Ju, Se-J.; Son, S.-K.; Feinberg, L. R.; Shaw, C. T.; Peterson, W. T.

    2010-04-01

    Euphausiids play a key role in many marine ecosystems as a link between primary producers and top predators. Understanding their demographic (i.e. age) structure is an essential tool to assess growth and recruitment as well as to determine how changes in environmental conditions might alter their condition and distribution. Age determination of crustaceans cannot be accomplished using traditional approaches, and here we evaluate the potential for biochemical products of tissue metabolism (termed lipofuscins) to determine the demographic structure of euphausiids in field collections . Lipofuscin was extracted from krill neural tissues (eye and eye-stalk), quantified using fluorescent intensity and normalized to tissue protein content to allow comparisons across animal sizes. Multiple fluorescent components from krill were observed, with the major product having a maximum fluorescence at excitation of 355 nm and emission of 510 nm. Needed age calibration of lipofuscin accumulation in Euphausia pacifica was accomplished using known-age individuals hatched and reared in the laboratory for over one year. Lipofuscin content extracted from neural tissues of laboratory-reared animals was highly correlated with the chronological age of animals ( r=0.87). Calibrated with laboratory lipofuscin accumulation rates, field-collected sub-adult and adult E. pacifica in the Northeast Pacific were estimated to be older than 100 days and younger than 1year. Comparative data for the Antarctic krill, E. superba showed much higher lipofuscin values suggesting a much longer lifespan than the more temperate species, E. pacifica. These regional comparisons suggest that biochemical indices allow a practical approach to estimate population age structure of diverse populations, and combined with other measurements can provide estimates of vital rates (i.e. longevity, mortality, growth) for krill populations in dynamic environments.

  8. Laboratory and Field Age of Aqueous Grape Juice Bait and Capture of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsky, Nancy D; Gill, Micah A

    2017-06-01

    Volatile chemicals produced by actively fermenting aqueous grape juice bait have been found to be highly attractive to the African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta. This is a highly dynamic system and time period of fermentation is an important factor in bait efficacy. A series of field tests were conducted that evaluated effects of laboratory versus field fermentation and sampling period (days after placement [DAP]) on bait effectiveness as the first step in identifying the chemicals responsible for attraction. Tests of traps with bait that had been aged in the laboratory for 0, 3, 6, and 9 d and then sampled 3 DAP found higher capture in traps with 0- and 3-d-old baits than in traps with 6- or 9-d-old baits. To further define the time period that produced the most attractive baits, a subsequent test evaluated baits aged for 0, 2, 4, and 6 d in the laboratory and sampled after 1-4 DAP, with traps sampled and bait discarded at the end of each DAP period. The highest capture was in traps with 4-d-old bait sampled 1 DAP, with the second best capture in traps with 0-d-old bait sampled 3 DAP. However, there tended to be fewer flies as DAP increased, indicating potential loss of identifiable flies owing to decomposition in the actively fermenting solutions. When traps were sampled and bait recycled daily, the highest capture was in 2- and 4-d-old baits sampled 1 DAP and in 0-d-old baits sampled 2-4 DAP. Similar patterns were observed for capture of nontarget drosophilids. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Hideout of sea water impurities in steam generator tube deposits: laboratory and field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; Turner, C.W.; Thompson, R.; Sawochka, S.

    1996-01-01

    Sea water impurities hide out within thin (∼10 μm) deposits on steam generator tubes, as demonstrated by both laboratory studies using segments of fouled steam generator tubes pulled in 1992 from Crystal River-3 nuclear power station and field hideout return studies performed during recent plant shutdowns. Laboratory tests performed at 279 o C (534 o F) and heat fluxes ranging from 35 to 114 kW/m 2 (11,100 - 36,150 Btu/h.ft 2 ), conditions typical of the lower tubesheet to the first support plate region of a once-through steam generator, showed that impurity hideout can occur in thin free-span tube deposits. The extent of hideout increased with increasing heat flux. Soluble species, such as sodium and chloride ions, returned promptly to the bulk water from the deposits when the heat flux was turned off, whereas less soluble species, such as calcium sulfate and magnesium hydroxide, returned more slowly. Recent field hideout return studies performed at Crystal River-3 where the water level in the steam generators was maintained below the first tube support plate during the shutdown, thus wetting only the thin deposits in the free span and the small sludge pile, corroborate the laboratory findings, showing that hideout does indeed occur in the free-span regions of the tubes. These findings suggest that hideout within tube deposits has to be accounted for in the calculation of crevice chemistry from hideout return studies and in controlling the bulk chemistry using the molar ratio criterion. (author). 3 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  10. Verification of Electromagnetic Field Measurements via Inter-laboratory Comparison Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mann

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An inter-laboratory comparison of field strength measurements was conducted in order to verify the comparability of high-frequency electromagnetic field measurements. For this purpose, 17 participating teams hosted by the working group "procedures of exposure determination" of the LAI (Länderausschuss für Immissionsschutz, state committee on immission control determined the field strength at given stations around a hospital situation. At those stations very different signals were generated, such as sine wave signals at 27MHz and 433MHz, signals from a diathermy device in Continuous-Wave (CW and Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM mode, from a GSM base station at 900MHz and 1800MHz, from a UMTS base station, from a babyphone device and from a DECT cordless phone. This contribution describes the evaluation of the measured values and the approach to the computation of a reference value. Considering various sources of electromagnetic fields in the areas of personal safety at work and of immission control, the most important results are presented and the conclusions drawn are discussed.

  11. The mismatch between bioaccumulation in field and laboratory environments: Interpreting the differences for metals in benthic bivalves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belzunce-Segarra, Maria J.; Simpson, Stuart L.; Amato, Elvio D.; Spadaro, David A.; Hamilton, Ian L.; Jarolimek, Chad V.; Jolley, Dianne F.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory-based bioaccumulation and toxicity bioassays are frequently used to predict the ecological risk of contaminated sediments in the field. This study investigates the bioassay conditions most relevant to achieving environmentally relevant field exposures. An identical series of metal-contaminated marine sediments were deployed in the field and laboratory over 31 days. Changes in metal concentrations and partitioning in both sediments and waters were used to interpret differences in metal exposure and bioaccumulation to the benthic bivalve Tellina deltoidalis. Loss of resuspended sediments and deposition of suspended particulate matter from the overlying water resulted in the concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn (major contaminants) becoming lower in the 1-cm surface layer of field-deployed sediments. Lower exchange rates of overlying waters in the laboratory resulted in higher dissolved metal exposures. The prediction of metal bioaccumulation by the bivalves in field and laboratory was improved by considering the metal partitioning within the surface sediments. - Highlights: • Particulate metals are the dominant metal exposure route in laboratory and field tests (87). • There is an over-representation of the dissolved metal exposure in the laboratory (81). • Laboratory bioassays result in higher bioaccumulation of major metals, Cu, Pb, Zn (82). • Differences in exposure must be considered for a proper sediment quality evaluation (83). • Traditional measurements are not sufficient to explain bioaccumulation results (79). - To improve the value of field- and laboratory-based sediment bioassays in ecological risk assessments, it is necessary to create exposure conditions that resemble those in the field

  12. The Next Generation of Synthetic Biology Chassis: Moving Synthetic Biology from the Laboratory to the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bryn L

    2016-12-16

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) has played a pivotal role in the development of genetics and molecular biology as scientific fields. It is therefore not surprising that synthetic biology (SB) was built upon E. coli and continues to dominate the field. However, scientific capabilities have advanced from simple gene mutations to the insertion of rationally designed, complex synthetic circuits and creation of entirely synthetic genomes. The point is rapidly approaching where E. coli is no longer an adequate host for the increasingly sophisticated genetic designs of SB. It is time to develop the next generation of SB chassis; robust organisms that can provide the advanced physiology novel synthetic circuits will require to move SB from the laboratory into fieldable technologies. This can be accomplished by developing chassis-specific genetic toolkits that are as extensive as those for E. coli. However, the holy grail of SB would be the development of a universal toolkit that can be ported into any chassis. This viewpoint article underscores the need for new bacterial chassis, as well as discusses some of the important considerations in their selection. It also highlights a few examples of robust, tractable bacterial species that can meet the demands of tomorrow's state-of-the-art in SB. Significant advances have been made in the first 15 years since this field has emerged. However, the advances over the next 15 years will occur not in laboratory organisms, but in fieldable species where the potential of SB can be fully realized in game changing technology.

  13. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) males in laboratory and semi-field cages: release ratios and mating competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madakacherry, Odessa; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Gilles, Jeremie Roger Lionel

    2014-04-01

    To control the container-breeding mosquito and major vector of dengue and chikungunya Aedes albopictus, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is proposed as a component of integrated vector management programs in endemic areas. For the technique to be successful, released males, sterilized with 35 Gy of ionizing radiation during the pupal stage, must be able to compete for mating opportunities with wild counterparts and successfully copulate with wild females to induce sterility in the population. Any reduction in competitiveness can be compensated for by increasing the ratio of released sterile to wild males, a ratio which must be optimized for effectiveness and efficiency. Fruit fly SIT programs use field enclosures to test the competitiveness of sterile males to monitor the quality of the colony and adjust release ratios. This is laborious and time consuming, and for mosquito programs it would be advantageous if similarly useful results could be obtained by smaller scale laboratory tests, conducted on a more regular basis. In the present study we compared the competitiveness, as measured by hatching rate of resulting egg batches, of irradiated males measured in small and large laboratory cages and semi-field enclosures in a greenhouse setting, when competing in a 1:1, 3:1, and 5:1 ratio with fertile males. The sterile males were found to be equally competitive when compared to unirradiated counterparts, and a 5:1 ratio was sufficient to reduce, but not eliminate, the fertility of the female populations, irrespective of cage size. Variability in hatch rate in eggs laid by individual females and so-called indeterminate matings, when we could not be certain whether a female had mated a fertile or a sterile male, could be investigated by closer investigation of mating status and the frequency of multiple matings in Ae. albopictus. The laboratory results are encouraging for the effectiveness of the SIT using irradiated males of this species, and we support further

  14. Comprehensive study of proteasome inhibitors against Plasmodium falciparum laboratory strains and field isolates from Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremsner Peter G

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to almost all available antimalarial drugs necessitates the search for new chemotherapeutic compounds. The ubiquitin/proteasome system plays a major role in overall protein turnover, especially in fast dividing eukaryotic cells including plasmodia. Previous studies show that the 20S proteasome is expressed and catalytically active in plasmodia and treatment with proteasome inhibitors arrests parasite growth. This is the first comprehensive screening of proteasome inhibitors with different chemical modes of action against laboratory strains of P. falciparum. Subsequently, a selection of inhibitors was tested in field isolates from Lambaréné, Gabon. Methods Epoxomicin, YU101, YU102, MG132, MG115, Z-L3-VS, Ada-Ahx3-L3-VS, lactacystin, bortezomib (Velcade®, gliotoxin, PR11 and PR39 were tested and compared to chloroquine- and artesunate-activities in a standardized in vitro drug susceptibility assay against P. falciparum laboratory strains 3D7, D10 and Dd2. Freshly obtained field isolates from Lambaréné, Gabon, were used to measure the activity of chloroquine, artesunate, epoxomicin, MG132, lactacystin and bortezomib. Parasite growth was detected through histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2 production. Raw data were fitted by a four-parameter logistic model and individual inhibitory concentrations (50%, 90%, and 99% were calculated. Results Amongst all proteasome inhibitors tested, epoxomicin showed the highest activity in chloroquine-susceptible (IC50: 6.8 nM [3D7], 1.7 nM [D10] and in chloroquine-resistant laboratory strains (IC50: 10.4 nM [Dd2] as well as in field isolates (IC50: 8.5 nM. The comparator drug artesunate was even more active (IC50: 1.0 nM, whereas all strains were chloroquine-resistant (IC50: 113 nM. Conclusion The peptide α',β'-epoxyketone epoxomicin is highly active against P. falciparum regardless the grade of the parasite's chloroquine

  15. Soil-plant transfer factors for Pu in the field and laboratory in relation to desorption from the solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudge, S.; Kelly, M.; Hamilton-Taylor, J.; Horrill, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory hydroponics experiments using an environmentally contaminated sediment as source of Pu, were carried out to determine the soil-plant, soil solution-plant and root-plant transfer factors. Soil-plant transfer factors, calculated from field observations, varied according to the degree of animal usage and were more than two orders of magnitude larger than those from the laboratory experiments. The discrepancies between field and laboratory measurements are probably due to the complex sediment speciation and desorption chemistry of Pu. The transfer factors based on the solution or root activities are likely to provided a better estimate of the vegetation activity than those based on the solid phase activity. (author)

  16. Current sheets in the Earth’s magnetosphere and in laboratory experiments: The magnetic field structure and the Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A. G.; Artemyev, A. V.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    The main characteristics of current sheets (CSs) formed in laboratory experiments are compared with the results of satellite observations of CSs in the Earth’s magnetotail. We show that many significant features of the magnetic field structure and the distributions of plasma parameters in laboratory and magnetospheric CSs exhibit a qualitative similarity, despite the enormous differences of scales, absolute values of plasma parameters, magnetic fields, and currents. In addition to a qualitative comparison, we give a number of dimensionless parameters that demonstrate the possibility of laboratory modeling of the processes occurring in the magnetosphere.

  17. Scaling plant ultraviolet spectral responses from laboratory action spectra to field spectral weighting factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, S.D.; Caldwell, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    Biological spectral weighting functions (BSWF) play a key role in calculating the increase of biologically effective solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-BBE) due to ozone reduction, assessing current latitudinal gradients of UV-B BE . and comparing solar UV-B BE with that from lamps and filters in plant experiments. Plant UV action spectra (usually determined with monochromatic radiation in the laboratory with exposure periods on the order of hours) are often used as BSWF. The realism of such spectra for plants growing day after day in polychromatic solar radiation in the field is questionable. We tested the widely used generalized plant action spectrum since preliminary data from an action spectrum being developed with monochromatic radiation for a cultivated oat variety indicate reasonable agreement with the generalized spectrum. These tests involved exposing plants to polychromatic radiation either from a high-pressure xenon arc lamp in growth chambers or in the field under solar radiation with supplemental UV-B lamps. Different broad-spectrum combinations were achieved by truncating the spectrum at successively longer UV wavelengths with various filters. In the growth chamber experiments, the generalized plant spectrum appeared to predict plant growth responses at short (<310nm) wavelengths but not at longer wavelengths. The field experiment reinforced these conclusions, showing (in addition to the expected direct UV-B effects) both direct UV-A effects and UV-A mitigation of UV-B effects. (author)

  18. Toxicity of nitrogenous fertilizers to eggs of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) in field and laboratory exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, Shane Raymond; Martin, Pamela Anne

    2007-09-01

    Many reptiles oviposit in soil of agricultural landscapes. We evaluated the toxicity of two commonly used nitrogenous fertilizers, urea and ammonium nitrate, on the survivorship of exposed snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs. Eggs were incubated in a community garden plot in which urea was applied to the soil at realistic rates of up to 200 kg/ha in 2004, and ammonium nitrate was applied at rates of up to 2,000 kg/ha in 2005. Otherwise, the eggs were unmanipulated and were subject to ambient temperature and weather conditions. Eggs were also exposed in the laboratory in covered bins so as to minimize loss of nitrogenous compounds through volatilization or leaching from the soil. Neither urea nor ammonium nitrate had any impact on hatching success or development when exposed in the garden plot, despite overt toxicity of ammonium nitrate to endogenous plants. Both laboratory exposures resulted in reduced hatching success, lower body mass at hatching, and reduced posthatching survival compared to controls. The lack of toxicity of these fertilizers in the field was probably due to leaching in the soil and through atmospheric loss. In general, we conclude that nitrogenous fertilizers probably have little direct impacts on turtle eggs deposited in agricultural landscapes.

  19. Understanding water uptake in bioaerosols using laboratory measurements, field tests, and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Zahra; Ratnesar-Shumate, Shanna A.; Buckley, Thomas J.; Kalter, Jeffrey M.; Gilberry, Jerome U.; Eshbaugh, Jonathan P.; Corson, Elizabeth C.; Santarpia, Joshua L.; Carter, Christopher C.

    2013-05-01

    Uptake of water by biological aerosols can impact their physical and chemical characteristics. The water content in a bioaerosol can affect the backscatter cross-section as measured by LIDAR systems. Better understanding of the water content in controlled-release clouds of bioaerosols can aid in the development of improved standoff detection systems. This study includes three methods to improve understanding of how bioaerosols take up water. The laboratory method measures hygroscopic growth of biological material after it is aerosolized and dried. Hygroscopicity curves are created as the humidity is increased in small increments to observe the deliquescence point, then the humidity is decreased to observe the efflorescence point. The field component of the study measures particle size distributions of biological material disseminated into a large humidified chamber. Measurements are made with a Twin-Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS, TSI, Inc), -Relative Humidity apparatus where two APS units measure the same aerosol cloud side-by-side. The first operated under dry conditions by sampling downstream of desiccant dryers, the second operated under ambient conditions. Relative humidity was measured within the sampling systems to determine the difference in the aerosol water content between the two sampling trains. The water content of the bioaerosols was calculated from the twin APS units following Khlystov et al. 2005 [1]. Biological material is measured dried and wet and compared to laboratory curves of the same material. Lastly, theoretical curves are constructed from literature values for components of the bioaerosol material.

  20. Near Field UHF RFID Antenna System Enabling the Tracking of Small Laboratory Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Catarinucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency identification (RFID technology is more and more adopted in a wide range of applicative scenarios. In many cases, such as the tracking of small-size living animals for behaviour analysis purposes, the straightforward use of commercial solutions does not ensure adequate performance. Consequently, both RFID hardware and the control software should be tailored for the particular application. In this work, a novel RFID-based approach enabling an effective localization and tracking of small-sized laboratory animals is proposed. It is mainly based on a UHF Near Field RFID multiantenna system, to be placed under the animals’ cage, and able to rigorously identify the NF RFID tags implanted in laboratory animals (e.g., mice. Once the requirements of the reader antenna have been individuated, the antenna system has been designed and realized. Moreover, an algorithm based on the measured Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI aiming at removing potential ambiguities in data captured by the multiantenna system has been developed and integrated. The animal tracking system has been largely tested on phantom mice in order to verify its ability to precisely localize each subject and to reconstruct its path. The achieved and discussed results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking system.

  1. Emission characteristics of PBDEs during flame-retardant plastics extruding process: field investigation and laboratorial simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Li, Ying; Li, Jinhui; Chen, Yuan; Li, Huafen

    2017-10-01

    Though mechanical recycling of WEEE plastics is supposed to be a promising method, PBDEs release and the resulting contamination during its processing remain unclear yet. The distribution of PBDEs pollution in production lines was investigated from two flame-retardant plastic modification plants in Southern China. This was followed by laboratory simulation experiments to characterize the emission processes. PBDEs concentrations ranged from 37 to 31,305 ng/L in cooling water and from 40,043 to 216,653 ng/g dry wt in solid samples taken during the field investigation. In the laboratory simulation, concentrations ranged from 146 to 433 ng/L in cooling water and from 411,436 to 747,516 ng/Nm 3 in flue gas. All samples were dominated by BDE-209 among the congeners. Temperatures and impurities in plastic substrate can significantly affect PBDEs release. Special attention should be paid to the risks of water directly discharge from the cooling system, especially for the biological sludge and sediments, as well as flue gas emissions to the environment.

  2. Air Pollutant Mapping with a Mobile Laboratory during the BEE-TEX Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara I. Yacovitch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was deployed to the Houston Ship Channel and surrounding areas during the Benzene and Other Toxics Exposure field study in February 2015. We evaluated atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic hydrocarbons and other hazardous air pollutants of importance to human health, including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzenes, styrene, and NO 2 . Ambient concentration measurements were focused on the neighborhoods of Manchester, Harrisburg, and Galena Park. The most likely measured concentration of 1,3-butadiene in the Manchester neighborhood (0.17 ppb exceeds the Environmental Protection Agency's E-5 lifetime cancer risk level of 0.14 ppb. In all the three neighborhoods, the measured benzene concentration falls below or within the E-5 lifetime cancer risk levels of 0.4–1.4 ppb for benzene. Pollution maps as a function of wind direction show the impact of nearby sources.

  3. Laboratory and field studies with 32P labeled Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smittle, B.J.; Focks, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Females and eggs of Toxorhynchites r. rutilus were labeled with 32 P by feeding fourth-stage larvae 32 P labeled Aedes aegypti larvae. Eggs from females up to 3 weeks in age had detectable levels of radioactivity and individual eggs contained ca. 0.3% of the mother's total radioactivity. Comparisons of labeled and unlabeled females in indoor and outdoor cage tests indicated that survival and fecundity of the 2 groups were approximately equal. No differences were noted for dispersal and fecundity of labeled and control females released in field tests. The 32 P-labeled Tx. r. rutilus females behave similarly to unlabeled females, and this method of radiolabeling provides a sound tool for tracking laboratory-reared females released into an area with an indigenous population

  4. Chemval project report on stage 2: application of speciation models to laboratory and field data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, D.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the results of Chemval Stage 2, an international chemical model validation exercise involving the active participation of 14 organizations within EC countries, Sweden, Switzerland and Finland. Four different sites have been studied, representing a range of host rock types and proposed disposal facilities. It details the methodology employed and results obtained for 19 test cases of varying complexity, devised to allow comparison between modelling results and experimental measurements. Recommendations are made for enhancement of models and thermodynamic databases employed, as well as for the collection of field/laboratory data geared to the needs of model validation. This report complements a previous one, ref. EUR 12237 EN, devoted to the verification of speciation models. The work is part of the Community's Mirage project - Second phase, on migration of radionuclides in the geosphere

  5. Laboratory and field temperature preference and avoidance data of fish related to the establishment of standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, J.R.; Cherry, D.S.; Dickson, K.L.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Temperature preferences for important fish species in the New River in the vicinity of Appalachian Power Company's Glen Lyn, Virginia plant were determined independently by both field and laboratory studies. A relationship was demonstrated between the temperature preference data generated by the two approaches. Based on the temperature preference data the responses of fish to the thermal discharges can be predicted. From these data and from other data on the fish community structure, it was possible to determine that the thermal discharge was causing no appreciable harm to the fish community. Based on these studies it was concluded that the most reasonable approach to establishing thermal standards is to couple temperature preference studies with site specific studies. (U.S.)

  6. Combining field work and laboratory work in the study of financial risk-taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, John; Gurnell, Mark

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. Financial markets are periodically destabilized by bubbles and crashes during which investors display respectively what has been called "irrational exuberance" and "irrational pessimism". How can we best study these pathologies in competitive and risk-taking behaviours? In this article, we argue that a science of risk-taking and of the financial markets needs to draw heavily on physiology and especially endocrinology, due to their central roles in moderating human behaviour. Importantly, this science of competition and risk requires the same spectrum of research protocols as is found in mature biological and medical sciences, a spectrum running from field work conducted within financial institutions themselves to more controlled laboratory studies, which permit cause to be distinguished from effect. Such a spectrum of studies is especially important for translational behavioural science. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparative study of P450 gene expression in field and laboratory Musca domestica L. strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højland, Dorte Heidi; Vagn Jensen, Karl-Martin; Kristensen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The housefly is a global pest that has developed resistance to most insecticides applied for its control. Resistance has been associated with cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s). The authors compare the expression of six genes possibly associated with insecticide resistance in three...... unselected strains: a multiresistant strain (791a), a neonicotinoid-resistant strain (766b) and a new field strain (845b). RESULTS CYP4G2 was highly expressed throughout the range of strains and proved to be the one of the most interesting expression profiles of all P450s analysed. CYP6G4 was expressed up...... to 11-fold higher in 766b than in WHO-SRS. Significant differences between expression of P450 genes between F1 flies from 845b and established laboratory strains were shown. In general, P450 gene expression in 845b was 2–14-fold higher than in the reference strain (P

  8. The effect of filtration on radon daughter atmospheres: Laboratory and field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonassen, N.; Jensen, B.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne radon daughters may be removed from the air by internal filtration using mechanical or electrofilters. The effect of the filtration may be evaluated in absolute measure by the decrease in the potential alpha energy concentration (or equivalent equilibrium concentration) or relatively by the decrease in the equilibrium factor. The filtration, however, may also change the distribution of airborne radon daughter activity between the unattached and the aerosol-attached state in a way to increase the radiological dose corresponding to a given potential alpha energy concentration. The paper describes a series of laboratory and field experiments which indicate that it is possible by the use of household electrofilters with filtration rates of 2-3 h -1 to lower the radon daughter concentrations to about 20 -30 % and the average radiological dose to about 50-60 % of the value in unfiltered air

  9. Can we use laboratory reared copepods for experiments - a comparison of feeding behavior and reproduction between a field and a laboratory population of Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiselius, P.; Hansen, B.; Jonsson, P.

    1995-01-01

    Motility patterns and egg production were investigated in two populations of Acartia tonsa, field animals from the Oresund and laboratory animals from a 12-year-old (approximate to 120 generations) culture. When observed in aquaria with a layer of Thalassiosira weissflogii in the middle, laboratory...... differed considerably from held-caught A. tonsa from the eastern United States, where both behaviour and egg production changed consistently and in accordance with a strong aggregation in food patches. (C) 1995 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea...

  10. Between and within laboratory reliability of mouse behaviour recorded in home-cage and open-field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lianne; Spruijt, Berry; Riedel, Gernot

    2018-04-15

    Reproducibility of behavioural findings between laboratories is difficult due to behaviour being sensitive to environmental factors and interactions with genetics. The objective of this study was to investigate reproducibility of behavioural data between laboratories using the PhenoTyper home cage observation system and within laboratory reproducibility using different lighting regimes. The ambulatory activity of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice was tested in PhenoTypers in two laboratories under near identical housing and testing conditions (Exp. 1). Additionally activity and anxiety were also assessed in the open-field test. Furthermore, testing in either a normal or inverted light/dark cycle was used to determine effects of lighting regime in a within-laboratory comparison in Aberdeen (Exp. 2). Using the PhenoTyper similar circadian rhythms were observed across laboratories. Higher levels of baseline and novelty-induced activity were evident in Aberdeen compared to Utrecht although strain differences were consistent between laboratories. Open field activity was also similar across laboratories whereas strain differences in anxiety were different. Within laboratory analysis of different lighting regimes revealed that behaviour of the mice was sensitive to changes in lighting. Utilisation of a home cage observation system facilitates the reproducibility of activity but not anxiety-related behaviours across laboratories by eliminating environmental factors known to influence reproducibility in standard behavioural tests. Standardisation of housing/test conditions resulted in reproducibility of home cage and open field activity but not anxiety-related phenotypes across laboratories with some behaviours more sensitive to environmental factors. Environmental factors include lighting and time of day. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Variability in Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) Reproduction in Laboratory and Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, William G; Holst, Niels; Cook, Steven C; Patt, Joseph M

    2015-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine how several key factors affect population growth of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine effects of food quantity and temperature on reproduction of cohorts of young A. tumida adults (1:1 sex ratio) housed in experimental arenas. Daily numbers and total mass of larvae exiting arenas were highly variable within treatment. Either one or two cohorts of larvae were observed exiting the arenas. Food quantity, either 10 g or 20 g, did not significantly affect the number of larvae exiting arenas at 32°C, but did at 28°C; arenas provided 20 g food produced significantly more larvae than arenas provided 10 g. Temperature did not affect the total mass of larvae provided 10 g food, but did affect larval mass provided 20 g; beetles kept at 28°C produced more larval mass than at 32°C. Field experiments were conducted to examine A. tumida reproductive success in full strength bee colonies. Beetles were introduced into hives as egg-infested frames and as adults, and some bee colonies were artificially weakened through removal of sealed brood. Efforts were unsuccessful; no larvae were observed exiting from, or during the inspection of, any hives. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. The variability observed in A. tumida reproduction even in controlled laboratory conditions and the difficulty in causing beetle infestations in field experiments involving full colonies suggest that accurately forecasting the A. tumida severity in such colonies will be difficult. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Supplement analysis for Greenville Gate access to Kirschbaum Field at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Program proposes to provide additional access to the Kirschbaum Field construction laydown area. This additional access would alleviate traffic congestion at the East Gate entrance to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from Greenville Road during periods of heavy construction for the NIF. The new access would be located along the northeastern boundary of LLNL, about 305 m (1,000 ft) north of the East Gate entrance. The access road would extend from Greenville Road to the Kirschbaum Field construction laydown area and would traverse an existing storm water drainage channel. Two culverts, side by side, and a compacted road base would be installed across the channel. The security fence that runs parallel to Greenville Road would be modified to accommodate this new entrance and a vehicle gate would be installed at the entrance of Kirschbaum Field. The exiting shoulder along Greenville Road would be converted into a new turn lane for trucks entering the new gate. This analysis evaluates the impacts of constructing the Kirschbaum Field bridge and access gate at a different location than was analyzed in the NIF Project specific Analysis in the Final Programmatic environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (SS and M PEIS) published in September 1996 (DOE/EIS-0236) and the Record of Decision published on December 19, 1996. Issues of concern addressed in this supplement analysis include potential impacts to wetlands downstream of the access bridge, potential impacts to the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) listed as threatened on the federal listing pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1974, and potential impacts on the 100-yr floodplain along the Arroyo Las Positas

  13. Insights into organic carbon oxidation potential during fluvial transport from laboratory and field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, J. S.; Dellinger, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Fuchs, M. C.; Golombek, N.; Hilton, R. G.; Hovius, N.; Lupker, M.; Repasch, M. N.; Sachse, D.; Turowski, J. M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Wittmann, H.

    2017-12-01

    Over geologic timescales, the exchange of organic carbon (OC) between the atmosphere, hydropshere, biosphere and geosphere can be a major control on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. The carbon fluxes from the oxidation of rock-derived OC (a CO2 source) and erosion, transport, and burial of biospheric OC (a potential CO2 sink) during fluvial transit are approximately the same order of magnitude or larger than those from silicate weathering. Despite field data showing increasing oxidation of OC moving downstream in lowland rivers, it is unclear if losses occur primarily during active fluvial transport, where OC is in continual motion within an aerated river, or during periods of temporary storage in river floodplains which may be anoxic. The unknown location of OC oxidation (i.e., river vs. floodplain) limits our ability to mechanistically link geochemical and geomorphic processes which are required to develop models capable of predicting OC losses, constrain carbon budgets, and unravel links between climate, tectonics, and erosion. To fill this knowledge gap, we investigated OC oxidation in controlled laboratory experiments and a simplified field setting. We performed experiments in annular flumes that simulate fluvial transport without floodplain storage, allowing mixtures of OC-rich and siliciclastic sediment to be transported for distances of 1000 km. Preliminary experiments exploring both rock-derived and biospheric OC sources show minimal OC oxidation during active river transport, consistent with the idea that the majority of OC loss occurs during transient floodplain storage. These results are also consistent with new field data collected in the Rio Bermejo, Argentina, a lowland river traversing 800 km with no tributary inputs, where aged floodplain deposits have 3 to 10 times lower OC concentrations compared to modern river sediments. Together our field data and experiments support the hypothesis that oxidation of OC occurs primarily during

  14. Experimental investigation of flow field in a laboratory-scale compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Ma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The inner flow environment of turbomachinery presents strong three-dimensional, rotational, and unsteady characteristics. Consequently, a deep understanding of these flow phenomena will be the prerequisite to establish a state-of-the-art design system of turbomachinery. Currently the development of more accurate turbulence models and CFD tools is in urgent need for a high-quality database for validation, especially the advanced CFD tools, such as large eddy simulation (LES. Under this circumstance, this paper presents a detailed experimental investigation on the 3D unsteady flow field inside a laboratory-scale isolated-rotor with multiple advanced measurement techniques, including traditional aerodynamic probes, hotwire probes, unsteady endwall static pressure measurement, and stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV. The inlet boundary layer profile is measured with both hotwire probe and aerodynamic probe. The steady and unsteady flow fields at the outlet of the rotor are measured with a mini five-hole probe and a single-slanted hotwire probe. The instantaneous flow field in the rotor tip region inside the passage is captured with SPIV, and then a statistical analysis of the spatial distribution of the instantaneous tip leakage vortex/flow is performed to understand its dynamic characteristics. Besides these, the uncertainty analysis of each measurement technique is described. This database is quite sufficient to validate the advanced numerical simulation with LES. The identification process of the tip leakage vortex core in the instantaneous frames obtained from SPIV is performed deliberately. It is concluded that the ensemble-averaged flow field could not represent the tip leakage vortex strength and the trajectory trace. The development of the tip leakage vortex could be clearly cataloged into three phases according to their statistical spatial distribution. The streamwise velocity loss induced by the tip leakage flow increases until the

  15. Assessment of toxicity of heavy metal contaminated soils toward Collembola in paddy fields supported by laboratory tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Manping; Xu, Jie; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2018-01-01

    Effects on soil Collembola of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd pollution from Cu smelters over 40 years were investigated in paddy fields from an area of Eastern China. We compared the field effects to those observed in single-species laboratory tests employing the hemiedaphic collembolan Folsomia candida and ...

  16. Constraining Carbonaceous Aerosol Climate Forcing by Bridging Laboratory, Field and Modeling Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M. K.; Aiken, A. C.; Liu, S.; Saleh, R.; Cappa, C. D.; Williams, L. R.; Donahue, N. M.; Gorkowski, K.; Ng, N. L.; Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.; Sharma, N.; Yokelson, R. J.; Allan, J. D.; Liu, D.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass and fossil fuel combustion emits black (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) aerosols that absorb sunlight to warm climate and organic carbon (OC) aerosols that scatter sunlight to cool climate. The net forcing depends strongly on the composition, mixing state and transformations of these carbonaceous aerosols. Complexities from large variability of fuel types, combustion conditions and aging processes have confounded their treatment in models. We analyse recent laboratory and field measurements to uncover fundamental mechanism that control the chemical, optical and microphysical properties of carbonaceous aerosols that are elaborated below: Wavelength dependence of absorption and the single scattering albedo (ω) of fresh biomass burning aerosols produced from many fuels during FLAME-4 was analysed to determine the factors that control the variability in ω. Results show that ω varies strongly with fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCEFI)—higher MCEFI results in lower ω values and greater spectral dependence of ω (Liu et al GRL 2014). A parameterization of ω as a function of MCEFI for fresh BB aerosols is derived from the laboratory data and is evaluated by field data, including BBOP. Our laboratory studies also demonstrate that BrC production correlates with BC indicating that that they are produced by a common mechanism that is driven by MCEFI (Saleh et al NGeo 2014). We show that BrC absorption is concentrated in the extremely low volatility component that favours long-range transport. We observe substantial absorption enhancement for internally mixed BC from diesel and wood combustion near London during ClearFlo. While the absorption enhancement is due to BC particles coated by co-emitted OC in urban regions, it increases with photochemical age in rural areas and is simulated by core-shell models. We measure BrC absorption that is concentrated in the extremely low volatility components and attribute it to wood burning. Our results support

  17. Laboratory Validation and Field Assessment of Petroleum Laboratory Technicians' Dermal Exposure to Crude Oil Using a Wipe Sampling Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Karen S; Mueller, Will; Arfaj, Ayman M; Llamas, Jose L; Buick, Jennifer; Todd, David; McGonagle, Carolyn

    2018-05-21

    Crude oil may cause adverse dermal effects therefore dermal exposure is an exposure route of concern. Galea et al. (2014b) reported on a study comparing recovery (wipe) and interception (cotton glove) dermal sampling methods. The authors concluded that both methods were suitable for assessing dermal exposure to oil-based drilling fluids and crude oil but that glove samplers may overestimate the amount of fluid transferred to the skin. We describe a study which aimed to further evaluate the wipe sampling method to assess dermal exposure to crude oil, with this assessment including extended sample storage periods and sampling efficiency tests being undertaken at environmental conditions to mimic those typical of outdoor conditions in Saudi Arabia. The wipe sampling method was then used to assess the laboratory technicians' actual exposure to crude oil during typical petroleum laboratory tasks. Overall, acceptable storage efficiencies up to 54 days were reported with results suggesting storage stability over time. Sampling efficiencies were also reported to be satisfactory at both ambient and elevated temperature and relative humidity environmental conditions for surrogate skin spiked with known masses of crude oil and left up to 4 h prior to wiping, though there was an indication of reduced sampling efficiency over time. Nineteen petroleum laboratory technicians provided a total of 35 pre- and 35 post-activity paired hand wipe samples. Ninety-three percent of the pre-exposure paired hand wipes were less than the analytical limit of detection (LOD), whereas 46% of the post-activity paired hand wipes were less than the LOD. The geometric mean paired post-activity wipe sample measurement was 3.09 µg cm-2 (range 1.76-35.4 µg cm-2). It was considered that dermal exposure most frequently occurred through direct contact with the crude oil (emission) or via deposition. The findings of this study suggest that the wipe sampling method is satisfactory in quantifying

  18. Using biodynamic models to reconcile differences between laboratory toxicity tests and field biomonitoring with aquatic insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwalter, D.B.; Cain, D.J.; Clements, W.H.; Luoma, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    Aquatic insects often dominate lotic ecosystems, yet these organisms are under-represented in trace metal toxicity databases. Furthermore, toxicity data for aquatic insects do not appear to reflect their actual sensitivities to metals in nature, because the concentrations required to elicit toxicity in the laboratory are considerably higher than those found to impact insect communities in the field. New approaches are therefore needed to better understand how and why insects are differentially susceptible to metal exposures. Biodynamic modeling is a powerful tool for understanding interspecific differences in trace metal bioaccumulation. Because bioaccumulation alone does not necessarily correlate with toxicity, we combined biokinetic parameters associated with dissolved cadmium exposures with studies of the subcellular compartmentalization of accumulated Cd. This combination of physiological traits allowed us to make predictions of susceptibility differences to dissolved Cd in three aquatic insect taxa: Ephemerella excrucians, Rhithrogena morrisoni, and Rhyacophila sp. We compared these predictions with long-term field monitoring data and toxicity tests with closely related taxa: Ephemerella infrequens, Rhithrogena hageni, and Rhyacophila brunea. Kinetic parameters allowed us to estimate steady-state concentrations, the time required to reach steady state, and the concentrations of Cd projected to be in potentially toxic compartments for different species. Species-specific physiological traits identified using biodynamic models provided a means for better understanding why toxicity assays with insects have failed to provide meaningful estimates for metal concentrations that would be expected to be protective in nature. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  19. Joint use of laboratory bioassays and field-collected invertebrates to evaluate toxicity and contaminant bioaccumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.P.; Byron, E.R.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Soil toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were conducted using soil samples collected as part of ecological risk assessments for several sites at two facilities in California. At some sites, earthworms or other terrestrial invertebrates were collected in the field for chemical analysis. Ecological concerns focused on exposures to soil invertebrates and their secondary consumers, such as birds and small mammals. The toxicity tests were used to assess potential exposures to a variety of site-specific contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PAHs, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other inorganic substances. Site soils were combined with clean control soils to produce toxicity test soil dilutions containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% site soils. Earthworm mortality and other observations were made at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Toxicity test results were combined with soil chemical analytical results and physical characteristics to establish NOAELs and LOAELs. Bioaccumulation in the laboratory earthworms and field-collected invertebrates was evaluated by comparing whole-body contaminant to soil contaminant concentrations. Allometric equations and sublethal toxicity data were used to predict potential effects on birds and small mammals. Earthworm toxicity tests indicated a wide range of sensitivity to on-site contaminants and showed the importance of considering potential confounding influences due to soil parameters other than contaminant concentration

  20. Laboratory and field evaluation of an oviposition trap for Culex quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela MR Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An ovitrap (BR-OVT based on physical and chemical stimuli for attracting gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae females was developed and evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Attractants were assayed using alternative chamber bioassays prior to being used in the BR-OVT oviposition trap. A significant preference of gravid females for sites containing conspecific egg rafts was observed, as a response to the natural oviposition pheromone, as well as for sites treated with the synthetic pheromone erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. Five- to 20-day old grass infusion was strongly attractive to gravid females for laying eggs. On the other hand, entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus (Bs did not influence the choice of an oviposition site when used in combination with grass infusion and can therefore be used as a larvicide in ovitraps. Results from field trials showed that the BR-OVT with grass infusion and with or without Bs works as a preferred oviposition site for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The BR-OVT was more effective for egg collection when placed indoors and comparison with the number of egg rafts laid in cesspits over 40 days indicates that this very simple ovitrap may be a useful tool for monitoring populations of the most important of the vectors of bancroftian filariasis.

  1. Rocketdyne Division annual site environmental report Santa Susana Field Laboratory and Desoto sites 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-30

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation (Rocketdyne). These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the DeSoto site. The sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The DeSoto site essentially comprises office space and light industry with no remaining radiological operations, and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2,668 acres), warrants comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. SSFL consists of four administrative areas used for research, development, and test operations as well as a buffer zone. A portion of Area I and all of Area II are owned by the U.S. Government and assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A portion of Area IV is under option for purchase by the Department of Energy (DOE).

  2. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the ARBI team validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. In addition to completing validation activities, this project looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. Based on these datasets, we conclude that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws. This has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  3. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the Building America research team ARBI validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. This project also looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. The team concluded that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws, which has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  4. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground coal gasification data base. [US DOE-supported field tests; data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cena, R. J.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1981-08-21

    The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of field projects to determine the feasibility of converting the nation's vast coal reserves into a clean efficient energy source via underground coal gasification (UCG). Due to these tests, a significant data base of process information has developed covering a range of coal seams (flat subbituminous, deep flat bituminous and steeply dipping subbituminous) and processing techniques. A summary of all DOE-sponsored tests to data is shown. The development of UCG on a commercial scale requires involvement from both the public and private sectors. However, without detailed process information, accurate assessments of the commercial viability of UCG cannot be determined. To help overcome this problem the DOE has directed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a UCG data base containing raw and reduced process data from all DOE-sponsored field tests. It is our intent to make the data base available upon request to interested parties, to help them assess the true potential of UCG.

  5. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Biodegradable Polyesters for Sustained Release of Isometamidium and Ethidium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Geerts

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview is presented of the results obtained with biodegradable sustained release devices (SRDs containing a mixture of polymers and either isometamidium (ISMM or ethidium. Under controlled laboratory conditions (monthly challenge with tsetse flies infected with Trypanosoma congolense the protection period in SRD treated cattle could be extended by a factor 2.8 (for ethidium up to 4.2 (for ISMM as compared to animals treated intramuscularly with the same drugs. Using a competitive drug ELISA ISMM concentrations were detected up to 330 days after the implantation of the SRDs, whereas after i.m. injection the drug was no longer present three to four months post treatment. Two field trials carried out in Mali under heavy tsetse challenge showed that the cumulative infection rate was significantly lower in the ISMM-SRD implanted cattle than in those which received ISMM intramuscularly. Using ethidium SRD, however, contradictory results were obtained in field trials in Zambia and in Mali. The potential advantages and inconvenients of the use of SRDs are discussed and suggestions are made in order to further improve the currently available devices.

  6. Rocketdyne Division annual site environmental report Santa Susana Field Laboratory and Desoto sites 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation (Rocketdyne). These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and the DeSoto site. The sites have been used for manufacturing, R ampersand D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The DeSoto site essentially comprises office space and light industry with no remaining radiological operations, and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2,668 acres), warrants comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. SSFL consists of four administrative areas used for research, development, and test operations as well as a buffer zone. A portion of Area I and all of Area II are owned by the U.S. Government and assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A portion of Area IV is under option for purchase by the Department of Energy (DOE)

  7. Laboratory evaluation and field application of a water swellable polymer for fracture shutoff in injection wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creel, Prentice [Kinder Morgan, Houston, TX (United States); Vasquez, Julio; Eoff, Larry [Halliburton, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the laboratory evaluation and field application of a water swelling polymer (WSP) that can be bullheaded to shut off fractures in injection wells. The WSP is capable of absorbing 30 to 400 times its own weight in water. The material was evaluated for its effectiveness in providing controllable swelling rates, shutting off the flow of water in synthetic cores with simulated fractures, and providing long-term stability in H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} environments. In addition, this paper presents the field implementation of this technology along with successful case histories in west Texas. The water swellable material is mixed on the fly, entering fissures and fracture systems as they swell without invading the matrix of the rock. The rate of absorption can be controlled based on the specified particle size ranging from 600-mesh size up to 14 mm and the type of carrier fluid. This WSP presents an innovative technology for fracture, fissure, and highly eroded out permeability shutoff to improve the sweep efficiency of water and gas injection. In addition, the WSP is resistant to acid contamination and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S environments. To date, more than 200 jobs have been performed with this technology. (author)

  8. Laboratory colonization stabilizes the naturally dynamic microbiome composition of field collected Dermacentor andersoni ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Cory A; Scoles, Glen A; Magori, Krisztian; Mason, Kathleen L; Brayton, Kelly A

    2017-10-04

    Nearly a quarter of emerging infectious diseases identified in the last century are arthropod-borne. Although ticks and insects can carry pathogenic microorganisms, non-pathogenic microbes make up the majority of their microbial communities. The majority of tick microbiome research has had a focus on discovery and description; very few studies have analyzed the ecological context and functional responses of the bacterial microbiome of ticks. The goal of this analysis was to characterize the stability of the bacterial microbiome of Dermacentor andersoni ticks between generations and two populations within a species. The bacterial microbiome of D. andersoni midguts and salivary glands was analyzed from populations collected at two different ecologically distinct sites by comparing field (F1) and lab-reared populations (F1-F3) over three generations. The microbiome composition of pooled and individual samples was analyzed by sequencing nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene amplicons using a Pacific Biosciences CCS platform that allows identification of bacteria to the species level. In this study, we found that the D. andersoni microbiome was distinct in different geographic populations and was tissue specific, differing between the midgut and the salivary gland, over multiple generations. Additionally, our study showed that the microbiomes of laboratory-reared populations were not necessarily representative of their respective field populations. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the microbiome of a few individual ticks does not represent the microbiome composition at the population level. We demonstrated that the bacterial microbiome of D. andersoni was complex over three generations and specific to tick tissue (midgut vs. salivary glands) as well as geographic location (Burns, Oregon vs. Lake Como, Montana vs. laboratory setting). These results provide evidence that habitat of the tick population is a vital component of the complexity of the bacterial microbiome of ticks

  9. Mars Infrared Spectroscopy: From Theory and the Laboratory To Field Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Laurel (Editor); Mustard, John (Editor); McAfee, John (Editor); Hapke, Bruce (Editor); Ramsey, Michael (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The continuity and timely implementation of the Mars exploration strategy relies heavily on the ability of the planetary community to interpret infrared spectral data. However, the increasing mission rate, data volume, and data variety, combined with the small number of spectroscopists within the planetary community, will require a coordinated community effort for effective and timely interpretation of the newly acquired and planned data sets. Relevant spectroscopic instruments include the 1996 TES, 2001 THEMIS, 2003 Pancam, 2003 Mini-TES, 2003 Mars Express OMEGA, 2003 Mars Express PFS, and 2005 CFUSM. In light of that, leaders of the Mars spectral community met June 4-6 to address the question: What terrestrial theoretical, laboratory, and field studies are most needed to best support timely interpretations of current and planned visible infrared spectrometer data sets, in light of the Mars Program goals? A primary goal of the spectral community is to provide a reservoir of information to enhance and expand the exploration of Mars. Spectroscopy has a long history of providing the fundamental compositional discoveries in the solar system, from atmospheric constituents to surface mineralogy, from earth-based to spacecraft-based observations. However, such spectroscopic compositional discoveries, especially surface mineralogies, have usually come after long periods of detailed integration of remote observations, laboratory analyses, and field measurements. Spectroscopic information of surfaces is particularly complex and often is confounded by interference of broad, overlapping absorption features as well as confusing issues of mixtures, coatings, and grain size effects. Thus some spectroscopic compositional discoveries have come only after many years of research. However, we are entering an era of Mars exploration with missions carrying sophisticated spectrometers launching about every 2 years. It is critical that each mission provide answers to relevant questions

  10. Electric conductivity for laboratory and field monitoring of induced partial saturation (IPS) in sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemiroodsari, Hadi

    implemented in the prepared specimen to validate the numerical simulation model and explore the use of conductivity probes to detect the transport of chemical solution, estimate degree of saturation achieved due to injection of chemical solution, and evaluate final zone of partial saturation. The conductivity probe and the simulation results agreed well. To study the effect of IPS on liquefaction response of the sand specimen, IPS was implemented in a large (2-story high) sand specimen prepared in the laminar box of NEES Buffalo and then the specimen was subjected to harmonic shaking. Electric conductivity probes were used in the specimen treatment by controlling the duration and spacing of injection of the chemical solution, in monitoring the transport of chemical solution, in the estimation of zone of partial saturation achieved, and in the estimation of degree of saturation achieved due to implementation of IPS. The conductivity probes indicated partial saturation of the specimen. The shaking tests results confirmed the partial saturation state of the sand specimen. In addition, to the laboratory works, electric conductivity probes were used in field implementation of IPS in a pilot test at the Wildlife Liquefaction Array (WLA) of NEES UCSB site. The conductivity probes in the field test helped decide the optimum injection pressure, the injection tube spacing, and the degree of saturation that could be achieved in the field. The various laboratory and field tests confirmed that electric conductivity and the probes devised and used can be invaluable in the implementation of IPS, by providing information regarding transport of the chemical solution, the spacing of injection tubes, duration of injection, and the zone and degree of partial saturation caused by IPS.

  11. Comparative sensitivity of field and laboratory populations of Hyalella azteca to the pyrethroid insecticides bifenthrin and cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stephen L; Ogle, R Scott; Gantner, Andrew; Hall, Lenwood W; Mitchell, Gary; Giddings, Jeffrey; McCoole, Matthew; Dobbs, Michael; Henry, Kevin; Valenti, Ted

    2015-10-01

    Hyalella azteca are epibenthic invertebrates that are widely used for toxicity studies. They are reported to be more sensitive to pyrethroid insecticides than most other test species, which has prompted considerable use of this species in toxicity testing of ambient surface waters where the presence of pyrethroids is suspected. However, resident H. azteca have been found in some ambient water bodies reported to contain surface water and/or sediment pyrethroid concentrations that are toxic to laboratory reared H. azteca. This observation suggests differences in the sensitivities of laboratory reared and field populations of H. azteca to pyrethroids. The goal of the present study was to determine the sensitivities of laboratory reared and field populations of H. azteca to the pyrethroids bifenthrin and cypermethrin. Specimens of H. azteca were collected from resident populations at field sites that are subject to varied land-use activities as well as from laboratory populations. These organisms were exposed to bifenthrin- or cypermethrin-spiked water in 96-h water-only toxicity tests. The resulting data demonstrated that: 1) field-collected populations in urban and agricultural settings can be >2 orders of magnitude less sensitive to the pyrethroids than laboratory reared organisms; 2) field-collected organisms varied in their sensitivity (possibly based on land-use activities), with organisms collected from undeveloped sites exhibiting sensitivities similar to laboratory reared organisms; and 3) the sensitivity of field-collected "tolerant" organisms increased in subsequent generations reared under laboratory conditions. Potential mechanisms for these differences are discussed. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. Laboratory and field measurements of enantiomeric monoterpene emissions as a function of chemotype, light and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Staudt, M.; Bourgeois, I.; Williams, J.

    2014-03-01

    Plants emit significant amounts of monoterpenes into the earth's atmosphere, where they react rapidly to form a multitude of gas phase species and particles. Many monoterpenes exist in mirror-image forms or enantiomers. In this study the enantiomeric monoterpene profile for several representative plants (Quercus ilex L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Pinus halepensis Mill.) was investigated as a function of chemotype, light and temperature both in the laboratory and in the field. Analysis of enantiomeric monoterpenes from 19 Quercus ilex individuals from Southern France and Spain revealed four regiospecific chemotypes (genetically fixed emission patterns). In agreement with previous work, only Quercus ilex emissions increased strongly with light. However, for all three plant species no consistent enantiomeric variation was observed as a function of light, and the enantiomeric ratio of α-pinene was found to vary by less than 20% from 100 and 1000 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR (photosynthetically active radiation). The rate of monoterpene emission increased with temperature from all three plant species, but little variation in the enantiomeric distribution of α-pinene was observed with temperature. There was more enantiomeric variability between individuals of the same species than could be induced by either light or temperature. Field measurements of α-pinene enantiomer mixing ratios in the air, taken at a Quercus ilex forest in Southern France, and several other previously reported field enantiomeric ratio diel cycle profiles are compared. All show smoothly varying diel cycles (some positive and some negative) even over changing wind directions. This is surprising in comparison with variations of enantiomeric emission patterns shown by individuals of the same species.

  13. A laboratory 8 keV transmission full-field x-ray microscope with a polycapillary as condenser for bright and dark field imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumbach, S., E-mail: baumbach@rheinahrcampus.de; Wilhein, T. [Institute for X-Optics, University of Applied Sciences Koblenz, RheinAhrCampus Remagen, Joseph-Rovan-Allee 2, D-53424 Remagen (Germany); Kanngießer, B.; Malzer, W. [Institute for Optics and Atomic Physics, Technical University of Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Stiel, H. [Max-Born-Institute, Max-Born-Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    This article introduces a laboratory setup of a transmission full-field x-ray microscope at 8 keV photon energy. The microscope operates in bright and dark field imaging mode with a maximum field of view of 50 μm. Since the illumination geometry determines whether the sample is illuminated homogeneously and moreover, if different imaging methods can be applied, the condenser optic is one of the most significant parts. With a new type of x-ray condenser, a polycapillary optic, we realized bright field imaging and for the first time dark field imaging at 8 keV photon energy in a laboratory setup. A detector limited spatial resolution of 210 nm is measured on x-ray images of Siemens star test patterns.

  14. Laboratory- and Field-Based Assessment of Maximal Aerobic Power of Elite Stand-Up Paddle-Board Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Ben; Hing, Wayne; Climstein, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Stand-up paddle boarding (SUP) is a rapidly growing sport and recreational activity for which only anecdotal evidence exists on its proposed health, fitness, and injury-rehabilitation benefits. 10 internationally and nationally ranked elite SUP athletes. Participants were assessed for their maximal aerobic power on an ergometer in a laboratory and compared with other water-based athletes. Field-based assessments were subsequently performed using a portable gas-analysis system, and a correlation between the 2 measures was performed. Maximal aerobic power (relative) was significantly higher (P = .037) when measured in the field with a portable gas-analysis system (45.48 ± 6.96 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) than with laboratory-based metabolic-cart measurements (43.20 ± 6.67 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)). There was a strong, positive correlation (r = .907) between laboratory and field maximal aerobic power results. Significantly higher (P = .000) measures of SUP paddling speed were found in the field than with the laboratory ergometer (+42.39%). There were no significant differences in maximal heart rate between the laboratory and field settings (P = .576). The results demonstrate the maximal aerobic power representative of internationally and nationally ranked SUP athletes and show that SUP athletes can be assessed for maximal aerobic power in the laboratory with high correlation to field-based measures. The field-based portable gas-analysis unit has a tendency to consistently measure higher oxygen consumption. Elite SUP athletes display aerobic power outputs similar to those of other upper-limb-dominant elite water-based athletes (surfing, dragon-boat racing, and canoeing).

  15. Mozambique field epidemiology and laboratory training program: a pathway for strengthening human resources in applied epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, Cynthia Semá; Taibo, Cátia; Sacarlal, Jahit; Gujral, Lorna; Salomão, Cristolde; Doyle, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, Mozambique has been undergoing demographic, epidemiological, economic and social transitions, which have all had a notable impact on the National Health System. New challenges have emerged, causing a need to expand the preparation and response to emerging disease threats and public health emergencies. We describe the structure and function of the Mozambique Field Epidemiology Training Program (MZ-FELTP) and the main outputs achieved during the first 6 years of program implementation (consisting of 3 cohorts). We also outline the contribution of the program to the National Health System and assess the retention of the graduates. The MZ-FELTP is a post-graduate in-service training program, based on the acquisition of skills, within two tracks: applied epidemiology and laboratory management. The program was established in 2010, with the objective of strengthening capacity in applied epidemiology and laboratory management, so that events of public health importance can be detected and investigated in a timely and effective manner. The program is in its seventh year, having successfully trained 36 health professionals in the advanced course. During the first six years of the program, more than 40 outbreaks were investigated, 37 surveillance system evaluations were conducted and 39 descriptive data analyses were performed. Surveillance activities were implemented for mass events and emergency situations. In addition, more than 100 oral and poster presentations were given by trainees at national and international conferences. The MZ-FELTP has helped provide the Ministry of Health with the human and technical resources and operational capacity, to rapidly and effectively respond to major public health challenges in the country. The continuous involvement of key stakeholders is necessary for the continuation, expansion and ongoing sustainability of the program.

  16. Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Static and Variable Magnetic Fields on Freshwater Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Riemer, Kristina P [ORNL; Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    benthic invertebrates (Gill et al. 2005, 2009). It is known that numerous marine and freshwater organisms are sensitive to electrical and magnetic fields, often depending on them for such diverse activities as prey location and navigation (DOE 2009; Normandeau et al. 2011). Despite the wide range of aquatic organisms that are sensitive to EMF and the increasing numbers of underwater electrical transmitting cables being installed in rivers and coastal waters, little information is available to assess whether animals will be attracted, repelled, or unaffected by these new sources of EMF. This knowledge gap is especially significant for freshwater systems, where electrosensitive organisms such as paddlefish and sturgeon may interact with electrical transmission cables. We carried out a series of laboratory experiments to test the sensitivity of freshwater fish and invertebrates to the levels of EMF that are expected to be produced by HK projects in rivers. In this context, EM fields are likely to be emitted primarily by generators in the water column and by transmission cables on or buried in the substrate. The HK units will be located in areas of high-velocity waters that are used as only temporary habitats for most riverine species, so long-term exposure of fish and benthic invertebrates to EMF is unlikely. Rather, most aquatic organisms will be briefly exposed to the fields as they drift downstream or migrate upstream. Because the exposure of most aquatic organisms to EMF in a river would be relatively brief and non-lethal, we focused our investigations on detecting behavioral effects. For example, attraction to the EM fields could result in prolonged exposures to the fields or the HK rotor. On the other hand, avoidance reactions might hinder upstream migrations of fish. The experiments reported here are a continuation of studies begun in FY 2010, which focused on the potential effects of static magnetic fields on snails, clams, and fathead minnows (Cada et al. 2011

  17. Advancing internal erosion monitoring using seismic methods in field and laboratory studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Minal L.

    This dissertation presents research involving laboratory and field investigation of passive and active methods for monitoring and assessing earthen embankment infrastructure such as dams and levees. Internal erosion occurs as soil particles in an earthen structure migrate to an exit point under seepage forces. This process is a primary failure mode for dams and levees. Current dam and levee monitoring practices are not able to identify early stages of internal erosion, and often the result is loss of structure utility and costly repairs. This research contributes to innovations for detection and monitoring by studying internal erosion and monitoring through field experiments, laboratory experiments, and social and political framing. The field research in this dissertation included two studies (2009 and 2012) of a full-scale earthen embankment at the IJkdijk in the Netherlands. In both of these tests, internal erosion occurred as evidenced by seepage followed by sand traces and boils, and in 2009, eventual failure. With the benefit of arrays of closely spaced piezometers, pore pressure trends indicated internal erosion near the initiation time. Temporally and spatially dense pore water pressure measurements detected two pore water pressure transitions characteristic to the development of internal erosion, even in piezometers located away from the backward erosion activity. At the first transition, the backward erosion caused anomalous pressure decrease in piezometers, even under constant or increasing upstream water level. At the second transition, measurements stabilized as backward erosion extended further upstream of the piezometers, as shown in the 2009 test. The transitions provide an indication of the temporal development and the spatial extent of backward erosion. The 2012 IJkdijk test also included passive acoustic emissions (AE) monitoring. This study analyzed AE activity over the course of the 7-day test using a grid of geophones installed on the

  18. Mixed Redox Catalytic Destruction of Chlorinated Solvents in Soils and Groundwater: From the Laboratory to the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Song; Rupp, Erik; Bell, Suzanne; Willinger, Martin; Foley, Theresa; Barbaris, Brian; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Arnold, Robert G.; Betterton, Eric

    2008-01-01

    A new thermocatalytic method to destroy chlorinated solvents has been developed in the laboratory and tested in a pilot field study. The method employs a conventional Pt/Rh catalyst on a ceramic honeycomb. Reactions proceed at moderate temperatures in the simultaneous presence of oxygen and a reductant (mixed redox conditions) to minimize catalyst deactivation. In the laboratory, stable operation with high conversions (above 90% at residence times shorter than 1 s) for perchloroethylene (PCE)...

  19. Utilizing an Artificial Outcrop to Scaffold Learning Between Laboratory and Field Experiences in a College-Level Introductory Geology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Meredith

    Geologic field trips are among the most beneficial learning experiences for students as they engage the topic of geology, but they are also difficult environments to maximize learning. This action research study explored one facet of the problems associated with teaching geology in the field by attempting to improve the transition of undergraduate students from a traditional laboratory setting to an authentic field environment. Utilizing an artificial outcrop, called the GeoScene, during an introductory college-level non-majors geology course, the transition was studied. The GeoScene was utilized in this study as an intermediary between laboratory and authentic field based experiences, allowing students to apply traditional laboratory learning in an outdoor environment. The GeoScene represented a faux field environment; outside, more complex and tangible than a laboratory, but also simplified geologically and located safely within the confines of an educational setting. This exploratory study employed a mixed-methods action research design. The action research design allowed for systematic inquiry by the teacher/researcher into how the students learned. The mixed-methods approach garnered several types of qualitative and quantitative data to explore phenomena and support conclusions. Several types of data were collected and analyzed, including: visual recordings of the intervention, interviews, analytic memos, student reflections, field practical exams, and a pre/post knowledge and skills survey, to determine whether the intervention affected student comprehension and interpretation of geologic phenomena in an authentic field environment, and if so, how. Students enrolled in two different sections of the same laboratory course, sharing a common lecture, participated in laboratory exercises implementing experiential learning and constructivist pedagogies that focused on learning the basic geological skills necessary for work in a field environment. These laboratory

  20. Investigation on seasonal variation of thermal-induced strain in flexible pavements based on field and laboratory measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simita Biswas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pavement temperature variation has a large influence on the structural response of flexible pavements. Daily and seasonal temperature fluctuation causes expansion and contraction of pavement material, which then leads to the generation of thermal strain. In this study, field observation and laboratory tests were conducted to investigate seasonal variation of thermal-induced strain in flexible pavement. Field observations were conducted at the Integrated Road Research Facility (IRRF’s test road in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, which is fully equipped with structural and environmental monitoring instruments. The main objective of the field study was to compare the variation of thermal-induced strain in warm and cold seasons. Field results indicated that thermal-induced strain is 1.4–2.0 times greater in cold seasons than in warm seasons following the same pavement temperature variations; however, strain generation rate was greater in warm seasons. Laboratory testing of asphalt slab and cylindrical samples produced comparable ratios. Moreover, field observation and laboratory testing showed a similar trend of temperature and thermal strain variations. Keywords: Thermal-induced strain, Asphalt strain gauge, Field observation, Flexible pavement, Laboratory testing, Seasonal variation

  1. Field and laboratory arsenic speciation methods and their application to natural-water analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Ranville, J.F.; Wildeman, T.R.

    2004-01-01

    The toxic and carcinogenic properties of inorganic and organic arsenic species make their determination in natural water vitally important. Determination of individual inorganic and organic arsenic species is critical because the toxicology, mobility, and adsorptivity vary substantially. Several methods for the speciation of arsenic in groundwater, surface-water, and acid mine drainage sample matrices using field and laboratory techniques are presented. The methods provide quantitative determination of arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonate (MMA), dimethylarsinate (DMA), and roxarsone in 2-8min at detection limits of less than 1??g arsenic per liter (??g AsL-1). All the methods use anion exchange chromatography to separate the arsenic species and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as an arsenic-specific detector. Different methods were needed because some sample matrices did not have all arsenic species present or were incompatible with particular high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) mobile phases. The bias and variability of the methods were evaluated using total arsenic, As(III), As(V), DMA, and MMA results from more than 100 surface-water, groundwater, and acid mine drainage samples, and reference materials. Concentrations in test samples were as much as 13,000??g AsL-1 for As(III) and 3700??g AsL-1 for As(V). Methylated arsenic species were less than 100??g AsL-1 and were found only in certain surface-water samples, and roxarsone was not detected in any of the water samples tested. The distribution of inorganic arsenic species in the test samples ranged from 0% to 90% As(III). Laboratory-speciation method variability for As(III), As(V), MMA, and DMA in reagent water at 0.5??g AsL-1 was 8-13% (n=7). Field-speciation method variability for As(III) and As(V) at 1??g AsL-1 in reagent water was 3-4% (n=3). ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Applicability of sorption data determined by laboratory experiments for evaluation of strontium-85 mobility in subsurface field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tadao; Mukai, Masayuki

    2003-01-01

    Applicability of laboratory measurements to radionuclide transport in a natural environment was studied using the data from the field tests. The K d values obtained in the laboratory experiments were input into the instantaneous equilibrium sorption model, which simulates the migration of 85 Sr in the unsaturated loess. This simulation managed to reproduce results of the aforementioned field tests. To evaluate more accurately migration behavior of 85 Sr, based on the sorption data obtained by the laboratory experiments, the hybrid sorption model consisting of the equilibrium sorption process and the kinetic sorption process was proposed. When compared with predictions using the K d -based equilibrium sorption model, the results of the field migration tests of 85 Sr were more successfully reproduced by introducing the hybrid sorption model. (author)

  3. Exploring diffusion and sorption processes at the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland): lessons learned from 20 years of field research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leupin, O.X. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Van Loon, L.R. [Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Gimmi, T. [Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Berne, Berne (Switzerland); Gimmi, T. [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2017-04-15

    Transport and retardation parameters of radionuclides, which are needed to perform a safety analysis for a deep geological repository for radioactive waste in a compacted claystone such as Opalinus Clay, must be based on a detailed understanding of the mobility of nuclides at different spatial scales (laboratory, field, geological unit). Thanks to steadily improving experimental designs, similar tracer compositions in different experiments and complementary small laboratory-scale diffusion tests, a unique and large database could be compiled. This paper presents the main findings of 20 years of diffusion and retention experiments at the Mont Terri rock laboratory and their impact on safety analysis. (authors)

  4. A focused ethnographic study of Sri Lankan government field veterinarians' decision making about diagnostic laboratory submissions and perceptions of surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sawford

    Full Text Available The global public health community is facing the challenge of emerging infectious diseases. Historically, the majority of these diseases have arisen from animal populations at lower latitudes where many nations experience marked resource constraints. In order to minimize the impact of future events, surveillance of animal populations will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Many surveillance systems targeting animals rely on veterinarians to submit cases to a diagnostic laboratory or input clinical case data. Therefore understanding veterinarians' decision-making process that guides laboratory case submission and their perceptions of infectious disease surveillance is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance initiatives. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with twelve field veterinary surgeons that participated in a mobile phone-based surveillance pilot project in Sri Lanka. Each participant agreed to an individual in-depth interview that was recorded and later transcribed to enable thematic analysis of the interview content. Results found that field veterinarians in Sri Lanka infrequently submit cases to laboratories--so infrequently that common case selection principles could not be described. Field veterinarians in Sri Lanka have a diagnostic process that operates independently of laboratories. Participants indicated a willingness to take part in surveillance initiatives, though they highlighted a need for incentives that satisfy a range of motivations that vary among field veterinarians. This study has implications for the future of animal health surveillance, including interpretation of disease patterns reported, system design and implementation, and engagement of data providers.

  5. Correlation of pre-earthquake electromagnetic signals with laboratory and field rock experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bleier

    2010-09-01

    laboratory, field experiments with a boulder, and earthquake events, striking similarities were noted in magnetic pulsations and air conductivity changes, as well as IR signals (where instrumented. More earthquake samples, taken with the appropriate detectors and within 10–15 km proximity to large (>M5 earthquakes, are still needed to provide more evidence to understand the variability between earthquakes and various electromagnetic signals detected prior to large earthquakes.

  6. A laboratory and field evaluation of the mobility of cobalt-60/EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.L.; Gee, G.W.; Kirkham, R.R.; Swanson, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    We have observed a time and soil type dependence in the ability of the organic complexant EDTA to keep cobalt-60 in solution. Test results indicate that short-term adsorption tests lasting 5 days or less can be misleading. In short-term tests using cobalt-60/EDTA and soil from the Hanford site, low sorption in batch tests and high mobility in column tests were observed. During long-term batch test using cobalt-60/EDTA, the percentage of cobalt remaining in solution decreased from 90% after 7 days to less than 10% after 500 days. In laboratory and field column tests where low water flow rates allowed long contact time, virtually no cobalt movement was observed even though in the field test tritium was transported over 4 meters. Long-term batch tests using cobalt-60/EDTA and soil from Savannah River burial grounds showed that cobalt remainin in solution dropped to 30% of the total cobalt added after 5 days and to less than 1% after 15 days. Batch tests using soil from Oak Ridge burial grounds were less dramatic showing cobalt in solution decreasing from 90% after 5 days to 70% after 35 days. The cobalt-60/EDTA complex appears to be dissociating and leaving uncomplexed cobalt which is readily sorbed. The dissociation seems to be rather complete in Hanford and Savannah River soil but limited in the Oak Ridge soil. The implication to waste management is that the potential for transport of cobalt by EDTA may not be as serious at all burial sites as once thought

  7. Pollutants and fish predator/prey behavior: A review of laboratory and field approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S. WEIS, Allison CANDELMO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish behavior can be altered by contaminants. There is an extensive literature on laboratory behavioral assays, with many chemicals impairing feeding or predator avoidance. However, there is not extensive work on fishes that live in contaminated environments. Therefore, we then review our recent research on feeding and trophic relations of populations from contaminated estuaries compared with relatively unpolluted sites. The mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus, is a non-migratory fish; those from more contaminated areas are poor predators and slower to capture active prey (grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. In the field, they consume much detritus and sediment, which is not nutritious. They are less active than fish from cleaner sites and more vulnerable to predation. They have altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels, which may underlie altered behaviors. Fish from the reference site kept in tanks with sediment and food from the polluted site showed bioaccumulation and reduced prey capture after two months, although fish from the polluted site did not show significant improvement when maintained in a clean environment. Poor nutrition and predator avoidance may be responsible for their being smaller and having a shorter life span than reference fish. Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, are a marine species in which the young-of-the-year spend their first summer in estuaries. We found bioaccumulation of contaminants and reduced activity, schooling, and feeding in young-of-the-year bluefish from a relatively unpolluted site that were fed prey fish from a contaminated site. They also had altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels. Many field-caught specimens had empty stomachs, which is rare in this species. In the fall, when they migrate back out to the ocean, they are smaller, slower, and more likely to starve or to be eaten than those that spent their summer in cleaner estuaries [Current Zoology 58 (1: 9-20, 2012].

  8. Implementing the Mars Science Laboratory Terminal Descent Sensor Field Test Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, James F.; Bodie, James H.; Brown, Joseph D.; Chen, Allen; Chen, Curtis W.; Essmiller, John C.; Fisher, Charles D.; Goldberg, Hannah R.; Lee, Steven W.; Shaffer, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will deliver a 900 kg rover to the surface of Mars in August 2012. MSL will utilize a new pulse-Doppler landing radar, the Terminal Descent Sensor (TDS). The TDS employs six narrow-beam antennas to provide unprecedented slant range and velocity performance at Mars to enable soft touchdown of the MSL rover using a unique sky crane Entry, De-scent, and Landing (EDL) technique. Prior to use on MSL, the TDS was put through a rigorous verification and validation (V&V) process. A key element of this V&V was operating the TDS over a series of field tests, using flight-like profiles expected during the descent and landing of MSL over Mars-like terrain on Earth. Limits of TDS performance were characterized with additional testing meant to stress operational modes outside of the expected EDL flight profiles. The flight envelope over which the TDS must operate on Mars encompasses such a large range of altitudes and velocities that a variety of venues were neces-sary to cover the test space. These venues included an F/A-18 high performance aircraft, a Eurocopter AS350 AStar helicopter and 100-meter tall Echo Towers at the China Lake Naval Air Warfare Center. Testing was carried out over a five year period from July 2006 to June 2011. TDS performance was shown, in gen-eral, to be excellent over all venues. This paper describes the planning, design, and implementation of the field test campaign plus results and lessons learned.

  9. Genetic variation in laboratory and field populations of the vector of bluetongue virus, Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, W J

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory colonies and several natural populations of the biting midge Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) were analyzed for genetic variation at 21 electrophoretic loci. The laboratory colonies maintained high levels of genetic variation measured by average expected heterozygosities (He = 0.142 +/- 0.008), although levels were lower than those observed in field collections (He = 0.198 +/- 0.009). A field population from Colorado, analyzed five times over a 1-yr period, showed a consistent trend in the change in gene frequencies at two loci. Genetic comparisons between natural populations were consistent with the existence of two subspecies. C. variipennis variipennis and C. variipennis sonorensis Wirth & Jones.

  10. Arsenic removal with composite iron matrix filters in Bangladesh: a field and laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Anke; Kaegi, Ralf; Voegelin, Andreas; Hussam, Abul; Munir, Abul K M; Hug, Stephan J

    2013-05-07

    The main arsenic mitigation measures in Bangladesh, well-switching and deep tube wells, have reduced As exposure, but water treatment is important where As-free water is not available. Zero-valent iron (ZVI) based SONO household filters, developed in Bangladesh, remove As by corrosion of locally available inexpensive surplus iron and sand filtration in two buckets. We investigated As removal in SONO filters in the field and laboratory, covering a range of typical groundwater concentrations (in mg/L) of As (0.14-0.96), Fe (0-17), P (0-4.4), Ca (45-162), and Mn (0-2.8). Depending on influent Fe(II) concentrations, 20-80% As was removed in the top sand layer, but As removal to safe levels occurred in the ZVI-layer of the first bucket. Residual As, Fe, and Mn were removed after re-aeration in the sand of the second bucket. New and over 8-year-old filters removed As to iron matrix (CIM) of newer filters and predominantly magnetite in older filters. As mass balances indicated that users filtered less than reported volumes of water, pointing to the need for more educational efforts. All tested SONO filters provided safe drinking water without replacement for up to over 8 years of use.

  11. Sky Compass Orientation in Desert Locusts-Evidence from Field and Laboratory Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homberg, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Locusts are long-range migratory insects. At high population density, immature animals form marching hopper bands while adults take off and form huge swarms of millions of animals. At low population densities animals are solitarious, but likewise migrate, mostly during the night. Numerous studies aimed at predicting locust infestations showed that migrations both as hopper bands and as adults are largely downwind following seasonal shifts of the tropical convergence zone taking the animals to areas of rainfall. Only a few studies provided evidence for active orientation mechanisms, including the involvement of a sun compass. This scarcity of evidence stands in contrast to recent neurobiological data showing sophisticated neuronal adaptations suited for sky compass navigation. These include a special dorsal eye region with photoreceptors suited to analyze the polarization pattern of the sky and a system of topographically arranged sky compass neurons in the central complex of the brain. Laboratory experiments, moreover, demonstrated polarotaxis in tethered flying animals. The discrepancy of these findings call for more rigorous field studies on active orientation mechanisms in locusts. It remains to be shown how locusts use their internal sky compass during mass migrations and what role it plays to guide solitarious locusts in their natural habitat.

  12. Effects of chemical smokes on flora and fauna under field and laboratory exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, D J; Novak, E W; Lower, W R; Yanders, A; Kapila, S; Wang, R

    1987-06-01

    Various types of obscurant smokes are used routinely in training by the U.S. Army. Because continued routine use of the smokes could be detrimental to the native flora and fauna at training sites, a preliminary biological and chemical field study of fogoil, hexachloroethane, and tank diesel smokes was conducted. Smoke plumes were sampled and chemically analyzed at distances of 15-150 m from the smoke source where Tradescantia clones 4430 and 03 and the native plant Ambrosia dumosa and the native rodent Dipodomys merriami were exposed for 30 min. In addition, Tradescantia clone 4430 was exposed to tank diesel in the laboratory at concentration levels equivalent to exposure at 15 and 50 m. Tradescantia clones were examined for mutagenic effects indicated by micronuclei induction in developing pollen and pink somatic mutations in stamen hairs. Photosynthetic perturbations were measured in Tradescantia and A. dumosa using variable fluorescence induction. Animals were examined for sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations. It was found that all of the smokes tested exerted varying degrees of physiological and mutagenic effects in one or more assay system at one or more exposure distance. The studies reported here indicate that exposed ecological systems, or at least components of these systems, are at a higher risk than are unexposed components (e.g., organisms) for several types of damage attributed to obscurant smoke exposure.

  13. Sky compass orientation in desert locusts – evidence from field and laboratory studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe eHomberg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Locusts are long-range migratory insects. At high population density, immature animals form marching hopper bands while adults take off and form huge swarms of millions of animals. At low population densities animals are solitarious, but likewise migrate, mostly during the night. Numerous studies aimed at predicting locust infestations showed that migrations both as hopper bands and as adults are largely downwind following seasonal shifts of the tropical convergence zone taking the animals to areas of rainfall. Only a few studies provided evidence for active orientation mechanisms, including the involvement of a sun compass. This scarcity of evidence stands in contrast to recent neurobiological data showing sophisticated neuronal adaptations suited for sky compass navigation. These include a special dorsal eye region with photoreceptors suited to analyze the polarization pattern of the sky and a system of topographically arranged sky compass neurons in the central complex of the brain. Laboratory experiments, moreover, demonstrated polarotaxis in tethered flying animals. The discrepancy of these findings call for more rigorous field studies on active orientation mechanisms in locusts. It remains to be shown how locusts use their internal sky compass during mass migrations and what role it plays to guide solitarious locusts in their natural habitat.

  14. Algal assay research in programs for Euthrophic Lake management: laboratory and field studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindmark, G

    1979-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to clarify whether relations between viruses (cyanophages) and their algal hosts can be affected by manipulations in the environment. Is is possible to activate cyanophages and accelerate lysis of blue-green algal populations or to enhance the resistance of blue-green algae to attack from cynaophages. The experiments presented here were performed under laboratory conditions with a well-known algal - canophage system, Plectonema boryanum and cyanophage LPP-1 (attacking strains of Lyngbya, Phormidium and Plectonema). The work was done in close connection with field experiments on natural blue-green algal communities, however, because the nature of the induced blue-green algal collapse in plastic enclosures suggested lysis of the algal cells. The rate of LPP-1 cyanophage replication and lysis of plectonema was studied in relation to: (a) pH alterations by CO/sub 2//air additions, (b) algal host culture age and density, (c) nutrient concentrations and (d) presence of additional algal species.

  15. A new pumping strategy for petroleum product recovery from contaminated hydrogeologic systems: Laboratory and field evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    More than 200,000 gallons of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) leaked from an underground storage tank system and contaminated an area of about 64,000 ft 2 of a soil and ground water system. A pumping strategy for improved drainage and recovery of free oil was developed, tested in a laboratory model aquifer, and implemented (1) the oil recovery rate is carefully controlled to maximize the pumping rate while maintaining continuity between the oil layer in the soil and the recovery well, to avoid isolation of the oil in the subsurface; and (2) the rate of ground water pumping is controlled to maintain the depressed oil/water interface at its prepumped position. This approach prevents further spread of oil into the ground water, prevents reduction in the volume of recoverable oil due to residual retention, and maintains a gradient for oil flow toward the recovery well. In a model aquifer study, nearly 100% of the recoverable volume of ATF was pumped from the system, and about 56,000 gallons of the ATF has been recovered from the field site

  16. Residual indicator bacteria in autosampler tubing: a field and laboratory assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, J M; Hunt, W F; Guest, R M; McCarthy, D T

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination in surface waters has become a worldwide cause for concern. As efforts are made to reduce this contamination, monitoring is integral to documenting and evaluating water quality improvements. Autosamplers are beneficial in such monitoring efforts, as large data sets can be generated with minimized effort. The extent to which autosamplers can be utilized for microbial monitoring is largely unknown due to concerns over contamination. Strict sterilization regimes for components contacting the water being sampled are difficult, and sometimes logistically implausible, when utilizing autosamplers. Field experimentation showed contamination of fecal coliform in autosamplers to be more of a concern than that of Escherichia coli. Further study in a controlled laboratory environment suggested that tubing configuration has a significant effect on residual E. coli concentrations in sampler tubing. The amount of time that passed since the last sample was collected from a given sampler (antecedent dry weather period - DWP) tubing was also a significant factor. At a DWP of 7 days, little to no contamination was found. Thus, simple protocols such as providing positive drainage of tubing between sample events and programming samplers to include rinses will reduce concerns of contamination in autosamplers.

  17. Advances in the measurement of mud flocs within turbulent suspensions in both the laboratory and field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, K.; Tran, D. A.; Dillon, B.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting the size and settling velocity of mud suspensions under the influence of flocculation is crucial for the accurate prediction of mud movement and deposition in sediment transport modeling of environments such as agricultural streams, large coastal rivers, estuaries, river plumes, boundary currents, and turbidity currents. Yet, collecting accurate and high resolution data on mud flocs is difficult. For example, measurement of flocs with camera systems generally provide the best avenue for preserving floc structure and obtaining accurate information about true floc sizes. However, capturing images of flocs in swirling turbulent flows can be difficult and often limited to suspensions where concentrations are low (automated image processing. The combination of these elements allows for high-resolution times series of floc size populations to be measured in turbulent suspensions over a much broader range of suspended sediment concentration than has previously been possible — all without the need to transfer samples to a separate imaging container. We show applications and results from these developments in laboratory experiments and highlight their use in a newly-developed, low-cost, and field-deployable floc camera system.

  18. The structure of turbulent jets, vortices and boundary layer: laboratory and field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekula, E.; Redondo, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this work is research, understand and describe key aspects of the turbulent jets and effects connected with them such as boundary layer interactions on the effect of a 2D geometry. Work is based principally on experiments but there are also some comparisons between experimental and field results. A series of experiments have been performed consisting in detailed turbulent measurements of the 3 velocity components to understand the processes of interaction that lead to mixing and mass transport between boundaries and free shear layers. The turbulent wall jet configuration occurs often in environmental and industrial processes, but here we apply the laboratory experiments as a tool to understand jet/boundary interactions in the environment. We compare the structure of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images of coastal jets and vortices and experimental jets (plumes) images searching for the relationship between these two kinds of jets at very different Reynolds numbers taking advantage of the self-similarity of the processes. In order to investigate the structure of ocean surface detected jets (SAR) and vortices near the coast, we compare wall and boundary effects on the structure of turbulent jets (3D and 2D) which are non-homogeneous, developing multifractal and spectral techniques useful for environmental monitoring in space.

  19. Introduction to clinical pathology: A brief course of laboratory medicine in the field for medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidifar, Navid; Keshtkari, Ali; Dehghani, Mohammadreza; Shokripour, Mansoureh

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Teaching of clinical pathology to medical students has been ignored in many countries such as Iran. We aim to introduce a practical brief course and its proper timing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three groups of medical students from consecutive years of entrance passed a 1.5 working day practical course on the field. Their level of knowledge was assessed by pre- and post-tests. Their idea and satisfaction were gathered by questionnaires. RESULTS: Knowledge of students became significantly higher after the course. Their satisfaction was high. Students in later year of education got significantly higher marks. Most of the students wished such a course should be away from basic sciences period and as near as possible to internship. DISCUSSION: Due to overloaded curriculum of general medicine in Iran, we decided to run a brief practical course of laboratory medicine education for medical students. Although the course was practical, the knowledge of students became higher. Students with more clinical experience and knowledge absorbed more. Being actively involved in the classes lit the enthusiasm of students and made them satisfied with the course. It seemed that the course should be placed in later years of clinical training to get the best uptake and results. PMID:29114552

  20. Carbon Stock in Integrated Field Laboratory Faculty of Agriculture University of Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Sukri Banuwa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the amount of carbon stock and CO2 plant uptake in the Integrated Field Laboratory (IFL Faculty of Agriculture University of Lampung. The research was conducted from April to November 2015. The study was arranged in a completely randomized block design (CRBD, consisting of five land units as treatment with four replications for each treatment. Biomass of woody plants was estimated using allometric equation, biomass of understorey plants was estimated using plant dry weight equation, and organic C content in plants and soils were analyzed using a Walkey and Black method. The results showed that land unit consisting of densely woody plants significantly affects total biomass of woody plants, organic C content in woody plants and total carbon content (above and below ground. The highest amount of woody plant biomass was observed in land unit 5, i.e. 1,196.88 Mg ha-1, and above ground total carbon was 437.19 Mg ha-1. IFL Faculty of Agriculture University of Lampung has a total carbon stock of 2,051.90 Mg and capacity to take up total CO2 of 6,656.88 Mg.

  1. Characteristic Of Induction Magnetic Field On The Laboratory Scale Superconducting Fault Current Limiter Circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adi, Wisnu Ari; Sukirman, E.; Didin, S.W.; Yustinus, P.M.; Siregar, Riswal H.

    2004-01-01

    Model construction of the laboratory scale superconducting fault current limiter circuit (SFCL) has been performed. The SFCL is fault current limiter and used as electric network security. It mainly consists of a copper coil, a superconducting ring and an iron core that are concentrically arranged. The SFCL circuit is essentially a transformer where the secondary windings are being replaced by the ring of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x superconductor (HTS). The ring has critical transition temperature Tc = 92 K and critical current Ic = 3.61 A. Characterization of the SFCL circuit is simulated by ANSYS version 5.4 software. The SFCL circuit consists of load and transformer impedances. The results show that the inductions of magnet field flux in the iron core of primer windings and ring disappear to one other before fault state. It means that impedance of the transformer is zero. After the condition a superconductivity behavior of the ring is disappear so that the impedance of the transformer becomes very high. From this experiment, we concluded that the SFCL circuit could work normally if the resultant of induction magnetic in the iron core (transformer) is zero

  2. Field and laboratory simulations of storm water pulses: Behavioural avoidance by marine epifauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, David A.; Johnston, Emma L.; Mueller, Stefanie; Poore, Alistair G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Epifaunal communities associated with macroalgae were exposed to storm water pulses using a custom made irrigation system. Treatments included Millipore freshwater, freshwater spiked with trace metals and seawater controls to allow for the relative importance of freshwater inundation, trace metals and increased flow to be determined. Experimental pulses created conditions similar to those that occur following real storm water events. Brief storm water pulses reduced the abundance of amphipods and gastropods. Freshwater was the causative agent as there were no additional effects of trace metals on the assemblages. Laboratory assays indicated that neither direct nor latent mortality was likely following experimental pulses and that epifauna readily avoid storm water. Indirect effects upon epifauna through salinity-induced changes to algal habitats were not found in field recolonisation experiments. Results demonstrate the importance of examining the effects of pulsed contaminants under realistic exposure conditions and the need to consider ecologically relevant endpoints. - Brief storm water pulses trigger avoidance response in mobile epifauna due to the inundation of freshwater

  3. Laboratory and Field Evaluations of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Baits Against Argentine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Michael K; Soeprono, Andrew; Wright, Sarajean; Greenberg, Les; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Boser, Christina L; Cory, Coleen; Hanna, Cause

    2015-06-01

    The development of effective baits to control the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has been problematic because foragers prefer sweet liquids, while many toxicants are insoluble in water and liquid baits are generally difficult to deliver. The incorporation of thiamethoxam and sucrose solutions into a water-absorbing polyacrylamide hydrogel provides a unique and novel carrier and method of application for liquid baits. Formulations of thiamethoxam affected the size of the hydrogels, and sucrose solutions containing 0.0003% technical thiamethoxam provided hydrogels as large as those made with 25% sucrose solution or deionized water. Concentrations of thiamethoxam as low as 0.000075% in the hydrogels provided 50% kill of workers within 3 d in a laboratory setting. In small colony studies, baiting with 0.00015 and 0.000075% thiamethoxam hydrogels provided 100% mortality of workers and queens within 8 d. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that thiamethoxam was absorbed into the interior of the polyacrylamide matrix. The water loss rates of the hydrogels were dependent upon the relative humidity. Polyacrylamide hydrogels with >50% water loss were less attractive to ants. Field studies in highly infested areas indicated that concentrations of 0.0006 or 0.0018% thiamethoxam were more effective than 0.00015%. Hydrogels may provide a cost-effective alternative to providing aqueous baits to control Argentine ants. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A comparative study of P450 gene expression in field and laboratory Musca domestica L. strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højland, Dorte H; Vagn Jensen, Karl-Martin; Kristensen, Michael

    2014-08-01

    The housefly is a global pest that has developed resistance to most insecticides applied for its control. Resistance has been associated with cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s). The authors compare the expression of six genes possibly associated with insecticide resistance in three unselected strains: a multiresistant strain (791a), a neonicotinoid-resistant strain (766b) and a new field strain (845b). CYP4G2 was highly expressed throughout the range of strains and proved to be the one of the most interesting expression profiles of all P450s analysed. CYP6G4 was expressed up to 11-fold higher in 766b than in WHO-SRS. Significant differences between expression of P450 genes between F1 flies from 845b and established laboratory strains were shown. In general, P450 gene expression in 845b was 2-14-fold higher than in the reference strain (P resistance. There is a strong indication that CYP6G4 is a major insecticide resistance gene involved in neonicotinoid resistance. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Laboratory and field scale bioremediation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soils by means of bioaugmentation and biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Nidhi; Lata, Pushp; Jit, Simran; Sangwan, Naseer; Singh, Amit Kumar; Dwivedi, Vatsala; Niharika, Neha; Kaur, Jasvinder; Saxena, Anjali; Dua, Ankita; Nayyar, Namita; Kohli, Puneet; Geueke, Birgit; Kunz, Petra; Rentsch, Daniel; Holliger, Christof; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Lal, Rup

    2016-06-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soils were treated for a period of up to 64 days in situ (HCH dumpsite, Lucknow) and ex situ (University of Delhi) in line with three bioremediation approaches. The first approach, biostimulation, involved addition of ammonium phosphate and molasses, while the second approach, bioaugmentation, involved addition of a microbial consortium consisting of a group of HCH-degrading sphingomonads that were isolated from HCH contaminated sites. The third approach involved a combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation. The efficiency of the consortium was investigated in laboratory scale experiments, in a pot scale study, and in a full-scale field trial. It turned out that the approach of combining biostimulation and bioaugmentation was most effective in achieving reduction in the levels of α- and β-HCH and that the application of a bacterial consortium as compared to the action of a single HCH-degrading bacterial strain was more successful. Although further degradation of β- and δ-tetrachlorocyclohexane-1,4-diol, the terminal metabolites of β- and δ-HCH, respectively, did not occur by the strains comprising the consortium, these metabolites turned out to be less toxic than the parental HCH isomers.

  6. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: A field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree,

  7. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: a field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree,

  8. Laboratory and field evaluation of the impact of exercise on the performance of regular and polymer-based deet repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Steven; Tepper, Martin; Gadawski, Randy

    2007-11-01

    Studies were done in Manitoba, Canada, to evaluate the impact of exercise on repellent performance against mosquitoes. Two products containing the active ingredient N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) were tested; one product was a polymer-based cream (3M Ultrathon Insect Repellent) and the other product was an alcohol-based pump spray formulation (Muskol Insect Repellent). Assessments were done in the laboratory using Aedes aegypti (L.) and in the field with naturally occurring populations of mosquitoes. Repellent was applied to the forearms (laboratory) or a lower leg (field) of test subjects at 1.5 g of test product per 600 cm2 surface area (0.75 or 0.83 mg deet/cm2). For a given test day, subjects exercised or did not. Exposure to mosquito attack was for 1 min at 30-min intervals in laboratory procedures, and it was continuous in field tests. Performance was measured as complete protection time (CPT). Moderate levels of physical activity resulted in a >40% decline in mean CPT, from 468 to 267 min in the laboratory experiments and from 359 to 203 min in field tests. Repellent product did not affect the magnitude of the decline. Mean biting pressure during field trials was 21.3 bites per min, and mosquito collections were made up primarily of Ochlerotatus sticticus (Meigen) and Aedes vexans (Meigen).

  9. CO2 release experiment in the shallow subsurface at the Brackenridge Field Laboratory and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Romanak, K.; Hovorka, S.

    2009-12-01

    Soil gas monitoring is one cost-effective approach to detect CO2 leak at geological sequestration sites. Therefore understanding CO2 gas transport in soil zones is important for detection of CO2 leaks. A field experiment of a small CO2 release was conducted at the Brackenridge Field Laboratory, the University of Texas at Austin. The field site consists of one injection well, two sensor wells and one gas station well (Figure 1). The injection well was completed with a PVC pipe to a depth of 1.1 m below surface. CO2 sensors were deployed in sensor wells about 42 cm from the injection well at depths of 1.1 m having no subsurface PVC pipes but only a PVC protector cap at the surface. The gas monitoring station about 72 cm away from the injection well contains 3 copper tubes each set at different depths in sand pack isolated with bentonite clay. The CO2 release experiment started on March 4, 2009. A total 36.76 liters of CO2 were injected at 1 m depth at a rate of 100 ml/minute for 6 hours. Subsurface CO2 gas concentrations (before, during, and after the injection) were continuously monitored in sensor wells. Real-time CO2 concentrations were monitored at the gas station using an SRI 8610 gas chromatograph (GC) fitted with flame ionization detector (FID) and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). A numerical model was constructed to simulate CO2 release experiments. The model takes into account CO2 diffusion and dissolution in pore water. Air in the pore space is assumed stagnant. Model domain consists of four soil layers and one atmospheric layer. The groundwater table is about 2.4 meters below ground surface. The model was calibrated with respect to diffusion coefficient (transport parameter) and the injection rate (mass parameter). Model results fit well with CO2 measurements at the sensor wells and the gas station. However, the calibrated injection rate underestimates measured injection rate.

  10. Self-Potential Monitoring of Landslides on Field and Laboratory Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, T.; Limbrock, J. K.; Weigand, M.; Wagner, F. M.; Kemna, A.

    2017-12-01

    Among several other geophysical methods used to observe water movement in the ground, the electrical self-potential method has been applied to a broad range of monitoring studies, especially focusing on volcanism and dam leakage but also during hydraulic fracturing. Electrical self-potential signals may be caused by various mechanisms. Though, the most relevant source of the self-potential field in the given context of landslides is the streaming potential, caused by a flowing electrolyte through porous media with electrically charged internal surfaces. So far, existing models focus on monitoring water flow in non-deformable porous media. However, as the self-potential is sensitive to hydraulic parameters of the soil, any change in these parameters will cause an alteration of the electric signal. Mass movement will significantly influence the hydraulic parameters of the solid as well as the pressure field, assuming that fluid movement is faster than pressure diffusion. We present self-potential measurements from over a year of continuous monitoring at an old landslide site. Using a three-dimensional electric-resistivity underground model, the self-potential signal is analyzed with respect to precipitation and the resulting flow in the ground. Additional data from electrical measurements and conventional sensors are included to assess saturation. The field observations are supplemented by laboratory experiments in which we study the behavior of the self-potential during failure of a piled land slope. For the undrained scenarios, we observe a clear correlation between the mass movements and signals in the electric potential, which clearly differ from the underlying potential variations due to increased saturation and fluid flow. In the drained experiments, we do not observe any measurable change in the electric potential. We therefore assume that change in fluid properties and release of the load causes disturbances in flow and streaming potential. Our results

  11. Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobella, J.

    2010-05-01

    on the conditions to develop at the test site during artificial recharge. The data collected during the laboratory experiments and in the test site will be used to build and calibrate a numerical model of the physical-chemical-biochemical processes developing in the batches and of multicomponent reactive transport in the unsaturated/saturated zone in the test site area. 3. Field test site The infiltration site of Sant Vicenç dels Horts has been selected to assessing the biogeochemical processes occurring during SAT. The system consists of two ponds that have been built as compensatory measure for the reduction in natural recharge caused by the construction of the High Speed Train Line. The first pond acts as a decantation pond while the second one acts as an infiltration basin (Figure 1). Recharge water comes from the tertiary treatment plant of the El Prat de Llobregat WWTP and the river (?). The CUADLL (Lower Llobregat Aquifer End-Users Community) is now managing the system operation. Tasks that are currently being carried out at this Test Site aims at (i) improving the local experience on MAR through infiltration ponds operational aspects and (ii) monitoring the changes in water quality during the recharge processes (unsaturated and saturated zone). Special attention is being paid to the fate of emerging organic pollutants (pharmaceuticals, surfactants, pesticides, etc.). The yielding of the monitoring will be compared with the results from the laboratory batch experiments on the behaviour of selected emerging organic pollutants. To this end, observation wells have been constructed, pressure / temperature / electrical conductivity transducers have been installed and the vadose zone under the infiltration pond has been instrumented (tensiometers, water content probes and suction cups). In addition double ring and infiltration tests have been performed in order to forecast the infiltration capacity of the basin.

  12. Laboratory and field testing results of the LMT/GTM primary surface actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Souccar, Kamal; Montalvo, Gabriela; Arteaga Magaña, César; Hernández Rebollar, José Luis; Olmos Tapia, Arak; Gallieni, Daniele; Lazzarini, Paolo; Fumi, Pierluigi; Anaclerio, Enzo

    2016-07-01

    With the final installation of the two outermost rings of the primary surface of the Large Millimeter Telescope/ Gran Telescopio Milimétrico (LMT/GTM), the project is also upgrading the primary surface actuators. There are commercial actuators that can approach the required operational accuracy and stroke, but the combination of the size and load requirements ultimately required a customized design. The new actuators fit within the volume constraints imposed by the tighter interior angles in the outer rings and are designed to support the operational and survival loading conditions even for the largest surface segments. Laboratory testing confirmed that the actuators should meet the precision, repeatability, load, and lifetime requirements. However, the LMT/GTM is at a particularly difficult site for electromechanical systems. The high altitude has the usual effect of reducing cooling effectiveness for the drives and motors, and the ambient temperature hovers near freezing. Since there is a significant amount of precipitation during some times of the year, there are frequent freeze/thaw cycles. The constant formation and either sublimation or melting of ice, along with the associated high humidity, has been a challenge for the environmental protection of many devices at the LMT/GTM. Because there are a total of 720 primary surface actuators in the system, it is particularly important that the actuators, their local drive control boxes, and their cable connections be able to meet its specifications even under the site conditions. To confirm the suitability of the actuators, the LMT/GTM procured an initial set of sixteen actuators for testing at the site. After laboratory testing, the actuators were installed into the outer two rings of the telescope and cycled during the early winter months of the 2015-16 scientific observing season. Because of the continuing installation activities in these two rings, they are not illuminated by the receivers, so field testing

  13. Absorbing Aerosols: Field and Laboratory Studies of Black Carbon and Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, A. C.; Flowers, B. A.; Dubey, M. K.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, absorbing aerosols are thought to be the most uncertain factor in atmospheric climate models (~0.4-1.2 W/m2), and the 2nd most important factor after CO2 in global warming (1.6 W/m2; Ramanathan and Carmichael, Nature Geoscience, 2008; Myhre, Science, 2009). While most well-recognized atmospheric aerosols, e.g., sulfate from power-plants, have a cooling effect on the atmosphere by scattering solar radiation, black carbon (BC or soot) absorbs sunlight strongly which results in a warming of the atmosphere. Dust particles are also present globally and can absorb radiation, contributing to a warmer and drier atmosphere. Direct on-line measurements of BC and hematite, an absorbing dust aerosol, can be made with the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), which measures the mass of the particles by incandescence on an individual particle basis. Measurements from the SP2 are combined with absorption measurements from the three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) at 405, 532, and 781 nm and the ultraviolet photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-UV) at 375 nm to determine wavelength-dependent mass absorption coefficients (MACs). Laboratory aerosol samples include flame-generated soot, fullerene soot, Aquadag, hematite, and hematite-containing dusts. Measured BC MAC's compare well with published values, and hematite MAC's are an order of magnitude less than BC. Absorbing aerosols measured in the laboratory are compared with those from ambient aerosols measured during the Las Conchas fire and BEACHON-RoMBAS. The Las Conchas fire was a wildfire in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico that burned over 100,000 acres during the Summer of 2011, and BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) is a field campaign focusing on biogenic aerosols at the Manitou Forest Observatory near Colorado Springs, CO in Summer 2011. Optical properties and size

  14. Particle size reduction in debris flows: Laboratory experiments compared with field data from Inyo Creek, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabnia, O.; Sklar, L. S.; Mclaughlin, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    . Laboratory data are compared with longitudinal evolution of grain size and angularity of particles deposited by debris flows along Inyo Creek, Sierra Nevada, California. Preliminary results suggest wear rates can be scaled across drum sizes and to field conditions using non-dimensional metrics of flow dynamics including Savage, Bagnold, and Froude numbers.

  15. Susceptibility of larvae of nun moth, Lymantria monacha (Linnaeus 1758) (Lepidoptera), to the entomopathogenic fungus, Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu and Soper (Entomophthorales) under laboratory and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniela Pilarska; Ann E. Hajek; Melody Keena; Andreas Linde; Manana Kereselidze; Georgi Georgiev; Margarita Georgieva; Plamen Mirchev; Danail Takov; Slavimira. Draganova

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility of Lymantria monacha larvae to Entomophaga maimaiga was investigated under laboratory and field conditions, using larvae of the natural host, Lymantria dispar, as positive controls. In laboratory bioassays, L. monacha and L. dispar were injected with...

  16. Comparison of longevity between a laboratory strain and a natural population of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) under field cage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is one of the most destructive fruit pests in this region, infesting major fruit crops. Implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of an area-wide integrated approach against this species requires information on the survival of mass-reared and sterilized insects in the field and their ability to mate with wild females. The survival rates in field cages of both non-irradiated and irradiated laboratory flies were compared with that of wild flies. Both types of laboratory flies survived longer than their wild counterparts over the 8 days under the experimental conditions. The irradiation dose (70 Gy) did not affect survival of the laboratory reared flies. Our results improve the prospect of integrating the SIT into the control of A. fraterculus populations in Argentina. (author) [es

  17. Laboratory and Field Test of Movable Conduction-Cooled High-Temperature SMES for Power System Stability Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jiakun; Wen, J.; Wang, S.

    2013-01-01

    , the monitoring and control unit, and the container, etc. The proposed SMES can be loaded onto a truck to move to a desired location and put into operation with easy connection. Laboratory and field tests have been carried out to investigate the operational characteristics and to demonstrate the SMES...

  18. Physics Laboratory Investigation of Vocational High School Field Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques in the Central Java Province (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwandari, Ristiana Dyah

    2015-01-01

    The investigation aims in this study were to uncover the observations of infrastructures and physics laboratory in vocational high school for Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques Expertise Field or Teknik Konstruksi Batu dan Beton (TKBB)'s in Purwokerto Central Java Province, mapping the Vocational High School or Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan…

  19. Two examples of the interplay between field observations and laboratory experiments from 35 years of research with planktonic organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.

    1997-01-01

    Two studies of complicated ecological phenomena in Lake Maarsseveen (The Netherlands) are presented to illustrate that a combination of field and laboratory analysis might be a successful approach. In the first one, the yearly varying ratio of population abundance of two diatoms, Asterionella

  20. Effects of a chelating resin on metal bioavailability and toxicity to estuarine invertebrates: Divergent results of field and laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkie, Emma M.; Roach, Anthony C.; Micevska, Tina; Kelaher, Brendan P.; Bishop, Melanie J.

    2010-01-01

    Benthic invertebrates can uptake metals through diffusion of free ion solutes, or ingestion of sediment-bound forms. This study investigated the efficacy of the metal chelating resin SIR 300 TM in adsorbing porewater metals and isolating pathways of metal exposure. A field experiment (Botany Bay, Sydney, Australia) and a laboratory toxicity test each manipulated the availability of porewater metals within contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. It was predicted that within contaminated sediments, the resin would adsorb porewater metals and reduce toxicity to invertebrates, but in uncontaminated sediments, the resin would not significantly affect these variables. Whereas in the laboratory, the resin produced the predicted results, in the field the resin increased porewater metal concentrations of contaminated sediments for at least 34 days and decreased abundances of four macroinvertebrate groups, and richness in all sediments. These contrasting findings highlight the limits of extrapolating the results of laboratory experiments to the field environment. - Laboratory experiments do not predict the effects on porewater metals or macroinvertebrates of adding a chelating resin to metal-contaminated field sediments.

  1. Biological effects of high-strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. Interim report, March 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Anderson, L.E.; Kaune, W.T.

    1979-12-01

    Progress is described on a project assessing the biological effects of 60-Hz electric fields on small laboratory animals (rats and mice). The report includes sections on hematology and seram chemistry, immunology, pathology, metabolism, bone growth, endocrinology, cardiovascular function, neurophysiology, growth and development, and animal behavior. (ACR)

  2. Dispersion and settlement of heavy metals in clay liners for sanitary landfills. Comparison of laboratory and field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The migration of heavy metals from long-standing waste dumps (blast furnace flue dust, ore flotation slurries, household refuse and toxic waste dumps) into natural clay barriers or artificial mineral liners was investigated in laboratory studies and field studies. (orig.) [de

  3. Effects of a chelating resin on metal bioavailability and toxicity to estuarine invertebrates: Divergent results of field and laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkie, Emma M., E-mail: ewilkie@bio.mq.edu.a [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contaminants Section, Department of Environment and Climate Change, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Roach, Anthony C. [Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contaminants Section, Department of Environment and Climate Change, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Micevska, Tina [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Kelaher, Brendan P.; Bishop, Melanie J. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2010-05-15

    Benthic invertebrates can uptake metals through diffusion of free ion solutes, or ingestion of sediment-bound forms. This study investigated the efficacy of the metal chelating resin SIR 300{sup TM} in adsorbing porewater metals and isolating pathways of metal exposure. A field experiment (Botany Bay, Sydney, Australia) and a laboratory toxicity test each manipulated the availability of porewater metals within contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. It was predicted that within contaminated sediments, the resin would adsorb porewater metals and reduce toxicity to invertebrates, but in uncontaminated sediments, the resin would not significantly affect these variables. Whereas in the laboratory, the resin produced the predicted results, in the field the resin increased porewater metal concentrations of contaminated sediments for at least 34 days and decreased abundances of four macroinvertebrate groups, and richness in all sediments. These contrasting findings highlight the limits of extrapolating the results of laboratory experiments to the field environment. - Laboratory experiments do not predict the effects on porewater metals or macroinvertebrates of adding a chelating resin to metal-contaminated field sediments.

  4. Technical report on levels of electromagnetic fields created by Linky meters. Part 1: laboratory measurements; Part 2: laboratory additional measurements; Part 3: field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    The first part of this study reports measurements of electromagnetic radiations induced by remote-metering reading devices present in new power meters and using the Power-Line Communication (PLC or, in French, CPL) technology, such as the Linky meter. After a recall of legislation regarding exposure to electromagnetic waves, this first part present the two tested meters (Linky of first and third generation, G1 and G3), the performed tests, measurements devices and method. It more precisely reports investigations performed on these both meters, and a comparison with other home appliances. The second part reports additional measurements performed with both meters according to the same methodology, but with the use of a new electric field probe which allows more precise measurements. Maximum electric and magnetic fields have been measured. The third part reports field measurements performed with the same methodology but in dwellings equipped with Linky meters of first generation (G1). Exposure levels have been measured at the vicinity of meters and in other parts of the dwelling

  5. Partitioning of alcohol ethoxylates and polyethylene glycols in the marine environment: Field samplings vs laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traverso-Soto, Juan M. [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI-MAR), Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real, Cádiz 11510 (Spain); Brownawell, Bruce J. [School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); González-Mazo, Eduardo [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI-MAR), Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real, Cádiz 11510 (Spain); Lara-Martín, Pablo A., E-mail: pablo.lara@uca.es [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI-MAR), Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real, Cádiz 11510 (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Nowadays, alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs) constitute the most important group of non-ionic surfactants, used in a wide range of applications such as household cleaners and detergents. Significant amounts of these compounds and their degradation products (polyethylene glycols, PEGs, which are also used for many other applications) reach aquatic environments, and are eliminated from the water column by degradation and sorption processes. This work deals with the environmental distribution of AEOs and PEGs in the Long Island Sound Estuary, a setting impacted by sewage discharges from New York City (NYC). The distribution of target compounds in seawater was influenced by tides, consistent with salinity differences, and concentrations in suspended solid samples ranged from 1.5 to 20.5 μg/g. The more hydrophobic AEOs were mostly attached to the particulate matter whereas the more polar PEGs were predominant in the dissolved form. Later, the sorption of these chemicals was characterized in the laboratory. Experimental and environmental sorption coefficients for AEOs and PEGs showed average values from 3607 to 164,994 L/kg and from 74 to 32,862 L/kg, respectively. The sorption data were fitted to a Freundlich isotherm model with parameters n and log K{sub F} between 0.8–1.2 and 1.46–4.39 L/kg, respectively. AEO and PEG sorptions on marine sediment were also found to be mostly not affected by changes in salinity. - Highlights: • AEO and PEG levels in estuaries are influenced by tides and suspended solids. • Sediment–water partition coefficients in the lab and in the field are comparable. • Sorption is depending on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. • Sorption data fits Freundlich isotherms, showing K{sub F} values from 29 to 24,892 L/kg. • Sorption is very weakly influenced by salinity changes.

  6. Field and laboratory emission cell automation and control system for investigating surface chemistry reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemmer, Michael M.; Ham, Jason E.; Wells, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    A novel system [field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) automation and control system] has been developed to deliver ozone to a surface utilizing the FLEC to simulate indoor surface chemistry. Ozone, humidity, and air flow rate to the surface were continuously monitored using an ultraviolet ozone monitor, humidity, and flow sensors. Data from these sensors were used as feedback for system control to maintain predetermined experimental parameters. The system was used to investigate the chemistry of ozone with α-terpineol on a vinyl surface over 72h. Keeping all other experimental parameters the same, volatile organic compound emissions from the vinyl tile with α-terpineol were collected from both zero and 100ppb(partsper109) ozone exposures. System stability profiles collected from sensor data indicated experimental parameters were maintained to within a few percent of initial settings. Ozone data from eight experiments at 100ppb (over 339h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 1.65ppb and a 95% tolerance of 3.3ppb. Humidity data from 17 experiments at 50% relative humidity (over 664h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 1.38% and a 95% tolerance of 2.77%. Data of the flow rate of air flowing through the FLEC from 14 experiments at 300ml/min (over 548h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 3.02ml/min and a 95% tolerance range of 6.03ml/min. Initial experimental results yielded long term emissions of ozone/α-terpineol reaction products, suggesting that surface chemistry could play an important role in indoor environments.

  7. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Yee, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. Natural gas furnace performance can be measured in many ways. The annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) rating provides a fixed value under specified conditions, akin to the EPA miles per gallon rating for new vehicles. The AFUE rating is provided by the manufacturer to the consumer and is a way to choose between models tested on the same basis. This value is commonly used in energy modeling calculations. ASHRAE 103 is a consensus furnace testing standard developed by the engineering community. The procedure provided in the standard covers heat-up, cool down, condensate heat loss, and steady-state conditions and an imposed oversize factor. The procedure can be used to evaluate furnace performance with specified conditions or with some variation chosen by the tester. In this report the ASHRAE 103 test result will be referred to as Annualized Efficiency (AE) to avoid confusion, and any non-standard test conditions will be noted. Aside from these two laboratory tests, steady state or flue loss efficiency can be measured in the field under many conditions; typically as found or tuned to the manufacturers recommended settings. In this report, AE and steady-state efficiency will be used as measures of furnace performance.

  8. Ephemeral stream reaches preserve the evolutionary and distributional history of threespine stickleback in the Santa Clara and Ventura River watersheds of southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Jacobs, David K.; Backlin, Adam R.; Swift, Camm C.; Dellith, Chris; Fisher, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Much remains to be understood about the evolutionary history and contemporary landscape genetics of unarmored threespine stickleback in southern California, where populations collectively referred to as Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni have severely declined over the past 70+ years and are now endangered. We used mitochondrial sequence and microsatellite data to assess the population genetics and phylogeography of unarmored populations sampled immediately downstream from the type locality of G. a. williamsoni in the upper Santa Clara River, and assessed their distinctiveness with respect to low-armor populations in the downstream sections of the river and the adjacent Ventura River. We also characterized the geographic limits of different plate morphs and evaluated the congruence of those boundaries with barriers to dispersal in both river systems and to neutral genetic variation. We show substantial population structuring within the upper reach of the Santa Clara River, but little partitioning between the lower Santa Clara and Ventura Rivers—we attribute these patterns to different ancestry between spatially subdivided populations within the same drainage, a predominance of downstream gene flow, and ability for coastal dispersal between the Santa Clara and Ventura Rivers. We also show that alleles from introduced low-plate stock have infiltrated a native population in at least one upper Santa Clara River tributary, causing this formerly unarmored population to become gradually low-plated over a 30 + year time period. Measures of genetic diversity, census surveys, and severe habitat disturbance all indicate that unarmored stickleback near the type locality are currently at high risk of extinction.

  9. Characterizing the recent behavior and earthquake potential of the blind western San Cayetano and Ventura fault systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, L. J.; Dolan, J. F.; Hubbard, J.; Shaw, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    The recent occurrence of several destructive thrust fault earthquakes highlights the risks posed by such events to major urban centers around the world. In order to determine the earthquake potential of such faults in the western Transverse Ranges of southern California, we are studying the activity and paleoearthquake history of the blind Ventura and western San Cayetano faults through a multidisciplinary analysis of strata that have been folded above the fault tiplines. These two thrust faults form the middle section of a >200-km-long, east-west belt of large, interconnected reverse faults that extends across southern California. Although each of these faults represents a major seismic source in its own right, we are exploring the possibility of even larger-magnitude, multi-segment ruptures that may link these faults to other major faults to the east and west in the Transverse Ranges system. The proximity of this large reverse-fault system to several major population centers, including the metropolitan Los Angeles region, and the potential for tsunami generation during offshore ruptures of the western parts of the system, emphasizes the importance of understanding the behavior of these faults for seismic hazard assessment. During the summer of 2010 we used a mini-vibrator source to acquire four, one- to three-km-long, high-resolution seismic reflection profiles. The profiles were collected along the locus of active folding above the blind, western San Cayetano and Ventura faults - specifically, across prominent fold scarps that have developed in response to recent slip on the underlying thrust ramps. These high-resolution data overlap with the uppermost parts of petroleum-industry seismic reflection data, and provide a near-continuous image of recent folding from several km depth to within 50-100 m of the surface. Our initial efforts to document the earthquake history and slip-rate of this large, multi-fault reverse fault system focus on a site above the blind

  10. Gas release and leachates at bark storage: Laboratory and field studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirjis, Raida; Andersson, Paal; Aronsson, Paer

    2005-01-01

    ). The liquid samples taken after the watering of bark at the two temperatures mentioned above were analyzed for pH value, total organic carbon, and detailed chemical analyses using GC-FID and GC-MS. In the large scale storage trial, which lasted seven weeks, a 7m high pile containing 500m 3 of evenly mixed fresh pine and spruce bark was built. Samples of the emitted air at the top of the pile were taken using a flow chamber. Air samples were also taken from the area around the pile to assess the working environment. The pile was irrigated intensively at two different occasions to simulate heavy rain conditions. The leaked water was collected and analyzed as in the laboratory experiment. Temperature development, moisture content, fungal activity, dry matter loss, ash content and heating value were determined before and after storage. Results from both lab and field experiments showed that the emission of VOC was high at the beginning of storage but declined rapidly to low levels after 2-3 weeks. In the laboratory experiment, the release of VOC from the heated chambers was higher that at RT but the total accumulated emission was the same. The release of monoterpenes from spruce bark amounted to 77-82 mg/kg while pine emitted only 34 mg/kg. In both species, α-pinene was the dominating monoterpene followed by β-pinene in spruce and (delta)3-caren in pine bark. The moisture content of the stored bark declined considerably during storage in the laboratory experiments, and the bark was almost dry after storage at 55 deg C. Fungal growth was visible on the stored bark and high counts of fungal spores were obtained especially after storage at RT. Dry matter losses amounted to 4-8% of the dry matter after storage while the heating value remained unchanged. After storage, the concentration of bark extractives was declined particularly in spruce stored at RT. The results also showed that the concentration of various constituents of the extracted compounds was changed. The

  11. Discrepancies between Aedes aegypti identification in the field and in the laboratory after collection with a sticky trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, sticky traps are regularly employed to assist in the surveillance of Aedes aegypti infestation. We tested two alternative procedures for specimen identification performed by local health agents: directly in the field, as recommended by certain manufacturers, or after transportation to the laboratory. A total of 384 sticky traps (MosquiTRAP were monitored monthly during one year in four geographically representative Brazilian municipalities. When the same samples were inspected in the field and in the laboratory, large differences were noted in the total number of mosquitoes recorded and in the number of specimens identified as Ae. aegypti by both procedures. Although field identification has the potential to speed vector surveillance, these results point to uncertainties in the evaluated protocol.

  12. Insights into organic carbon oxidation potential during fluvial transport from controlled laboratory and natural field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Dellinger, Mathieu; Golombek, Nina; Hilton, Robert G.; Hovius, Niels; Sachse, Dirk; Turowski, Jens M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Wittmann, Hella

    2017-04-01

    Over geologic timescales, the exchange of organic carbon (OC) between the atmosphere, biosphere and geosphere is thought to be a major control on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, and hence global climate. The carbon fluxes from the oxidation of rock-derived OC (a CO2 source) and erosion and transport of biospheric OC (a potential CO2 sink) during fluvial transit are approximately the same order of magnitude or larger than those from silicate weathering (France-Lanord and Derry, 1997; Bouchez et al., 2010). Despite field data showing oxidation of OC moving downstream in lowland rivers, it is unclear if losses occur primarily during active fluvial transport within the river, where OC is in continual motion within an aerated environment, or during longer periods when OC is temporarily stored in river floodplains which may be anoxic. This represents a major knowledge gap, as the unknown location of OC oxidation (i.e., river vs. floodplain) limits our ability to develop process-based models that can be employed to predict OC losses, constrain carbon budgets, and unravel links between climate, tectonics, and erosion. To fill this gap, we investigated the potential for OC oxidation in both controlled laboratory experiments and a simplified field setting. We consider both rock-derived and biospheric OC. Our experiments simulated fluvial transport without floodplain storage, allowing mixtures of OC-rich and siliciclastic sediment to be transported for distances of 1000 km in annular flumes while making time-series measurements of OC concentration in both the solid (POC) and dissolved (DOC) loads, as well as measurements of rhenium concentration, which serves as a proxy for the oxidation of rock-derived OC. These transport experiments were compared to static, control experiments where water and sediment in the same proportion were placed in still water. Initial results for transport of OC-rich soil show similar behavior between the transport and static

  13. Laboratory and field measurements of organic aerosols with the photoionization aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Matthew A.

    Analytical methods developed to sample and characterize ambient organic aerosols often face the trade-off between long sampling times and the loss of detailed information regarding specific chemical species present. The soft, universal ionization scheme of the Photoionization Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (PIAMS) allows for identification of various chemical compounds by a signature ion, often the molecular ion. The goal of this thesis work is to apply PIAMS to both laboratory and field experiments to answer questions regarding the formation, composition, and behavior of organic aerosols. To achieve this goal, a variety of hardware and software upgrades were administered to PIAMS to optimize the instrument. Data collection and processing software were either refined or built from the ground up to simplify difficult or monotonous tasks. Additional components were added to PIAMS with the intent to automate the instrument, enhance the results, and make the instrument more rugged and user-friendly. These changes, combined with the application of an external particle concentration system (mini-Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System, m-VACES), allowed PIAMS to be suitable for field measurements of organic aerosols. Two such field campaigns were completed, both at the State of Delaware Air Quality Monitoring Site in Wilmington, Delaware: a one week period in June, 2006, and an 18 day period in October and November of 2007. A sampling method developed was capable of collecting sufficient ambient organic aerosol and analyzing it with a time resolution of 3.5 minutes. Because of this method, short term concentration changes of individual species can be tracked. Combined with meteorological data, the behavior of these species can be analyzed as a function of time or wind direction. Many compounds are found at enhanced levels during the evening/night-time hours; potentially due to the combined effects of temperature inversion, and fresh emissions in a cooler environment

  14. Comparing the impacts of sediment-bound bifenthrin on aquatic macroinvertebrates in laboratory bioassays and field microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Rhianna L; Hoak, Molly N; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Hoffmann, Ary A; Long, Sara M

    2016-11-01

    We conducted two laboratory bioassays and two field microcosm exposures with bifenthrin (a synthetic pyrethroid) in order to evaluate the capacity of single-species laboratory bioassays to predict lethal and sublethal impacts on aquatic invertebrates in microcosms. For the laboratory species, Chironomus tepperi, larval survival was reduced by 24% at 53.66µg/g OC, while adult emergence was reduced at concentrations of 33.33µg/g OC and higher, with a 61% decrease at 77.78µg/g OC and no emergence at 126.67µg/g OC. The abundance of several other microcosm taxa was reduced in the microcosms at a similar concentration range (33.33µg/g OC and above), however there was no impact on the abundance of the congeneric species, Chironomus oppositus. The differences in impacts between test systems were potentially due to both differing species sensitivity and the interaction of ambient temperature with bifenthrin toxicity. Bifenthrin also was associated with early emergence of Chironomus sp. in both test systems, at concentrations of 10µg/g OC and higher (laboratory) and 43.90µg/g OC (microcosm), and with a significant decrease in the proportion of C. oppositus males in a microcosm. These findings indicate that while laboratory bioassays accurately predict many impacts in the field, there are some limitations to the predictive capacity of these tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A combined field and laboratory design for assessing the impact of night shift work on police officer operational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Lauren B; Grant, Devon A; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Belenky, Gregory; Vila, Bryan

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed the utility of a combined field and laboratory research design for measuring the impact of consecutive night shift work on the sleepiness, vigilance, and driving performance of police patrol officers. For police patrol officers working their normal night shift duty cycles, simulated driving performance and psychomotor vigilance were measured in a laboratory on two separate occasions: in the morning after the last of five consecutive 10.7-h night shifts, and at the same time in the morning after three consecutive days off duty. Order of participation in conditions was randomized among subjects. Subjects experienced manipulation of sleep schedules due to working night shifts in a real operational environment, but performance testing was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. N = 29 active-duty police patrol officers (27 male, 2 female; age 37.1 ± 6.3 years) working night shift schedules participated in this study. Simulated driving performance, psychomotor vigilance, and subjective sleepiness were significantly degraded following 5 consecutive night shifts as compared to 3 consecutive days off duty, indicating that active-duty police officers are susceptible to performance degradation as a consequence of working nights. This combined field and laboratory research design succeeded in bridging the gap between the realism of the operational environment and the control of laboratory performance testing, demonstrating that this is a useful approach for addressing the relationship between shift work induced fatigue and critical operational task performance.

  16. Laboratory investigation of physical mechanisms of auroral charged particle acceleration in the field-aligned currents layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, B.; Zetzer, J.; Sobyanin, D.; Podgorny, I.

    One of the major topics of space weather research is to understand auroral structure and the processes that guide, accelerate, and otherwise control particle precipitation and produce auroral substorms. Navigation, communications and radars in the high latitude regions are severely affected through the effects on the ionosphere. It has long been recognized that the direct cause of the aurora is the precipitation of energetic electrons and ions into the atmosphere leading to excitation of the ambient atmospheric gases. Observations of the ionospheric ionization profiles and auroral precipitation characteristics have shown that field-aligned potential drops are formed to create this effect. The problem is that it is not clear the structure of the regions of magnetic field-aligned electric fields and how they are supported in the magnetospheric plasma. The objective of this research is to study the physical mechanisms of these phenomena in a laboratory experiment. It should be achieved by simulating the charged particle acceleration due to field-aligned electrical field generation in all totality of the interconnected events: generation of a plasma flow, its evolution in the magnetic field, polarization of plasma, generation of the field-aligned currents, development of instabilities in the plasma and current layers, double layers or anomalous resistance regions appearance, electrons acceleration. Parameters of the laboratory simulation and preliminary results of the experiment are discussed.

  17. Electric air filtration: theory, laboratory studies, hardware development, and field evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.; Kuhl, W.

    1983-09-01

    We summarize the results of a seven-year research project for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop electric air filters that extend the service life of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used in the nuclear industry. This project was unique to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and it entailed comprehensive theory, laboratory studies, and hardware development. We present our work in three major areas: (1) theory of and instrumentation for filter test methods, (2) theoretical and laboratory studies of electric air filters, and (3) development and evaluation of eight experimental electric air filters

  18. Central African Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program: building and strengthening regional workforce capacity in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andze, Gervais Ondobo; Namsenmo, Abel; Illunga, Benoit Kebella; Kazambu, Ditu; Delissaint, Dieula; Kuaban, Christopher; Mbopi-Kéou, Francois-Xavier; Gabsa, Wilfred; Mulumba, Leopold; Bangamingo, Jean Pierre; Ngulefac, John; Dahlke, Melissa; Mukanga, David; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Central African Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (CAFELTP) is a 2-year public health leadership capacity building training program. It was established in October 2010 to enhance capacity for applied epidemiology and public health laboratory services in three countries: Cameroon, Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The aim of the program is to develop a trained public health workforce to assure that acute public health events are detected, investigated, and responded to quickly and effectively. The program consists of 25% didactic and 75% practical training (field based activities). Although the program is still in its infancy, the residents have already responded to six outbreak investigations in the region, evaluated 18 public health surveillance systems and public health programs, and completed 18 management projects. Through these various activities, information is shared to understand similarities and differences in the region leading to new and innovative approaches in public health. The program provides opportunities for regional and international networking in field epidemiology and laboratory activities, and is particularly beneficial for countries that may not have the immediate resources to host an individual country program. Several of the trainees from the first cohort already hold leadership positions within the ministries of health and national laboratories, and will return to their assignments better equipped to face the public health challenges in the region. They bring with them knowledge, practical training, and experiences gained through the program to shape the future of the public health landscape in their countries.

  19. Laboratory and field studies related to the radionuclide migration project. Progress report, October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, W.R.; Thompson, J.L.

    1984-04-01

    The FY 1983 laboratory and field studies related to the Radionuclide Migration project are described. Results are presented for radiochemical analyses of water samples collected from the RNM-1 well and the RNM-2S satellite well at the Cambric site. Data are included for tritium, 36 Cl, 85 Kr, 90 Sr, 129 I, and 137 Cs. Preliminary results from water collection at the Cheshire site are reported. Laboratory studies emphasize the sorptive behavior of tuff and its dependence on mineralogy. 18 references, 7 figures, 13 tables

  20. Laboratory Testing and Performance Verification of the CHARIS Integral Field Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Tyler D.; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Galvin, Michael; Loomis, Craig; Carr, Michael A.; Brandt, Timothy; Knapp, Gillian; Limbach, Mary Anne; Guyon, Olivier; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS) is an integral field spectrograph (IFS) that has been built for the Subaru telescope. CHARIS has two imaging modes; the high-resolution mode is R82, R69, and R82 in J, H, and K bands respectively while the low-resolution discovery mode uses a second low-resolution prism with R19 spanning 1.15-2.37 microns (J+H+K bands). The discovery mode is meant to augment the low inner working angle of the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) adaptive optics system, which feeds CHARIS a coronagraphic image. The goal is to detect and characterize brown dwarfs and hot Jovian planets down to contrasts five orders of magnitude dimmer than their parent star at an inner working angle as low as 80 milliarcseconds. CHARIS constrains spectral crosstalk through several key aspects of the optical design. Additionally, the repeatability of alignment of certain optical components is critical to the calibrations required for the data pipeline. Specifically the relative alignment of the lens let array, prism, and detector must be highly stable and repeatable between imaging modes. We report on the measured repeatability and stability of these mechanisms, measurements of spectral crosstalk in the instrument, and the propagation of these errors through the data pipeline. Another key design feature of CHARIS is the prism, which pairs Barium Fluoride with Ohara L-BBH2 high index glass. The dispersion of the prism is significantly more uniform than other glass choices, and the CHARIS prisms represent the first NIR astronomical instrument that uses L-BBH2as the high index material. This material choice was key to the utility of the discovery mode, so significant efforts were put into cryogenic characterization of the material. The final performance of the prism assemblies in their operating environment is described in detail. The spectrograph is going through final alignment, cryogenic cycling, and is being

  1. Assessing the fate of organic micropollutants during riverbank filtration utilizing field studies and laboratory test systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C. K.; Lange, F. T.; Sacher, F.; Baus, C.; Brauch, H.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Germany and other highly populated countries, several waterworks use riverbank filtration as a first step in the treatment of river water for water supplies. Unfortunately, industrial and municipal discharges and the influence of agriculture lead to the pollution of rivers and lakes by a number of organic chemicals. In order to assess the impact of those organic micropollutants on the quality of drinking water, it is necessary to clarify their fate during infiltration and underground passage. The fate of organic micropollutants in a river water-groundwater infiltration system is mainly determined by adsorption mechanisms and biological transformations. One possibility to simulate the microbial degradation of single compounds during riverbank filtration is the use of laboratory test filter systems, that are operated as biological fixed-bed reactors under aerobic conditions. The benefit and meaningfulness of those test filters was evaluated on the basis of selected target compounds by comparing the results derived from test filter experiments with field studies under environmental conditions at the River Rhine. Samples from the river and from groundwater of a well characterized aerobic infiltration pathway were analyzed over a time period of several years for a spectrum of organic micropollutants. Target compounds comprised several contaminants relevant for the aquatic environment, such as complexing agents, aromatic sulfonates, pharmaceuticals (including iodinated X ray contrast media), and MTBE. Furthermore, the behaviour of some target compounds during aerobic riverbank filtration was compared to their fate along a section of an anaerobic (oxygen-depleted) aquifer at the River Ruhr that is characterized by a transition state between sulfate reduction and methane production. While some organic micropollutants showed no major differences, the elimination of others turned out to be clearly dependent on the underlying redox processes in the groundwater. The

  2. Los Alamos National Laboratory SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan Update for 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Elizabeth J.; Stone, Timothy Amos; Smith, Paul Herrick; Prochnow, David Adrian; Weis, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 441.1-1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE 2008), requires DOE contractors to ''ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.'' The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan was first issued in FY 2013 (Kelly et al. 2013). The surveillance plan is reviewed annually and updated as necessary based on SAVY-4000 surveillance and other surveillance findings, as well as results of the lifetime extension studies (Blair et al. 2012, Weis et al. 2015a). The LANL SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan Update was issued in 2014 (Kelly et al. 2014). This 2016 update reflects changes to the surveillance plan resulting from restrictions on handling residue materials greater than 500 g, the addition of specific engineering judgment containers, and 2015 surveillance findings. The SAVY-4000 container has a design life of five years, which was chosen as a conservative estimate of the functional properties of the materials used in the construction of the SAVY 4000 when exposed to the potential insults including temperature, corrosive materials and gases, and radiation. The SAVY-4000 container design basis is described in a safety analysis report (Anderson et al. 2013). In the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) approval of the safety analysis report, it was recommended that the design life clock begin on March 2014 (Nez et al. 2014). However, it is expected that a technical basis can be developed to extend the design life of the SAVY-4000 containers to approximately 40 years (Blair et al. 2012, Weis et al. 2015a). This surveillance plan update covers five years (2015-2019) and is developed to ensure SAVY-4000 containers meet their design criteria over the current five-year design life and to gather data that can be used in

  3. Underground coal gasification: Development of theory, laboratory experimentation, interpretation, and correlation with the Hanna field tests: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, R.D.; Krantz, W.B.

    1987-03-01

    The following report is a description of a 7 year effort to develop a theoretical understanding of the underground coal gasification process. The approach used is one of the mathematical model development from known chemical and principles, simplification of the models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models with laboratory experiments and field test data. Chapter I contains only introductory material. Chapter II describes the development of two models for reverse combustion: a combustion model and a linearized model for combustion front instability. Both models are required for realistic field predictions. Chapter III contains a discussion of a successful forward gasification model. Chapter IV discusses the spalling-enhanced-drying model is applicable to prediction of cavity growth and subsidence. Chapter VI decribes the correct use of energy and material balances for the analysis of UCG field test data. Chapter VII shows how laboratory experiments were used to validate the models for reverse combustion and forward gasification. It is also shown that laboratory combustion tube experiments can be used to simulate gas compositions expected from field tests. Finally, Chapter VII presents results from a comprehensive economic analysis of UCG involving 1296 separate cases. 37 refs., 49 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Integrated field and laboratory tests to evaluate effects of metals-impacted wetlands on amphibians: A case study from Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, G.; ,

    2003-01-01

    Mining activities frequently impact wildlife habitats, and a wide range of habitats may require evaluations of the linkages between wildlife and environmental stressors common to mining activities (e.g., physical alteration of habitat, releases of chemicals such as metals and other inorganic constituents as part of the mining operation). Wetlands, for example, are frequently impacted by mining activities. Within an ecological assessment for a wetland, toxicity evaluations for representative species may be advantageous to the site evaluation, since these species could be exposed to complex chemical mixtures potentially released from the site. Amphibian species common to these transition zones between terrestrial and aquatic habitats are one key biological indicator of exposure, and integrated approaches which involve both field and laboratory methods focused on amphibians are critical to the assessment process. The laboratory and field evaluations of a wetland in western Montana illustrates the integrated approach to risk assessment and causal analysis. Here, amphibians were used to evaluate the potential toxicity associated with heavy metal-laden sediments deposited in a reservoir. Field and laboratory methods were applied to a toxicity assessment for metals characteristic of mine tailings to reduce potential "lab to field" extrapolation errors and provide adaptive management programs with critical site-specific information targeted on remediation.

  5. [Inter-laboratory reproducibility of pulsed-field electrophoresis for the study of 12 types of Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissaud, V; Puyhardy, J M; Chapalain, J C; Salord, H; Depina, J J; Morillon, M; Nicolas, P; Perrier-Gros-Claude, J D

    1999-12-01

    The increasing hospital-to-hospital transmission of multiple drug-resistant bacteria is a major concern for bacteriology laboratories involved in nosocomial infection control. The interlaboratory reproducibility of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa typing was evaluated by asking four hospital laboratories (two in Lyon, one in Brest, and one in Marseille) to study 11 P. aeruginosa isolates, some of which were epidemiologically related, and the reference strain ATCC 27853. Two laboratories used the Genepath system, one the Chef DR II, system, and one the Chef Mapper system, Bio-Rad, restriction/Spe I. Profiles were read visually and by computerized comparison of restriction band molecular weights (Taxotron, software, PAD Grimont, Pasteur Institute, Paris, France). These two methods led to similar epidemiological conclusions. However, centralization of the data showed poor center-to-center reproducibility due to inadequate standardization of the procedure.

  6. Disidencia política y compromiso social: Josep María Llorens i Ventura (1886-1967

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tezanos Gandarillas, Marisa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Josep María Llorens was a priest and musicologist linked culturally with catalanism and politically with republicanism. During the Civil War he remained loyal to the Republican government. In 1939 he went into exile in France. He developed his pastoral work among the Spanish exiles. In 1961 he published under the paseudonym of Joan Comas the book L’Esglesia contra la República espanyola, a radical critique of the position taken by the Spanish church to the Republic and the War.Josep María Llorens i Ventura fue un sacerdote y músicólogo vinculado culturalmente con el catalanismo y políticamente con el republicanismo. Durante la Guerra Civil se mantuvo leal al Gobierno Republicano. En 1939 se exilió en Francia. Desarrolló su trabajo pastoral entre los exiliados españoles. En 1961 publicó con el seudónimo de Joan Comas el libro L’Esglesia contra la República espanyola, una crítica radical de la posición que había adoptado la Iglesia española ante la República y la Guerra.

  7. Moving your laboratories to the field – Advantages and limitations of the use of field portable instruments in environmental sample analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka, E-mail: Agnieszka.Galuszka@ujk.edu.pl [Geochemistry and the Environment Division, Institute of Chemistry, Jan Kochanowski University, 15G Świętokrzyska St., 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Migaszewski, Zdzisław M. [Geochemistry and the Environment Division, Institute of Chemistry, Jan Kochanowski University, 15G Świętokrzyska St., 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Namieśnik, Jacek [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdańsk University of Technology (GUT), 11/12 G. Narutowicz St., 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2015-07-15

    The recent rapid progress in technology of field portable instruments has increased their applications in environmental sample analysis. These instruments offer a possibility of cost-effective, non-destructive, real-time, direct, on-site measurements of a wide range of both inorganic and organic analytes in gaseous, liquid and solid samples. Some of them do not require the use of reagents and do not produce any analytical waste. All these features contribute to the greenness of field portable techniques. Several stationary analytical instruments have their portable versions. The most popular ones include: gas chromatographs with different detectors (mass spectrometer (MS), flame ionization detector, photoionization detector), ultraviolet–visible and near-infrared spectrophotometers, X-ray fluorescence spectrometers, ion mobility spectrometers, electronic noses and electronic tongues. The use of portable instruments in environmental sample analysis gives a possibility of on-site screening and a subsequent selection of samples for routine laboratory analyses. They are also very useful in situations that require an emergency response and for process monitoring applications. However, quantification of results is still problematic in many cases. The other disadvantages include: higher detection limits and lower sensitivity than these obtained in laboratory conditions, a strong influence of environmental factors on the instrument performance and a high possibility of sample contamination in the field. This paper reviews recent applications of field portable instruments in environmental sample analysis and discusses their analytical capabilities. - Highlights: • Field portable instruments are widely used in environmental sample analysis. • Field portable instruments are indispensable for analysis in emergency response. • Miniaturization of field portable instruments reduces resource consumption. • In situ analysis is in agreement with green analytical chemistry

  8. Moving your laboratories to the field – Advantages and limitations of the use of field portable instruments in environmental sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M.; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The recent rapid progress in technology of field portable instruments has increased their applications in environmental sample analysis. These instruments offer a possibility of cost-effective, non-destructive, real-time, direct, on-site measurements of a wide range of both inorganic and organic analytes in gaseous, liquid and solid samples. Some of them do not require the use of reagents and do not produce any analytical waste. All these features contribute to the greenness of field portable techniques. Several stationary analytical instruments have their portable versions. The most popular ones include: gas chromatographs with different detectors (mass spectrometer (MS), flame ionization detector, photoionization detector), ultraviolet–visible and near-infrared spectrophotometers, X-ray fluorescence spectrometers, ion mobility spectrometers, electronic noses and electronic tongues. The use of portable instruments in environmental sample analysis gives a possibility of on-site screening and a subsequent selection of samples for routine laboratory analyses. They are also very useful in situations that require an emergency response and for process monitoring applications. However, quantification of results is still problematic in many cases. The other disadvantages include: higher detection limits and lower sensitivity than these obtained in laboratory conditions, a strong influence of environmental factors on the instrument performance and a high possibility of sample contamination in the field. This paper reviews recent applications of field portable instruments in environmental sample analysis and discusses their analytical capabilities. - Highlights: • Field portable instruments are widely used in environmental sample analysis. • Field portable instruments are indispensable for analysis in emergency response. • Miniaturization of field portable instruments reduces resource consumption. • In situ analysis is in agreement with green analytical chemistry

  9. Does insecticide drift adversely affect grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Saltatoria) in field margins? A case study combining laboratory acute toxicity testing with field monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Rebecca; Schmitz, Juliane; Bundschuh, Mirco; Brühl, Carsten Albrecht

    2012-08-01

    The current terrestrial risk assessment of insecticides regarding nontarget arthropods considers exclusively beneficial organisms, whereas herbivorous insects, such as grasshoppers, are ignored. However, grasshoppers living in field margins or meadows adjacent to crops may potentially be exposed to insecticides due to contact with or ingestion of contaminated food. Therefore, the present study assessed effects of five active ingredients of insecticides (dimethoate, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin) on the survival of Chorthippus sp. grasshopper nymphs by considering two routes of exposure (contact and oral). The experiments were accompanied by monitoring field margins that neighbored cereals, vineyards, and orchards. Grasslands were used as reference sites. The laboratory toxicity tests revealed a sensitivity of grasshoppers with regard to the insecticides tested in the present study similar to that of the standard test species used in arthropod risk assessments. In the field monitoring program, increasing grasshopper densities were detected with increasing field margin width next to cereals and vineyards, but densities remained low over the whole range of field margins from 0.5 to 20 m next to orchards. Grasshopper densities equivalent to those of grassland sites were only observed in field margins exceeding 9 m in width, except for field margins next to orchards. These results may indicate that current insecticide risk assessments are insufficiently protective for grasshoppers in field margins. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  10. Seasonal variation of the impact of a stressful procedure on open field behaviour and blood corticosterone in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, L; Caston, J; Mensah-Nyagan, A G

    2006-02-28

    Behavioural and hormonal seasonal changes are well documented in various vertebrate species living in their natural environment but circannual variations that may occur in laboratory animals reared in standard conditions are poorly investigated. This study shows that, in laboratory mice, the effects of stress on behavioural inhibition, investigatory behaviour and blood concentration of corticosterone are seasonally dependent. No consistency was observed between the reactivity of biological structures controlling the hormonal response to stress and the behavioural activities investigated at every period of the year. During the spring time, stress, which elicited a decrease of investigatory behaviour (estimated by the walking time in an open field), increased behavioural inhibition (estimated by the percentage of walking in the central area of the open field) as well as the blood corticosterone concentration in laboratory mice. In autumn, stress had no significant effect on behaviour despite the great hormonal concentration increase. The results reveal that, at certain period of the year, a stressful procedure is unable to affect behavioural parameters in laboratory mice which were maintained in constant 12-h dark/12-h light cycle. The report constitutes a novel piece of information suggesting a potential role of the endogenous biological clock in the modulation of stress response in mammals.

  11. Male convict cichlid 11-ketotestosterone levels throughout the reproductive cycle: an exploratory profile study in laboratory and field populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie April van Breukelen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The convict cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata has been extensively examined in relation to many behavioral topics, such as courtship, pair-bonding, bi-parental care, and territoriality. Recently, this model species has been utilized in studies on genetics, endocrinology, and neuroanatomy, with an ultimate goal of connecting behavior with its underlying mechanisms. The goal of this study was two-fold: (1 profile the circulating levels of plasma 11KT in the male convict cichlid at multiple points during the reproductive cycle and (2 generally compare the hormonal profiles of the widely used laboratory populations and those of a free-living population in the streams of Costa Rica. The results of the field experiment showed that male convict cichlids had higher levels of circulating 11KT during courtship and lower during the parental care and non-breeding phases. The profile of the laboratory population was similar to the profile of the free-living individuals, with significantly higher levels of 11KT occurring during courtship than during parental care, though the level of 11KT during non-breeding phase was elevated in the laboratory. The high levels of 11KT during courtship and low levels of 11KT during parental care found in both the field and the laboratory is similar to what has been reported in other species of teleosts, and may suggest an important function of 11KT in the expression of courtship behavior and the subsequent onset of parental behaviors in this model species.

  12. Frost damage of bricks composing a railway tunnel monument in Central Japan: field monitoring and laboratory simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomachot, C.; Matsuoka, N.; Kuchitsu, N.; Morii, M.

    2005-07-01

    Bricks of tunnels and bridges of Usui Pass railway (Japan) exposed to north are subject to frost damage. Average depth of erosion due to detachment of angular blocks is around 1-1.5 cm. In order to assess this weathering and to understand its mechanism, an experimental study was carried out in the field and laboratory. Field monitoring showed the combination of seasonal and diurnal freezing with a maximum of heave when the freezing front reached 5 cm depth. Bricks taken from the site were submitted to unidirectional freezing at capillary and vacuum saturation in the laboratory. Results showed that frost damage of bricks was favoured by high saturation level and repetition of freeze-thaw cycles.

  13. Frost damage of bricks composing a railway tunnel monument in Central Japan: field monitoring and laboratory simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Thomachot

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bricks of tunnels and bridges of Usui Pass railway (Japan exposed to north are subject to frost damage. Average depth of erosion due to detachment of angular blocks is around 1-1.5 cm. In order to assess this weathering and to understand its mechanism, an experimental study was carried out in the field and laboratory. Field monitoring showed the combination of seasonal and diurnal freezing with a maximum of heave when the freezing front reached 5 cm depth. Bricks taken from the site were submitted to unidirectional freezing at capillary and vacuum saturation in the laboratory. Results showed that frost damage of bricks was favoured by high saturation level and repetition of freeze-thaw cycles.

  14. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Interim report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Thompson, L.E.

    1991-02-01

    This report describes the two in situ vitrification field tests conducted in June and July 1990 at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in- place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to assess the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste, indicating the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste

  15. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Interim report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Thompson, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the two in situ vitrification field tests conducted in July and July 1990 at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in-place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to assess the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste, indicating the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 8 refs., 91 figs., 13 tabs

  16. Dynamic surface deformation of silicone elastomers for management of marine biofouling: laboratory and field studies using pneumatic actuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivapooja, Phanindhar; Wang, Qiming; Szott, Lizzy M; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittschof, Daniel; Zhao, Xuanhe; López, Gabriel P

    2015-01-01

    Many strategies have been developed to improve the fouling release (FR) performance of silicone coatings. However, biofilms inevitably build on these surfaces over time. Previous studies have shown that intentional deformation of silicone elastomers can be employed to detach biofouling species. In this study, inspired by the methods used in soft-robotic systems, controlled deformation of silicone elastomers via pneumatic actuation was employed to detach adherent biofilms. Using programmed surface deformation, it was possible to release > 90% of biofilm from surfaces in both laboratory and field environments. A higher substratum strain was required to remove biofilms accumulated in the field environment as compared with laboratory-grown biofilms. Further, the study indicated that substratum modulus influences the strain needed to de-bond biofilms. Surface deformation-based approaches have potential for use in the management of biofouling in a number of technological areas, including in niche applications where pneumatic actuation of surface deformation is feasible.

  17. Laboratory studies of imitation/field studies of tradition: towards a synthesis in animal social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galef, Bennett G

    2015-03-01

    Here I discuss: (1) historical precedents that have resulted in comparative psychologists accepting the two-action method as the "gold standard" in laboratory investigations of imitation learning, (2) evidence suggesting that the two-action procedure may not be adequate to answer questions concerning the role of imitation in the development of traditional behaviors of animals living in natural habitat, and (3) an alternative approach to the laboratory study of imitation that might increase the relevance of laboratory studies of imitation to the work of behavioral ecologists/primatologists interested in animal traditions and their relationship to human cumulative culture. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Laboratory and field evaluation of spatial repellency with metofluthrin-impregnated paper strip against mosquitoes in Lombok Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Tsuda, Yoshio; Takagi, Masahiro

    2004-09-01

    Spatial repellency of a new multilayer paper strip impregnated with metofluthrin, a newly synthesized pyrethroid, was evaluated in the laboratory and in the field at Kerandangan, Lombok Island, Indonesia, with the use of cow- and human-baited double nets. Spatial repellency was observed in both cow- and human-baited collections. Metofluthrin treatment reduced mosquito collection by >80% during the 1st 4 weeks. However, repellency seemed to reduce with the loss of metofluthrin by evaporation within 6 wk after treatment.

  19. Laboratory and field evaluation of spatial repellency with metofluthrin impregnated paper strip against mosquitoes in Lombok Island, Indonesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Tsuda, yoshio; Takagi, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    Spatial repellency of a new multilayer paper strip impregnated with metofluthrin, a newly synthesized pyrethroid, was evaluated in the laboratory and in the field at Kerandangan, Lombok Island, Indonesia,with the use of cow- and human-baited double nets. Spatial repellency was observed in both cow- and human-baited collections. Metofluthrin treatment reduced mosquito collection by >8O% during the lst 4 weeks.However, repellency seemed to reduce with the loss of metofluthrin by evaporation wit...

  20. ExoHab Pilot Project & Field Tests for Moon-Mars Human Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    We studied concepts for a minimal Moon-Mars habitat, in focussing on the system aspects and coordinating every different part as part an evolving architecture. We validated experimentally the Habitat and Laboratory ExoHab concept constraints during EuroGeoMars campaign in Utah desert research station (from 24 Jan. to 28 Feb. 2009) and EuroMoonMars/DOMMEX campaigns in Nov 2009 and February-April 2010. We discuss from the ILEWG ExoHab concept studies and field simulations the specifics of human exploration, with focus on habitability and human performance. In the ExoHab pilot concept project (supported by ILEWG, ESA NASA), we justify the case for a scientific and exploration outpost allowing experiments, sample analysis in laboratory (relevant to the origin and evolution of planets and life, geophysical and geo-chemical studies, astrobiology and life sciences, observation sciences, technology demonstration, resource utilisation, human exploration and settlement). In this modular concept, we consider various infra structure elements: core habitat, Extra Vehicular activity (EVA), crew mobility, energy supply, recycling module, communication, green house and food production, operations. We review some studies space agencies' architecture proposals, with landers, orbiters, rovers, habitats, surface operations and protocols. We focus on the easiest and the soonest way in settling a minimal base immediately operational in scientific experimentation and exploration, but not immediately autonomous. Through a modular concept, this outpost will be possibly evolved into a long duration or permanent base. We will analyse the possibilities of settling such a minimal base by means of the current and near term propulsion technology, as a full Ariane 5 ME carrying 1.7 T of gross payload to the surface of the Moon (Integrated Exploration Study, ESA ESTEC [1,2]). The low solar rays incidence may permit having ice in deep craters, which will be beneficial for the evolution of the

  1. Influence of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements: insights from field and laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Sandro M.; Pietsch, Helga; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Rieder, Harald E.

    2016-04-01

    A precise knowledge of the surface energy budget, which includes the solar and terrestrial radiation fluxes, is needed to accurately characterize the global energy balance which is largely determining Earth's climate. To this aim national and global monitoring networks for surface radiative fluxes have been established in recent decades. The most prominent among these networks is the so-called Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) operating under the auspices of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) (Ohmura et al., 1998). National monitoring networks such as the Austrian RADiation Monitoring Network (ARAD), which has been established in 2010 by a consortium of the Central Agency of Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), the University of Graz, the University of Innsbruck, and the University of Natural Resources and Applied Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), orient themselves on BSRN standards (McArthur, 2005). ARAD comprises to date five sites (Wien Hohe Warte, Graz/University, Innsbruck/University, Kanzelhöhe Observatory and Sonnblick (which is also a BSRN site)) and aims to provide long-term monitoring of radiation budget components at highest accuracy and to capture the spatial patterns of radiation climate in Austria (Olefs et al., 2015). Given the accuracy requirement for the local monitoring of radiative fluxes instrument offsets, triggered by meteorological factors and/or instrumentation, pose a major challenge in radiation monitoring. Within this study we investigate effects of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements performed with pyranometers contained in various heating/ventilation systems (HV-systems), all of which used in regular operation within the ARAD network. We focus particularly on instrument offsets observed following precipitation events. To quantify pyranometer responses to precipitation we performed a series of controlled laboratory experiments as well as targeted field campaigns in 2015 and 2016. Our results indicate

  2. Field and laboratory investigations on the effects of road salt (NaCl) on stream macroinvertebrate communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasius, B.J.; Merritt, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Short-term exposure to road salt did not significantly affect stream macro-invertebrate communities. - Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the effects of road salt (NaCl) on stream macroinvertebrates. Field studies investigated leaf litter processing rates and functional feeding group composition at locations upstream and downstream from point source salt inputs in two Michigan, USA streams. Laboratory studies determined the effects of increasing NaCl concentrations on aquatic invertebrate drift, behavior, and survival. Field studies revealed that leaves were processed faster at upstream reference sites than at locations downstream from road salt point source inputs. However, it was sediment loading that resulted in partial or complete burial of leaf packs, that affected invertebrate activity and confounded normal leaf pack colonization. There were no significant differences that could be attributed to road salt between upstream and downstream locations in the diversity and composition of invertebrate functional feeding groups. Laboratory drift and acute exposure studies demonstrated that drift of Gammarus (Amphipoda) may be affected by NaCl at concentrations greater than 5000 mg/l for a 24-h period. This amphipod and two species of limnephilid caddisflies exhibited a dose response to salt treatments with 96-h LC 50 values of 7700 and 3526 mg NaCl/l, respectively. Most other invertebrate species and individuals were unaffected by NaCl concentrations up to 10,000 mg/l for 24 and 96 h, respectively

  3. Aligning laboratory and field compaction practices for asphalt - the influence of compaction temperature on mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Frank; Miller, Seirgei Rosario; de Bondt, A.H.; Doree, Andries G.

    2015-01-01

    The approach used to identify a compaction temperature in the laboratory, based on binder viscosity, provides a single compaction temperature whereas, on-site, a roller operates within a temperature window. The effect on the density and mechanical properties of rolling during a temperature window

  4. Flood-Fighting Structures Demonstration and Evaluation Program: Laboratory and Field Testing in Vicksburg, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    then it should be disposed of by recycling or land-filling. This material should not be burned due to the formation of carbon dioxide and carbon...and 2-192). A top spreader bar Chapter 2 Laboratory Testing and Evaluation of Expedient Flood-fighting Barriers 135 Figure 2-189

  5. Estimation of soil profile properties using field and laboratory VNIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) soil sensors have the potential to provide rapid, high-resolution estimation of multiple soil properties. Although many studies have focused on laboratory-based visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectroscopy of dried soil samples, previous work has demonstrated ...

  6. Confirming the species-sensitivity distribution concept for endosulfan using laboratory, mesocosm, and field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hose, G.C.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2004-01-01

    In Australia, water-quality trigger values for toxicants are derived using protective concentration values based on species-sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves. SSD curves are generally derived from laboratory data with an emphasis on using local or site-specific data. In this study, Australian

  7. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 673 (Naval Research Laboratories)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinate by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  8. Comparison of the effects of drilling fluid on macrobenthic invertebrates associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, in the laboratory and field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.E.; Flemer, D.A.; Bundick, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The structure of a macrobenthic invertebrate community associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. The research focused on: (1) the effects of pollution stress from a representative drilling fluid used in offshore oil and gas operations, and (2) a comparison of responses of the seagrass-invertebrate community in the laboratory and field. The numbers of macrobenthic invertebrates were suppressed by drilling fluid at both exposure periods in the laboratory, but inhibitory effects were absent in the field. Invertebrate densities in the field were similar among control and treated plots, and were much lower than densities occurring in the laboratory control. In most instances, species richness values were similar in the field and laboratory at the end of each 6 and 12 week period

  9. Laboratory Experiments and Modeling for Interpreting Field Studies of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Using an Oxidation Flow Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This grant was originally funded for deployment of a suite of aerosol instrumentation by our group in collaboration with other research groups and DOE/ARM to the Ganges Valley in India (GVAX) to study aerosols sources and processing. Much of the first year of this grant was focused on preparations for GVAX. That campaign was cancelled due to political reasons and with the consultation with our program manager, the research of this grant was refocused to study the applications of oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) for investigating secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and organic aerosol (OA) processing in the field and laboratory through a series of laboratory and modeling studies. We developed a gas-phase photochemical model of an OFR which was used to 1) explore the sensitivities of key output variables (e.g., OH exposure, O3, HO2/OH) to controlling factors (e.g., water vapor, external reactivity, UV irradiation), 2) develop simplified OH exposure estimation equations, 3) investigate under what conditions non-OH chemistry may be important, and 4) help guide design of future experiments to avoid conditions with undesired chemistry for a wide range of conditions applicable to the ambient, laboratory, and source studies. Uncertainties in the model were quantified and modeled OH exposure was compared to tracer decay measurements of OH exposure in the lab and field. Laboratory studies using OFRs were conducted to explore aerosol yields and composition from anthropogenic and biogenic VOC as well as crude oil evaporates. Various aspects of the modeling and laboratory results and tools were applied to interpretation of ambient and source measurements using OFR. Additionally, novel measurement methods were used to study gas/particle partitioning. The research conducted was highly successful and details of the key results are summarized in this report through narrative text, figures, and a complete list of publications acknowledging this grant.

  10. A new pulsed electric field microreactor: comparison between the laboratory and microtechnology scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, M.B.; Fox, Martijn; Esveld, Erik; Lüttge, Regina; Boom, Remko

    This paper presents a new microreactor dedicated for pulsed electric field treatment (PEF), which is a pasteurization method that inactivates microorganisms with short electric pulses. The PEF microreactor consists of a flow-through channel with a constriction where the electric field is focussed.

  11. Seed persistence in the field may be predicted by laboratory-controlled aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Rowena L.; Panetta, F. Dane; Steadman, Kathryn J.; Probert, Robin; Bekker, Renee M.; Brooks, Simon; Adkins, Steve W.

    2008-01-01

    Weed management is complicated by the presence of soil seed banks. The complexity of soil-seed interactions means that seed persistence in the field is often difficult to measure, let alone predict. Field trials, although accurate in their context, are time-consuming and expensive to conduct for

  12. A new pulsed electric field microreactor: comparison between the laboratory and microtechnology scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, M.B.; Esveld, D.C.; Luttge, R.; Boom, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new microreactor dedicated for pulsed electric field treatment (PEF), which is a pasteurization method that inactivates microorganisms with short electric pulses. The PEF microreactor consists of a flow-through channel with a constriction where the electric field is focussed.

  13. Depuration kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxins in Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to Gymnodinium catenatum: laboratory and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Maria João; Vale, Carlos; Mota, Ana M; S Simões Gonçalves, Maria de Lurdes

    2010-12-01

    The kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxins in Mytilus galloprovincialis, previously exposed to Gymnodinium catenatum, was studied under depuration laboratory conditions and over a declining bloom of the dinoflagellate in the field. The variation of the levels observed throughout the laboratory experiment was characterized by a fast depuration of B1, C1 + 2, dcSTX and dcGTX2 + 3, possibly due to the gut evacuation of unassimilated toxins or microalgae cells, or loss during digestive mechanisms. Subsequent enhancements were observed for all compounds with emphasis to dcSTX and dcGTX2 + 3, pointing to biotransformation of the assimilated toxins. Then levels decreased gradually. A first-order depuration kinetic model fitted well to the decrease of B1, C1 + 2 and dcGTX2 + 3 concentrations, but not for dcSTX. Mussels exposed to a declining bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum exhibited a loss of toxins following the same pattern. Despite the low abundance of this dinoflagellate, a similar kinetic model was applied to the field data. The depuration rate of dcGTX2 + 3 in the field experiment (0.153 ± 0.03 day(-1)) significantly exceeded the value calculated in the laboratory (0.053 ± 0.01 day(-1)), while smaller differences were obtained for B1 (0.071 ± 0.02 and 0.048 ± 0.01 day(-1)) and similar values for C1 + 2 (0.082 ± 0.03 and 0.080 ± 0.03 day(-1)). The slower depuration rate of dcGTX2 + 3 in the heavily contaminated mussels at the laboratory may be related to a more effective contribution of C1 + 2 biotransformation.

  14. Contribution to the RMTC in the field of tank calibration and measurements - the TAMSCA laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, B.A.; Landat, D.; Caviglia, M.; Silvapestana, L.

    1999-01-01

    The Russian Methodological and Training Centre (RMTC) is being established for training of personnel from the various Russian and CIS nuclear facilities organizations in the control and accountancy methods, utilised in EURATOM and in the IAEA. Under the project equipment and support will be provided in a number of areas, namely containment and surveillance, training, passive/active neutron assay and mass/volume methodologies. For the latter a mass/volume measurement laboratory - a Tank Measurements and Calibration Laboratory (TAMSCA) is being set-up in IPPE, Obninsk. The goal is to upgrade the methodology within the Russian Federation in the application of mass/volume measurement techniques and render a facility suitable adapted to carrying out training courses with specific orientation for the nuclear inspectors and operators of nuclear facilities for nuclear accountancy and control [ru

  15. Laboratory source based full-field x-ray microscopy at 9 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fella, C.; Balles, A.; Wiest, W. [Lehrstuhl für Röntgenmikroskopie, Julius-Maximilians-Universität, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Zabler, S.; Hanke, R. [Lehrstuhl für Röntgenmikroskopie, Julius-Maximilians-Universität, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Fraunhofer Development Center X-Ray Technology (EZRT), Flugplatzstrasse 75, 90768 Fürth (Germany)

    2016-01-28

    In the past decade, hard x-ray transmission microscopy experienced tremendous developments. With the avail-ability of efficient Fresnel zone plates, even set-ups utilizing laboratory sources were developed [1]. In order to improve the performance of these x-ray microscopes, novel approaches to fabricate optical elements [2] and brighter x-ray tubes [3] are promising candidates. We are currently building a laboratory transmission x-ray microscope for 9.25 keV, using an electron impact liquid-metal-jet anode source. Up to now, the further elements of our setup are: a polycapillary condenser, a tungsten zone plate, and a scintillator which is optically coupled to a CMOS camera. However, further variations in terms of optical elements are intended. Here we present the current status of our work, as well as first experimental results.

  16. Measurement of the magnetic field of small magnets with a smartphone: a very economical laboratory practice for introductory physics courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arribas, Enrique; Escobar, Isabel; Suarez, Carmen P; Najera, Alberto; Beléndez, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose an inexpensive laboratory practice for an introductory physics course laboratory for any grade of science and engineering study. This practice was very well received by our students, where a smartphone (iOS, Android, or Windows) is used together with mini magnets (similar to those used on refrigerator doors), a 20 cm long school rule, a paper, and a free application (app) that needs to be downloaded and installed that measures magnetic fields using the smartphone’s magnetic field sensor or magnetometer. The apps we have used are: Magnetometer (iOS), Magnetometer Metal Detector, and Physics Toolbox Magnetometer (Android). Nothing else is needed. Cost of this practice: free. The main purpose of the practice is that students determine the dependence of the component x of the magnetic field produced by different magnets (including ring magnets and sphere magnets). We obtained that the dependency of the magnetic field with the distance is of the form x –3 , in total agreement with the theoretical analysis. The secondary objective is to apply the technique of least squares fit to obtain this exponent and the magnetic moment of the magnets, with the corresponding absolute error. (paper)

  17. Measurement of the magnetic field of small magnets with a smartphone: a very economical laboratory practice for introductory physics courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Enrique; Escobar, Isabel; Suarez, Carmen P.; Najera, Alberto; Beléndez, Augusto

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we propose an inexpensive laboratory practice for an introductory physics course laboratory for any grade of science and engineering study. This practice was very well received by our students, where a smartphone (iOS, Android, or Windows) is used together with mini magnets (similar to those used on refrigerator doors), a 20 cm long school rule, a paper, and a free application (app) that needs to be downloaded and installed that measures magnetic fields using the smartphone’s magnetic field sensor or magnetometer. The apps we have used are: Magnetometer (iOS), Magnetometer Metal Detector, and Physics Toolbox Magnetometer (Android). Nothing else is needed. Cost of this practice: free. The main purpose of the practice is that students determine the dependence of the component x of the magnetic field produced by different magnets (including ring magnets and sphere magnets). We obtained that the dependency of the magnetic field with the distance is of the form x-3, in total agreement with the theoretical analysis. The secondary objective is to apply the technique of least squares fit to obtain this exponent and the magnetic moment of the magnets, with the corresponding absolute error.

  18. Induction and transmission of tolerance to the synthetic pesticide emamectin benzoate in field and laboratory populations of diamondback moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Baker, G; Powis, K J; Roush, R T; Schmidt, O

    2010-08-01

    Field surveys of pest insect pest populations in agroecosystems reveal low but significant levels of tolerance to synthetic and biological pesticides but fail to uncover resistance alleles in test crosses. To study the potential of inducible mechanisms to generate tolerance to synthetic pesticides, we performed baseline susceptibility studies in field and laboratory populations of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), to commercial formulations of emamectin benzoate. Pesticide exposure in the field caused elevated levels of tolerance, which decreased in field-collected populations after maintaining insects with pesticide-free diet in the laboratory. Because no significant resistance alleles were identified in back-crossed individuals, the observed increase in tolerance was probably not based on preexisting recessive resistance mechanisms in the population. Instead, the genetic analysis after five and 12 generations is compatible with a transient up-regulation of an immune and metabolic status in tolerant insects that can be transmitted to offspring by a maternal effect. Although the epigenetic effects contributed to incremental increases in tolerance in the first five generations, other resistance mechanisms that are transmitted genetically predominate after 12 generations of increased exposure to the pesticide.

  19. Laboratory and field evaluation of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria cateniannulata strain 08XS-1, against Tetranychus urticae (Koch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaona; Jin, Daochao; Zou, Xiao; Guo, Jianjun

    2016-05-01

    The two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is one of the most serious mite pests of crops throughout the world. Biocontrol of the mite with fungal agents has long been paid much attention because of the development of insecticide resistance and the severe restriction of chemical pesticides. In this study, the efficacy of submerged conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria cateniannulata strain 08XS-1 against T. urticae eggs, larvae and female adults was evaluated at different temperatures and humidity in the laboratory and under field conditions. The results showed that a suspension of 2 × 10(7) submerged conidia mL(-1) caused the highest mortalities of mite eggs, larvae and females (100, 100 and 70% respectively) at 100% relative humidity and 25 °C in the laboratory. In the field experiments against the mites, a suspension of 2 × 10(8) submerged conidia mL(-1) achieved significant efficiency - the relative control effects were 88.6, 83.8 and 83%, respectively, in cucumber, eggplant and bean fields after 10 days of treatment. The results suggest that the I. cateniannulata strain 08XS-1 is a potential fungal agent, with acceptable production cost of conidia, against T. urticae in the field in an area such as southwestern China with higher air humidity. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. U.S. laboratory and field trials of metofluthrin (SumiOne) emanators for reducing mosquito biting outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J R; Shono, Y; Iwasaki, T; Ishiwatari, T; Spero, N; Benzon, G

    2007-03-01

    Metofluthrin (SumiOne is a novel, vapor-active pyrethroid that is highly effective against mosquitoes. Laboratory and field trials were conducted in the United States to evaluate the mosquito repellent activity of metofluthrin-treated paper substrates ("emanators"). Initial studies were conducted to evaluate the field performance of 900-cm(2) paper fan emanators impregnated with 160 mg metofluthrin, where Aedes canadensis was the predominant species. Emanators reduced landing rates on human volunteers by between 85% and 100% compared to untreated controls. Subsequent tests with 4,000-cm(2) paper strip emanators impregnated with 200 mg metofluthrin were conducted in a wind tunnel as a precursor to conducting field trials using human bait and laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti. Paper strips, which were pre-aged in a fume hood to determine duration of protection, gave 89-91% reductions in landing rates compared with controls. Similar reductions in biting activity were also noted. Following these tests, field trials to assess effect on landing rates were conducted with emanators positioned 1.22 m on either side of volunteers protected from biting by Tyvek suits, with pre- and posttreatment counts being made. In Florida (predominantly Ochlerotatus spp.) 91-95% reductions were noted 10-30 min after emanators were deployed, while in Washington State (mostly Aedes vexans) 95-97% reductions were observed. These results demonstrate that metofluthrin-treated emanators are highly effective at repelling mosquitoes.

  1. The Next Generation of Synthetic Biology Chassis: Moving Synthetic Biology from the Laboratory to the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-26

    online 2016 Sep 26. doi: 10.1021/acssynbio.6b00256. 14. ABSTRACT Escherichia coli (E. coli) has played a pivotal role in the development of genetics...Adams* U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland 20783, United States ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli (E. coli) has played a pivotal role in the...the development of new SB chassis (Figure 1). First, a large knowledge base of the chassis needs to be established to facilitate development of accurate

  2. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  3. Field Programmable Gate Array Control of Power Systems in Graduate Student Laboratories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connor, Joseph E

    2008-01-01

    ...) continuously develops new design and education resources for students. One area of focus for students in the Power Electronics curriculum track is the development of a design center that explores Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA...

  4. Comparative susceptibility of bemisia tabaci to imidacloprid in field- and laboratory-based bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci biotype B is a resistance-prone pest of protected and open agriculture. Systemic uptake bioassays used in resistance monitoring programs have provided important information on susceptibility to neonicotinoid insecticides, but have remained decoupled from field performance. Simultaneou...

  5. Laboratory development and field testing of sentinel toys to assess environmental faecal exposure of young children in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torondel, Belen; Gyekye-Aboagye, Yaw; Routray, Parimita; Boisson, Sophie; Schimdt, Wolf; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Sentinel toys are increasingly used as a method of assessing young children's exposure to faecal pathogens in households in low-income settings. However, there is no consensus on the suitability of different approaches. We evaluated three types of toy balls with different surfaces (plastic, rubber, urethane) in the laboratory to compare the uptake of faecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli) on their surface. We performed bacteria survival analysis under different environmental conditions and tested laboratory methods for bacteria removal and recovery. In a field study we distributed sterile urethane balls to children toys in sterile water, assayed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) and explored associations between the level of contamination and household characteristics. In the laboratory, urethane foam balls took up more indicator bacteria than the other balls. Bacteria recovery did not differ based on mechanic vs no agitation. Higher temperatures and moisture levels increased bacterial yield. In the field, the only factor associated with a decreased recovery of TTC from the balls was having a soil (unpaved) floor. Sentinel toys may be an effective tool for assessing young children's exposure to faecal pathogens. However, even using methods designed to increase bacterial recovery, limited sensitivity may require larger sample sizes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Irritability Levels of Field and Laboratory Population of Culex pipiens Complex in Tehran to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The irritant effect of some insecticides can cause a proportion of mosquitoes to leave the sprayed rooms before acquiring a lethal dose, so the repeated contact al sub-lethal dose may lead to extent the resistance.Methods: Larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens complex were collected in mass from open canals of waste water in capital city Tehran and reared to obtain the first generation at laboratory. Sugar-fed 2–3 days female mosquitoes were used for the experiments and compared with laboratory strain. The irritability tests of insecticides impregnated pa­pers were measured in plastic conical exposure chambers placed which implemented at controlled conditions ac­cording  to  the  method  described  by WHO .Number of take-offs were counted during 15  minutes of exposure  time.Results: DDT had the most irritancy effect against field population of Cx. pipiens. DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was moderately irritable against laboratory strain, whereas, addition to three previous insecticides, malathion, cyfluthrin and propoxur should be also considered as moderately irritable insecticides for field population of. Irritability level of etofenprox, fenithrothion, bendiocarb, and lambdacyhalothrin did not differ from control group.Conclusion: The irritability response of mosquitoes may have a negative impact on control measures. Periodical execution of irritability tests with insecticides that routinely used in vector control program is highly recommended.

  7. Laboratory and field studies of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong.) in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Rachel A.; Duckham, S. Craig; Hewitt, C. Nicholas

    1996-10-01

    Isoprene and monoterpene emission rates were measured from Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong.) with a dynamic flow-through branch enclosure, both in the laboratory and in the field in the United Kingdom. In the laboratory, emission rates of isoprene comprised over 94% of the identified VOC species, and were exponentially related to temperature over a period of 1 day. This exponential relationship broke down at ˜33°C. Field measurements were taken on five sampling days in 1992 and 1993, in Grizedale Forest, Cumbria. Total emission rates were in the range 36-3771 ng g-1 h-1. Relative emissions were more variable than suggested by laboratory measurements, with monoterpenes contributing at least 64% to the total emissions in most cases. There was a significant variation in the basal emission rate both across the growing season and between different ages of vegetation, the causes of which are as yet unknown. Total emission rates, in July 1993, were estimated to be between 0.01 and 0.27% of assimilated carbon.

  8. From the Laboratory to the Field: Updating Capacity Building in Medical Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Antonio Paulo Gouveia; Fouque, Florence; Launois, Pascal; Sousa, Carla A; Silveira, Henrique

    2017-09-01

    Training and innovation in the field of medical entomology are essential to mitigate the burden of vector-borne diseases globally. However, there is a shortage of medical entomologists worldwide, and there are large discrepancies in capacity building in this field. In this article, we discuss the current situation, what is needed from the medical entomologist of today, and how we can bridge this gap. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Superconducting magnet development capability of the LLNL [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory] High Field Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.R.; Shen, S.; Summers, L.T.

    1990-02-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: High-Field Test Facility Equipment at LLNL; FENIX Magnet Facility; High-Field Test Facility (HFTF) 2-m Solenoid; Cryogenic Mechanical Test Facility; Electro-Mechanical Conductor Test Apparatus; Electro-Mechanical Wire Test Apparatus; FENIX/HFTF Data System and Network Topology; Helium Gas Management System (HGMS); Airco Helium Liquefier/Refrigerator; CTI 2800 Helium Liquefier; and MFTF-B/ITER Magnet Test Facility

  10. Urban Field Experiences for Undergraduate Liberal Arts Students: Using Compromised Environments as Living Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; Knee, K.

    2015-12-01

    While urban environments may lack the beauty of relatively pristine field sites, they can be used to deliver an effective demonstration of actual environmental damage. Students demanding applied field experiences from their undergraduate environmental science programs can be well served in urban settings. Here, we present strategies for integrating degraded urban systems into the undergraduate field experience. Urban locations provide an opportunity for a different type of local "field-work" than would otherwise be available. In the upper-level undergraduate Environmental Methods class, we relied on a National Park area located a 10-minute walk from campus for most field exercises. Activities included soil analysis, measuring stream flow and water quality parameters, dendrochronology, and aquatic microbe metabolism. In the non-majors class, we make use of our urban location to contrast water quality in parks and highly channelized urban streams. Students spend labs immersed in streams and wetlands heavily impacted by the urban runoff their city generates. Here we share lesson plans and budgets for field activities that can be completed during a class period of 2.5 hours with a $75 course fee, show how these activities help students gain quantitative competency.

  11. Dissipation and enantioselective degradation of plant growth retardants paclobutrazol and uniconazole in open field, greenhouse, and laboratory soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengwang; Sun, Jianqiang; Zhang, Anping; Liu, Weiping

    2013-01-15

    Greenhouses are increasingly important in human food supply. Pesticides used in greenhouses play important roles in horticulture; however, little is known about their behavior in greenhouse environments. This work investigates the dissipation and enantioselctive degradation of plant growth retardants including paclobutrazol and uniconazole in soils under three conditions (i.e., open field, greenhouse, and laboratory). The dissipation and enantioselective degradation of paclobutrazol and uniconazole in greenhouse were different from those in open field; they were more persistent in greenhouse than in open field soil. Leaching produced by rainfall is responsible for the difference in dissipation. Thus, local environmental impacts may occur more easily inside greenhouses, while groundwater may be more contaminated in open field. Spike concentrations of 5, 10, and 20 times the concentrations of native residues were tested for the enantioselective dissipation of the two pesticides; the most potent enantioselective degradation of paclobutrazol and uniconazole occurred at the 10 times that of the native residues in the greenhouse environments and at 20 times native residues in open field environments. The higher soil activity in greenhouses than in open fields was thought to be responsible for such a difference. The environmental risk and regulation of paclobutrazol and uniconazole should be considered at the enantiomeric level.

  12. Laboratory modeling, field study, and numerical simulation of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.J.; Islam, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Historical methods of cleaning up petroleum hydrocarbons from the vadose zone, the capillary zone, and the aquifers are not technically true cleanup technologies but rather transfer techniques. In addition, environmental engineers are realizing that the standard remediation techniques are not entirely effective in removing the hazardous material in a reasonable time frame. Long-chain hydrocarbons such as kerosene, diesel, and waste oil are particularly difficult to remediate using conventional techniques. The use of bioremediation as an alternative remediation technology is fast becoming the technique of choice among many environmental professionals. This method offers substantial benefits not found in other remediation processes. Bioremediation is very cost effective, nondestructive, relatively uncomplicated in implementing, requires non specialized equipment, and can be extremely effective in removing recalcitrant petroleum hydrocarbons. This study researched the availability of viable microbial populations in the arid climate in South Dakota. Exponential growth of the bacteria and the ability of bacteria to degrade long-chain hydrocarbons indicated that healthy populations do exist and could be used to mineralize organic hydrocarbons. Experimental results indicated that bioremediation can be effectively enhanced in landfills as well as in the subsurface using a supply of harmless nutrients. The biodegradation rate can be further enhanced with the use of edible surfactant that helped disperse the petroleum products. Also, the use of hydrogen peroxide enhanced the oxygen availability and increased the degradation rate. Interestingly, the bacterial growth rate is found to be high in difficult-to-biodegrade contaminants, such as waste oil. A numerical simulation program was also developed that describes the bacterial growth in the subsurface along with the reduction in substrate (contamination). Results from this program were found to be consistent with laboratory

  13. Complex mixtures, complex responses: Assessing pharmaceutical mixtures using field and laboratory approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Scott, Tia-Marie; Kolpin, Dana W.; Cetkovic-Cvrlje, Marina; Lesteberg, Kelsey E.; Rearick, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are present in low concentrations (pharmaceutical formulation facilities. Using existing concentration data, the authors assessed pharmaceuticals in laboratory exposures of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and added environmental complexity through effluent exposures. In the laboratory, larval and mature minnows were exposed to a simple opioid mixture (hydrocodone, methadone, and oxycodone), an opioid agonist (tramadol), a muscle relaxant (methocarbamol), a simple antidepressant mixture (fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine), a sleep aid (temazepam), or a complex mixture of all compounds. Larval minnow response to effluent exposure was not consistent. The 2010 exposures resulted in shorter exposed minnow larvae, whereas the larvae exposed in 2012 exhibited altered escape behavior. Mature minnows exhibited altered hepatosomatic indices, with the strongest effects in females and in mixture exposures. In addition, laboratory-exposed, mature male minnows exposed to all pharmaceuticals (except the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor mixture) defended nest sites less rigorously than fish in the control group. Tramadol or antidepressant mixture exposure resulted in increased splenic T lymphocytes. Only male minnows exposed to whole effluent responded with increased plasma vitellogenin concentrations. Female minnows exposed to pharmaceuticals (except the opioid mixture) had larger livers, likely as a compensatory result of greater prominence of vacuoles in liver hepatocytes. The observed alteration of apical endpoints central to sustaining fish populations confirms that effluents containing waste streams from pharmaceutical formulation facilities can adversely impact fish populations but that the effects may not be temporally consistent. The present study highlights the importance of including diverse biological endpoints spanning levels of biological organization and life stages when assessing contaminant interactions.

  14. Field and Laboratory Tests of Chromium-51-EDTA and Tritium Water as a Double Tracer for Groundwater Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutsson, G.; Uunggren, K.; Forsberg, H. G.

    1963-01-01

    Since 1958 field experiments and laboratory tests have been made in a study of groundwater flow in different geological and mineralogical environments by the use of gamma-emitting tracers ana tritium water. The velocity of groundwater flow in soil is rather low, and tracers with medium or long half-life must be chosen to trace the movement. A stable EDTA-complex of Cr 51 (half-life 28 d) was developed for this purpose and used together with tritium water. With this double tracer it was possible to follow the groundwater flow by measurement of the gamma radiation from Cr 51 directly in the field and thereby to reduce the number of water samples for precise laboratory assessment. By comparison of the measured activities of Cr 51 and tritium it was possible to determine whether there was any retardation or loss of the chromium complex as a result of adsorption. Six field investigations, each of about two months' duration, have been made in glacifluvial sand and gravel. The results from these show that the chromium complex is transported as rapidly as the tritium water is, even at low concentrations (0. 01 ppm) of the complex. 17 field investigations of one to three months' duration with this double tracer have been carried out in various till (moraine) soils for a study of certain hydrological problems. Laboratory tests with soil and water from the various areas of field investigations have shown that the chromium complex does not hydrolyse at concentrations above 0.01 ppm. Further laboratory tests of the reliability of the chromium complex in different mineralogical environments are in progress. A number of investigations of groundwater flow through fissures and channels have abo been made. When the velocity of flow was assumed to be very high, Br 82 as bromide ion or Rhodamine-B, a fluorescent organic dye, were used. EDTA-Cr 51 and tritium water were, however, used when the velocity was considered low or when, as in karst, a great number of channels or large

  15. Field tracer transport experiments at the site of Canada's underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, L.H.; Davison, C.C.; Vandergraaf, T.T.; Scheier, N.W.; Kozak, E.T.

    1997-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the processes affecting solute transport in fractured crystalline rock, groundwater tracer experiments are being performed within natural fracture domains and excavation damage zones at various scales at the site of AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The main objective of these experiments is to develop and demonstrate methods for characterizing the solute transport properties within fractured crystalline rock. Estimates of these properties are in turn being used in AECL's conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow and solute transport through the geosphere surrounding a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. (author)

  16. Assessment of the NCHRP abutment scour prediction equations with laboratory and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in coopeation with nthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) is assessing the performance of several abutment-scour predcition equations developed in NCHRP Project 24-15(2) and NCHRP Project 24-20. To accomplish this assssment, 516 laboratory and 329 fiels measurements of abutment scor were complied from selected sources and applied tto the new equations. Results will be used to identify stregths, weaknesses, and limitations of the NCHRP abutment scour equations, providing practical insights for applying the equations. This paper presents some prelimiray findings from the investigation.

  17. Characterization of the radiation field of a 137Cs source in a calibration laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, E.F.; Freitas, C.; Freire, D.; Almeida, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the broad range of radiation levels found in practice, the calibration of radiation detector requires that the laboratory have a large range of values of air kerma rates for a reference distance to the source, in order to allow the calibration of all scales. The dosimetry performed for open beam and with the different attenuators has shown deviations smaller than 5% in relation to the data supplied by the manufacturer that is acceptable. These results are in accordance with the recommendations of the ISO/DIS 4037-2

  18. Laboratory Deposition Apparatus to Study the Effects of Wax Deposition on Pipe Magnetic Field Leakage Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mohd Fauzi Abd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate technique for wax deposition detection and severity measurement on cold pipe wall is important for pipeline cleaning program. Usually these techniques are validated by conventional techniques on laboratory scale wax deposition flow loop. However conventional techniques inherent limitations and it is difficult to reproduce a predetermine wax deposit profile and hardness at designated location in flow loop. An alternative wax deposition system which integrates modified pour casting method and cold finger method is presented. This system is suitable to reproduce high volume of medium hard wax deposit in pipe with better control of wax deposit profile and hardness.

  19. A study of J-coupling spectroscopy using the Earth's field nuclear magnetic resonance inside a laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu-Hsien; Chen, Ming-Jye; Yang, Hong-Chang; Lee, Shin-Yi; Chen, Hsin-Hsien; Horng, Herng-Er; Yang, Shieh-Yueh

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, an instrumentation of the Earth's field nuclear magnetic resonance (EFNMR) inside a laboratory is presented. A lock-in analysis (LIA) technique was proposed to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A SNR of 137.8 was achieved in a single measurement for 9 ml tap water, and the LIA technique significantly enhanced the SNR to 188 after a 10-average in a noisy laboratory environment. The proton-phosphorus coupling in trimethyl phosphate ((CH(3)O)(3)PO) with J-coupling J[H,F]=(10.99±0.013) Hz has been demonstrated. The LIA technique improves the SNR, and a 2.6-fold improvement in SNR over that of the frequency-adjusted averaging is achieved. To reduce the noise in EFNMR, it was suggested that the LIA technique and the first order gradient shim be used to achieve a subhertz linewidth.

  20. Acetylcholinesterase in honey bees (Apis mellifera) exposed to neonicotinoids, atrazine and glyphosate: laboratory and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boily, Monique; Sarrasin, Benoit; Deblois, Christian; Aras, Philippe; Chagnon, Madeleine

    2013-08-01

    In Québec, as observed globally, abnormally high honey bee mortality rates have been reported recently. Several potential contributing factors have been identified, and exposure to pesticides is of increasing concern. In maize fields, foraging bees are exposed to residual concentrations of insecticides such as neonicotinoids used for seed coating. Highly toxic to bees, neonicotinoids are also reported to increase AChE activity in other invertebrates exposed to sub-lethal doses. The purpose of this study was therefore to test if the honey bee's AChE activity could be altered by neonicotinoid compounds and to explore possible effects of other common products used in maize fields: atrazine and glyphosate. One week prior to pollen shedding, beehives were placed near three different field types: certified organically grown maize, conventionally grown maize or non-cultivated. At the same time, caged bees were exposed to increasing sub-lethal doses of neonicotinoid insecticides (imidacloprid and clothianidin) and herbicides (atrazine and glyphosate) under controlled conditions. While increased AChE activity was found in all fields after 2 weeks of exposure, bees close to conventional maize crops showed values higher than those in both organic maize fields and non-cultivated areas. In caged bees, AChE activity increased in response to neonicotinoids, and a slight decrease was observed by glyphosate. These results are discussed with regard to AChE activity as a potential biomarker of exposure for neonicotinoids.

  1. Trace-level beryllium analysis in the laboratory and in the field: State of the art, challenges, and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRISSON, MICHAEL

    2006-03-30

    Control of workplace exposure to beryllium is a growing issue in the United States and other nations. As the health risks associated with low-level exposure to beryllium are better understood, the need increases for improved analytical techniques both in the laboratory and in the field. These techniques also require a greater degree of standardization to permit reliable comparison of data obtained from different locations and at different times. Analysis of low-level beryllium samples, in the form of air filters or surface wipes, is frequently required for workplace monitoring or to provide data to support decision-making on implementation of exposure controls. In the United States and the United Kingdom, the current permissible exposure level is 2 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (air), and the United States Department of Energy has implemented an action level of 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (air) and 0.2 {micro}g/100 cm{sup 2} (surface). These low-level samples present a number of analytical challenges, including (1) a lack of suitable standard reference materials, (2) unknown robustness of sample preparation techniques, (3) interferences during analysis, (4) sensitivity (sufficiently low detection limits), (5) specificity (beryllium speciation), and (6) data comparability among laboratories. Additionally, there is a need for portable, real-time (or near real-time) equipment for beryllium air monitoring and surface wipe analysis that is both laboratory-validated and field-validated in a manner that would be accepted by national and/or international standards organizations. This paper provides a review of the current analytical requirements for trace-level beryllium analysis for worker protection, and also addresses issues that may change those requirements. The current analytical state of the art and relevant challenges facing the analytical community will be presented, followed by suggested criteria for real-time monitoring equipment. Recognizing and addressing these challenges will

  2. Laboratory experiments on plasma jets in a magnetic field using high-power lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The experiments to simulate astrophysical jet generation are performed using Gekko XII (GXII HIPER laser system at the Institute of Laser Engineering. In the experiments a fast plasma flow generated by shooting a CH plane (10 μm thickness is observed at the rear side of the plane. By separating the focal spot of the main beams, a non-uniform plasma is generated. The non-uniform plasma flow in an external magnetic field (0.2∼0.3 T perpendicular to the plasma is more collimated than that without the external magnetic field. The plasma β, the ratio between the plasma and magnetic pressure, is ≫ 1, and the magnetic Reynolds number is ∼150 in the collimated plasma. It is considered that the magnetic field is distorted by the plasma flow and enhances the jet collimation.

  3. Laboratory Experiments on Propagating Plasma Bubbles into Vacuum, Vacuum Magnetic Field, and Background Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Alan G.; Zhang, Yue; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott

    2014-10-01

    We discuss the dynamics of plasma ``bubbles'' as they propagate through a variety of background media. These bubbles are formed by a pulsed coaxial gun with an externally applied magnetic field. Bubble parameters are typically ne ~1020 m-3, Te ~ 5 - 10 eV, and Ti ~ 10 - 15 eV. The structure of the bubbles can range from unmagnetized jet-like structures to spheromak-like structures with complex magnetic flux surfaces. Some of the background media the bubbles interact with are vacuum, vacuum with magnetic field, and other magnetized plasmas. These bubbles exhibit different qualitative behavior depending on coaxial gun parameters such as gas species, gun current, and gun bias magnetic field. Their behavior also depends on the parameters of the background they propagate through. Multi-frame fast camera imaging and magnetic probe data are used to characterize the bubble evolution under various conditions.

  4. Field and laboratory investigations on pavement backfilling material for micro-trenching in cold regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hashemian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Micro-trenching is an innovative utility installation method that involves creating a narrow trench to place cable or conduit in the road pavement. Compared to other installation methods, micro-trenching provides minimal disturbance to the community and surrounding environment. Despite the advantages of micro-trenching, it is not widely accepted by municipalities because of its potential to damage the existing pavement. Quality of backfilling is an important factor in long-term sustainability of the micro-trench, particularly in cold regions. This paper investigates the performance of two typical micro-trench backfilling methods in cold climates by studying a pilot project in a parking lot in Edmonton, Alberta, followed by a laboratory evaluation of the material used. For this purpose, the installations were monitored through ground-penetrating radar, optical time-domain reflectometer, and visual observations for three years. The monitoring results revealed that conduit had significant vertical movement inside the trench; several premature failures were also observed in the backfilling material. Laboratory investigation showed that the backfilling material did not meet the criteria for use in cold climates, and micro-trench performance could be enhanced using alternative materials. Keywords: Micro-trench, Pavement backfilling material, Fiber optic installation, Ground-penetrating radar

  5. Lack of glyphosate resistance gene transfer from Roundup Ready soybean to Bradyrhizobium japonicum under field and laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaza, Laura Arango; Opelt, Katja; Wagner, Tobias; Mattes, Elke; Bieber, Evi; Hatley, Elwood O; Roth, Greg; Sanjuán, Juan; Fischer, Hans-Martin; Sandermann, Heinrich; Hartmann, Anton; Ernst, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    A field study was conducted at the Russell E. Larson Agricultural Research Center to determine the effect of transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean in combination with herbicide (Roundup) application on its endosymbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum. DNA of bacteroids from isolated nodules was analysed for the presence of the transgenic 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4-EPSPS) DNA sequence using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To further assess the likelihood that the EPSPS gene may be transferred from the Roundup Ready (RR) soybean to B. japonicum, we have examined the natural transformation efficiency of B. japonicum strain 110spc4. Analyses of nodules showed the presence of the transgenic EPSPS DNA sequence. In bacteroids that were isolated from nodules of transgenic soybean plants and then cultivated in the presence of glyphosate this sequence could not be detected. This indicates that no stable horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of the EPSPS gene had occurred under field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, no natural transformation was detected in B. japonicum strain 110spc4 in the presence of various amounts of recombinant plasmid DNA. Our results indicate that no natural competence state exists in B. japonicum 110spc4. Results from field and laboratory studies indicate the lack of functional transfer of the CP4-EPSPS gene from glyphosate-tolerant soybean treated with glyphosate to root-associated B. japonicum.

  6. Do recommended doses of glyphosate-based herbicides affect soil invertebrates? Field and laboratory screening tests to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Júlia Carina; de Santo, Fernanda Benedet; Guerra, Naiara; Ricardo Filho, Altair Maçaneiro; Pech, Tatiani Maria

    2018-05-01

    Despite glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used in agriculture, forestry and gardens, little is known about its effects on non-target organisms. The present work evaluated the ecotoxicity of four formulated products (Roundup ® Original, Trop ® , Zapp ® Qi 620 and Crucial ® ) on soil invertebrates. Screening ecotoxicity tests were carried out with soil and oat straw collected in a field experiment, besides laboratory-spiked soils. Screening tests included avoidance behaviour of earthworms (Eisenia andrei), collembolans (Folsomia candida) and isopods (Porcellio dilatatus) in single and multispecies tests; reproduction of collembolans (F. candida), and bait lamina in field. Non-avoidance behaviour was observed in standard tests (earthworms) in soil, neither in multispecies tests (earthworm + isopods) using oat straw, while for collembolans it occurred for the product Zapp ® Qi 620 even at the recommended dose. Reproduction of F. candida was not impaired even at high doses in laboratory-spiked soils. Feeding activity on bait lamina test was impaired in treatment corresponding to the red label product, Crucial ® . Results showed the relevance of bait lamina test on screening the impact of herbicides in the field. The findings highlight the importance of considering different formulations for the same active ingredient in risk assessment of pesticides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Is there any consistency between the microplastics found in the field and those used in laboratory experiments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Nam Ngoc; Zalouk-Vergnoux, Aurore; Poirier, Laurence; Kamari, Abderrahmane; Châtel, Amélie; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Lagarde, Fabienne

    2016-04-01

    The ubiquitous presence and persistency of microplastics (MPs) in aquatic environments are of particular concern since they represent an increasing threat to marine organisms and ecosystems. Great differences of concentrations and/or quantities in field samples have been observed depending on geographical location around the world. The main types reported have been polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene. The presence of MPs in marine wildlife has been shown in many studies focusing on ingestion and accumulation in different tissues, whereas studies of the biological effects of MPs in the field are scarce. If the nature and abundance/concentrations of MPs have not been systematically determined in field samples, this is due to the fact that the identification of MPs from environmental samples requires mastery and execution of several steps and techniques. For this reason and due to differences in sampling techniques and sample preparation, it remains difficult to compare the published studies. Most laboratory experiments have been performed with MP concentrations of a higher order of magnitude than those found in the field. Consequently, the ingestion and associated effects observed in exposed organisms have corresponded to great contaminant stress, which does not mimic the natural environment. Medium contaminations are produced with only one type of polymer of a precise sizes and homogenous shape whereas the MPs present in the field are known to be a mix of many types, sizes and shapes of plastic. Moreover, MPs originating in marine environments can be colonized by organisms and constitute the sorption support for many organic compounds present in environment that are not easily reproducible in laboratory. Determination of the mechanical and chemical effects of MPs on organisms is still a challenging area of research. Among the potential chemical effects it is necessary to differentiate those related to polymer properties from those due to the sorption

  8. Laboratory and Field-Based Evaluation of Short-Term Effort with Maximal Intensity in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lencse-Mucha Judit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of previous studies have not indicated clearly which tests should be used to assess short-term efforts of people with intellectual disabilities. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate laboratory and field-based tests of short-term effort with maximal intensity of subjects with intellectual disabilities. Twenty four people with intellectual disability, who trained soccer, participated in this study. The 30 s Wingate test and additionally an 8 s test with maximum intensity were performed on a bicycle ergometer. The fatigue index, maximal and mean power, relative maximal and relative mean power were measured. Overall, nine field-based tests were conducted: 5, 10 and 20 m sprints, a 20 m shuttle run, a seated medicine ball throw, a bent arm hang test, a standing broad jump, sit-ups and a hand grip test. The reliability of the 30 s and 8 s Wingate tests for subjects with intellectual disability was confirmed. Significant correlation was observed for mean power between the 30 s and 8 s tests on the bicycle ergometer at a moderate level (r >0.4. Moreover, significant correlations were indicated between the results of laboratory tests and field tests, such as the 20 m sprint, the 20 m shuttle run, the standing long jump and the medicine ball throw. The strongest correlation was in the medicine ball throw. The 30 s Wingate test is a reliable test assessing maximal effort in subjects with intellectual disability. The results of this research confirmed that the 8 s test on a bicycle ergometer had a moderate correlation with the 30 s Wingate test in this population, thus, this comparison needs further investigation to examine alternativeness of the 8 s to 30 s Wingate tests. The non-laboratory tests could be used to indirectly assess performance in short-term efforts with maximal intensity.

  9. Laboratory and Field-Based Evaluation of Short-Term Effort with Maximal Intensity in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencse-Mucha, Judit; Molik, Bartosz; Marszałek, Jolanta; Kaźmierska-Kowalewska, Kalina; Ogonowska-Słodownik, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Results of previous studies have not indicated clearly which tests should be used to assess short-term efforts of people with intellectual disabilities. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate laboratory and field-based tests of short-term effort with maximal intensity of subjects with intellectual disabilities. Twenty four people with intellectual disability, who trained soccer, participated in this study. The 30 s Wingate test and additionally an 8 s test with maximum intensity were performed on a bicycle ergometer. The fatigue index, maximal and mean power, relative maximal and relative mean power were measured. Overall, nine field-based tests were conducted: 5, 10 and 20 m sprints, a 20 m shuttle run, a seated medicine ball throw, a bent arm hang test, a standing broad jump, sit-ups and a hand grip test. The reliability of the 30 s and 8 s Wingate tests for subjects with intellectual disability was confirmed. Significant correlation was observed for mean power between the 30 s and 8 s tests on the bicycle ergometer at a moderate level (r >0.4). Moreover, significant correlations were indicated between the results of laboratory tests and field tests, such as the 20 m sprint, the 20 m shuttle run, the standing long jump and the medicine ball throw. The strongest correlation was in the medicine ball throw. The 30 s Wingate test is a reliable test assessing maximal effort in subjects with intellectual disability. The results of this research confirmed that the 8 s test on a bicycle ergometer had a moderate correlation with the 30 s Wingate test in this population, thus, this comparison needs further investigation to examine alternativeness of the 8 s to 30 s Wingate tests. The non-laboratory tests could be used to indirectly assess performance in short-term efforts with maximal intensity. PMID:26834874

  10. Evaluation of the Radar Stage Sensor manufactured by Forest Technology Systems—Results of laboratory and field testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, Gerald A.

    2018-01-31

    Two identical Radar Stage Sensors from Forest Technology Systems were evaluated to determine if they are suitable for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologic data collection. The sensors were evaluated in laboratory conditions to evaluate the distance accuracy of the sensor over the manufacturer’s specified operating temperatures and distance to water ranges. Laboratory results were compared to the manufacturer’s accuracy specification of ±0.007 foot (ft) and the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) policy requirement that water-level sensors have a measurement uncertainty of no more than 0.01 ft or 0.20 percent of the indicated reading. Both of the sensors tested were within the OSW policy requirement in both laboratory tests and within the manufacturer’s specification in the distance to water test over tested distances from 3 to 15 ft. In the temperature chamber test, both sensors were within the manufacturer’s specification for more than 90 percent of the data points collected over a temperature range of –40 to +60 degrees Celsius at a fixed distance of 8 ft. One sensor was subjected to an SDI-12 communication test, which it passed. A field test was conducted on one sensor at a USGS field site near Landon, Mississippi, from February 5 to March 29, 2016. Water-level measurements made by the radar during the field test were in agreement with those made by the Sutron Accubar Constant Flow Bubble Gauge.Upon the manufacturer’s release of updated firmware version 1.09, additional SDI-12 and temperature testing was performed to evaluate added SDI-12 functions and verify that performance was unaffected by the update. At this time, an Axiom data logger is required to perform a firmware update on this sensor. The data confirmed the results of the original test. Based on the test results, the Radar Stage Sensor is a suitable choice for USGS hydrologic data collection.

  11. Joint use of laboratory bioassays and field-collected plants to evaluate toxicity and contaminant bioaccumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.P.; Byron, E.R.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Soil toxicity tests using lettuce (Latuca saliva) were conducted using soil samples collected as part of ecological risk assessments at two facilities in California. At some sites, terrestrial plants were collected in the field for chemical analysis. Ecological concerns focused on exposures to plants, phytophagous insects, and their secondary consumers, such as birds and small mammals. The toxicity tests were used to assess potential exposures to a variety of site-specific contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PAHs, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other inorganic substances. Site soils were combined with clean control soils to produce toxicity test soil dilutions containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% site soils. Observations of seed germination and growth were made at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Toxicity test results were combined with soil chemical analytical results and physical characteristics to establish NOAELs and LOAELs. Bioaccumulation in the lettuce and field-collected plants was evaluated by comparing plant contaminant to soil contaminant concentrations. Allometric equations and sublethal toxicity data were used to predict potential effects on birds and small mammals. Whole-body contaminant concentrations in insects collected on some of the plants in the field were also considered in evaluating the potential for toxicity to insectivorous birds. The study indicated that contaminant uptake was occurring in the field-collected and bioassay plants but not the insects. Site factors in addition to soil contaminant concentration influenced the potential for plant toxicity and bioaccumulation

  12. Nanojets, Electrospray, and Ion Field Evaporation: Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Laboratory Experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luedtke, W. D; Landman, Uzi; Chiu, Y. H; Levandier, D. J; Dressler, R. A; Sok, S; Gordon, M. S

    2008-01-01

    ... experiment and using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The electrospray source is operated in a Taylor cone-jet mode, with the nanojet that forms being characterized by high surface-normal electric field strengths in the vicinity of I V/nm...

  13. The Birth of a Field and the Rebirth of the Laboratory School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marc; Gerlach, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    We describe the emergence of a new field, "Mind Brain and Education", dedicated to the science of learning, as well as the roles researchers, policy makers, and educators need to play in developing this collaborative effort. The article highlights the challenges that MBE faces and the strategy researchers and educators in Texas are…

  14. Nontarget effects of orchard pesticides on natural enemies: lessons from the field and laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nontarget effects of insecticide programs used to control codling moth, Cydia pomonella were studied in large-plot field trials in apples, pears, and walnuts in the western United States. We sampled the abundance of natural enemies and outbreaks of secondary pests. The insecticides used in the f...

  15. Root-associated bacteria promote grapevine growth: from the laboratory to the field

    KAUST Repository

    Rolli, Eleonora; Marasco, Ramona; Saderi, Stefano; Corretto, Erika; Mapelli, Francesca; Cherif, Ameur; Borin, Sara; Valenti, Leonardo; Sorlini, Claudia; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    of different geographical origins derived from different crop plants can colonize grapevine to gain a beneficial outcome for the plant leading to promote growth at the field scale. Methods: To link the ecological functions of bacteria to the promotion of plant

  16. Respirometric oxygen demand determinations of laboratory- and field-scale biofilters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, D.; Mercier, P.; Jette, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    A biofiltration experiment operated at three inlet concentrations (425, 830, and 1,450 mg m -3 ), showed that the specific oxygen consumption rate was highly correlated (R = 0.938, n = 23) with the toluene elimination capacity. A radiorespirometric test was found to be more sensitive and appropriate for the field-scale biofilter treating gasoline vapors

  17. Bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil with fungi - from laboratory to field scale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Winquist, E.; Björklöf, K.; Schultz, E.; Räsänen, M.; Salonen, K.; Anasonye, F.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Steffen, K.; Jorgensen, K.S.; Tuomela, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 2 (2014), s. 238-247 ISSN 0964-8305 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020218 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : bioremediation * contaminated soil * PAH * field scale Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.131, year: 2014

  18. “Comprehensive emission measurements from prescribed burning in Florida: field and laboratory, aerial and ground”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simultaneous aerial- and ground-based emission sampling was conducted during prescribed burns at Eglin Air Force Base in November 2012 on a short grass/shrub field and a pine forest. Cumulative emission samples for volatile organic comounds, elemental carbon, organic carbon, ch...

  19. Comprehensive emission measurements from prescribed burning in Florida: field and laboratory, aerial and ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simultaneous aerial- and ground-based emission sampling was conducted during prescribed burns at Eglin Air Force Base in November 2012 on a short grass/shrub field and a pine forest. Cumulative emission samples for volatile organic compounds, elemental carbon, organic carbon, c...

  20. Free-field reciprocity calibration of laboratory standard (LS) microphones using a time selective technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Although the basic principle of reciprocity calibration of microphones in a free field is simple, the practical problems are complicated due to the low signal-to-noise ratio and the influence of cross talk and reflections from the surroundings. The influence of uncorrelated noise can be reduced...

  1. Laboratory- and field-based testing as predictors of skating performance in competitive-level female ice hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Tommy; Vescovi, Jason D; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine; Gilenstam, Kajsa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether field-based and/or laboratory-based assessments are valid tools for predicting key performance characteristics of skating in competitive-level female hockey players. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-three female ice hockey players aged 15-25 years (body mass: 66.1±6.3 kg; height: 169.5±5.5 cm), with 10.6±3.2 years playing experience volunteered to participate in the study. The field-based assessments included 20 m sprint, squat jump, countermovement jump, 30-second repeated jump test, standing long jump, single-leg standing long jump, 20 m shuttle run test, isometric leg pull, one-repetition maximum bench press, and one-repetition maximum squats. The laboratory-based assessments included body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), maximal aerobic power, and isokinetic strength (Biodex). The on-ice tests included agility cornering s-turn, cone agility skate, transition agility skate, and modified repeat skate sprint. Data were analyzed using stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to establish the relationship between key performance characteristics of skating and the predictor variables. Regression models (adj R (2)) for the on-ice variables ranged from 0.244 to 0.663 for the field-based assessments and from 0.136 to 0.420 for the laboratory-based assessments. Single-leg tests were the strongest predictors for key performance characteristics of skating. Single leg standing long jump alone explained 57.1%, 38.1%, and 29.1% of the variance in skating time during transition agility skate, agility cornering s-turn, and modified repeat skate sprint, respectively. Isokinetic peak torque in the quadriceps at 90° explained 42.0% and 32.2% of the variance in skating time during agility cornering s-turn and modified repeat skate sprint, respectively. Field-based assessments, particularly single-leg tests, are an adequate substitute to more expensive and time

  2. Environmental Risk Assessment of antimicrobials applied in veterinary medicine-A field study and laboratory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slana, Marko; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2013-01-01

    The fate and environmental risk of antimicrobial compounds of different groups of veterinary medicine pharmaceuticals (VMP's) have been compared. The aim was to demonstrate a correlation between the physical and chemical properties of active compounds and their metabolism in target animals, as well as their fate in the environment. In addition, the importance of techniques for manure management and agricultural practice and their influence on the fate of active compounds is discussed. The selected active compounds are shown to be susceptible to at least one environmental factor (sun, water, bacterial or fungal degradation) to which they are exposed during their life cycle, which contributes to its degradation. Degradation under a number of environmental factors has also to be considered as authentic information additional to that observed in the limited conditions in laboratory studies and in Environmental Risk Assessment calculations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Burial of Zostera marina seeds in sediment inhabited by three polychaetes: laboratory and field studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Kristensen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The large number of seeds produced by eelgrass, Zostera marina, provides this plant with a potential to disperse widely and colonise newareas. After dispersal, seedsmust be buried into sediment for assuring long-term survival, successful germination and safe seedling development. Seedsmay be buried...... eelgrass seed bank at the ecosystemscale. Some species have a positive effect by burying seeds to shallow depths and thereby reducing seed predation and facilitating seed germination, while other species bury seeds too deep for successful seed germination and seedling development....... passively by sedimentation or actively through sediment reworking by benthic fauna.We evaluated the effect of three polychaetes on the burial rate and depth of eelgrass seeds. Burial was first measured in controlled laboratory experiments using different densities of Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor (400...

  4. Field experiments and laboratory study of plasma turbulence and effects on EM wave propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.C.; Kuo, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    Both active experiments in space and laboratory experiments with plasma chambers have been planned to investigate plasma turbulence and effects on electromagnetic wave propagation. Plasma turbulence can be generated by intense waves or occur inherently with the production of plasmas. The turbulence effects to be singled out for investigation include nonlinear mode conversion process and turbulence scattering of electromagnetic waves by plasma density fluctuations. The authors have shown theoretically that plasma density fluctuations can render the nonlinear mode conversion of electromagnetic waves into lower hybrid waves, leading to anomalous absorption of waves in magnetoplasmas. The observed spectral broadening of VLF waves is the evidence of the occurrence of this process. Since the density fluctuations may have a broad range of scale lengths, this process is effective in weakening the electromagnetic waves in a wideband. In addition, plasma density fluctuations can scatter waves and diversify the electromagnetic energy. Schemes of generating plasma turbulence and the diagnoses of plasma effects are discussed

  5. Potential Electrokinetic Remediation Technologies of Laboratory Scale into Field Application- Methodology Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuni Suied, Anis; Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad; Nizam Zakaria, Muhammad; Madun, Aziman

    2018-04-01

    Heavy metal in soil possesses high contribution towards soil contamination which causes to unbalance ecosystem. There are many ways and procedures to make the electrokinetic remediation (EKR) method to be efficient, effective, and potential as a low cost soil treatment. Electrode compartment for electrolyte is expected to treat the contaminated soil through electromigration and enhance metal ions movement. The electrokinetic is applicable for many approaches such as electrokinetic remediation (EKR), electrokinetic stabilization (EKS), electrokinetic bioremediation and many more. This paper presents a critical review on comparison of laboratory scale between EKR, EKS and EK bioremediation treatment by removing the heavy metal contaminants. It is expected to propose one framework of contaminated soil mapping. Electrical Resistivity Method (ERM) is one of famous indirect geophysical tools for surface mapping and subsurface profiling. Hence, ERM is used to mapping the migration of heavy metal ions by electrokinetic.

  6. Edificio de la Northrop Corporation's Ventura Division, en California – (U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin, Albert C.

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available The project includes the following: and administrative building, with the high ranking executives' offices, the financing and marketing sections, the departments of rents and those of public relations and industry; the engineering services building, which, in addition to offices, has design halls, a specialised library and other services; and the various laboratories. This set of buildings is most attractive externally, and is an audacious design, reflecting the future looking attitude of the firm.El conjunto construido comprende; el edificio de la administración, que alberga las oficinas de los altos empleados; las secciones de financiación y marketing de la Empresa, de rentas, relaciones públicas e industriales, etc. El edificio de los servicios de Ingeniería, que contiene, además de su zona correspondiente de oficinas, salas de diseño, una biblioteca especializada, etc.; y por último, adyacentes al edificio de fabricación, están los diversos laboratorios. Este conjunto resulta atractivo para el que lo contempla, constituye un ejemplo de proyecto atrevido y refleja la naturaleza futurista de la Compañía.

  7. Laboratory and field investigation of chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflow in Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Thornberg, Dines; Berner, Jesper

    We investigated the possibility to apply performic acid (PFA) and peracetic acid (PAA) for disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) in existing CSO management infrastructures. The disinfection power of PFA and PAA to Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococcus were studied in batch scale...... and pre-field experiment. In batch scale experiment 2.5 mg·L -1 PAA removed around 4 log unit of E. coli and enterococcus from CSO with long contact time. Removal of E. coli and enterococcus from CSO were always around or above 3 log unit using 2-4 mg·L -1 PFA with short contact time in batch scale...... and pre-field experiment. There were no toxicological effect measured by Vibrio fischeri when CSO was disinfected with PFA, slight toxicological effect was observed on CSO disinfected with PAA. When the design for PFA based disinfection was applied to CSO collected from an authentic event. Disinfection...

  8. Laboratory constraints on chameleon dark energy and power-law fields

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, Jason H.; Upadhye, Amol; Baumbaugh, Al; Chou, Aaron S.; Mazur, Peter O.; Tomlin, Ray; Weltman, Amanda; Wester, William

    2010-01-01

    We report results from the GammeV Chameleon Afterglow Search---a search for chameleon particles created via photon/chameleon oscillations within a magnetic field. This experiment is sensitive to a wide class of chameleon power-law models and dark energy models not previously explored. These results exclude five orders of magnitude in the coupling of chameleons to photons covering a range of four orders of magnitude in chameleon effective mass and, for individual chameleon models, exclude betw...

  9. Laboratory Constraints on Chameleon Dark Energy and Power-Law Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, J. H.; Baumbaugh, A.; Chou, A. S.; Mazur, P. O.; Tomlin, R.; Wester, W.; Upadhye, A.; Weltman, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report results from a search for chameleon particles created via photon-chameleon oscillations within a magnetic field. This experiment is sensitive to a wide class of unexplored chameleon power-law and dark energy models. These results exclude 5 orders of magnitude in the coupling of chameleons to photons covering a range of 4 orders of magnitude in chameleon effective mass and, for individual models, exclude between 4 and 12 orders of magnitude in chameleon couplings to matter.

  10. The development of laboratory and semi-field methods to test the effects of pesticides on predatory beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiverton, P.; Wallin, H.

    1997-01-01

    Following the sequential testing procedure adopted by the IOBC/WPRS Working Group Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms, two simple, robust methods are presented which were designed for testing the effects of pesticides on predatory beetles. In a laboratory initial toxicity test both DDT and lindane were found harmful to the carabid Pterostichus cupreus, whereas α-endosulfan was 'harmless'. DDT was found harmless to P. melanarius. Sub-lethal doses of both DDT and lindane incorporated in prey caused P. cupreus females to produce smaller eggs. In a semi-field test it was demonstrated that Lindane reduced the beneficial capacity of P. cupreus. Climatic conditions at the time of the test however were such that the majority of test animals in control treatments escaped. Caution was therefore advised in the choice of test animal and test design for the semi-field test. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Implementation of a DOD ELAP Conforming Quality System at a FUSRAP Site Field Temporary Radiological Screening Laboratory - 13500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, M.S.; McElheny, G.; Houston, L.M.; Masset, M.R.; Spector, H.L.

    2013-01-01

    A case study is presented on specific program elements that supported the transition of a temporary field radiological screening lab to an accredited operation capable of meeting client quality objectives for definitive results data. The temporary field lab is located at the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Linde Site in Tonawanda, NY. The site is undergoing remediation under the direction of the United States Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District, with Cabrera Services Inc. as the remediation contractor and operator of the on-site lab. Analysis methods employed in the on-site lab include gross counting of alpha and beta particle activity on swipes and air filters and gamma spectroscopy of soils and other solid samples. A discussion of key program elements and lessons learned may help other organizations considering pursuit of accreditation for on-site screening laboratories. (authors)

  12. Short-term, informal, and low-stakes scientific laboratory and field experiences improve STEM student retention and academic success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, C.; Pride, C. J.; Cox, T.

    2017-12-01

    Formal internship experiences strongly improve student success in the STEM fields. Classical programs like NSF's Research Experiences for Undergraduates are highly successful for traditional and non-traditional students. Moreover when early undergraduate and at-risk (e.g., low income, academically-challenged) students engage in these experiences, their career paths are re-enforced or changed, academic progress and retention improves, and they are encouraged to continue into graduate school. Students build connections to their course-based learning and experience the life of a working scientist. However, NSF formal experiences are relatively expensive to provide (>5000 per student per experience) and are available to fewer than 5% of geoscience majors each year. Although other funded formal internship opportunities exist, they are likely available to no more than 10% of total enrolled geoscience students. These high-quality programs cannot impact enough early undergraduate students to encourage their remaining in science and improve the current overall retention and graduation rates in the US. Savannah State University faculty successfully completed multiple grants funding low-stakes undergraduate field-science experiences. These short-term (semester to year), part-time (5-10h/week) experiences provide similar classroom-to-real-world science connections, offer students direct laboratory and field experiences, build skill sets, and provide a small source of revenue assisting financially-challenged students to stay on campus rather than seeking off-campus employment. For a much lower investment in time and grant resources (500-1500 per student per experience), participant graduation rates exceeded 80%, well above the university 27-34% graduation rate during the same time period. Relatively small infusions of research dollars targeting undergraduate experiences in the field and laboratory could significantly impact long-term student outcomes in STEM disciplines. These

  13. Postsettlement growth of two estuarine crab species, Chasmagnathus granulata and Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Grapsidae): laboratory and field investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppi, T. A.; Spivak, E. D.; Anger, K.

    2002-02-01

    The estuarine grapsid crabs Chasmagnathus granulata and Cyrtograpsus angulatus belong to the most typical and dominant inhabitants of brackish coastal lagoons in southeastern South America. In a combined laboratory and field investigation of juvenile growth, we measured the increase in body size in these species under controlled conditions as well as in field experiments (in Mar Chiquita lagoon, Argentina), seasonal changes in size frequency distribution of a natural population, and growth related changes in selected morphometric traits of male and female juveniles (relations between carapace width, carapace length, propodus height and length of the cheliped, and pleon width). At 24°C, Cy. angulatus grew faster than Ch. granulata; it reached the crab-9 instar (C9; 13 mm carapace width) after 92 days, while Ch. granulata required 107 days to reach the C8 instar (7.4 mm). At 12°C, growth ceased in both species. The pleon begins to show sexual differences in the C5 ( Cy. angulatus) and C8 instar ( Ch. granulata), respectively, while the chelae differentiate earlier in Ch. granulata than in Cy. angulatus (in C4 vs C6). In the field, growth was maximal in summer, and was generally faster than in laboratory cultures. However, there is great individual variability in size (about 25% even in the first crab instar) and in size increments at ecdysis, increasing throughout juvenile growth. Our data indicate that, in the field, small-scale and short-term variations in feeding conditions, temperature, and salinity account for an extremely high degree of variability in the absolute and relative rates of growth as well as in the time to sexual differentiation.

  14. Laboratory modeling, field study, and numerical simulation of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.J.; Islam, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The use of bioremediation as an alternative remediation technology is fast becoming the technique of choice among many environmental professionals. This method offers substantial benefits not found in other remediation processes. Bioremediation is very cost effective, nondestructive, relatively uncomplicated in implementing, requires nonspecialized equipment, and can be extremely effective in removing recalcitrant petroleum hydrocarbons. This study researched the availability of viable microbial populations in the arid climate in South Dakota. Exponential growth of the bacteria and the ability of bacteria to degrade long-chain hydrocarbons indicated that healthy populations do exist and could be used to mineralize organic hydrocarbons. Experimental results indicated that bioremediation can be effectively enhanced in landfills as well as in the subsurface using a supply of harmless nutrients. The biodegradation rate can be further enhanced with the use of edible surfactant that helped disperse the petroleum products. Also, the use of hydrogen peroxide enhanced the oxygen availability and increased the degradation rate. Interestingly, the bacterial growth rate was found to be high in difficult-to-biodegrade contaminants, such as waste oil. A numerical simulation program was also developed that describes the bacterial growth in the subsurface along with the reduction in substrate (contamination). Results from this program were found to be consistent with laboratory results

  15. Laboratory and field studies related to the Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1991-05-01

    This annual report describes research conducted in FY 1990 by Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Project. This multi-agency project measures the underground movement of radionuclides related to nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site. This project continues the long-term experiment at the site of the Cambric nuclear test. Water pumped from a well adjacent to the explosion cavity continues to show decreasing amounts of tritium and Krypton 85 but no Cesium 139. Analyses of drillback debris shows a distinction between refractory and volatile materials in respect to both their location in the test cavity and their leachability with groundwater. We surveyed materials used during nuclear testing to evaluate any post-test hazard; we concluded that most such materials pose a minimal hazard. The Los Alamos drilling program provided an opportunity for us to sample a collapsed zone above the cavity of a test, which was fired 2 years ago. We continue our research in colloid characterization and in detection of low levels of Technetium 99 in Nevada Test Site water. During FY 1990, we drilled a new hole in the Yucca Flat area to study radionuclide migration. This report also describes Los Alamos management and planning activities in support of this project. 20 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs

  16. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. In this project, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit examined the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces over the life of the product, as measured by steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. The team identified 12 furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines, Iowa, metropolitan area and worked with a local heating, ventilation, and air conditioning contractor to retrieve furnaces and test them at the Gas Technology Institute laboratory for steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace as installed in the house.

  17. Field observations and failure analysis of an excavation damaged zone in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ishii, Eiichi; Ishida, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    In the construction of a deep underground facility, the hydromechanical properties of the rock mass around an underground opening are changed significantly due to stress redistribution. This zone is called an excavation damaged zone (EDZ). In high-level radioactive waste disposal, EDZs can provide a shortcut for the escape of radionuclides to the surface environment. Therefore, it is important to develop a method for predicting the detailed characteristics of EDZs. For prediction of the EDZ in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory of Japan, we conducted borehole televiewer surveys, rock core analyses, and repeated hydraulic conductivity measurements. We observed that niche excavation resulted in the formation of extension fractures within 0.2 to 1.0 m into the niche wall, i.e., the extent of the EDZ is within 0.2 to 1.0 m into the niche wall. These results are largely consistent with the results of a finite element analysis implemented with the failure criteria considering failure mode. The hydraulic conductivity in the EDZ was increased by 3 to 5 orders of magnitude compared with the outer zone. The hydraulic conductivity in and around the EDZ has not changed significantly in the two years following excavation of the niche. These results show that short-term unloading due to excavation of the niche created a highly permeable EDZ. (author)

  18. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Field investigation methodology and instruments used in the preinvestigation phase, 1986-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.E.; Zellman, O.

    1991-12-01

    The Aespoe hard rock laboratory project started in 1986. The pre-investigation phase, 1986-1990, involved extensive field measurements from the surface as well as from boreholes, aimed at characterizing the rock formation with regard to geology, geohydrology, hydrochemistry and rock mechanics. The field investigation methodology used in the project was based on experience from and developments during the previous SKB study site investigation programme. However, in some respects the techniques were changed or modified. Major changes have been possible due to a new drilling technique, telescope-type drilling. This report describes the logistics of the investigation programme, characterized to a large extent by multi-purpose planning and performance of the activities in order to optimize the use of available resources; time, personnel and equipment. Preliminary hydraulic testing and groundwater sampling were conducted during the drilling of each borehole. When the drilling was completed an extensive set of singlehole investigations were carried out: geophysical logging, borehole radar, hydraulic tests of different kinds, water sampling and rock stress measurements. Multipackers were installed in the boreholes as soon as possible after the borehole investigations. The system enables monitoring of groundwater pressure, water sampling and groundwater flow measurements to be performed by means of dilution tests and tracer injection. Boreholes with such equipment were used as observation holes during interference pumping tests and long term hydraulic and tracer tests. The monitoring programme will continue during the subsequent phases of construction and operation of the Aespoe hard rock laboratory. (83 refs., 94 figs.) (au)

  19. Effect of temperature on the effectiveness of artificial reproduction of dace [Cyprinidae (Leuciscus leuciscus (L.))] under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosad, Joanna; Targońska, Katarzyna; Chwaluczyk, Rafał; Kaszubowski, Rafał; Kucharczyk, Dariusz

    2014-10-01

    This study sought to determine the effect of water temperature on the effectiveness of artificial reproduction of dace brooders under laboratory and field conditions. Three temperatures were tested in the laboratory: 9.5, 12 and 14.5 °C (± 0.1 °C). The water temperature under field conditions was 11.0 ± 0.3 °C (Czarci Jar Fish Farm) and 13.2 ± 1.4 °C (Janowo Fish Farm). The study showed that artificial reproduction of dace is possible in all the temperature ranges under study and an embryo survival rate of over 87% can be achieved. Dace has also been found to be very sensitive to rapid temperature changes, even within the temperature ranges optimal for the species. Such changes have an adverse effect on the outcome of the reproduction process, such as a decrease in the percentage of reproducing females, a decrease in the pseudo-gonado-somatic index (PGSI) and a decrease in the embryo survival rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tolerance of nonindigenous cichlid fishes (Cichlasoma urophthalmus, Hemichromis letourneuxi) to low temperature: laboratory and field experiments in south Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Loftus, William F.; Kobza, Robert M.; Cook, Mark I.; Slone, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    The cold tolerance of two non-native cichlids (Hemichromis letourneuxi and Cichlasoma urophthalmus) that are established in south Florida was tested in the field and laboratory. In the laboratory, fishes were acclimated to two temperatures (24 and 28°C), and three salinities (0, 10, and 35 ppt). Two endpoints were identified: loss of equilibrium (11.5–13.7°C for C. urophthalmus; 10.8–12.5°C for H. letourneuxi), and death (9.5–11.1°C for C. urophthalmus; 9.1–13.3°C for H. letourneuxi). In the field, fishes were caged in several aquatic habitats during two winter cold snaps. Temperatures were lowest (4.0°C) in the shallow marsh, where no fish survived, and warmest in canals and solution-holes. Canals and ditches as shallow as 50 cm provided thermal refuges for these tropical fishes. Because of the effect on survival of different habitat types, simple predictions of ultimate geographic expansion by non-native fishes using latitude and thermal isoclines are insufficient for freshwater fishes.

  1. Field and Laboratory Investigation of USS3 Ultrasonic Sensors Capability for Non-contact Measurement of Pistachio Canopy Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Maghsoudi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronic canopy characterization to determine structural properties is an important issue in tree crop management. Ultrasonic and optical sensors are the most used sensors for this purpose. The objective of this work was to assess the performance of an ultrasonic sensor under laboratory and field conditions in order to provide reliable estimations of distance measurements to apple tree canopies. To achieve this purpose, a methodology has been designed to analyze sensor performance in relation to foliage distance and to the effects of interference with adjacent sensors when working simultaneously. Results showed that the average error in distance measurement using the ultrasonic sensor in laboratory conditions was 0.64 cm. However, the increase of variability in field conditions reduced the accuracy of this kind of sensors when estimating distances to canopies. The average error in such situations was 3.19 cm. When analyzing interferences of adjacent sensors 30 cm apart, the average error was ±14.65 cm. When adjacent sensors were placed apart by 60 cm, the average error became 6.73 cm. The ultrasonic sensor tested has been proven to be suitable to estimate distances to the canopy in pistachio garden conditions when sensors are 60 cm apart or more and can, therefore, be used in a system to estimate structural canopy parameters in precision horticulture.

  2. Ice nucleating particles measured during the laboratory and field intercomparisons FIN-2 and FIN-3 by the diffusion chamber FRIDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniel; Schrod, Jann; Curtius, Joachim; Haunold, Werner; Thomson, Erik; Bingemer, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of atmospheric ice nucleating particles (INP) is still challenging. In the absence of easily applicable INP standards the intercomparison of different methods during collaborative laboratory and field workshops is a valuable tool that can shine light on the performance of individual methods for the measurement of INP [1]. FIN-2 was conducted in March 2015 at the AIDA facility in Karlsruhe as an intercomparison of mobile instruments for measuring INP [2]. FIN-3 was a field campaign at the Desert Research Institutes Storm Peak Laboratory in Colorado in September 2015 [3]. The FRankfurt Ice nucleation Deposition freezinG Experiment (FRIDGE) participated in both experiments. FRIDGE measures ice nucleating particles by electrostatic precipitation of aerosol particles onto Si-wafers in a collection unit, followed by activation, growth, and optical detection of ice crystals on the substrate in an isostatic diffusion chamber [4,5]. We will present and discuss results of our measurements of deposition/condensation INP and of immersion INP with FRIDGE during FIN-2 and FIN-3. Acknowledgements: The valuable contributions of the FIN organizers and their institutions, and of the FIN Workshop Science team are gratefully acknowledged. Our work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Research Unit FOR 1525 (INUIT) and the EU FP7-ENV- 2013 BACCHUS project under Grant Agreement 603445.

  3. Fully automated laboratory and field-portable goniometer used for performing accurate and precise multiangular reflectance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Justin D.; Bachmann, Charles M.; Ambeau, Brittany L.; Faulring, Jason W.; Ruiz Torres, Andres J.; Badura, Gregory; Myers, Emily

    2017-10-01

    Field-portable goniometers are created for a wide variety of applications. Many of these applications require specific types of instruments and measurement schemes and must operate in challenging environments. Therefore, designs are based on the requirements that are specific to the application. We present a field-portable goniometer that was designed for measuring the hemispherical-conical reflectance factor (HCRF) of various soils and low-growing vegetation in austere coastal and desert environments and biconical reflectance factors in laboratory settings. Unlike some goniometers, this system features a requirement for "target-plane tracking" to ensure that measurements can be collected on sloped surfaces, without compromising angular accuracy. The system also features a second upward-looking spectrometer to measure the spatially dependent incoming illumination, an integrated software package to provide full automation, an automated leveling system to ensure a standard frame of reference, a design that minimizes the obscuration due to self-shading to measure the opposition effect, and the ability to record a digital elevation model of the target region. This fully automated and highly mobile system obtains accurate and precise measurements of HCRF in a wide variety of terrain and in less time than most other systems while not sacrificing consistency or repeatability in laboratory environments.

  4. Metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in the Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson) from New Caledonia: Laboratory and field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metian, Marc; Hedouin, Laetitia; Eltayeb, Mohamed M.; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Mugnier, Chantal; Bustamante, Paco; Warnau, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The present work aimed at better understanding metal and metalloid bioaccumulation in the edible Pacific blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris, using both laboratory and field approaches. In the laboratory, the bioaccumulation kinetics of Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, and Zn have been investigated in shrimp exposed via seawater and food, using the corresponding γ-emitting radiotracers ( 110m Ag, 109 Cd, 57 Co, 51 Cr, and 65 Zn) and highly sensitive nuclear detection techniques. Results showed that hepatopancreas and intestine concentrated the metals to the highest extent among the blue shrimp organs and tissues. Moulting was found to play a non negligible detoxification role for Co, Cr and, to a lesser extent, Zn. Metal retention by L. stylirostris widely varied (from a few days to several months), according to the element and exposure pathway considered (a given metal was usually less strongly retained when ingested with food than when it was taken up from the dissolved phase). In the field study, Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn were analysed in shrimp collected from a New Caledonian aquaculture pond. Metal concentrations in the shrimp muscles were generally relatively low and results confirmed the role played by the digestive organs and tissues in the bioaccumulation/storage/detoxification of metals in the Pacific blue shrimp. Preliminary risk considerations indicate that consumption of the shrimp farmed in New Caledonia is not of particular concern for human health.

  5. Bioaccumulation, distribution and elimination of chlordecone in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Field and laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Anne; Gismondi, Eric; Dodet, Nathalie; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Caupos, Fanny; Lemoine, Soazig; Lagadic, Laurent; Forget-Leray, Joëlle; Thomé, Jean-Pierre

    2017-10-01

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide that has been widely used in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) to control the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus from 1972 to 1993. A few years after its introduction, widespread contamination of soils, rivers, wild animals and aquatic organisms was reported. Although high chlordecone concentrations have been reported in several crustacean species, its uptake, internal distribution, and elimination in aquatic species have never been described. This study aimed at investigating the accumulation and tissue distribution of chlordecone in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using both laboratory (30 days exposure) and field (8 months exposure) approaches. In addition, depuration in chlordecone-free water was studied. Results showed that chlordecone bioconcentration in prawns was dose-dependent and time-dependent. Moreover, females appeared to be less contaminated than males after 5 and 7 months of exposure, probably due to successive spawning leading in the elimination of chlordecone through the eggs. Chlordecone distribution in tissues of exposed prawns showed that cephalothorax organs, mainly represented by the hepatopancreas, was the most contaminated. Results also showed that chlordecone was accumulated in cuticle, up to levels of 40% of the chlordecone body burden, which could be considered as a depuration mechanism since chlordecone is eliminated with the exuviae during successive moults. Finally, this study underlined the similarity of results obtained in laboratory and field approaches, which highlights their complementarities in the chlordecone behaviour understanding in M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oilcakes as protein sources in supplementary diets for the growth of Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.) fingerlings: laboratory and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kashmir; Garg, S K; Kalla, Alok; Bhatnagar, Anita

    2003-02-01

    Five isonitrogenous diets (1-5) with 40% protein using oilcakes as protein sources were formulated and fed to Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings maintained both under laboratory and field conditions. Water soaking of oilcakes for 24 h before incorporation in the diets helped in the reduction of antinutrient factors (phytase and tannins). Live weight gain in fish fingerlings fed on a diet containing groundnut oilcake (GNOC) was significantly (P feeding schedule. Laboratory studies have further revealed that APD, PER, GPR and GER values were significantly (P feed conversion ratio were significantly (P fish fed on diet 1 containing GNOC. An analysis of water samples collected at two hourly interval from the aquaria revealed low levels of total ammonia (N-NH4+) excretion and reactive phosphate (O-PO4) production in fish fed on diet 1. Proximate carcass composition also revealed high accumulation of protein, fat, energy and phosphorus in fingerlings fed on a diet containing GNOC. Even in field studies a significant (P fish weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR% d(-1)) was observed in fingerlings fed on diet 1, followed by canola (2), sunflower (3), mustard oilcake (4) and sesame (5). Water and sediment quality characteristics also correlated well with fish growth.

  7. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Loehr, C.A.; Bates, S.O.; Thompson, L.E.; McGrail, B.P.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs

  8. Ultrasonic Guided Waves-Based Monitoring of Rail Head: Laboratory and Field Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piervincenzo Rizzo

    2010-01-01

    The first part of the paper shows the prototype in action on a railroad track mock-up built at the University of California, San Diego. The mock-up contained surface and internal defects. The results from three experiments are presented. The importance of feature selection to maximize the sensitivity of the inspection system is demonstrated here. The second part of the paper shows the results of field testing conducted in south east Pennsylvania under the auspices of the U.S. Federal Railroad Administration.

  9. Laboratory constraints on chameleon dark energy and power-law fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Upadhye, Amol; Baumbaugh, Al; Chou, Aaron S.; Mazur, Peter O.; Tomlin, Ray; Weltman, Amanda; Wester, William

    2010-01-01

    We report results from the GammeV Chameleon Afterglow Search - a search for chameleon particles created via photon/chameleon oscillations within a magnetic field. This experiment is sensitive to a wide class of chameleon power-law models and dark energy models not previously explored. These results exclude five orders of magnitude in the coupling of chameleons to photons covering a range of four orders of magnitude in chameleon effective mass and, for individual chameleon models, exclude between 4 and 12 orders of magnitude in chameleon couplings to matter.

  10. Linking field and laboratory studies to investigate nitrate removal using permeable reactive barrier technology during managed recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, G.; Beganskas, S.; Weir, W. B.; Redford, K.; Saltikov, C.; Fisher, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    We present data from a series of field and laboratory studies investigating mechanisms for the enhanced removal of nitrate during infiltration as a part of managed recharge. These studies combine physical, geochemical, and microbiological data collected during controlled infiltration experiments at both a plot and a laboratory scale using permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology. The presence of a PRB, made of wood chips or biochar, enhances nitrate removal by stimulating the growth and productivity of native soil microbes to process nitrate via denitrification. Earlier work has shown that unamended soil can remove up to 50% of nitrate during infiltration at rates microbiological data show significant population changes below the PRB where most of the cycling occurs. Coupled with isotopic analyses, these results suggest that a PRB expands the range of infiltration rates at which significant nitrate can be removed by microbial activity. Further, nitrate removal occurs at different depths below the biochar and redwood chips, suggesting different mechanisms of nitrate removal in the presence of different PRB materials. In laboratory studies we flowed artificial groundwater through intact sediment cores collected at the same field site where we also ran infiltration tests. These experiments show that the fluid flow rate and the presence of a PRB exhibit primary control on nitrate removal during infiltration, and that the relationship between flow rate and nitrate removal is fundamentally different in the presence of a PRB. These data from multiple scales and flow regimes are combined to offer a deeper understanding how the use of PRB technology during infiltration can help address a significant non-point source issue at the surface-subsurface interface.

  11. Whistler wave propagation in the antenna near and far fields in the Naval Research Laboratory Space Physics Simulation Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, David D.; Walker, David N.; Amatucci, William E.

    2010-01-01

    In previous papers, early whistler propagation measurements were presented [W. E. Amatucci et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 33, 637 (2005)] as well as antenna impedance measurements [D. D. Blackwell et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 092106 (2007)] performed in the Naval Research Laboratory Space Physics Simulation Chamber (SPSC). Since that time there have been major upgrades in the experimental capabilities of the laboratory in the form of improvement of both the plasma source and antennas. This has allowed access to plasma parameter space that was previously unattainable, and has resulted in measurements that provide a significantly clearer picture of whistler propagation in the laboratory environment. This paper presents some of the first whistler experimental results from the upgraded SPSC. Whereas previously measurements were limited to measuring the cyclotron resonance cutoff and elliptical polarization indicative of the whistler mode, now it is possible to experimentally plot the dispersion relation itself. The waves are driven and detected using balanced dipole and loop antennas connected to a network analyzer, which measures the amplitude and phase of the wave in two dimensions (r and z). In addition the frequency of the signals is also swept over a range of several hundreds of megahertz, providing a comprehensive picture of the near and far field antenna radiation patterns over a variety of plasma conditions. The magnetic field is varied from a few gauss to 200 G, with the density variable over at least 3 decades from 10 7 to 10 10 cm -3 . The waves are shown to lie on the dispersion surface for whistler waves, with observation of resonance cones in agreement with theoretical predictions. The waves are also observed to propagate without loss of amplitude at higher power, a result in agreement with previous experiments and the notion of ducted whistlers.

  12. Laboratory, greenhouse and field methods for screening rust-resistant wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashaal, S.F.; Kiraly, Z.; Barabas, Z.; Barna, B.; Cereal Research Inst., Szeged, Hungary)

    1977-01-01

    Detached flag leaf cultures were not suitable for evaluation of stem-rust resistance in our screening programme. On the basis of yield evaluation it was possible to screen out ten stem-rust ''tolerant'' wheat lines in field experiments. Rusted and protected microplots of each line were paired within a replicate. After artificial inoculation, the protected plants were sprayed with fungicides (benomyl plus dithiocarbamate plus copper salt) at weekly intervals until maturation to keep each protected plot rust-free. The thousand-kernel weights of rusted and protected plots were compared. When the thousand-kernel weight of protected plot increased only slightly and the rust reaction type of plants was susceptible in the rusted plot, the line was screened out as putative ''tolerant''. On the basis of three-year field trial ten ''tolerant'' lines were selected. Nine out of ten lines proved to be resistant to two stem-rust races in greenhouse tests in the seedling stage, when resistance was determined on the basis of reduced spore production instead of infection types. Resistance of these seedlings related partly to the reduced number of pustules and partly to a slow rusting character of plants. It seems possible to screen resistant cultivars in the greenhouse by the method outlined in this paper, when resistance is determined on the basis of a reduced number of infection sites and/or by the slow rusting capacity. (author)

  13. Comparison of laboratory single species and field population-level effects of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on freshwater invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroer, A.F.W.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Brock, T.C.M.; Matser, A.M.; Maund, S.J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin to freshwater invertebrates has been investigated using data from short-term laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays and population-level effects in field microcosms. In laboratory tests, patterns of toxicity were consistent with

  14. Searching for the Haplorrhine Heterotherm: Field and Laboratory Data of Free-Ranging Tarsiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Welman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The observation of heterothermy in a single suborder (Strepsirrhini only within the primates is puzzling. Given that the placental-mammal ancestor was likely a heterotherm, we explored the potential for heterothermy in a primate closely related to the Strepsirrhini. Based upon phylogeny, body size and habitat stability since the Late Eocene, we selected western tarsiers (Cephalopachus bancanus from the island of Borneo. Being the sister clade to Strepsirrhini and basal in Haplorrhini (monkeys and apes, we hypothesized that C. bancanus might have retained the heterothermic capacity observed in several small strepsirrhines. We measured resting metabolic rate, subcutaneous temperature, evaporative water loss and the percentage of heat dissipated through evaporation, at ambient temperatures between 22 and 35°C in fresh-caught wild animals (126.1 ± 2.4 g. We also measured core body temperatures in free-ranging animals. The thermoneutral zone was 25–30°C and the basal metabolic rate was 3.52 ± 0.06 W.kg−1 (0.65 ± 0.01 ml O2.g−1.h−1. There was no evidence of adaptive heterothermy in either the laboratory data or the free-ranging data. Instead, animals appeared to be cold sensitive (Tb ~ 31°C at the lowest temperatures. We discuss possible reasons for the apparent lack of heterothermy in tarsiers, and identify putative heterotherms within Platyrrhini. We also document our concern for the vulnerability of C. bancanus to future temperature increases associated with global warming.

  15. Detecting Significant Stress Drop Variations in Large Micro-Earthquake Datasets: A Comparison Between a Convergent Step-Over in the San Andreas Fault and the Ventura Thrust Fault System, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, T. H. W.; Hauksson, E.; Plesch, A.; Shaw, J. H.

    2017-06-01

    A key parameter in engineering seismology and earthquake physics is seismic stress drop, which describes the relative amount of high-frequency energy radiation at the source. To identify regions with potentially significant stress drop variations, we perform a comparative analysis of source parameters in the greater San Gorgonio Pass (SGP) and Ventura basin (VB) in southern California. The identification of physical stress drop variations is complicated by large data scatter as a result of attenuation, limited recording bandwidth and imprecise modeling assumptions. In light of the inherently high uncertainties in single stress drop measurements, we follow the strategy of stacking large numbers of source spectra thereby enhancing the resolution of our method. We analyze more than 6000 high-quality waveforms between 2000 and 2014, and compute seismic moments, corner frequencies and stress drops. Significant variations in stress drop estimates exist within the SGP area. Moreover, the SGP also exhibits systematically higher stress drops than VB and shows more scatter. We demonstrate that the higher scatter in SGP is not a generic artifact of our method but an expression of differences in underlying source processes. Our results suggest that higher differential stresses, which can be deduced from larger focal depth and more thrust faulting, may only be of secondary importance for stress drop variations. Instead, the general degree of stress field heterogeneity and strain localization may influence stress drops more strongly, so that more localized faulting and homogeneous stress fields favor lower stress drops. In addition, higher loading rates, for example, across the VB potentially result in stress drop reduction whereas slow loading rates on local fault segments within the SGP region result in anomalously high stress drop estimates. Our results show that crustal and fault properties systematically influence earthquake stress drops of small and large events and should

  16. Preferential flow and pesticide transport in a clay-rich till: Field, laboratory, and modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    JøRgensen, Peter R.; Hoffmann, Martin; Kistrup, Jens P.; Bryde, Claus; Bossi, Rossana; Villholth, Karen G.

    2002-11-01

    This study investigates vertical flow and pesticide transport along fractures in water saturated unoxidized clayey till. From two experimental fields, each 40 m2, 96% and 98%, respectively, of total vertical flow was conducted along fractures in the till, while the remaining 2-4% of flow occurred in the clay matrix at very slow flow rate. An applied dye tracer was observed only along 10-26% of the total fracture length measured on the horizontal surface of the experimental fields. In vertical sections the dyed fracture portions constituted root channels, which penetrated the till vertically along the fractures into the local aquifer at 5 m depth. No dye tracer was observed in the fractures without root channels or in the unfractured clay matrix, suggesting that root growth along the fracture surfaces was the principal agent of fracture aperture enhancement. Using hydraulic fracture aperture values determined from large undisturbed column (LUC) collected from one of the experimental fields, it was estimated that 94% of flow in the fractures was conducted along the fracture root channels, while only 6% of flow was conducted along the fracture sections without root channels. For natural vertical hydraulic gradients (0.8-2.3 at the site), flow rates of 0.8-2 km/d were determined for a fracture root channel, while fracture sections without root channels revealed flow rates of 9-22 m/d. Corresponding flow rates in the unfractured matrix were 7-19 mm/yr. For infiltrated bromide (nonreactive tracer) and mobile pesticides mecoprop (MCPP) and metsulfuron, very rapid migration (0.28-0.5 m/d) and high relative breakthrough concentrations (30-60%) into the aquifer were observed to occur along the fracture root channels using a constant hydraulic gradient of 1. Only traces were measured from infiltration of the strongly sorbed pesticide prochloraz. The concentrations of the bromide and pesticides in the monitoring wells were modeled with a discrete fracture matrix diffusion

  17. Night traffic and health: Results of laboratory and field studies; Naechtlicher Verkehrslaerm und Gesundheit: Ergebnisse von Labor- und Feldstudien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maschke, C. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Akustik; Ising, H. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden-, und Lufthygiene; Arndt, D. [Robert Koch-Institut, Medizinische Diagnostik - Umweltmedizin, Berlin (Germany)

    1995-04-01

    The present article summarizes the results obtained in the Berlin laboratory and field studies on `noise-induced stress reactions`. Unaccustomed air-traffic noise at night leads to elevated epinephrine and cortisol levels. If road traffic noise at night rises above the accustomed level, this leads to enhanced renal cortisol secretion. Noise at night deserves to be termed a stressor because it is able to activate both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical and the hypothalamic-adrenomedullar control loop. Elevation of epinephrine secretion was more distinct in the air-traffic field study than it was in the laboratory study. The relative elevation of cortisol secretion in the field study was of the same order as that of epinephrine secretion. Noise-induced noctural elevation of epinephrine secretion seems only to occur in the case of unaccustomed noise levels. If exposure to noise is prolonged, it subsides in an adaptive process and gives way to an elevated cortisol secretion. Elevation of both cortisol and epinephrine secretion is indicative of a stressing traffic noise situation. Air-traffic noise was found to impair subjective sleep quality and lead to a rise in epinephrine secretion both in the laboratory and the field study. No correlation was found between noise emission from low-flying aircraft and epinephrine or cortisol secretion in the field study. Neither the field nor the laboratory study showed a correlation between the number of night flights and catecholamine secretion. Cortisol secretion remained equally unaffected by the number of flights. The present results confirm the hypothesis that air and road traffic noise cause bodily distress. Chronic exposure to noise at night must therfore be regarded as a health hazard. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Ungewohnter naechtlicher Fluglaerm fuehrt zu einer erhoehten Adrenalin-und Cortisolausscheidung. Wird die Intensitaet eines gewohnten naechtlichen Strassenverkehrslaerms erhoeht, ist eine vermehrte renale

  18. Mars Infrared Spectroscopy: From Theory and the Laboratory to Field Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, L.; Mustard, J.; McAfee, J.; Hapke, B.; Ramsey, M.

    2002-12-01

    Visible-infrared spectroscopy has a long history of providing compositional discoveries in the solar system. A primary goal of the Mars visible-infrared spectral community is to provide information to enhance the exploration of Mars. We are entering an era of Mars exploration with missions every ~2 years. It is critical that each mission provide information to optimize the success of the next mission. That will not occur effectively unless the data can be analyzed on a ~2-year rate. Our current knowledge of spectral properties of materials and effects of the natural environment are not sufficient for the accurate interpretations needed for such time critical objectives. Relevant instruments include the 1996 TES, 2001 THEMIS, 2003 Mars Express OMEGA and PFS, 2003 MER Pancam and Mini-TES, and the 2005 CRISM. Two critical gaps that cannot be filled by individual researchers alone exist in moving toward the goal of rapid and accurate analysis. These are in coordinated "end-to-end" field testing and public spectral libraries. Three related gaps are in data from terrestrial sites to aid interpretations of the orbited spectrometers, lack of high quality development data to support landers, and delays in funding non-flight team members owing to lack of coordination between research and analysis proposal dues dates and mission data releases. A detailed discussion of the each of these areas is in a workshop report through the web site below. The two critical gaps are summarized below. Field Testing. Field/rover, airborne/satellite, and telescopic measurements are sensitive to very different effects, and these differ from those present in the lab. Thus a convincing determination of uncertainties requires demonstration through coordinated "end-to-end" field testing, using: (1) Data sets of appropriate terrestrial analog sites that are measured with both geometric and spectral fidelity as close as possible to flight instruments; (2) Interpretation as applied to data of Mars; (3

  19. Laboratory and Field Studies Related to Radionuclide Migration at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. A. Martinez; D. L. Finnegan; Joseph L. Thompson; K. S. Kung

    1999-03-01

    In this report, we describe the work done in FY 1998 at Los Alamos National Laboratory as part of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMA) funded by the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE/NV). The major part of our research effort was to measure radionuclides present in water or soil samples collected from near nuclear tests. We report our measurements for materials collected in both saturated and unsaturated horizons adjacent to nuclear test cavities or collapse chimneys and from within several cavities. Soil samples collected from above the cavities formed by the Halfbeak, Jerboa, and Bobac tests contained no radioactivity, although a test similar to Bobac in the same area had been contaminated with {sup 137}Cs. Water samples from near the Shoal test contained no measurable radionuclides, whereas those from near Faultless and Aleman had concentrations similar to previous measurements. Water from the Tybo-Benham site was similar to earlier collections at that site; this year, we added {sup 241}Am to the list of radionuclides measured at this location. Two Bennett pumps in tandem were used to extract water from the piezometer tube in the cavity of the Dalhart event. This extraction is a significant achievement in that it opens the possibility of purging similar tubes at other locations on the NTS. The Cheshire post shot hole was reconfigured and pumped from two horizons for the first time since mid-1980. We are especially interested in examining water from the level of the working point to determine the hydrologic source term in a cavity filled with groundwater for over 20 years. We devoted much time this year to examining the colloid content of NTS groundwater. After developing protocols for collecting, handling, and storing groundwater samples without altering their colloid content, we analyzed water from the Tybo-Benham and from the Cheshire sites. Whereas the colloid concentration did not vary much with depth at Tybo

  20. Molecular Analysis of Microbial Community Structures in Pristine and Contaminated Aquifers: Field and Laboratory Microcosm Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Zwolinski, M. D.; Schreiber, M. E.; Bahr, J. M.; Sewell, G. W.; Hickey, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    This study used phylogenetic probes in hybridization analysis to (i) determine in situ microbial community structures in regions of a shallow sand aquifer that were oxygen depleted and fuel contaminated (FC) or aerobic and noncontaminated (NC) and (ii) examine alterations in microbial community structures resulting from exposure to toluene and/or electron acceptor supplementation (nitrate). The latter objective was addressed by using the NC and FC aquifer materials for anaerobic microcosm studies in which phylogenetic probe analysis was complemented by microbial activity assays. Domain probe analysis of the aquifer samples showed that the communities were predominantly Bacteria; Eucarya and Archaea were not detectable. At the phylum and subclass levels, the FC and NC aquifer material had similar relative abundance distributions of 43 to 65% β- and γ-Proteobacteria (B+G), 31 to 35% α-Proteobacteria (ALF), 15 to 18% sulfate-reducing bacteria, and 5 to 10% high G+C gram positive bacteria. Compared to that of the NC region, the community structure of the FC material differed mainly in an increased abundance of B+G relative to that of ALF. The microcosm communities were like those of the field samples in that they were predominantly Bacteria (83 to 101%) and lacked detectable Archaea but differed in that a small fraction (2 to 8%) of Eucarya was detected regardless of the treatment applied. The latter result was hypothesized to reflect enrichment of anaerobic protozoa. Addition of nitrate and/or toluene stimulated microbial activity in the microcosms, but only supplementation of toluene alone significantly altered community structures. For the NC material, the dominant subclass shifted from B+G to ALF, while in the FC microcosms 55 to 65% of the Bacteria community was no longer identifiable by the phylum or subclass probes used. The latter result suggested that toluene exposure fostered the proliferation of phylotype(s) that were otherwise minor constituents of the

  1. Wormholes propagation for fractured-vuggy formation: Laboratory tests, numerical simulation and field application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of wormhole is vital important for matrix acidizing and acid fracturing in carbonate reservoirs. While the formation of acid dissolved wormhole is derived from heterogeneous physical and chemical transportations and reactions. Alveolate dissolved pores, krast caves, and natural fissures are the major reservoir spaces for the Sinian dolomite formation in the Anyue gas field of the Sichuan Basin. There were four categories of formation, which are matrix dominated, inter-breccia dissolved pore dominated, dissolved pore and cave dominated, and fissure and cave dominated, based on the development intensity and connectedness of caves and fissures. The caves and fissures make the wormhole formation and propagation particularly complicated. Firstly, the 3-D topological structure of dissolved pores, vugs, fissures and throats inside cores is quantitatively scanned by CT imaging technology for its feature of vivid and damage-free. Secondly, 3-D patterns of wormhole are obtained with CT scanning after core flooding by acid. Additionally, the pore-throat network model is reconstructed with digital cores technology. Then, the size and ratio of pore and throat before and after core flooding by acid is analyzed and the absolute permeability of pore scale flow is numerically simulated to understand the fundamental influence of pores and vugs distribution and connectedness on wormhole propagation. Lastly, the wormhole pattern gained by CT scanning and simulating with two-scale model is compared. Meanwhile, the corrected two-scale model is utilized to simulate the wormhole propagation for matrix acidizing and acid fracturing of Sinian fractured-vuggy dolomite in Anyue gas field, Sichuan Basin. The optimized injection rate and volume were in agreement with the characteristic matrix acidizing operating curve, which indicates that the two-scale model was suitable for matrix acidizing optimization design of such formations. In addition, the simulated

  2. Problems getting from the laboratory to the field: Reclamation of an AML site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, W.A.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Acid and toxic abandoned mineland sites provide an opportunity whereby flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product can be beneficially used as a reclamation amendment material. Studies are needed to compare the effectiveness of FGD by-product, as compared with resoil, for reclamation purposes. Initial studies provided information about the chemical and physical properties of the FGD by-product and how to transport and blend the FGD by-product with yard waste compost. Greenhouse studies indicated that rates of 125 dry tons/acre of FGD and 50 dry tons/acre of yard waste compost would provide optimum results for reclamation of acid and toxic spoil contained at the Fleming abandoned mineland (AML) site. Their results showed that heavy metal loading rates were much lower using the FGD/compost mixture than using resoil material. Dioxin in the mixture was also less than the 5 ppt level considered as normal background. The technical problems of using FGD by-product for reclamation of an AML site were solved. However, considerable efforts to educate the public about the merits of reclaiming the Fleming AML site using this FGD/compost mixture were required before initiating field reclamation activities. Education efforts must continue if FGD by-products are to achieve general acceptance as a reclamation alternative to resoil in cases where resoil is of scarce supply

  3. Laboratory and field studies on a new sensor for dissolved N2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Klemens M; Niessner, Reinhard; Haisch, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is a strong greenhouse gas, whose atmospheric concentration has been continuously increasing for more than 200 years. One major source is wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), where N 2 O emissions should either be minimized or pushed to levels where exploitation in biogas combustion engines becomes efficient. Both these strategies require online control of the N 2 O concentrations in the liquid as well as in the gas phase. For this purpose, we propose a system for membrane extraction of the gas from the liquid phase, which then allows for a subsequent gas-phase analysis, which we perform by photoacoustic spectroscopy. We compare different theoretical calculations of the extraction efficiency, based either on a straightforward mathematical model or on a finite element simulation. The comparison of results with measurements produced on a well-defined model system shows good accordance. Based on the outcome, a field probe was developed and tested on a WWTP, yielding results comparable to the one achieved by GC reference analysis. Graphical abstract Gas extraction from liquids, e.g. from a wastewater treatment plant, for online gas monitoring.

  4. Pollination Requirements of Almond (Prunus dulcis): Combining Laboratory and Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henselek, Yuki; Eilers, Elisabeth J; Kremen, Claire; Hendrix, Stephen D; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2018-03-08

    Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb; Rosales: Rosaceae) is a cash crop with an estimated global value of over seven billion U.S. dollars annually and commercial varieties are highly dependent on insect pollination. Therefore, the understanding of basic pollination requirements of the main varieties including pollination efficiency of honey bees (Apis mellifera, Linnaeus, Hymenoptera: Apidae) and wild pollinators is essential for almond production. We first conducted two lab experiments to examine the threshold number of pollen grains needed for successful pollination and to determine if varietal identity or diversity promotes fruit set and weight. Further, we examined stigma and ovules of flowers visited by Apis and non-Apis pollinators in the field to study the proportion of almond to non-almond pollen grains deposited, visitation time per flower visit, and tube set. Results indicate that the threshold for successful fertilization is around 60 pollen grains, but pollen can be from any compatible variety as neither pollen varietal identity nor diversity enhanced fruit set or weight. Andrena cerasifolii Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) was a more effective pollinator on a per single visit basis than Apis and syrphid flies. Nevertheless, Apis was more efficient than A. cerasifolii and syrphid flies as they spent less time on a flower during a single visit. Hence, planting with two compatible varieties and managing for both Apis and non-Apis pollinators is likely to be an optimal strategy for farmers to secure high and stable pollination success.

  5. Prepackaged polymer - modified mortar proves effective construction material - field and laboratory observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, M.U.K.; Khan, A.A.; Rizwan, S.A.; Khaskhali, G.B.

    2005-01-01

    Hi-Bond - prepackaged polymer - modified mortar described in this paper is a revolutionary, multifunctional, high-tech, high performance, sustainable, durability improving group of construction materials with a high cost - benefit ratio. Hi-Bond has been developed by Dadabhoy Construction Technologies (Pvt) Ltd., (DCTL), Karachi, after extensive studies and research both locally and abroad. It can be used in floorings and pavings, integral waterproofing, adhesive applications, protective and decorative coatings, repairs, renovation, rehabilitation, anti corrosive linings, deck coverings, durability and efficiency improvement of canal linings and other hydraulic structures. Hi-Bond has been applied in various projects of national importance with great success for their repairs, renovation and rehabilitation and has also been tested and evaluated at various laboratories with highly encouraging results. Some examples include: (i) earthquake damaged bridge at Lora Nallah on Brewery Road, Quetta, (ii) fire damaged building of the daily Business Recorder House, Karachi, (iii) 200 - year old main dome of the tomb of Hazrat Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Bhitshah, Hyderabad, (iv) RCC shell roofs of Mehtab Biscuit and Wafers Factory, Sahiwal, (v) repair of newly built concrete floor on structural slab in a factory building at Karachi, (vi) Mohatta Palace, Clifton, Karachi, (vii) swimming pool at Okara Cantt, and (viii) numerous leaking basements, underground and overhead water reservoirs at and around Karachi including those of new vegetable market on super highway. Building Research Station, Government of the Punjab, Lahore also recommended the use of Hi-Bond in the applications mentioned above after testing and evaluation. The product was found easy in application and offered numerous technical and economical advantages, over conventional products, in variety of applications. It is important to note that shortly after the repairs and renovation of the building of the daily

  6. Statistical Analyses of Second Indoor Bio-Release Field Evaluation Study at Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-12-17

    In September 2008 a large-scale testing operation (referred to as the INL-2 test) was performed within a two-story building (PBF-632) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The report “Operational Observations on the INL-2 Experiment” defines the seven objectives for this test and discusses the results and conclusions. This is further discussed in the introduction of this report. The INL-2 test consisted of five tests (events) in which a floor (level) of the building was contaminated with the harmless biological warfare agent simulant Bg and samples were taken in most, if not all, of the rooms on the contaminated floor. After the sampling, the building was decontaminated, and the next test performed. Judgmental samples and probabilistic samples were determined and taken during each test. Vacuum, wipe, and swab samples were taken within each room. The purpose of this report is to study an additional four topics that were not within the scope of the original report. These topics are: 1) assess the quantitative assumptions about the data being normally or log-normally distributed; 2) evaluate differences and quantify the sample to sample variability within a room and across the rooms; 3) perform geostatistical types of analyses to study spatial correlations; and 4) quantify the differences observed between surface types and sampling methods for each scenario and study the consistency across the scenarios. The following four paragraphs summarize the results of each of the four additional analyses. All samples after decontamination came back negative. Because of this, it was not appropriate to determine if these clearance samples were normally distributed. As Table 1 shows, the characterization data consists of values between and inclusive of 0 and 100 CFU/cm2 (100 was the value assigned when the number is too numerous to count). The 100 values are generally much bigger than the rest of the data, causing the data to be right skewed. There are also a significant

  7. Toxicity of emamectin benzoate to Cydia pomonella (L.) and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): laboratory and field tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Anfora, Gianfranco; Angeli, Gino; Civolani, Stefano; Schmidt, Silvia; Pasqualini, Edison

    2009-03-01

    Emamectin benzoate is a novel macrocyclic lactone insecticide derived from naturally occurring avermectin molecules isolated by fermentation from the soil microorganism Streptomyces avermitilis Kim & Goodfellow. The present study aims to evaluate the toxicity of emamectin benzoate to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, C. molesta (Busck), under laboratory and semi-field conditions. Dose response bioassays showed that emamectin benzoate had a high level of intrinsic toxicity to early-stage larvae of both species, and that contact activity might contribute significantly to mortality. In the semi-field trials, residual toxicity lasted for more than 1 week. Ovicidal activity was recorded only for C. pomonella (approximately 30%), irrespective of the concentrations tested. Field trials confirmed the efficacy of emamectin benzoate on codling moth when applied at 7 day intervals. Fruit damage, both from the first and second generations, was comparable with that on treatment with chlorpyrifos-ethyl, used as a chemical reference. Emamectin benzoate may be considered a valuable tool for the control of codling moth as a component of an IPM programme. Its collective advantages are: high efficacy, lack of cross-resistance with currently used products, control of secondary pests such as oriental fruit moth and selective toxicity that spares beneficials. 2008 Society of Chemical Industry

  8. Trace Metal Bioremediation: Assessment of Model Components from Laboratory and Field Studies to Identify Critical Variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Jaffe; Herschel Rabitz

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project was to gain an insight into the modeling support needed for the understanding, design, and operation of trace metal/radionuclide bioremediation. To achieve this objective, a workshop was convened to discuss the elements such a model should contain. A ''protomodel'' was developed, based on the recommendations of the workshop, and was used to perform sensitivity analysis as well as some preliminary simulations in support for bioremediation test experiments at UMTRA sites. To simulate the numerous biogeochemical processes that will occur during the bioremediation of uranium contaminated aquifers, a time-dependent one-dimensional reactive transport model has been developed. The model consists of a set of coupled, steady state mass balance equations, accounting for advection, diffusion, dispersion, and a kinetic formulation of the transformations affecting an organic substrate, electron acceptors, corresponding reduced species, and uranium. This set of equations is solved numerically, using a finite element scheme. The redox conditions of the domain are characterized by estimating the pE, based on the concentrations of the dominant terminal electron acceptor and its corresponding reduced specie. This pE and the concentrations of relevant species are passed to a modified version of MINTEQA2, which calculates the speciation and solubilities of the species of interest. Kinetics of abiotic reactions are described as being proportional to the difference between the actual and equilibrium concentration. A global uncertainty assessment, determined by Random Sampling High Dimensional Model Representation (RS-HDMR), was performed to attain a phenomenological understanding of the origins of output variability and to suggest input parameter refinements as well as to provide guidance for field experiments to improve the quality of the model predictions. Results indicated that for the usually high nitrate contents found ate many DOE sites, overall

  9. Laboratory study of fracture healing in Topopah Spring tuff: Implications for near field hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wunan; Daily, W.D.

    1989-09-01

    Seven Topopah Spring tuff samples were studied to determine water permeability in this rock under pressure and temperature conditions similar to those expected in the near field of a nuclear waste package. Six of the seven samples were studied under isothermal condition; the other was subjected to a thermal gradient. Four of the six fractured samples contained a reopened, healed, natural fracture; one contained an induced tensile fracture and the other contained a saw-cut. The fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after the experiments and the water that flowed through the samples was sampled for chemical analysis. The experimental durations ranged from about 3 months to almost 6 months. Water permeability of the fractured samples was found to decrease by more than three orders of magnitude when the sample temperature increased to 150 degree C. The sharpest decrease in permeability occurred when the temperature was increased above 90 degree C. Permeability of the intact sample did not change significantly under the similar experimental conditions. When the temperature returned to room conditions, the water permeability did not recover. The mechanical strength of one healed sample was about half that of the intact rock. SEM studies of the fracture surfaces and water chemical analysis of the water suggested that both dissolution and deposition occurred on the fracture surfaces. Smoothing of fracture asperities because of dissolution and deposition was probably the main cause of the permeability decrease. Deposition of dissolved silica was probably the main cause of fracture healing. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Laboratory Study of Topographic Effects on the Near-surface Tornado Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Alireza; Sarkar, Partha P.

    2018-03-01

    To study topographic effects on the near-surface tornado flow field, the Iowa State University tornado simulator was used to simulate a translating tornado passing over three different two-dimensional topographies: a ridge, an escarpment and a valley. The effect of the translation speed on maximum horizontal wind speeds is observed for translation speeds of 0.15 and 0.50 m s^{-1} , with the lower value resulting in a larger maximum horizontal wind speed. The tornado translation over the three topographies with respect to flat terrain is assessed for changes in: (a) the maximum horizontal wind speeds in terms of the flow-amplification factor; (b) the maximum aerodynamic drag in terms of the tornado speed-up ratio; (c) the maximum duration of exposure at any location to high wind speeds of a specific range in terms of the exposure amplification factor. Results show that both the maximum wind amplification factor of 14%, as well as the maximum speed-up ratio of 14%, occur on the ridge. For all topographies, the increase in aerodynamic drag is observed to be maximized for low-rise buildings, which illustrates the importance of the vertical profiles of the horizontal wind speed near the ground. The maximum exposure amplification factors, estimated for the range of wind speeds corresponding to the EF2 (50-60 m s^{-1} ) and EF3 (61-75 m s^{-1}) scales, are 86 and 110% for the ridge, 4 and 60% for the escarpment and - 6 and 47% for the valley, respectively.

  11. Improvement of Soil Moisture Retrieval from Hyperspectral VNIR-SWIR Data Using Clay Content Information: From Laboratory to Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Oltra-Carrió

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the constraints and performance of SMC retrieval methodologies in the VNIR (Visible-Near InfraRed and SWIR (ShortWave InfraRed regions (from 0.4 to 2.5 µm when passing from controlled laboratory conditions to field conditions. Five different approaches of signal processing found in literature were considered. Four local criteria are spectral indices (WISOIL, NSMI, NINSOL and NINSON. These indices are the ratios between the spectral reflectances acquired at two specific wavelengths to characterize moisture content in soil. The last criterion is based in the convex hull concept and it is a global method, which is based on the analysis of the full spectral signature of the soil. The database was composed of 464 and 9 spectra, respectively, measured over bare soils in laboratory and in-situ. For each measurement, SMC and texture were well-known and the database was divided in two parts dedicated to calibration and validation steps. The calibration part was used to define the empirical relation between SMC and SMC retrieval approaches, with coefficients of determination (R2 between 0.72 and 0.92. A clay content (CC dependence was detected for the NINSOL and NINSON indices. Consequently, two new criteria were proposed taking into account the CC contribution (NINSOLCC and NINSONCC. The well-marked regression between SMC and global/local indices, and the interest of using the CC, were confirmed during the validation step using laboratory data (R² superior to 0.76 and Root mean square errors inferior to 8.3% m3∙m−3 in all cases and using in-situ data, where WISOIL, NINSOLCC and NINSONCC criteria stand out among the NSMI and CH.

  12. Automated gait analysis in the open-field test for laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Toon; Silva, Mitchell; D'Hooge, Rudi; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Berckmans, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    In this article, an automated and accurate mouse observation method, based on a conventional test for motor function evaluation, is outlined. The proposed measurement technique was integrated in a regular open-field test, where the trajectory and locomotion of a free-moving mouse were measured simultaneously. The system setup consisted of a transparent cage and a camera placed below it with its lens pointing upward, allowing for images to be captured from underneath the cage while the mouse was walking on the transparent cage floor. Thus, additional information was obtained about the position of the limbs of the mice for gait reconstruction. In a first step, the camera was calibrated as soon as it was fixed in place. A linear calibration factor, relating distances in image coordinates to real-world dimensions, was determined. In a second step, the mouse was located and its body contour segmented from the image by subtracting a previously taken "background" image of the empty cage from the camera image. In a third step, the movement of the mouse was analyzed and its speed estimated from its location in the past few images. If the speed was above a 1-sec threshold, the mouse was recognized to be running, and the image was further processed for footprint recognition. In a fourth step, color filtering was applied within the recovered mouse region to measure the position of the mouse's paws, which were visible in the image as small pink spots. Paws that were detected at the same location in a number of subsequent images were kept as footprints-that is, paws in contact with the cage floor. The footprints were classified by their position relative to the mouse's outline as corresponding to the front left or right paw or the hind left or right paw. Finally, eight parameters were calculated from the footprint pattern to describe the locomotion of the mouse: right/left overlap, front/hind base, right/left front limb stride, and right/left hind limb stride. As an application

  13. Evaluation of field sampling and preservation methods for strontium-90 in ground water at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecil, L.D.; Knobel, L.L.; Wegner, S.J.; Moore, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    Water from four wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer was sampled as part of the US Geological Survey's quality assurance program to evaluate the effect of filtration and preservation methods on strontium-90 concentrations in groundwater at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Water from each well was filtered through either a 0.45-micrometer membrane or a 0.1-micrometer membrane filter; unfiltered samples also were collected. Two sets of filtered and two sets of unfiltered samples was preserved in the field with reagent-grade hydrochloric acid and the other set of samples was not acidified. For water from wells with strontium-90 concentrations at or above the reporting level, 94% or more of the strontium-90 is in true solution or in colloidal particles smaller than 0.1 micrometer. These results suggest that within-laboratory reproducibility for strontium-90 in groundwater at the INEL is not significantly affected by changes in filtration and preservation methods used for sample collections. 13 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Laboratory and field studies related to the Radionuclide Migration project: Progress report, October 1, 1986-September 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1988-02-01

    In this report we describe the research done by personnel of the Los Alamos National Laboratory in support of the Radionuclide Migration project during FY 1987. We are engaged in collecting data concerning the movement of radionuclides at three locations on the Nevada Test Site. We continue to monitor the elution of tritium and krypton from the RNM-2S well at the Cambric site and have described in detail the elution of 36 Cl from the same well. The data from this field study provide us with the opportunity to test the validity of several models of solute transport through geologic media. We have detected tritium and fission products in a water sample from the hole UE20n number1, which was drilled this year at the Cheshire site on Pahute Mesa. We are also continuing our efforts to learn how radionuclides have moved in test areas 3 and 4 near the Aleman site. Our laboratory work this year includes (1) a characterization of the size and density of two stable plutonium(IV) colloid suspensions prepared by different techniques and (2) a study of the transmission of colloidal-size polystyrene beads through crushed-rock columns. 18 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs

  15. An integrated biomarker response index for the mussel Mytilus edulis based on laboratory exposure to anthracene and field transplantation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Wang, You; Zhou, Bin; Jian, Xiaoyang; Dong, Wenlong; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-09-01

    Organic pollution is a serious environmental problem in coastal areas and it is important to establish quantitative methods for monitoring this pollution. This study screened a series of sensitive biomarkers to construct an integrated biomarker response (IBR) index using Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene under controlled laboratory conditions and the activities of components of the glutathione antioxidant system, and the concentrations of oxidative-damage markers, were measured in the gills and digestive glands. Anthracene exposure resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide radicals (O 2 • ), indicating that oxidative damage had occurred. Correspondingly, anthracene exposure induced increased activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in digestive glands, and GPx and glutathione reductase (GR) in gills, consistent with stimulation of the antioxidant system. A field experiment was set up, in which mussels from a relatively clean area were transplanted to a contaminated site. One month later, the activities of GST, GPx and GR had increased in several tissues, particularly in the digestive glands. Based on the laboratory experiment, an IBR, which showed a positive relationship with anthracene exposure, was constructed. The IBR is suggested to be a potentially useful tool for assessing anthracene pollution.

  16. Laboratory and field evaluation of the gas treatment approach for insitu remediation of chromate-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.C.; Jackson, R.L.

    1994-04-01

    Laboratory scale soil treatment tests have been conducted as part of an effort to develop and implement an in situ chemical treatment approach to the remediation of chromate-contaminated soils through the use of reactive gases. These tests involved three different soil samples that were contaminated with Cr(VI) at the 200 ppM level. Treatment of the contaminated soils was performed by passing 100 ppM and 2000 ppM concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in nitrogen through soil columns until a S:Cr mole ratio of 10:1 was achieved. The treated soils were then leached with groundwater or deionized water and analyzed to assess the extent of chromium immobilization. Test results indicate >90% immobilization of chromium and demonstrate that the treatment process is irreversible. Ongoing developmental efforts are being directed towards the demonstration and evaluation of the gas treatment approach in a field test at a chromate-contaminated site. Major planned activities associated with this demonstration include laboratory testing of waste site soil samples, design of the treatment system and injection/extraction well network, geotechnical and geochemical characterization of the test site, and identification and resolution of regulatory and safety requirements

  17. Laboratory and field studies related to the Hydrologic Resources Management Program. Progress report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    This report describes the work done at Los Alamos in FY 1994 for the Hydrologic Resources Management Program, a multi-organization project funded by the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office. The authors participated in cooperative collaborations with University of California (UC), Berkeley, the Yucca Mountain Project, the Underground Test Area Operable Unit, and other participating organizations within the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP). They provided operational support to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) organizations by testing a water-evaporation system, championing the use of high-sensitivity logging equipment during drillbacks, and participating in the planning and execution of drilling operations at two nuclear test sites. Los Alamos personnel cooperated in preparing a proposal to drill beside and under a nuclear test located in unsaturated media. The authors gave assistance in laboratory work related to colloid migration and actinide sorption. In conjunction with personnel from the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, they collected water samples from 10 wells at the NTS that are known to contain radionuclides. Their analyses of these samples suggest that radionuclides may not be moving away from cavity zones at appreciable rates. Recent field sampling shows clearly the need to purge wells of materials introduced during drilling and illustrates the inconsistency between water samples taken by bailing and those taken by pumping. 36 refs

  18. Field and laboratory calibration of neutron probes for soil moisture measurements on a deep loess chernozem soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaecke, B.; Schaecke, E.

    1979-01-01

    In the case of a varying profile structure it is necessary to use different calibration curves and adequate correction factors, respectively. The bulk density of the soil had the greatest influence on the calibration. An increase in bulk density by 0.2 g/cm 3 at a clay content of 18% resulted in an apparent increase in the values of moisture measurements by 1.5 to 2.0% of the volume of water. In naturally stratified soil the humus content of the chernozem horizon, being 3% higher than that of the underlying loess horizon, was found to influence the measuring results obtained by the probe. The calibration curves determined for chernozem and loess horizons in the laboratory agreed well with those obtained in the field. The measured values read from the probe and the gravimetrically determined values of the soil moisture were of great significance in all measured depths of the profile. (author)

  19. Laboratory and semi-field evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie; Steenberg, Tove

    2015-01-01

    The lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), is an economically important pest of lettuce worldwide. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana strain GHA has recently been reported as a potential biocontrol candidate for use against the lettuce aphid. This study provides information...... on the mortality inflicted by B. bassiana when applied against different life stages of the lettuce aphid under laboratory conditions and how fungus infection affects the aphid fecundity. In addition, temporal changes in persistence of fungus inoculum applied to foliage of young lettuce plants under semi......-field conditions was analysed. Immature life stages were generally the least susceptible to fungal infection and the susceptibility of all stages was dose-dependent, with the highest mortality occurring at the highest dose. B. bassiana significantly affected the rate of nymph production by the lettuce aphid...

  20. Design and preliminary test results of the 40 MW power supply at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenig, H.J.; Bogdan, F.; Morris, G.C.; Ferner, J.A.; Schneider-Muntau, H.J.; Rumrill, R.H.; Rumrill, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    Four highly stabilized, steady-state, 10 MW power supplies have been installed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, FL. Each supply consists of a 12.5 kV vacuum circuit breaker, two three-winding, step-down transformers, a 24-pulse rectifier with interphase reactors and freewheeling diodes, and a passive and an active filter. Two different transformer tap settings allow dc supply output voltages of 400 and 500 V. The rated current of a supply is 17 kA and each supply has a one hour overload capability of 20 kA. The power supply output bus system, including a reversing switch at the input and 2 x 16 disconnect switches at the output, connects each supply to 16 different magnet cells. The design of the power supply is described and preliminary test results with a supply feeding a 10 MW resistive load are presented

  1. Laboratory- and field-based testing as predictors of skating performance in competitive-level female ice hockey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriksson T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tommy Henriksson,1,2 Jason D Vescovi,3 Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund,4 Kajsa Gilenstam1 1Sport Medicine Unit, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2The National Graduate School of Gender Studies, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 3Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 4Physiotherapy Unit, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine whether field-based and/or laboratory-based assessments are valid tools for predicting key performance characteristics of skating in competitive-level female hockey players.Design: Cross-sectional study.Methods: Twenty-three female ice hockey players aged 15–25 years (body mass: 66.1±6.3 kg; height: 169.5±5.5 cm, with 10.6±3.2 years playing experience volunteered to participate in the study. The field-based assessments included 20 m sprint, squat jump, countermovement jump, 30-second repeated jump test, standing long jump, single-leg standing long jump, 20 m shuttle run test, isometric leg pull, one-repetition maximum bench press, and one-repetition maximum squats. The laboratory-based assessments included body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, maximal aerobic power, and isokinetic strength (Biodex. The on-ice tests included agility cornering s-turn, cone agility skate, transition agility skate, and modified repeat skate sprint. Data were analyzed using stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to establish the relationship between key performance characteristics of skating and the predictor variables.Results: Regression models (adj R2 for the on-ice variables ranged from 0.244 to 0.663 for the field-based assessments and from 0.136 to 0.420 for the laboratory-based assessments. Single-leg tests were the strongest predictors for key performance characteristics of skating. Single leg standing

  2. Gender-specific differences in cannibalism between a laboratory strain and a field strain of a predatory mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revynthi, A M; Janssen, A; Egas, M

    2018-03-01

    Many phytoseiid species, including Phytoseiulus persimilis, are known to engage in cannibalism when food is scarce and when there is no possibility to disperse. In nature adult females of P. persimilis are known to disperse when prey is locally depleted. Males, in contrast, are expected to stay and wait for potential mates to mature. During this phase, males can obtain food by cannibalizing. Therefore, we hypothesize that male P. persimilis exhibit a higher tendency to cannibalize than females. Because rearing conditions in the laboratory usually prevent dispersal, prolonged culturing may also affect cannibalistic behavior. We hypothesize that this should especially affect cannibalism by females, because they consume far more food. We tested these hypotheses by comparing males and females from two strains, one of which had been in culture for over 20 years, whereas the other was recently collected from the field. It is known that this predator can discriminate between kin and non-kin and prefers cannibalizing the latter, hence to construct lines with high relatedness we created isofemale lines of these two original strains. We subsequently tested to what extent the adult females and males of the original strains and the isofemale lines cannibalized conspecific larvae from the same strain/line in a closed system. Relatedness with the victims did not affect cannibalistic behavior, but males engaged more often in cannibalism than females, and females of the laboratory strain engaged more in cannibalism than those of the field strain, both in agreement with our ideas. We hypothesize that the difference in cannibalism between the two genders will increase when they have the alternative to disperse.

  3. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in field and laboratory trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odendaal, D; Addison, M F; Malan, A P

    2016-09-01

    Three commercially available entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) strains (Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Hb1 and Hb2) and two local species (S. jeffreyense and S. yirgalemense) were evaluated for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). In field spray trials, the use of S. jeffreyense resulted in the most effective control (67%), followed by H. bacteriophora (Hb1) (42%) and S. yirgalemense (41%). Laboratory bioassays using spray application in simulated field conditions indicate S. feltiae to be the most virulent (67%), followed by S. yirgalemense (58%). A laboratory comparison of the infection and penetration rate of the different strains showed that, at 14°C, all EPN strains resulted in slower codling moth mortality than they did at 25°C. After 48 h, 98% mortality was recorded for all species involved. However, the washed codling moth larvae, cool-treated (at 14°C) with S. feltiae or S. yirgalemense, resulted in 100% mortality 24 h later at room temperature, whereas codling moth larvae treated with the two H. bacteriophora strains resulted in 68% and 54% control, respectively. At 14°C, S. feltiae had the highest average penetration rate of 20 IJs/larva, followed by S. yirgalemense, with 14 IJs/larva. At 25°C, S. yirgalemense had the highest penetration rate, with 39 IJs/larva, followed by S. feltiae, with 9 IJs/larva. This study highlights the biocontrol potential of S. jeffreyense, as well as confirming that S. feltiae is a cold-active nematode, whereas the other three EPN isolates tested prefer warmer temperatures.

  4. Laboratory treatability studies preparatory to field testing a resting-cell in situ microbial filter bioremediation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.T.; Hanna, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    Prior to a down-hole-column treatability test of a Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b attached-resting-cell in situ biofilter strategy, a set of three sequential laboratory experiments were carried out to define several key operational parameters and to evaluate the likely degree of success at a NASA Kennedy Space Center site. They involved the cell attachment to site-specific sediments, the intrinsic resting-cell biotransformation capacities for the contaminants of interest plus their time-dependent extents of biodegradative removal at the concentrations of concern, and a scaled in situ mini-flow-through-column system that closely mimics the subsurface conditions during a field-treatability or pilot test of an emplaced resting-cell filter. These experiments established the conditions required for the complete metabolic removal of a vinyl chloride (VC), cis-dichlororthylene (cis-DCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) mixture. However, the gas chromatographic (GC) procedures that we utilized and the mini-flow-through column data demonstrated that, at most, only about 50--70% of the site-water VC, cis-DCE, and TCE would be biodegraded. This occurred because of a limiting level of dissolved oxygen, which was exacerbated by the simultaneous presence of several additional previously unrecognized groundwater components, especially methane, that are also competing substrates for the whole-cell soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) enzyme complex. Irrespective, collectively the simplicity of the methods that we have developed and the results obtainable with them appear to provide relevant laboratory-based test-criteria before taking our microbial filter strategy to an in situ field treatability or pilot demonstration stage at other sites in the future

  5. Laboratory and field efficacy of Pedalium murex and predatory copepod, Mesocyclops longisetus on rural malaria vector, Anopheles culicifacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangadurai Chitra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the potentiality of the leaf extract of Pedalium murex (P. murex and predatory copepod Mesocyclops longisetus (M. longisetus in individual and combination in controlling the rural malarial vector, Anopheles culicifacies (An. culicifacies in laboratory and field studies. Methods: P. murex leaves were collected from in and around Erode, Tamilnadu, India. The active compounds were extracted with 300 mL of methanol for 8 h in a Soxhlet apparatus. Laboratory studies on larvicidal and pupicidal effects of methanolic extract of P. murex tested against the rural malarial vector, An. culicifacies were significant. Results: Evaluated lethal concentrations (LC50 of P. murex extract were 2.68, 3.60, 4.50, 6.44 and 7.60 mg/L for I, II, III, IV and pupae of An. culicifacies, respectively. Predatory copepod, M. longisetus was examined for their predatory efficacy against the malarial vector, An. culicifacies. M. longisetus showed effective predation on the early instar (47% and 36% on I and II instar when compared with the later ones (3% and 1% on III and IV instar. Predatory efficacy of M. longisetus was increased (70% and 45% on I and II instar when the application was along with the P. murex extract. Conclusions: Predator survival test showed that the methanolic extract of P. murex is non-toxic to the predatory copepod, M. longisetus. Experiments were also conducted to evaluate the efficacy of methanolic extract of P. murex and M. longisetus in the direct breeding sites (paddy fields of An. culicifacies. Reduction in larval density was very high and sustained for a long time in combined treatment of P. murex and M. longisetus.

  6. Laboratory testing and field implementation of scale inhibitor squeeze treatments to subsea and platform horizontal wells, North Sea Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, M. M.; Lewis, M. [Nalco/Exxon Energy Chemicals Ltd, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Tomlinson, C. J.; Pritchard, A. R. P. [Enterprise Oil Plc, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Field results from a number of scale squeeze treatments carried out on subsea and platform horizontal wells in the Nelson Field of the North Sea are presented. Scale inhibitor chemicals are reviewed along with factors which influence inhibitor selection for both horizontal and highly deviated wells. Formation brine/inhibitor incompatibility, formation minerals/inhibitor incompatibility, and the potential for sand production and oil-in-water process as a result of these incompatibilities, are discussed. Practical difficulties in squeezing subsea horizontal wells, the use of chemical stabilizers to reduce formation brine/inhibitor incompatibility, variation of pump rates to encourage propagation of inhibitor along the wellbore, and the potential of fluid diversion are outlined, stressing the significance of production logging data (or good reservoir simulation data), to evaluate the location of water production prior to the squeeze treatment. Results of these treatments show that with the correct laboratory evaluation of both scale inhibitor and divertor agents, and with appropriate utilization of production logging or reservoir simulation data, it is possible to carry out scale inhibitor squeeze treatments of subsea and platform horizontal wells without having to resort to coiled tubing. 22 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs

  7. Field procedures for the uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance as used by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Aamodt, P.L.

    1978-04-01

    This manual of field procedures is prepared to aid personnel involved in the field sampling of natural waters and waterborne sediment for the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) as part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. It presents the procedural guidelines to be followed by all contractors, contractor employees, and others who collect, treat, or otherwise handle samples taken for the LASL as part of the HSSR program. Part I relates to all sampling in the conterminous states of the US for which the LASL is responsible to the DOE for carrying out the HSSR work. Part II describes procedures to be followed for HSSR work, using helicopter support, in the state of Alaska. The objective of the manual is to insure that consistent techniques are used throughout the survey. If any procedure is unclear or cannot be followed, telephone collect to Group G-5, LASL, (505) 667-7590, for further instructions. No variations in the specific procedures should be made without prior approval of the LASL

  8. Laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry: effects of test conditions on the determination of herbicide and field sample toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Sascha B; van Beusekom, Sebastiaan A M; van der Geest, Harm G; Booij, Petra; de Zwart, Dick; Vethaak, A Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-05-01

    Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry, based on chlorophyll a fluorescence, is a frequently used technique in algal bioassays to assess toxicity of single compounds or complex field samples. Several test conditions can influence the test results, and because a standardized test protocol is currently lacking, linking the results of different studies is difficult. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to gain insight into the effects of test conditions of laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry on the outcome of toxicity tests. To this purpose, we described the results from several pilot studies on test development in which information is provided on the effects of the main test factors during the pretest phase, the test preparation, the exposure period, and the actual measurement. The experiments were focused on individual herbicides and complex field samples and included the effects of culturing conditions, cell density, solvent concentration, exposure time, and the presence of actinic light. Several of these test conditions were found to influence the outcome of the toxicity test, and the presented information provides important background information for the interpretation of toxicity results and describes which test conditions should be taken into account when using an algal bioassay with PAM fluorometry. Finally, the application of PAM fluorometry in algal toxicity testing is discussed. © 2014 SETAC.

  9. Compatibility of High-Moisture Storage for Biochemical Conversion of Corn Stover: Storage Performance at Laboratory and Field Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Lynn M; Murphy, J Austin; Smith, William A; Robb, Thomas; Reed, David W; Ray, Allison E; Liang, Ling; He, Qian; Sun, Ning; Hoover, Amber N; Nguyen, Quang A

    2018-01-01

    Wet anaerobic storage of corn stover can provide a year-round supply of feedstock to biorefineries meanwhile serving an active management approach to reduce the risks associated with fire loss and microbial degradation. Wet logistics systems employ particle size reduction early in the supply chain through field-chopping which removes the dependency on drying corn stover prior to baling, expands the harvest window, and diminishes the biorefinery size reduction requirements. Over two harvest years, in-field forage chopping was capable of reducing over 60% of the corn stover to a particle size of 6 mm or less. Aerobic and anaerobic storage methods were evaluated for wet corn stover in 100 L laboratory reactors. Of the methods evaluated, traditional ensiling resulted in benefits for commercial corn stover supply, including particle size reduction during harvest, stability in storage, and compatibility with biochemical conversion of carbohydrates for biofuel production. Evaluation of the operational efficiencies and costs is suggested to quantify the potential benefits of a fully-wet biomass supply system to a commercial biorefinery.

  10. FLOODPLAIN, VENTURA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  11. Assessment of MTBE biodegradation in contaminated groundwater using 13C and 14C analysis: Field and laboratory microcosm studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, Steven F.; Bottrell, Simon H.; Spence, Keith H.; Pickup, Roger; Spence, Michael J.; Shah, Nadeem; Mallinson, Helen E.H.; Richnow, Hans H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Carbon isotope fractionation for MTBE varies with dissolved oxygen concentration. → Carbon isotope fractionation can underestimate MTBE biodegradation at plume fringes. → Fractionation factors must be for specific biodegradation mechanisms and conditions. → Specific microbial populations influence carbon isotope fractionation in groundwater. - Abstract: Radiolabelled assays and compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) were used to assess methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) biodegradation in an unleaded fuel plume in a UK chalk aquifer, both in the field and in laboratory microcosm experiments. The 14 C-MTBE radiorespirometry studies demonstrated widespread potential for aerobic and anaerobic MTBE biodegradation in the aquifer. However, δ 13 C compositions of MTBE in groundwater samples from the plume showed no significant 13 C enrichment that would indicate MTBE biodegradation at the field scale. Carbon isotope enrichment during MTBE biodegradation was assessed in the microcosms when dissolved O 2 was not limiting, compared with low in situ concentrations (2 mg/L) in the aquifer, and in the absence of O 2 . The microcosm experiments showed ubiquitous potential for aerobic MTBE biodegradation in the aquifer within hundreds of days. Aerobic MTBE biodegradation in the microcosms produced an enrichment of 7 per mille in the MTBE δ 13 C composition and an isotope enrichment factor (ε) of -1.53 per mille when dissolved O 2 was not limiting. However, for the low dissolved O 2 concentration of up to 2 mg/L that characterizes most of the MTBE plume fringe, aerobic MTBE biodegradation produced an enrichment of 0.5-0.7 per mille, corresponding to an ε value of -0.22 per mille to -0.24 per mille. No anaerobic MTBE biodegradation occurred under these experimental conditions. These results suggest the existence of a complex MTBE-biodegrading community in the aquifer, which may consist of different aerobic species competing for MTBE and dissolved O 2

  12. Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in sub-Saharan Africa from 2004 to 2010: need, the process, and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsubuga, Peter; Johnson, Kenneth; Tetteh, Christopher; Oundo, Joseph; Weathers, Andrew; Vaughan, James; Elbon, Suzanne; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Ndugulile, Faustine; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Evering-Watley, Michele; Mosha, Fausta; Oleribe, Obinna; Nguku, Patrick; Davis, Lora; Preacely, Nykiconia; Luce, Richard; Antara, Simon; Imara, Hiari; Ndjakani, Yassa; Doyle, Timothy; Espinosa, Yescenia; Kazambu, Ditu; Delissaint, Dieula; Ngulefac, John; Njenga, Kariuki

    2011-01-01

    As of 2010 sub-Saharan Africa had approximately 865 million inhabitants living with numerous public health challenges. Several public health initiatives [e.g., the United States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the US President's Malaria Initiative] have been very successful at reducing mortality from priority diseases. A competently trained public health workforce that can operate multi-disease surveillance and response systems is necessary to build upon and sustain these successes and to address other public health problems. Sub-Saharan Africa appears to have weathered the recent global economic downturn remarkably well and its increasing middle class may soon demand stronger public health systems to protect communities. The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) program of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been the backbone of public health surveillance and response in the US during its 60 years of existence. EIS has been adapted internationally to create the Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) in several countries. In the 1990s CDC and the Rockefeller Foundation collaborated with the Uganda and Zimbabwe ministries of health and local universities to create 2-year Public Health Schools Without Walls (PHSWOWs) which were based on the FETP model. In 2004 the FETP model was further adapted to create the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) in Kenya to conduct joint competency-based training for field epidemiologists and public health laboratory scientists providing a master's degree to participants upon completion. The FELTP model has been implemented in several additional countries in sub-Saharan Africa. By the end of 2010 these 10 FELTPs and two PHSWOWs covered 613 million of the 865 million people in sub-Saharan Africa and had enrolled 743 public health professionals. We describe the process that we used to develop 10 FELTPs covering 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 2004 to 2010 as a

  13. Compatibility of High-Moisture Storage for Biochemical Conversion of Corn Stover: Storage Performance at Laboratory and Field Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Wendt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wet anaerobic storage of corn stover can provide a year-round supply of feedstock to biorefineries meanwhile serving an active management approach to reduce the risks associated with fire loss and microbial degradation. Wet logistics systems employ particle size reduction early in the supply chain through field-chopping which removes the dependency on drying corn stover prior to baling, expands the harvest window, and diminishes the biorefinery size reduction requirements. Over two harvest years, in-field forage chopping was capable of reducing over 60% of the corn stover to a particle size of 6 mm or less. Aerobic and anaerobic storage methods were evaluated for wet corn stover in 100 L laboratory reactors. Of the methods evaluated, traditional ensiling resulted in <6% total solid dry matter loss (DML, about five times less than the aerobic storage process and slightly less than half that of the anaerobic modified-Ritter pile method. To further demonstrate the effectiveness of the anaerobic storage, a field demonstration was completed with 272 dry tonnes of corn stover; DML averaged <5% after 6 months. Assessment of sugar release as a result of dilute acid or dilute alkaline pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis suggested that when anaerobic conditions were maintained in storage, sugar release was either similar to or greater than as-harvested material depending on the pretreatment chemistry used. This study demonstrates that wet logistics systems offer practical benefits for commercial corn stover supply, including particle size reduction during harvest, stability in storage, and compatibility with biochemical conversion of carbohydrates for biofuel production. Evaluation of the operational efficiencies and costs is suggested to quantify the potential benefits of a fully-wet biomass supply system to a commercial biorefinery.

  14. Compatibility of High-Moisture Storage for Biochemical Conversion of Corn Stover: Storage Performance at Laboratory and Field Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Lynn M.; Murphy, J. Austin; Smith, William A.; Robb, Thomas; Reed, David W.; Ray, Allison E.; Liang, Ling; He, Qian; Sun, Ning; Hoover, Amber N.; Nguyen, Quang A.

    2018-01-01

    Wet anaerobic storage of corn stover can provide a year-round supply of feedstock to biorefineries meanwhile serving an active management approach to reduce the risks associated with fire loss and microbial degradation. Wet logistics systems employ particle size reduction early in the supply chain through field-chopping which removes the dependency on drying corn stover prior to baling, expands the harvest window, and diminishes the biorefinery size reduction requirements. Over two harvest years, in-field forage chopping was capable of reducing over 60% of the corn stover to a particle size of 6 mm or less. Aerobic and anaerobic storage methods were evaluated for wet corn stover in 100 L laboratory reactors. Of the methods evaluated, traditional ensiling resulted in <6% total solid dry matter loss (DML), about five times less than the aerobic storage process and slightly less than half that of the anaerobic modified-Ritter pile method. To further demonstrate the effectiveness of the anaerobic storage, a field demonstration was completed with 272 dry tonnes of corn stover; DML averaged <5% after 6 months. Assessment of sugar release as a result of dilute acid or dilute alkaline pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis suggested that when anaerobic conditions were maintained in storage, sugar release was either similar to or greater than as-harvested material depending on the pretreatment chemistry used. This study demonstrates that wet logistics systems offer practical benefits for commercial corn stover supply, including particle size reduction during harvest, stability in storage, and compatibility with biochemical conversion of carbohydrates for biofuel production. Evaluation of the operational efficiencies and costs is suggested to quantify the potential benefits of a fully-wet biomass supply system to a commercial biorefinery. PMID:29632861

  15. High nutrient concentration and temperature alleviated formation of large colonies of Microcystis: Evidence from field investigations and laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Zhou, Xiaohua; Chen, Huaimin; Gao, Li; Xiao, Man; Li, Ming

    2016-09-15

    Correlations between Microcystis colony size and environmental factors were investigated in Meiliang Bay and Gonghu Bay of Lake Taihu (China) from 2011 to 2013. Compared with Gonghu Bay, both nutrient concentrations and Microcystis colony sizes were greater in Meiliang Bay. The median colony size (D50: 50% of the total mass of particles smaller than this size) increased from April to August and then decreased until November. In both bays, the average D50 of Microcystis colonies were 500 μm) dominated in summer. The differences in colony size in Meiliang Bay and Gonghu Bay were probably due to horizontal drift driven by the prevailing south wind in summer. Redundancy analysis (RDA) of field data indicated that colony size was negatively related to nutrient concentrations but positively related to air temperature, suggesting that low nutrient concentrations and high air temperature promoted formation of large colonies. To validate the field survey, Microcystis colonies collected from Lake Taihu were cultured at different temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30 °C) under high and low nutrient concentrations for 9 days. The size of Microcystis colonies significantly decreased when temperature was above 20 °C but had no significant change at 15 °C. The differences in temperature effects on colony formation shown from field and laboratory suggested that the larger colonies in summer were probably due to the longer growth period rather than the higher air temperature and light intensity. In addition, colony size decreased more significantly at high nutrient levels. Therefore, it could be concluded that high nutrient concentration and temperature may alleviate formation of large colonies of Microcystis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Revealing the control of migratory fueling: An integrated approach combining laboratory and field studies in northern wheatears Oenanthe oenanthe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz BAIRLEIN,Volker DIERSCHKE, Julia DELINGAT, Cas EIKENAAR, Ivan MAGGINI, Marc BULTE, Heiko SCHMALJOHANN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Migratory birds rely on fueling prior to migratory flights. Fueling in migrants is controlled by intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors. From captive studies we have started understanding the internal mechanisms controlling bird migration. Field studies have demonstrated the effects of external factors, such as food availability, weather, competitors, parasites or diseases, on the stopover behavior of migrants. However, an integrated approach is still missing to study coherently how the innate migration program interacts with the varying environmental cues and to estimate the contribution of the innate migration program and the environment to realized migration. The northern wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe offers a unique opportunity for integrated studies. It breeds across almost the whole Holarctic with just a “gap” between eastern Canada and Alaska. All breeding populations overwinter in sub-Saharan Africa which makes the northern wheatear one of the most long-distant migratory songbirds with extraordinary long non-stop flights across oceans. It is a nocturnal migrant which travels without parental or social aid/guidance. Thus, young birds rely entirely on endogenous mechanisms of timing, route selection and fueling on their first outbound migration. By establishing indoor housing under controlled conditions the endogenous control mechanisms of northern wheatear migration could be revealed. At the same time, environmental factors controlling fueling could be investigated in the field. On migration wheatears occur in a variety of habitats with sparse vegetation where their stopover behavior could be quantitatively studied in the light of “optimal migration” theory by the use of remote balances, radio-tagging and even experimentally manipulated food availability. The present paper summarizes our approach to understand the control of migration in northern wheatears by combining field and laboratory studies at various spatial and temporal

  17. Laboratory-field experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    A discussion is given about Eberline Corporation's participation in decontamination projects, problems encountered, and solutions to these problems. Over a 30-year period Eberline has established a reputation for radiation protection services and instrumentation. The production of instruments began in 1952, and Eberline has provided radiochemistry, dosimetry, and environmental monitoring services since 1960

  18. Laboratory capacity building for the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) in resource-poor countries: the experience of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanza, Monica Musenero; Nqobile, Ndlovu; Mukanga, David; Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo

    2010-12-03

    Laboratory is one of the core capacities that countries must develop for the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) since laboratory services play a major role in all the key processes of detection, assessment, response, notification, and monitoring of events. While developed countries easily adapt their well-organized routine laboratory services, resource-limited countries need considerable capacity building as many gaps still exist. In this paper, we discuss some of the efforts made by the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) in supporting laboratory capacity development in the Africa region. The efforts range from promoting graduate level training programs to building advanced technical, managerial and leadership skills to in-service short course training for peripheral laboratory staff. A number of specific projects focus on external quality assurance, basic laboratory information systems, strengthening laboratory management towards accreditation, equipment calibration, harmonization of training materials, networking and provision of pre-packaged laboratory kits to support outbreak investigation. Available evidence indicates a positive effect of these efforts on laboratory capacity in the region. However, many opportunities exist, especially to support the roll-out of these projects as well as attending to some additional critical areas such as biosafety and biosecuity. We conclude that AFENET's approach of strengthening national and sub-national systems provide a model that could be adopted in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. A multiscale approach to determine hydraulic conductivity in thick claystone aquitards using field, laboratory, and numerical modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. A.; Barbour, S. L.; Hendry, M. J.; Novakowski, K.; van der Kamp, G.

    2016-07-01

    Characterizing the hydraulic conductivity (K) of aquitards is difficult due to technical and logistical difficulties associated with field-based methods as well as the cost and challenge of collecting representative and competent core samples for laboratory analysis. The objective of this study was to produce a multiscale comparison of vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity (Kv and Kh, respectively) of a regionally extensive Cretaceous clay-rich aquitard in southern Saskatchewan. Ten vibrating wire pressure transducers were lowered into place at depths between 25 and 325 m, then the annular was space was filled with a cement-bentonite grout. The in situ Kh was estimated at the location of each transducer by simulating the early-time pore pressure measurements following setting of the grout using a 2-D axisymmetric, finite element, numerical model. Core samples were collected during drilling for conventional laboratory testing for Kv to compare with the transducer-determined in situ Kh. Results highlight the importance of scale and consideration of the presence of possible secondary features (e.g., fractures) in the aquitard. The proximity of the transducers to an active potash mine (˜1 km) where depressurization of an underlying aquifer resulted in drawdown through the aquitard provided a unique opportunity to model the current hydraulic head profile using both the Kh and Kv estimates. Results indicate that the transducer-determined Kh estimates would allow for the development of the current hydraulic head distribution, and that simulating the pore pressure recovery can be used to estimate moderately low in situ Kh (<10-11 m s-1).

  20. Acoustic Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains an electro-magnetic worldwide data collection and field measurement capability in the area of acoustic technology. Outfitted by NASA Langley...

  1. Laboratory toxicity and benthic invertebrate field colonization of Upper Columbia River sediments: finding adverse effects using multiple lines of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J F; Kemble, N E; Allert, A L; Brumbaugh, W G; Ingersoll, C G; Dowling, B; Gruenenfelder, C; Roland, J L

    2012-07-01

    colonization studies in an experimental pond (8-week duration) indicated that two of the most metal-contaminated UCR sediments (dominated by high levels of sand-sized slag particles) exhibited decreased invertebrate colonization compared with sand-based reference sediments. Field-exposed SIR-300 resin samples also exhibited decreased invertebrate colonization numbers compared with reference materials, which may indicate behavioral avoidance of this material under field conditions. Multiple lines of evidence (analytical chemistry, laboratory toxicity, and field colonization results), along with findings from previous studies, indicate that high metal concentrations associated with slag-enriched sediments in the UCR are likely to adversely impact the growth and survival of native benthic invertebrate communities. Additional laboratory toxicity testing, refinement of the applications of sediment benchmarks for metal toxicity, and in situ benthic invertebrate studies will assist in better defining the spatial extent, temporal variations, and ecological impacts of metal-contaminated sediments in the UCR system.

  2. Determination of diffusion and adsorption coefficients for some contaminants in clayey soil and rock: Laboratory determination and field evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, F S

    1990-01-01

    A laboratory diffusion test determination of diffusion coefficient (D) and adsorption coefficient (K{sub d}) for various inorganic and organic species in a saturated, undisturbed, clayey soil is presented. Diffusion tests conducted for inorganic species (Cl{sup {minus}} , Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, and Ca{sup 2+}), involved placing domestic landfill leachate on top of a layer of clay and allowing the chemical constituents to diffuse into the soil. The mathematical model POLLUTE was then used to back-figure (D) and (K{sub d}) for each species. Diffusion tests conducted for organic species (acetone, 1,4-dioxane, aniline, chloroform, and toluene), involved diffusion of the species from a source solution placed on one side of a clay plug, into a distilled water collector solution on the opposite side. Using POLLUTE, D and K{sub d} were then determined by fitting the measured concentration variation with time in both the source and collector solution. In addition to the laboratory study, an investigation of inorganic contaminant diffusion below an existing industrial landfill site was conducted by analyzing soil and pore water specimens from the clay layer underlying the waste. Concentration profiles for Cl{sup {minus}}, So{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, Na+, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+}, showed above background levels to a depth of 1.4 m below the waste after 11 years of migration. K{sup +}, B, and NH{sub 3}-N profiles, penetrated to less than 0.5 m below the waste. Field profiles for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cl{sup {minus}}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} were then compared with those predicted using POLLUTE with D and K{sub d} values obtained from diffusion tests using leachate and natural uncontaminated clay from the site. Finally, a laboratory diffusion test determination of Cl{sup {minus}} diffusion coefficient in samples of intact, saturated shale and mudstone is presented.

  3. Laboratory and Field Studies of Poly(2,5-bis(N-methyl-N-hexylaminophenylene vinylene (BAM-PPV: A Potential Wash Primer Replacement for Army Military Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zarras

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an electroactive polymer (EAP, poly(2,5-bis(N-methyl-N- hexylaminophenylene vinylene (BAM-PPV, was tested as an alternative to current hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI-based Army wash primers. BAM-PPV was tested in both laboratory and field studies to determine its adhesive and corrosion-inhibiting properties when applied to steel and aluminum alloys. The Army Research Laboratory (ARL tests showed that BAM-PPV combined with an epoxy primer and the Army chemical agent-resistant coating (CARC topcoat met Army performance requirements for military coatings. After successful laboratory testing, the BAM-PPV was then field tested for one year at the Aberdeen Test Center (ATC. This field testing showed that BAM-PPV incorporated into the Army military coating survived with no delamination of the coating and only minor corrosion on the chip sites.

  4. Addressing the ice nucleating abilities of marine aerosol: A combination of deposition mode laboratory and field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, L. A.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Kilthau, W. P.; Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Miller, L. A.; Schiller, C. L.; Huffman, J. A.; Aller, J. Y.; Knopf, D. A.; Bertram, A. K.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2016-05-01

    This study addresses, through two types of experiments, the potential for the oceans to act as a source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles (INPs). The INP concentration via deposition mode nucleation was measured in situ at a coastal site in British Columbia in August 2013. The INP concentration at conditions relevant to cirrus clouds (i.e., -40 °C and relative humidity with respect to ice, RHice = 139%) ranged from 0.2 L-1 to 3.3 L-1. Correlations of the INP concentrations with levels of anthropogenic tracers (i.e., CO, SO2, NOx, and black carbon) and numbers of fluorescent particles do not indicate a significant influence from anthropogenic sources or submicron bioaerosols, respectively. Additionally, the INPs measured in the deposition mode showed a poor correlation with the concentration of particles with sizes larger than 500 nm, which is in contrast with observations made in the immersion freezing mode. To investigate the nature of particles that could have acted as deposition INP, laboratory experiments with potential marine aerosol particles were conducted under the ice-nucleating conditions used in the field. At -40 °C, no deposition activity was observed with salt aerosol particles (sodium chloride and two forms of commercial sea salt: Sigma-Aldrich and Instant Ocean), particles composed of a commercial source of natural organic matter (Suwannee River humic material), or particle mixtures of sea salt and humic material. In contrast, exudates from three phytoplankton (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Nanochloris atomus, and Emiliania huxleyi) and one marine bacterium (Vibrio harveyi) exhibited INP activity at low RHice values, down to below 110%. This suggests that the INPs measured at the field site were of marine biological origins, although we cannot rule out other sources, including mineral dust.

  5. Arsenic and iron removal from groundwater by oxidation–coagulation at optimized pH: Laboratory and field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordoloi, Shreemoyee; Nath, Suresh K.; Gogoi, Sweety; Dutta, Robin K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Arsenic and iron removed by a systematic oxidation–coagulation at optimized pH. • Used KMnO 4 as oxidant and FeCl 3 as coagulant in presence of NaHCO 3 . • Field trial results are highly encouraging. • The method is efficient, safe, simple and low-cost. • The method is suitable for rural application in developing countries. -- Abstract: A three-step treatment process involving (i) mild alkaline pH-conditioning by NaHCO 3 ; (ii) oxidation of arsenite and ferrous ions by KMnO 4 , itself precipitating as insoluble MnO 2 under the pH condition; and (iii) coagulation by FeCl 3 has been used for simultaneous removal of arsenic and iron ions from water. The treated water is filtered after a residence time of 1–2 h. Laboratory batch experiments were performed to optimize the doses. A field trial was performed with an optimized recipe at 30 households and 5 schools at some highly arsenic affected villages in Assam, India. Simultaneous removals of arsenic from initial 0.1–0.5 mg/L to about 5 μg/L and iron from initial 0.3–5.0 mg/L to less than 0.1 mg/L have been achieved along with final pH between 7.0 and 7.5 after residence time of 1 h. The process also removes other heavy elements, if present, without leaving any additional toxic residue. The small quantity of solid sludge containing mainly ferrihydrite with adsorbed arsenate passes the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test. The estimated recurring cost is approximately USD 0.16 per/m 3 of purified water. A high efficiency, an extremely low cost, safety, non-requirement of power and simplicity of operation make the technique potential for rural application

  6. Spatial Variability of Soil Physical Properties Obtained with Laboratory Methods and Their Relation to Field Electrical Resistivity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dathe, A.; Nemes, A.; Bloem, E.; Patterson, M.; Gimenez, D.; Angyal, A.; Koestel, J. K.; Jarvis, N.

    2017-12-01

    Soil spatial heterogeneity plays a critical role for describing water and solute transport processes in the unsaturated zone. Although we have a sound understanding of the physical properties underlying this heterogeneity (like macropores causing preferential water flow), their quantification in a spatial context is still a challenge. To improve existing knowledge and modelling approaches we established a field experiment on an agriculturally used silty clay loam (Stagnosol) in SE Norway. Centimeter to decimeter scale heterogeneities were investigated in the field using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in a quasi-3D and a real 3D approach. More than 100 undisturbed soil samples were taken in the 2x1x1 m3plot investigated with 3D ERT to determine soil water retention, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities and bulk density in the laboratory. A subset of these samples was scanned at the computer tomography (CT) facility at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala, Sweden, with special emphasis on characterizing macroporosity. Results show that the ERT measurements captured the spatial distribution of bulk densities and reflected soil water contents. However, ERT could not resolve the large variation observed in saturated hydraulic conductivities from the soil samples. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was clearly related to the macroporosity visible in the CT scans obtained from the respective soil cores. Hydraulic conductivities close to saturation mainly changed with depths in the soil profile and therefore with bulk density. In conclusion, to quantify the spatial heterogeneity of saturated hydraulic conductivities scanning methods with a resolution smaller than the size of macropores have to be used. This is feasible only when the information obtained from for example CT scans of soil cores would be upscaled in a meaningful way.

  7. A Laboratory of Extremophiles: Iceland Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX Field Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hänsch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Existence of life in extreme environments has been known for a long time, and their habitants have been investigated by different scientific disciplines for decades. However, reports of multidisciplinary research are uncommon. In this paper, we report an interdisciplinary three-day field campaign conducted in the framework of the Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX FP7EU program, with participation of experts in the fields of life and earth sciences. In situ experiments and sampling were performed in a 20 m long hot springs system of different temperature (57 °C to 100 °C and pH (2 to 4. Abiotic factors were measured to study their influence on the diversity. The CO2 and H2S concentration varied at different sampling locations in the system, but the SO2 remained the same. Four biofilms, mainly composed by four different algae and phototrophic protists, showed differences in photosynthetic activity. Varying temperature of the sampling location affects chlorophyll fluorescence, not only in the microbial mats, but plants (Juncus, indicating selective adaptation to the environmental conditions. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR, DNA microarray and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE-based analysis in laboratory showed the presence of a diverse microbial population. Even a short duration (30 h deployment of a micro colonizer in this hot spring system led to colonization of microorganisms based on ribosomal intergenic spacer (RISA analysis. Polyphasic analysis of this hot spring system was possible due to the involvement of multidisciplinary approaches.

  8. Comparison of pore water samplers and cryogenic distillation under laboratory and field conditions for soil water stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Michael; Frentress, Jay; Tagliavini, Massimo; Scandellari, Francesca

    2018-02-15

    We used pore water samplers (PWS) to sample for isotope analysis (1) only water, (2) soil under laboratory conditions, and (3) soil in the field comparing the results with cryogenic extraction (CE). In (1) and (2), no significant differences between source and water extracted with PWS were detected with a mean absolute difference (MAD) always lower than 2 ‰ for δ 2 H and 1 ‰ for δ 18 O. In (2), CE water was more enriched than PWS-extracted water, with a MAD respect to source water of roughly 8 ‰ for δ 2 H and 4 ‰ for δ 18 O. In (3), PWS water was enriched relative to CE water by 3 ‰ for δ 2 H and 0.9 ‰ for δ 18 O. The latter result may be due to the distinct water portions sampled by the two methods. Large pores, easily sampled by PWS, likely retain recent, and enriched, summer precipitation while small pores, only sampled by CE, possibly retain isotopically depleted water from previous winter precipitation or irrigation inputs. Accuracy and precision were greater for PWS relative to CE. PWS is therefore suggested as viable tool to extract soil water for stable isotope analysis, particularly for soils used in this study (sandy and silty loams).

  9. Integral Analysis of Field Work and Laboratory Electrical Resistivity Imaging for Saline Water Intrusion Prediction in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, M. H.; Zahar, M. F.; Hashim, M. M. M.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Zahari, N. M.; Kamaruddin, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Saline water intrusion is a serious threat to the groundwater as many part of the world utilize groundwater as their main source of fresh water supply. The usage of high salinity level of water as drinking water can lead to a very serious health hazard towards human. Saline water intrusion is a process by which induced flow of seawater into freshwater aquifer along the coastal area. It might happen due to human action and/or by natural event. The climate change and rise up of sea level may speed up the saline water intrusion process. The conventional method for distinguishing and checking saltwater interference to groundwater along the coast aquifers is to gather and test the groundwater from series of observation wells (borehole) with an end goal to give the important information about the hydrochemistry data to conclude whether the water in the well are safe to consume or not. An integrated approach of field and laboratory electrical resistivity investigation is proposed for indicating the contact region between saline and fresh groundwater. It was found that correlation for both soilbox produced almost identical curvilinear trends for 2% increment of seawater tested using sand sample. This project contributes towards predicting the saline water intrusion to the groundwater by non-destructive test that can replaced the conventional method of groundwater monitoring using series of boreholes in the coastal area

  10. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2011. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Dassler, David [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2011 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2011 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  11. Site Environmental Report For Calendar Year 2012. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Dassler, David [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2012 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2012 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  12. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2009. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Amar, Ravnesh [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2009 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2009 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  13. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2010. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Amar, Ravnesh [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2010 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2010 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  14. Field and laboratory responses of adult Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) to kairomones produced by white-tailed deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J F; Mills, G D; Schmidtmann, E T

    1996-07-01

    In a field test, adult blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, of both sexes exhibited an arrestant response to substances associated with external glands on the legs of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), their principal host. Substances rubbed from the pelage covering tarsal and interdigital glands were applied to artificial vantage points simulating vegetation on which I. scapularis adults wait for host contact. A combination of tarsal substances (applied to the apex of the simulated vantage point) and interdigital gland substances (applied to the horizontal base) elicited a greater response than either treatment alone. A minimal response was observed on untreated vantage points. In laboratory bioassays using glass tubing as vantage points, substances associated with preorbital glands of deer elicited a strong arrestant response among I. scapularis females, whereas samples rubbed from the forehead, back, and a nonglandular area on deer tarsi evoked weak arrestant responses. These results support the hypothesis that the kairomonal properties of host-generated residues, either in conjunction with or in lieu of the effects of carbon dioxide, help account for the prevalence of host-seeking ticks along animal trails.

  15. Measurement of airborne gunshot particles in a ballistics laboratory by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ernesto; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Viebig, Sônia; Saldiva, Paulo

    2012-01-10

    The present study aimed determines lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and barium (Ba) as the major elements present in GSR in the environmental air of the Ballistics Laboratory of the São Paulo Criminalistics Institute (I.C.-S.P.), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Micro environmental monitors (mini samplers) were located at selected places. The PM(2.5) fraction of this airborne was collected in, previously weighted filters, and analyzed by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (SF-HR-ICP-MS). The higher values of the airborne lead, antimony and barium, were found at the firing range (lead (Pb): 58.9 μg/m(3); barium (Ba): 6.9 μg/m(3); antimony (Sb): 7.3 μg/m(3)). The mean value of the airborne in this room during 6 monitored days was Pb: 23.1 μg/m(3); Ba: 2.2 μg/m(3); Sb: 1.5 μg/m(3). In the water tank room, the air did not show levels above the limits of concern. In general the airborne lead changed from day to day, but the barium and antimony remained constant. Despite of that, the obtained values suggest that the workers may be exposed to airborne lead concentration that can result in an unhealthy environment and could increase the risk of chronic intoxication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of polyacrylamide to reduce phosphorus losses from a Chinese purple soil: a laboratory and field investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Teng, Lingling; Wei, Shiqiang; Deng, Lili; Luo, Zaibo; Chen, Yupeng; Flanagan, Dennis C

    2010-07-01

    Use of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to control phosphorus (P) losses from a Chinese purple soil was studied in both a laboratory soil column experiment and a field plot experiment on a steep slope (27%). Treatments in the column study were a control, and PAM mixed uniformly into the soil at rates of 0.02, 0.05, 0.08, 0.10, and 0.20%. We found that PAM had an important inhibitory effect on vertical P transport in the soil columns, with the 0.20% PAM treatment having the greatest significant reduction in leachate soluble P concentrations and losses resulting from nine leaching periods. Field experiments were conducted on 5m wide by 21m long natural rainfall plots, that allowed collection of both surface runoff and subsurface drainage water. Wheat was planted and grown on all plots with typical fertilizer applied. Treatments included a control, dry PAM at 3.9 kg ha(-1), dry PAM at 3.9 kg ha(-1) applied together with lime (CaCO(3) at 4.9 t ha(-1)), and dry PAM at 3.9 kg ha(-1) applied together with gypsum (CaSO(4).2H(2)O at 4 t ha(-1)). Results from the field plot experiment in which 5 rainfall events resulted in measurable runoff and leachate showed that all PAM treatments significantly reduced runoff volume and total P losses in surface runoff compared to the control. The PAM treatments also all significantly reduced water volume leached to the tile drain. However, total P losses in the leachate water were not significantly different due to the treatments, perhaps due to the low PAM soil surface application rate and/or high experimental variability. The PAM alone treatment resulted in the greatest wheat growth as indicated by the plant growth indexes of wheat plant height, leaf length, leaf width, grain number per head, and dried grain mass. Growth indexes of the PAM with Calcium treatments were significantly lesser. These results indicate that the selection and use of soil amendments need to be carefully determined based upon the most important management goal at a

  17. Molecular analysis of microbial community structures in pristine and contaminated aquifers--Field and laboratory microcosm experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Zwolinski, M.D.; Schreiber, M.E.; Bahr, J.M.; Sewell, G.W.; Hickey, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Molecular Analysis of Microbial Community Structures in Pristine and Contaminated Aquifers: Field and Laboratory Microcosm Experimentsvar callbackToken='531E8ACDB6C8511'; var subCode='asmjournal_sub'; var OAS_sitepage = 'aem.asm.org'; This study used phylogenetic probes in hybridization analysis to (i) determine in situ microbial community structures in regions of a shallow sand aquifer that were oxygen depleted and fuel contaminated (FC) or aerobic and noncontaminated (NC) and (ii) examine alterations in microbial community structures resulting from exposure to toluene and/or electron acceptor supplementation (nitrate). The latter objective was addressed by using the NC and FC aquifer materials for anaerobic microcosm studies in which phylogenetic probe analysis was complemented by microbial activity assays. Domain probe analysis of the aquifer samples showed that the communities were predominantlyBacteria; Eucarya and Archaea were not detectable. At the phylum and subclass levels, the FC and NC aquifer material had similar relative abundance distributions of 43 to 65% β- and γ-Proteobacteria (B+G), 31 to 35% α-Proteobacteria (ALF), 15 to 18% sulfate-reducing bacteria, and 5 to 10% high G+C gram positive bacteria. Compared to that of the NC region, the community structure of the FC material differed mainly in an increased abundance of B+G relative to that of ALF. The microcosm communities were like those of the field samples in that they were predominantly Bacteria (83 to 101%) and lacked detectable Archaea but differed in that a small fraction (2 to 8%) of Eucarya was detected regardless of the treatment applied. The latter result was hypothesized to reflect enrichment of anaerobic protozoa. Addition of nitrate and/or toluene stimulated microbial activity in the microcosms, but only supplementation of toluene alone significantly altered community structures. For the NC material, the dominant subclass shifted from B+G to ALF, while in the FC microcosms 55 to 65

  18. Assessments of Total and Viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Field and Laboratory Grown Lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyne, Anne-Laure; Harris, Linda J.; Marco, Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    Leafy green produce has been associated with numerous outbreaks of foodborne illness caused by strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7. While the amounts of culturable E. coli O157:H7 rapidly decline after introduction onto lettuce in the field, it remains to be determined whether the reduction in cell numbers is due to losses in cell viability, cell injury and a subsequent inability to be detected by standard laboratory culturing methods, or a lack of adherence and hence rapid removal of the organism from the plants during application. To assess which of these options is most relevant for E. coli O157:H7 on leafy green produce, we developed and applied a propidium monoazide (PMA) real-time PCR assay to quantify viable (with PMA) and total (without PMA) E. coli O157:H7 cells on growth chamber and field-grown lettuce. E. coli O157:H7, suspended in 0.1% peptone, was inoculated onto 4-week-old lettuce plants at a level of approximately 106 CFU/plant. In the growth chamber at low relative humidity (30%), culturable amounts of the nontoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 700728 and the virulent strain EC4045 declined 100 to 1000-fold in 24 h. Fewer E. coli O157:H7 cells survived when applied onto plants in droplets with a pipette compared with a fine spray inoculation. Total cells for both strains were equivalent to inoculum levels for 7 days after application, and viable cell quantities determined by PMA real-time PCR were approximately 104 greater than found by colony enumeration. Within 2 h after application onto plants in the field, the number of culturable E. coli ATCC 700728 was reduced by up to 1000-fold, whereas PCR-based assessments showed that total cell amounts were equivalent to inoculum levels. These findings show that shortly after inoculation onto plants, the majority of E. coli O157:H7 cells either die or are no longer culturable. PMID:23936235

  19. A new multiscale approach for monitoring vegetation using remote sensing-based indicators in laboratory, field, and landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausch, Angela; Pause, Marion; Merbach, Ines; Zacharias, Steffen; Doktor, Daniel; Volk, Martin; Seppelt, Ralf

    2013-02-01

    Remote sensing is an important tool for studying patterns in surface processes on different spatiotemporal scales. However, differences in the spatiospectral and temporal resolution of remote sensing data as well as sensor-specific surveying characteristics very often hinder comparative analyses and effective up- and downscaling analyses. This paper presents a new methodical framework for combining hyperspectral remote sensing data on different spatial and temporal scales. We demonstrate the potential of using the "One Sensor at Different Scales" (OSADIS) approach for the laboratory (plot), field (local), and landscape (regional) scales. By implementing the OSADIS approach, we are able (1) to develop suitable stress-controlled vegetation indices for selected variables such as the Leaf Area Index (LAI), chlorophyll, photosynthesis, water content, nutrient content, etc. over a whole vegetation period. Focused laboratory monitoring can help to document additive and counteractive factors and processes of the vegetation and to correctly interpret their spectral response; (2) to transfer the models obtained to the landscape level; (3) to record imaging hyperspectral information on different spatial scales, achieving a true comparison of the structure and process results; (4) to minimize existing errors from geometrical, spectral, and temporal effects due to sensor- and time-specific differences; and (5) to carry out a realistic top- and downscaling by determining scale-dependent correction factors and transfer functions. The first results of OSADIS experiments are provided by controlled whole vegetation experiments on barley under water stress on the plot scale to model LAI using the vegetation indices Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and green NDVI (GNDVI). The regression model ascertained from imaging hyperspectral AISA-EAGLE/HAWK (DUAL) data was used to model LAI. This was done by using the vegetation index GNDVI with an R (2) of 0.83, which was

  20. Models for the field-based toxicity of copper and zinc salts to wheat in 11 Australian soils and comparison to laboratory-based models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warne, Michael St.J.; Heemsbergen, Diane; McLaughlin, Mike; Bell, Mike; Broos, Kris; Whatmuff, Mark; Barry, Glenn; Nash, David; Pritchard, Deb; Penney, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-based relationships that model the phytotoxicity of metals using soil properties have been developed. This paper presents the first field-based phytotoxicity relationships. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown at 11 Australian field sites at which soil was spiked with copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) salts. Toxicity was measured as inhibition of plant growth at 8 weeks and grain yield at harvest. The added Cu and Zn EC10 values for both endpoints ranged from approximately 3 to 4760 mg/kg. There were no relationships between field-based 8-week biomass and grain yield toxicity values for either metal. Cu toxicity was best modelled using pH and organic carbon content while Zn toxicity was best modelled using pH and the cation exchange capacity. The best relationships estimated toxicity within a factor of two of measured values. Laboratory-based phytotoxicity relationships could not accurately predict field-based phytotoxicity responses. - Field-based toxicity of Cu and Zn to wheat can be modelled using soil properties. Laboratory-based models should not be used to estimate toxicity in the field

  1. Comparison of laboratory single species and field population-level effects of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on freshwater invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, A F W; Belgers, J D M; Brock, T C M; Matser, A M; Maund, S J; Van den Brink, P J

    2004-04-01

    The toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin to freshwater invertebrates has been investigated using data from short-term laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays and population-level effects in field microcosms. In laboratory tests, patterns of toxicity were consistent with previous data on pyrethroids. The midge Chaoborus obscuripes was most sensitive (48- and 96-h EC50 = 2.8 ng/L). Other insect larvae (Hemiptera, Ephemeroptera) and macrocrustacea (Amphipoda, Isopoda) were also relatively sensitive, with 48- and 96-h EC50 values between 10 and 100 ng/L. Generally, microcrustacea (Cladocera, Copepoda) and larvae of certain insect groups (Odonata and Chironomidae) were less sensitive, with 48-h EC50 values higher than 100 ng/L. Mollusca and Plathelminthes were insensitive and were unaffected at concentrations at and above the water solubility (5 microg/L). Generally, the EC50 values based on initial population responses in field enclosures were similar to values derived from laboratory tests with the same taxa. Also, the corresponding fifth and tenth percentile hazard concentrations (HC5 and HC10) were similar (laboratory HC5 = 2.7 ng/L and field HC5 = 4.1 ng/L; laboratory and field HC10 = 5.1 ng/L), at least when based on the same sensitive taxonomic groups (insects and crustaceans) and when a similar concentration range was taken into account. In the three field enclosure experiments and at a treatment level of 10 ng/L, consistent effects were observed for only one population (Chaoborus obscuripes), with recovery taking place within 3 to 6 weeks. The laboratory HC5 (2.7 ng/L) and HC10 (5.1 ng/L) based on acute EC50 values of all aquatic arthropod taxa were both lower than this 10 ng/L, a concentration that might represent the "regulatory acceptable concentration." The HC5 and HC10 values in this study in The Netherlands (based on static laboratory tests with freshwater arthropods) were very similar to those derived from a previous study in

  2. Laboratory and field based evaluation of chromatography related performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and Gases in ambient Air (MARGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The semi-continuous Monitor for AeRosols and Gases in Ambient air (MARGA) was evaluated using laboratory and field data with a focus on chromatography. The performance and accuracy assessment revealed various errors and uncertainties resulting from mis-identification and mis-int...

  3. The Grasshopper and the Taxonomer. Use of Song and Structure in Orthoptera Saltatoria for Teaching the Principles of Taxonomy. Part 1. Field and Laboratory Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the coordinated study of European grasshoppers as living specimens in the field and as permanent laboratory preparations for introducing taxonomic principles. Provides details for the preparation of specimens and sample instructions provided to students. Part I of a three-part series. (AL)

  4. Black carbon aerosol properties measured by a single particle soot photometer in emissions from biomass burning in the laboratory and field

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. R. McMeeking; J. W. Taylor; A. P. Sullivan; M. J. Flynn; S. K. Akagi; C. M. Carrico; J. L. Collett; E. Fortner; T. B. Onasch; S. M. Kreidenweis; R. J. Yokelson; C. Hennigan; A. L. Robinson; H. Coe

    2010-01-01

    We present SP2 observations of BC mass, size distributions and mixing state in emissions from laboratory and field biomass fires in California, USA. Biomass burning is the primary global black carbon (BC) source, but understanding of the amount emitted and its physical properties at and following emission are limited. The single particle soot photometer (SP2) uses a...

  5. Performance assessment of